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Sample records for renal net acid

  1. Amino Acid Medical Foods Provide a High Dietary Acid Load and Increase Urinary Excretion of Renal Net Acid, Calcium, and Magnesium Compared with Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods in Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M. Stroup

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skeletal fragility is a complication of phenylketonuria (PKU. A diet containing amino acids compared with glycomacropeptide reduces bone size and strength in mice. Objective. We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF. Design. In a crossover design, 8 participants with PKU (16–35 y provided food records and 24-hr urine samples after consuming a low-Phe diet in combination with AA-MF and GMP-MF for 1–3 wks. We calculated potential renal acid load (PRAL of AA-MF and GMP-MF and determined bone mineral density (BMD measurements using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results. AA-MF provided 1.5–2.5-fold higher PRAL and resulted in 3-fold greater renal net acid excretion compared to GMP-MF (p=0.002. Dietary protein, calcium, and magnesium intake were similar. GMP-MF significantly reduced urinary excretion of calcium by 40% (p=0.012 and magnesium by 30% (p=0.029. Two participants had low BMD-for-age and trabecular bone scores, indicating microarchitectural degradation. Urinary calcium with AA-MF negatively correlated with L1–L4 BMD. Conclusion. Compared to GMP-MF, AA-MF increase dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary calcium and magnesium excretion, and likely contributing to skeletal fragility in PKU. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01428258.

  2. Net acid excretion during first week of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L L; Balfe, J W; Exeni, R; Cifuentes, R F; Bryan, M H; Atkinson, S A

    1981-03-01

    Metabolic acidosis occurs frequently in newborns. Net acid excretion (NAE) in 34 preterm and 12 term infants was measured during the first week of life. Twenty preterm infants received breast milk or formula; the remaining infants received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) -- synthetic amino acids or casein hydrolysate solution. NAE for breast milk vs formula fed infants was 5.4 +/- 0.4 and 7.8 +/- 0.6 muEq/min/m2 (mean +/- SEM). The corresponding values for the two TPN solutions in preterm infants were significantly higher at 12.5 +/- 1.4 and 19.4 +/- 3.5 muEq/min/m2. Term infants produced even greater amount of net acid, 20.6 +/- 2.9 and 35 +/- 3.7 muEq/min/m2 respectively for the two TPN solutions. Milk fed infants are less prone to acidosis because of base generated from milk consumption. Due to its inherent acidogenic effect, TPN solutions induce acidosis more readily. Infants receiving TPN are therefore required to generate a higher NAE rate to maintain acid-base homeostasis compared to milk fed infants.

  3. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F.M.; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Marianne; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; Leeuw, de Peter W.; Baak, van Marleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were com

  4. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-01-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were compar

  5. Can dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy be used to assess global renal function?

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    Durand, E.; Prigent, A. [Service de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital de Bicetre, Paris (France)

    2000-06-01

    Use of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been proposed for the assessment of both relative and absolute renal function. Our aim was to test whether the renal absolute DMSA uptake (ADU) can reflect the absolute renal function from a theoretical point of view. A simple model was used to compute the ADU in the case of injury to one kidney. It was found that the assumption that ADU correctly reflects the absolute renal function may lead to a more than 50% overestimation of the function of both the normal and the impaired kidney. The later the measurement is made and the more impaired is the kidney, the more important is the error. Although DMSA can reliably quantify the relative renal function, it should not be used to assess absolute renal function lest major overestimation should occur. (orig.)

  6. Multicriteria optimization of gluconic acid production using net flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsall-Whitney, H; Taylor, D; Thibault, J

    2003-03-01

    The biochemical process industry is often confronted with the challenge of making decisions in an atmosphere of multiple and conflicting objectives. Recent innovations in the field of operations research and systems science have yielded rigorous multicriteria optimization techniques that can be successfully applied to the field of biochemical engineering. These techniques incorporate the expert's experience into the optimization routine and provide valuable information about the zone of possible solutions. This paper presents a multicriteria optimization strategy that generates a Pareto domain, given a set of conflicting objective criteria, and determines the optimal operating region for the production of gluconic acid using the net flow method (NFM). The objective criteria include maximizing the productivity and concentration of gluconic acid, while minimizing the residual substrate. Three optimization strategies are considered. The first two strategies identify the optimal operating region for the process inputs. The results yielded an acceptable compromise between productivity, gluconic acid concentration and residual substrate concentration. Fixing the process inputs representing the batch time, initial substrate concentration and initial biomass equal to their optimal values, the remaining simulations were used to study the sensitivity of the optimum operating region to changes in the oxygen mass transfer coefficient, K(L) a, by utilizing a multi-level K(L) a strategy. The results show that controlling K(L) a during the reaction reduced the production of biomass, which in turn resulted in increased productivity and concentration of gluconic acid above that of a fixed K(L) a.

  7. STANDARDIZING TERMINOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING THE DIET-DEPENDENT NET ACID LOAD TO THE METABOLIC SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contemporary Western diets contain acid precursors in excess of base precursors, yielding a daily systemic net acid load of varying amounts, depending on the specific composition of the diet. Increasing evidence suggests that differences in daily net acid load, resulting predominantly from differen...

  8. Renal energy excretion of horses depends on renal hippuric acid and nitrogen excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, B; Südekum, K-H; Zeyner, A; Goren, G; Kienzle, E

    2017-06-13

    The prediction of renal energy excretion is crucial in a metabolizable energy system for horses. Phenolic acids from forage cell walls may affect renal energy losses by increasing hippuric acid excretion. Therefore, the relationships were investigated between renal energy, nitrogen (N) and hippuric acid excretion of four adult ponies (230-384 kg body weight (BW)) consuming diets based on fresh grass, grass silage, grass cobs (heat-dried, finely chopped, pressed grass), alfalfa hay, straw, extruded straw and soybean meal. Feed intake was measured; urine and faeces were quantitatively collected for three days. Feed was analysed for crude nutrients, gross energy, amino acids and neutral-detergent-insoluble crude protein (CP); faeces were analysed for crude nutrients and cross energy; urine was analysed for N, hippuric acid, creatinine and gross energy. Renal energy excretion (y; kJ/kg BW(0.75) ) correlated with renal N excretion (x1 ; g/kg BW(0.75) ) and renal hippuric acid excretion (x2 ; g/kg BW(0.75) ): y = 14.4 + 30.2x1 +20.7x2 (r = .95; n = 30; p energy losses per gram CP intake: (i) protein supplements (e.g., soybean meal): 4.2-4.9 kJ/g CP intake (ii) alfalfa hay, grains, dried sugar beet pulp: 6.4 kJ/g CP intake, (iii) hay, preserved grass products, straw: 5.2-12.3 kJ/g CP intake (mean 8) and (iv) fresh grass. For group (iii) a negative relationship was observed between renal energy losses per gram of CP and the content of CP or neutral-detergent-insoluble CP in dry matter. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Prospective evaluation of renal allograft dysfunction with 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renal scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, J.D.; Sagalowsky, A.I.; Lewis, S.E.; Gailiunas, P.; Helderman, J.H.; Dawidson, I.; Peters, P.C.

    1984-05-01

    A prospective, single-blinded study was done to determine the ability of serial 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scans to diagnose renal allograft rejection. Among 28 transplant recipients 111 renal scans were obtained 1 day postoperatively and every 3 to 4 days thereafter for 3 weeks in all patients retaining an allograft. Computer-generated time-activity blood flow curves were analyzed semiquantitatively for the 1) interval between curve peaks of the allograft and iliac artery, 2) renal transit time and 3) renal washout of radionuclide. Excretory function was assessed by degree and interval to appearance of radionuclide in the calices and bladder. Deterioration of renal blood flow and excretion compared to the initial scan was considered rejection. Of 52 scans performed during clinical rejection 47 (90.4 per cent) were interpreted as showing rejection (sensitivity). Of 53 scans interpreted as showing rejection 47 (88.7 per cent) were positive for clinical rejection. The remaining 6 patients (initial false positive results) suffered clinical rejection within 24 to 72 hours. We conclude that 99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renal scans are useful in the differential diagnosis of renal allograft dysfunction.

  10. Comparison of renal ultrasonography and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy in febrile urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayazi, Parviz; Mahyar, Abolfazl; Noroozian, Elham; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Barikani, Ameneh

    2015-12-01

    Accurate and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of patient with urinary tract infection (UTI) are essential for the prevention or restriction of permanent damage to the kidneys in children. The aim of this study was to compare renal ultrasonography (US) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan in the diagnosis of patients with febrile urinary tract infection. This study involved the medical records of children with febrile urinary tract infection who were admitted to the children's hospital in Qazvin, Iran. Pyelonephritis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and abnormal DMSA renal scans. The criteria for abnormality of renal US were an increase or a decrease in diffuse or focal parenchymal echogenicity, loss of corticomedullary differentiation, kidney position irregularities, parenchymal reduction and increased kidney size. Of the 100 study patients, 23% had an abnormal US and 46% had an abnormal DMSA renal scan. Of the latter patients, 15 had concurrent abnormal US (P value ≤ 0.03, concordance rate: 18%). Renal US had a sensitivity of 32%, specificity of 85%, positive predictive value of 65% and negative predictive value of 60%. Of the 77 patients with normal US, 31 (40.2%) had an abnormal DMSA renal scan. Despite the benefits and accessibility of renal US, its value in the diagnosis of pyelonephritis is limited.

  11. Coordinated response of renal medullary enzymes regulating net sorbitol production in diuresis and antidiuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, J M; Schrader, D C

    1990-07-01

    The renal response to changes in hydration includes variation in intracellular sorbitol, a major inner medullary osmolyte. To examine the mechanism for changes in net sorbitol production, we measured activities of enzymes regulating sorbitol production (aldose reductase) and degradation (sorbitol dehydrogenase) in untreated, water diuretic, and antidiuretic (water restriction and/or vasopressin administration) rats. Collecting duct segments dissected from collagenase-treated kidneys of Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into outer medullary and three distinct inner medullary regions. Aldose reductase activity increased during antidiuresis and decreased during diuresis. In contrast, sorbitol dehydrogenase activity was very low during antidiuresis and increased during diuresis. These changes in enzyme activity were found after 3 days, but not after 1 day, of water diuresis/antidiuresis. Enzyme activity changed only in the deepest 50% of the inner medullary collecting duct. Thus, there is coordinated regulation of aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities so that (a) during water diuresis, aldose reductase activity decreases while sorbitol dehydrogenase activity increases; and (b) during antidiuresis (water restriction and/or vasopressin administration), aldose reductase activity increases while sorbitol dehydrogenase activity remains low. We conclude that long-term osmoregulation in response to physiologic stimuli involves both aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities in rat terminal inner medullary collecting duct segments.

  12. Renal Transport of Uric Acid: Evolving Concepts and Uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Bobulescu, Ion Alexandru; Moe, Orson W.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its role as a metabolic waste product, uric acid has been proposed to be an important molecule with multiple functions in human physiology and pathophysiology and may be linked to human diseases beyond nephrolithiasis and gout. Uric acid homeostasis is determined by the balance between production, intestinal secretion, and renal excretion. The kidney is an important regulator of circulating uric acid levels, by reabsorbing around 90% of filtered urate, while being responsible f...

  13. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-03-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were compared in this study. Seventy-nine overweight individuals with untreated elevated blood pressure and normal kidney function were randomized to consume a mix of protein isolates (60 g/day) or maltodextrin (60 g/day) for 4 weeks in energy balance. Twenty-four-hour urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was compared between groups. A subgroup (maltodextrin N = 27, protein mix N = 25) participated in extra test days investigating fasting levels and postprandial effects of meals supplemented with a moderate protein- or maltodextrin-load on glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, plasma renin, aldosterone, pH, and bicarbonate. uPRAL was significantly higher in the protein group after 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.001). Postprandial filtration fraction decreased further after the protein-supplemented breakfast than after the maltodextrin-supplemented breakfast after 4 weeks of supplementation (P ≤ 0.001). Fasting and postprandial levels of glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme, pH and bicarbonate did not differ between groups. In conclusion, 4 weeks on an increased protein diet (25% of energy intake) increased renal acid load, but did not affect renal function. Postprandial changes, except for filtration fraction, also did not differ between groups. These data suggest that a moderate increase in protein intake by consumption of a protein mix for 4 weeks causes no (undesirable) effects on kidney function in overweight and obese individuals with normal kidney function.

  14. Perioperative renal outcome in cardiac surgical patients with preoperative renal dysfunction: aprotinin versus epsilon aminocaproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew D; Chaudrey, Alyas; Bert, Arthur; Schwartz, Carl; Singh, Arun

    2008-02-01

    The administration of aprotinin to patients with pre-existing renal dysfunction who are undergoing cardiac surgery is controversial. Therefore, the authors present their experience with the use of aprotinin for patients with preoperative renal dysfunction who underwent elective cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Retrospective analysis. University hospital. Consecutive cardiac surgical patients with preoperative serum creatinine (SCr) > or =1.8 mg/dL undergoing nonemergent cardiac surgery requiring CPB. None. One hundred twenty-three patients either received epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA, n = 82) or aprotinin (n = 41) as decided by the attending anesthesiologist and surgeon. Data were collected from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database and from automated intraoperative anesthesia records. Renal function was assessed from measured serum creatinine (SCr) and calculated creatinine clearances (CrCls). Acute perioperative renal dysfunction was defined as a worsening of perioperative renal function by > or =25% and/or the need for hemodialysis (HD). Data were recorded as mean and standard deviation or percentage of population depending on whether the data were continuous or not. Data were compared by using an analysis of variance, chi-square analysis, Student paired and unpaired t tests, Fisher exact test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Mann-Whitney U test. A p value or =3 months after surgery was significantly lower in the aprotinin group compared with the EACA group (1.8 v 2.2 mg/dL, p < 0.05). Acute perioperative renal dysfunction was associated with worse patient outcome and longer CPB and AoXCl times. Demographic and surgical variables indicated that the sicker patients undergoing more complex surgeries were more likely to be treated with aprotinin. Although aprotinin patients had a higher renal risk score, the administration of aprotinin did not negatively impact renal outcome.

  15. Renal amino acid transport systems and essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Vanda; Pinho, Maria João; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2013-08-01

    Several clinical and animal studies suggest that "blood pressure goes with the kidney," that is, a normotensive recipient of a kidney genetically programmed for hypertension will develop hypertension. Intrarenal dopamine plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension by regulating epithelial sodium transport. The candidate transport systems for L-DOPA, the source for dopamine, include the sodium-dependent systems B(0), B(0,+), and y(+)L, and the sodium-independent systems L (LAT1 and LAT2) and b(0,+). Renal LAT2 is overexpressed in the prehypertensive spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), which might contribute to enhanced L-DOPA uptake in the proximal tubule and increased dopamine production, as an attempt to overcome the defect in D1 receptor function. On the other hand, it has been recently reported that impaired arginine transport contributes to low renal nitric oxide bioavailability observed in the SHR renal medulla. Here we review the importance of renal amino acid transporters in the kidney and highlight pathophysiological changes in the expression and regulation of these transporters in essential hypertension. The study of the regulation of renal amino acid transporters may help to define the underlying mechanisms predisposing individuals to an increased risk for development of hypertension.

  16. Prevalence of renal uric acid stones in the adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Montanari, Emanuele

    2017-03-03

    The aim of this study was to estimate uric acid renal stone prevalence rates of adults in different countries of the world. PubMed was searched for papers dealing with "urinary calculi and prevalence or composition" for the period from January 1996 to June 2016. Alternative searches were made to collect further information on specific topics. The prevalence rate of uric acid stones was computed by the general renal stone prevalence rate and the frequency of uric acid stones in each country. After the initial search, 2180 papers were extracted. Out of them, 79 papers were selected after the reading of the titles and of the abstracts. For ten countries, papers relating to both the renal stone prevalence in the general population and the frequency of uric stones were available. Additional search produced 13 papers that completed information on 11 more countries in 5 continents. Estimated prevalence rate of uric acid stones was >0.75% in Thailand, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Iran, South Africa (white population), United States and Australia; ranged 0.50-0.75% in Turkey, Israel, Italy, India (Southern), Spain, Taiwan, Germany, Brazil; and uric acid stone formation. A hot and dry climate increases fluid losses reducing urinary volume and urinary pH. A diet rich in meat protein causes low urinary pH and increased uric acid excretion. On the other hand, uric acid stone formation is frequently associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes type 2 that are linked to dietary energy excess mainly from carbohydrate and saturated fat and also present with low urine pH values. An epidemic of uric acid stone formation could be if current nutritional trends will be maintained both in developed countries and in developing countries and the areas of greater climatic risk for the formation of uric acid stones will enlarge as result of the "global warming".

  17. Renal acidification responses to respiratory acid-base disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madias, Nicolaos E

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory acid-base disorders are those abnormalities in acid-base equilibrium that are expressed as primary changes in the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). An increase in PaCO2 (hypercapnia) acidifies body fluids and initiates the acid-base disturbance known as respiratory acidosis. By contrast, a decrease in PaCO2 (hypocapnia) alkalinizes body fluids and initiates the acid-base disturbance known as respiratory alkalosis. The impact on systemic acidity of these primary changes in PaCO2 is ameliorated by secondary, directional changes in plasma [HCO3¯] that occur in 2 stages. Acutely, hypercapnia or hypocapnia yields relatively small changes in plasma [HCO3¯] that originate virtually exclusively from titration of the body's nonbicarbonate buffers. During sustained hypercapnia or hypocapnia, much larger changes in plasma [HCO3¯] occur that reflect adjustments in renal acidification mechanisms. Consequently, the deviation of systemic acidity from normal is smaller in the chronic forms of these disorders. Here we provide an overview of the renal acidification responses to respiratory acid-base disorders. We also identify gaps in knowledge that require further research.

  18. Renal and systemic acid-base effects of chronic dichloroacetate administration in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulter, H N; Glynn, R D; Sebastian, A

    1980-10-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA) increases metabolic disposal of lactic acid secondary to activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase and consequent acceleration of pyruvate oxidation. DCA has thus been proposed as a therapeutic agent for clinical states of lactic acidosis. Yet, DCA has a potential metabolic acidosis-producing effect by virtue of reported effects of (A) increasing blood ketoacid concentration, (B) decreasing tubular reabsorption of filtered ketoacid anions, and (C) decreasing renal NH3 production. In the present study chronic administration of DCA, 50 mg/kg p.o. daily for 6-8 days, resulted in a cumulative increase in renal net acid excretion (NAE) (sigma delta NAE, +61 meq, p UpH, +0.18 +/- 0.07, p < 0.05). The increase in NAE was accompanied by a nearly identical increase in urinary anion gap (UAG) (UAG = [NH4+ + Na+ + K+] - [Cl- + HCO3- + HPO4(2-) + H2PO4-]). The increase in UAG was caused by increased urinary total organic anions, accounted for at least in part by a significant increase in urinary acetoacetate. No significant increase in urinary potassium or sodium excretion occurred. A change in plasma acid-base composition occurred that was consistent with a mild respiratory acidosis without associated primary metabolic acidosis or alkalosis. These findings indicate that chronic DCA administration results in (1) increased steady state endogenous noncarbonic organic acid production, and (2) retention of carbonic acid. Further investigation of the potential metabolic and respiratory acidosis-producing effects of DCA is required to determine its clinical efficacy in the treatment of clinical lactic acidosis.

  19. Ascorbic acid against reperfusion injury in human renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norio, Karri; Wikström, Mårten; Salmela, Kaija; Kyllönen, Lauri; Lindgren, Leena

    2003-08-01

    The cadaveric renal graft is exposed to ischaemic injury during preservation and to oxidative damage during reperfusion. Both these mechanisms are known to cause cell damage, which may impair graft function. Reperfusion injury (RPI) is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ascorbic acid (AA) is a potent physiological extracellular scavenger of ROS. We perfused 31 renal grafts immediately before implantation with a solution of Euro-Collins containing 0.5 mg/ml of AA to diminish RPI. From every donor, the contralateral kidney served as a control. The control grafts were perfused with the same perfusion as those of the AA group, only without the AA substitution. We assessed the effect of AA by recording serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, initial graft function and early rejections. The incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) was 32% in the AA group, and 29% in the control group. Other parameters were also similar in both groups, except for the length of DGF, which showed a trend towards a shorter duration in the AA group. The pre-operative systemic AA concentration was significantly ( P=0.01) lower in the haemodialysis patients than in those on peritoneal dialysis. In conclusion, this clinical study could not demonstrate significant benefits of AA in renal transplantation.

  20. Effect of source on net portal flux of glucose, lactate, volatile fatty acids and amino acids in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Bakker, J.G.M.; Smits, B.; Visser, de H.

    1997-01-01

    The ileal digestibilities of maize starch and native pea starch do not differ. However maize starch is digested faster than pea starch and the ileal amino acid digestibility of a diet containing pea starch is lower. In the present study, the net portal fluxes of glucose, lactate, volatile fatty

  1. Dietary potential renal Acid load in venezuelan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sayers, Mayerling; Bernal, Jennifer; López, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: Determinar y analizar la carga acida potencial renal de la dieta (Potential Renal Acid Load PRAL) y el patron de alimentacion de ninos entre 1 a 6 anos aparentemente sanos. Métodos: Se seleccionaron segun conveniencia a padres de 52 ninos asistentes a una consulta de ninos sanos. La calidad de la dieta y el patron de alimentacion se evaluo mediante un recordatorio de 24 horas y un cuestionario de frecuencia de alimentos. Se calculo la ingesta de macronutrientes y grupos de alimentos, como carnes, lacteos, frutas y verduras. La ingesta de nutrientes se comparo con las recomendaciones de energia y nutrientes. El PRAL se determino segun el metodo de Remer y Manz, para determinar la carga acida de la dieta. Se aplico estadistica descriptiva y correlaciones entre el PRAL, nutrientes y grupos de alimentos. Resultados: La ingesta de proteinas, de leche y de carnes fue elevada, mientras que la ingesta de rutas y hortalizas fue baja. El PRAL fue positivo en 92% de los ninos, se asocio con mayor ingesta de energia, proteinas, grasas, carne y lacteos. La ingesta de proteinas fue > 2,5 g/kg/ dia en 46,2% de los ninos. Los grupos de alimentos con mayor desequilibrio debido a exceso fueron la carne y los productos lacteos, mientras que por deficit fue el grupo de frutas y hortalizas. Conclusión: La dieta se caracteriza por una elevada carga de acido o PRAL, lo que aumenta el riesgo de acidosis sistemica y sus consecuencias metabolicas.

  2. Mechanisms of the Effects of Acidosis and Hypokalemia on Renal Ammonia Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ki-Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Renal ammonia metabolism is the predominant component of net acid excretion and new bicarbonate generation. Renal ammonia metabolism is regulated by acid-base balance. Both acute and chronic acid loads enhance ammonia production in the proximal tubule and secretion into the urine. In contrast, alkalosis reduces ammoniagenesis. Hypokalemia is a common electrolyte disorder that significantly increases renal ammonia production and excretion, despite causing metabolic alkalosis. Although the net ...

  3. Application of spectral analysis to renal uptake rate measurement with {sup 99m}Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, Kenya; Tanada, Shuji; Ikezoe, Junpei [Ehime University, Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-06-01

    In our previous paper, we demonstrated a new method for renal uptake rate measurement with {sup 99m}Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) which required no background and kidney depth corrections and only 20 min for examination. In this study, we applied spectral analysis to renal uptake rate measurement with DMSA. The net uptake rate of DMSA by tubular cells (K) calculated using spectral analysis correlated well with the renal uptake rates measured two hours after DMSA administration (r=0.918 for the 3-parameter model and r=0.924 for the 4-parameter model), and agreed well with the K values obtained using the nonlinear least-squares method (r=0.997 for the 3-parameter model and r=0.998 for the 4-parameter model). These results indicate that spectral analysis is applicable and useful for quantification of renal uptake rate of DMSA and it can be an alternative approach to our previous method. We believe that this method will facilitate even more widespread utilization of the quantitative assessment of DMSA uptake by planar scintigraphy, because it is much simpler for practical use as compared to the previous method. (author)

  4. Acute supplementation of amino acids increases net protein accretion in IUGR fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D; Rozance, Paul J; Thorn, Stephanie R; Friedman, Jacob E; Hay, William W

    2012-08-01

    Placental insufficiency decreases fetal amino acid uptake from the placenta, plasma insulin concentrations, and protein accretion, thus compromising normal fetal growth trajectory. We tested whether acute supplementation of amino acids or insulin into the fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) would increase net fetal protein accretion rates. Late-gestation IUGR and control (CON) fetal sheep received acute, 3-h infusions of amino acids (with euinsulinemia), insulin (with euglycemia and euaminoacidemia), or saline. Fetal leucine metabolism was measured under steady-state conditions followed by a fetal muscle biopsy to quantify insulin signaling. In CON, increasing amino acid delivery rates to the fetus by 100% increased leucine oxidation rates by 100%. In IUGR, amino acid infusion completely suppressed fetal protein breakdown rates but increased leucine oxidation rate by only 25%, resulting in increased protein accretion rates by 150%. Acute insulin infusion, however, had very little effect on amino acid delivery rates, fetal leucine disposal rates, or fetal protein accretion rates in CON or IUGR fetuses despite robust signaling of the fetal skeletal muscle insulin-signaling cascade. These results indicate that, when amino acids are given directly into the fetal circulation independently of changes in insulin concentrations, IUGR fetal sheep have suppressed protein breakdown rates, thus increasing net fetal protein accretion.

  5. Diet-dependent net endogenous acid load of vegan diets in relation to food groups and bone health-related nutrients: results from the German Vegan Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Waldmann, Annika; Koschizke, Jochen; Leitzmann, Claus; Hahn, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Dietary composition has been shown to affect acid-base homeostasis and bone health in humans. We investigated the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and the estimated diet-dependent net acid load (net endogenous acid production, NEAP) in adult vegans and evaluated the relationships between NEAP, food groups and intake of bone health-related nutrients. The German Vegan Study (GVS) is a cross-sectional study. Data from healthy men (n = 67) and women (n = 87), aged 21-75 years, who fulfilled the study criteria (vegan diet for ≥1 year prior to study start; age ≥18 years, and no pregnancy/childbirth during the last 12 months) were included in the analysis. NEAP values were calculated from diet composition using two models: one based on the protein/potassium quotient and another taking into account an anthropometry-based loss of urinary organic anions. Mean daily intakes of phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium and vitamin C were above, and vitamin D and calcium below Dietary Reference Intake (DRI). Regardless of the model used, the diet in the GVS was characterized by a nearly neutral NEAP. A strong correlation was observed between the NEAP values of the two models (r(s) = 0.873, p vegan diets do not affect acid-base homeostasis. With respect to bone health, the significance of this finding needs further investigation. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Renal effects of amino acids and dopamine in renal transplant recipients treated with or without cyclosporin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J M; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Leyssac, P P

    1996-01-01

    proximal and distal tubular handling of sodium (and water) were comparable between the two groups of patients. Dopamine caused significant natriuresis in both groups. 5. In conclusion, low-dose cyclosporin A seems not to attenuate the renal haemodynamic and tubular response to infusions of amino acids...

  7. EFFECT OF CASEIN-BASED SEMISYNTHETIC FOOD ON RENAL ACID EXCRETION AND ACID-BASE STATE OF BLOOD IN DOGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, WG; LANGBROEK, AJM; KRAAN, J; RISPENS, P; NIJMEIJER, A

    1995-01-01

    Urinary acid excretion and blood acid-base stare were determined in dogs fed a casein-based semi-synthetic food (SSF), to which different amounts of salts had been added, in comparison with feeding normal dog food. Net acid excretion (NAE) and inorganic acid excretion (IAE) increased during SSF feed

  8. Attenuation of Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion (I/R) Injury by Ascorbic Acid in the Canine Nephrotomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jong-Man Kim; Jae-Yeon Lee; Seong-Mok Jeong; Chang-Sik Park; Myung-Cheol Kim

    2010-01-01

    ...) injury and recovery of renal function in canine nephrotomy model. In the canine model, nine mixed dogs were subjected to renal nephrotomy with premedicated ascorbic acid and hepa-saline irrigation-aspiration (treatment group 2...

  9. Established dietary estimates of net acid production do not predict measured net acid excretion in patients with Type 2 diabetes on Paleolithic-Hunter-Gatherer-type diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, L A; Shi, L; Schloetter, M; Sebastian, A; Remer, T

    2013-09-01

    Formulas developed to estimate diet-dependent net acid excretion (NAE) generally agree with measured values for typical Western diets. Whether they can also appropriately predict NAE for 'Paleolithic-type' (Paleo) diets-which contain very high amounts of fruits and vegetables (F&V) and concurrent high amounts of protein is unknown. Here, we compare measured NAEs with established NAE estimates in subjects with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thirteen subjects with well-controlled T2D were randomized to either a Paleo or American Diabetes Association (ADA) diet for 14 days. Twenty-four hour urine collections were performed at baseline and end of the diet period, and analyzed for titratable acid, bicarbonate and ammonium to calculate measured NAE. Three formulas for estimating NAE from dietary intake were used; two (NAE_diet R or L) that include dietary mineral intake and sulfate- and organic acid (OA) production, and one that is empirically derived (NAE_diet F) only considering potassium and protein intake. Measured NAE on the Paleo diet was significantly lower than on the ADA-diet (+31±22 vs 112±52 mEq/day, P=0.002). Although all formula estimates showed similar and reasonable correlations (r=0.52-0.76) with measured NAE, each one underestimated measured values. The formula with the best correlation did not contain an estimate of dietary OA production. Paleo-diets are lower in NAE than typical Western diets. However, commonly used formulas clearly underestimate NAE, especially for diets with very high F&V (as the Paleo diet), and in subjects with T2D. This may be due to an inappropriate estimation of proton loads stemming from OAs, underlining the necessity for improved measures of OA-related proton sources.

  10. Dietary Acid Load and Metabolic Acidosis in Renal Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Else; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.; Joosten, M.M.; Gans, R.O.B.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives Acidosis is prevalent among renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and adversely affects cardiometabolic processes. Factors contributing to acidosis are graft dysfunction and immunosuppressive drugs. Little is known about the potential influence of diet on acidosis in RTRs. Thi

  11. Dietary Acid Load and Metabolic Acidosis in Renal Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Else; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.; Joosten, M.M.; Gans, R.O.B.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives Acidosis is prevalent among renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and adversely affects cardiometabolic processes. Factors contributing to acidosis are graft dysfunction and immunosuppressive drugs. Little is known about the potential influence of diet on acidosis in RTRs.

  12. Effect of potential renal acid load of foods on urinary citrate excretion in calcium renal stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Lizzano, Renata; Marchesotti, Federica; Zanetti, Giampaolo

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet on the urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. The present series comprises 187 consecutive renal calcium stone patients (114 males, 73 females) who were studied in our stone clinic. Each patient was subjected to an investigation including a 24-h dietary record and 24-h urine sample taken over the same period. Nutrients and calories were calculated by means of food composition tables using a computerized procedure. Daily PRAL was calculated considering the mineral and protein composition of foods, the mean intestinal absorption rate for each nutrient and the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, oxalate, urate, citrate, and creatinine levels were measured in the urine. The mean daily PRAL was higher in male than in female patients (24.1+/-24.0 vs 16.1+/-20.1 mEq/day, P=0.000). A significantly (P=0.01) negative correlation (R=-0.18) was found between daily PRAL and daily urinary citrate, but no correlation between PRAL and urinary calcium, oxalate, and urate was shown. Daily urinary calcium (R=0.186, P=0.011) and uric acid (R=0.157, P=0.033) were significantly related to the dietary intake of protein. Daily urinary citrate was significantly related to the intakes of copper (R=0.178, P=0.015), riboflavin (R=0.20, P=0.006), piridoxine (R=0.169, P=0.021) and biotin (R=0.196, P=0.007). The regression analysis by stepwise selection confirmed the significant negative correlation between PRAL and urinary citrate (P=0.002) and the significant positive correlation between riboflavin and urinary citrate (P=0.000). Urinary citrate excretion of renal stone formers (RSFs) is highly dependent from dietary acid load. The computation of the renal acid load is advisable to investigate the role of diet in the pathogenesis of calcium stone disease and it is also a useful tool to evaluate the lithogenic potential of

  13. Amino acids protects against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and attenuates renal endothelin-1 disorder in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢立平; 郑祥毅; 秦杰; 童炎岳

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate nephroprotective effects of a mixture of 8 L-amino acids on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and its effects on renal endothelin-1 (ET-1). Methods: The mixture of 8 L-amino acids includes glycine, alanine, threonine, serine, valine, leucine, isoleucine and proline. Acute ischemic renal injury was induced by clamping renal pedicle for 45 minutes in rats. Sixty male Sprague-Dawiey rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: a sham-operated group ( Group A, n = 8), a control group (Group B, n = 26 ) and an amino acid- treated group (Group C, n = 26 ). Amino acids were infused at a rate of 1 mi · 100g-1 · h-1 I hour before ischemia and during 3 hours of the whole reperfusion. The serum creatinine values, BUN levels, creatiulne clearance, urine sodium & potassium excretion, urine lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),the rate of urine flow and histological examination were measured. Renal ET-1 levels were assayed with radioimmunological assay (RIA) Results: The creatinine clearance was 471.0 μl/min ± 121.5 pi/main in Group C and 227.0 μl/min ± 27.0 μl/min in Group B 3 hours after reperfnsion, P < 0.01 ). The urine flow rate was 63.6 pi/min ± 15.2 μl/min in Group C and 24.3 μl/min ± 7.7 μl/minin Group B, P < 0.01 ) 1.5 hours after reperfusion. The serum creatinine was 85.0 μl/min ± 7.7 μmol/L and BUN oncentration11.4 mmol/L ±3.9 mmol/L in Group C and 112.7 μmol/L ± 19.5 μmol/L and 20.7 mmol/L ± 6.6 mmol/L respectively in Group B after 24 hours of reperfusion (P < 0.05) . The mean histological score by standards of Paller in kidneys was 108.7 ± 15.7 in Group C, and 168.8 ± 14.8 in Group B (P < 0.01 ). The renal ET-1 levels 15 minute and 3 hours after reperfusion were 7.2 pg/mg ± 0.8 pg/mg and 9.6 pg/ml ± 1.0 pg/ml in Group C , and 10.1 pg/ml ± 2.8 pg/ml and 13.0 pg/ml ± 2.7 pg/mi in Group B ( P < 0.01). Conclusions: The mixture of 8 L-amino acids can provide remarkable protection against renal isehemia- reperfusion injury

  14. Renal Protective Effects of 17β-Estradiol on Mice with Acute Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Ma, Liang; Zhou, Li; Fu, Ping

    2016-10-18

    Aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) is a progressive kidney disease caused by a Chinese herb containing aristolochic acid. Excessive death of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) characterized the acute phase of AAN. Therapies for acute AAN were limited, such as steroids and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs)/angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). It was interesting that, in acute AAN, female patients showed relative slower progression to renal failure than males. In a previous study, female hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) was found to attenuate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective role of E2 in acute AAN. Compared with male C57BL/6 mice of acute AAN, lower serum creatinine (SCr) and less renal injury, together with RTEC apoptosis in females, were found. Treatment with E2 in male AAN mice reduced SCr levels and attenuated renal tubular injury and RTEC apoptosis. In the mice kidney tissue and human renal proximal tubule cells (HK-2 cells), E2 both attenuated AA-induced cell apoptosis and downregulated the expression of phosphor-p53 (Ser15), p53, and cleaved-caspase-3. This study highlights that E2 exhibited protective effects on the renal injury of acute AAN in male mice by reducing RTEC apoptosis, which might be related to inhibiting the p53 signaling pathway.

  15. Renal Protective Effects of 17β-Estradiol on Mice with Acute Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Shi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN is a progressive kidney disease caused by a Chinese herb containing aristolochic acid. Excessive death of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs characterized the acute phase of AAN. Therapies for acute AAN were limited, such as steroids and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs/angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs. It was interesting that, in acute AAN, female patients showed relative slower progression to renal failure than males. In a previous study, female hormone 17β-estradiol (E2 was found to attenuate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective role of E2 in acute AAN. Compared with male C57BL/6 mice of acute AAN, lower serum creatinine (SCr and less renal injury, together with RTEC apoptosis in females, were found. Treatment with E2 in male AAN mice reduced SCr levels and attenuated renal tubular injury and RTEC apoptosis. In the mice kidney tissue and human renal proximal tubule cells (HK-2 cells, E2 both attenuated AA-induced cell apoptosis and downregulated the expression of phosphor-p53 (Ser15, p53, and cleaved-caspase-3. This study highlights that E2 exhibited protective effects on the renal injury of acute AAN in male mice by reducing RTEC apoptosis, which might be related to inhibiting the p53 signaling pathway.

  16. Serum uric acid levels contribute to new renal damage in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reátegui-Sokolova, C; Ugarte-Gil, Manuel F; Gamboa-Cárdenas, Rocío V; Zevallos, Francisco; Cucho-Venegas, Jorge M; Alfaro-Lozano, José L; Medina, Mariela; Rodriguez-Bellido, Zoila; Pastor-Asurza, Cesar A; Alarcón, Graciela S; Perich-Campos, Risto A

    2017-01-18

    This study aims to determine whether uric acid levels contribute to new renal damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. This prospective study was conducted in consecutive patients seen since 2012. Patients had a baseline visit and follow-up visits every 6 months. Patients with ≥2 visits were included; those with end-stage renal disease (regardless of dialysis or transplantation) were excluded. Renal damage was ascertained using the SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI). Univariable and multivariable Cox-regression models were performed to determine the risk of new renal damage. Uric acid was included as a continuous and dichotomous (per receiving operating characteristic curve) variable. Multivariable models were adjusted for age at diagnosis, disease duration, socioeconomic status, SLEDAI, SDI, serum creatinine, baseline use of prednisone, antimalarials, and immunosuppressive drugs. One hundred and eighty-six patients were evaluated; their mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 36.8 (13.7) years; nearly all patients were mestizo. Disease duration was 7.7 (6.8) years. Follow-up time was 2.3 (1.1) years. The SLEDAI was 5.2 (4.3) and the SDI 0.8 (1.1). Uric acid levels were 4.5 (1.3) mg/dl. During follow-up, 16 (8.6%) patients developed at least one new point in the renal domain of the SDI. In multivariable analyses, uric acid levels (continuous and dichotomous) at baseline predicted the development of new renal damage (HR 3.21 (1.39-7.42), p 0.006; HR 18.28 (2.80-119.48), p 0.002; respectively). Higher uric acid levels contribute to the development of new renal damage in SLE patients independent of other well-known risk factors for such occurrence.

  17. Magnetic properties, acid neutralization capacity, and net acid production of rocks in the Animas River Watershed Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Yager, Douglas B.; Horton, Radley M.; Diehl, Sharon F.

    2006-01-01

    Federal land managers along with local stakeholders in the Upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado are actively designing and implementing mine waste remediation projects to mitigate the effects of acid mine drainage from several abandoned hard rock metal mines and mills. Local source rocks with high acid neutralization capacity (ANC) within the watershed are of interest to land managers for use in these remediation projects. A suite of representative samples was collected from propylitic to weakly sericitic-altered volcanic and plutonic rocks exposed in outcrops throughout the watershed. Acid-base accounting laboratory methods coupled with mineralogic and geochemical characterization provide insight into lithologies that have a range of ANC and net acid production (NAP). Petrophysical lab determinations of magnetic susceptibility converted to estimates for percent magnetite show correlation with the environmental properties of ANC and NAP for many of the lithologies. A goal of our study is to interpret watershed-scale airborne magnetic data for regional mapping of rocks that have varying degrees of ANC and NAP. Results of our preliminary work are presented here.

  18. Overall renal and tubular function during infusion of amino acids in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Hansen, J M; Ladefoged, S D

    1990-01-01

    1. Amino acids have been used to test renal reserve filtration capacity. Previous studies suggest that amino acids increase glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by reducing distal tubular flow and tubuloglomerular feedback activity. 2. Glomerular function and the renal tubular handling of sodium during...... infusion of amino acids was studied in 12 normal volunteers. 3. Clearance of sodium (CNa) was unchanged. Effective renal plasma flow increased slightly, but significantly, by 9% (P less than 0.05). GFR was increased by 13% (P less than 0.001). Clearance of lithium (CLi) (used as an index of proximal...... tubular outflow) increased by 38% (P less than 0.001). Calculated absolute proximal reabsorption (GFR-CLi) remained unchanged. Fractional proximal reabsorption [1-(CLi/GFR)] was decreased by 10% (P less than 0.001). Calculated absolute distal sodium reabsorption [(CLi-CNa) x PNa, where PNa is plasma...

  19. Overall renal and tubular function during infusion of amino acids in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Hansen, J M; Ladefoged, S D

    1990-01-01

    1. Amino acids have been used to test renal reserve filtration capacity. Previous studies suggest that amino acids increase glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by reducing distal tubular flow and tubuloglomerular feedback activity. 2. Glomerular function and the renal tubular handling of sodium during...... infusion of amino acids was studied in 12 normal volunteers. 3. Clearance of sodium (CNa) was unchanged. Effective renal plasma flow increased slightly, but significantly, by 9% (P less than 0.05). GFR was increased by 13% (P less than 0.001). Clearance of lithium (CLi) (used as an index of proximal...... tubular outflow) increased by 38% (P less than 0.001). Calculated absolute proximal reabsorption (GFR-CLi) remained unchanged. Fractional proximal reabsorption [1-(CLi/GFR)] was decreased by 10% (P less than 0.001). Calculated absolute distal sodium reabsorption [(CLi-CNa) x PNa, where PNa is plasma...

  20. Colored petri nets to model gene mutation and amino acids classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinliang; Gao, Rui; Meng, Max Q-H; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong

    2012-05-07

    The genetic code is the triplet code based on the three-letter codons, which determines the specific amino acid sequences in proteins synthesis. Choosing an appropriate model for processing these codons is a useful method to study genetic processes in Molecular Biology. As an effective modeling tool of discrete event dynamic systems (DEDS), colored petri net (CPN) has been used for modeling several biological systems, such as metabolic pathways and genetic regulatory networks. According to the genetic code table, CPN is employed to model the process of genetic information transmission. In this paper, we propose a CPN model of amino acids classification, and further present the improved CPN model. Based on the model mentioned above, we give another CPN model to classify the type of gene mutations via contrasting the bases of DNA strands and the codons of amino acids along the polypeptide chain. This model is helpful in determining whether a certain gene mutation will cause the changes of the structures and functions of protein molecules. The effectiveness and accuracy of the presented model are illustrated by the examples in this paper.

  1. Reducing Renal Uptake of {sup 177}Lu Labeled CCK Derivative using Basic Amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soyoung; Lim, Jaecheong; Joh, Eunha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Radiolabeled peptides have been designed to target the relative receptors overespressed in tumor cells, such as integrin αvβ3, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R), glucagon-like peptide-a receptor (GLP-1R), and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor. Most of these peptides are eliminated from the body via the kidney and are partly reabsorbed in the proximal tubular cells. However, the high renal uptake of the radiolabeled peptides may lead to renal toxicity. In this study we investigated various amino acid solutions to reduce the renal uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative. Renal uptake of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-CCK derivative is effectively reduced by the administration of positively charged amino acids. The administration of 12 mg of L-lysine was as effective in reducing the renal uptake as 6 mg of lysine and 6 mg of arginine combinations. Further studies will be performed to identify the most potent inhibitor of renal reuptake of radiolabeled peptides and minimize the chance of unwanted side effects.

  2. Evaluation of circulating levels and renal clearance of natural amino acids in patients with Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggiano, A; Pivonello, R; Melis, D; Alfieri, R; Filippella, M; Spagnuolo, G; Salvatore, F; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2002-02-01

    Although the hypercortisolism-induced impairment of protein homeostasis is object of several studies, a detailed evaluation of the complete amino acid profile of patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) has never been performed. The aim of the current open transversal controlled study was to evaluate serum and urinary concentrations as well as renal clearance of the complete series of natural amino acids and their relationship with glucose tolerance in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Twenty patients with CD (10 active and 10 cured) and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls entered the study. Measurement of serum and urinary levels of the complete series of natural amino acids was performed in all patients analyzed by cationic exchange high performance liquid cromatography (HPLC) after 2 weeks of a standardized protein intake regimen. The renal clearance (renal excretion rate) of each amino acid was calculated on the basis of the serum and urinary concentrations of creatinine and the specific amino acid. Fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose and insulin response to standard glucose load, insulinogenic and homeostasis model insulin resistance (Homa-R) indexes were also evaluated and correlated to the circulating levels and renal clearances of each amino acid. Significantly higher serum (p<0.01) and urinary (p<0.05) levels of alanine and cystine, lower serum and higher urinary levels of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.05) and higher renal excretion rates of leucine, isoleucine and valine (p<0.01) were found in patients with active CD than in patients cured from the disease and in controls. No difference was found between cured patients and controls. Creatinine clearance was similar in active and cured patients and in controls. In patients with active CD, urinary cortisol levels were significantly correlated to urinary cystine levels (r=0.85; p<0.01) and renal excretion rate of leucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05), isoleucine (r=-0.76; p<0.05) and valine (r=-0

  3. Acid rain mitigation experiment shifts a forested watershed from a net sink to a net source of nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Bernhardt, Emily S; Buso, Donald C; Driscoll, Charles T; Likens, Gene E

    2016-07-01

    Decades of acid rain have acidified forest soils and freshwaters throughout montane forests of the northeastern United States; the resulting loss of soil base cations is hypothesized to be responsible for limiting rates of forest growth throughout the region. In 1999, an experiment was conducted that reversed the long-term trend of soil base cation depletion and tested the hypothesis that calcium limits forest growth in acidified soils. Researchers added 1,189 kg Ca(2+) ha(-1) as the pelletized mineral wollastonite (CaSiO3) to a 12-ha forested watershed within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Significant increases in the pH and acid-neutralizing capacity of soils and streamwater resulted, and the predicted increase in forest growth occurred. An unanticipated consequence of this acidification mitigation experiment began to emerge a decade later, with marked increases in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) exports in streamwater from the treated watershed. By 2013, 30-times greater DIN was exported from this base-treated watershed than from adjacent reference watersheds, and DIN exports resulting from this experiment match or exceed earlier reports of inorganic N losses after severe ice-storm damage within the study watershed. The discovery that CaSiO3 enrichment can convert a watershed from a sink to a source of N suggests that numerous potential mechanisms drive watershed N dynamics and provides new insights into the influence of acid deposition mitigation strategies for both carbon cycling and watershed N export.

  4. alpha-Linolenic acid protects renal cells against palmitic acid lipotoxicity via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulieris, Elias; Mabley, Jon G; Samai, Mohamed; Green, Irene C; Chatterjee, Prabal K

    2009-11-25

    Unsaturated fatty acids may counteract the lipotoxicity associated with saturated fatty acids. Palmitic acid induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and caused apoptotic and necrotic cell death in the renal proximal tubular cell line, NRK-52E. We investigated whether alpha-linolenic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, protected against ER stress and cell death induced by palmitic acid or by other non-nutrient ER stress generators. Incubation of NRK-52E cells for 24h with palmitic acid produced a significant increase in apoptosis and necrosis. Palmitic acid also increased levels of three indicators of ER stress - the phosphorylated form of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78). alpha-Linolenic acid dramatically reduced cell death and levels of all three indicators of ER stress brought about by palmitic acid. Tunicamycin, which induces ER stress by glycosylation of proteins, produced similar effects to those obtained using palmitic acid; its effects were partially reversed by alpha-linolenic acid. Salubrinal (a phosphatase inhibitor) causes increased levels of the phosphorylated form of eIF2alpha - this effect was partially reversed by alpha-linolenic acid. Palmitoleate, a monosaturated fatty acid, had similar effects to those of alpha-linolenic acid. These results suggest that part of the mechanism of protection of the kidney by unsaturated fatty acids is through inhibition of ER stress, eIF2alpha phosphorylation and consequential reduction of CHOP protein expression and apoptotic renal cell death.

  5. Genetic variation underlying renal uric acid excretion in Hispanic children: the Viva La Familia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittoor, Geetha; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R; Laston, Sandra; Cole, Shelley A; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Butte, Nancy F; Voruganti, V Saroja

    2017-01-17

    Reduced renal excretion of uric acid plays a significant role in the development of hyperuricemia and gout in adults. Hyperuricemia has been associated with chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in children and adults. There are limited genome-wide association studies associating genetic polymorphisms with renal urate excretion measures. Therefore, we investigated the genetic factors that influence the excretion of uric acid and related indices in 768 Hispanic children of the Viva La Familia Study. We performed a genome-wide association analysis for 24-h urinary excretion measures such as urinary uric acid/urinary creatinine ratio, uric acid clearance, fractional excretion of uric acid, and glomerular load of uric acid in SOLAR, while accounting for non-independence among family members. All renal urate excretion measures were significantly heritable (p <2 × 10(-6)) and ranged from 0.41 to 0.74. Empirical threshold for genome-wide significance was set at p <1 × 10(-7). We observed a strong association (p < 8 × 10(-8)) of uric acid clearance with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in zinc finger protein 446 (ZNF446) (rs2033711 (A/G), MAF: 0.30). The minor allele (G) was associated with increased uric acid clearance. Also, we found suggestive associations of uric acid clearance with SNPs in ZNF324, ZNF584, and ZNF132 (in a 72 kb region of 19q13; p <1 × 10(-6), MAFs: 0.28-0.31). For the first time, we showed the importance of 19q13 region in the regulation of renal urate excretion in Hispanic children. Our findings indicate differences in inherent genetic architecture and shared environmental risk factors between our cohort and other pediatric and adult populations.

  6. Comparison of acetic acid and ethanol sclerotherapy for simple renal cysts: clinical experience with 86 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Jun; Shin, Ji Hoon

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and treatment session numbers of acetic acid to that of ethanol sclerotherapy for the treatment of simple renal cysts. Between February 2004 and June 2013, 86 patients with simple renal cysts underwent percutaneous aspiration and injection of 50 %-acetic-acid (42 cysts) and 95 %-ethanol (44 cysts). The patient demographics, volume reduction rate, number of treatment sessions, and complications were then analyzed. The volume reduction rate was 94.1 ± 7.6 % in the 50 %-acetic acid group and 94.7 ± 11.7 % in the 95 %-ethanol group, and without a statistical difference. The rates of complete remission, partial remission, and no response were 57.1, 42.9 and 0 %, respectively, for the acetic acid group, and 70.5, 25.0, and 4.5 %, respectively, for the ethanol group. No statistical difference was observed between the two groups. Compared to the acetic acid group, the ethanol group had a higher number of treatment sessions, i.e. 1.10 ± 0.30 in the acetic acid group and 1.80 ± 0.79 in the ethanol group. Mild flank pain was a minor complication that occurred in both groups. Acetic acid seems to have equivalent sclerosing effects on simple renal cysts compared with those of ethanol despites of fewer treatment sessions.

  7. The Association between Renal Hyperfiltration and the Sources of Habitual Protein Intake and Dietary Acid Load in a General Population with Preserved Renal Function: The KoGES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Rina; Song, Sihan; Lee, Jung Eun; Yoon, Hyung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Although the differential response of the kidney to the acute load of various sources of dietary protein in subjects with normal renal function is well known, the influence of habitual dietary protein intake and dietary acid load on renal function has not been tested well. The association between renal hyperfiltration (RHF), the earlier and possibly reversible stage of chronic kidney disease, and the sources of habitual dietary protein and dietary acid load was analyzed with the baseline data of 123,169 middle-aged healthy Koreans of a large prospective cohort study, who had a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >60 mL/min/m2 and no known history of diabetes and/or hypertension. eGFR was calculated with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation using serum creatinine and RHF was defined as eGFR >95th percentile after adjustment for age, sex, height, and body weight. Dietary acid load was calculated with estimated net endogenous acid production (eNEAP). Although the level of habitual intake of animal protein was positively and vegetable protein was negatively associated with RHF, this association was significant only in women and younger participants (younger than sex-specific median age). The odds for RHF increased as the percentile rank of eNEAP increased until about the 50th percentile and then leveled off. The positive association between eNEAP and RHF was significant in both sexes and age groups. Dietary acid load was associated with RHF regardless of sex and age and rather than the amount of the total or the individual sources of habitual dietary protein, may be a better target for the dietary intervention of chronic kidney disease.

  8. Genetic variation underlying renal uric acid excretion in Hispanic children: The Viva La Familia Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduced renal excretion of uric acid plays a significant role in the development of hyperuricemia and gout in adults. Hyperuricemia has been associated with chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in children and adults. There are limited genome-wide association studies associating genetic...

  9. Time-dependent clearance of mycophenolic acid in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. van Hest (Reinier); T. van Gelder (Teun); R. Bouw (René); T. Goggin (Timothy); R. Gordon (Robert); R. Mamelok (Richard); R.A. Mathot (Ron)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAims: Pharmacokinetic studies of the immunosuppressive compound mycophenolic acid (MPA) have shown a structural decrease in clearance (CL) over time after renal transplantation. The aim of this study was to characterize the time-dependent CL of MPA by means of a population pharmacokineti

  10. Prednisone lowers serum uric acid levels in patients with decompensated heart failure by increasing renal uric acid clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Zhen, Yuzhi; Zhao, Qingzhen; Zhai, Jian-Long; Liu, Kunshen; Zhang, Jian-Xin

    2016-07-01

    Clinical studies have shown that large doses of prednisone could lower serum uric acid (SUA) in patients with decompensated heart failure (HF); however, the optimal dose of prednisone and underlying mechanisms are unknown. Thirty-eight patients with decompensated HF were randomized to receive standard HF care alone (n = 10) or with low-dose (15 mg/day, n = 8), medium-dose (30 mg/day, n = 10), or high-dose prednisone (60 mg/day, n = 10), for 10 days. At the end of the study, only high-dose prednisone significantly reduced SUA, whereas low- and medium-dose prednisone and standard HF care had no effect on SUA. The reduction in SUA in high-dose prednisone groups was associated with a significant increase in renal uric acid clearance. In conclusion, prednisone can reduce SUA levels by increasing renal uric acid clearance in patients with decompensated HF.

  11. Extra-Renal Elimination of Uric Acid via Intestinal Efflux Transporter BCRP/ABCG2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, Atsushi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Fujita, Takuya; Tamai, Ikumi

    2012-01-01

    Urinary excretion accounts for two-thirds of total elimination of uric acid and the remainder is excreted in feces. However, the mechanism of extra-renal elimination is poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the mechanism and the extent of elimination of uric acid through liver and intestine using oxonate-treated rats and Caco-2 cells as a model of human intestinal epithelium. In oxonate-treated rats, significant amounts of externally administered and endogenous uric acid were recovered in the intestinal lumen, while biliary excretion was minimal. Accordingly, direct intestinal secretion was thought to be a substantial contributor to extra-renal elimination of uric acid. Since human efflux transporter BCRP/ABCG2 accepts uric acid as a substrate and genetic polymorphism causing a decrease of BCRP activity is known to be associated with hyperuricemia and gout, the contribution of rBcrp to intestinal secretion was examined. rBcrp was confirmed to transport uric acid in a membrane vesicle study, and intestinal regional differences of expression of rBcrp mRNA were well correlated with uric acid secretory activity into the intestinal lumen. Bcrp1 knockout mice exhibited significantly decreased intestinal secretion and an increased plasma concentration of uric acid. Furthermore, a Bcrp inhibitor, elacridar, caused a decrease of intestinal secretion of uric acid. In Caco-2 cells, uric acid showed a polarized flux from the basolateral to apical side, and this flux was almost abolished in the presence of elacridar. These results demonstrate that BCRP contributes at least in part to the intestinal excretion of uric acid as extra-renal elimination pathway in humans and rats. PMID:22348008

  12. Diagnostic criteria of {sup 99m}Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid captopril renal scan for the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension by unilateral renal artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Jin; Hong, Il Ki; Chang, Jae Won; Park, Su Kil; Moon, Dae Hyuk [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    We compared captopril renal scintigraphic criteria for the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension by unilateral renal artery stenosis. The study group consisted of 24 patients (m/f = 16/8, age: 39{+-}18 years) with unilateral renal artery stenosis who underwent renal artery revascularization and captopril renal scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid between May 1995 and April 2004. The blood pressure response was classified as cure/improvement or failure. We evaluated captopril-induced changes in relative function (BCfun) and renogram grade (0 to 5: 0 = normal, and 5 = renal failure pattern without measurable uptake) (CBren) and the difference of renograms between the normal and stenotic kidney on captopril scan (CNren). Eight of 24 patients were cured and 11 improved and 5 patients were classified as failed revascularization. Significant predictors of a cure or improvement of blood pressure were younger age, stenosis by fibromuscular dysplasia or arteritis, BCfun, CBren and CNren. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of age, BCfun, CBren and CNren were not significantly different. Positive and negative predictive values of predictors were 100% and 42% (age {<=} 38); 92% and 50% (BCfun{>=} 1 %); 92% and 75% (CBren{>=} 1), and 90% and 60% (CNren{>=} 1), respectively. Captopril induced changes in renal function and renogram can reliably predict hypertension response to revascularization. Renogram pattern on captopril scan can diagnose renovascular hypertension without baseline data in patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis.

  13. Carnosic acid attenuates renal injury in an experimental model of rat cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Rentam, Kiran Kumar Reddy; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Kuncha, Madhusudana; Vegi, Ganga Modi Naidu; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2011-12-01

    Nephrotoxicity is one of the serious dose limiting side effects of cisplatin when used in the treatment of various malignant conditions. Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress caused by free radicals and apoptosis of renal cells contributes to the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Present study was aimed to explore the effect of carnosic acid, a potent antioxidant, against cisplatin induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity in rats. A single dose of cisplatin (7.5mg/kg) caused marked renal damage, characterized by a significant (PGSH (reduced glutathione) levels and lowered tissue nitrite, SOD (superoxide dismutase), CAT (catalase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), GR (glutathione reductase) and GST (glutathione S-transferase) levels compared to normal control. Carnosic acid treatment significantly (PGSH-Px, GR and GST compared to cisplatin control. The present study demonstrates that carnosic acid has a protective effect on cisplatin induced experimental nephrotoxicity and is attributed to its potent antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties.

  14. Acute renal failure due to bilateral uric acid lithiasis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mete; Boleken, M Emin; Soran, Mustafa; Kanmaz, Turan; Yücesan, Selçuk

    2007-06-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is one of the complications of urolithiasis, but the role of medical treatment to relieve urinary obstruction in children with ARF is uncertain. We report on infants with acute obstructive uric acid lithiasis. We describe presentation features as well as diagnosis methods and medical treatment in five infants who were admitted to our institution with ARF due to uric acid lithiasis. The medical treatments for all patients were fluid liberalization, urine alkalinization, and oral allopurinol. Two children underwent urinary diversion. Within 8 h, urine output improved in all patients, and the stones passed spontaneously. All obstructed kidneys were relieved with medical treatment, and no renal sequel remained. So this series has showed a role of medical therapy in acute obstructive uric acid lithiasis.

  15. A rapid food screener ranks potential renal acid load of renal stone formers similarly to a diet history questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    Dietary acid load was reported to be inversely related to urinary citrate excretion. The calcium renal stone formers (RSFs) should be recommended to lower their dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) to reduce stone recurrence. Reduction of dietary PRAL also showed a promising role for the prevention of other metabolic diseases. However, clinicians often fail to provide nutritional screening and counseling due to lack of simple tools to obtain a reliable dietary history. A one-page food screener (LAKE score) was recently designed to obtain a reliable measure of dietary PRAL in short time. We report the testing of such an instrument in the evaluation of PRAL: in a population of 135 healthy subjects (60 males, 75 females; age range 18-73), living in the area of Milan, Italy. Each participant received both the one-page LAKE food screener and an extensive 24-h dietary questionnaire. We examined agreement between the LAKE food screener scores, and estimates of PRAL and other nutrients produced by the computerized processing of thorough 24-h dietary histories. Spearman rank order correlation coefficient (r > 0.50) showed that LAKE score ranked subjects quite well with respect to dietary PRAL. LAKE positive subscore ranked patients with respect to dietary intake of total protein (r = 0.642) and phosphate (r = 0.648). We also obtained an excellent correlation of LAKE negative subscore with potassium intake (r = -0.531) and vitamin C (r = -0.554) as estimated by 24 h recalls. The LAKE score ranked patients similar to the estimates of 24-h dietary recalls, used as the "gold standard" for the evaluation of dietary PRAL. This rapid, simple and inexpensive food screener for the evaluation of dietary PRAL could provide a "snapshot" of the diet of the RSFs to allow an immediate feedback to the patient during office consultation.

  16. Renal liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) attenuates acute kidney injury in aristolochic acid nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Katsuomi; Kamijo-Ikemorif, Atsuko; Sugaya, Takeshi; Yasuda, Takashi; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2011-03-01

    Injection of aristolochic acid (AA) in mice causes AA-induced nephrotoxicity, in which oxidative stress contributes to development of tubulointerstitial damage (TID). Liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) is expressed in human proximal tubules and has an endogenous antioxidative function. The renoprotection of renal L-FABP was examined in a model of AA-induced nephrotoxicity. Established human L-FABP (hL-FABP) transgenic (Tg) mice and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with AA for up to 5 days. Mice were sacrificed on days 1, 3, and 5 after the start of AA injection. Although mouse L-FABP was not expressed in proximal tubules of WT mice, hL-FABP was expressed in proximal tubules of Tg mice. The expression of renal hL-FABP was significantly increased in Tg mice administered AA (Tg-AA), compared with the control (saline-treated Tg mice). In WT-AA mice, there was high urinary excretion of N(ε)-(hexanoyl)-lysine, the production of heme oxygenase-1 and receptor for advanced glycation end products increased, and TID was provoked. In contrast, renal hL-FABP in Tg-AA mice suppressed production of N(ε)-(hexanoyl)lysine, heme oxygenase-1, and receptor for advanced glycation end products. Renal dysfunction was significantly milder in Tg-AA mice than in WT-AA mice. The degree of TID was significantly attenuated in Tg-AA mice, compared with WT-AA. In conclusion, renal hL-FABP reduced the oxidative stress in AA-induced nephrotoxicity and attenuated TID.

  17. Nucleic acids within urinary exosomes/microvesicles are potential biomarkers for renal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Kevin C; Daniel T Bond; Mckee, Mary; Skog, Johan; Păunescu, Teodor G.; Da Silva, Nicolas; Brown, Dennis; Russo, Leileata M.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary exosomes or microvesicles are being studied intensively to identify potential new biomarkers for renal disease. We sought to identify whether these microvesicles contain nucleic acids. We isolated microvesicles from human urine in the same density range as that previously described for urinary exosomes and found them to have an RNA integrity profile similar to that of kidney tissue, including 18S and 28S rRNA. This profile was better preserved in urinary microvesicles compared with wh...

  18. Mode of Action: Oxalate Crystal-Induced Renal Tubule Degeneration and Glycolic Acid-Induced Dysmorphogenesis—Renal and Developmental Effects of Ethylene Glycol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Rick A.; Meek, M E.; Carney, E W.

    2005-10-01

    Ethylene glycol can cause both renal and developmental toxicity, with metabolism playing a key role in the mode of action (MOA) for each form of toxicity. Renal toxicity is ascribed to the terminal metabolite oxalic acid, which precipitates in the kidney in the form of calcium oxalate crystals and is believed to cause physical damage to the renal tubules. The human relevance of the renal toxicity of ethylene glycol is indicated by the similarity between animals and humans of metabolic pathways, the observation of renal oxalate crystals in toxicity studies in experimental animals and human poisonings, and cases of human kidney and bladder stones related to dietary oxalates and oxalate precursors. High-dose gavage exposures to ethylene glycol also cause axial skeletal defects in rodents (but not rabbits), with the intermediary metabolite, glycolic acid, identified as the causative agent. However, the mechanism by which glycolic acid perturbs development has not been investigated sufficiently to develop a plausible hypothesis of mode of action, nor have any cases of ethylene glycol-induced developmental effects been reported in humans. Given this, and the variations in sensitivity between animal species in response, the relevance to humans of ethylene glycol-induced developmental toxicity in animals is unknown at this time.

  19. Hypohalous acids contribute to renal extracellular matrix damage in experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kyle L; Darris, Carl; Rose, Kristie Lindsey; Sanchez, Otto A; Madu, Hartman; Avance, Josh; Brooks, Nickolas; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Fogo, Agnes; Harris, Raymond; Hudson, Billy G; Voziyan, Paul

    2015-06-01

    In diabetes, toxic oxidative pathways are triggered by persistent hyperglycemia and contribute to diabetes complications. A major proposed pathogenic mechanism is the accumulation of protein modifications that are called advanced glycation end products. However, other nonenzymatic post-translational modifications may also contribute to pathogenic protein damage in diabetes. We demonstrate that hypohalous acid-derived modifications of renal tissues and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are significantly elevated in experimental diabetic nephropathy. Moreover, diabetic renal ECM shows diminished binding of α1β1 integrin consistent with the modification of collagen IV by hypochlorous (HOCl) and hypobromous acids. Noncollagenous (NC1) hexamers, key connection modules of collagen IV networks, are modified via oxidation and chlorination of tryptophan and bromination of tyrosine residues. Chlorotryptophan, a relatively minor modification, has not been previously found in proteins. In the NC1 hexamers isolated from diabetic kidneys, levels of HOCl-derived oxidized and chlorinated tryptophan residues W(28) and W(192) are significantly elevated compared with nondiabetic controls. Molecular dynamics simulations predicted a more relaxed NC1 hexamer tertiary structure and diminished assembly competence in diabetes; this was confirmed using limited proteolysis and denaturation/refolding. Our results suggest that hypohalous acid-derived modifications of renal ECM, and specifically collagen IV networks, contribute to functional protein damage in diabetes.

  20. Relationship of plasma creatinine and lactic acid in type 2 diabetic patients without renal dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fang; LU Jun-xi; TANG Jun-ling; LI Li; LU Hui-juan; HOU Xu-hong; JIA Wei-ping; XIANG Kun-san

    2009-01-01

    Background As one of most widely-used biguanides,metformin can induce the lactic acidosis in patients with renal failure though its incidence is very low.However,lactic acidemia induced by mefformin was reported in patients without renal dysfunction.It is unclear that whether lactatemia exists in diabetic patients with normal renal function in Chinese or not and its influencing factors.This study aimed to clarify the influencing factors of lactic acid,and identify a practiced clinical marker to predict the hyperlactacidemia in diabetics with normal renal function.Methods The clinical data and venous blood samples of 1024 type 2 diabetic patients treated with(n=426)or without metformin(n=599)were collected.The lactic acid was assayed by enzyme-electrode method.The biochemical indexes included creatinine(Cr)and hepatase were measured with enzymatic procedures.The lactic acid concentrations of different Cr subgroups were compared,and the correlation and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were used.Results The mean lactic acid level and the proportion of hyperlactatemia of metformin group were significantly higher than that of non-metformin group(P<0.01),but no lactic acidosis was found in all patients.The correlation and multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that the correlative factors of lactic acid in turn were Cr,metformin,alanine transferase(ALT),body mass index(BMI),Urine albumin(Ualb),and blood urea nitrogen(BUN)in total patients;and Cr,ALT,BMI and BUN in non-metformin treated patients;Cr and ALT in metformin-group.The lactate concentration increased with the increment of Cr levels,and reached its peak at Cr 111-130 μmol/L,and the optimal cutoff of Cr in predicting hyperlactacidemia was 96.5 μmol/L.Conclusions Metformin can increase the incidence of lactatemia in type 2 diabetic patients without renal dysfunction.Cr,ALT,and BMI are independent associated factors of blood lactic acid levels.There is low proportion of lactatemia in

  1. Renal-protective and ameliorating impacts of omega-3 fatty acids against aspartame damaged MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Veerappan, Muthuviveganandavel; Mistry, Bhupendra; Patel, Rahul; Moon, So Hyun; Nagajyothi, Patnamsetty Chidanandha; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2017-09-07

    Aspartame is widely used artificial sweeteners as food additives. Several researchers have pointed that the controversial report on the use of aspartame over more than decades. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential and unsaturated fatty acids, and it plays a remarkable role in vision, intelligence, neural development, and metabolism of neurotransmitters. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on aspartame treated renal cells. Experimental groups were divided into three such as sham control, aspartame treated, and aspartame with omega-3 fatty acids. Cell viability was determined by sulforhodamine-b assay and flow cytometric analysis. The experimental results showed that the aspartame induced altered cell viability were reduced following treatment of aspartame with omega-3 fatty acids. Altered cell morphology was recovered by omega-3 fatty acids. DNA damage appeared in the highest concentration of aspartame used in this study. DNA damage characteristics such as comet tail and tiny head sections did not appear in the omega-3 fatty acids treated cells. Several microvilli and vesicular structures were found in aspartame treated cells. Altered morphology such as rounding, microvilli, and formation of dome-like structures did not appear in the omega-3 fatty acids with aspartame treated cells. Caspase-3 mRNA and protein expression were increased in aspartame treated cells, and these levels were reduced following omega-3 fatty acids treatment. Taking all these data together, it is suggested that the omega-3 fatty acids may be a therapeutic agent to reduce the aspartame induced biochemical and morphological alterations in normal renal cells. © 2017 BioFactors, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. Primary and secondary genetic responses after folic acid-induced acute renal injury in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, J P; Chadwick, L J

    1994-12-01

    Folic acid-induced acute renal injury results in dramatic changes in gene expression. Among the genes affected by folic acid treatment are the primary response genes, c-fos and c-myc, which are thought to function to initiate cell cycle events. In this report, changes in the expression of three other genes in response to folic acid injury have been investigated: ornithine decarboxylase, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and sulfated glycoprotein-2 (SGP-2). Renal injury was found to cause a rapid decrease in EGF mRNA, which remained absent for several days after the initial injury, gradually returning to normal levels over an approximately 3-wk regeneration and recovery period. Ornithine decarboxylase mRNA showed a similar decrease. In contrast, folic acid caused a rapid increase in SGP-2 mRNA, which peaked several days after treatment, decreasing to normal levels over the 3-wk period. The mRNAs for the primary response genes were superinduced in the injured kidneys in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. In contrast, the changes in EGF and SGP-2 mRNA levels were blocked by cycloheximide, indicating that these responses required new protein synthesis during the first few hours after folic acid injury. The opposite but parallel responses in the expression of the EGF and SGP-2 genes suggest that their regulation is coupled to the initial injury-induced dedifferentiation and subsequent return to the fully differentiated state.

  3. Muscularity and adiposity in addition to net acid excretion as predictors of 24-h urinary pH in young adults and elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, T; Berkemeyer, S; Rylander, R; Vormann, J

    2007-05-01

    In patients with nephrolithiasis, an inverse relationship between 24-h urinary pH (24h-UpH) and body weight has been reported. Whether body composition indices and 24h-UpH are similarly associated in healthy subjects needs investigation. Cross-sectional, retrospective analysis. Dortmund, Germany and Gothenburg, Sweden. Healthy young adults (18-23 years; n=117) and elderly (55-75 years; n=85) having a mean body mass index (BMI) of 22.80+/-3.4 and 25.3+/-3.9 kg/m2, respectively. Anthropometric data, 24h-UpH, and 24-h urinary excretion rates of net acid (NAE), creatinine, and urea were determined. After adjusting for urea (reflecting protein intake), renal creatinine output was used as a biochemical marker for muscularity. The BMI served as a marker of adiposity. NAE, body weight, and BMI were significantly (PUpH (with R2 values of 0.64 and 0.68 in young adults and elderly, respectively, PUpH. Future research should focus on more obese subjects in whom insulin resistance and particular kidney functions should also be examined to further substantiate the role of obesity in low-urine pH-associated conditions, for example, nephrolithiasis.

  4. Effects of chronic lithium administration on renal acid excretion in humans and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I David; Leader, John P; Bedford, Jennifer J; Verlander, Jill W; Ellis, Gaye; Kalita, Priyakshi; Vos, Frederiek; de Jong, Sylvia; Walker, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Lithium therapy's most common side effects affecting the kidney are nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and chronic kidney disease. Lithium may also induce a distal renal tubular acidosis. This study investigated the effect of chronic lithium exposure on renal acid-base homeostasis, with emphasis on ammonia and citrate excretion. We compared 11 individuals on long-term lithium therapy with six healthy individuals. Under basal conditions, lithium-treated individuals excreted significantly more urinary ammonia than did control subjects. Following an acute acid load, urinary ammonia excretion increased approximately twofold above basal rates in both lithium-treated and control humans. There were no significant differences between lithium-treated and control subjects in urinary pH or urinary citrate excretion. To elucidate possible mechanisms, rats were randomized to diets containing lithium or regular diet for 6 months. Similar to humans, basal ammonia excretion was significantly higher in lithium-treated rats; in addition, urinary citrate excretion was also significantly greater. There were no differences in urinary pH. Expression of the critical ammonia transporter, Rhesus C Glycoprotein (Rhcg), was substantially greater in lithium-treated rats than in control rats. We conclude that chronic lithium exposure increases renal ammonia excretion through mechanisms independent of urinary pH and likely to involve increased collecting duct ammonia secretion via the ammonia transporter, Rhcg.

  5. Very Low-Protein Diet (VLPD) Reduces Metabolic Acidosis in Subjects with Chronic Kidney Disease: The "Nutritional Light Signal" of the Renal Acid Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Biagio Raffaele; Di Micco, Lucia; Marzocco, Stefania; De Simone, Emanuele; De Blasio, Antonietta; Sirico, Maria Luisa; Nardone, Luca; On Behalf Of Ubi Study Group

    2017-01-17

    Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease; current guidelines recommend treatment with alkali if bicarbonate levels are lower than 22 mMol/L. In fact, recent studies have shown that an early administration of alkali reduces progression of CKD. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of fruit and vegetables to reduce the acid load in CKD. We conducted a case-control study in 146 patients who received sodium bicarbonate. Of these, 54 patients assumed very low-protein diet (VLPD) and 92 were controls (ratio 1:2). We calculated every three months the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and the net endogenous acid production (NEAP), inversely correlated with serum bicarbonate levels and representing the non-volatile acid load derived from nutrition. Un-paired T-test and Chi-square test were used to assess differences between study groups at baseline and study completion. Two-tailed probability values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. At baseline, there were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), protein and phosphate intake, urinary sodium, potassium, phosphate and urea nitrogen, NEAP, and PRAL. VLPD patients showed at 6 and 12 months a significant reduction of SBP (p acidosis, an important target in the treatment of CKD patients. We provide useful indications regarding acid load of food and drinks-the "acid load dietary traffic light".

  6. Renal graft function and low-dose cyclosporine affect mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetics in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinovis, Monica; Gotti, Eliana; Pradini, Silvia; Gaspari, Flavio; Perico, Norberto

    2011-09-15

    In kidney transplantation, the pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active compound of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), is influenced by concomitant immunosuppressive therapy, including cyclosporine (CsA). However, whether in the setting of immunosuppressive therapy minimization CsA still affects MPA pharmacokinetics, particularly in relation to varying degree of renal graft function deterioration, remains ill defined. One hundred thirty-five complete MPA profiles were sequentially collected from 56 kidney transplant recipients given MMF and low-dose CsA as part of their immunosuppressive therapy. MPA pharmacokinetic parameters were correlated with blood CsA area under the curve (AUC0-12) and graft function as measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The relative contribution of CsA exposure and GFR to MPA kinetics in relation to other clinical parameters was determined by multivariate analysis. Dose-adjusted MPA AUC0-12 negatively correlated with CsA AUC0-12. MPA exposure significantly increased when CsA AUC0-12 was below 2000 ng hr/mL. Stratification of MPA profiles according to stages of renal dysfunction showed that dose-adjusted MPA AUC0-12 was higher (Prenal insufficiency. At multivariate analysis GFR, serum albumin and hemoglobin levels, use of gastroprotective medications, and time posttransplant were identified as independent determinants of MPA AUC0-12. In stable renal transplant recipients given MMF, tapering CsA dose and deterioration of renal graft function contribute to increased MPA exposure. Thus, monitoring plasma MPA pharmacokinetics should be advised, especially in patients on minimized CsA therapy with severe renal insufficiency.

  7. [Oleanolic acid synergizes with cyclosporine A to prolong renal allograft survival in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Liao, Wenting; Li, Jianjun; Jiang, Hongtao; Zhou, Hao; Long, Jianhua; Qin, Guoqing; Wang, Yi

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the synergistic effect of oleanolic acid (OA) and cyclosporine A (CsA) on the survival of renal allografts in rats. Renal allograft transplantation was performed using BN rats as donors and LEW rats as recipients. Forty male LEW rats were randomized into 4 equal groups for interventions with DMSO-PBS (control), OA, CsA, or CsA+OA, starting from 1 day before transplantation. Serum creatinine levels were regularly examined, and the survival of rats were recorded. On day 5 after transplantation, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell infiltration in the renal grafts was analyzed by immunohistochemistry; the concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-17), anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and chemokines (IP-10, MCP-1, MIP, and Mig) were analyzed with Luminex; the T-cell phenotypes (IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-4, and IL-17) were analyzed using ELISpot. In OA+CsA group, renal allograft survival was markedly prolonged and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell infiltration in the graft significantly decreased as compared to other groups. A significant decrease in IL-2 was observed in OA group and OA+CsA group, especially the latter. Compared with the control group, all the 3 treated groups showed significantly decreased IL-1β, IP-10 and MCP-1, increased IL-10 levels, decreased percentages of T cells secreting IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17, and increased percentage of T cells secreting IL-10. The increments of serum IL-10 level and T cell percentage were more prominent in OA+CsA group than in the other two intervention groups. OA and CsA synergistically ameliorate renal graft rejection and inflammation and promote allograft survival and function in rats.

  8. Effect of a reduction in uric acid on renal outcomes during losartan treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Yan; Ottenbros, Stefan A; Laverman, Goos D

    2011-01-01

    Emerging data show that increased serum uric acid (SUA) concentration is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease. Treatment with the antihypertensive drug losartan lowers SUA. Whether reductions in SUA during losartan therapy are associated with renoprotection is unclear. We...... of renal events was decreased by 6% (95% CI: 10% to 3%) per 0.5-mg/dL decrement in SUA during the first 6 months. This effect was independent of other risk markers, including estimate glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria. Adjustment of the overall treatment effects for SUA attenuated losartan......'s renoprotective effect from 22% (95% CI: 6% to 35%) to 17% (95% CI: 1% to 31%), suggesting that approximately one fifth of losartan's renoprotective effect could be attributed to its effect on SUA. Losartan lowers SUA levels compared with placebo treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nephropathy...

  9. [Correlation between serum uric acid level and acute renal injury after coronary artery bypass grafting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D Q; Du, J; Zheng, Z; Tang, Y; Zou, L; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, H T

    2017-07-11

    Objective: To evaluate whether early postoperative serum uric acid level can predict postoperative acute renal injury (AKI) among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: The study retrospectively enrolled 1 306 patients undergoing CABG in Fuwai Hospital between September 2012 and December 2013. The patients were divided into 5 groups by the concentrations of serum uric acid measured on the morning of the first postoperative day, and uric acid categories were as follow: less than 195 μmol/L (Q1 group, 262 cases), 195-236 μmol/L (Q2 group, 263 cases), 237-280 μmol/L (Q3 group, 260 cases), 281-336 μmol/L (Q4 group, 261 cases), more than 336 μmol/L (Q5 group, 260 cases). The primary end points were AKI (RIFLE criteria), severe AKI (AKI≥stage Ⅰ), postoperative continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) requirement, in-hospital death, length of stay in hospital and intensive care unit(ICU). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to determine the ability of the early postoperative serum uric acid level as a risk factor for postoperative AKI prediction. Results: Among the 1 306 patients enrolled in the study, AKI was found in 335 patients (25.65%). After adjusting for variables that were different between the 5 groups, the Q5 group had significantly higher risk of AKI, AKI≥ stage Ⅰ and the requirement of CRRT (Puric acid levels alone were used (both Puric acid was a better predictor than serum creatinine(Puric acid concentration within 12 hours after operation is an independent predictor of postoperative AKI in patients undergoing CABG, which could be used to identify patients at high risk for AKI.

  10. [The role of arachidonic acid metabolites in the regulation of renal function and pathogenesis of hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certíková Chábová, V

    2008-01-01

    Eicosanoids are twenty-carbon compounds derived from arachidonic acid. Lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases and cytochrome P-450 enzymes contribute to their synthesis. Our review is focused on prostaglandins, leucotrienes, lipoxins, hepoxilins, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Most of these compounds have multiple functions and they also participate in blood pressure regulation and excretion of water and solutes in the kidney. They have some roles in the patogenesis of kidney disease, too. Both experimental models (mainly geneticaly modified mice and rats) and human epidemiological and genetical studies are used in the investigation of eicosanoid physiological and patophysiological functions. New information about their enzymatic regulations and receptors have already resulted in the development of new drugs, mainly antiasthmatics, but further investigation should bring about new results in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular and renal diseases.

  11. The effect of erythropoietin on serum uric acid levels during renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsompos, Constantinos; Panoulis, Constantinos; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Zografos, George; Papalois, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this experimental study was to assess the effect of erythropoietin on a rat model, particularly under a renal ischemia reperfusion protocol. The beneficial or lack of effects of that molecule on the excreted renal product of serum uric acid were studied biochemically. Material and methods: Forty rats were used with a mean weight of 247.7 gr. Serum uric acid levels were measured measured at 60 min after reperfusion (Groups A and C) and at 120 min after reperfusion (groups B and D). Results: 1) Erythropoietin administration non-significantly decreased the serum uric acid levels non-significantly by 0.02 mg/dL [−0.2415423 mg/dL-0.2015423 mg/dL] (p=0.8560), in accordance with the paired t-test (p=0.8438). Reperfusion time non-significantly increased the serum uric acid levels non-significantly by 0.17 mg/dL [−0.0444933 mg/dL-0.3844933 mg/dL] (p=0.1169), in accordance with the paired t-test (p=0.1648). 3) The interaction of erythropoietin administration and reperfusion time non-significantly increased the serum uric acid levels non-significantly by 0.1 mg/dL [−0.0295564 mg/dL-0.2295564 mg/dL] (p=0.1264). Conclusion: Erythropoietin administration, reperfusion time and their interaction have no significant short-term alterations on serum uric acid levels. Conclusions cannot be extracted by non-significant p-values within 2 hours. Obviously, longer study times may permit safer results. PMID:26328161

  12. Nucleic acids within urinary exosomes/microvesicles are potential biomarkers for renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Kevin C; Bond, Daniel T; McKee, Mary; Skog, Johan; Păunescu, Teodor G; Da Silva, Nicolas; Brown, Dennis; Russo, Leileata M

    2010-07-01

    Urinary exosomes or microvesicles are being studied intensively to identify potential new biomarkers for renal disease. We sought to identify whether these microvesicles contain nucleic acids. We isolated microvesicles from human urine in the same density range as that previously described for urinary exosomes and found them to have an RNA integrity profile similar to that of kidney tissue, including 18S and 28S rRNA. This profile was better preserved in urinary microvesicles compared with whole cells isolated from urine, suggesting that microvesicles may protect RNA during urine passage. We were able to detect mRNA in the human urinary microvesicles encoding proteins from all regions of the nephron and the collecting duct. Further, to provide a proof of principle, we found that microvesicles isolated from the urine of the V-ATPase B1 subunit knockout mice lacked mRNA of this subunit while containing a normal amount of the B2 subunit and aquaporin 2. The microvesicles were found to be contaminated with extraneous DNA potentially on their surface; therefore, we developed a rapid and reliable means to isolate nucleic acids from within urine microvesicles devoid of this extraneous contamination. Our study provides an experimental strategy for the routine isolation and use of urinary microvesicles as a novel and non-invasive source of nucleic acids to further renal disease biomarker discovery.

  13. Uric acid versus non-uric acid renal stones: in vivo differentiation with spectral CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, F; Bonatti, M; Zamboni, G A; Avesani, G; Oberhofer, N; Bonelli, M; Pycha, A; Pozzi Mucelli, R; Bonatti, G

    2017-06-01

    To differentiate uric acid from non-uric acid renal stones based on their spectral attenuation values. The present study was approved by the institutional review board and the need for informed consent was waived. Thirty-three consecutive patients (21 men, 12 women; mean age 55 years) with symptomatic urolithiasis underwent dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) using a second-generation dual-source CT system. Stone composition was assessed by means of chemical analysis after extraction or spontaneous expulsion. The composition of one stone was considered to represent all remaining stones in patients presenting with more than one stone. Image-domain virtual monoenergetic images were generated from the dual-energy datasets. One radiologist evaluated stone attenuation values from 40 to 190 keV; attenuation curves were created and 40/190 keV attenuation ratios calculated. Qualitative evaluation of the spectral attenuation curves was also performed. Imaging findings were compared with laboratory results. Sixty-two stones were considered in 33 patients (mean diameter 6.5 mm). Fifteen of the 62 stones were mainly composed of uric acid and 47/62 of cysteine or calcium oxalates/phosphates. Forty to 190 keV attenuation ratios were significantly lower for uric acid stones (mean 0.87±0.3) than for non-uric acid stones (mean 3.80±0.6; puric acid and non-uric acid stones. Spectral CT quantitatively and qualitatively differentiates uric acid from non-uric acid stones. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of uric acid on mitochondrial oxidative damage and apoptosis in human renal tubular epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of uric acid(UA)on mitochondrial oxidative damage and apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells(HK-2),and investigate the possible mechanism.Methods HK-2 cells were exposed to UA(480μmol/L,720μmol/L)for different time(0 h,24 h,48 h)in vitro.The mitochondrial ROS production was detected by Mito SOX staining.The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by JC-1 staining.The expressions of prohibitin and AIF were examined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence cytochemistry.

  15. Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Attenuates Renal Tubular Injury in a Mouse Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Renal tubular injury is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is involved in diabetic nephropathy. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA is an effective inhibitor of ER stress. Here, we investigated the role of TUDCA in the progression of tubular injury in DN. For eight weeks, being treated with TUDCA at 250 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection (i.p. twice a day, diabetic db/db mice had significantly reduced blood glucose, albuminuria and attenuated renal histopathology. These changes were associated with a significant decreased expression of ER stress markers. At the same time, diabetic db/db mice had more TUNEL-positive nuclei in the renal tubule, which were attenuated by TUDCA treatment, along with decreases in ER stress–associated apoptotic markers in the kidneys. In summary, the effect of TUDCA on tubular injury, in part, is associated with inhibition of ER stress in the kidneys of diabetic db/db mice. TUDCA shows potential as a therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of DN.

  16. Urinary l-type fatty acid-binding protein is a predictor of early renal function after partial nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanishi, Masaaki; Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Mishima, Takao; Taniguchi, Hisanori; Yoshida, Kenji; Komai, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Kaneki; Watanabe, Masato; Sugi, Motohiko; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2017-11-01

    Urinary biomarkers of renal injury urinary may identify loss of renal function following nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). This study was designed to evaluate whether urinary l-type fatty acid-binding protein (l-FABP) is an early biomarker of loss of renal function after NSS. Specifically, the kinetics of urinary l-FABP level after NSS and its correlation with factors related to ischemic renal injury were analyzed. This study prospectively evaluated 18 patients who underwent NSS between July and December 2014, including 12 who underwent laparoscopic and six who underwent robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. Urinary l-FABP concentrations were measured preoperatively and 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after renal artery declamping. Loss of renal function loss was calculated by comparing the effective renal plasma flow, as determined by (99m)Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) clearance, on the operated and normal sides. The decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate from before surgery to six months after surgery was also measured. Urinary l-FABP concentration peaked within 2 h of declamping, which may quantify nephron damage caused by ischemia. The decrease in MAG3 reduction ratio correlated with both the ischemia time and peak urinary l-FABP concentration. Peak urinary l-FABP concentration showed a significant correlation with MAG3 reduction ratio. l-FABP is a suitable urinary biomarker for predicting the extent of ischemic renal injury.

  17. A Modified method for reducing renal injury in zoledronic acid treatment of hypercalcemia and adverse skeletal events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this paper, we have reported a previously undescribed risk factor of deterioration of renal function in zoledronic acid treatment of skeletal metastasis - high serum calcium level. Based on this consideration, a modified method of treatment of hypercalcemia (HCM with zoledronic acid is suggested in this paper. Material and Methods: Bone scan findings of 1090 cancer patients were analyzed, of which 26 had intense renal parenchymal uptake as a result of HCM or bone metastases. Subsequently, a total of 56 bone metastases patients with zoledronic acid treatment were divided into three groups: HCM group who were pre-treated to normal serum calcium level (13 patients, HCM group (19 patients, and normal serum calcium group (24 patients. Results: More patients with intense renal parenchymal uptake were hyperglycemic, statistically significantly (18/26 versus 19/1064, P = 2.1, E-78. No more patients with intense renal parenchymal uptake were associated with bone metastases (14/26 versus 438/1064, P = 0.20. Subsequently, more HCM patients receiving zoledronic acid treatment showed renal injury compared to patients with normal serum calcium level (5/15 versus 2/24, P < 0.05 and HCM patients with pre-treatment to normal serum calcium level (5/15 versus 1/17, P < 0.05. Conclusions: Intense renal parenchymal uptake of bisphosphonates is closely related to HCM rather than to bone metastases in cancer patients. The serum calcium should be measured and reduced to normal level before zoledronic acid is used in managements of adverse skeletal events in order to decrease the risk of renal injury.

  18. Performance of a passive treatment system for net-acidic coal mine drainage over five years of operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Romy; Aplin, Andrew C; Jarvis, Adam P

    2010-09-15

    A full-scale passive treatment system (PTS) was commissioned in 2003 to treat two net-acidic coal mine water discharges in the Durham coalfield, UK. The principal aim of the PTS was to decrease concentrations of iron (3.2) and alkalinity (> or =0 mg L(-1) CaCO(3) eq). Secondary objectives were to decrease zinc (effects, acidity removal and effluent pH were stable over time. A substantial temporal decrease in calcium and alkalinity generation suggests that limestone is increasingly armoured. Once pH is no longer buffered by the carbonate system, metals could be remobilized, putting treatment efficiency at risk. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro effects of Panax ginseng in aristolochic acid-mediated renal tubulotoxicity: apoptosis versus regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunel, Valérian; Antoine, Marie-Hélène; Nortier, Joëlle; Duez, Pierre; Stévigny, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    This in vitro study aimed to determine the effects of a Panax ginseng extract on aristolochic acid-mediated toxicity in HK-2 cells. A methanolic extract of ginseng (50 µg/mL) was able to reduce cell survival after treatment with 50 µM aristolochic acid for 24, 48, and 72 h, as evidenced by a resazurin reduction assay. This result was confirmed by a flow cytometric evaluation of apoptosis using annexin V-PI staining, and indicated higher apoptosis rates in cells treated with aristolochic acid and P. ginseng extract compared with aristolochic acid alone. However, P. ginseng extract by itself (5 and 50 µg/mL) increased the Ki-67 index, indicating an enhancement in cellular proliferation. Cell cycle analysis excluded a P. ginseng extract-mediated induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest such as the one typically observed with aristolochic acid. Finally, β-catenin acquisition was found to be accelerated when cells were treated with both doses of ginseng, suggesting that the epithelial phenotype of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells was maintained. Also, ginseng treatment (5 and 50 µg/mL) reduced the oxidative stress activity induced by aristolochic acid after 24 and 48 h. These results indicate that the ginseng extract has a protective activity towards the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species induced by aristolochic acid. However, the ginseng-mediated alleviation of oxidative stress did not correlate with a decrease but rather with an increase in aristolochic acid-induced apoptosis and death. This deleterious herb-herb interaction could worsen aristolochic acid tubulotoxicity and reinforce the severity and duration of the injury. Nevertheless, increased cellular proliferation and migration, along with the improvement in the epithelial phenotype maintenance, indicate that ginseng could be useful for improving tubular regeneration and the recovery following drug-induced kidney injury. Such dual activities of ginseng certainly warrant further in vivo

  20. Cerebral net exchange of large neutral amino acids after lipopolysaccharide infusion in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan Mg; Taudorf, Sarah; Bailey, Damian M;

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in circulating large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), leading to a decrease in the plasma ratio between branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAA/AAA ratio), may be involved in sepsis-associated encephalopathy. We hypothesised that a decrease in the BCAA/AAA ratio occurs along with a ...

  1. Cerebral net exchange of large neutral amino acids after lipopolysaccharide infusion in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in circulating large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), leading to a decrease in the plasma ratio between branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAA/AAA ratio), may be involved in sepsis-associated encephalopathy. We hypothesised that a decrease in the BCAA/AAA ratio occurs along...

  2. Uric Acid Induces Renal Inflammation via Activating Tubular NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Fang, Li; Jiang, Lei; Wen, Ping; Cao, Hongdi; He, Weichun; Dai, Chunsun; Yang, Junwei

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a pathologic feature of hyperuricemia in clinical settings. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, infiltration of T cells and macrophages were significantly increased in hyperuricemia mice kidneys. This infiltration of inflammatory cells was accompanied by an up-regulation of TNF-α, MCP-1 and RANTES expression. Further, infiltration was largely located in tubular interstitial spaces, suggesting a role for tubular cells in hyperuricemia-induced inflammation. In cultured tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E), uric acid, probably transported via urate transporter, induced TNF-α, MCP-1 and RANTES mRNA as well as RANTES protein expression. Culture media of NRK-52E cells incubated with uric acid showed a chemo-attractive ability to recruit macrophage. Moreover uric acid activated NF-κB signaling. The uric acid-induced up-regulation of RANTES was blocked by SN 50, a specific NF-κB inhibitor. Activation of NF-κB signaling was also observed in tubule of hyperuricemia mice. These results suggest that uric acid induces renal inflammation via activation of NF-κB signaling. PMID:22761883

  3. Modeled dosage-response relationship on the net photosynthetic rate for the sensitivity to acid rain of 21 plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shihuai; Gou, Shuzhen; Sun, Baiye; Lv, Wenlin; Li, Yuanwei; Peng, Hong; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Yingjun

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the sensitivity of plant species to acid rain based on the modeled dosage-response relationship on the net photosynthetic rate (P (N)) of 21 types of plant species, subjected to the exposure of simulated acid rain (SAR) for 5 times during a period of 50 days. Variable responses of P (N) to SAR occurred depending on the type of plant. A majority (13 species) of the dosage-response relationship could be described by an S-shaped curve and be fitted with the Boltzmann model. Model fitting allowed quantitative evaluation of the dosage-response relationship and an accurate estimation of the EC(10), termed as the pH of the acid rain resulting in a P (N) 10 % lower than the reference value. The top 9 species (Camellia sasanqua, Cinnamomum camphora, etc. EC(10) ≤ 3.0) are highly endurable to very acid rain. The rare, relict plant Metasequoia glyptostroboides was the most sensitive species (EC(10) = 5.1) recommended for protection.

  4. Renoprotective effect of renal liver-type fatty acid binding protein and angiotensin II type 1a receptor loss in renal injury caused by RAS activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kamijo-Ikemori, Atsuko; Sugaya, Takeshi; Shibagaki, Yugo; Yasuda, Takashi; Katayama, Kimie; Hoshino, Seiko; Igarashi-Migitaka, Junko; Hirata, Kazuaki; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2014-03-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the renoprotective effect of renal human liver-type fatty acid binding protein (hL-FABP) and angiotensin II (ANG II) type 1A receptor (AT1a) loss in renal injury caused by renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation. We established hL-FABP chromosomal transgenic mice (L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/+)), crossed the L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/+) with AT1a knockdown homo mice (L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(-/-)), and generated L-FABP(+/-)AT1a hetero mice (L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/-)). After the back-cross of these cubs, L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(-/-) were obtained. To activate the renal RAS, wild-type mice (L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/+)), L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/+), L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/-), L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/-), L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(-/-), and L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(-/-) were administered high-dose systemic ANG II infusion plus a high-salt diet for 28 days. In the L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/+), RAS activation (L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/+)RAS) caused hypertension and tubulointerstitial damage. In the L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/+)RAS, tubulointerstitial damage was significantly attenuated compared with L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/+)RAS. In the AT1a partial knockout (AT1a(+/-)) or complete knockout (AT1a(-/-)) mice, reduction of AT1a expression led to a significantly lower degree of renal injury compared with L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/+)RAS or L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/+)RAS mice. Renal injury in L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(+/-)RAS mice was significantly attenuated compared with L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(+/-)RAS mice. In both L-FABP(-/-)AT1a(-/-)RAS and L-FABP(+/-)AT1a(-/-)RAS mice, renal damage was rarely found. The degrees of renal hL-FABP expression and urinary hL-FABP levels increased by RAS activation and gradually decreased along with reduction of AT1a expression levels. In conclusion, in this mouse model, renal hL-FABP expression and a decrease in AT1a expression attenuated tubulointerstitial damage due to RAS activation.

  5. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation on Renal Phenotype and Epigenotype in Early Weanling Intrauterine Growth Retarded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaori He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the responses of p53 promoter methylation involved in kidney structure and function of early weaning intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR rats to dietary folic acid supplementation. Method: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 21% protein diet (normal feed or 10% protein diet throughout pregnancy and normal feed during lactation. After weaning, Offspring were then fed onto normal feed and normal feed supplemented with 5 mg folic acid/kg feed for a month, this produced 4 dietary groups (maternal diet/ weanling diet: Con, Folic, IUGR and IUGR+Folic. Renal function, renal structure, p53 promoter methylation and protein expression of offspring rats were measured at postnatal 2 months and 3 months. Results: Glomerular volume, blood urea nitrogen, 24 hours urine protein were significantly elevated in IUGR rats compared with Con rats but were decreased by dietary folic acid supplementation. p53 protein expression in IUGR rats were significantly higher than that in Con rats, and p53 promoter methylation status in IUGR rats was reduced significantly compared with Con rats. However, the changes in p53 gene expression and DNA methylation status of IUGR rats were reversed by dietary folic acid supplementation. Conclusions: Our study showed for the first time that folic acid supplementation during early period of life could reverse the abnormality in renal p53 methylation status and protein expression, glomerular volume and renal function of IUGR rats offspring.

  6. Induction of cell death by ascorbic acid derivatives in human renal carcinoma and glioblastoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Y; Sakagami, H; Takeda, M

    1999-01-01

    Sodium-L-ascorbate, L-ascorbic acid, D-isoascorbic acid, sodium 5,6-benzylidene-L-ascorbate and sodium-6-beta-O-galactosyl-L-ascorbate, which produce ascorbyl radicals during the oxidative degradation, also induced cytotoxicity against cultured human renal carcinoma (TC-1) and glioblastoma multiform tumor (T98G) cell lines. On the other hand, L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate magnesium and L-ascorbic acid 2-sulfate dipotassium salt, which do not produce the ascorbyl radical, were inactive. This suggests the possible role of the ascorbyl radical for cell death induction. T98G cells were more resistant to ascorbate analogs than TC-1 and HL-60 cells, possibly due to higher intracellular glutathione concentrations. Ascorbate treatment induced rapid elevation of both intracellular concentration of cAMP and Ca2+ in HL-60 cells, but not in TC-1 and T98G cells. However, the elevation of cAMP by theophyline and N,2-dibutyryl adenosine 3,5 cyclic monophosphate (dibutyryl cAMP) resulted in a decrease in the viable cell number. This suggests the possible role of cAMP for ascorbate-induced cell death.

  7. Whole-body acid-base modeling revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Troels; Nielsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The textbook account of whole-body acid-base balance in terms of endogenous acid production, renal net acid excretion and gastrointestinal alkali absorption which is the only comprehensive model around, has never been applied in clinical practice or been formally validated. In order to improve...... understanding of acid-base modeling, we managed to write up this conventional model as an expression solely on urine chemistry. Renal net acid excretion and endogenous acid production was already formulated in terms of urine chemistry, and we could from the literature also see gastrointestinal alkali absorption...

  8. Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-(U-{sup 14}C)malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification.

  9. Renal neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Lane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are uncommon tumors that exhibit a wide range of neuroendocrine differentiation and biological behavior. Primary NETs of the kidney, including carcinoid tumor, small cell carcinoma (SCC, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC are exceedingly rare. Materials and Methods: The clinicopathologic features of renal NETs diagnosed at a single institution were reviewed along with all reported cases in the worldwide literature. Results: Eighty renal NETs have been described, including nine from our institution. Differentiation between renal NETs and the more common renal neoplasms (renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma can be difficult since clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features overlap. Immunohistochemical staining for neuroendocrine markers, such as synaptophysin and chromogranin, can be particularly helpful in this regard. Renal carcinoids are typically slow-growing, may secrete hormones, and pursue a variable clinical course. In contrast, SCC and LCNEC often present with locally advanced or metastatic disease and carry a poor prognosis. Nephrectomy can be curative for clinically localized NETs, but multimodality treatment is indicated for advanced disease. Conclusions: A spectrum of NETs can rarely occur in the kidney. Renal carcinoids have a variable clinical course; SCC and LCNEC are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Diagnosis of NETs, especially LCNEC, requires awareness of their rare occurrence and prudent use of immunohistochemical neuroendocrine markers.

  10. Net Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊; 吴哲辉

    1992-01-01

    Two kinds of net operations.addition and Cartesian production of P/T nets,are introduced.They are defined on the set of underlying net of P/T systems.The conditions for preserving structural properties of Petri net after these operations are discussed.It is shown that the set of P/T nets forms and Abelian group for net addition operation and the inverse net of a P/T net in usual meaning of net theory is exactly the inverse of this P/T net as an element of the P/T net group;and that the set of P/T nets forms an Abelian ring for net addition and Caresian product operations.

  11. Contribution of the net charge to the regulatory effects of amino acids and epsilon-poly(L-lysine) on the gelatinization behavior of potato starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Azusa; Hattori, Makoto; Yoshida, Tadashi; Takahashi, Koji

    2006-01-01

    The effects of lysine (Lys), monosodium glutamate (GluNa), glycine, alanine and epsilon-poly(L-lysine) (PL) with different degrees of polymerization on the gelatinization behavior of potato starch granules were investigated by DSC, viscosity and swelling measurements, microscopic observation, and measurement of the retained amino acid amount to clarify the contribution of the net charge to their regulatory effects on the gelatinization behavior. The amino acids and PL each contributed to an increase in the gelatinization temperature, and a decrease in the peak viscosity and swelling. These effects strongly depended on the absolute value of their net charge. The disappearance of a negative or positive net charge by adjusting the pH value weakened the contribution. The swelling index and size of the potato starch granules changed according to replacement of the swelling medium. The amino acids and PL were easily retained by the swollen potato starch granules according to replacement of the outer solution of the starch granules.

  12. Estimated net acid excretion inversely correlates with urine pH in vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, and omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, Lynne M; Oliver, Lauren M; Goldin, Barry R; Woods, Margo N; Gorbach, Sherwood L; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2008-09-01

    Diet affects urine pH and acid-base balance. Both excess acid/alkaline ash (EAA) and estimated net acid excretion (NAE) calculations have been used to estimate the effects of diet on urine pH. This study's goal was to determine if free-living vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, and omnivores have increasingly acidic urine, and to assess the ability of EAA and estimated NAE calculations to predict urine pH. This study used a cross-sectional design. This study assessed urine samples of 10 vegan, 16 lacto-ovo vegetarian, and 16 healthy omnivorous women in the Boston metropolitan area. Six 3-day food records from each dietary group were analyzed for EAA content and estimated NAE, and correlations with measured urine pH were calculated. The mean (+/- SD) urine pH was 6.15 +/- 0.40 for vegans, 5.90 +/- 0.36 for lacto-ovo vegetarians, and 5.74 +/- 0.21 for omnivores (analysis of variance, P = .013). Calculated EAA values were not significantly different among the three groups, whereas mean estimated NAE values were significantly different: 17.3 +/- 14.5 mEq/day for vegans, 31.3 +/- 8.5 mEq/day for lacto-ovo vegetarians, and 42.6 +/- 13.2 mEq/day for omnivores (analysis of variance, P = .01). The average deattenuated correlation between urine pH and EAA was 0.333; this value was -0.768 for estimated NAE and urine pH, with a regression equation of pH = 6.33 - 0.014 NAE (P = .02, r = -0.54). Habitual diet and estimated NAE calculations indicate the probable ranking of urine pH by dietary groups, and may be used to determine the likely acid-base status of an individual; EAA calculations were not predictive of urine pH.

  13. Population pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid : a comparison between enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium and mycophenolate mofetil in renal transplant recipients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, BC de; Gelder, T van; Glander, P.; Cattaneo, D.; Tedesco-Silva, H.; Neumann, I.; Hilbrands, L.B.; Hest, RM van; Pescovitz, M.D.; Budde, K.; Mathot, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid (MPA) were compared in renal transplant patients receiving either mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS). METHODS: MPA concentration-time profiles were included from EC-MPS- (n = 208) and MMF-treated (n = 184)

  14. The epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog PVPA ameliorates cyclosporine-induced hypertension and renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Michael M; Hye Khan, Md Abdul; Chesnik, Marla A; Sharma, Amit; Paudyal, Mahesh P; Falck, John R; Imig, John D

    2016-09-01

    The introduction of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) into clinical practice in the late 1970s transformed organ transplantation and led to significant improvement in acute rejection episodes. However, despite their significant clinical utility, the use of these agents is hampered by the development of hypertension and nephrotoxicity, which ultimately lead to end-stage kidney disease and overt cardiovascular outcomes. There are currently no effective agents to treat or prevent these complications. Importantly, CNI-free immunosuppressive regimens lack the overall efficacy of CNI-based treatments and put patients at risk of allograft rejection. Cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), have potent vasodilator and antihypertensive properties in addition to many cytoprotective effects, but their effects on CNI-induced nephrotoxicity have not been explored. Here, we show that PVPA, a novel, orally active analog of 14,15-EET, effectively prevents the development of hypertension and ameliorates kidney injury in cyclosporine-treated rats. PVPA treatment reduced proteinuria and renal dysfunction induced by cyclosporine. PVPA inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration into the kidney and decreased renal fibrosis. PVPA also reduced tubular epithelial cell apoptosis, attenuated the generation of reactive oxygen species, and modulated the unfolded protein response that is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress. Consistent with the in vivo data, PVPA attenuated cyclosporine-induced apoptosis of NRK-52E cells in vitro. These data indicate that the cytochrome P-450/EET system offers a novel therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent CNI-induced nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Retrospective study of melamine/cyanuric acid-induced renal failure in dogs in Korea between 2003 and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yhee, J-Y; Brown, C A; Yu, C-H; Kim, J-H; Poppenga, R; Sur, J-H

    2009-03-01

    In early 2007, American pet food ingredients leading to nephrotoxic renal failure of dogs and cats raised serious concerns about the safety of pet foods. Major pet food companies recalled more than 1,000 commercial pet foods in consideration of pet safety. A similar pet food-associated outbreak of nephrotoxic renal failure occurred in Asia, in late 2003 and 2004, resulting in a similar extensive pet food recall. At that time, contamination of ingredients with a nephrotoxin-producing fungus at a pet food production facility was suspected. However, toxicologic evidence to substantiate a mycotoxicosis was lacking. Moreover, the renal lesions were not typical of those reported with fungal nephrotoxins. During 2003 and 2004, 14 dogs were presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea, with renal failure and distinctive renal pathologic findings. Grossly, the kidneys were greenish in color with greenish uroliths in the renal pelvis or bladder. Histologically, characteristic crystals with pinwheel radiating striations were present in distal tubular segments. Toxicologic analysis identified melamine, cyanuric acid, and ammelide in deparaffinized formalin-fixed kidney samples.

  16. Urinary d-lactate levels reflect renal function in aristolochic acid-induced nephropathy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Chen, Shih-Ming; Li, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Jen-Ai

    2013-09-01

    Urinary d-lactate is highly correlated to diabetic nephropathy - a progressive kidney disease in renal glomeruli. In this study, we used a C3H/3e mouse model to investigate the relationship between urinary d-lactate and aristolochic acid nephropathy where the glomerular structure is not affected. The nephropathy was induced using intravenous injections of aristolochic acid at a dosage of 10 mg/kg per day for 5 days and was characterized biochemically and histologically. The urinary excretions of proteins, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and serum creatinine were determined and connected to histological conventional findings. Urinary d-lactate was analyzed using column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The results showed a remarkable increase of urinary markers, including of urinary proteins and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, and the histological examination confirmed a diagnosis of acute tubule necrosis. The ratio of d-lactate to creatinine in the urine of aristolochic acid-treated mice was approximately 36 times greater than that of the mice in the control group (p nephropathy.

  17. Renal excretion of vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid in rats with paw edema or adjuvant arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, E; Horn, M

    1982-01-01

    1. Urinary excretion of unconjugated vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) was found to be decreased in adjuvant arthritic rats. The decrease is apparently not due to impaired animal activity, but it could be explained by the reduction of catecholamine biosynthesis and/or release induced by E prostaglandins the biosynthesis of which is increased in the inflammation. It could also be caused by an increased "consumption" of catecholamines during prostaglandin biosynthesis. 2. Both the reduction of biosynthesis or release and an increased "consumption" of catecholamines would mean that inflammation is characterized by deficiency of the anti-inflammatory catecholamines. 3. The investigations failed to demonstrate an adequate decrease of the urinary excretion of VMA and HVA in rats with edemas induced by carrageenin, serotonin, formaline, silver nitrate, kaolin, dextran and baker's yeast, respectively. The experiments should be repeated with other catecholamine metabolites.

  18. Extracellular ascorbic acid fluctuation during the protective process of ischemic preconditioning in rabbit renal ischemia-reperfusion model measured

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; LIN Yu-qing; YAN Long-tao; HONG Kai; HOU Xiao-fei; MAO Lan-qun; MA Lu-lin

    2010-01-01

    Background Ascorbic acid has important antioxidant properties, and may play a role in the protective effects of ischemic preconditioning on later ischemia-reperfusion. Herein, we examined the role of endogenous extracellular ascorbic acid in ischemic preconditioning in the kidney.Methods We developed a solitary rabbit kidney model where animals received ischemia-reperfusion only (ischemia-reperfusion group, n=15) or ischemic preconditioning followed by ischemia-reperfusion (ischemic preconditioning group, n=15). Ischemia-reperfusion was induced by occluding and loosening of the renal pedicle. The process of ischemic preconditioning included 15-minute brief ischemia and 10-minute reperfusion. In vivo microdialysis coupled with online electrochemical detection was used to determine levels of endogenous extracellular ascorbic acid in both groups. The extent of tissue damage was determined in kidney sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were also detected to assess renal function.Results During ischemia-reperfusion, the extracellular ascorbic acid concentration during ischemia increased rapidly to the peak level ((130.01 ±9.98)%), and then decreased slowly to near basal levels. Similar changes were observed during reperfusion (peak level, (126.78±18.24)%). In the ischemic preconditioning group there was a similar pattern of extracellular ascorbic acid concentration during ischemic preconditioning. However, the ascorbic acid level was significantly lower during the ischemia and early reperfusion stage compared to the ischemia-reperfusion group. Additionally, the extent of glomerular ischemic collapse, tubular dilation, tubular denudation, and loss of brush border were markedly attenuated in the ischemic preconditioning group. Levels of serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were also decreased significantly in the ischemic preconditioning group.Conclusions Ischemic preconditioning may protect renal tissue against ischemia

  19. Influence of lansoprazole and rabeprazole on mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetics one year after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masatomo; Satoh, Shigeru; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Kagaya, Hideaki; Saito, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Toshio; Habuchi, Tomonori

    2008-02-01

    Peptic ulcer disease is a common complication after organ transplantation, and long-term administration of antiulcer agents is needed in many renal transplant recipients. Although several drug interactions with mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active metabolite of the prodrug mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), have been reported, little is known about the interaction between MPA and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The present study investigated the drug interaction between MMF and lansoprazole or rabeprazole and the impact of cytochrome (CYP) 2C19, and multidrug resistance (MDR)1 C3435T polymorphisms on these drug interactions at 1 year after renal transplantation. Retrospectively, 61 recipients were divided into 3 groups: MMF and tacrolimus as combination immunosuppressive therapy, together with either 30 mg lansoprazole (n = 22) or 10 mg rabeprazole (n = 17), or without PPI (n = 22). One year after transplantation, plasma concentrations of MPA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mean dose-unadjusted and -adjusted Cmax of MPA with 30 mg lansoprazole were significantly lower than those without PPI (11.8 vs. 17.8 microg/mL, P = 0.0197, and 22.6 vs. 33.1 ng/mL/mg MMF, P = 0.0222, respectively). In recipients having the CYP2C19 *1/*2+*1/*3 or MDR1 C3435T CC genotype, the mean dose-adjusted AUC0-12 of MPA with 30 mg lansoprazole was significantly smaller than that with 10 mg rabeprazole or without PPI. The plasma concentration of MPA was influenced by 30 mg lansoprazole but not 10 mg rabeprazole. Because of the greater gastric acid secretion-inhibitory effect of 30 mg lansoprazole in recipients having the CYP2C19 *1/*2+*1/*3 (intermediate metabolizer) or MDR1 C3435T CC genotype, the elution and hydrolysis of MMF might be decreased. Although the clinical relevance might be minor, the fact that administration of 30 mg lansoprazole in patients having the CYP2C19 *2 or *3 allele or the MDR1 C3435T CC genotype diminishes the absorption of MPA in the

  20. Mycophenolic acid formulations in adult renal transplantation – update on efficacy and tolerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déla Golshayan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Déla Golshayan1,2, M Pascual2, Bruno Vogt11Service of Nephrology and Hypertension, 2Transplantation Centre and Transplantation Immunopathology Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV, Lausanne University, 1011 Lausanne, SwitzerlandAbstract: The description more than 30 years ago of the role of de novo purine synthesis in T and B lymphocytes clonal proliferation opened the possibility for selective immunosuppression by targeting specific enzymatic pathways. Mycophenolic acid (MPA blocks the key enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and the production of guanosine nucleotides required for DNA synthesis. Two MPA formulations are currently used in clinical transplantation as part of the maintenance immunosuppressive regimen. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF was the first MPA agent to be approved for the prevention of acute rejection following renal transplantation, in combination with cyclosporine and steroids. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS is an alternative MPA formulation available in clinical transplantation. In this review, we will discuss the clinical trials that have evaluated the efficacy and safety of MPA in adult kidney transplantation for the prevention of acute rejection and their use in new combination regimens aiming at minimizing calcineurin inhibitor toxicity and chronic allograft nephropathy. We will also discuss MPA pharmacokinetics and the rationale for therapeutic drug monitoring in optimizing the balance between efficacy and safety in individual patients.Keywords: kidney transplantation, immunosuppression, mycophenolic acid, mycophenolate mofetil, enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium, acute rejection, chronic allograft nephropathy

  1. Renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid and glomerular filtration rate in chronic nephropathy at angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Thomsen, H S; Nielsen, S L;

    1990-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) were measured in 31 patients with progressive chronic nephropathy before and immediately after the start of treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in order to control adverse effects on kidney...... function. Scintigrams of the kidneys showed an unaltered distribution of DMSA during treatment. GFR estimated by 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance fell by 14% (P less than 0.01), but renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA increased by 10% (P less than 0.01). It is concluded that DMSA in chronic renal failure is mainly taken...... up by the tubular cells from the peritubular capillaries since the uptake was unaffected by the acute decrease in GFR....

  2. Tumor necrosis factor alpha is associated with insulin-mediated suppression of free fatty acids and net lipid oxidation in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, SB;

    2006-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulates lipolysis in man. We examined whether plasma TNF-alpha is associated with the degree by which insulin suppresses markers of lipolysis, for example, plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and net lipid oxidation (LIPOX) rate in HIV-infected patients...

  3. SGLT2 inhibitor lowers serum uric acid through alteration of uric acid transport activity in renal tubule by increased glycosuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Yukihiro; Samukawa, Yoshishige; Sakai, Soichi; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been reported to lower the serum uric acid (SUA) level. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reduction, SUA and the urinary excretion rate of uric acid (UEUA) were analysed after the oral administration of luseogliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, to healthy subjects. After dosing, SUA decreased, and a negative correlation was observed between the SUA level and the UEUA, suggesting that SUA decreased as a result of the increase in the UEUA. The increase in UEUA was correlated with an increase in urinary d-glucose excretion, but not with the plasma luseogliflozin concentration. Additionally, in vitro transport experiments showed that luseogliflozin had no direct effect on the transporters involved in renal UA reabsorption. To explain that the increase in UEUA is likely due to glycosuria, the study focused on the facilitative glucose transporter 9 isoform 2 (GLUT9ΔN, SLC2A9b), which is expressed at the apical membrane of the kidney tubular cells and transports both UA and d-glucose. It was observed that the efflux of [14C]UA in Xenopus oocytes expressing the GLUT9 isoform 2 was trans-stimulated by 10 mm d-glucose, a high concentration of glucose that existed under SGLT2 inhibition. On the other hand, the uptake of [14C]UA by oocytes was cis-inhibited by 100 mm d-glucose, a concentration assumed to exist in collecting ducts. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the UEUA could potentially be increased by luseogliflozin-induced glycosuria, with alterations of UA transport activity because of urinary glucose. PMID:25044127

  4. Circulating purine compounds, uric acid, and xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase relationship in essential hypertension and end stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boban, Milojkovic; Kocic, Gordana; Radenkovic, Sonja; Pavlovic, Radmila; Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Deljanin-Ilic, Marina; Ilic, Stevan; Bobana, Milojkovic D; Djindjic, Boris; Stojanovic, Dijana; Sokolovic, Dusan; Jevtovic-Stoimenov, Tatjana

    2014-05-01

    Purine nucleotide liberation and their metabolic rate of interconversion may be important in the development of hypertension and its renal consequences. In the present study, blood triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) breakdown pathway was evaluated in relation to uric acid concentration and xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase (XDH/XO) in patients with essential hypertension, patients with chronic renal diseases on dialysis, and control individuals. The pattern of nucleotide catabolism was significantly shifted toward catabolic compounds, including ADP, AMP, and uric acid in patients on dialysis program. A significant fall of ATP was more expressed in a group of patients on dialysis program, compared with the control value (p<0.001), while ADP and AMP were significantly increased in both groups of patients compared with control healthy individuals (p<0.001), together with their final degradation product, uric acid (p<0.001). The index of ATP/ADP and ATP/uric acid showed gradual significant fall in both the groups, compared with the control value (p<0.001), near five times in a group on dialysis. Total XOD was up-regulated significantly in a group with essential hypertension, more than in a group on dialysis. The activity of XO, which dominantly contributes reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, significantly increased in dialysis group, more than in a group with essential hypertension. In conclusion, the examination of the role of circulating purine nucleotides and uric acid in pathogenesis of hypertension and possible development of renal disease, together with XO role in ROS production, may help in modulating their liberation and ROS production in slowing progression from hypertension to renal failure.

  5. Salvianolic acid A alleviates renal injury in systemic lupus erythematosus induced by pristane in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yihuang; Yan, Yu; Zhang, Huifang; Chen, Yucai; He, Yangyang; Wang, Shoubao; Fang, Lianhua; Lv, Yang; Du, Guanhua

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of salvianolic acid A (SAA) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) induced by pristane in BALB/c mice. Lupus mice were established by confirming elevated levels of autoantibodies and IL-6 after intraperitoneal injection of pristane. Mice were then treated with daily oral doses of SAA for 5 months in parallel with mice treated with prednisone and aspirin as positive controls. The levels of autoantibodies were monitored at monthly intervals and nephritic symptoms observed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. Western blot analysis of renal tissue was also employed. SAA treatment caused a significant reduction in the levels of anti-Sm autoantibodies and reduced renal histopathological changes and pathological effects. SAA treatment also significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of IKK, IκB and NFκB in renal tissues of lupus mice. In conclusion, the results suggest that SAA alleviates renal injury in pristane-induced SLE in BALB/c mice through inhibition of phosphorylation of IKK, IκB and NFκB.

  6. Net Acid Production, Acid Neutralizing Capacity, and Associated Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of Animas River Watershed Igneous Rocks Near Silverton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Douglas B.; Choate, LaDonna; Stanton, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents results from laboratory and field studies involving the net acid production (NAP), acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and magnetic mineralogy of 27 samples collected in altered volcanic terrain in the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colo., during the summer of 2005. Sampling focused mainly on the volumetrically important, Tertiary-age volcanic and plutonic rocks that host base- and precious-metal mineralization in the study area. These rocks were analyzed to determine their potential for neutralization of acid-rock drainage. Rocks in the study area have been subjected to a regional propylitic alteration event, which introduced calcite, chlorite (clinochlore), and epidote that have varying amounts and rates of acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). Locally, hydrothermal alteration has consumed any ANC and introduced minerals, mainly pyrite, that have a high net acid production (NAP). Laboratory studies included hydrogen pyroxide (H2O2) acid digestion and subsequent sodium hydroxide (NaOH) titration to determine NAP, and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) acid titration experiments to determine ANC. In addition to these environmental rock-property determinations, mineralogical, chemical, and petrographic characteristics of each sample were determined through semiquantitative X-ray diffractometry (Rietveld method), optical mineralogy, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence, total carbon-carbonate, and inductively coupled plasma?mass spectrometric analysis. An ANC ranking was assigned to rock samples based on calculated ANC quantity in kilograms/ton (kg/t) calcium carbonate equivalent and ratios of ANC to NAP. Results show that talus near the southeast Silverton caldera margin, composed of andesite clasts of the Burns Member of the Silverton Volcanics, has the highest ANC (>100 kg/t calcium carbonate equivalent) with little to no NAP. The other units found to have moderate to high ANC include (a) andesite lavas and volcaniclastic rocks of the San Juan

  7. Brain-type and liver-type fatty acid-binding proteins: new tumor markers for renal cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch Holger

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common renal neoplasm. Cancer tissue is often characterized by altered energy regulation. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP are involved in the intracellular transport of fatty acids (FA. We examined the level of brain-type (B and liver-type (L FABP mRNA and the protein expression profiles of both FABPs in renal cell carcinoma. Methods Paired tissue samples of cancerous and noncancerous kidney parts were investigated. Quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to determine B- and L-FABP in tumor and normal tissues. The tissue microarray (TMA contained 272 clinico-pathologically characterized renal cell carcinomas of the clear cell, papillary and chromophobe subtype. SPSS 17.0 was used to apply crosstables (χ2-test, correlations and survival analyses. Results B-FABP mRNA was significantly up-regulated in renal cell carcinoma. In normal tissue B-FABP mRNA was very low or often not detectable. RCC with a high tumor grading (G3 + G4 showed significantly lower B-FABP mRNA compared with those with a low grading (G1 + G2. Western blotting analysis detected B-FABP in 78% of the cases with a very strong band but in the corresponding normal tissue it was weak or not detectable. L-FABP showed an inverse relationship for mRNA quantification and western blotting. A strong B-FABP staining was present in 52% of the tumor tissues contained in the TMA. In normal renal tissue, L-FABP showed a moderate to strong immunoreactivity in proximal tubuli. L-FABP was expressed at lower rates compared with the normal tissues in 30.5% of all tumors. There was no correlation between patient survival times and the staining intensity of both FABPs. Conclusion While B-FABP is over expressed in renal cell carcinoma in comparison to normal renal tissues L-FABP appears to be reduced in tumor tissue. Although the expression behavior was not related to the survival outcome of the RCC patients

  8. Positive net movements of amino acids in the hindlimb after overnight food deprivation contribute to sustaining the elevated anabolism of neonatal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivierge, M Carole; Bush, Jill A; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Orellana, Renan A; Burrin, Douglas G; Jahoor, Farook; Davis, Teresa A

    2008-12-01

    During the neonatal period, high protein breakdown rate is a metabolic process inherent to elevated rates of protein accretion in skeletal muscle. To determine the relationship between hindlimb net movements of essential and nonessential amino acids in the regulation of hindlimb protein breakdown during an overnight fasting-feeding cycle, we infused overnight-food-deprived 10- and 28-day-old piglets with [1-(13)C]phenylalanine and [ring-(2)H(4)]tyrosine over 7 h (during 3 h of fasting and then during 4 h of feeding). Extraction rates for aspartate and glutamate after an overnight fast were 15% and 51% in the 10-day-old compared with 6% and 25% in the 28-day-old (P overnight fast, with negative net release of many nonessential amino acids, such as alanine, asparagine, glutamine, glycine, and proline. This suggests that newborn muscle does not undergo significant protein mobilization after a short period of fasting in support of an elevated rate of protein accretion. Furthermore, tyrosine efflux from hindlimb breakdown between overnight fasting and feeding periods was not different in the 10-day-old piglets, for which tyrosine was limiting, but when tyrosine supply balanced requirements in the 28-day-old piglet, hindlimb efflux was increased (P = 0.01). The results of the present study indicate that proteolysis and net movements of amino acids are coordinated mechanisms that sustain the elevated rate of net protein accretion during overnight feeding-fasting cycles in the neonate.

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids protect renal functions by increasing docosahexaenoic acid-derived metabolite levels in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr rats, a metabolic syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakura, Masanori; Hashimoto, Michio; Inoue, Takayuki; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Tanabe, Yoko; Iwamoto, Ryo; Arita, Makoto; Tsuchikura, Satoru; Shido, Osamu

    2014-03-17

    The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) protect against diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of highly purified DHA and EPA or EPA only administration on renal function and renal eicosanoid and docosanoid levels in an animal model of metabolic syndrome, SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr (SHRcp) rats. Male SHRcp rats were divided into 3 groups. Control (5% arabic gum), TAK-085 (300 mg/kg/day, containing 467 mg/g EPA and 365 mg/g DHA), or EPA (300 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 20 weeks. The urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in other groups. The glomerular sclerosis score in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. Although DHA levels were increased in total kidney fatty acids, the levels of nonesterified DHA were not significantly different among the 3 groups, whereas the levels of protectin D1, resolvin D1, and resolvin D2 were significantly increased in the TAK-085-administered group. The results show that the use of combination therapy with DHA and EPA in SHRcp rats improved or prevented renal failure associate with metabolic syndrome with decreasing triglyceride levels and increasing ω-3 PUFA lipid mediators.

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Protect Renal Functions by Increasing Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Metabolite Levels in SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr Rats, a Metabolic Syndrome Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Katakura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA protect against diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of highly purified DHA and EPA or EPA only administration on renal function and renal eicosanoid and docosanoid levels in an animal model of metabolic syndrome, SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr (SHRcp rats. Male SHRcp rats were divided into 3 groups. Control (5% arabic gum, TAK-085 (300 mg/kg/day, containing 467 mg/g EPA and 365 mg/g DHA, or EPA (300 mg/kg/day was orally administered for 20 weeks. The urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in other groups. The glomerular sclerosis score in the TAK-085-administered group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. Although DHA levels were increased in total kidney fatty acids, the levels of nonesterified DHA were not significantly different among the 3 groups, whereas the levels of protectin D1, resolvin D1, and resolvin D2 were significantly increased in the TAK-085-administered group. The results show that the use of combination therapy with DHA and EPA in SHRcp rats improved or prevented renal failure associate with metabolic syndrome with decreasing triglyceride levels and increasing ω-3 PUFA lipid mediators.

  11. Mechanism of alcohol-induced impairment in renal development: Could it be reduced by retinoic acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stephen P; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Bertram, John F; Moritz, Karen M

    2012-09-01

    1. Prenatal alcohol exposure impairs kidney development, resulting in a reduced nephron number. However, the mechanism through which alcohol acts to disrupt renal development is largely unknown. Retinoic acid (RA) is critically involved in kidney development and it has been proposed that a diminished concentration of RA is a contributing factor to fetal alcohol syndrome. 2. In the present study we proposed that the ethanol-induced inhibition of ureteric branching morphogenesis and glomerular development in the cultured rat kidney would be ameliorated by coculture with exogenous RA and that examining the expression profile of key genes involved in the development of the kidney would provide insights into the potential molecular pathways involved. 3. Whole rat metanephroi cultured in the presence of exogenous RA (10-20 nmol/L) without ethanol appeared larger and had significantly more ureteric branch points, tips and glomeruli than metanephroi cultured in control media. Those cultured in the presence of ethanol alone (0.2%) had 20% fewer ureteric branch points, tips and glomeruli, which was ameliorated by coculture with retinoic acid. 4. Gene expression analysis identified changes in the expression of enzymes involved in the metabolism of alcohol in conjunction with changes in key regulators of kidney development, including cRET. 5. These results demonstrate that the teratogenic effects of alcohol in vitro on kidney development resulting in reduced ureteric branching morphogenesis and glomerular development can be ameliorated through coculture with RA. These results provide the foundation for future research into the mechanism through which alcohol acts to disrupt kidney development.

  12. New α-lipoic acid derivative, DHL-HisZn, ameliorates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Hironori; Hagiwara, Satoshi; Kusaka, Jyunya; Goto, Koji; Uchino, Tetyuya; Shingu, Chihiro; Kai, Shinya; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2012-05-15

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) occurs frequently in a variety of clinical settings, such as renal transplantation. In addition, I/R is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). A recent study has reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators of AKI, suggesting that reducing ROS generation may prevent renal injury. The present study evaluated the ability of DHL-HisZn, a new α-lipoic acid derivative, to inhibit ROS generation and prevent renal I/R injury in rats. Rats received an intravenous infusion of DHL-HisZn or saline, and then underwent experimentally induced renal I/R injury or sham treatment. Rats were sacrificed after 60 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. To evaluate the renal protective effects of DHL-HisZn, serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cre) concentrations were determined, kidneys were histologically assessed, and malondialdehyde (MDA), a biomarker of oxidative stress, was evaluated. In addition, antimycin A (AMA)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were treated with DHL-HisZn to assess its antioxidant effects in vitro. DHL-HisZn treatment attenuated I/R-induced histologic alterations, reduced serum levels of serum BUN and Cre, and decreased MDA levels in the kidneys of rats with renal I/R injury. Furthermore, DHL-HisZn decreased ROS levels in AMA-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Our in vitro and in vivo findings suggest that DHL-HisZn may have therapeutic potential against various human I/R conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid and dimercaptosuccinic acid in the detection of a segmental branch stenosis of the renal artery by captopril renography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajnok, L.; Varga, J. (University Medical School, Debrecen (Hungary). Central Nuclear Medicine Lab.); Kurta, G. (University Medical School, Debrecen (Hungary). 1. Dept. of Medicine)

    1992-01-01

    We present a case in which a 39-year-old woman with correctable bilateral renovascular hypertension did not show abnormality during post-captopril technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) study. Post-captopril {sup 99m}Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) scintigraphy revealed the adverse effect of a stenosis of the artery supplying the upper part of her left kidney but failed to uncover the existence of severe multiple narrowings of the right renal artery. After bilateral renovascular reconstructive surgery, the hypertension completely disappeared. This case illustrates that DTPA may be more efficacious than DMSA in the detection of segmental loss of renal function induced by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition. (orig.).

  14. The influence of serum uric acid on renal function in patients with calcium or uric acid stone: A population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshimi; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Tanaka, Toshikazu; Yamamoto, Hayato; Narita, Takuma; Hamano, Itsuto; Matsumoto, Teppei; Soma, Osamu; Okamoto, Teppei; Tobisawa, Yuki; Yoneyama, Tohru; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Koie, Takuya; Takahashi, Ippei; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Terayama, Yuriko; Funyu, Tomihisa; Ohyama, Chikara

    2017-01-01

    To determine the influence of serum uric acid (UA) levels on renal impairment in patients with UA stone. We retrospectively analyzed 463 patients with calcium oxalate and/or calcium phosphate stones (CaOx/CaP), and 139 patients with UA stones. The subjects were divided into the serum UA-high (UA ≥ 7.0 mg/dL) or the UA-low group (UA analysis 1), and between patients with CaOx/CaP and with UA stone (analysis 2). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the impact of the hyperuricemia on the development of stage 3 and 3B chronic kidney disease (CKD) (analysis 3). The renal function was significantly associated with serum UA levels in the controls and patients with CaOx/CaP and UA stones. In pair-matched subgroups, patients with UA stone had significantly lower renal function than the control subjects (analysis 1) and patients with CaOx/CaP stones (analysis 2) regardless of hyperuricemia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with UA stone, CaOx/CaP, hyperuricemia, presence of cardiovascular disease, higher body mass index, older age and lower hemoglobin had significantly higher risk of stage 3 and 3B CKD (analysis 3). Patients with UA stones had significantly worse renal function than controls and CaOx/CaP patients regardless of hyperuricemia. Urolithiasis (CaOx/CaP and UA stone) and hyperuricemia had an association with impaired renal function. Our findings encourage clinicians to initiate intensive treatment and education approaches in patients with urolithiasis and/or hyperuricemia in order to prevent the progression of renal impairment.

  15. Salvianolic acid A alleviates renal injury in systemic lupus erythematosus induced by pristane in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihuang Lin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of salvianolic acid A (SAA in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE induced by pristane in BALB/c mice. Lupus mice were established by confirming elevated levels of autoantibodies and IL-6 after intraperitoneal injection of pristane. Mice were then treated with daily oral doses of SAA for 5 months in parallel with mice treated with prednisone and aspirin as positive controls. The levels of autoantibodies were monitored at monthly intervals and nephritic symptoms observed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and periodic acid–Schiff (PAS staining. Western blot analysis of renal tissue was also employed. SAA treatment caused a significant reduction in the levels of anti-Sm autoantibodies and reduced renal histopathological changes and pathological effects. SAA treatment also significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of IKK, IκB and NFκB in renal tissues of lupus mice. In conclusion, the results suggest that SAA alleviates renal injury in pristane-induced SLE in BALB/c mice through inhibition of phosphorylation of IKK, IκB and NFκB.

  16. Very Low-Protein Diet (VLPD) Reduces Metabolic Acidosis in Subjects with Chronic Kidney Disease: The “Nutritional Light Signal” of the Renal Acid Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Biagio Raffaele; Di Micco, Lucia; Marzocco, Stefania; De Simone, Emanuele; De Blasio, Antonietta; Sirico, Maria Luisa; Nardone, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease; current guidelines recommend treatment with alkali if bicarbonate levels are lower than 22 mMol/L. In fact, recent studies have shown that an early administration of alkali reduces progression of CKD. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of fruit and vegetables to reduce the acid load in CKD. Methods: We conducted a case-control study in 146 patients who received sodium bicarbonate. Of these, 54 patients assumed very low-protein diet (VLPD) and 92 were controls (ratio 1:2). We calculated every three months the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and the net endogenous acid production (NEAP), inversely correlated with serum bicarbonate levels and representing the non-volatile acid load derived from nutrition. Un-paired T-test and Chi-square test were used to assess differences between study groups at baseline and study completion. Two-tailed probability values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: At baseline, there were no statistical differences between the two groups regarding systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), protein and phosphate intake, urinary sodium, potassium, phosphate and urea nitrogen, NEAP, and PRAL. VLPD patients showed at 6 and 12 months a significant reduction of SBP (p < 0.0001), DBP (p < 0.001), plasma urea (p < 0.0001) protein intake (p < 0.0001), calcemia (p < 0.0001), phosphatemia (p < 0.0001), phosphate intake (p < 0.0001), urinary sodium (p < 0.0001), urinary potassium (p < 0.002), and urinary phosphate (p < 0.0001). NEAP and PRAL were significantly reduced in VLPD during follow-up. Conclusion: VLPD reduces intake of acids; nutritional therapy of CKD, that has always taken into consideration a lower protein, salt, and phosphate intake, should be adopted to correct metabolic acidosis, an important target in the treatment of CKD patients. We provide useful indications regarding acid load of food and drinks

  17. Tc-99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA) Renal Scintigraphy in Patients with Acute Pyelonephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Wook; Bin, Ki Tae; Jeong, Min Soo; Shong, Min Ho; Shin, Young Tai; Ro, Heung Kyu

    1995-01-01

    Objectives Recently, several authors reported that Tc-99m DMSA renal scan frequently showed cortical defects of the involved kidneys even in the patients with acute pyelonephritis who did not show abnormal findings in the ultrasonography and intravenous pyelography IVP). Methods In order to evaluate the utilities of Tc-99m DMSA renal scan and the clinical meanig of cortical defects in the Tc-99m DMSA renal scan of the patients with acute pyelonephritis, ninety two patients with acute pyelonephritis, from March 1991 to February 1994 in Chungnam National University Hospital(CNUH), were included in this study. Patients were subdivided as Group A:Patients showing normal Tc-99m DMSA renal scan(n=42) and Group B:Patients with definit cortical defects on the Tc-99m DMSA renal scan(n=50). We compared clinical characteristics such as age and sex, recurrency, duration of fever, bacterial culture study, incidence of renal insufficiency and the results of renal ultrasonography and intravenous pyelography between the two groups. Results Fifty four percents of 92 patients with acute pyelonephritis showed a significantly longer febrile period after admission, higher positive rates on the urine and blood culture studies and higher incidence of renal insufficiency than those of the Group A patients. Sixty nine percents of Group B patients showed normal results in ultrasonography or IVP study. Conclusions Tc-99m DMSA renal scan was a more sensitive imaging test than ultrasonography in kidneys and IVP to detect pyelonephritis lesions and may be useful to predict the patient group with a severe disease course. These patients may need more careful management and further studies to evaluate the possibility of complications. PMID:7626556

  18. Acid-base equilibrium during capnoretroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy in patients with end-stage renal failure: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demian, A D; Esmail, O M; Atallah, M M

    2000-04-01

    We have studied the acid-base equilibrium in 12 patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) during capnoretroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy. Bupivacaine (12 mL, 0.375%) and morphine (2mg) were given in the lumbar epidural space, and fentanyl (0.5 microg kg(-1)) and midazolam (50 microg kg(-1)) were given intravenously. Anaesthesia was induced by thiopental, maintained with halothane carried by oxygen enriched air (inspired oxygen fraction = 0.35), and ventilation was achieved with a tidal volume of 10 mL kg(-1) at a rate of 12 min(-1). This procedure resulted in a mild degree of respiratory acidosis that was cleared within 60 min. We conclude that capnoretroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy can be performed in patients with end-stage renal failure with minimal transient respiratory acidosis that can be avoided by increased ventilation.

  19. Effects of chronic lithium administration on renal acid excretion in humans and rats

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner, I. David; Leader, John P.; Bedford, Jennifer J.; Verlander, Jill W.; Ellis, Gaye; Kalita, Priyakshi; Vos, Frederiek; de Jong, Sylvia; Walker, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lithium therapy's most common side effects affecting the kidney are nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and chronic kidney disease. Lithium may also induce a distal renal tubular acidosis. This study investigated the effect of chronic lithium exposure on renal acid–base homeostasis, with emphasis on ammonia and citrate excretion. We compared 11 individuals on long‐term lithium therapy with six healthy individuals. Under basal conditions, lithium‐treated individuals excreted signific...

  20. Effect of oleic acid-induced acute lung injury and conventional mechanical ventilation on renal function in piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ai-jun; LING Feng; LI Zhi-qiang; LI Xiao-feng; LIU Ying-long; DU Jie; HAN Ling

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal models that demonstrate changes of renal function in response to acute lung injury (ALl) and mechanical ventilation (MV) are few.The present study was performed to examine the effect of ALl induced by oleic acid (OA) in combination with conventional MV strategy on renal function in piglets.Methods Twelve Chinese mini-piglets were randomly divided into two groups:the OA group (n=6),animals were ventilated with a conventional MV strategy of 12 ml/kg and suffered an ALl induced by administration of OA,and the control group (n=6),animals were ventilated with a protective MV strategy of 6 ml/kg and received the same amount of sterile saline.Results Six hours after OA injection a severe lung injury and a mild-moderate degree of renal histopathological injury were seen,while no apparent histological abnormalities were observed in the control group.Although we observed an increase in the plasma concentrations of creatinine and urea after ALl,there was no significant difference compared with the control group.Plasma concentrations of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and cystatin C increased (5.6±1.3) and (7.4±1.5) times in the OA group compared to baseline values,and were significantly higher than the values in the control group.OA injection in combination with conventional MV strategy resulted in a dramatic aggravation of hemodynamic and blood gas exchange parameters,while these parameters remained stable during the experiment in the control group.The plasma expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in the OA group were significantly higher than that in the control group.Compared with high expression in the lung and renal tissue in the OA group,TNF-α and IL-6 were too low to be detected in the lung and renal tissue in the control group.Conclusions OA injection in combination with conventional MV strategy not only resulted in a severe lung injury but also an apparent renal injury.The potential mechanisms involved a cytokine response of TNF-α and

  1. Renal targeting potential of a polymeric drug carrier, poly-l-glutamic acid, in normal and diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Hann-Juang; Kiew, Lik-Voon; Chin, Yunni; Norazit, Anwar; Mohd Noor, Suzita; Lo, Yoke-Lin; Looi, Chung-Yeng; Lau, Yeh-Siang; Lim, Tuck-Meng; Wong, Won-Fen; Abdullah, Nor Azizan; Abdul Sattar, Munavvar Zubaid; Johns, Edward J; Chik, Zamri; Chung, Lip-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Poly-l-glutamic acid (PG) has been used widely as a carrier to deliver anticancer chemotherapeutics. This study evaluates PG as a selective renal drug carrier. Experimental approach 3H-deoxycytidine-labeled PGs (17 or 41 kDa) and 3H-deoxycytidine were administered intravenously to normal rats and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The biodistribution of these compounds was determined over 24 h. Accumulation of PG in normal kidneys was also tracked using 5-(aminoacetamido) fluorescein (fluoresceinyl glycine amide)-labeled PG (PG-AF). To evaluate the potential of PGs in ferrying renal protective anti-oxidative stress compounds, the model drug 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) was conjugated to 41 kDa PG to form PG-AEBSF. PG-AEBSF was then characterized and evaluated for intracellular anti-oxidative stress efficacy (relative to free AEBSF). Results In the normal rat kidneys, 17 kDa radiolabeled PG (PG-Tr) presents a 7-fold higher, while 41 kDa PG-Tr shows a 15-fold higher renal accumulation than the free radiolabel after 24 h post injection. The accumulation of PG-AF was primarily found in the renal tubular tissues at 2 and 6 h after an intravenous administration. In the diabetic (oxidative stress-induced) kidneys, 41 kDa PG-Tr showed the greatest renal accumulation of 8-fold higher than the free compound 24 h post dose. Meanwhile, the synthesized PG-AEBSF was found to inhibit intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (a reactive oxygen species generator) at an efficiency that is comparable to that of free AEBSF. This indicates the preservation of the anti-oxidative stress properties of AEBSF in the conjugated state. Conclusion/Implications The favorable accumulation property of 41 kDa PG in normal and oxidative stress-induced kidneys, along with its capabilities in conserving the pharmacological properties of the conjugated renal protective drugs, supports its role as a potential renal

  2. Impact of arterial occlusion during partial nephrectomy on residual renal function. An evaluation with {sup 99m}technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Tsunenori; Nakazawa, Hayakazu; Ito, Fumio; Onitsuka, Shiro; Ryoji, Osamu; Yago, Rie; Hashimoto, Yasunobu; Toma, Hiroshi [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Partial nephrectomy (PNx) has been performed with temporary renal arterial occlusion and in situ renal hypothermia (conventional PNx). However, the impact of temporary renal arterial occlusion on residual renal function has not been well assessed. To address this question, we performed renal scintigraphy with {sup 99m}technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) for the quantitative measurement of postoperative residual renal function after conventional PNx and partial nephrectomy without arterial occlusion (non-clamping PNx). Thirty-four patients underwent postoperative DMSA scintigraphy after PNx for renal cell carcinoma. No obvious difference in preoperative renal function between the diseased kidney and the contralateral kidney was found in any of the patients. Of these patients, 24 underwent conventional PNx, and 10 underwent non-clamping PNx. Residual renal function was evaluated using the relative DMSA uptake of the operated kidney. The relative DMSA uptake of the operated kidney was 39.9{+-}7.3% (25.1-58.8) after conventional PNx compared to 34.8{+-}8.9% (13.5-45.5) after non-clamping PNx. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.15). Total ischemic time during conventional PNx had no adverse influence on the residual renal function. In the analysis of the other determinant factors influencing residual renal function, tumor size was the only significant factor that inversely correlated with the relative DMSA uptake. Our results showed that arterial clamping during PNx has no negative impact on the functional residual capacity as long as in situ renal hypothermia is adequately performed. (author)

  3. Augmented renal clearance implies a need for increased amoxicillin-clavulanic acid dosing in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Pieter A J G; Standing, Joseph F; Barker, Charlotte I S; de Jaeger, Annick; Dhont, Evelyn; Carlier, Mieke; Verstraete, Alain G; Delanghe, Joris R; Robays, Hugo; De Paepe, Peter

    2015-11-01

    There is little data available to guide amoxicillin-clavulanic acid dosing in critically ill children. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of both compounds in this pediatric subpopulation. Patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) in whom intravenous amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was indicated (25 to 35 mg/kg of body weight every 6 h) were enrolled. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted, and the clinical outcome was documented. A total of 325 and 151 blood samples were collected from 50 patients (median age, 2.58 years; age range, 1 month to 15 years) treated with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, respectively. A three-compartment model for amoxicillin and a two-compartment model for clavulanic acid best described the data, in which allometric weight scaling and maturation functions were added a priori to scale for size and age. In addition, plasma cystatin C and concomitant treatment with vasopressors were identified to have a significant influence on amoxicillin clearance. The typical population values of clearance for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were 17.97 liters/h/70 kg and 12.20 liters/h/70 kg, respectively. In 32% of the treated patients, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid therapy was stopped prematurely due to clinical failure, and the patient was switched to broader-spectrum antibiotic treatment. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that four-hourly dosing of 25 mg/kg was required to achieve the therapeutic target for both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. For patients with augmented renal function, a 1-h infusion was preferable to bolus dosing. Current published dosing regimens result in subtherapeutic concentrations in the early period of sepsis due to augmented renal clearance, which risks clinical failure in critically ill children, and therefore need to be updated. (This study has been registered at Clinicaltrials.gov as an observational study [NCT02456974].).

  4. Bigraphical Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Mackie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation, which has been used to define efficient evaluators for functional calculi, and specifically lambda calculi with patterns. However, the flat structure of interaction nets forces pattern matching and functional behaviour to be encoded at the same level, losing some potential parallelism. In this paper, we introduce bigraphical nets, or binets for short, as a generalisation of interaction nets using ideas from bigraphs and port graphs, and we present a formal notation and operational semantics for binets. We illustrate their expressive power by examples of applications.

  5. Effect of casein-based semi-synthetic food on renal acid excretion and acid-base state of blood in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, W G; Langbroek, A J; Kraan, J; Rispens, P; Nijmeijer, A

    1995-01-01

    Urinary acid excretion and blood acid-base state were determined in dogs fed a casein-based semi-synthetic food (SSF), to which different amounts of salts had been added, in comparison with feeding normal dog food. Net acid excretion (NAE) and inorganic acid excretion (IAE) increased during SSF feeding. IAE was higher than the acid load calculated from the sulphur and phosphorus content of the casein. This higher IAE appeared to be due to the presence of calcium and magnesium phosphate in the diet, because calcium and magnesium may be in part precipitated as carbonate, leaving phosphate to be absorbed as phosphoric acid. Acid excretion decreased by addition of CaO. When no neutral Na+ and K+ salts were added, the increase in NAE was accompanied by a metabolic acidosis. K+ was more effective in attenuating the acidosis than Na+. On the basis of these findings a diet can be made which imposes a known acid load, and provides stable baseline values. Hence, any additions that influence the acid-base balance can be properly studied. The data obtained in these and future studies utilising this diet may be of help in optimising the composition of nutrient solutions to be used in the care of critically ill patients.

  6. Indispensable but insufficient role of renal D-amino acid oxidase in chiral inversion of NG-nitro-D-arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yan-Fei; Li, Xin; Hao, Bin; Gong, Nian; Sun, Wen-Qiang; Konno, Ryuichi; Wang, Yong-Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Unidirectionally chiral inversion of N(G)-nitro-D-arginine (D-NNA) to its L-enantiomer (L-NNA) occurred in rats, and it was blocked markedly (ca. 80%) by renal vascular ligation, and entirely (100%) by the D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) inhibitor sodium benzoate, suggesting that renal DAO is essential for the inversion. However, the doses of sodium benzoate administrated were extremely high (e.g., 400 mg/kg) due to its low potency. It is thus possible that sodium benzoate-mediated blockade of D-NNA inversion might be due to its nonspecific (or non-DAO-related) effects. In addition, after D-NNA was incubated with the pure enzyme of DAO in vitro without tissue homogenates, L-NNA was not produced, even though D-NNA was disposed. We propose that this occurred because D-NNA was first converted to its corresponding alpha-keto acid by DAO and then to L-NNA by transaminase(s); however, there was no direct evidence for this process. The goal of this study is to further elucidate the process of D-NNA chiral inversion both in vivo and in in vitro tissue homogenates by comparing mutant ddY/DAO(-/-) mice that lack DAO activity entirely compared to normal ddY/DAO(+/+) mice and Swiss mice. Furthermore, the ability to produce L-NNA from D-NNA-corresponding alpha-keto acids (N(G)-nitroguanidino-2-oxopentanoic acid) produced by porcine kidney-derived DAO (pkDAO) was also studied in the DAO inhibitor-pretreated rats. We found that D-NNA chiral inversion occurred in Swiss mice and ddY/DAO(+/+) mice both in vivo and in in vitro kidney homogenates, but not in ddY/DAO(-/-) mice, correlated to their DAO activities. The alpha-keto acid (N(G)-nitro-guanidino-2-oxopentanoic acid) from D-NNA was able to produce L-NNA, and subsequent vasoconstriction and pressor responses. These results indicate that the role of renal DAO is indispensible but insufficient for chiral inversion of D-NNA and other neutral and polar D-amino acids, and unidentified aminotransferase(s) are involved in a subsequent

  7. Low Protein Diet Inhibits Uric Acid Synthesis and Attenuates Renal Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Ran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Several studies indicated that hyperuricemia may link to the worsening of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Meanwhile, low protein diet (LPD retards exacerbation of renal damage in chronic kidney disease. We then assessed whether LPD influences uric acid metabolism and benefits the progression of DN in streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats. Methods. STZ-induced and control rats were both fed with LPD (5% and normal protein diet (18%, respectively, for 12 weeks. Vital signs, blood and urinary samples for UA metabolism were taken and analyzed every 3 weeks. Kidneys were removed at the end of the experiment. Results. Diabetic rats developed into constantly high levels of serum UA (SUA, creatinine (SCr and 24 h amounts of urinary albumin excretion (UAE, creatintine (UCr, urea nitrogen (UUN, and uric acid (UUA. LPD significantly decreased SUA, UAE, and blood glucose, yet left SCr, UCr, and UUN unchanged. A stepwise regression showed that high UUA is an independent risk factor for DN. LPD remarkably ameliorated degrees of enlarged glomeruli, proliferated mesangial cells, and hyaline-degenerated tubular epithelial cells in diabetic rats. Expression of TNF-α in tubulointerstitium significantly decreased in LPD-fed diabetic rats. Conclusion. LPD inhibits endogenous uric acid synthesis and might accordingly attenuate renal damage in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  8. Net Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielker, David

    2008-01-01

    The Easter conference 2008 had several activities which for the author raised the same questions on cube nets in some work with eight-year-olds some time ago. In this article, the author muses on some problems from the Easter conference regarding nets of shapes. (Contains 1 note.)

  9. Urinary excretion of fatty acid-binding protein 4 is associated with albuminuria and renal dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Okazaki

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2 is expressed in not only adipocytes and macrophages but also peritubular capillaries in the normal kidney. We recently demonstrated that ectopic expression of FABP4, but not FABP1 known as liver FABP (L-FABP, in the glomerulus is associated with progression of proteinuria and renal dysfunction. However, urinary excretion of FABP4 has not been investigated.Subjects who participated in the Tanno-Sobetsu Study, a study with a population-based cohort design, in 2011 (n = 392, male/female: 166/226 were enrolled. Urinary FABP4 (U-FABP4 and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR were measured. Change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was followed up one year later.In 93 (23.7% of the 392 subjects, U-FABP4 level was below the sensitivity of the assay. Subjects with undetectable U-FABP4 were younger and had lower UACR and higher eGFR levels than subjects with measurable U-FABP4. U-FABP4 level was positively correlated with age, systolic blood pressure and levels of serum FABP4 (S-FABP4, triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, urinary FABP1 (U-FABP1 and UACR (r = 0.360, p<0.001. Age, S-FABP4, U-FABP1 and UACR were independent predictors of U-FABP4. On the other hand, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and U-FABP4 were independently correlated with UACR. Reduction in eGFR after one year was significantly larger in a group with the highest tertile of baseline U-FABP4 than a group with the lowest tertile.Urinary FABP4 level is independently correlated with level of albuminuria and possibly predicts yearly decline of eGFR. U-FABP4 would be a novel biomarker of glomerular damage.

  10. Chemopreventive and renal protective effects for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: implications of CRP and lipid peroxides

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    Darweish MM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fish oil-derived ω-3 fatty acids, like docosahexanoic (DHA, claim a plethora of health benefits. We currently evaluated the antitumor effects of DHA, alone or in combination with cisplatin (CP in the EAC solid tumor mice model, and monitored concomitant changes in serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA and leukocytic count (LC. Further, we verified the capacity of DHA to ameliorate the lethal, CP-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and the molecular mechanisms involved therein. Results EAC-bearing mice exhibited markedly elevated LC (2-fold, CRP (11-fold and MDA levels (2.7-fold. DHA (125, 250 mg/kg elicited significant, dose-dependent reductions in tumor size (38%, 79%; respectively, as well as in LC, CRP and MDA levels. These effects for CP were appreciably lower than those of DHA (250 mg/kg. Interestingly, DHA (125 mg/kg markedly enhanced the chemopreventive effects of CP and boosted its ability to reduce serum CRP and MDA levels. Correlation studies revealed a high degree of positive association between tumor growth and each of CRP (r = 0.85 and leukocytosis (r = 0.89, thus attesting to a diagnostic/prognostic role for CRP. On the other hand, a single CP dose (10 mg/kg induced nephrotoxicity in rats that was evidenced by proteinuria, deterioration of glomerular filtration rate (GFR, -4-fold, a rise in serum creatinine/urea levels (2–5-fold after 4 days, and globally-induced animal fatalities after 7 days. Kidney-homogenates from CP-treated rats displayed significantly elevated MDA- and TNF-α-, but reduced GSH-, levels. Rats treated with DHA (250 mg/kg, but not 125 mg/kg survived the lethal effects of CP, and showed a significant recovery of GFR; while their homogenates had markedly-reduced MDA- and TNF-α-, but -increased GSH-levels. Significant association was detected between creatinine level and those of MDA (r = 0.81, TNF-α r = 0.92 and GSH (r = -0

  11. Outbreaks of renal failure associated with melamine and cyanuric acid in dogs and cats in 2004 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cathy A; Jeong, Kyu-Shik; Poppenga, Robert H; Puschner, Birgit; Miller, Doris M; Ellis, Angela E; Kang, Kyung-Il; Sum, Steffen; Cistola, Alexis M; Brown, Scott A

    2007-09-01

    Sixteen animals affected in 2 outbreaks of pet food-associated renal failure (2 dogs in 2004; 10 cats and 4 dogs in 2007) were evaluated for histopathologic, toxicologic, and clinicopathologic changes. All 16 animals had clinical and laboratory evidence of uremia, including anorexia, vomiting, lethargy, polyuria, azotemia, and hyperphosphatemia. Where measured, serum hepatic enzyme concentrations were normal in animals from both outbreaks. All animals died or were euthanized because of severe uremia. Distal tubular lesions were present in all 16 animals, and unique polarizable crystals with striations were present in distal tubules or collecting ducts in all animals. The proximal tubules were largely unaffected. Crystals and histologic appearance were identical in both outbreaks. A chronic pattern of histologic change, characterized by interstitial fibrosis and inflammation, was observed in some affected animals. Melamine and cyanuric acid were present in renal tissue from both outbreaks. These results indicate that the pet food-associated renal failure outbreaks in 2004 and 2007 share identical clinical, histologic, and toxicologic findings, providing compelling evidence that they share the same causation.

  12. In vivo effects of high-dose steroids on nucleic acid content of immunocompetent cells of renal allograft recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walle, A.J.; Wong, G.Y.; Suthanthiran, M.; Rubin, A.L.; Stenzel, K.H.

    1988-03-01

    High-dose steroids administered to renal allograft recipients for treatment of acute graft rejection episodes may affect cell cycle progression of peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells. DNA synthesis and cellular DNA and RNA contents of PBM cells were measured in 8 patients during clinically stable periods, and in another 10 patients both during acute rejection episodes and during 7 days of administration of high-dose steroids. Improved renal function documented successful reversal of the rejection episodes in the 10 patients. Compared with the stable patients, the rejecting patients had higher numbers of cells undergoing clonal expansion--namely, higher proportions of G1-cells and of proliferating, or S, G2, and M (SG2M) cells. Steroid treatment had no acute effects on proportions of G1 or SG2M cells in vivo or on incorporation of /sup 3/H thymidine by PBM cells in vitro. However, cells in the prereplicative compartment of the cell cycle (G0/1 cells) had significantly lower RNA content within 7 days of treatment with high doses of steroids. The results suggest that steroids do not acutely influence the posttranscriptional synthesis and the contents of nucleic acids of cells undergoing clonal expansion in vivo. The prereplicative phase of allogeneically stimulated PBM cells of renal allograft recipients may therefore be the cell cycle phase most sensitive to steroids in vivo.

  13. Intra-individual variability of mycophenolic acid concentration according to renal function in liver transplant recipients receiving mycophenolate monotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Park, Gil-Chun; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Ha, Tae-Yong; Kim, Ki-Hun; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has wide inter- and intra-individual variability of mycophenolic acid (MPA) after liver transplantation (LT). On this study, we aimed to analyse the intra-individual variability of MPA concentration in stable adult LT recipients receiving MMF monotherapy and develop a method to determine the target level in the situation of wide intra-individual variability. Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study included 30 LT recipients. All patients received MMF monotherapy at a dose of 500 mg twice daily for ≥2 years and were divided into two groups based on renal function. MPA concentration-associated values were presented as mean with standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV). Results The normal renal function group (n=15) showed a mean 12-hour MPA concentration of 2.5±0.5 µg/ml (range, 1.8±0.5 to 3.6±0.7 µg/ml) and a mean CV of 20.4±7.7% (range, 8.7% to 39.4%). In the renal dysfunction group (n=15), the 12-hour MPA concentration fluctuated more widely with a mean value of 3.7±0.9 µg/ml (range, 2.8±0.8 to 5.1±1.2 µg/ml) and a mean CV of 24.5±4.9% (range, 17.1% to 37.5%). The 12-hour MPA concentration was significantly higher in the renal dysfunction group, as compared to the normal renal function group (p=0.001); whereas, the CV was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.093). Conclusions We determined the inter- and intra-individual variability of 12-hour MPA concentration after LT. The results suggested that therapeutic drug monitoring of MPA is necessary due to the inter-individual and intra-individual variability of MMF pharmacokinetics, especially in LT recipients with renal dysfunction. PMID:28317040

  14. Antioxidant and oligonutrient status, distribution of amino acids, muscle damage, inflammation, and evaluation of renal function in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorce-Dupuy, Anne Marie; Vela, Carlos; Badiou, Stéphanie; Bargnoux, Anne Sophie; Josse, Christophe; Roagna, Nicolas; Delage, Martine; Michel, Françoise; Vernet, Marie Hélène; Destizons, Dominique; Cristol, Jean Paul

    2012-10-01

    Our study investigated the biochemical and anthropometric characteristics in elite athletes of rugby union based in the south of France during the different periods of the competition to identify metabolic and biochemical adaptations to particular lifestyle conditions. Participants included 35 players in 2008 and 43 players in 2009. Biochemical variables [creatinine, uric acid, creatine kinase (CK), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, C-reactive protein] were evaluated. Specific protein levels (albumin, acid α-glycoprotein, prealbumin), vitamins (A, E, C), antioxidant enzymes [glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD)], oligoelements (Zn, Se, Cu, erythrocyte magnesium), homocysteine (Hcy), carnitine and the distribution of amino acids were specifically determined for our study during a pre-competition period (September 2008 and 2009). Globally, no deficit was observed for vitamins, oligonutrients and amino acids levels. The high SOD and GPx activities in rugby players suggest a presence of oxidative stress of exercise. The evaluation of renal function should be used with caution because of the interaction between creatinine and lean body mass. In addition, a profound effect of intense exercise on the CK values was reported to establish specific reference values for athletes. The analysis of the biological variation allows optimization of the interpretation of the changes from an increased or decreased baseline value from a season to the other one. The conclusions of present study were: 1) the necessity of rugby-specific reference intervals for CK and creatinine parameters; 2) the use of enzymatic creatinine for Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and CKD-EPI, or cystatin C to improve glomerular filtration rate estimation; 3) to take into account the oxidative stress testifying of a bad recovery; and 4) better to take care the nutritional status of the players by adapting needs and amino acids supplementations but also to

  15. The restrained expression of NF-kB in renal tissue ameliorates folic acid induced acute kidney injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Kumar

    Full Text Available The Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB represent family of structurally-related eukaryotic transcription factors which regulate diverse array of cellular processes including immunological responses, inflammation, apoptosis, growth & development. Increased expression of NF-kB has often been seen in many diverse diseases, suggesting the importance of genomic deregulation to disease pathophysiology. In the present study we focused on acute kidney injury (AKI, which remains one of the major risk factor showing a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The pathology associated with it, however, remains incompletely known though inflammation has been reported to be one of the major risk factor in the disease pathophysiology. The role of NF-kB thus seemed pertinent. In the present study we show that high dose of folic acid (FA induced acute kidney injury (AKI characterized by elevation in levels of blood urea nitrogen & serum creatinine together with extensive tubular necrosis, loss of brush border and marked reduction in mitochondria. One of the salient observations of this study was a coupled increase in the expression of renal, relA, NF-kB2, and p53 genes and proteins during folic acid induced AKI (FA AKI. Treatment of mice with NF-kB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithio-carbamate ammonium (PDTC lowered the expression of these transcription factors and ameliorated the aberrant renal function by decreasing serum creatinine levels. In conclusion, our results suggested that NF-kB plays a pivotal role in maintaining renal function that also involved regulating p53 levels during FA AKI.

  16. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps, to...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  17. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps, to...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  18. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases net amino acid utilization by the portal-drained viscera of ruminating calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Burrin, D G; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal mass and blood flow in ruminant calves, but its impact on nutrient metabolism across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver is unknown. Eight Holstein calves with catheters in the carotid artery, mesenteric vein, portal vein and hepatic...... on days 0 and 10. Arterial concentrations and net fluxes of all amino acids and glucose metabolism using continuous intravenous infusion of [U13-C]glucose were measured on day 10 only. A 1-h infusion of GLP-2 increased blood flow in the portal and hepatic veins when administered to calves not previously...

  19. Amino Acid requirements in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury treated with continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Btaiche, Imad F; Mohammad, Rima A; Alaniz, Cesar; Mueller, Bruce A

    2008-05-01

    Acute kidney injury in critically ill patients is often a complication of an underlying condition such as organ failure, sepsis, or drug therapy. In these patients, stress-induced hypercatabolism results in loss of body cell mass. Unless nutrition support is provided, malnutrition and negative nitrogen balance may ensue. Because of metabolic, fluid, and electrolyte abnormalities, optimization of nutrition to patients with acute kidney injury presents a challenge to the clinician. In patients treated with conventional intermittent hemodialysis, achieving adequate amino acid intake can be limited by azotemia and fluid restriction. With the use of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), however, better control of azotemia and liberalization of fluid intake allow amino acid intake to be maximized to support the patient's metabolic needs. High amino acid doses up to 2.5 g/kg/day in patients treated with CRRT improved nitrogen balance. However, to our knowledge, no studies have correlated increased amino acid intake with improved outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Data from large, prospective, randomized, controlled trials are needed to optimize the dosing of amino acids in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury who are treated with CRRT and to study the safety of high doses and their effects on patient morbidity and survival.

  20. Pretreatment of Sialic Acid Efficiently Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Renal Failure and Suppresses TLR4/gp91-Mediated Apoptotic Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Hsu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS binding to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 activate NADPH oxidase gp91 subunit-mediated inflammation and oxidative damage. Recognizing the high binding affinity of sialic acid (SA with LPS, we further explored the preventive potential of SA pretreatment on LPS-evoked acute renal failure (ARF. Methods: We determined the effect of intravenous SA 30 min before LPS-induced injury in urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rats by evaluating kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS responses, renal and systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and molecular mechanisms. Results: LPS time-dependently reduced arterial blood pressure, renal microcirculation, and increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in the rats. LPS enhanced monocyte/macrophage infiltration and ROS production, and subsequently impaired kidneys with the enhancement of TLR4/NADPH oxidase gp91/Caspase 3/poly-(ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP-mediated apoptosis in the kidneys. SA pretreatment effectively alleviated LPS-induced ARF. The levels of LPS-increased ED-1 infiltration and ROS production in the kidney were significantly depressed by SA pretreatment. Furthermore, SA pretreatment significantly depressed TLR4 activation, gp91 expression, and Caspase 3/PARP induced apoptosis in the kidneys. Conclusion: We suggest that pretreatment of SA significantly and preventively attenuated LPS-induced detrimental effects on systemic and renal hemodynamics, renal ROS production and renal function, as well as, LPS-activated TLR4/gp91/Caspase3 mediated apoptosis signaling.

  1. Use of urinary renal biomarkers to evaluate the nephrotoxic effects of melamine or cyanuric acid in non-pregnant and pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandele, O J; Stine, C B; Ferguson, M; Black, T; Olejnik, N; Keltner, Z; Evans, E R; Crosby, T C; Reimschuessel, R; Sprando, R L

    2014-12-01

    Although traditional assessments of renal damage detect loss of kidney function, urinary renal biomarkers are proposed to indicate early changes in renal integrity. The recent adulteration of infant formula and other milk-based foods with melamine revealed a link between melamine ingestion and nephropathy. Thus, the effects of melamine and related analogs (e.g., cyanuric acid) should be assessed in other potentially sensitive groups. We evaluated whether urinary Kim-1, clusterin, and osteopontin could detect the effects of high doses of melamine or cyanuric acid in pregnant and non-pregnant female rats gavaged with 1000 mg/kg bw/day for 10 days. We demonstrate that these biomarkers can differentiate the severity of effects induced by melamine or cyanuric acid. All melamine-treated animals experienced adverse effects; however, pregnant rats were most sensitive as indicated by increased SCr, BUN, and kidney weights, decreased body weight, and presence of renal crystals. These effects coincided with elevated urinary biomarker levels as early as day 2 of exposure. One cyanuric acid-treated rat displayed effects similar to melamine, including increased urinary biomarker levels. This work illustrates that these biomarkers can detect early effects of melamine or cyanuric acid crystal-induced nephropathy and further supports the use of urinary protein immunoassays as a powerful, non-invasive method to assess nephrotoxicity.

  2. EFFECTS OF CORDYCEPS SINENSIS PREPARATION ON BODY PROTEIN AND AMINO ACID METABOLISM IN PATIENTS AND RATS WITH CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱淳; 刘强; 左静南; 朱汉威; 马济民

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) on the metabolism of body protein and intra-extracellular amino acids in patients with chronic renal failure( CRF) , and on the rates of protein synthesis in rats with CRF. Methods In patients with CRF, free amino acid concentrations in plasma and skeletal muscle before and after CS treatment were measured by the LKB-4400 amino acid automatic analytical instrument and the changes of body protein metabolism were observed by the method of 15 N-labeled glycine.Meanwhile, the rates of protein synthesis in liver ( SL % /d ) and muscle (SM%/d) of rats with CRF were determinedd by 3f-phenylalanine radioactive tracer. Results After patients with CRF were treated by CS, the Leu, lie, Thr , Lys, Cys, Tyr concentrations in plasma approached the normal levels. In one sample of skeletal muscle the Thr and Lys concentrations approached the normal, whereas both the intracellular and extracellular Val concentrations were still remarkably decreased as compared with the normal controls. Moreover, the nitrogen flow rate (Q) , rates of protein synthesis (S) and catabolism ( C) , and amino nitrogen utilization ratio (S/Q) in patients with CRF and the SL % /d and SM%/d in rats with CRF were significantly increased as compared with those before CS treatment. Conclusion CS can notably improve the amino acid metabolism, promote the body protein synthesis in patients with CRF , and increase the rates of SL % /d and SM%/d in rats with CRF.

  3. Comprehensive analysis of 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase (ALAD variants and renal cell carcinoma risk among individuals exposed to lead.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M van Bemmel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies are reporting associations between lead exposure and human cancers. A polymorphism in the 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD gene affects lead toxicokinetics and may modify the adverse effects of lead. METHODS: The objective of this study was to evaluate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs tagging the ALAD region among renal cancer cases and controls to determine whether genetic variation alters the relationship between lead and renal cancer. Occupational exposure to lead and risk of cancer was examined in a case-control study of renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Comprehensive analysis of variation across the ALAD gene was assessed using a tagging SNP approach among 987 cases and 1298 controls. Occupational lead exposure was estimated using questionnaire-based exposure assessment and expert review. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: The adjusted risk associated with the ALAD variant rs8177796(CT/TT was increased (OR = 1.35, 95%CI = 1.05-1.73, p-value = 0.02 when compared to the major allele, regardless of lead exposure. Joint effects of lead and ALAD rs2761016 suggest an increased RCC risk for the homozygous wild-type and heterozygous alleles ((GGOR = 2.68, 95%CI = 1.17-6.12, p = 0.01; (GAOR = 1.79, 95%CI = 1.06-3.04 with an interaction approaching significance (p(int = 0.06. No significant modification in RCC risk was observed for the functional variant rs1800435(K68N. Haplotype analysis identified a region associated with risk supporting tagging SNP results. CONCLUSION: A common genetic variation in ALAD may alter the risk of RCC overall, and among individuals occupationally exposed to lead. Further work in larger exposed populations is warranted to determine if ALAD modifies RCC risk associated with lead exposure.

  4. Cajaninstilbene acid relaxes rat renal arteries: roles of Ca2+ antagonism and protein kinase C-dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mei Zhang

    Full Text Available Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA is a major active component present in the leaves of Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. The present study explores the underlying cellular mechanisms for CSA-induced relaxation in rat renal arteries. Vascular reactivity was examined in arterial rings that were suspended in a Multi Myograph System and the expression of signaling proteins was assessed by Western blotting method. CSA (0.1-10 µM produced relaxations in rings pre-contracted by phenylephrine, serotonin, 9, 11-dideoxy-9α, 11α-epoxymethanoprostaglandin F(2α (U46619, and 60 mM KCl. CSA-induced relaxations did not show difference between genders and were unaffected by endothelium denudation, nor by treatment with N(G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, indomethacin, ICI-182780, tetraethylammonium ion, BaCl(2, glibenclamide, 4-aminopyridine or propranolol. CSA reduced contraction induced by CaCl(2 (0.01-5 mM in Ca(2+-free 60 mM KCl solution and by 30 nM (--Bay K8644 in 15 mM KCl solution. CSA inhibited 60 mM KCl-induced Ca(2+ influx in smooth muscle of renal arteries. In addition, CSA inhibited contraction evoked by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, protein kinase C agonist in Ca(2+-free Krebs solution. Moreover, CSA reduced the U46619- and PMA-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC at Ser19 and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1 at Thr853 which was associated with vasoconstriction. CSA also lowered the phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKCδ at Thr505. In summary, the present results suggest that CSA relaxes renal arteries in vitro via multiple cellular mechanisms involving partial inhibition of calcium entry via nifedipine-sensitive calcium channels, protein kinase C and Rho kinase.

  5. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  6. Hypertension in paediatrics: Can pre- and post-captopril technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scans exclude renovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, I. (Hospital for Sick Children, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology); Lythgoe, M.F. (Hospital for Sick Children, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology); Gordon, I. (Hospital for Sick Children, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology)

    1993-08-01

    In children over 1 year of age, renal disease is the commonest cause of hypertension. Arteriography is considered the reference method to establish the diagnosis of enovascular disease; however, it is an invasive technique with a high radiation burden for children. This was a retrospective study of pre- and post-capto-technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) imaging compared with arteriography in 18 children between the ages of 3 and 17 years. Alone, the [sup 99m]Tc-DMSA scan is a sensitive indicator of renal parenchymal disease, although non-specific in suggesting the pathology. The combination of pre- and post-captopril studies may increase the sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of renovascular disease in the presence of hypertension. This work suggests that a screening investigation with a low radiation burden can be carried out at most institutions; if the investigation is positive, there will be a high index of suspicion that renovascular disease is the cause of the hypertension. (orig.)

  7. Chinese herbs containing aristolochic acid associated with renal failure and urothelial carcinoma: a review from epidemiologic observations to causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2014-01-01

    Herbal remedies containing aristolochic acid (AA) have been designated to be a strong carcinogen. This review summarizes major epidemiologic evidence to argue for the causal association between AA exposure and urothelial carcinoma as well as nephropathy. The exposure scenarios include the following: Belgian women taking slimming pills containing single material Guang Fang Ji, consumptions of mixtures of Chinese herbal products in the general population and patients with chronic renal failure in Taiwan, occupational exposure in Chinese herbalists, and food contamination in farming villages in valleys of the Danube River. Such an association is corroborated by detecting specific DNA adducts in the tumor tissue removed from affected patients. Preventive actions of banning such use and education to the healthcare professionals and public are necessary for the safety of herbal remedies.

  8. Chinese Herbs Containing Aristolochic Acid Associated with Renal Failure and Urothelial Carcinoma: A Review from Epidemiologic Observations to Causal Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal remedies containing aristolochic acid (AA have been designated to be a strong carcinogen. This review summarizes major epidemiologic evidence to argue for the causal association between AA exposure and urothelial carcinoma as well as nephropathy. The exposure scenarios include the following: Belgian women taking slimming pills containing single material Guang Fang Ji, consumptions of mixtures of Chinese herbal products in the general population and patients with chronic renal failure in Taiwan, occupational exposure in Chinese herbalists, and food contamination in farming villages in valleys of the Danube River. Such an association is corroborated by detecting specific DNA adducts in the tumor tissue removed from affected patients. Preventive actions of banning such use and education to the healthcare professionals and public are necessary for the safety of herbal remedies.

  9. Use of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound to Study Relationship between Serum Uric Acid and Renal Microvascular Perfusion in Diabetic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the relationship between uric acid and renal microvascular perfusion in diabetic kidney disease (DKD using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS method. Materials and Methods. 79 DKD patients and 26 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Renal function and urine protein markers were tested. DKD patients were subdivided into two groups including a normal serum uric acid (SUA group and a high SUA group. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS was performed, and low acoustic power contrast-specific imaging was used for quantitative analysis. Results. Normal controls (NCs had the highest levels of AUC, AUC1, and AUC2. Compared to the normal SUA DKD group, high SUA DKD patients had significantly higher IMAX, AUC, and AUC1 (P<0.05. DKD patients with low urinary uric acid (UUA excretion had significantly higher AUC2 compared to DKD patients with normal UUA (P<0.05. Conclusion. Hyperuricemia in DKD patients was associated with a renal ultrasound image suggestive of microvascular hyperperfusion. The CEUS parameter AUC1 holds promise as an indicator for renal microvascular hyperperfusion, while AUC2 might be a useful indicator of declining glomerular filtration rate in DKD patients with decreased excretion of uric acid.

  10. A Diet High in Meat Protein and Potential Renal Acid Load Increases Absorption and Urinary Excretion of Calcium, As Well As Serum IGF-I in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objective was to determine the effect of increasing protein and potential renal acid load (PRAL) on Ca retention and markers of bone metabolism. Methods: In a randomized crossover design, twenty postmenopausal women consumed two diets: one low protein, low PRAL (LPLP) and one high pr...

  11. New insights into the dynamic regulation of water and acid-base balance by renal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dennis; Bouley, Richard; Păunescu, Teodor G; Breton, Sylvie; Lu, Hua A J

    2012-05-15

    Maintaining tight control over body fluid and acid-base homeostasis is essential for human health and is a major function of the kidney. The collecting duct is a mosaic of two cell populations that are highly specialized to perform these two distinct processes. The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (VP) and its receptor, the V2R, play a central role in regulating the urinary concentrating mechanism by stimulating accumulation of the aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channel in the apical membrane of collecting duct principal cells. This increases epithelial water permeability and allows osmotic water reabsorption to occur. An understanding of the basic cell biology/physiology of AQP2 regulation and trafficking has informed the development of new potential treatments for diseases such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, in which the VP/V2R/AQP2 signaling axis is defective. Tubule acidification due to the activation of intercalated cells is also critical to organ function, and defects lead to several pathological conditions in humans. Therefore, it is important to understand how these "professional" proton-secreting cells respond to environmental and cellular cues. Using epididymal proton-secreting cells as a model system, we identified the soluble adenylate cyclase (sAC) as a sensor that detects luminal bicarbonate and activates the vacuolar proton-pumping ATPase (V-ATPase) via cAMP to regulate tubular pH. Renal intercalated cells also express sAC and respond to cAMP by increasing proton secretion, supporting the hypothesis that sAC could function as a luminal sensor in renal tubules to regulate acid-base balance. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of these fundamental processes.

  12. Mycophenolic acid exposure after administration of mycophenolate mofetil in the presence and absence of cyclosporin in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, Dirk R; Ekberg, Henrik; Grinyó, Josep; Nashan, Björn; Vincenti, Flavio; Snell, Paul; Mamelok, Richard D; Bouw, Rene M

    2009-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid (MPA) are complex, with large interindividual variability over time. There are also well documented interactions with cyclosporin, and assessment of MPA exposure is therefore necessary when reducing or stopping cyclosporin therapy. Here we report on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic behaviour of MPA in renal transplant patients on standard dose, reduced dose and no cyclosporin. The CAESAR study, a prospective 12-month study in primary renal allograft recipients, was designed to determine whether mycophenolate mofetil-based regimens containing either low-dose cyclosporin or low-dose cyclosporin withdrawn by 6 months could minimize nephrotoxicity and improve renal function without an increase in acute rejection compared with a mycophenolate mofetil-based regimen containing standard-dose cyclosporin. A subset of patients from the CAESAR study contributed to this pharmacokinetic analysis of MPA exposure. Blood samples were taken over one dosing interval on day 7 and at months 3, 7 and 12 post-transplantation. The sampling time points were predose, 20, 40 and 75 minutes and 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours after mycophenolate mofetil dosing. Assessments included plasma concentrations of MPA and mycophenolic acid glucuronide (MPAG) and cyclosporin trough concentrations. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0 to 12 hours (AUC(12)) for MPA was the primary pharmacokinetic parameter, and the AUC(12) for MPAG was the secondary parameter. In total, 536 de novo renal allograft recipients were randomized in the CAESAR study. Of these, 114 patients were entered into the pharmacokinetic substudy and 110 patients contributed to the pharmacokinetic analysis. There was a rapid rise in MPA concentrations (median time to peak concentration 0.72-1.25 hours). At day 7 and month 3, the MPA AUC(12) values were similar in the cyclosporin withdrawal and low-dose cyclosporin groups (patients with the same cyclosporin target

  13. Does the serum uric acid level have any relation to arterial stiffness or blood pressure in adults with congenital renal agenesis and/or hypoplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Raziye; Guney, İbrahim; Altintepe, Lutfullah; Yazici, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between serum uric acid and arterial stiffness or blood pressure is not clear. The serum uric acid level and its association with cardiovascular risk is not well known in patients with reduced renal mass. We aimed to investigate the relation between serum uric acid levels and arterial stiffness and also blood pressure in patients with congenital renal agenesis and/or hypoplasia. In this single center, cross-sectional study, a total of 55 patients (39 (% 70.9) with unilateral small kidney and 16 (%29.1) with renal agenesis) were included. The median age was 35 (21-50) years. The study population was divided into tertiles of serum uric acid (according to 2.40-3.96, 3.97-5.10, and 5.11-9.80 mg/dl cut-off values of serum uric acid levels). Official and 24-h ambulatory non-invasive blood pressures of all patients were measured. The arterial stiffness was assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV). PWV values were increased from first to third tertile (5.5 ± 0.6, 5.7 ± 0.8, 6.1 ± 0.7, respectively), but this gradual increase between tertiles did not reach significance. Linear regression analyses showed a positive correlation between serum uric acid levels and PWV (β = 0.40, p = 0.010), but no correlation was found between uric acid and daytime systolic blood pressure (β = 0.24, p = 0.345). In congenital renal agenesis/hypoplasia, the serum uric acid level was positively correlated with arterial stiffness, but there was no correlation with blood pressure.

  14. A longitudinal assessment of adherence with immunosuppressive therapy following kidney transplantation from the Mycophenolic Acid Observational REnal Transplant (MORE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapepas, Demetra; Langone, Anthony; Chan, Laurence; Wiland, Anne; McCague, Kevin; Chisholm-Burns, Marie

    2014-04-17

    Nonadherence with immunosuppressive therapy after renal transplantation is a major clinical concern, but longitudinal data are sparse. Adherence data were recorded during the Mycophenolic Acid Observational REnal Transplant (MORE) study to help inform compliance management decisions. Prospective data were analyzed from the four-year, observational MORE study of de novo adult renal transplant recipients receiving mycophenolic acid (MPA) as enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) at 40 US sites under routine management. Adherence was assessed using the Immunosuppressant Therapy Adherence Scale (ITAS): total score 0-12 (12, adherence; model was used to identify factors associated with nonadherence. In total, 808/946 recipients (85.4%) provided ≥1 ITAS score. Nonadherence was reported by 24.8%, 31.5%, 33.0%, 39.8%, 35.4% and 26.4% at months 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48, respectively. Mean ITAS score was higher with EC-MPS vs. MMF at months 24 (11.3[1.0] vs. 10.9[1.4], p=0.001) and 36 (11.4[1.0] vs. 11.1[11.3], p=0.024). The odds ratio for nonadherence was 1.60 (95% CI 1.17, 2.19; p=0.003) for African Americans vs. non-African Americans. The rate of biopsy-proven acute rejection was 12.7% (51/401) in nonadherent recipients vs. 11.3% (46/406) in adherent recipients (p=0.59); graft loss was 4.7% (19/402) vs. 3.0% (12/406) (p=0.20); death was 1.5% (6/402) vs. 4.7% (19/406) (p=0.013). Adherence to the immunosuppressive regimen decreases over time, highlighting the need to monitor and encourage adherence even in long-term maintenance kidney transplant patients. Other than African American race, demographic factors may be of limited value in predicting nonadherence.

  15. SGLT2 inhibitor lowers serum uric acid through alteration of uric acid transport activity in renal tubule by increased glycosuria

    OpenAIRE

    Chino, Yukihiro; Samukawa, Yoshishige; Sakai, Soichi; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been reported to lower the serum uric acid (SUA) level. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reduction, SUA and the urinary excretion rate of uric acid (UEUA) were analysed after the oral administration of luseogliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, to healthy subjects. After dosing, SUA decreased, and a negative correlation was observed between the SUA level and the UEUA, suggesting that SUA decreased as a result of the increase in the...

  16. Generalized Nets for the Diagnosis and Management of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Shannon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops Generalized Nets for the diagnosis and management of diabetic nephropathy. The first net accounts for the development of nephropathy from an initial increase in glomerular filtration rates through mciroalbuminuria to end stage renal disease. The second net referes to the management of diabetes mellitus to increase the probability of preventing diabetic nephropathyor minimising its effects.

  17. Continuous renal replacement therapy amino acid, trace metal and folate clearance in critically ill children

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (CVVHD) results in amino acid, trace metals, and folate losses, thereby adversely impacting nutrient balance. Critically ill children receiving CVVHD were studied prospectively for 5 days. Blood concentrations, amino acids, copper, zinc, man...

  18. Uric acid, renal function and risk of hypoglycaemia in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanfeng; Ji, Linong; Mu, Yiming; Hong, Tianpei; Ji, Qiuhe; Guo, Lixin; Huang, Qin; Yang, Xilin

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to explore independent associations between serum uric acid and hypoglycaemia, and whether mildly increased serum uric acid exacerbated the association between mild decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and hypoglycaemia. A cross-sectional survey of 6713 inpatients with type 2 diabetes and eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and admitted to 81 tertiary care hospitals in China was conducted. Self-reported asymptotic hypoglycaemia with plasma glucose ≤3.9 mmol/L, hypoglycaemia episodes with symptoms in 1 month or hypoglycaemia that needed assistance from other people in 3 months before hospitalization was used to define hypoglycaemia. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of serum uric acid for hypoglycaemia. Three measures, that is, relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction and synergy index (S) were used to estimate the effect of mildly decreased eGFR on the association of serum uric acid with hypoglycaemia. Serum uric acid was associated with hypoglycaemia in an ordinal manner (P for trend uric acid levels ≥ versus uric acid levels ≥ versus uric acid was associated with increased risk of hypoglycaemia and enhanced the association between mildly decreased eGFR and hypoglycaemia in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Renal response to acute acid loading--an organ physiological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Engel, K; Kildeberg, P

    2004-01-01

    performed in 10 healthy men using a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Arterialized capillary blood, serum and urine were collected hourly during the loading studies for the measurement of electrolytes and acid-base status. Concentrations of non-metabolizable base (NB) and acid (NA) were...

  20. Immediate and delayed effects of gill-net capture on acid-base balance and intramuscular lactate concentration of gummy sharks, Mustelus antarcticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Lorenz H; Walker, Terence I; Reina, Richard D

    2012-06-01

    Many sharks are captured as untargeted by-catch during commercial fishing operations and are subsequently discarded. A reliable assessment of the proportion of discarded sharks that die post-release as a result of excessive physiological stress is important for fisheries management and conservation purposes, but a reliable physiological predictor of post-release mortality has not been identified. To investigate effects of gill-net capture on the acid-base balance of sharks, we exposed gummy sharks, Mustelus antarcticus, to 60 min of gill-net capture in a controlled setting, and obtained multiple blood and muscle tissue samples during a 72-h recovery period following the capture event. Overall mortality of gummy sharks was low (9%). Blood pH was significantly depressed immediately after the capture event due to a combination of respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Maximum concentrations of plasma lactate (9.9 ± 1.5 mmol L(-1)) were measured 3h after the capture event. Maximum intramuscular lactate concentrations (37.0 ± 4.6 μmol g(-1)) were measured immediately after the capture event, and intramuscular lactate concentrations were substantially higher than plasma lactate concentrations at all times. Sharks in poor condition had low blood pH and high intramuscular lactate concentration, but blood pH does not appear to be a reliable predictor of survival. Suitability of intramuscular lactate concentration as predictor of delayed mortality deserves further investigation.

  1. Plasma levels and urinary excretion of amino acids by subjects with renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, Stoyanka Slavcheva; Panchev, P; Ivanova, M

    2010-05-01

    Plasma levels and urinary amino acid excretions were estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography in 15 control subjects and 36 stone formers (SFs) classified according to the stone type: (1) 22 cases with calcium oxalate stones; (2) four cases with pure uric acid stones; (3) 10 cases with magnesium-ammonium phosphate stones, either pure or mixed with apatite. Some types of stones (namely oxalate and uric acid calculi) are mainly formed as a result of a metabolic deficiency that may affect the amino acid metabolism, and thus may be reflected in the urinary amino acid pattern. Data demonstrated clearly that there is a general tendency towards decreased amino acid excretions in all SFs with all types of stones. As a whole, one can observe a higher percentage of patients with calcium oxalate and phosphate calculosis, who have low urine excretions of amino acids; about 50% are the SFs with lower urine excretion of serine, glycine, taurine and i-leucine; the high percentage of patients with CaOX calculi shows lower urine excretions of tyrosine and ornithine.

  2. Effect of adjuvantα-keto acid therapy on serum renal function indexes and nutritional status in patients with early diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Zhang; Lu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of adjuvantα-keto acid therapy on serum renal function indexes and nutritional status in patients with early diabetic nephropathy.Methods:A total of 86 patients with early diabetic nephropathy were divided into observation group and control group, control group received conventional therapy, observation group received conventional therapy + adjuvantα-keto acid therapy, and then differences in serum renal function indexes, nutrition index, vascular endothelial function indexes, micro-inflammation indexes and so on were compared between two groups of patients after 2 months of treatment.Results: Serum renal function indexes UAER level as well as BUN, SCr, CysC andβ2-MG content of observation group was lower than those of control group while GFR level was higher than that of control group; nutrition indexes ALB, PA and Hb content were higher than those of control group while nPCR level was lower than that of control group; vascular endothelial function indexes NO and CGRP content were higher than those of control group while ET-1, MCP-1 and resistin content were lower than those of control group; micro-inflammation indexes hs-CRP, IL-1β, IL-17, IL-22, TGF-β1 and SAA content were lower than those of control group. Conclusions:Adjuvantα-keto acid therapy helps to improve the renal function and nutritional status of patients with early diabetic nephropathy, and has positive significance in optimizing the overall treatment effect.

  3. Essential fatty acid supplemented diet increases renal excretion of prostaglandin E and water in essential fatty acid deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.

    1981-01-01

    Weanling male rats were fed an essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient diet for 25 weeks and then switched to an EFA-supplemented diet for 3 weeks. Control rats received the EFA-supplemented diet for 25 weeks and then the EFA-deficient diet for 3 weeks. Throughout the last 19 weeks, the rats were...

  4. The clinical significance of disordered renal excretion of xanthurenic acid in depressive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoes, M J; Sijben, N

    1981-01-01

    Xanthurenic acid is a metabolite of L-tryptophanicotinic acid ribonucleotide biosynthesis. The excretion of xanthurenic acid from urine 24 h after ingestion of 5 g L-tryptophan is increased in depressive patients, and 17-hydroxycorticosteroids are considered of primary importance to this disorder. However, in this study, the excretion of xanthurenic acid and 17-hydroxycorticosteroids did not correlate with the scores of the Raskin depression scale, Hamilton depression scale, Zung depression scale, or the Zung anxiety scale in depressive patients. The patients were treated with either pyridoxine plus L-tryptophan, a presumably serotonin-enhancing treatment (n = 10) or maprotiline, a noradrenaline-enhancing drug (n = 10). Repeated measurements showed no differences between treatments after 2 or 4 weeks of treatment. The improvement in xanthurenic acid excretion precedes clinical improvements in depression. The excretion of xanthurenic acid only at 2 weeks correlated significantly with the anxiety and depression scores at 4 weeks, making prediction of clinical improvement possible. The neurobiological mode of action on noradrenergic or serotonergic neurons of antidepressant medication is of questionable significance to their therapeutic effect.

  5. Long-term folic acid (but not pyridoxine) supplementation lowers elevated plasma homocysteine level in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, P; Chadefaux, B; Coudé, M; Aupetit, J; Kamoun, P; Jungers, P

    1996-01-01

    Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for premature atherosclerosis, is present in chronic uremic patients. We prospectively evaluated the effects of sequential supplementation with pyridoxine (70 mg/day) and folic acid (10 mg/day) for two 3-month periods in 37 nondialyzed patients (29 males) with creatinine clearance (CCr) ranging from 10 to 80 ml/min, whose plasma vitamin B12 and folate level was in the normal range. Mean (+/- SD) baseline plasma total homocysteine (Hcy) was 14.9 +/- 5.2, 16.5 +/- 5.1 and 26.1 +/- 12.1 mumol/l (upper limit in 45 healthy controls 14.1 mumol/l) in patients with CCr 40-80, 20-40 and pyridoxine Hcy did not significantly decrease whereas following folic acid Hcy decreased significantly to 9.9 +/- 2.9 (-33% vs. baseline), 10.3 +/- 3.4 (-37%) and 15.4 +/- 5.5 (-40%), respectively (Student's paired t test, p pyridoxine) pharmacologic supplementation is effective in lowering elevated plasma Hcy in chronic renal failure patients, thus suggesting that enhancing the Hcy remethylation pathway may overcome hyperhomocysteinemia in such patients. In view of the potential atherogenic effects of hyperhomocysteinemia, long-term folate supplementation should be considered in uremic patients.

  6. Serum fatty acid-binding protein 4 is a predictor of cardiovascular events in end-stage renal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Furuhashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2, a lipid chaperone, is expressed in both adipocytes and macrophages. Recent studies have shown that FABP4 is secreted from adipocytes and that FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the impact of FABP4 concentrations on prognosis. We tested the hypothesis that FABP4 level predicts prognosis of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD, a group at high risk for atherosclerosis-associated morbidity and mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Biochemical markers including FABP4 were determined in 61 ESRD patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD. Serum FABP4 level in females (404.2±30.5 ng/ml was significantly higher than that in males (315.8±30.0 ng/ml, and the levels in ESRD patients were about 20-times higher than those in age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI-matched control subjects with normal renal function. FABP4 level was decreased by 57.2% after HD and was positively correlated with blood pressure, BMI, and levels of lipids and insulin. Multiple regression analysis indicated that HD duration, BMI, and triglycerides level were independent determinants for FABP4 level. ESRD patients with high FABP4 levels had higher cardiovascular mortality during the 7-year follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that logarithmically transformed FABP4 level was an independent predictor of cardiovascular death adjusted for age, gender, HD duration, BMI, and triglycerides level (hazard ratio, 7.75; 95% CI, 1.05-25.31. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that FABP4 level, being related to adiposity and metabolic disorders, is a novel predictor of cardiovascular mortality in ESRD.

  7. Effect in the rat of the interaction of dichloromaleic acid and carbon tetrachloride on renal and hepatic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, W.R.; Davis, M.E.; Berndt, W.O. (Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Water purification generates a variety of chlorinated contaminants, one of which is dichloromaleic acid (DCMA). Exposure to this compound is likely to occur in combination with other drinking water pollutants, some of which are hepatotoxic. This study was designed to examine the interactive effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a known hepatotoxin, with DCMA on liver and kidney function in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Administration of a single dose of DCMA (200-400 mg/kg, ip) caused modest dose-dependent increases in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and plasma urea nitrogen, as well as a marked depletion of nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) in the liver, but not the kidney, by 24 hr. Pretreatment with inducers (phenobarbital or 3-methylcholanthrene) or an inhibitor (SKF 525A) of cytochrome P-450 activity failed to alter the response observed with DCMA alone. Alterations in 24-hr urine volume, osmolality, and water consumption also were observed. DCMA-mediated changes in plasma urea nitrogen and NPSH were reduced in magnitude with coadministration of CCl4 (1 ml/kg, ip), while anticipated CCl4-induced increases in ALT and AST were reduced with coexposure to DCMA. Renal slice experiments indicated that DCMA-treated rats were less able to accumulate the organic anion p-aminohippurate (PAH), whereas DCMA had no effect on accumulation of the organic cation tetraethylammonium (TEA). The combination of CCl4 and DCMA produced only additive effects on organic ion accumulation. These results suggest hepatic interaction possibly related to the metabolism of CCl4 and DCMA, resulting in renal and hepatic toxicity diminished from that observed with exposure to either agent alone.

  8. Evaluation of the renal lithiasis functional value: scintigraphy with dimercaptosuccinic acid (D.M.S.A.) versus intravenous urography (I.V.U.); Evaluation de la valeur fonctionnelle des reins lithiasiques: scintigraphie au DMSA versus UIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ajmi, W.; Slim, I.; Zaabar, L.; Ben Sellem, D.; Letaief, B.; Mhiri, A.; Ben Slimene, M.F. [Institut Salah Azaiez, Service de medecine nucleaire, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: elucidate the place of renal scintigraphy with di-mercapto-succinic acid labelled with metastable technetium 99 ({sup 99m}Tc-Dmsa) in exploration of labeled dumb or dysfunctional to intravenous urography lithiasic kidneys. Conclusions: the renal scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-Dmsa is the gold standard in evaluation of relative renal function, and particularly, in the lithiasic nephro-pathies. It allows to overcome the limitations of intravenous urography and to consolidate the surgery decision. (N.C.)

  9. Whole body acid-base modeling revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Troels; Nielsen, Søren

    2017-04-01

    The textbook account of whole body acid-base balance in terms of endogenous acid production, renal net acid excretion, and gastrointestinal alkali absorption, which is the only comprehensive model around, has never been applied in clinical practice or been formally validated. To improve understanding of acid-base modeling, we managed to write up this conventional model as an expression solely on urine chemistry. Renal net acid excretion and endogenous acid production were already formulated in terms of urine chemistry, and we could from the literature also see gastrointestinal alkali absorption in terms of urine excretions. With a few assumptions it was possible to see that this expression of net acid balance was arithmetically identical to minus urine charge, whereby under the development of acidosis, urine was predicted to acquire a net negative charge. The literature already mentions unexplained negative urine charges so we scrutinized a series of seminal papers and confirmed empirically the theoretical prediction that observed urine charge did acquire negative charge as acidosis developed. Hence, we can conclude that the conventional model is problematic since it predicts what is physiologically impossible. Therefore, we need a new model for whole body acid-base balance, which does not have impossible implications. Furthermore, new experimental studies are needed to account for charge imbalance in urine under development of acidosis.

  10. Transport of citrate across renal brush border membrane: effects of dietary acid and alkali loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, A.D.; Dousa, T.P.; Smith, L.H.

    1985-10-01

    Dietary acid or alkali loading was given to rats by providing 150 mM NH4Cl or 150 mM NaHCO3 in place of drinking water for 6 days; control animals received 150 mM NaCl. After 6 days, the citrate clearance was 0.04 +/- 0.01 ml/min (mean +/- SE) in the acid-loaded group, 0.9 +/- 0.1 ml/min in the control group, and 2.5 +/- 0.2 ml/min in the alkali-loaded group. At the end of the experiment, the rats were killed, and the Na gradient-dependent citrate uptake was measured in brush border membrane (BBM) vesicles prepared from each group. At 0.3 min, the ( UC)citrate uptake was 198 +/- 8 pmol/mg protein (mean +/- SE) in the acid-loaded group, 94 +/- 16 pmol/mg protein in the control group, and 94 +/- 13 pmol/mg protein in the alkali-loaded group. The rate of Na -independent (NaCl in medium replaced by KCl) ( UC)-citrate uptake by BBM vesicles was the same for acid-loaded, control, and alkali-loaded animals. Thus, the increased capacity of the proximal tubular BBM to transport citrate from the tubular lumen into the cell interior may be an important factor that contributes to decreased urinary citrate in the presence of metabolic acidosis induced by chronic dietary acid loading.

  11. Collectrin and ACE2 in renal and intestinal amino acid transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Dustin; Camargo, Simone M R

    2011-01-01

    Neutral amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family are expressed at the apical membrane of kidney and/or small intestine, where they (re-)absorb amino acids into the body. In this review we present the results concerning the dependence of their apical expression with their association to partner proteins. We will in particular focus on the situation of B0AT1 and B0AT3, that associate with members of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), namely Tmem27 and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), in a tissue specific manner. The role of this association in relation to the formation of a functional unit related to Na+ or amino acid transport will be assessed. We will conclude with some remarks concerning the relevance of this association to Hartnup disorder, where some mutations have been shown to differentially interact with the partner proteins.

  12. Intracellular Acid-extruding regulators and the effect of lipopolysaccharide in cultured human renal artery smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hurng Loh

    Full Text Available Homeostasis of the intracellular pH (pHi in mammalian cells plays a pivotal role in maintaining cell function. Thus far, the housekeeping Na(+-H(+ exchanger (NHE and the Na(+-HCO3(- co-transporter (NBC have been confirmed in many mammalian cells as major acid extruders. However, the role of acid-extruding regulators in human renal artery smooth muscle cells (HRASMCs remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced vascular occlusion is associated with the apoptosis, activating calpain and increased [Ca(2+]i that are related to NHE1 activity in endothelia cells. This study determines the acid-extruding mechanisms and the effect of LPS on the resting pHi and active acid extruders in cultured HRASMCs. The mechanism of pHi recovery from intracellular acidosis (induced by NH4Cl-prepulse is determined using BCECF-fluorescence in cultured HRASMCs. It is seen that (a the resting pHi is 7.19 ± 0.03 and 7.10 ± 0.02 for HEPES- and CO2/HCO3(-- buffered solution, respectively; (b apart from the housekeeping NHE1, another Na(+-coupled HCO3(- transporter i.e. NBC, functionally co-exists to achieve acid-equivalent extrusion; (c three different isoforms of NBC: NBCn1 (SLC4A7; electroneutral, NBCe1 (SLC4A4; electrogenic and NBCe2 (SLC4A5, are detected in protein/mRNA level; and (d pHi and NHE protein expression/activity are significantly increased by LPS, in both a dose- and time- dependent manner, but NBCs protein expression is not. In conclusion, it is demonstrated, for the first time, that four pHi acid-extruding regulators: NHE1, NBCn1, NBCe1 and NBCe2, co-exist in cultured HRASMCs. LPS also increases cellular growth, pHi and NHE in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  13. Intensive chromic acid burns and acute chromium poisoning with acute renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Jun; SUN Zhen; HUAN Jing-ning

    2011-01-01

    In this case report, we describe our experience of managing a patient with chemical burns caused by hot chromic acid that covered over 60% of the patient's body. The patient developed anuria 48 hours after injury. Early excision of burn eschars and hemodialysis were carried out. The patient survived after a series of comprehensive treatments, including allografting and autografting. In patients burned by hot chromic acid, excision of affected skin down to the muscle fascia should be carried out as soon as possible after injury. Dialysis to remove circulating chromium in the first 24 hours after injury is also recommended.

  14. Salvianolic Acid B Prevents Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Acute Renal Injury in Rats via the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongqiang, Liu; Shaopeng, Liu; Xiaofang, Yu; Nana, Song; Xialian, Xu; Jiachang, Hu; Ting, Zhang; Xiaoqiang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-induced acute renal injury (CI-AKI) has become a common cause of hospital-acquired renal failure. However, the development of prophylaxis strategies and approved therapies for CI-AKI is limited. Salvianolic acid B (SB) can treat cardiovascular-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of SB on prevention of CI-AKI and explore its underlying mechanisms. We examined its effectiveness of preventing renal injury in a novel CI-AKI rat model. Compared with saline, intravenous SB pretreatment significantly attenuated elevations in serum creatinine and the histological changes of renal tubular injuries, reduced the number of apoptosis-positive tubular cells, activated Nrf2, and lowered the levels of renal oxidative stress induced by iodinated contrast media. The above renoprotection of SB was abolished by the PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin). In HK-2 cells, SB activated Nrf2 and decreased the levels of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide and subsequently improved cell viability. The above cytoprotection of SB was blocked by the PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) or siNrf2. Thus, our results demonstrate that, due to its antioxidant properties, SB has the potential to effectively prevent CI-AKI via the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathway.

  15. Salvianolic Acid B Prevents Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Acute Renal Injury in Rats via the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Tongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced acute renal injury (CI-AKI has become a common cause of hospital-acquired renal failure. However, the development of prophylaxis strategies and approved therapies for CI-AKI is limited. Salvianolic acid B (SB can treat cardiovascular-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of SB on prevention of CI-AKI and explore its underlying mechanisms. We examined its effectiveness of preventing renal injury in a novel CI-AKI rat model. Compared with saline, intravenous SB pretreatment significantly attenuated elevations in serum creatinine and the histological changes of renal tubular injuries, reduced the number of apoptosis-positive tubular cells, activated Nrf2, and lowered the levels of renal oxidative stress induced by iodinated contrast media. The above renoprotection of SB was abolished by the PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin. In HK-2 cells, SB activated Nrf2 and decreased the levels of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide and subsequently improved cell viability. The above cytoprotection of SB was blocked by the PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin or siNrf2. Thus, our results demonstrate that, due to its antioxidant properties, SB has the potential to effectively prevent CI-AKI via the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathway.

  16. Application of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Explore the Role of Kidney Transporters in Renal Reabsorption of Perfluorooctanoic Acid in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Rachel Rogers; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Renal elimination and the resulting clearance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the serum exhibit pronounced sex differences in the adult rat. The literature suggests that this is largely due to hormonally regulated expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) on the apical and basolateral membranes of the proximal tubule cells that facilitate excretion and reabsorption of PFOA from the filtrate into the blood. Previously developed PBPK models of PFOA exposure in the rat have not been parameterized to specifically account for transporter-mediated renal elimination. We developed a PBPK model for PFOA in the male and female rat to explore the role of Oat1, Oat3, and Oatp1a1 in sex-specific renal reabsorption and excretion of PFOA. Descriptions of the kinetic behavior of these transporters were extrapolated from in vitro studies and the model was used to simulate time-course serum, liver, and urine data for intravenous (IV) and oral exposures in both sexes. Model predicted concentrations of PFOA in the liver, serum, and urine showed good agreement with experimental data for both the male and female rat indicating that in vitro derived physiological descriptions of transporter-mediated renal reabsorption can successfully predict sex-dependent excretion of PFOA in the rat. This study supports the hypothesis that sex-specific serum half-lives for PFOA are largely driven by expression of transporters in the kidney and contributes to the development of PBPK modeling as a tool for evaluating the role of transporters in renal clearance. PMID:26522833

  17. The effects of valproic acid on renal corpuscle of pregnant rats and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... anticonvulsant in child delivery, and the protective effects of vitamin E (Vit E) and folic acid (FA) on kidney. Sodium ... congenital malfomation in the developing fetus is 2 or 3- fold higher ... rabbits, neural tube defects in mice and hamsters, cran- ..... and embryonic damage in Balb mice (Ehlers et al., 1996),.

  18. Rapid blood clearance and lack of long-term renal toxicity of {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE enables shortening of renoprotective amino acid infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, Raghava; Eu, Peter [Centre for Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Jackson, Price [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Physical Sciences, Melbourne (Australia); Hofman, Michael S.; Hicks, Rodney J. [Centre for Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Departments of Medicine and Radiology, Melbourne (Australia); Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu [Universite Laval, Department of Radiology, Quebec City (Canada); Zannino, Diana [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Melbourne (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of shortening the recommended 4-h renoprotective amino acid infusion in patients receiving peptide receptor chemoradionuclide therapy (PRCRT) using radiosensitizing 5-fluorouracil. We evaluated the clearance of radiopeptide from the blood, long-term nephrotoxicity in patients undergoing PRCRT with the conventional 4-h amino acid infusion and renal uptake in patients receiving an abbreviated infusion. The whole-blood clearance of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-octreotate (LuTate) was measured in 13 patients receiving PRCRT. A retrospective analysis of short-term and long-term changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in 96 consecutive patients receiving a 4-h infusion was performed. Renal LuTate retention estimated using quantitative SPECT/CT in 22 cycles delivered with a 2.5-h amino acid infusion was compared with that in 72 cycles with the 4-h infusion. LuTate demonstrated biexponential blood clearance with an initial clearance half-time of 21 min. Approximately 88 % of blood activity was cleared within 2 h. With the 4-h protocol, there was no significant change in GFR (1.2 ml/min mean increase from baseline; 95 % CI -6.9 to 4.4 ml/min) and no grade 3 or 4 nephrotoxicity at the end of induction PRCRT. The long-term decline in GFR after a median follow up of 22 months was 2.2 ml/min per year. There was no significant difference in the renal LuTate retention measured in patients receiving a 2.5-h amino acid infusion compared to those who had a 4-h infusion. The greatest renal exposure to circulating radiopeptide occurs in the first 1 - 2 h after injection. This, combined with the safety of LuTate PRCRT, allows consideration of an abbreviated amino acid infusion, increasing patient convenience and reducing human resource allocation. (orig.)

  19. Application of quartz crystal nanobalance for simultaneous determination of vanillylmandelic and homovanillic acids by a net analyte signal-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Maryam; Mirmohseni, Abdolreza; Omidi, Yadollah; Farbodi, Maryam

    2009-10-01

    Homovanillic acid (HVA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) were selectively determined by quartz crystal nanobalance sensor in conjunction with net analyte signal (NAS)-based method called HLA/GO. An orthogonal design was applied for the formation of calibration and prediction sets including HVA, VMA, and some common and structurally similar urine compounds. The selection of the optimal time range involved the calculation of the NAS regression plot in any considered time window for each test sample. The searching of a region with maximum linearity of NAS regression plot (minimum error indicator) and minimum of predicted error sum of squares value was carried out by applying a moving window strategy. Based on the obtained results, the differences on the adsorption profiles in the time range between 1 and 300 s were used to determine mixtures of compounds by HLA/GO method. Several figures of merit like selectivity, sensitivity, analytical sensitivity, and limit of detection were calculated for both compounds. The results showed that the method was successfully applied for the determination of VMA and HVA.

  20. Passive permeability of salicylic acid in renal proximal S2 and S3 tubules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatton, J.Y.; Roch-Ramel, F. (Institut de Pharmacologie, Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1991-03-01

    The role of nonionic diffusion in the transport of salicylic acid across rabbit proximal S2 and S3 segments was investigated using the in vitro isolated perfused tubule technique. The ({sup 14}C) salicylic acid apparent reabsorptive permeability (P'I-b, 10(-5) cm/s) was measured at 19 degrees C with luminal solutions kept at different pH and bath maintained at pH 7.4. In S2 tubules, P'I-b was 25.0 +/- 3.5 when luminal pH was 6.0; P'I-b decreased to 8.1 +/- 1.4 and to 4.4 +/- 1.2 at a luminal pH of 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. In S3 tubules, P'I-b was 17.6 +/- 2.4, 5.3 +/- 1.1 and 3.4 +/- 1.1 at a luminal pH of 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. There was a close correlation between P'I-b and the calculated proportion of nonionized salicylic acid present at each pH, indicating that only the nonionized molecule could diffuse in our conditions. We calculated the apparent permeability of nonionic salicylic acid and found 0.248 +/- 0.032 cm/s for S2 and 0.176 +/- 0.022 cm/s for S3 tubules. These calculated permeabilities were independent of pH.

  1. Effects of forage intake level on nitrogen net flux by portal-drained viscera of mature sheep with abomasal infusion of an amino acid mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-Sabagh, M; Sugino, T; Obitsu, T; Taniguchi, K

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pattern of nitrogen (N) metabolites flux across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) of mature sheep over a wide range of forage intake, and to determine the effect of dry matter intake (DMI) on the PDV recovery of an abomasally infused amino acids (AA) mixture. Four Suffolk mature sheep (61.4 ± 3.6 kg BW) surgically fitted with abomasal cannulae and multi-catheters were fed four levels of DMI of lucerne hay cubes ranging from 0.4 to 1.6 fold the metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance. Each period lasted for 17 days: 7 days for diet adaptation, 5 days for measurement of N balance and N metabolites flux under basal pre-infusion conditions (basal phase) and 5 days for determining the recovery of the infused AA (584 mmol/day) across the PDV (infusion phase). Six sets of blood samples were collected on the last day of both basal and infusion phases. Increasing DMI increased portal release of AA and enhanced N retention. At 0.4 M and as a proportion of digested N, there was a marked drop in total AA-N release accompanied by greater ammonia-N release and urea-N uptake across the PDV. The incremental recovery ratio of infused AA across the PDV was altered with increasing DMI accounting for 0.88, 1.12, 1.23 and 1.31 at 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 M, respectively. In addition, across the individual AA, the net portal recovery ratio of infused methionine and valine increased linearly (P < 0.05) while that of phenylalanine, branched-chain AA and total essential AA tended to increase linearly (P < 0.10) with increasing DMI. These results indicated that DMI affects the net portal recovery of AA available in the small intestine of mature sheep.

  2. Apocynin improving cardiac remodeling in chronic renal failure disease is associated with up-regulation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Liu, Yu; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Jie; Cai, Qingqing; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2015-09-22

    Cardiac remodeling is one of the most common cardiac abnormalities and associated with a high mortality in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients. Apocynin, a nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor, has been showed cardio-protective effects. However, whether apocynin can improve cardiac remodeling in CRF and what is the underlying mechanism are unclear. In the present study, we enrolled 94 participants. In addition, we used 5/6 nephrectomized rats to mimic cardiac remodeling in CRF. Serum levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and its mainly metabolic enzyme-soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) were measured. The results showed that the serum levels of EETs were significantly decreased in renocardiac syndrome participants (P < 0.05). In 5/6 nephrectomized CRF model, the ratio of left ventricular weight / body weight, left ventricular posterior wall thickness, and cardiac interstitial fibrosis were significantly increased while ejection fraction significantly decreased (P < 0.05). All these effects could partly be reversed by apocynin. Meanwhile, we found during the process of cardiac remodeling in CRF, apocynin significantly increased the reduced serum levels of EETs and decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of sEH in the heart (P < 0.05). Our findings indicated that the protective effect of apocynin on cardiac remodeling in CRF was associated with the up-regulation of EETs. EETs may be a new mediator for the injury of kidney-heart interactions.

  3. Activation of SUR2B/Kir6.1-type KATP channels protects glomerular endothelial, mesangial and tubular epithelial cells against oleic acid renal damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying ZHAO; Hai WANG

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative evidence suggests that renal vascular endothelial injury play an important role in initiating and extending tubular epithelial injury and contribute to the development of ischemic acute renal failure.Our previous studies have demonstrated that iptakalim's endothelium protection is related to activation of SUR2B/Kir6.1 subtype of ATP sensitive potassium channel (KATP) in the endothelium.It has been reported that SUR2B/Kir6.1 channels are widely distributed in the tubular epithelium,glomerular mesangium,and the endothelium and the smooth muscle of blood vessels.Herein,we hypothesized that activating renal KATP channels with iptakalim might have directly neroprotective effects.In this study,glomerular endothelial,mesangial and tubular epithelial cells which are the main cell types to form nephron were exposed to oleic acid (OA) at various concentrations for 24 h.0.25 μl/ml OA could cause cellular damage of glomerular endothelium and mesangium,while 1.25μl/ml OA could lead to the injury of three types of renal cells.It was observed that pretreatment with iptakalim at concentrations of 0.1,1,10 or 100 μmol/L prevented cellular damage of glomerular endothelium and tubular epithelium,whereas iptakalim from 1 to 100 μmol/L prevented the injury of mesangial cells.Our data showed iptakalim significantly increased survived cell rates in a concentration-dependent manner,significantly antagonized by glibenclamide,a KATP blocker.Iptakalim played a protective role in the main cell types of kidney,which was consistent with natakalim,a highly selective SUR2B/Kir6.1 channel opener.Iptakalim exerted protective effects through activating SUR2B/Kir6.1 channels,suggesting a new strategy for renal injury by its endothelial and renal cell protection.

  4. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded Anthracite Mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. Field evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.; Ward, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Passive-treatment systems that route acidic mine drainage (AMD) through crushed limestone and/or organic-rich substrates have been used to remove the acidity and metals from various AMD sources, with a wide range of effects. This study evaluates treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD with limestone alone, and with organic-rich compost layered with the limestone. In the fall of 2003, a treatment system consisting of two parallel, 500-m2 downflow cells followed by a 400-m2 aerobic settling pond and wetland was installed to neutralize the AMD from the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. Each downflow cell consisted of a lower substrate layer of 1,090 metric tons (t) of dolomitic limestone (60 wt% CaCO3) and an upper layer of 300 t of calcitic limestone (95 wt% CaCO3); one of the downflow cells also included a 0.3 m thick layer of mushroom compost over the limestone. AMD with pH of 3.5-4.3, dissolved oxygen of 6.6-9.9 mg/L, iron of 1.9-5.4 mg/L, and aluminum of 0.8-1.9 mg/L flooded each cell to a depth 0.65 m above the treatment substrates, percolated through the substrates to underlying, perforated outflow pipes, and then flowed through the aerobic pond and wetland before discharging to the Schuylkill River. Data on the flow rates and chemistry of the effluent for the treatment system indicated substantial neutralization by the calcitic limestone but only marginal effects from the dolomitic limestone or compost. Because of its higher transmissivity, the treatment cell containing only limestone neutralized greater quantities of acidity than the cell containing compost and limestone. On average, the treatment system removed 62% of the influent acidity, 47% of the dissolved iron, 34% of the dissolved aluminum, and 8% of the dissolved manganese. Prior to treatment of the Bell Discharge, the Schuylkill River immediately below its confluence with the discharge had p

  5. Dietary acid load and rapid progression to end-stage renal disease of diabetic nephropathy in westernized South Asian people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, E. van den; Hospers, F.A.P.; Navis, G.; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Baak, M.A. van; Gans, R.O.B.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is now the most common cause of end-stage renal failure in many countries of the world. Despite increasing implementation of preventive treatment, the chance that an individual diabetic patient will reach end-stage renal failure has been increasing rather than decreasing during

  6. Dietary acid load and rapid progression to end-stage renal disease of diabetic nephropathy in westernized South Asian people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, E. van den; Hospers, F.A.P.; Navis, G.; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Baak, M.A. van; Gans, R.O.B.; Bakker, S.J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is now the most common cause of end-stage renal failure in many countries of the world. Despite increasing implementation of preventive treatment, the chance that an individual diabetic patient will reach end-stage renal failure has been increasing rather than decreasing during

  7. Dietary acid load and rapid progression to end-stage renal disease of diabetic nephropathy in Westernized South Asian people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Else; Hospers, Frederique; Navis, Gerjan; Engberink, Marielle F.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; van Baak, Marleen A.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is now the most common cause of end-stage renal failure in many countries of the world. Despite increasing implementation of preventive treatment, the chance that an individual diabetic patient will reach end-stage renal failure has been increasing rather than decreasing during

  8. The synergistic effect of sodium chlorite and bromochloroacetic acid on BrO3(-)-induced renal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Bull, Richard J; Fisher, Jeffery; Cotruvo, Joseph A; Cummings, Brian S

    2011-11-18

    Bromate (BrO(3)(-)) is a drinking water disinfection by-product (DBP) that induces renal cell death via DNA damage-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Drinking water contains other DBPs in addition to BrO(3)(-). We tested the effect of two of these, sodium chlorite (NaClO(2)) and bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA), on BrO(3)(-) cytotoxicity in normal rat kidney (NRK) cells. NaClO(2) and BCAA alone induced cytotoxicity at concentrations of over 20ppm, while BrO(3)(-) was only moderately cytotoxic at concentrations of 200ppm. Combining BrO(3)(-) with NaClO(2) or BCAA alone enhanced cytotoxicity 1.5-4 fold. Exposing cells to all three compounds induced synergistic-like increases in cytotoxicity. This effect did not correlate to increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS), even though all three compounds induced ROS formation alone. NaClO(2), but not BCAA, increased BrO(3)(-)-mediated DNA damage as measured by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) staining. In addition, NaClO(2), but not BCAA, decreased BrO(3)(-)-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. Both compounds increased apoptosis in the presence of BrO(3)(-) as assessed by annexin V, PI, and DAPI staining. This is in contrast to BrO(3)(-) treatment alone, which induced necrosis. Immunoblot analysis showed that both NaClO(2) and BCAA increased p38 activation; however, consistent with 8-OHdG staining, only NaClO(2) increased BrO(3)(-)-induced histone H2AX phosphorylation, a marker of DNA damage. In contrast, BCAA, but not NaClO(2), increased BrO(3)(-)-induced phosphorylation of p53. These data support the novel finding that mixtures of DBPs increase BrO(3)(-)-induced renal cell death by DNA-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and could alter how the risk of these DBPs towards humans is assessed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Hyperuricemia and renal risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazzi, Francesca; Bonino, Barbara; Ratto, Elena; Desideri, Giovambattista; Pontremoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed an association between elevated levels of uric acid and conditions correlated to chronic kidney diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebral disease, insulin resistance. Several pathogenetic mechanisms at cellular and tissue levels could justify a direct correlation between serum uric acid levels and renal damage. Growing evidence indicating a correlation between urate lowering therapy and renal morbidity could encourage the use of urate lowering therapy in primary or secondary prevention in chronic kidney disease.

  10. Post-treatment effects of erythropoietin and nordihydroguaiaretic acid on recovery from cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Won; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Lee, Soo Bong; Song, Sang Heon; Seong, Eun Young; Yang, Byeong Yun; Lee, Min Young; Sol, Mee Young

    2009-01-01

    5-lipoxygenase inhibitor and human recombinant erythropoietin might accelerate renal recovery in cisplatin-induced acute renal failure rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: 1) normal controls; 2) Cisplatin group-cisplatin induced acute renal failure (ARF) plus vehicle treatment; 3) Cisplatin+nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) group-cisplatin induced ARF plus 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor treatment; 4) Cisplatin+erythropoietin (EPO) group-cisplatin induced ARF plus erythropoietin treatment. On day 10 (after 7 daily injections of NDGA or EPO), urea nitrogen and serum Cr concentrations were significantly lower in the Cisplatin+NDGA and Cisplatin+EPO groups than in the Cisplatin group, and 24 hr urine Cr clearances were significantly higher in the Cisplatin+EPO group than in the Cisplatin group. Semi-quantitative assessments of histological lesions did not produce any significant differences between the three treatment groups. Numbers of PCNA(+) cells were significantly higher in Cisplatin, Cisplatin+NDGA, and Cisplatin+EPO groups than in normal controls. Those PCNA(+) cells were significantly increased in Cisplatin+NDGA group. These results suggest that EPO and also NDGA accelerate renal function recovery by stimulating tubular epithelial cell regeneration.

  11. Evaluation of Maize Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF, Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF, Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN, Dry Matter Intake (DMI and Net Energy for Lactation (NEL in Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Javanmard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of different intercropping combinations on some maize qualitative traits, an experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design with three replications in Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran, in 2006 and 2007. Two maize (Zea mays L. hybrids (704, 301, vetch (Vicia villosa, bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia, berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L. and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris single crops as well as intercrops of maize hybrids with legumes were used. The results showed that neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber of forage maize in intercropping with legume decreased. The lowest neutral detergent fiber (NDF was obtained from 301 hybrid-vetch mixture and 301 hybrid –bitter vetch mixture. The NDF was used to predict DMI and was negatively correlated with DMI, which means that when NDF is low the quality and DMI are high. Also, the lowest ADF content was achieved in intercropping of 301 hybrid with bitter vetch, vetch and bean. As ADF decreased there was an increment in TDN, which means that animals are able to utilize the nutrients present in the forage. In conclusion, with the decrease of NDF and ADF in intercrops, DMI, TDN and net energy for lactation (NEL content increased. Intercropping of maize with legume improved the forage quality in terms of TDN, DDM, NEL, NDF and ADF concentrations, as compared with the single cropping of maize.

  12. Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    Effects of physical changes in consistency of ruminal contents on intraruminal equilibration and net portal fluxes of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in dairy cows were studied. Four Danish Holstein cows (121 ± 17 d in milk, 591 ± 24 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula......H or milk fat percentage. Cows maintained average ventral ruminal pH of 6.65 ± 0.02, medial ruminal pH of 5.95 ± 0.04, and milk fat of 4.42 ± 0.12% with chewing time of 28.0 ± 2.1 min/kg of DM when fed short particles. The medial ruminal pool of wet particulate matter was decreased by 10.53 ± 2.29 kg...... particles. The estimated ruminal fluid flow and therefore intraruminal VFA transport between medial and ventral phase was not affected by the FPS. In conclusion, the ruminal mat pool of VFA was proportional to the size of the mat and the only detected effects of decreasing FPS were decreasing the mat size...

  13. Species variations among primates in responses to drugs which alter the renal excretion of uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fannelli, G M; Weiner, I M

    1975-05-01

    The effects of salicylate, probenecid (Benemid) and pyrazinoate on uric acid excretion were determined in clearance experiments in the chimpanzee and Cebus monkey (C. albifrons and C. apella). The results were correlated with data from these species in the literature and where possible to analogous data in man. With salicylate, the rank order of responsiveness in terms of uricosuric action was chimpanzee greater than man greater than C. albifrons = C. apella. This was true when comparisons were made on the bases of drug concentration in plasma or the rate of drug excretion per milliliter of glomerular filtrate. A similar rank order was obtained with probenecid except that C. albifrons was slightly more responsive than C. apella. The latter comparisons were on the basis of plasma concentration of drug. The chimpanzee is more susceptible to the uricosuric action of pyrazinoate than is C. apella. With salicylate and pyrazinoate, there was urate retention at levels lower than those required for a uricosuric effect. The results suggest that in comparison with man, the chimpanzee is a hyperresponder to uricosuric drugs and Cebus monkeys are hyporesponders. Therefore, these findings limit extensions of quantitative results from one species to another.

  14. Trauma renal Renal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Alves Pereira Júnior

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos uma revisão sobre trauma renal, com ênfase na avaliação radiológica, particularmente com o uso da tomografia computadorizada, que tem se tornado o exame de eleição, ao invés da urografia excretora e arteriografia. O sucesso no tratamento conservador dos pacientes com trauma renal depende de um acurado estadiamento da extensão da lesão, classificado de acordo com a Organ Injury Scaling do Colégio Americano de Cirurgiões. O tratamento conservador não-operatório é seguro e consiste de observação contínua, repouso no leito, hidratação endovenosa adequada e antibioti- coterapia profilática, evitando-se uma exploração cirúrgica desnecessária e possível perda renal. As indicações para exploração cirúrgica imediata são abdome agudo, rápida queda do hematócrito ou lesões associadas determinadas na avaliação radiológica. Quando indicada, a exploração renal após controle vascular prévio é segura, permitindo cuidadosa inspeção do rim e sua reconstrução com sucesso, reduzindo a probabilidade de nefrectomia.We present a revision of the renal trauma with emphasis in the radiographic evaluation, particularly CT scan that it has largely replaced the excretory urogram and arteriogram in the diagnostic worh-up and management of the patient with renal trauma. The successful management of renal injuries depends upon the accurate assessment of their extent in agreement with Organ Injury Scaling classification. The conservative therapy managed by careful continuous observation, bed rest, appropriate fluid ressuscitation and prophylactic antibiotic coverage after radiographic staging for severely injured kidneys can yield favorable results and save patients from unnecessary exploration and possible renal loss. The indications for immediate exploratory laparotomy were acute abdomen, rapidly dropping hematocrit or associated injuries as determinated from radiologic evaluation. When indicated, renal exploration

  15. Renal arteriography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read More Acute arterial occlusion - kidney Acute kidney failure Aneurysm Atheroembolic renal disease Blood clots Renal cell carcinoma Renal venogram X-ray Review Date 1/5/2016 Updated by: Jason Levy, ...

  16. Role of alpha-lipoic acid in the management of anemia in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nakib, Gehad A; Mostafa, Tarek M; Abbas, Tarek M; El-Shishtawy, Mamdouh M; Mabrouk, Mokhtar M; Sobh, Mohammed A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Anemia associated with chronic kidney disease is a serious complication necessitating expenditure of huge medical efforts and resources. This study investigates the role of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) in end stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. By the virtue of its antioxidative effects, ALA is expected to act as an erythropoietin (EPO) adjuvant, and also has extended beneficial effects on endothelial dysfunction. Methods Forty-four patients undergoing hemodialysis and receiving EPO were randomized into two groups: the first group received ALA 600 mg once daily for 3 months; while the other group represented the control group. Parameters measured at baseline and at end of study were hemoglobin, EPO doses, EPO resistance index (ERI), iron store indices, malondialdehyde, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), as well as routine laboratory follow-up. Results EPO doses and ERI were significantly decreased in the treatment group, while they did not change in the control group. Hemoglobin, iron store indices, malondialdehyde, oxidized ox-LDL, IL-6, TNF-α, and ADMA were similar in both treatment and control groups at baseline, and did not change by the end of study period. Likewise, routine laboratory measures were not affected by the treatment. Conclusion ALA could be used in hemodialysis patients to reduce requirements for EPO. However, larger and longer term studies are required to clarify the exact role of ALA in hemodialysis as well as in pre-hemodialysis patients. PMID:24023521

  17. Acid-Base Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S

    2015-12-07

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3(-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys.

  18. Effect of reduced renal mass on renal ammonia transporter family, Rh C glycoprotein and Rh B glycoprotein, expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Baylis, Chris; Verlander, Jill W; Han, Ki-Hwan; Reungjui, Sirirat; Handlogten, Mary E; Weiner, I David

    2007-10-01

    Kidneys can maintain acid-base homeostasis, despite reduced renal mass, through adaptive changes in net acid excretion, of which ammonia excretion is the predominant component. The present study examines whether these adaptations are associated with changes in the ammonia transporter family members, Rh B glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C glycoprotein (Rhcg). We used normal Sprague-Dawley rats and a 5/6 ablation-infarction model of reduced renal mass; control rats underwent sham operation. After 1 wk, glomerular filtration rate, assessed as creatinine clearance, was decreased, serum bicarbonate was slightly increased, and Na(+) and K(+) were unchanged. Total urinary ammonia excretion was unchanged, but urinary ammonia adjusted for creatinine clearance, an index of per nephron ammonia metabolism, increased significantly. Although reduced renal mass did not alter total Rhcg protein expression, both light microscopy and immunohistochemistry with quantitative morphometric analysis demonstrated hypertrophy of both intercalated cells and principal cells in the cortical and outer medullary collecting duct that was associated with increased apical and basolateral Rhcg polarization. Rhbg expression, analyzed using immunoblot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and measurement of cell-specific expression, was unchanged. We conclude that altered subcellular localization of Rhcg contributes to adaptive changes in single-nephron ammonia metabolism and maintenance of acid-base homeostasis in response to reduced renal mass.

  19. Heart rate variability and n-3 fatty acids in patients with chronic renal failure--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J H; Aarøe, J; Knudsen, N; Dideriksen, K; Kornerup, H J; Dyerberg, J; Schmidt, E B

    1998-02-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) often have autonomic cardiac dysfunction, which can be assessed by measuring heart rate variability (HRV). This dysfunction prediposes the patients to sudden cardiac death. This study describes 24-hour HRV in patients with CRF compared to HRV in patients with a previous myocardial infarction (MI). Furthermore, associations between HRV in patients with CRF and the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in cell membranes were examined, because n-3 PUFA may improve HRV. Twenty-nine patients with CRF treated with dialysis were enrolled. A 24-hour Holter recording was obtained at baseline and the HRV variables, RR (= mean of all normal RR intervals during the 24-hour recording) and SDNN (= standard deviation of all normal RR intervals in the entire 24-hour recording) were analyzed. Also, granulocyte fatty acid composition was determined. The patients were allocated to dietary supplementation with either 5.2 g of n-3 PUFA or a placebo oil (olive oil) daily for 12 weeks in a double-blind design. At the end of the supplementation period the Holter recording and blood sampling were repeated. At baseline the CRF patients' mean SDNN ws 86 ms compared to 118 ms (p < 0.01) in patients with a previous MI. After supplementation with either n-3 PUFA or placebo a highly significant correlation was observed between the content of n-3 PUFA in cell membranes and HRV (r = 0.71, p < 0.01). Furthermore, when the patients were dichotomized according to their mean SDNN, it was found, that those with the highest SDNN had a higher content of n-3 PUFA in cell membranes compared to those with the lowest SDNN (7.8% vs 4.2%, p < 0.05). In conclusion, HRV was decreased in CRF patients indicating a cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. The positive correlation between the n-3 PUFA content in cell membranes and HRV suggests that the effects of an increased intake of n-3 PUFA in CRF patients should be further studied.

  20. Role of alpha-lipoic acid in the management of anemia in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Nakib GA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gehad A El-Nakib,1 Tarek M Mostafa,2 Tarek M Abbas,4 Mamdouh M El-Shishtawy,3 Mokhtar M Mabrouk,2 Mohammed A Sobh41Mansoura University Hospitals, Mansoura, Egypt; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 4Urology and Nephrology Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, EgyptIntroduction: Anemia associated with chronic kidney disease is a serious complication necessitating expenditure of huge medical efforts and resources. This study investigates the role of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA in end stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. By the virtue of its antioxidative effects, ALA is expected to act as an erythropoietin (EPO adjuvant, and also has extended beneficial effects on endothelial dysfunction.Methods: Forty-four patients undergoing hemodialysis and receiving EPO were randomized into two groups: the first group received ALA 600 mg once daily for 3 months; while the other group represented the control group. Parameters measured at baseline and at end of study were hemoglobin, EPO doses, EPO resistance index (ERI, iron store indices, malondialdehyde, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, as well as routine laboratory follow-up.Results: EPO doses and ERI were significantly decreased in the treatment group, while they did not change in the control group. Hemoglobin, iron store indices, malondialdehyde, oxidized ox-LDL, IL-6, TNF-α, and ADMA were similar in both treatment and control groups at baseline, and did not change by the end of study period. Likewise, routine laboratory measures were not affected by the treatment.Conclusion: ALA could be used in hemodialysis patients to reduce requirements for EPO. However, larger and longer term studies are required to clarify the exact role of ALA in hemodialysis as well as in pre-hemodialysis patients

  1. Homocysteine, fibrinogen, and lipoprotein(a) levels are simultaneously reduced in patients with chronic renal failure treated with folic acid, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruszewicz, M; Klinke, M; Dziewanowski, K; Staniewicz, A; Bukowska, H

    2001-02-01

    Ischemic heart disease and other complications of atherosclerosis are the usual cause of death in patients with chronic renal failure. Important factors associated with early onset of atherosclerosis in these patients are hyperhomocysteinemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and elevated levels of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)). Folic acid (15 mg/d), pyridoxine (150 mg/d), and cyanocobalamin (1 mg/wk) were administered for 4 weeks in 21 patients receiving dialysis, and a simultaneous, statistically significant reduction in the concentration of homocysteine, fibrinogen, and Lp(a) was found. A positive correlation between decreasing homocysteine and fibrinogen levels was also noted. The parameters studied approached presupplementation values 6 months after vitamins were discontinued. The results suggest that vitamin supplementation has a favorable effect on risk factors of atherosclerosis in patients with renal failure and that interactions may exist between homocysteine, fibrinogen, and Lp(a).

  2. Serum uric acid is a GFR-independent long-term predictor of acute and chronic renal insufficiency: the Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Kidney disease is commonly accompanied by hyperuricemia. However, the contribution of serum uric acid (SUA) to kidney injury is debated. Our objective was to assess the long-term prediction of renal failure by SUA. Methods. Visit 2 participants in the Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic cohort with normal baseline kidney function were followed for 24–28 years. SUA levels were assessed for associations with acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic renal failure (CRF) as defined by hospital discharge records, and mortality, ascertained through linkage with the national population registry. Results. Among 2449 eligible participants (1470 men, 979 women aged 35–78 years in 1976–79), SUA was positively linked with male sex, serum creatinine and components of the metabolic syndrome but was lower in smokers and in diabetic subjects. The 22- to 25-year incidence of hospital-diagnosed kidney failure (145 first events, 67% CRF) and the 24- to 28-year mortality (587 events) were higher in subject with hyperuricemia (>6.5 mg/dL in men and >5.3 mg/dL in women, reflecting the upper quintiles), independent of baseline kidney function and covariates. Hyperuricemia conferred adjusted hazard ratios of 1.36 (P = 0.003), 2.14 (P < 0.001) and 2.87 (P = 0.003) for mortality, CRF and ARF, respectively. Conclusions. SUA predicts renal failure incidence and all-cause mortality independently of demographic and clinical covariates. These results lend support to the undertaking of clinical trials to examine the effect of uric acid-lowering strategies on kidney outcomes. PMID:21220750

  3. Targeting Uric Acid and the Inhibition of Progression to End-Stage Renal Disease--A Propensity Score Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunya Uchida

    Full Text Available The role of uric acid (UA in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD remains controversial due to the unavoidable cause and result relationship. This study was aimed to clarify the independent impact of UA on the subsequent risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD by a propensity score analysis.A retrospective CKD cohort was used (n = 803. Baseline 23 covariates were subjected to a multivariate binary logistic regression with the targeted time-averaged UA of 6.0, 6.5 or 7.0 mg/dL. The participants trimmed 2.5 percentile from the extreme ends of the cohort underwent propensity score analyses consisting of matching, stratification on quintile and covariate adjustment. Covariate balances after 1:1 matching without replacement were tested for by paired analysis and standardized differences. A stratified Cox regression and a Cox regression adjusted for logit of propensity scores were examined.After propensity score matching, the higher UA showed elevated hazard ratios (HRs by Kaplan-Meier analysis (≥ 6.0 mg/dL, HR 4.53, 95%CI 1.79-11.43; ≥ 6.5 mg/dL, HR 3.39, 95%CI 1.55-7.42; ≥ 7.0 mg/dL, HR 2.19, 95%CI 1.28-3.75. The number needed to treat was 8 to 9 over 5 years. A stratified Cox regression likewise showed significant crude HRs (≥ 6.0 mg/dL, HR 3.63, 95%CI 1.25-10.58; ≥ 6.5 mg/dL, HR 3.46, 95%CI 1.56-7.68; ≥ 7.0 mg/dL, HR 2.05, 95%CI 1.21-3.48. Adjusted HR lost its significance at 6.0 mg/dL. The adjustment for the logit of the propensity scores showed the similar results but with worse model fittings than the stratification method. Upon further adjustment for other covariates the significance was attained at 6.5 mg/dL.Three different methods of the propensity score analysis showed consistent results that the higher UA accelerates the progression to the subsequent ESRD. A stratified Cox regression outperforms other methods in generalizability and adjusting for residual bias. Serum UA should be targeted less than 6.5 mg/dL.

  4. Statistical tools for dose individualization of mycophenolic acid and tacrolimus co-administered during the first month after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musuamba, Flora T; Mourad, Michel; Haufroid, Vincent; De Meyer, Martine; Capron, Arnaud; Delattre, Isabelle K; Verbeeck, Roger K; Wallemacq, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    To predict simultaneously the area under the concentration-time curve during one dosing interval [AUC(0,12 h)] for mycophenolic acid (MPA) and tacrolimus (TAC), when concomitantly used during the first month after transplantation, based on common blood samples. Data were from two different sources, real patient pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles from 65 renal transplant recipients and 9000 PK profiles simulated from previously published models on MPA or TAC in the first month after transplantation. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and Bayesian estimation using optimal samples were performed to predict MPA and TAC AUC(0,12 h) based on two concentrations. The following models were retained: AUC(0,12 h) = 16.5 + 4.9 × C1.5 + 6.7 × C3.5 (r(2) = 0.82, rRMSE = 9%, with simulations and r(2) = 0.66, rRMSE = 24%, with observed data) and AUC(0,12 h) = 24.3 + 5.9 × C1.5 + 12.2 × C3.5 (r(2) = 0.94, rRMSE = 12.3%, with simulations r(2) = 0.74, rRMSE = 15%, with observed data) for MPA and TAC, respectively. In addition, bayesian estimators were developed including parameter values from final models and values of concentrations at 1.5 and 3.5 h after dose. Good agreement was found between predicted and reference AUC(0,12 h) values: r(2) = 0.90, rRMSE = 13% and r(2) = 0.97, rRMSE = 5% with simulations for MPA and TAC, respectively and r(2) = 0.75, rRMSE = 11% and r(2) = 0.83, rRMSE = 7% with observed data for MPA and TAC, respectively. Statistical tools were developed for simultaneous MPA and TAC therapeutic drug monitoring. They can be incorporated in computer programs for patient dose individualization. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Analysis of the regulation of fatty acid binding protein 7 expression in human renal carcinoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyama Takayuki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC will depend on the development of better biomarkers for predicting disease progression and aiding the design of appropriate therapies. One such marker may be fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7, also known as B-FABP and BLBP, which is expressed normally in radial glial cells of the developing central nervous system and cells of the mammary gland. Melanomas, glioblastomas, and several types of carcinomas, including RCC, overexpress FABP7. The abundant expression of FABP7 in primary RCCs compared to certain RCC-derived cell lines may allow the definition of the molecular components of FABP7's regulatory system. Results We determined FABP7 mRNA levels in six RCC cell lines. Two were highly expressed, whereas the other and the embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293 were weakly expressed FABP7 transcripts. Western blot analysis of the cell lines detected strong FABP7 expression only in one RCC cell line. Promoter activity in the RCC cell lines was 3- to 21-fold higher than that of HEK293. Deletion analysis demonstrated that three FABP7 promoter regions contributed to upregulated expression in RCC cell lines, but not in the HEK293 cell. Competition analysis of gel shifts indicated that OCT1, OCT6, and nuclear factor I (NFI bound to the FABP7 promoter region. Supershift experiments indicated that BRN2 (POU3F2 and NFI bound to the FABP7 promoter region as well. There was an inverse correlation between FABP7 promoter activity and BRN2 mRNA expression. The FABP7-positive cell line's NFI-DNA complex migrated faster than in other cell lines. Levels of NFIA mRNA were higher in the HEK293 cell line than in any of the six RCC cell lines. In contrast, NFIC mRNA expression was lower in the HEK293 cell line than in the six RCC cell lines. Conclusions Three putative FABP7 promoter regions drive reporter gene expression in RCC cell lines, but not in the HEK293 cell line. BRN2 and NFI may be key

  6. Comparison of magnetic resonance urography to dimercaptosuccinic acid scan for the identification of renal parenchyma defects in children with vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerwinka, W H; Grattan-Smith, J D; Jones, R A; Haber, M; Little, S B; Blews, D E; Williams, J P; Kirsch, A J

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan to magnetic resonance urography (MRU) in the identification of renal parenchyma defects (RPD). Twenty-five children with history of acute pyelonephritis and vesicoureteral reflux underwent DMSA scan and MRU to determine the presence of RPD. DMSA scans and MRUs were each evaluated by two radiologists and agreement achieved by consensus. Discordant DMSA-MRU findings were re-evaluated in a side-by-side comparison and an ultimate consensus reached. The ultimate consensus diagnosis was 18 kidneys with RPDs in 15 patients, of which five were classified as mild RPDs, six as moderate RPDs, and seven as severe RPDs. Although DMSA scan and MRU were similar in their ability to diagnose RPDs, MRU was considered to represent the true diagnosis in 11 of the 12 discordant cases in consensus review by four pediatric radiologists. MRU showed a much higher inter-observer agreement with a weighted kappa of 0.96 for both kidneys compared to 0.71 for the right kidney and 0.86 for the left kidney by DMSA scan. Our results suggest that MRU is superior to DMSA scan in the identification of renal parenchyma defects. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tc-99 m diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA): is it reliable for assessment of methotrexate-induced cumulative effect on renal filtration in rheumatoid arthritis patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Amr; Effat, Dina; Goher, Nabila; Ramadan, Basma

    2013-12-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is commonly employed as the initial DMARD used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We aimed to contribute to the safety profile of MTX by assessing its cumulative effect on renal filtration. A total of 52 RA adult female patients with normal baseline serum creatinine and GFR at the initial diagnosis of the disease were included. Group 1 (G1) included 30 patients (mean age 40.4 ± 4.4 years) on MTX and NSAIDS, while 22 RA patients (mean age 38.5 ± 8.2 years) who received NSAIDs only served as control group (G2). Renal function was assessed by GFR measurement using technetium diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (Tc-99 m DTPA) at a point of the study time corresponding to disease duration. Twenty-one out of thirty (70 %) in G1 showed reduced GFR compared to 6/22 (27.3 %) in G2 (P = 0.007), with 3.3 ± 0.5 % annual reduction in GFR. Reduced GFR in G1 showed significant negative correlation with age (r = -0.396, P = 0.005), MTX cumulative dose (r = -0.263, P = 0.049), MTX-intake duration (r = -0.293, P = 0.031) and NSAIDs-intake duration (r = -0.344, P = 0.014). Low-dose MTX has a slow cumulative effect on renal filtration manifested by GFR reduction overtime that could be monitored by Tc-99 m DTPA.

  8. Hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism in diabetic patients with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande Villoria, J; Macias Nunez, J F; Miralles, J M; De Castro del Pozo, S; Tabernero Romo, J M

    1988-01-01

    Plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone levels and renal tubular capacity to excrete hydrogen ions were studied in 13 patients suffering from diabetes mellitus with a creatinine clearance of less than 40 ml/min. The results were compared with those obtained in a control group, in a group of nondiabetic subjects with chronic renal failure (CRF) and in a group of diabetic patients without CRF. Twelve of the thirteen diabetic patients with CRF had data characteristic of hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism associated with type IV renal tubular acidosis. On comparing the results with those of the other two groups of patients, it was observed that the manifestations of the latter two groups considered separately were different from those of the problem group, although in the diabetic patients with normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) hyporeninism but not hypoaldosteronism was present accompanied by a lower net acid excretion (p less than 0.001) due to a lower excretion of NH4 (p less than 0.05) and titratable acid (p less than 0.001) when the patients were challenged with an NH4Cl overload. We believe that a conjunction of diabetes and renal failure is necessary for the diabetic patients with a decrease in GFR to show hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism and type IV tubular acidosis.

  9. Gallic acid ameliorates renal functions by inhibiting the activation of p38 MAPK in experimentally induced type 2 diabetic rats and cultured rat proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Amjid; Ahsan, Haseeb; Mujeeb, Mohd; Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad

    2015-10-05

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients that accounts for about 40% of deaths in type 2 diabetes. p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), a serine-threonine kinase, plays an important role in tissue inflammation and is known to be activated under conditions of oxidative stress and hyperglycemia. The role of p38 MAPK has been demonstrated in DN, and its inhibition has been suggested as an alternative approach in the treatment of DN. In the present study, we investigated the nephroprotective effects of an anti-inflammatory phenolic compound, gallic acid (GA, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), in high fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) induce type 2 diabetic wistar albino rats. GA (25 mg/kgbw and 50 mg/kgbw, p.o.) treatment for 16 weeks post induction of diabetes led to a significant reduction in the levels of blood glucose, HbA1c, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and proteinuria as well as a significant reduction in the levels of creatinine clearance. GA significantly inhibited the renal p38 MAPK and nuclear factor kappa B (N-κB) activation as well as significantly reduced the levels of renal transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and fibronectin. Treatment with GA resulted in a significant reduction in the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines viz. interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Moreover, GA significantly lowered renal pathology and attenuated renal oxidative stress. In cultured rat NRK 52E proximal tubular epithelial cells, GA treatment inhibited high glucose induced activation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB as well as suppressed proinflammatory cytokine synthesis. The results of the present study provide in vivo and in vitro evidences that the p38 MAPK pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DN, and GA attenuates the p38 MAPK-mediated renal dysfunction in HFD/STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats.

  10. Dietary fish oil reduces glomerular injury and elevated renal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid levels in the JCR:LA-cp rat, a model of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukema, Harold M; Lu, Jing; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D

    2013-07-14

    We have previously shown nutritional intervention with fish oil (n-3 PUFA) to reduce numerous complications associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the JCR:LA-corpulent (cp) rat. In the present study, we sought to explore the potential role of fish oil to prevent glomerulosclerosis in JCR:LA-cp rats via renal eicosanoid metabolism and lipidomic analysis. Male lean and MetS JCR:LA-cp rats were fed a lipid-balanced diet supplemented with fish oil (5 or 10 % of total fat). After 16 weeks of feeding, albuminuria was significantly reduced in MetS rats supplemented with 5 or 10 % fish oil ( - 53 and - 70 %, respectively, compared with the untreated MetS rats). The 5 % fish oil diet resulted in markedly lower glomerulosclerosis ( - 43 %) in MetS rats and to a lesser extent in those supplemented with 10 % fish oil. Interestingly, untreated MetS rats had higher levels of 11- and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE) v. lean rats. Dietary fish oil reduced these levels, as well as other (5-, 9- and 15-) HETE. Whilst genotype did not alter prostanoid levels, fish oil reduced endogenous renal levels of 6-keto PGF1α (PGI2 metabolite), thromboxane B2 (TxB2), PGF2α and PGD2 by approximately 60 % in rats fed 10 % fish oil, and TxB2 ( - 50 %) and PGF2α ( - 41 %) in rats fed 5 % fish oil. In conclusion, dietary fish oil prevented glomerular damage in MetS rats and mitigated the elevation in renal HETE levels. These results suggest a potential role for dietary fish oil to improve dysfunctional renal eicosanoid metabolism associated with kidney damage during conditions of the MetS.

  11. Effects of the Nrf2 Protein Modulator Salvianolic Acid A Alone or Combined with Metformin on Diabetes-associated Macrovascular and Renal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Yan, Yu; Ma, Lin-Lin; Hou, Bi-Yu; He, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Li; Niu, Zi-Ran; Song, Jun-Ke; Pang, Xiao-Cong; Yang, Xiu-Ying; Du, Guan-Hua

    2016-10-14

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is considered a promising target against diabetic complications such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetic nephropathy. Herein, we investigated the effects of a potential Nrf2 modulator, salvianolic acid A (SAA), which is a natural polyphenol, on diabetes-associated macrovascular and renal injuries in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Given that lowering glucose is the first objective of diabetic patients, we also examined the effects of SAA combined with metformin (MET) on both complications. Our results showed that SAA significantly increased the macrovascular relaxation response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside in diabetic mice. Interestingly, treatment with SAA alone only provided minor protection against renal injury, as reflected by minor improvements in impaired renal function and structure, despite significantly reduced oxidative stress observed in the diabetic kidney. We demonstrated that decreased oxidative stress and NF-κB p65 expression were associated with SAA-induced expression of Nrf2-responsive antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone) 1 (NQO-1), and glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) in vivo or in vitro, which suggested that SAA was a potential Nrf2 modulator. More significantly, compared with treatment with either SAA or MET alone, we found that their combination provided further protection against the macrovascular and renal injury, which was at least partly due to therapeutic activation of both MET-mediated AMP-activated protein kinase and SAA-mediated Nrf2/antioxidant-response element pathways. These findings suggested that polyphenol Nrf2 modulators, especially combined with drugs activating AMP-activated protein kinase, including hypoglycemic drugs, are worthy of further investigation to combat diabetic complications.

  12. Ferulic Acid Attenuates TGF-β1-Induced Renal Cellular Fibrosis in NRK-52E Cells by Inhibiting Smad/ILK/Snail Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-gang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal fibrosis is a common cause of renal dysfunction with chronic kidney disease. Central to this process is epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT of proximal tubular epithelial cells driven by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 signaling. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Ferulic acid (FA on EMT of renal proximal tubular epithelial cell line (NRK-52E induced by TGF-β1 and to elucidate its underlying mechanism against EMT related to TGF-β1/Smads pathway. The NRK-52E cells were treated for 48 h with TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL in different concentrations of FA (0 to 200 µM. Fibronectin, a mesenchymal marker, was assessed by western blotting. Western blotting was also used to examine the EMT markers (E-cadherin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, signal transducer (p-Smad2/3, and EMT initiator (Snail. ILK was also assayed by western blotting. The results showed that TGF-β1 induced spindle-like morphological transition in NRK-52E cells. Smad2/3 signaling pathway activation, increased fibronectin, α-SMA, ILK, and Snail expression, and decreased E-cadherin expression in TGF-β1-treated NRK-52E cells. FA efficiently blocked P-Smad2/3 activation and attenuated all these EMT changes induced by TGF-β1. These findings suggest that FA may serve as a potential fibrosis antagonist for renal proximal tubule cells by inhibiting EMT process.

  13. Modeling and Simulation for Estimating the Influence of Renal Dysfunction on the Hypouricemic Effect of Febuxostat in Hyperuricemic Patients Due to Overproduction or Underexcretion of Uric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Toshinori; Kimura, Toshimi; Echizen, Hirotoshi

    2016-01-01

    Whether renal dysfunction influences the hypouricemic effect of febuxostat, a xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor, in patients with hyperuricemia due to overproduction or underexcretion of uric acid (UA) remains unclear. We aimed to address this question with a modeling and simulation approach. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of febuxostat were analyzed using data from the literature. A kinetic model of UA was retrieved from a previous human study. Renal UA clearance was estimated as a function of creatinine clearance (CLcr) but non-renal UA clearance was assumed constant. A reversible inhibition model for bovine XO was adopted. Integrating these kinetic formulas, we developed a PK-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model for estimating the time course of the hypouricemic effect of febuxostat as a function of baseline UA level, febuxostat dose, treatment duration, body weight, and CLcr. Using the Monte Carlo simulation method, we examined the performance of the model by comparing predicted UA levels with those reported in the literature. We also modified the models for application to hyperuricemia due to UA overproduction or underexcretion. Thirty-nine data sets comprising 735 volunteers or patients were retrieved from the literature. A good correlation was observed between the hypouricemic effects of febuxostat estimated by our PK-PD model and those reported in the articles (observed) (r=0.89, p<0.001). The hypouricemic effect was estimated to be augmented in patients with renal dysfunction irrespective of the etiology of hyperuricemia. While validation in clinical studies is needed, the modeling and simulation approach may be useful for individualizing febuxostat doses in patients with various clinical characteristics.

  14. Grandma's TUM-my Trouble: A Case Study in Renal Physiology and Acid-Base Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    This case study involves the role of the kidneys in regulating blood pH and electrolytes. The case was used near the end of a two-semester Human Anatomy and Physiology course sequence, during the time when renal physiology was under study. Groups of two to three students were given the case and associated information (lab values, etc.). Students…

  15. Grandma's TUM-my Trouble: A Case Study in Renal Physiology and Acid-Base Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    This case study involves the role of the kidneys in regulating blood pH and electrolytes. The case was used near the end of a two-semester Human Anatomy and Physiology course sequence, during the time when renal physiology was under study. Groups of two to three students were given the case and associated information (lab values, etc.). Students…

  16. Renal Osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Metin Terzibaşoğlu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency is a functional definition which is characterized by irreversible and progressive decreasing in renal functions. This impairment is in collaboration with glomeruler filtration rate and serum creatinine levels. Besides this, different grades of bone metabolism disorders develop in chronic renal insufficiency. Pathologic changes in bone tissue due to loss of renal paranchyme is interrelated with calcium, phosphorus vitamine-D and parathyroid hormone. Clinically we can see high turnover bone disease, low turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis and osteoporosis in renal osteodystropy. In this article we aimed to review pathology of bone metabolism disorders due to chronic renal insufficiency, clinic aspects and treatment approaches briefly.

  17. Panel-reactive antibody levels and renal transplantation rates in sensitized patients after desensitization and human leucocyte antigen amino acid residue matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wenjun; Dong, Laidong; Feng, Guiwen; Wang, Yue; Pang, Xinlu; Li, Jinfeng; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Weihong

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether a new desensitization protocol (mycophenolate mofetil [MMF], plasmapheresis and antithymocyte globulin [ATG], complemented with human leucocyte antigen [HLA] amino acid residue matching) could reduce panel-reactive antibody (PRA) levels in sensitized patients, to facilitate successful renal transplantation. Patients awaiting transplantation with PRA levels >10% received treatment with MMF; those with PRA levels >30% were also treated with plasmapheresis. Patients whose PRA level was desensitization were eligible for transplantation. When a donor became available, traditional HLA matching and HLA amino acid residue matching were performed. All patients received ATG induction therapy postoperatively. Thirty-two sensitized patients were enrolled. Desensitization produced a significant decrease in PRA levels; 27 patients (84.4%) became eligible for transplantation and 26 (81.2%) subsequently underwent successful transplantation. Residue matching improved the proportion with a mismatch number of 0-1 from 7.7% to 65.4%, compared with traditional HLA matching. Postoperatively, all patients showed immediate graft function. Acute rejection occurred in three patients (11.5%) and infections in seven patients (25.9%); all were treated successfully. The combination of a desensitization protocol (MMF, plasmapheresis and ATG) and residue matching appears to be an effective strategy for sensitized patients awaiting renal transplantation.

  18. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  19. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  20. Effect of resistant starch on net portal-drained viscera flux of glucose, volatile fatty acids, urea, and ammonia in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Bakker, G.C.M.; Bakker, J.G.M.; Visser, de H.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Everts, H.

    1997-01-01

    Net portal-drained viscera (PDV) flux of glucose, VFA, ammonia, and urea was determined in pigs fed diets with or without resistant starch. Diets consisted of 65% cornstarch (diet CS), 32.5% cornstarch and 32.5% raw potato starch (diet CPS), or 65% raw potato starch (diet PS); the remaining 35% supp

  1. Renal lithiasis and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Costa-Bauza, Antonia; Prieto, Rafel M

    2006-09-06

    Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified through diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins) and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine) is discussed.

  2. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Rafel M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine is discussed.

  3. Bonding the foe – NETting neutrophils immobilize the pro-inflammatory monosodium urate crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eSchorn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of sodium, uric acid from purine metabolism precipitates as monosodium urate (MSU needles and forms renal calculi or causes gouty arthritis in kidneys and joints, respectively. The latter is characterized by red, hot and swollen arthritic joints.Here we report the in vitro effect of MSU crystals on blood granulocytes and analyse their contribution to granuloma formation and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs formation (NETosis in synovial fluid of patients with gouty arthritis in vivo. We observed that MSU crystals induce NETosis in vitro in a reactive oxygen species (ROS-dependent manner. Indeed, blocking ROS (e.g. the oxidative burst by various antioxidants partially inhibited NETosis induced by MSU crystals. Analyses of synovial fluids and of tissue sections of patients suffering from gout revealed that NETs are also formed in vivo, especially during acute gouty flares and/or granuloma formation. Since prolonged exposure to NETs carries the risk for the development of chronic inflammation we also studied the opsonisation of NETs, as a prerequisite for their clearance. The established dead cells’ opsonins C3b, galectin-9 and CRP decorated the residual dead cells` corpses and opsonized these for disposal. Surprisingly, all three soluble pattern recognizing molecules spared the spread NET structures. We conclude that (I MSU crystals are strong inducers of ROS-dependent NETosis and (II that the prolonged presence of NET-pathogen or NET-crystal aggregates observed in patients with systemic autoimmunity, especially in those with low serum DNase-1 activity, cannot be compensated by CRP, complement and galectin mediated phagocytic clearance.

  4. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on ruminal metabolism, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal acid-base regulation in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C M M R; Arcari, M A; Welter, K C; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on ruminal fermentation, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows were distributed in four contemporary 4×4 Latin Square designs, which consisted of four periods of 21 days and four treatments according to DCAD: +290; +192; +98 and -71 milliequivalent (mEq)/kg dry matter (DM). Ruminal pH and concentrations of acetic and butyric acid increased linearly according to the increase of DCAD. Similarly, NDF total apparent digestibility linearly increased by 6.38% when DCAD increased from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM [Y=65.90 (SE=2.37)+0.0167 (SE=0.0068)×DCAD (mEq/kg DM)]. Blood pH was also increased according to DCAD, which resulted in reduction of serum concentrations of Na, K and ionic calcium (iCa). To maintain the blood acid-base homeostasis, renal metabolism played an important role in controlling serum concentrations of Na and K, since the Na and K urinary excretion increased linearly by 89.69% and 46.06%, respectively, from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM. Changes in acid-base balance of biological fluids may directly affect the mineral composition of milk, as milk concentrations of Na, K, iCa and chlorides were reduced according to blood pH increased. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase of DCAD raises the pH of ruminal fluid, NDF total apparent digestibility, and blood pH, and decreases the milk concentration of cationic minerals, as well as the efficiency of Na utilization to milk production.

  5. Renal transepithelial transport of nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J A; Vidale, E; Enigbokan, M

    1988-01-01

    Previous work from this and other laboratories has suggested that the mammalian kidney has unique mechanisms for handling purine nucleosides. For example, in humans and in mice, adenosine undergoes net renal reabsorption whereas deoxyadenosine is secreted [Kuttesch and Nelson: Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 8, 221 (1982)]. The relationships between these renal transport systems and classical renal organic cation and anion, carbohydrate, and cell membrane nucleoside transport carriers are not established. To investigate possible relationships between such carriers, we have tested effects of selected classical transport inhibitors on the renal clearances of adenosine, deoxyadenosine, 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-dFUR), and 5-fluorouracil in mice. The secretion of deoxyadenosine and 5'-dFUR, but not the reabsorption of adenosine or 5-fluorouracil, was prevented by the classical nucleoside transport inhibitors, dipyridamole and nitrobenzylthioinosine. Cimetidine, an inhibitor of the organic cation secretory system, also inhibited the secretion of 5'-dFUR, although it did not inhibit deoxyadenosine secretion in earlier studies [Nelson et al.: Biochem. Pharmacol. 32, 2323 (1983)]. The specific inhibitor of glucose renal reabsorption, phloridzin, failed to inhibit the reabsorption of adenosine or the secretion of deoxyadenosine. Failure of the nucleoside transport inhibitors and phloridzin to prevent adenosine reabsorption suggests that adenosine reabsorption may occur via a unique process. On the other hand, inhibition of the net secretion of deoxyadenosine and 5'-dFUR by dipyridamole and nitrobenzylthioinosine implies a role for the carrier that is sensitive to these compounds in the renal secretion (active transport) of these nucleosides.

  6. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal perfusion scintigraphy; Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion ... supply the kidneys. This is a condition called renal artery stenosis. Significant renal artery stenosis may be ...

  7. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  8. Assessment of Amino Acid/Drug Transporters for Renal Transport of [18F]Fluciclovine (anti-[18F]FACBC in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Ono

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available [18F]Fluciclovine (trans-1-amino-3-[18F]fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid; anti-[18F]FACBC, a positron emission tomography tracer used for the diagnosis of recurrent prostate cancer, is transported via amino acid transporters (AATs with high affinity (Km: 97–230 μM. However, the mechanism underlying urinary excretion is unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of AATs and drug transporters in renal [18F]fluciclovine reuptake. [14C]Fluciclovine (trans-1-amino-3-fluoro[1-14C]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid was used because of its long half-life. The involvement of AATs in [14C]fluciclovine transport was measured by apical-to-basal transport using an LLC-PK1 monolayer as model for renal proximal tubules. The contribution of drug transporters herein was assessed using vesicles/cells expressing the drug transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4, organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1, organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3 , organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1, and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3. The apical-to-basal transport of [14C]fluciclovine was attenuated by l-threonine, the substrate for system alanine-serine-cysteine (ASC AATs. [14C]Fluciclovine uptake by drug transporter-expressing vesicles/cells was not significantly different from that of control vesicles/cells. Fluciclovine inhibited P-gp, MRP4, OAT1, OCT2, and OATP1B1 (IC50 > 2.95 mM. Therefore, system ASC AATs may be partly involved in the renal reuptake of [18F]fluciclovine. Further, given that [18F]fluciclovine is recognized as an inhibitor with millimolar affinity for the tested drug transporters, slow urinary excretion of [18F]fluciclovine may be mediated by system ASC AATs, but not by drug transporters.

  9. 硝酸装置铂网中毒事故原因分析及解决措施%Cause Analysis of Poisoning Accident of Platinum Net in Nitric Acid Plant and Its Solution Measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘利新

    2014-01-01

    In allusion to that a relatively serious poisoning accident of platinum net existed in the nitric acid section of ammonium nitrate plant in Hei-longjiang Chemical Engineering Group Corporation, the reason of accident was analyzed and the appropriate solution measure was briefly described.%针对黑化集团硝铵厂硝酸工段一次较为严重的铂网中毒事故,分析了事故原因,简述了相应的解决措施。

  10. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  11. Notch通路及维甲酸与肾纤维化研究进展%Notch Signaling in Renal Interstitial Fibrosis and Retinoic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜轩; 涂卫平

    2014-01-01

    维甲酸(RA)对肾间质纤维化(RIF)存在着重要的影响,Notch信号途径在肾纤维化中发挥了关键作用,本文就维甲酸对肾纤维化与Notch通路的影响进行综述,探索维甲酸干预Notch途径能否成为新的抗肾纤维化策略。%The effect of retinoic acid (RA) on renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) is important. Notch signaling is known to play an important role in the pathological injury of RIF. This study summarized recent research progress of the effect of RA on RIF and Notch signaling. Interruption of Notch signaling by RA might be a potential anti-fibrotic strategy in RIF.

  12. Effect of a Reduction in Uric Acid on Renal Outcomes During Losartan Treatment A Post Hoc Analysis of the Reduction of Endpoints in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus With the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yan; Ottenbros, Stefan A.; Laverman, Goos D.; Brenner, Barry M.; Cooper, Mark E.; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Shahinfar, Shahnaz; de Zeeuw, Dick; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging data show that increased serum uric acid (SUA) concentration is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease. Treatment with the antihypertensive drug losartan lowers SUA. Whether reductions in SUA during losartan therapy are associated with renoprotection is unclear. We therefore

  13. Effect of a Reduction in Uric Acid on Renal Outcomes During Losartan Treatment A Post Hoc Analysis of the Reduction of Endpoints in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus With the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yan; Ottenbros, Stefan A.; Laverman, Goos D.; Brenner, Barry M.; Cooper, Mark E.; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Shahinfar, Shahnaz; de Zeeuw, Dick; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging data show that increased serum uric acid (SUA) concentration is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease. Treatment with the antihypertensive drug losartan lowers SUA. Whether reductions in SUA during losartan therapy are associated with renoprotection is unclear. We therefore

  14. A diet high in meat protein and potential renal acid load increases fractional Ca absorption and urinary Ca excretion, without affecting markers of bone resorption or formation in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objective was to determine the effects of high dietary protein (mostly meat) and high potential renal acid load (PRAL) on calcium (Ca) balance and markers of bone metabolism. Methods: In a randomized crossover design, sixteen healthy postmenopausal women consumed two diets: one with l...

  15. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP-ne...... a certain use of the CP-net. We define the semantics of annotations by describing a translation from a CP-net and the corresponding annotation layers to another CP-net where the annotations are an integrated part of the CP-net....... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  16. Alterations in blood pressure, antioxidant status and caspase 8 expression in cobalt chloride-induced cardio-renal dysfunction are reversed by Ocimum gratissimum and gallic acid in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinrinde, A S; Oyagbemi, A A; Omobowale, T O; Asenuga, E R; Ajibade, T O

    2016-07-01

    The protective abilities of the chloroform extract of Ocimum gratissimum (COG) and gallic acid against cobalt chloride (CoCl2) - induced cardiac and renal toxicity were evaluated. Rats were exposed to CoCl2 (350ppm) for 7 days, either alone, or in combination with COG (100 and 200mg/kg) or gallic acid (120mg/kg). CoCl2 given alone, caused significant increases (pgallic acid treatment significantly reduced (pgallic acid by modulation of CoCl2-induced alterations in blood pressure, antioxidant status and pro-apoptotic caspase 8 in Wistar rats.

  17. Non-Traditional Aspects of Renal Diets: Focus on Fiber, Alkali and Vitamin K1 Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupisti, Adamasco; D’Alessandro, Claudia; Gesualdo, Loreto; Cosola, Carmela; Gallieni, Maurizio; Egidi, Maria Francesca; Fusaro, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Renal diets for advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are structured to achieve a lower protein, phosphate and sodium intake, while supplying adequate energy. The aim of this nutritional intervention is to prevent or correct signs, symptoms and complications of renal insufficiency, delaying the start of dialysis and preserving nutritional status. This paper focuses on three additional aspects of renal diets that can play an important role in the management of CKD patients: the vitamin K1 and fiber content, and the alkalizing potential. We examined the energy and nutrients composition of four types of renal diets according to their protein content: normal diet (ND, 0.8 g protein/kg body weight (bw)), low protein diet (LPD, 0.6 g protein/kg bw), vegan diet (VD, 0.7 g protein/kg bw), very low protein diet (VLPD, 0.3 g protein/kg bw). Fiber content is much higher in the VD and in the VLPD than in the ND or LPD. Vitamin K1 content seems to follow the same trend, but vitamin K2 content, which could not be investigated, might have a different pattern. The net endogenous acid production (NEAP) value decreases from the ND and LPD to the vegetarian diets, namely VD and VLPD; the same finding occurred for the potential renal acid load (PRAL). In conclusion, renal diets may provide additional benefits, and this is the case of vegetarian diets. Namely, VD and VLPD also provide high amounts of fibers and Vitamin K1, with a very low acid load. These features may have favorable effects on Vitamin K1 status, intestinal microbiota and acid-base balance. Hence, we can speculate as to the potential beneficial effects on vascular calcification and bone disease, on protein metabolism, on colonic environment and circulating levels of microbial-derived uremic toxins. In the case of vegetarian diets, attention must be paid to serum potassium levels. PMID:28468236

  18. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  19. Renal angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1988-01-01

    lesion. Three cases of renal angiomyolipoma, 2 of which underwent perfusion-fixation, were studied by electron microscopy to clarify the cellular composition of this lesion. In the smooth muscle cells abundant accumulation of glycogen was found, whereas the lipocytes disclosed normal ultrastructural......-specific vesicular structures. These findings suggest a secondary vascular damage, i.e. the thickened vessels may not be a primary, integral part of renal angiomyolipoma. Evidence of a common precursor cell of renal angiomyolipoma was not disclosed. It is concluded that renal angiomyolipoma is a hamartoma composed...

  20. Effect of acute acid-base disturbances on ErbB1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation in rabbit renal proximal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Lara A; Boron, Walter F

    2013-12-15

    The renal proximal tubule (PT) is a major site for maintaining whole body pH homeostasis and is responsible for reabsorbing ∼80% of filtered HCO3(-), the major plasma buffer, into the blood. The PT adapts its rate of HCO3(-) reabsorption (JHCO3(-)) in response to acute acid-base disturbances. Our laboratory previously showed that single isolated perfused PTs adapt JHCO3(-) in response to isolated changes in basolateral (i.e., blood side) CO2 and HCO3(-) concentrations but, surprisingly, not to pH. The response to CO2 concentration can be blocked by the ErbB family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PD-168393. In the present study, we exposed enriched rabbit PT suspensions to five acute acid-base disturbances for 5 and 20 min using a panel of phosphotyrosine (pY)-specific antibodies to determine the influence of each disturbance on pan-pY, ErbB1-specific pY (four sites), and ErbB2-specific pY (two sites). We found that each acid-base treatment generated a distinct temporal pY pattern. For example, the summated responses of the individual ErbB1/2-pY sites to each disturbance showed that metabolic acidosis (normal CO2 concentration and reduced HCO3(-) concentration) produced a transient summated pY decrease (5 vs. 20 min), whereas metabolic alkalosis produced a transient increase. Respiratory acidosis (normal HCO3(-) concentration and elevated CO2 concentration) had little effect on summated pY at 5 min but produced an elevation at 20 min, whereas respiratory alkalosis produced a reduction at 20 min. Our data show that ErbB1 and ErbB2 in the PT respond to acute acid-base disturbances, consistent with the hypothesis that they are part of the signaling cascade.

  1. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  2. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  3. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  4. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all acknowle

  5. Renal fallure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920705 Endothelin and acute renal failure:study on their relationship and possiblemechanisms. LIN Shanyan(林善锬), et al.Renal Res Lab, Huashan Hosp, Shanghai MedUniv, Shanghai, 200040. Natl Med J China 1992;72(4): 201-205. In order to investigate the role of endothelin

  6. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  7. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  8. Exigências Líquidas de Aminoácidos para Ganho de Peso de Nelores Não-Castrados Net Amino Acids Requirements for Weight Gain of Nellore Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Ferreira da Silva

    2002-01-01

    LW. The roughage used was Tyfton bermudagrass hay (Cynodon dactylon. After slaughter, all animal body parts were weighed and sampled. The samples were freeze dried to determine the dry matter, pre-degreased with ether, grinded and the concentrations of amino acids were determined. The net amino acids requirements for gain were calculated according to the factorial method, where the protein gain was multiplied by the empty body amino acids composition. The net amino acids requirements for maintenance were estimated. The sum of the metabolizable requirements for maintenance and gain composed the total metabolizable amino acids requirements. The net amino acids requirements for gain decreased with the increase of the animals live weight. The total metabolizable amino acids requirements, expressed in percentage of the total essential amino acids, did not change a lot as live weight increased, and the mean values were 2.66, 15.11, 6.09, 8.64, 9.26, 18.48, 8.33, 12.01, and 19.41 for methionine, lysine, histidine, phenylalanine, threonine, leucine, isoleucine, valine and arginine, respectively.

  9. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  10. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris;

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  11. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  12. Chemical Renal Denervation in the Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consigny, Paul M., E-mail: paul.consigny@av.abbott.com; Davalian, Dariush, E-mail: dariush.davalian@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, Innovation Incubator (United States); Donn, Rosy, E-mail: rosy.donn@av.abbott.com; Hu, Jie, E-mail: jie.hu@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, Bioanalytical and Material Characterization (United States); Rieser, Matthew, E-mail: matthew.j.rieser@abbvie.com; Stolarik, DeAnne, E-mail: deanne.f.stolarik@abbvie.com [Abbvie, Analytical Pharmacology (United States)

    2013-12-03

    Introduction: The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery. Methods: Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose–response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10{sup −5} M through 10{sup −2} M paclitaxel. Conclusion: We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel.

  13. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... and how the Net ZEB status should be calculated differs in most countries. This paper presents an overview of Net ZEBs energy calculation methodologies proposed by organisations representing eight different countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Norway, Switzerland and the USA. The different...

  14. A NET Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea eLu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils constitute a critical part of innate immunity and are well known for their ability to phagocytose and kill invading microorganisms. The microbicidal processes employed by neutrophils are highly effective at killing most ingested bacteria and fungi. However, an alternative non-phagocytic antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils has been proposed whereby microorganisms are eliminated by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. NETs are comprised of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins extruded by neutrophils during NETosis, a cell death pathway reported to be distinct from apoptosis, phagocytosis-induced cell death, and necrosis. Although multiple laboratories have reported NETs using various stimuli in vitro, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process have yet to be definitively elucidated, and many questions regarding the formation and putative role or function of NETs in innate host defense remain unanswered. It is with these questions in mind that we provide some reflection and perspective on NETs and NETosis.

  15. Exogenous alpha-1-acid glycoprotein protects against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, B; Walter, SJ; Wolfs, TGAM; Hochepied, T; Rabina, J; Heeringa, P; Parkkinen, J; Libert, C; Buurman, WA

    2004-01-01

    Background. Although ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury represents a major problem in posttransplant organ failure, effective treatment is not available. The acute phase protein a-l-acid glycoprotein (AGP) has been shown to be protective against experimental I/R injury. The effects of AGP are thought

  16. Biocompatibility of poly(D,L-lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid) microspheres after subcutaneous and subcapsular renal injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazazi-Hyseni, F.; Zandstra, J.; Popa, E. R.; Goldschmeding, R.; Lathuile, A. A. R.; Veldhuis, G. J.; Van Nostrum, C. F.; Hennink, W. E.; Kok, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(D,L-lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid) (PLHMGA) is a biodegradable copolymer with potential as a novel carrier in polymeric drug delivery systems. In this study, the biocompatibility of PLHMGA microspheres (PLHMGA-ms) was investigated both in vitro in three different cell types (PK-84, HK-2

  17. Biocompatibility of poly(D,L-lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid) microspheres after subcutaneous and subcapsular renal injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazazi-Hyseni, F; Zandstra, J; Popa, E R; Goldschmeding, R; Lathuile, A A R; Veldhuis, G J; Van Nostrum, C F; Hennink, W E; Kok, R J

    2015-01-01

    Poly(D,L-lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid) (PLHMGA) is a biodegradable copolymer with potential as a novel carrier in polymeric drug delivery systems. In this study, the biocompatibility of PLHMGA microspheres (PLHMGA-ms) was investigated both in vitro in three different cell types (PK-84, HK-2

  18. Midterm renal functions following acute renal infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakir Ongun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore clinical features of renal infarction (RI that may have a role in diagnosis and treatment in our patient cohort and provide data on midterm renal functions. Medical records of patients with diagnosis of acute RI, established by contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT and at least 1 year follow-up data, who were hospitalized in our clinic between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed; including descriptive data, clinical signs and symptoms, etiologic factors, laboratory findings, and prescribed treatments. Patients with solitary infarct were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA only, whereas patients with atrial fibrillation (AF or multiple or global infarct were treated with anticoagulants. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR referring to renal functions was determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formula. Twenty-seven renal units of 23 patients with acute RI were identified. The mean age was 59.7 ± 15.7 years. Fourteen patients (60.8% with RI had atrial fibrillation (AF as an etiologic factor of which four had concomitant mesenteric ischemia at diagnosis. At presentation, 20 patients (86.9% had elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, 18 patients (78.2% had leukocytosis, and 16 patients (69.5% had microscopic hematuria. Two patients with concomitant mesenteric ischemia and AF passed away during follow up. Mean eGFR was 70.8 ± 23.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 at admission and increased to 82.3 ± 23.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 at 1 year follow up. RI should be considered in patients with persistent flank or abdominal pain, particularly if they are at high risk of thromboembolism. Antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant drugs are both effective treatment options according to the amplitude of the infarct for preserving kidney functions.

  19. Midterm renal functions following acute renal infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongun, Sakir; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demir, Omer; Cimen, Sertac; Aslan, Guven

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore clinical features of renal infarction (RI) that may have a role in diagnosis and treatment in our patient cohort and provide data on midterm renal functions. Medical records of patients with diagnosis of acute RI, established by contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) and at least 1 year follow-up data, who were hospitalized in our clinic between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed; including descriptive data, clinical signs and symptoms, etiologic factors, laboratory findings, and prescribed treatments. Patients with solitary infarct were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) only, whereas patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or multiple or global infarct were treated with anticoagulants. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) referring to renal functions was determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Twenty-seven renal units of 23 patients with acute RI were identified. The mean age was 59.7 ± 15.7 years. Fourteen patients (60.8%) with RI had atrial fibrillation (AF) as an etiologic factor of which four had concomitant mesenteric ischemia at diagnosis. At presentation, 20 patients (86.9%) had elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 18 patients (78.2%) had leukocytosis, and 16 patients (69.5%) had microscopic hematuria. Two patients with concomitant mesenteric ischemia and AF passed away during follow up. Mean eGFR was 70.8 ± 23.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at admission and increased to 82.3 ± 23.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 1 year follow up. RI should be considered in patients with persistent flank or abdominal pain, particularly if they are at high risk of thromboembolism. Antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant drugs are both effective treatment options according to the amplitude of the infarct for preserving kidney functions.

  20. Effects of dietary lipids on renal function of aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Gamba C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging is accompanied by renal functional and morphological deterioration and dietetic manipulation has been used to delay this age-related decline. We examined the effects of chronic administration of diets containing 5% lipid-enriched diet (LD, w/w on renal function of rats at different ages. Three types of LD were tested: canola oil, fish oil and butter. Mean systemic tail-cuff blood pressure and glycemia remained within the normal range whatever the age and the diet of the animals. Proteinuria began to rise from the 8th month in the groups ingesting LD, while in the control group it increased significantly (above 10 mg/24 h only after the 10th month. With age, a significant and progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR and renal plasma flow was observed in the LD groups but after 6 months of lipid supplementation, the decline in these parameters was more marked in the butter and fish oil groups. By the 18th month, the lowest GFR level was observed in the group ingesting the butter diet (2.93 ± 0.22 vs 5.01 ± 0.21 ml min-1 kg-1 in control, P<0.05. Net acid excretion, evaluated in 9- and 18-month-old rats, was stimulated in the fish oil group when compared both to control and to the other two LD groups. These results suggest that even low levels of LD in a chronic nutritional regimen can modify the age-related changes in renal function and that the impact of different types of lipid-supplemented diets on renal function depends on the kind of lipid present in the diet.

  1. Environment and phenology: CO2 net ecosystem exchange and CO2 flux partitioning at an acid and oligotrophic mire system in northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gažovič, Michal; Peichl, Matthias; Vermeij, Ilse; Limpens, Juul; Nilsson, Mats. B.

    2015-04-01

    Static chamber and environmental measurements in combination with vegetation indices (i.e. vascular green area (VGA) and the greenness chromatic color index (gcc) derived from digital camera images) were used to investigate effects of environment and phenology on the CO2 net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and CO2 flux partitioning at the Degerö Stormyr site in northern Sweden (64°11' 23.565" N, 19°33' 55.291 E) during two environmentally different years. Our measurement design included a control plot, a moss plot (where vascular plants were removed by clipping) and four heterotrophic respiration (RH) collars (where all green moss and vascular plant biomass were removed) to partition between soil heterotrophic and plant autotrophic (moss and vascular plants) respiration (RA), as well as between moss and vascular plant gross primary production (GPP). Environmental conditions, especially the shallow snow cover, peat soil frost and cold spring in 2014 caused delayed onset of spring green up, reduced soil respiration flux and reduced GPP of vascular plants. Soil temperature measured in 26 cm depth started to rise from spring temperatures of ~ 0.6 °C in 2013 and 0.15 °C in 2014 about 20 days earlier in 2013 compared to 2014. With earlier onset of the growing season and higher soil temperatures in 2013, heterotrophic soil respiration was higher in year 2013 than in year 2014. In 2013, RH dominated the total ecosystem respiration in all months but June and August. On contrary, autotrophic respiration dominated ecosystem respiration in all months of 2014. In both years, vascular plants and mosses were more or less equally contributing to autotrophic respiration. We measured higher GPP in year 2013 compared to year 2014. Also VGA and gcc were higher in spring and throughout the rest of 2013 compared to 2014. The onset of VGA was delayed by ~ 10 days in 2014. In general, total GPP was dominated by GPP of vascular plants in both years, although moss GPP had substantial

  2. High-performance liquid chromatography of the renal blood flow marker p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) and its metabolite N-acetyl PAH improves PAH clearance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decosterd, L A; Karagiannis, A; Roulet, J M; Bélaz, N; Appenzeller, M; Buclin, T; Vogel, P; Biollaz, J

    1997-12-05

    PAH (N-(4-aminobenzoyl)glycin) clearance measurements have been used for 50 years in clinical research for the determination of renal plasma flow. The quantitation of PAH in plasma or urine is generally performed by colorimetric method after diazotation reaction but the measurements must be corrected for the unspecific residual response observed in blank plasma. We have developed a HPLC method to specifically determine PAH and its metabolite NAc-PAH using a gradient elution ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography with UV detection at 273 and 265 nm, respectively. The separations were performed at room temperature on a ChromCart (125 mmx4 mm I.D.) Nucleosil 100-5 microm C18AB cartridge column, using a gradient elution of MeOH-buffer pH 3.9 1:99-->15:85 over 15 min. The pH 3.9 buffered aqueous solution consisted in a mixture of 375 ml sodium citrate-citric acid solution (21.01 g citric acid and 8.0 g NaOH per liter), added up with 2.7 ml H3PO4 85%, 1.0 g of sodium heptanesulfonate and completed ad 1000 ml with ultrapure water. The N-acetyltransferase activity does not seem to notably affect PAH clearances, although NAc-PAH represents 10.2+/-2.7% of PAH excreted unchanged in 12 healthy subjects. The performance of the HPLC and the colorimetric method have been compared using urine and plasma samples collected from healthy volunteers. Good correlations (r=0.94 and 0.97, for plasma and urine, respectively) are found between the results obtained with both techniques. However, the colorimetric method gives higher concentrations of PAH in urine and lower concentrations in plasma than those determined by HPLC. Hence, both renal (ClR) and systemic (Cls) clearances are systematically higher (35.1 and 17.8%, respectively) with the colorimetric method. The fraction of PAH excreted by the kidney ClR/ClS calculated from HPLC data (n=143) is, as expected, always 1). In conclusion, HPLC not only enables the simultaneous quantitation of PAH and NAc-PAH, but may also provide more

  3. Adaptations of Arginine's Intestinal-Renal Axis in Cachectic Tumor-Bearing Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Nikki; Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Weeda, Viola B; Bading, James R; Houdijk, Alexander P J; van Leeuwen, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Malignancies induce disposal of arginine, an important substrate for the immune system. To sustain immune function, the tumor-bearing host accelerates arginine's intestinal-renal axis by glutamine mobilization from skeletal muscle and this may promote cachexia. Glutamine supplementation stimulates argi-nine production in healthy subjects. Arginine's intestinal-renal axis and the effect of glutamine supplementation in cancer cach-exia have not been investigated. This study evaluated the long-term adaptations of the interorgan pathway for arginine production following the onset of cachexia and the metabolic effect of glutamine supplementation in the cachectic state. Fischer-344 rats were randomly divided into a tumor-bearing group (n = 12), control group (n = 7) and tumor-bearing group receiving a glutamine-enriched diet (n = 9). Amino acid fluxes and net fractional extractions across intestine, kidneys, and liver were studied. Compared to controls, the portal-drained viscera of tumor-bearing rats took up significantly more glutamine and released significantly less citrulline. Renal metabolism was unchanged in the cachectic tumor-bearing rats compared with controls. Glutamine supplementation had no effects on intestinal and renal adaptations. In conclusion, in the cachectic state, an increase in intestinal glutamine uptake is not accompanied by an increase in renal arginine production. The adaptations found in the cachectic, tumor-bearing rat do not depend on glutamine availability.

  4. Renal teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas M; Jones, Deborah P; Cooper, William O

    2014-09-01

    In utero exposure to certain drugs early in pregnancy may adversely affect nephrogenesis. Exposure to drugs later in pregnancy may affect the renin-angiotensin system, which could have an impact on fetal or neonatal renal function. Reduction in nephron number and renal function could have adverse consequences for the child several years later. Data are limited on the information needed to guide decisions for patients and providers regarding the use of certain drugs in pregnancy. The study of drug nephroteratogenicity has not been systematized, a large, standardized, global approach is needed to evaluate the renal risks of in utero drug exposures.

  5. The site of net absorption of Ca from the intestinal tract of growing pigs and effect of phytic acid, Ca level and Ca source on Ca digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J Caroline; Walk, Carrie L; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardised digestibility of Ca in calcium carbonate and Lithothamnium calcareum Ca is not different regardless of the level of dietary Ca, and that phytic acid affects the digestibility of Ca in these two ingredients to the same degree. The objectives were to determine where in the intestinal tract Ca absorption takes place and if there are measurable quantities of basal endogenous Ca fluxes in the stomach, small intestine or large intestine. Diets contained calcium carbonate or L. calcareum Ca as the sole source of Ca, 0% or 1% phytic acid and 0.4% or 0.8% Ca. A Ca-free diet was also formulated and used to measure endogenous fluxes and losses of Ca. Nine growing pigs (initial body weight 23.8 ± 1.3 kg) were cannulated in the duodenum and in the distal ileum, and faecal, ileal and duodenal samples were collected. Duodenal endogenous fluxes of Ca were greater (p phytic acid, but decreased (p phytic acid, but may be affected by dietary Ca level depending on the Ca source. Calcium from calcium carbonate is mostly absorbed before the duodenum, but Ca from L. calcareum Ca is mostly absorbed in the jejunum and ileum.

  6. Sarcoidose renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AQUINO MARIA ENEDINA CLAUDINO DE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Em uma mulher de 62 anos, branca, em avaliação pré-operatória de facectomia, foram detectadas alterações urinárias, tendo sido firmados os diagnósticos de calculose renal esquerda e exclusão renal homolateral. No pré-operatório da nefrectomia foram evidenciados processo pulmonar intersticial bilateral e adenopatia torácica, cuja investigação foi adiada para após a cirurgia. No rim retirado foram detectados granulomas epitelióides não necrotizantes, o mesmo ocorrendo posteriormente em biópsia transbrônquica. A paciente foi tratada com metilprednisolona, com discreta melhora pulmonar, o que não ocorreu com a função renal. O diagnóstico final foi de sarcoidose com envolvimento pulmonar, ganglionar torácico e renal.

  7. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930150 Epidermal growth factor and its recep-tor in the renal tissue of patients with acute re-nal failure and normal persons.LIU Zhihong(刘志红),et al.Jinling Hosp,Nanjing,210002.Natl Med J China 1992;72(10):593-595.Epidermal growth factor(EGF)and its receptor(EGF-R)were identified by immunohis-tochemical method(4 layer PAP)in the renaltissue specimens obtained from 11 normal kid-neys and 17 cases of acute renal failure(ARF).The quantitative EGF and EGF-R in the tissuewere expressed as positive tubules per mm~2.The amount of EGF and EGF-R in renal tissue

  8. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  9. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  10. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo...

  11. An experimental renal acidification defect in patients with hereditary fructose intolerance. I. Its resemblance to renal tubular acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R C

    1968-06-01

    In three unrelated patients with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI), but in none of five normal subjects, the experimental administration of fructose invariably induced a reversible dysfunction of the renal tubule with biochemical and physiological characteristics of renal tubular acidosis. During a state of ammonium chloride-induced acidosis, (a) urinary pH was greater than six and the rate of excretion of net acid (titratable acid plus ammonium minus bicarbonate) was inappropriately low, (b) the glomerular filtration rate remained unchanged or decreased modestly, and (c) urinary excretion of titratable acid increased briskly with diuresis of infused phosphate, although urinary pH changed little. The tubular dysfunction, which also includes impaired tubular reabsorption of alpha amino nitrogen and phosphate, persisted throughout administration of fructose and disappeared afterward. The tubular dysfunction was not causally dependent on hypoglucosemia, ammonium chloride-induced acidosis or osmotic diuresis. Rather, it appeared causally related to the fructose-induced metabolic abnormality of patients with HFI. The causal enzymatic defect, the virtual absence of fructose-1-phosphate aldolase, occurs in the kidney as well as in the liver of patients with HFI.

  12. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005234 Association between serum fetuin-A and clinical outcome in end-stage renal disease patients. WANG Kai(王开), Dept Renal Dis, Renji Hosp Shanghai, 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200001. Chin J Nephrol, 2005;21(2):72-75. Objective: To investigate the change of serum fetuin-A level before and after dialysis, and the association of serum fetuin-A level with clinical parameters

  13. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950351 Serum erythropoietin levels in chronic renalinsufficiency.ZHAI Depei(翟德佩),et al.DeptNephrol.General Hosp,Tianjin Med Univ,Tianjin,300000.Tianjin Med J 1995;23(1):19-21.Patients with chronic renal insufficiency(CRI) areoften associated with anemia.The deficiency of EPOproduction in the kidney is thought to be a key factorin the pathogenesis of renal anemia.Serum erythropoi-

  14. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008463 Protective effect of recombination rat augmenter of liver regeneration on kidney in acute renal failure rats. TANG Xiaopeng(唐晓鹏), et al. Dept Nephrol, 2nd Affili Hosp Chongqing Med Univ, Chongqing 400010.Chin J Nephrol 2008;24(6):417-421. Objective To investigate the protective effects of recombination rat augmenter of liver regeneration (rrALR) on tubular cell injury and renal dysfunction

  15. Renal Hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil Bozkurt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon perivascular tumor originating from pericytes in the pelvis, head and tneck, and the meninges; extremely rarely in the urinary system. We report a case of incidentally detected renal mass in which radiologic evaluation was suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. First, we performed partial nephrectomy, and then, radical nephrectomy because of positive surgical margins and the pathological examination of the surgical specimen that revealed a hemangiopericytoma. No additional treatment was administered.

  16. Carcinoembryonic antigen: assay following heat compared with perchloric acid extraction in patients with colon cancer, non-neoplastic gastrointestinal diseases, or chronic renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, L.R.; Shuler, S.E.; Alyea, K.; Husserl, F.E.

    1983-10-01

    Heat inactivation has been proposed as an alternative to perchloric acid (PCA) precipitation for the extraction of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) from human plasma. A commercial RIA kit using heat inactivation was examined and results compared with those obtained with PCA precipitation. Adequate sensitivity (1.5 ..mu..g CEA/I plasma), satisfactory analytical recovery of CEA added to plasma, and dilutional linearity of samples found to have elevated CEA concentrations, were demonstrated for the heat-inactivation assay. Between-assay precision was better with the heat inactivation than with the PCA assay. Although the absolute concentration of CEA estimated after heat inactivation was consistently lower than that estimated after PCA extraction of plasma specimens, there was excellent correlation between results obtained with the two methods in colon cancer patients free of disease, colon cancer patients with residual or recurrent disease, patients with benign gastrointestinal disease, and in patients with chronic renal failure. The heat-inactivation assay is an excellent alternative to the PCA assay.

  17. Carcinoembryonic antigen: assay following heat compared with perchloric acid extraction in patients with colon cancer, non-neoplastic gastrointestinal diseases, or chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, L R; Shuler, S E; Alyea, K; Husserl, F E

    1983-10-01

    Heat inactivation has been proposed as an alternative to perchloric acid (PCA) precipitation for the extraction of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) from human plasma. We examined a commercial RIA kit using heat inactivation, and compared results with those obtained with PCA precipitation. Adequate sensitivity (1.5 micrograms CEA/l plasma), satisfactory analytical recovery of CEA added to plasma, and dilutional linearity of samples found to have elevated CEA concentrations, were demonstrated for the heat-inactivation assay. Between-assay precision was better with the heat inactivation than with the PCA assay. Although the absolute concentration of CEA estimated after heat inactivation was consistently lower than that estimated after PCA extraction of plasma specimens, there was excellent correlation between results obtained with the two methods in colon cancer patients free of disease, colon cancer patients with residual or recurrent disease, patients with benign gastrointestinal disease, and in patients with chronic renal failure. We conclude that the heat-inactivation assay is an excellent alternative to the PCA assay.

  18. Serum Bone Resorption Markers after Parathyroidectomy for Renal Hyperparathyroidism: Correlation Analyses for the Cross-Linked N-telopeptide of Collagen I and Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Chin Hung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients on long-term dialysis may develop secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT with increased serum concentrations of bone resorption markers such as the cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX and type-5b tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP. When SHPT proves refractory to treatment, parathyroidectomy (PTX may be needed. Renal patients on maintenance HD who received PTX for refractory SHPT (n=23 or who did not develop refractory SHPT (control subjects; n=25 were followed prospectively for 4 weeks. Serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH, NTX, TRAP, and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP concentrations were measured serially and correlation analyses were performed. iPTH values decreased rapidly and dramatically. BAP values increased progressively with peak increases observed at 2 weeks after surgery. NTX and TRAP values decreased concurrently and progressively through 4 weeks following PTX. A significant correlation between TRAP and NTX values was observed before PTX but not at 4 weeks after PTX. Additionally, the fractional changes in serum TRAP were larger than those in serum NTX at all times examined after PTX. Serum iPTH, TRAP, and NTX values declined rapidly following PTX for SHPT. Serum TRAP values declined to greater degrees than serum NTX values throughout the 4-week period following PTX.

  19. Expansion Nets and Expansion Processes of Elementary Net Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹存根

    1995-01-01

    Occurrence nets are insufficient to precisely describe executions of elementary net systems with contacts.Traditionally,S-complementation is used for removal of contacts from the systems.Although the main behavior and properties of the original elementary net systems are preserved during S-complementation,their topologies may be changed greatly.This paper introduces a new kind of nets-expansion nets-for representing behavior of elementary net systems.As shown in the paper,expansion nets are natural as well as sufficient for describing the precise behavior of elementary net systems with or without contactks.

  20. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  1. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  2. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachabilit......, and not controllable by the system itself, or they are part of the system itself and therefore we need not worry about them)....

  3. EFFECTS OF A KETO/AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTED LOW PROTEIN DIET ON THE DELAY OF PROGRESSIEVE RENAL FAILURE IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon Young Choi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A protein-restricted diet with keto/amino acids (KA supplement showed favorable effects on delayed renal replacement therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease. This is an open, prospective, randomized, and multi-center study. A total of 67 patients were randomly assigned into two groups. LPD+KA group was advised to take less than 0.6 g/kg/day of protein with KAs. LPD group was advised to consume less than 0.6 g/kg/day protein. Nutritional and clinical parameters were evaluated at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Nutritional status represented as body mass index, mid-arm circumference and triceps skin-fold thickness was not different between the two groups at 3months and 6 months. Ca×P product level measured at 3 months was lower in the LPD+KA group than in the LPD group (LPD+KA group: 33.5±5.0 vs. LPD group: 36.9±7.9 mg2/dL2, p<0.05. The slope of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR slope and the percentage of the GFR slope (GFR slope % at 3 months were more preserved in the LPD+KA group than in the LPD group. The GFR slope and GFR slope % at 6 months were not significantly different. In the entire subjects, the GFR slope was negatively correlated with Ca×P product levels at 3 months, total cholesterol at baseline, and urine protein-creatinine ratio at baseline and 6 months (r=−0.255, r=−0.296, r =−0.412, r=−0.371, p<0.05. A multiple regression analysis revealed Ca×P product at 3 months was the only independent factor affecting the GFR slope at 3 months. The present study suggests that a low protein diet supplemented with KA had a beneficial effect on preserving renal function and improving calcium and phosphorus disturbances in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  4. Nutrition and renal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris de Castaño

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Kidney plays an important roll in body homeostasis through excretory, metabolic and endocrine functions. Kidneys filter fluids and solutes and reabsorbed water , electrolytes an minerals. Urine volume and solute excretion are adjusted to keep composition of the extracellular space, serum osmolarity and intravascular volume in constant balance. Kidneys also regulate acid base equilibrium, hormone metabolism and excretion and amino acid concentration. Vitamin D hydroxylation takes place in the kidney, this is the active form of this vitamin, which inhibits PTH. In addition they produce erythropoietin which control hemoglobin concentration in erythrocytes. When renal insufficiency develops, and glormerular filtration rate is between 50 to 75% of normal, this functions are decreased .When renal function is less than 10%, this functions ceased. In children small changes in water, solute, acid base, calcium and phosphorus can alter normal growth and development. If kidneys can not maintain internal equilibrium, specific nutrients should be used. Compensation should be done according to age, type or renal disease and level of glomerular filtration rate.

  5. Changes in Renal Function and Oxidative Status Associated with the Hypotensive Effects of Oleanolic Acid and Related Synthetic Derivatives in Experimental Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlengiwe Pretty Madlala

    Full Text Available The triterpene oleanolic acid (OA is known to possess antihypertensive actions. In the present study we to compared the effects of the triterpene on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP and kidney function following acute administration in normotensive animals with those of its related oleanane synthetic derivatives (brominated oleanolic acid, Br-OA and oleanolic acid methyl ester, Me-OA. We also used experimental models of hypertension to further explore the effects of sub-chronic oral OA treatment and evaluated influences on oxidative status.OA was extracted from dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum using a previously validated protocol in our laboratory. Me-OA and Br-OA were synthesized according to a method described. Rats were supplemented with lithium chloride (12 mmol L-1 prior to experimentation in order to raise plasma lithium to allow measurements of lithium clearance and fractional excretion (FELi as indices of proximal tubular Na+ handling. Anaesthetized animals were continuously infused via the right jugular with 0.077M NaCl. MAP was measured via a cannula inserted in the carotid artery, and urine was collected through a cannula inserted in the bladder. After a 3.5 h equilibration, MAP, urine flow, electrolyte excretion rates were determined for 4 h of 1 h control, 1.5 h treatment and 1.5 h recovery periods. OA, Me-OA and Br-OA were added to the infusate during the treatment period. We evaluated sub-chronic effects on MAP and kidney function in normotensive Wistar rats and in two animal models of hypertension, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS rats, during 9-week administration of OA (p.o.. Tissue oxidative status was examined in these animals at the end of the study. Increasing evidence suggests that and renal function disturbances and oxidative stress play major roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension.Acute infusion OA and oleanane derivatives displayed qualitatively similar effects in decreasing

  6. Changes in Renal Function and Oxidative Status Associated with the Hypotensive Effects of Oleanolic Acid and Related Synthetic Derivatives in Experimental Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlala, Hlengiwe Pretty; Van Heerden, Fanie Retief; Mubagwa, Kanigula; Musabayane, Cephas Tagumirwa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The triterpene oleanolic acid (OA) is known to possess antihypertensive actions. In the present study we to compared the effects of the triterpene on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and kidney function following acute administration in normotensive animals with those of its related oleanane synthetic derivatives (brominated oleanolic acid, Br-OA and oleanolic acid methyl ester, Me-OA). We also used experimental models of hypertension to further explore the effects of sub-chronic oral OA treatment and evaluated influences on oxidative status. Methods OA was extracted from dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum using a previously validated protocol in our laboratory. Me-OA and Br-OA were synthesized according to a method described. Rats were supplemented with lithium chloride (12 mmol L-1) prior to experimentation in order to raise plasma lithium to allow measurements of lithium clearance and fractional excretion (FELi) as indices of proximal tubular Na+ handling. Anaesthetized animals were continuously infused via the right jugular with 0.077M NaCl. MAP was measured via a cannula inserted in the carotid artery, and urine was collected through a cannula inserted in the bladder. After a 3.5 h equilibration, MAP, urine flow, electrolyte excretion rates were determined for 4 h of 1 h control, 1.5 h treatment and 1.5 h recovery periods. OA, Me-OA and Br-OA were added to the infusate during the treatment period. We evaluated sub-chronic effects on MAP and kidney function in normotensive Wistar rats and in two animal models of hypertension, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats, during 9-week administration of OA (p.o.). Tissue oxidative status was examined in these animals at the end of the study. Increasing evidence suggests that and renal function disturbances and oxidative stress play major roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Results Acute infusion OA and oleanane derivatives displayed qualitatively similar effects

  7. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone protects diabetic rat kidney by ameliorating hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and renal inflammatory cytokines via NF-κB and PKC signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Manna, Prasenjit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India); Gachhui, Ratan [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and this can be attenuated by antioxidants. D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. Our early investigation showed that DSL can ameliorate alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats by inhibiting pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. In the present study we, therefore, investigated the protective role of DSL against renal injury in ALX induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure (at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight, i. p., once) elevated the blood glucose level, serum markers related to renal injury, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries. Oral administration of DSL (80 mg/kg body weight) restored all these alterations close to normal. In addition, DSL could also normalize the aldose reductase activity which was found to increase in the diabetic rats. Investigating the mechanism of its protective activity, we observed the activation of different isoforms of PKC along with the accumulation of matrix proteins like collagen and fibronectin. The diabetic rats also showed nuclear translocation of NF-κB and increase in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines in the renal tissue. The activation of mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway was observed in the diabetic rat kidneys. However, treatment of diabetic rats with DSL counteracted all these changes. These findings, for the first time, demonstrated that DSL could ameliorate renal dysfunction in diabetic rats by suppressing the oxidative stress related signalling pathways. - Highlights: ► Sustained hyperglycemia and oxidative stress lead to diabetic renal injury. ► D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone prevents renal damage in alloxan-induced diabetes. ► It restores intra-cellular antioxidant machineries and kidney apoptosis. ► DSL reduces hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress

  8. Phenolic acid protects of renal damage induced by ochratoxin A in a 28-days-oral treatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariddi, L N; Escobar, F M; Sabini, M C; Campra, N A; Bagnis, G; Decote-Ricardo, D; Freire-de-Lima, C G; Mañas, F; Sabini, L I; Dalcero, A M

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the chlorogenic acid (ChlA) capacity to reverse the toxic effects induced by ochratoxin A (OTA) in a subacute toxicity test in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed orally by gavage for 28 days with OTA (0.4mg/kg bw/day), ChlA (5mg/kg bw/day) or the combination OTA (0.4mg/kg bw/day)+ChlA (5mg/kg bw/day). No deaths, no decrease in feed intake or body weight in any experimental group were recorded. The negative control group and the animals treated with ChlA alone showed no changes in any parameters evaluated. In OTA-treated group significant changes such as decrease in urine volume, proteinuria, occult blood, increase in serum creatinine values; decrease in absolute and relative kidney weight and characteristics histopathological lesions that indicated kidney damage were observed. However, limited effect on oxidative stress parameters were detected in kidneys of OTA-treated group. Animals treated with the combination OTA+ChlA were showed as negative control group in the evaluation of several parameters of toxicity. In conclusion, ChlA, at given concentration, improved biochemical parameters altered in urine and serum and pathological damages in kidneys induced by OTA exposure, showing a good protective activity, but not by an apparent antioxidant mechanism.

  9. Synergistic effects of conjugated linoleic acid and chromium picolinate improve vascular function and renal pathophysiology in the insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, S D; Kelly, S E; Stanhope, K L; Havel, P J; Russell, J C

    2007-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a natural constituent of dairy products, specific isomers of which have recently been found to have insulin sensitizing and possible antiobesity actions. Chromium is a micronutrient which, as the picolinate (CrP), has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity in animal models, including the JCR:LA-cp rat. We tested the hypothesis that these agents may have beneficial synergistic effects on the micro- and macrovasculopathy associated with hyperinsulinaemia and early type 2 diabetes. Insulin-resistant cp/cp rats of the JCR:LA-cp strain were treated with mixed isomers of CLA (1.5% w/w in the chow) and/or CrP at 80 microg/kg/day (expressed as Cr) from 4 weeks of age to 12 weeks of age. Plasma insulin, lipid and adiponectin levels, aortic vascular function, renal function and glomerular sclerosis were assessed. CLA administration reduced food intake, body weight and fasting insulin in JCR:LA-cp rats. Plasma adiponectin levels were significantly elevated in rats treated with both CLA and CrP. Aortic hypercontractility was reduced and the relaxant response to the nitric oxide-releasing agent acetylcholine (Ach) was increased in CrP-treated rats. Striking reductions were also observed in the level of urinary albumin and the severity of glomerular sclerosis in rats treated specifically with CLA. CLA and CrP have beneficial effects ameliorating several of the pathophysiologic features of an insulin-resistant rat model. These supplements may be useful adjuncts in the management of patients with the metabolic syndrome and warrant further study.

  10. Comparison of sorafenib-loaded poly (lactic/glycolic) acid and DPPC liposome nanoparticles in the in vitro treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James; Boonkaew, Benjawan; Arora, Jaspreet; Mandava, Sree Harsha; Maddox, Michael M; Chava, Srinivas; Callaghan, Cameron; He, Jibao; Dash, Srikanta; John, Vijay T; Lee, Benjamin R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop and compare several Sorafenib-loaded biocompatible nanoparticle models in order to optimize drug delivery and tumor cellular kill thereby improving the quality of Sorafenib-regimented chemotherapy. Sorafenib-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) liposomes, and hydrophobically modified chitosan (HMC)-coated DPPC liposomes were evaluated for several characteristics including zeta potential, drug loading, and release profile. Cytotoxicity and uptake trials were also studied using cell line RCC 786-0, a human metastatic clear cell histology renal cell carcinoma cell line. Sorafenib-loaded PLGA particles and HMC-coated DPPC liposomes exhibited significantly improved cell kill compared to Sorafenib alone at lower concentrations, namely 10-15 and 5-15 μM from 24 to 96 h, respectively. At maximum dosage and time (15 μM and 96 h), Sorafenib-loaded PLGA and HMC-coated liposomes killed 88.3 ± 1.8% and 98 ± 1.1% of all tumor cells, significant values compared with Sorafenib 81.8 ± 1.7% (p < 0.01). Likewise, HMC coating substantially improved cell kill for liposome model for all concentrations (5-15 μM) and at time points (24-96 h) (p < 0.01). PLGA and HMC-coated liposomes are promising platforms for drug delivery of Sorafenib. Because of different particle characteristics of PLGA and liposomes, each model can be further developed for unique clinical modalities.

  11. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...... the different kinds of analysis. It has, however, turned out that it only is necessary to turn to functions when we deal with invariant analysis, and this means that we now use the expression representation for all purposes — except for the calculation of invariants. This change is important for the practical...

  12. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  13. Markers of renal function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaraj Gowda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The markers of renal function test assess the normal functioning of kidneys. These markers may be radioactive and non radioactive. They indicate the glomerular filtration rate, concentrating and diluting capacity of kidneys (tubular function. If there is an increase or decrease in the valves of these markers it indicates dysfunction of kidney. Aim: The aim of this review is to compare and analyze the present and newer markers of renal function tests which help in diagnosis of clinical disorders. Material & Methods: An extensive literature survey was done aiming to compare and compile renal function tests makers required in diagnosis of diseases. Results: Creatinine, urea, uric acid and electrolytes are makers for routine analysis whereas several studies have confirmed and consolidated the usefulness of markers such as cystatin C and β-Trace Protein. Conclusion: We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these biomarkers in terms of usefulness in assessing renal function.

  14. Renal responses of trout to chronic respiratory and metabolic acidoses and metabolic alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C M; Milligan, C L; Walsh, P J

    1999-08-01

    Exposure to hyperoxia (500-600 torr) or low pH (4.5) for 72 h or NaHCO(3) infusion for 48 h were used to create chronic respiratory (RA) or metabolic acidosis (MA) or metabolic alkalosis in freshwater rainbow trout. During alkalosis, urine pH increased, and [titratable acidity (TA) - HCO(-)(3)] and net H(+) excretion became negative (net base excretion) with unchanged NH(+)(4) efflux. During RA, urine pH did not change, but net H(+) excretion increased as a result of a modest rise in NH(+)(4) and substantial elevation in [TA - HCO(-)(3)] efflux accompanied by a large increase in inorganic phosphate excretion. However, during MA, urine pH fell, and net H(+) excretion was 3.3-fold greater than during RA, reflecting a similar increase in [TA - HCO(-)(3)] and a smaller elevation in phosphate but a sevenfold greater increase in NH(+)(4) efflux. In urine samples of the same pH, [TA - HCO(-)(3)] was greater during RA (reflecting phosphate secretion), and [NH(+)(4)] was greater during MA (reflecting renal ammoniagenesis). Renal activities of potential ammoniagenic enzymes (phosphate-dependent glutaminase, glutamate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and plasma levels of cortisol, phosphate, ammonia, and most amino acids (including glutamine and alanine) increased during MA but not during RA, when only alanine aminotransferase increased. The differential responses to RA vs. MA parallel those in mammals; in fish they may be keyed to activation of phosphate secretion by RA and cortisol mobilization by MA.

  15. Pharmacokinetic interaction between ϵ-acetamidocaproic acid (AACA) and cimetidine in indomethacin-induced acute gastric ulcer and control rats: inhibition of active renal secretion of AACA by cimetidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y H; Lee, U; Suh, J H; Kim, Y G; Lee, M; Oh, E; Lee, M G

    2011-05-01

    After both the intravenous and oral administration of zinc acexamate [ZAC; ion-pairing between zinc and ϵ-acetamidocaproic acid (AACA)] and cimetidine together, the areas under the curve (AUCs) of AACA were significantly greater [by 28.2 and 98.9% after the intravenous and oral administration, respectively, for control rats and 13.5 and 16.9% for indomethacin-induced acute gastric ulcer (IAGU) rats, respectively] than those of ZAC alone due to the significantly slower renal clearance (CL(R)). The significantly greater AUCs of AACA after both the intravenous and oral administration of ZAC and cimetidine together in control and IAGU rats could have been due to the inhibition of active renal tubular secretion of AACA by cimetidine. After the intravenous and oral administration of both drugs together, the AUCs of cimetidine in control and IAGU rats were not different compared with those with cimetidine alone.

  16. Renal Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as “simple” cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and contain water-like fluid. Renal cysts are fairly common in ... simple kidney cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and only water-like fluid inside. They are fairly common in ...

  17. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970363 Effect on serum PTH and 1, 25(OH)2 D3levels of rapid correction of metabolic acidosis in CRFpatients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. YUANQunsheng(袁群生), et al. Renal Div, PUMC Hosp,Beijing, 100730. Chin J Nephrol 1996; 12(6): 328-331.

  18. Drug-induced renal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drugs can cause acute renal failure by causing pre-renal, intrinsic or post-renal toxicity. Pre-renal ... incidence of drug dose adjustment in renal impairment in the SAMJ. ... Fever, haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, renal impairment and.

  19. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  20. Nonmetro Net Outmigration Stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromartie, John B.

    1992-01-01

    Annual population losses from net migration for nonmetro areas declined from 0.38-0.20 percent during the period of 1988-91. However, annual inmigration and outmigration flows were consistently above 1.5 million (about 3 percent of nonmetro population). During the three-year period, nonmetro areas consistently lost young adults and those with…

  1. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  2. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  3. Mobile robot sense net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konolige, Kurt G.; Gutmann, Steffen; Guzzoni, Didier; Ficklin, Robert W.; Nicewarner, Keith E.

    1999-08-01

    Mobile robot hardware and software is developing to the point where interesting applications for groups of such robots can be contemplated. We envision a set of mobots acting to map and perform surveillance or other task within an indoor environment (the Sense Net). A typical application of the Sense Net would be to detect survivors in buildings damaged by earthquake or other disaster, where human searchers would be put a risk. As a team, the Sense Net could reconnoiter a set of buildings faster, more reliably, and more comprehensibly than an individual mobot. The team, for example, could dynamically form subteams to perform task that cannot be done by individual robots, such as measuring the range to a distant object by forming a long baseline stereo sensor form a pari of mobots. In addition, the team could automatically reconfigure itself to handle contingencies such as disabled mobots. This paper is a report of our current progress in developing the Sense Net, after the first year of a two-year project. In our approach, each mobot has sufficient autonomy to perform several tasks, such as mapping unknown areas, navigating to specific positions, and detecting, tracking, characterizing, and classifying human and vehicular activity. We detail how some of these tasks are accomplished, and how the mobot group is tasked.

  4. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  5. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  6. Renal failure (chronic)

    OpenAIRE

    Clase, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is characterised by a gradual and sustained decline in renal clearance or glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Continued progression of renal failure will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Diabetes, glomerulonephritis, hypertension, pyelone...

  7. Supramolecular chirality in organo-, hydro-, and metallogels derived from bis-amides of L-(+)-tartaric acid: formation of highly aligned 1D silica fibers and evidence of 5-c net SnS topology in a metallogel network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Uttam Kumar; Dastidar, Parthasarathi

    2012-10-01

    A series of bis-amides derived from L-(+)-tartaric acid was synthesized as potential low-molecular-weight gelators. Out of 14 bis-amides synthesized, 13 displayed organo-, hydro-, and ambidextrous gelation behavior. The gels were characterized by methods including circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, optical and electron microscopy, and rheology. One of the gels derived from di-3-pyridyltartaramide (D-3-PyTA) displayed intriguing nanotubular morphology of the gel network, which was exploited as a template to generate highly aligned 1D silica fibers. The gelator D-3-PyTA was also exploited to generate metallogels by treatment with various Cu(II) /Zn(II) salts under suitable conditions. A structure-property correlation on the basis of single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction data was attempted to gain insight into the structures of the gel networks in both organo- and metallogels. Such study led to the determination of the gel-network structure of the Cu(II) coordination-polymer-based metallogel, which displayed a 2D sheet architecture made of a chloride-bridged double helix that resembled a 5-c net SnS topology.

  8. Intestinal renal metabolism of L-citrulline and L-arginine following enteral or parenteral infusion of L-alanyl-L-[2,15N]glutamine or L-[2,15N]glutamine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelens, Petra G; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2005-10-01

    Previously, we observed increased plasma arginine (ARG) concentrations after glutamine (GLN)-enriched diets, in combination with clinical benefits. GLN delivers nitrogen for ARG synthesis, and the present study was designed to quantify the interorgan relationship of exogenous L-GLN or GLN dipeptide, by enteral or parenteral route, contributing to intestinal citrulline (CIT) and renal de novo ARG synthesis in mice. To study this, we used a multicatheterized mouse model with Swiss mice (n = 43) in the postabsorptive state. Stable isotopes were infused into the jugular vein or into the duodenum {per group either free L-[2,(15)N]GLN or dipeptide L-ALA-L-[2,(15)N]GLN, all with L-[ureido-(13)C-(2)H(2)]CIT and L-[guanidino-(15)N(2)-(2)H(2)]ARG} to establish renal and intestinal ARG and CIT metabolism. Blood flow was measured using (14)C-para-aminohippuric acid. Net intestinal CIT release, renal uptake of CIT, and net renal ARG efflux was found, as assessed by arteriovenous flux measurements. Quantitatively, more de novo L-[2,(15)N]CIT was produced when free L-[2,(15)N]GLN was given than when L-ALA-L-[2,(15)N]GLN was given, whereas renal de novo L-[2,(15)N]ARG was similar in all groups. In conclusion, the intestinal-renal axis is hereby proven in mice in that L-[2,(15)N]GLN or dipeptide were both converted into de novo renal L-[2,(15)N]ARG; however, not all was derived from intestinal L-[2,(15)N]CIT production. In this model, the feeding route and form of GLN did not influence de novo renal ARG production derived from GLN.

  9. Renale Osteopathie

    OpenAIRE

    Horn S

    2001-01-01

    Die renale Osteopathie umfaßt Erkrankungen des Knochens, die bei Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen auftreten, wie den sekundären bzw. tertiären Hyperparathyreoidismus, die adynamische Knochenerkrankung und die Osteopathie nach Nierentransplantation. Durch die Identifikation des Kalzium-Sensing-Rezeptors bzw. des Vitamin D-Rezeptors hat sich unser Verständnis der Zusammenhänge in den letzten Jahren erheblich verbessert. Neue Medikamente versprechen effizientere Prophylaxe- und Thera...

  10. Renale Knochenerkrankungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Störungen des Mineral- und Knochenstoffwechsels sind bei fast allen Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen anzutreffen. Pathogenetisch spielt eine Neigung zur Phosphatretention bei einer Reduktion der glomerulären Filtrationsrate die zentrale Rolle. Neben typischen, aber sehr variablen Veränderungen der Knochenstruktur (renale Osteopathie besteht auch eine sehr enge Assoziation zwischen diesen Störungen und dem massiv erhöhten kardiovaskulären Risiko der Patienten.

  11. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  12. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile inde

  13. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waster Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    Colorado • Fort Bliss, Texas These sites served as test beds for the Army’s Net Zero Initiative, specifically, Net Zero Water , and the Army provided...have sustainability, energy efficiency, water conservation, recycling, pollution prevention, and green procurement programs in place that they can...ARMY NET ZERO PROVE OUT Final Net Zero Water Best Practices November 18, 2014 Distribution A Approved for public release

  14. Activation of PAD4 in NET formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eRohrbach

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptidyl arginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis.

  15. NetB and necrotic enteritis: the hole movable story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Julian I; Keyburn, Anthony L; Moore, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens is the primary causative agent of avian necrotic enteritis. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of this economically important disease has been enhanced by the discovery of C. perfringens NetB toxin, which belongs to the α-haemolysin family of β-pore-forming toxins. In a chicken disease model, the analysis of an isogenic set of strains comprising the wild type, a netB mutant, and its complemented derivative, fulfilled molecular Koch's postulates and revealed that NetB was essential for disease. These results were consistent with epidemiological surveys, which generally found that there was a higher prevalence of netB carriage in C. perfringens isolates from diseased poultry compared to healthy birds. The netB gene has been shown to be located on large conjugative plasmids that are closely related to other toxin plasmids from C. perfringens, which has potential implications for the epidemiology of necrotic enteritis infections. The crystal structures of both monomeric NetB and the heptameric NetB pore have been determined, the latter revealed a central pore diameter of approximately 26 Å. Finally, it has been shown that vaccine preparations that include NetB can protect chickens against disease and a series of single amino acid substitution derivatives of NetB that have potential value for vaccine formulations have been isolated and analysed. It is likely that NetB will be an important antigen to include in an effective, commercially viable, necrotic enteritis vaccine.

  16. Metastatic neuroendocrine tumour in a renal transplant recipient: Dual-tracer PET-CT with {sup 18}F-FDG nd {sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC in this rare setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karunaithi, Sellam; Roy, Shambo Guha; Shama, Punit; Bal, Chandrasejhar; Kumar, Rakesh [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, E-81, Ansari Nagar (East) AIIMS Campus, New Delhi (India); Yadav, Rajni [Dept. of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2015-03-15

    Recipients of renal transplant are at increased risk of developing various malignancies, especially post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) and skin cancers. Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) of the gastrointestinal tract have not been reported in this setting. Here we describe the case of a 75-year-old male who had undergone renal transplant 8 years back and now presented with significant weight loss and backache, clinically suspected as PTLD. {sup 18}F-Fluordeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) showed hypermetabolic lesions in the liver and rectum, raising the suspicion of PTLD. However, biopsy from the liver lesion showed poorly differentiated NET. {sup 68}Ga-labelled [1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI{sup 3}-octreotide ({sup 68}Ga-DOTANOC) PET-CT was then done, which confirmed the primary lesion in the rectum with liver metastases.

  17. Bilateral Renal Mass-Renal Disorder: Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Tiryaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old woman has presented complaining of weakness and fatigue to her primary care physician. The renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When the renal masses have been discovered by sonography in this setting, the functional imaging may be critical. We reported a case about bilateral renal masses in a young female patient with tuberculosis and renal insufficiency. Magnetic resonance (MR has revealed the bilateral renal masses in patient, and this patient has been referred to our hospital for further management. The patient’s past medical and surgical history was unremarkable.

  18. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses.

  19. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA ... excreting it into the urine. Distal renal tubular acidosis (Type I RTA) is caused by a defect ...

  20. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  1. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the multimoda

  2. Release and pharmacokinetics of near-infrared labeled albumin from monodisperse poly(D,L-lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid) microspheres after subcapsular renal injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazazi-Hyseni, F.; Van Vuuren, S. H.; Van Der Giezen, D. M.; Pieters, E. H.; Ramazani, F.; Rodriguez, S.; Veldhuis, G. J.; Goldschmeding, R.; Van Nostrum, C. F.; Hennink, W. E.; Kok, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Subcapsular renal injection is a novel administration method for local delivery of therapeutics for the treatment of kidney related diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of polymeric microspheres for sustained release of protein therapeutics in the kidney and study the s

  3. Renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  4. Renale Osteopathie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Die renale Osteopathie umfaßt Erkrankungen des Knochens, die bei Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen auftreten, wie den sekundären bzw. tertiären Hyperparathyreoidismus, die adynamische Knochenerkrankung und die Osteopathie nach Nierentransplantation. Durch die Identifikation des Kalzium-Sensing-Rezeptors bzw. des Vitamin D-Rezeptors hat sich unser Verständnis der Zusammenhänge in den letzten Jahren erheblich verbessert. Neue Medikamente versprechen effizientere Prophylaxe- und Therapiemöglichkeiten. Wir beeinflussen dadurch nicht nur die Morbidität und Lebensqualität, sondern auch die Mortalität unserer Patienten.

  5. Renal disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Martha S; Poole, Judith H

    2002-03-01

    Anatomic and physiologic adaptations within the renal system during pregnancy are significant. Alterations are seen in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, resulting in changes in normal renal laboratory values. When these normal renal adaptations are coupled with pregnancy-induced complications or preexisting renal dysfunction, the woman may demonstrate a reduction of renal function leading to an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This article will review normal pregnancy adaptations of the renal system and discuss common pregnancy-related renal complications.

  6. Uricosuric effect of losartan in patients with renal transplants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Nielsen, A H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the uricosuric effect of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan, in hypertensive patients with renal transplants who are treated with cyclosporin A (CsA). METHODS: Twenty-six patients with stable renal function and hypertension, 16 men......-daily administration of 50 mg of losartan in hypertensive CsA-treated patients with renal transplants caused a 17% increase in FE(uric acid) and an 8% fall in plasma uric acid....

  7. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary.......Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study...

  8. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...... been trend-setting for collective bargaining in all three countries, but with very different effects on working time. Organized decentralization seems to pave the way for fewer straitjackets, whereas the opposite seems to be the case with regard to disorganized decentralization....

  9. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  10. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to their work can be found in the individual papers and in the available bibliographies of Petri nets, e.g., Stefan Dress et. al: Bibliography of Petri Nets. In: G. Rozenberg (ed.): Advances in Petri Nets 1987, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 266, Springer-Verlag 1987, 309-451. Updated versions...... of this bibliography will appear in Advances of Petri Nets with regular intervals. In the preparation of the book the editors have been assisted by an advisory board consisting of the following well-known Petri net researchers: M. Ajmone-Marsan, H.J. Genrich, C. Girault, W. Reisig, M. Silva and P.S. Thiagarajan...

  11. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  12. Renal calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrah, Leslie N

    1979-01-01

    Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long an...

  13. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs in prostate, bladder and kidney cancer cell lines and the use of IL-FABP as survival predictor in patients with renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Klaus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP play an important role in carcinogenesis. Modified FABP expression patterns were described for prostate, bladder and for renal cell carcinoma. Studies on metabolic relationships and interactions in permanent cell lines allow a deeper insight into molecular processes. The aim of this study is therefore a systematic overview on mRNA and protein expressions of seven FABPs in frequently used urological cell lines. Methods Nine cell lines of renal carcinomas, seven of urinary bladder carcinomas, and five of prostate carcinomas were investigated. Quantitative RT-qPCR and western blotting were used to determine different FABPs. In addition, 46 paired cancerous and noncancerous tissue samples from nephrectomy specimen with renal cell carcinomas were investigated regarding the ileum FABP mRNA expression level and associated with survival outcome. Results General characteristics of all urological carcinoma cell lines were the expression of E-and IL-FABP on mRNA and protein level, while the expressions differed between the cell lines. The protein expression was not always congruent with the mRNA expression. Renal cell carcinoma cell lines showed expressions of L-, H- and B-FABP mRNA in addition to the general FABP expression in five out of the eight investigated cell lines. In bladder cancer cell lines, we additionally found the expression of A-FABP mRNA in six cell lines, while H-FABP was present only in three cell lines. In prostate cancer cell lines, a strong reduction of A- and E- FABP mRNA was observed. The expression of B-FABP mRNA and protein was observed only in the 22 RV-1 cells. IL-FABP mRNA was over-expressed in renal tumour tissue. The IL-FABP ratio was identified as an independent indicator of survival outcome. Conclusions Distinctly different FABP expression patterns were observed not only between the cell lines derived from the three cancer types, but also between the cell lines from the

  14. Everything you need to know about distal renal tubular acidosis in autoimmune disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Both (Tim); R. Zietse (Bob); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); P.M. van Hagen (Martin); V.A.S.H. Dalm (Virgil); J.A.M. van Laar (Jan); P.L.A. van Daele (Paul)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRenal acid-base homeostasis is a complex process, effectuated by bicarbonate reabsorption and acid secretion. Impairment of urinary acidification is called renal tubular acidosis (RTA). Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is the most common form of the RTA syndromes. Multiple pathophysi

  15. Renal actinomycosis with concomitant renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong-Suk; Jang, Won Ik; Jung, Ji Yoon; Chung, Sarah; Choi, Dae Eun; Na, Ki-Ryang; Lee, Kang Wook; Shin, Yong-Tai

    2012-02-01

    Renal actinomycosis is a rare infection caused by fungi of the genus Actinomyces. A 74-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of gross hematuria with urinary symptoms and intermittent chills. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed thrombosis in the left renal vein and diffuse, heterogeneous enlargement of the left kidney. After nephrectomy, sulfur granules with chronic suppurative inflammation were seen microscopically, and the histopathological diagnosis was renal actinomycosis. Our case is the first report of renal actinomycosis with renal vein thrombosis.

  16. Conversion from tacrolimus/mycophenolic acid to tacrolimus/leflunomide to treat cutaneous warts in a series of four pediatric renal allograft recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lieuko; McClellan, Robert B; Chaudhuri, Abanti; Alexander, Steven R; Chen, Sharon F; Concepcion, Waldo; Grimm, Paul

    2012-09-15

    The challenge of immunosuppression in pediatric renal transplantation is to balance preventing rejection while avoiding infectious complications. A dermatological complication of immunosuppression is viral warts, which cause significant disfigurement and increase the risk of skin malignancy. We present three pediatric and adolescent renal allograft recipients with multiple, recalcitrant verrucae vulgares lesions and one patient with molluscum contagiosum who were switched from mycophenolate mofetil to leflunomide. Teriflunomide metabolite levels were carefully maintained between 50,000 and 100,000 ng/mL to balance its immunosuppressive and antiviral properties. No adverse events requiring discontinuation of leflunomide were encountered. Switching from mycophenolate mofetil to leflunomide successfully cleared verrucae vulgares and molluscum lesions in all four renal transplant patients. The ability to minimize and even resolve warts can improve quality of life by reducing risk of skin malignancies and emotional distress in solid organ transplant patients. Leflunomide is a potential therapeutic option for posttransplantation patients with skin warts because it serves both as an adjunct to the immunosuppressive regimen and an antiviral agent.

  17. TRANSPLANTE RENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Geraldo Rozza Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprender el significado de espera del trasplante renal para las mujeres en hemodiálisis. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo-interpretativo, realizado con 12 mujeres en hemodiálisis en Florianópolis. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas en profundidad en el domicilio. Fue utilizado el software Etnografh 6.0 para la pre-codificación y posterior al análisis interpretativo emergieron dos categorías: “las sombras del momento actual”, que mostró que las dificultades iniciales de la enfermedad están presentes, pero las mujeres pueden hacer frente mejor a la enfermedad y el tratamiento. La segunda categoría, “la luz del trasplante renal”, muestra la esperanza impulsada por la entrada en la lista de espera para un trasplante.

  18. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930564 Dwell times affect the local host de-fence mechanism of peritoneal dialysis patients.WANG Tao(汪涛),et al.Renal Instit,SunYatsen Med Univ,Guangzhou,510080.Chin JNephrol 1993;9(2):75—77.The effect of different intraperitoneal awelltimes on the local host defence in 6 peritonealdialysis patients was studied.A significant de-crease in the number of peritoneal cells,IgG con-centration and the phagoeytosis and bactericidalactivity of macrophages was determined when thedwell time decreased from 12 to 4 hs or form 4 to0.5hs,but the peroxidase activity in macrophagesincreased significantly.All variables,except theperoxidase activity in macrophages,showed nosignificant difference between patients of high or

  19. Traumatismo renal

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Sofia Rosa Moura Gomes da

    2009-01-01

    Introdução: A realização deste trabalho visa a elaboração de uma revisão sistematizada subordinada à temática da traumatologia renal. Objectivos: Os principais objectivos deste trabalho são: apurar a etiologia, definir a classificação, analisar o diagnóstico e expôr o tratamento e as complicações. Desenvolvimento: Os traumatismos são a principal causa de morte antes dos 40 anos. O rim é o órgão do aparelho génito-urinário mais frequentemente atingido. Os traumatismos renais são mais fre...

  20. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... taxonomies (‘Folksonomy’) and ‘Weblogs’. Also, platforms, programming and software are today very often created in open communities – as seen in the ‘Free/Open Source’ movement. On the other side, following the technological development, the network also has become essential in the art sphere. Artists focus...... on the ‘network’ itself as a phenomenon and are often using technological networks as a mean of production and distribution. This changes the artistic practice and the distribution channels of art works – and the traditional notions of ‘work’, ‘origin’ and ‘rights’ are increasingly perceived as limiting...

  1. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study of an exi......Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study...... of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  2. Impaired renal H+ secretion and NH3 production in mineralocorticoid-deficient glucocorticoid-replete dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulter, H N; Ilnicki, L P; Harbottle, J A; Sebastian, A

    1977-02-01

    When the administration of exogenous mineralocorticoid hormones was discontinued in adrenalectomized dogs maintained on glucocorticoid, net acid excretion decreased due largely to a reduction in urinary ammonium excretion (UNH4+V), and hyperchloremic hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis occurred and persisted. The reduction in UNH4+V was not associated with an increase in urine pH (UpH) or a decrease in urine flow, but correlated with the severity of hyperkalemia and was mitigated by dietary potassium restriction. UpH decreased to values as low as 5.3. During acidosis, UpH varied directly with UNH4+V, but in relation to UNH4+V, UpH exceeded that in acid-fed mineralocorticoid-replete dogs. Extrapolated to UNH4+V=0, however, UpH was not significantly different in the two groups (5.27 vs. 5.44). When distal delivery of sodium was increased by infusion of sodium phosphate, titratable acid excretion increased in both groups but pateaued at lower rates in the mineralocorticoid-deficient dogs. These results suggest that in mineralocorticoid-deficient dogs, renal ammonia production is diminished, in part due to potassium retention and hyperkalemia; renal hydrogen ion secretory capacity is reduced even when sodium and buffer delivery to the distal nephron is not reduced; and the ability of the kidney to generate normally steep urine-to-blood hydrogen ion concentration gradients is unimpaired.

  3. NetView technical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  4. ASP.NET MVC 2

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaretta, Simone

    2010-01-01

    This Wrox Blox is for .NET developers who already have experiencedeveloping web applications with ASP.NET MVC and want to learn thenew features introduced in the new release of ASP.NET MVC. ASP.NETMVC 2 has been built with the goal to increase productivity andmake ASP.NET MVC ready for enterprise development. This Wrox Bloxguides the reader through the new features by explaining how to usedata scaffolding and automatic validation, how to write customvalidators, how to create multi-area projects, and how and when touse async controllers. It also covers the new automatic HTMLEncoding feature int

  5. DMAH ozone measurement net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagès

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the study of tropospheric ozone lies in the fact that it is a secondary pollutant. It is not emitted by a source, instead its concentration in the air depends on other compounds (especially the nitrogen oxides emitted by motor vehicles and the volatile organic compounds emitted by the industry and the vegetation and meteorological factors (especially solar radiation and temperature. The European legislation compells to make measurements of the tropospheric ozone due to its effects on people (fatigue, irritation of the mucous membranes, aggravation of asthma ... and on environment (decrease of the production of cereals, synergy with plagues .... The measuring net in Catalonia belongs to the Department of Environment and Housing (DMAH. It has a pyramidal structure and it allows a surveillance to notify in case of exceeding a certain threshold. From the registered data of last years it is shown that the number of incidences is related to meteorology. They are more frequent during afternoon and the behaviour of this pollutant is different according to the proximity of the point of measurement to the sources of its precursors.

  6. Treatment of sodium bicarbonate combined with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal uric acid stone and review of the literature%碳酸氢钠联合ESWL治疗双J管末端尿酸结石1例报告并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩勇; 梁培育; 周治彦; 宋鹏; 彭晓晖; 颜毅; 刘继红

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨采用1.5%碳酸氢钠溶液联合ESWL治疗尿酸结石的疗效.方法:采用ESWL联合输尿管导管逆行插管后持续灌注1.5%碳酸氢钠溶石治疗1例43岁双肾尿酸结石男性患者.结果:治疗1周后,尿酸结石完全消失,双J管顺利拔出,无逆行感染.结论:1.5%碳酸氢钠溶液联合ESWL治疗尿酸结石疗程短,费用低,疗效确切,是一种治疗尿酸结石快速、安全和有效的治疗方法.%Objective:To investigate the treatment effects of 1. 5% sodium bicarbonate combined with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy(ESWL) for renal uric acid stone. Method: A single case of renal uric acid stone was report, a 43-year-old male patients with bilateral renal uric acid stone, and extremity of bilateral double J tube formed uric stone. Patient was treated by ESWL and 1. 5% sodium bicarbonate dissolution therapy. Result: All uric acid stone disappeared without any retrograde infection, bilateral double J tube were extracted successfully after a week. Conclusion:This method is perfect for renal uric acid stone. It might also served as an optimal treat procedure of sodium bicarbonate combined with ESWL for renal uric acid stone.

  7. Posterior urethral valves: relationship between vesicoureteral reflux and renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Denis A; Morgante, Debora; Frediani, Simone; Iaconelli, Romina; Ceccanti, Silvia; Mele, Ermelinda; Cozzi, Francesco

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between renal function and vesicoureteral reflux before and after valve ablation in patients with posterior urethral valves. In these patients, back pressure may not be the only cause of renal damage. We conducted a retrospective review of 37 patients with valves consecutively treated between 1970 and 2002. Data were available for 31 patients, 19 of whom presented reflux at presentation. Grade of reflux was ascertained by voiding cystourethrography. Overall renal function was measured by serum creatinine, and split renal function was estimated by dimercaptosuccinic acid scan available for all patients but two. Before relief of obstruction, there was no correlation between split renal function and grade of reflux into 25 kidneys of the 17 patients (r = -.13; 95% CI, -.50 to .27; P = .51). High-grade reflux (grade IV-V) affected 6 of the 11 renal units, with split renal function >40% vs 11 of the 14 units with split renal function 40% vs 4 of the 14 units with split renal function <40% (P = .0005). The good renal function of more than half of the renal units with high-grade reflux at presentation, and the persistence of reflux mainly in nonfunctioning or poorly functioning kidneys after valve ablation, support the concept that in some patients with valves, reflux and renal damage are associated anomalies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The Net4Care platform provides the ability to quickly create quality tele-health applications interfacing with HL7 and IHE/XDS. Net4Care features a modular server- and client-side based on OSGi and aims at providing support for a telemedicine software ecosystem. A typical deployment scenario is a...

  9. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  10. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  11. Assessment of the Effects of Access Count in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy on Renal Functions by Technetium-99m-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Scintigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtaş, Abdullah; Caniklioğlu, Mehmet; Kula, Mustafa; Akınsal, Emre Can; Ergül, Mehmet Ali; Baydilli, Numan; Ekemekçioğlu, Oğuz

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effects of percutaneous nephrolithotomy on renal functions by using DMSA scintigraphy while considering access counts. Material and Methods. A total of 37 patients who had undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy were included. Preoperative DMSA scans were performed a day before the surgery, whereas postoperative scans were randomized by evaluating them before (n = 25) and after (n = 12) the 6th postoperative month. Twenty-six of 37 cases underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy with a single access site and 11 with multiple access sites. Results. There were no significant changes of total renal functions in the whole study group (P = 0.054). In the single access group, total functions were significantly elevated (P = 0.03) In the multiple access group, while treated site functions were significantly decreased (P = 0.01), total functions did not change significantly (P = 0.42). There was an insignificant decrease in those evaluated before the 6th postoperative month (P = 0.27) and an insignificant increase in the others (P = 0.11). Conclusion. We could not find a superiority of single access over multiple accesses. There is a temporary functional loss in the treated site. PMID:23738147

  12. Pathology of spontaneous tubular proteinuria evaluated by renal scintigraphy {sup 99m}-Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Second report. Evaluation of urinary excretion and urinary bladder uptake images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Takeshi; Hosaki, Tomoko; Shimizu, Mariko [Fussa Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    2000-03-01

    The significance of DMSA uptake in the urinary bladder and %uptake in renal scintigrams with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA in spontaneous tubular proteinuria was reassessed. The subjects were 10 patients in whom DMSA uptake in the urinary bladder could be clearly evaluated among 15 cases that were tentatively diagnosed as having spontaneous tubular proteinuria and in which renal scintigraphy was performed with DMSA. All of the patients were male children and their mean age was 9 years 11 months. No morphological abnormalities in the kidneys could be detected in any of the cases, and %uptake of DMSA was very low. Urinary excretion and uptake of the nuclide in the urinary bladder was significantly increased. In view of the pharmacokinetics of DMSA, the patients' disease appeared to be complicated by failure of the proximal tubule epithelial cells to resorb low-molecular-weight proteins, and the failure of active transport on the vascular lumen side of the cells. As a result, urinary excretion was increased and marked uptake in the urinary bladder was induced. Accordingly, when %uptake of DMSA cannot be measured, it is necessary to determine the extent of uptake in the urinary bladder. When images showing abnormal uptake are obtained, the possibility of diseases associated with functional failure at the proximal tubular level, such as spontaneous tubular proteinuria, is quite high. (K.H.)

  13. Modelling Inteligent Systems with Level Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina BOCĂNEALĂ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Level Petri Nets are formalism for modeling hierarchical multi-agent system. They are a Petri nets extension, allowing tokens to be nets themselves. This paper is inspired by two classes of level Petri nets: object Petri nets and nested Petri nets. We present some concepts from the artificial intelligence field and we use them to illustrate the modeling power of Petri nets with multi levels.

  14. Renal glucuronidation and multidrug resistance protein 2-/ multidrug resistance protein 4-mediated efflux of mycophenolic acid : interaction with cyclosporine and tacrolimus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Sheikh, Azza A K; Koenderink, Jan B; Wouterse, Alfons C; van den Broek, Petra H H; Verweij, Vivienne G M; Masereeuw, R.; Russel, Frans G M

    2014-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressant used in transplant rejection, often in combination with cyclosporine (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac). The drug is cleared predominantly via the kidneys, and 95% of the administered dose appears in urine as 7-hydroxy mycophenolic acid glucuronide (MPAG). The

  15. Comparison of differential renal function using technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) and technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renography in a paediatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, Gillian; Wilkinson, Alistair G. [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Prescott, Robin J. [University of Edinburgh Medical School, Medical Statistics Unit, Public Health Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    In children who have undergone both {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 studies for the assessment of differential renal function (DRF) and drainage, respectively, we have noticed good agreement between the calculated DRF values, and hypothesized that there is no significant difference in DRF values calculated from these tests. Therefore, both tests may not always be necessary. To determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between DRF values calculated using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and those calculated using {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3. We retrospectively identified children imaged with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3. We recorded DRF values, age, indication, and renal pelvis diameter. For the {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA studies we recorded the imaging time after injection. For the {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 studies we recorded the delay between injection and data acquisition, diuretic use and evidence of delayed drainage or reflux. We identified 100 episodes in 92 children where both {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 scans had been performed within a few days. The commonest indication was urinary tract infection or pelviureteric junction obstruction. The mean age of the children was 6.96 years. A significant but clinically acceptable trend was seen between abnormal DRF and difference between tests. A significant link was found with the difference between tests and the time of imaging after DMSA injection, and also with scarring. No significant effect was caused by renal pelvis dilatation, delayed drainage, frusemide administration, or delayed {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 imaging. If a {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 study has been performed then a {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA study is unnecessary provided DRF is normal on the {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 study and there is no scarring. A change in practice would lead to considerable savings in time, cost and radiation burden. (orig.)

  16. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain proper fluid ... marrow and strengthen the bones. The term kidney (renal) failure describes a situation in which the kidneys have ...

  17. Renal arteries (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. The test is performed ... main vessel of the pelvis, up to the renal artery that leads into the kidney. Contrast medium ...

  18. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-03-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  19. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  20. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  1. Petri Nets and Semantics of System Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: Languages based on nets. The problem of time in nets. Nets and related models. Nets and formal semantics. Parallel program...

  2. The clinical significance of glomerular filtration rate measured by 99Tcm-diethylentriamine pentaacetic acid renal dynamic imaging in renal cercinoma patients before surgeru%99Tcm-DTPA法肾小球滤过率在肾癌患者术前肾功能评价中的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵小南; 王跃涛; 王小松; 陈海龙

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of glomerular filtration rate(GFR)measured by 99Tcm-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid(99Tcm-DTPA)renal dynamic imaging in renal cell carcinoma(RCC)patients before surgery.Methods There were 99 cases of RCC patients,89 patients undergoing radical nephrectomy(RN)and 10 patients undergoing nephron-sparing surgery(NSS).99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging was performed for determining GFR before surgery.Make a comparison of GFR between RCC group and control group (normal kidney donors),RN group and NSS group.Make a comparison between GFR and serum creatinine in determining preoperative renal dysfunction of RCC patients.All of the data were analyzed by t-test and X2-text.Results Compared with contral group,total GFR of RCC patients was lower,but there was no significant difference[(76.4±20.4)ml/min vs.(80.6±17.4)ml/min,t=0.650,P>0.05)].Nineteen cases(19.2%)of RCC patients had preoperative renal dysfunction(total GFR133μmol/L).There was no significant difference in GFR of neoplastic kidneys between RN group and NSS group[(34.1±11.7)ml/min vs.(37.9±11.9)ml/min,t=0.975,P>0.05].GFR of contralateral kidneys was lower in NSS group than RN group[(32.7±10.3)ml/min vs.(39.6±10.1)ml/min,t=0.044,P0.05).19例(19.2%)RCC患者术前存在肾功能异常(双肾GFR133 μmol/L)者仅4例.RCC患者中,NSS组患侧肾脏GFR与RN组相比,差异无统计学意义[(34.1±11.7)ml/min vs.(37.9±11.9)ml/min,t=0.975,P>0.05],对侧肾脏GFR低于RN组[(32.7±10.3)ml/min vs.(39.6±10.1)ml/min,t=0.044,P<0.05],NSS组术前肾功能异常者比例明显高于RN组(50.0%vs.15.7%,X2=6.808,P<0.01 )结论 99Tcm-DTPA法测定的GFR能获得RCC患者术前双肾和分肾功能的准确信息,对RCC患者的治疗决策有重要意义.

  3. [Renal leiomyoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Guessous, H; Rabii, R; Benjelloun, M; Benlemlih, A; Skali, K; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1999-01-01

    The authors report a case of renal leiomyoma observed in a 56-year-old man. This cyst presented in the from of loin pain. Computed tomography revealed a homogeneous renal tumor. Treatment consisted of radical nephrectomy. Histological examination of the specimen showed benign renal leiomyoma.

  4. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  5. Renal functional reserve and renal recovery after acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aashish; Mucino, Marìa Jimena; Ronco, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Renal functional reserve (RFR) represents the capacity of the kidney to increase glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in response to certain physiological or pathological stimuli or conditions. Once baseline GFR is determined, RFR can be assessed clinically after an oral protein load or intravenous amino acid infusion. In clinical practice, baseline GFR displays variable levels due to diet or other factors. RFR is the difference between peak 'stress' GFR induced by the test (p.o. or i.v.) and the baseline GFR. In clinical scenarios where hyperfiltration is present (high baseline GFR due to pregnancy, hypertension or diabetic nephropathy, in solitary kidney or kidney donors), RFR may be fully or partially used to achieve normal or supranormal renal function. Since commonly used renal function markers, such as GFR, may remain within normal ranges until 50% of nephrons are lost or in patients with a single remnant kidney, the RFR test may represent a sensitive and early way to assess the functional decline in the kidney. RFR assessment may become an important tool to evaluate the ability of the kidney to recover completely or partially after a kidney attack. In case of healing with a defect and progressive fibrosis, recovery may appear complete clinically, but a reduced RFR may be a sign of a maladaptive repair or subclinical loss of renal mass. Thus, a reduction in RFR may represent the equivalent of renal frailty or susceptibility to insults. The main aim of this article is to review the concept of RFR, its utility in different clinical scenarios, and future perspective for its use.

  6. Evaluation of renal function in children with moderate or severe hydronephrosis after operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨屹; 吉士俊; 赵国贵

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate postoperative renal function in children with congenital moderate or severe hydronephrosis. Methods 99m Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid scintigraphy was performed in 50 children with unilateral moderate or severe hydronephrosis to determine postoperative renal function. We also analyzed the factors influencing renal function recovery. Results Average postoperative renal function in 50 cases was 40.62%±10.09%. Among them, 32% of patients had nearly normal renal function and differentiated renal function reached up to 45%. Average preoperative and postoperative renal function in 25 cases was 23.89%±11.65% and 39.33%±8.59% respectively and the increase of renal function was about 15.44%±11.18% (P=0.0003). Renal parenchyma thickness was negatively correlated with postoperative renal function (r=-0.62, P=0.0009). The follow-up period was positively correlated with postoperative renal function (r=0.58, P=0.0026). The patients'age had no correlation with renal function recovery (r=-0.05, P=0.80). Recovery of renal function in hydronephrosis with extrarenal pelvis was greater than that in hydronephrosis with intrarenal pelvis (P=0.016). Conclusions Postoperative renal function in children with moderate or severe hydronephrosis can recover to normal. Recovery of renal function was more obvious in hydronephrosis with thinner renal parenchyma, longer follow-up period and extrarenal pelvis.

  7. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  8. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  9. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  10. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  11. Transient renal dysfunction with reversible splenial lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toru; Matsuda, Tomoka; Kitagata, Ryoichi; Tajima, Iwao; Ono, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Keiko; Shirai, Masami; Endoh, Akira; Hongo, Teruaki

    2014-10-01

    We report the case of a 6-month-old boy with transient renal dysfunction who had an intensified signal in the splenium of the corpus callosum on magnetic resonance imaging. He presented to hospital with fever and sudden disturbance of consciousness. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis did not show pleocytosis. The mild consciousness disturbance disappeared after 30 min, but the splenial signal persisted even after 8 days. Further, renal glucosuria, increased excretion of select amino acids, and abnormal fractional excretion of electrolytes were observed, indicating renal tubular dysfunction. The abnormal urinary findings spontaneously resolved by day 9 of hospitalization. The splenial lesion took 21 days to normalize. There were no signs of neurological complications 2 months later. This case suggests the possibility of renal involvement in splenial lesions.

  12. Proof nets for display logic

    CERN Document Server

    Moot, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores several extensions of proof nets for the Lambek calculus in order to handle the different connectives of display logic in a natural way. The new proof net calculus handles some recent additions to the Lambek vocabulary such as Galois connections and Grishin interactions. It concludes with an exploration of the generative capacity of the Lambek-Grishin calculus, presenting an embedding of lexicalized tree adjoining grammars into the Lambek-Grishin calculus.

  13. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding;

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... performance improvement, such as measures derived from the receiver operating characteristic curve, the net benefit function, and the Brier score, cannot be large due to poorly fitting risk functions....

  14. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well.......This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  15. Process of Petri Nets Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To describe the dynamic semantics for the network computing, the concept on process is presented based on the semantic model with variable, resource and relation. Accordingly, the formal definition of process and the mapping rules from the specification of Petri nets extension to process are discussed in detail respectively. Based on the collective concepts of process, the specification of dynamic semantics also is constructed as a net system. Finally, to illustrate process intuitively, an example is specified completely.

  16. Evaluation of Renal Histopathological Changes, as a Predictor of Recoverability of Renal Function Following Pyeloplasty for Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Pyeloplasty is a widely accepted treatment for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO. However, the renal function recoverability after pyeloplasty is still a matter of debate. Different parameters have been used to predict renal functional recoverability after corrective surgery, with conflicting results. Objectives In this study, renal biopsy was carried on a series of cases of UPJO, during pyeloplasty, to study the extent of histological alterations in renal parenchyma, as a result of obstruction, and its predictive value in renal function recoverability after pyeloplasty. Patients and Methods We retrospectively analyzed the renal biopsy obtained during pyeloplasty in 53 adult patients. Histopathological changes were graded on a scale of 1 to 3, according to their severity, and compared with the differential renal function (DRF revealed on the preoperative and postoperative follow up diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA renal scan. A Fischer’s t test was used to evaluate statistical differences between values. Results This study showed a linear relationship between the severity of histological changes and renal function recovery, after pyeloplasty. Out of 24 obstructed renal units (ORU, with minimal histopathological changes (grade I, 21 ORU (87.5%, with > 35% DRF preoperatively, showed significant improvement in renal function after 12 months of pyeloplasty (P 0.05. Renal function deterioration after pyeloplasty was not observed in any of the cases. Conclusions The severity of pathological changes in renal parenchyma, due to UPJO, is a good predictor of renal function recoverability, after pyeloplasty. The ORUs, with DRF > 35%, usually have normal (grade I renal biopsy and might be expected to present better functional recoverability after pyeloplasty.

  17. Expression and clinical significance of URAT1 in renal tissue of patients with uric acid nephrolithiasis%URAT1基因在尿酸结石患者肾脏的表达及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚基伟; 李前伟; 付卫华; 郑霁; 鄢俊安; 李为兵

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨尿酸结石患者尿酸代谢特征以及肾脏URAT1表达改变的意义。方法回顾性分析2012年1月至2013年10月我院收治的24例结石患者的临床资料,按结石成分分为尿酸结石患者9例( A组)、非尿酸性结石患者15例( B组),另选取7例因其他疾病操作而取材做mRNA测定的患者为C组,10例健康体检者为D组(仅用作收集其血尿酸检验结果以及24 h尿液标本)。采集各组参与者一般临床资料以及血液、24 h尿液的尿酸代谢相关指标结果,并应用Real-time PCR技术检测其肾脏URAT1表达情况,所得数据进行组间统计分析比较。结果 A 组患者血尿酸水平、体重指数、年龄显著高于 B 组及 C 组(P0.05)。 Real-time PCR实验结果提示尿酸结石患者肾脏URAT1表达较其他组显著增高(P0. 05). The result of Real-time PCR suggested that the URAT1 renal expression was significantly higher in patients with uric acid nephrolithiasis than other two groups (P<0. 05). Conculusion Patients with uric acid nephrolithiasis are closely related with hyperuricemia,but unrelated with renal over-ex-cretion of uric acid. The upregulated URAT1 expression in the kidney may be an important molecular mechanism of the clinical features.

  18. Renal malakoplakia presenting as a renal mass in a 55-year-old man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolhasani Maryam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Malakoplakia is an uncommon chronic inflammatory condition that has a gross and microscopic appearance resembling that of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. It is characterized by distinctive Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Malakoplakia can affect any organ system but genitourinary tract involvement is the most common, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Very rare cases have been reported to present as a unifocal lesion mimicking a renal tumor. Case presentation We report a case of renal malakoplakia in a 55-year-old Iranian man with a past history of recurrent urinary tract infections who presented with left flank pain. An ultrasound study showed a large solid left renal mass, and he underwent a left radical nephrectomy with a clinical diagnosis of a renal tumor. Pathology slides revealed the diffuse infiltration of sheets of Periodic Acid Schiff-positive histiocytes in his renal parenchyma; these cells showed strong immunoreactivity for CD 68. The final diagnosis was renal malakoplakia. Conclusion Renal malakoplakia must be kept in mind for patients presenting with a renal mass and a history of long-term recurrent renal infections or renal failure. The large, rapidly growing nodules of malakoplakia may mimic renal cell carcinoma in imaging studies. In these cases, a true cut needle biopsy may help the correct diagnosis and prevent unnecessary surgery.

  19. Postpartum renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, D; Sterns, R H; Segal, A J

    1985-01-01

    Renal vein thrombosis in adults is usually a complication of the nephrotic syndrome. Rarely, it has been reported in nonnephrotic women postpartum. The thrombosis may be a complication of the hypercoagulable state associated with both the nephrotic syndrome and pregnancy. Two postpartum patients with renal vein thrombosis and no prior history of renal disease are reported here. Neither patient had heavy proteinuria. In both cases, pyelonephritis was suspected clinically and the diagnosis of renal vein thrombosis was first suggested and confirmed by radiologic examination. Renal vein thrombosis should be considered in women presenting postpartum with flank pain.

  20. Renal infarction resulting from traumatic renal artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Kim, Won; Jin, Gong Yong; Na, Ki Ryang; Yun, Il Yong; Park, Sung Kwang

    2008-06-01

    Renal artery dissection may be caused by iatrogenic injury, trauma, underlying arterial diseases such as fibromuscular disease, atherosclerotic disease, or connective tissue disease. Radiological imaging may be helpful in detecting renal artery pathology, such as renal artery dissection. For patients with acute, isolated renal artery dissection, surgical treatment, endovascular management, or medical treatment have been considered effective measures to preserve renal function. We report a case of renal infarction that came about as a consequence of renal artery dissection.

  1. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most...

  2. Chronic kidney disease related to renal tuberculosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Genitourinary tuberculosis (TB is the third most common form of extrapulmonary TB. A 34-year-old man with severe kidney function loss secondary to renal TB initially presented with urinary symptoms, including dysuria and polacyuria. The diagnosis was based on clinical history and laboratory tests; the urinalysis revealed acid-fast bacilli. The patient's condition stabilized after beginning TB-specific treatment, but the right kidney function loss persisted. Renal TB can lead to irreversible loss of renal function. As such, renal function should be considered in all patients from TB-endemic areas who present with urinary symptoms and whose urine cultures are negative for common pathogens.

  3. Homozygous SLC2A9 mutations cause severe renal hypouricemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinour, Dganit; Gray, Nicola K; Campbell, Susan; Shu, Xinhua; Sawyer, Lindsay; Richardson, William; Rechavi, Gideon; Amariglio, Ninette; Ganon, Liat; Sela, Ben-Ami; Bahat, Hilla; Goldman, Michael; Weissgarten, Joshua; Millar, Michael R; Wright, Alan F; Holtzman, Eliezer J

    2010-01-01

    Hereditary hypouricemia may result from mutations in the renal tubular uric acid transporter URAT1. Whether mutation of other uric acid transporters produces a similar phenotype is unknown. We studied two families who had severe hereditary hypouricemia and did not have a URAT1 defect. We performed a genome-wide homozygosity screen and linkage analysis and identified the candidate gene SLC2A9, which encodes the glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9). Both families had homozygous SLC2A9 mutations: A missense mutation (L75R) in six affected members of one family and a 36-kb deletion, resulting in a truncated protein, in the other. In vitro, the L75R mutation dramatically impaired transport of uric acid. The mean concentration of serum uric acid of seven homozygous individuals was 0.17 +/- 0.2 mg/dl, and all had a fractional excretion of uric acid >150%. Three individuals had nephrolithiasis, and three had a history of exercise-induced acute renal failure. In conclusion, homozygous loss-of-function mutations of GLUT9 cause a total defect of uric acid absorption, leading to severe renal hypouricemia complicated by nephrolithiasis and exercise-induced acute renal failure. In addition to clarifying renal handling of uric acid, our findings may provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure, nephrolithiasis, hyperuricemia, and gout.

  4. ERR gamma Regulates Cardiac, Gastric, and Renal Potassium Homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alaynick, William A.; Way, James M.; Wilson, Stephanie A.; Benson, William G.; Pei, Liming; Downes, Michael; Yu, Ruth; Jonker, Johan W.; Holt, Jason A.; Rajpal, Deepak K.; Li, Hao; Stuart, Joan; McPherson, Ruth; Remlinger, Katja S.; Chang, Ching-Yi; McDonnell, Donald P.; Evans, Ronald M.; Billin, Andrew N.

    2010-01-01

    Energy production by oxidative metabolism in kidney, stomach, and heart, is primarily expended in establishing ion gradients to drive renal electrolyte homeostasis, gastric acid secretion, and cardiac muscle contraction, respectively. In addition to orchestrating transcriptional control of oxidative

  5. Refractory anemia leading to renal hemosiderosis and renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha Siddappa; K M Mythri; Kowsalya, R.; Ashish Parekh

    2011-01-01

    Renal hemosiderosis is a rare cause of renal failure and, as a result, may not be diagnosed unless a detailed history, careful interpretation of blood parameters and renal biopsy with special staining is done. Here, we present a rare case of renal hemosiderosis presenting with renal failure.

  6. Refractory anemia leading to renal hemosiderosis and renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Siddappa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal hemosiderosis is a rare cause of renal failure and, as a result, may not be diagnosed unless a detailed history, careful interpretation of blood parameters and renal biopsy with special staining is done. Here, we present a rare case of renal hemosiderosis presenting with renal failure.

  7. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...... by other papers. Thus, e.g., none of the original papers introducing the first versions of high-level Petri nets have been included. The introductions to the individual sections mention a number of researchers who have contributed to the development of high-level Petri nets. Detailed references...

  8. Renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, E; Bouchard, J; Mehta, R L

    2009-09-01

    Renal replacement therapy became a common clinical tool to treat patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) since the 1960s. During this time dialytic options have expanded considerably; biocompatible membranes, bicarbonate dialysate and dialysis machines with volumetric ultrafiltration control have improved the treatment for acute kidney injury. Along with advances in methods of intermittent hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement therapies have gained widespread acceptance in the treatment of dialysis-requiring AKI. However, many of the fundamental aspects of the renal replacement treatment such as indication, timing of dialytic intervention, and choice of dialysis modality are still controversial and may influence AKI patient's outcomes. This review outlines current concepts in the use of dialysis techniques for AKI and suggests an approach for selecting the optimal method of renal replacement therapy.

  9. Renal function after renal artery stenting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George S. Hanzel; Mark Downes; Peter A. McCullough

    2005-01-01

    @@ Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS), a common clinical finding, is increasing in prevalence as the population ages. ARAS is seen in ~ 7% of persons over 65 years of age1 and in ~ 20% of patients at the time of coronary angiography.2 It is an important cause of chronic kidney disease and may result in 11-14% of cases of end stage renal disease.3

  10. Pathophysiological aspect of metabolic acid-base disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešović-Ostojić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaing the arterial pH values (in normal range of 7,35-7,45 is one of the main principles of homeostasis. Regulatory responses, including chemical buffering (extracellular, intracellular, sceletal, the regulation of pCO2 by the respiratory system, and the regulation of [HCO3-] by the kidneys, act in concert to maintain normal arterial pH value. The main extracellular chemical buffer is bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer system. The kidneys contribute to the regulation of hydrogen (and bicarbonate in body fluids in two ways. Proximal tubules are important in bicarbonate reabsorption and distal tubules excrete hydrogen ion (as ammonium ion or titratable acid. There are four simple acid-base disorders: metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis; respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic acidosis can occur because of an increase in endogenous acid production (such as lactate and ketoacids, loss of bicarbonate (as in diarrhea, or accumulation of endogenous acids (as in renal failure. Metabolic acidosis can also be with high and normal (hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis anion gap. Renal tubular acidosis (RTA is a form of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis which occurs when the renal damage primarily affects tubular function. The main problem in distal RTA is reduced H+ excretion in distal tubule. Type 2 RTA is also called proximal RTA because the main problem is greatly impaired reabsorption of bicarbonate in proximal tubule. Impaired cation exchange in distal tubule is the main problem in RTA type 4. Metabolic alkalosis occurs as a result of net gain of [HCO3-] or loss of nonvolatile acid from extracellular fluids. Metabolic alkalosis can be associated with reduced or increased extracellular volume.

  11. Gastrin stimulates renal dopamine production by increasing the renal tubular uptake of l-DOPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Yanrong; Yang, Yu; Yang, Jian; Asico, Laureano D; Chen, Wei; Felder, Robin A; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A; Yang, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    Gastrin is a peptide hormone that is involved in the regulation of sodium balance and blood pressure. Dopamine, which is also involved in the regulation of sodium balance and blood pressure, directly or indirectly interacts with other blood pressure-regulating hormones, including gastrin. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms of the interaction between gastrin and dopamine and tested the hypothesis that gastrin produced in the kidney increases renal dopamine production to keep blood pressure within the normal range. We show that in human and mouse renal proximal tubule cells (hRPTCs and mRPTCs, respectively), gastrin stimulates renal dopamine production by increasing the cellular uptake of l-DOPA via the l-type amino acid transporter (LAT) at the plasma membrane. The uptake of l-DOPA in RPTCs from C57Bl/6J mice is lower than in RPTCs from normotensive humans. l-DOPA uptake in renal cortical slices is also lower in salt-sensitive C57Bl/6J than in salt-resistant BALB/c mice. The deficient renal cortical uptake of l-DOPA in C57Bl/6J mice may be due to decreased LAT-1 activity that is related to its decreased expression at the plasma membrane, relative to BALB/c mice. We also show that renal-selective silencing of Gast by the renal subcapsular injection of Gast siRNA in BALB/c mice decreases renal dopamine production and increases blood pressure. These results highlight the importance of renal gastrin in stimulating renal dopamine production, which may give a new perspective in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. No effect of dietary fish oil on renal hemodynamics, tubular function, and renal functional reserve in long-term renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J M; Løkkegaard, H; Høy, C E; Fogh-Andersen, N; Olsen, N V; Strandgaard, S

    1995-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been suggested to protect the kidney against cyclosporin A (CsA) toxicity. This study investigated the effects of a 10-wk dietary supplementation with fish oil on renal function and renal functional reserve in healthy volunteers (N = 9) and two groups of stable long-term kidney-transplanted patients treated with maintenance low-dose CsA (3.0 +/- 0.6 mg/kg; N = 9) or without CsA (N = 9). After an overnight fast, the subjects were water loaded, and clearance studies were performed, postponing morning medication. GFR and effective RPF were measured as the renal clearances of (99mTc)DTPA and (131I)hippuran, respectively. Renal tubular function was evaluated by use of the renal clearance of lithium and the urinary excretion of beta 2-microglobulin. Fish oil did not change baseline values of effective RPF, GFR, lithium clearance, and urinary excretion of beta 2-microglobulin in any of the groups. The infusion of amino acids induced a comparable increase in GFR, lithium clearance, and the urinary excretion rate of beta 2-microglobulin in all three groups with no additional effect of fish oil. Thus, long-term renal transplant recipients treated with a low maintenance dose of CsA had a well-preserved renal functional reserve, and dietary supplementation with fish oil in these patients did not improve renal function.

  13. MATT: Multi Agents Testing Tool Based Nets within Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kerraoui

    2016-12-01

    As part of this effort, we propose a model based testing approach for multi agent systems based on such a model called Reference net, where a tool, which aims to providing a uniform and automated approach is developed. The feasibility and the advantage of the proposed approach are shown through a short case study.

  14. Sublogarithmic uniform Boolean proof nets

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Clément

    2012-01-01

    Using a proofs-as-programs correspondence, Terui was able to compare two models of parallel computation: Boolean circuits and proof nets for multiplicative linear logic. Mogbil et. al. gave a logspace translation allowing us to compare their computational power as uniform complexity classes. This paper presents a novel translation in AC0 and focuses on a simpler restricted notion of uniform Boolean proof nets. We can then encode constant-depth circuits and compare complexity classes below logspace, which were out of reach with the previous translations.

  15. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  16. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  17. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevtic, V. E-mail: vladimir.jevtic@mf.uni-lj.si

    2003-05-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination.

  18. Ultrasonographic imaging for structural characterization of renal affections and diagnosis of associated chronic renal failure in 10 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Adarsh; Varshney, A C

    2011-01-01

    The present study comprises of 10 dogs of either sex with primary indication of azotaemia. All the dogs were subjected to detailed clinical, haematobiochemical, urinalysis, and microbiological examination along with radiographical and ultrasonographical examination. Based on the ultrasonographic structural abnormalities, the different renal affections associated with CRF in majority of dogs were diagnosed. The different affections included "end-stage" kidneys (n = 4), hydronephrosis (n = 1), renomegaly (n = 1), nephritis (n = 1), nephrolithiasis (n = 1), nephrocalcinosis (n = 1), and renal cyst (n = 1). The significant ultrasonographic features in these affections included small kidneys with loss of corticomedullary demarcation ("end-stage" kidneys); increased cortical echogenicity (nephritis); dilation of the renal pelvis, separation of the central renal sinus with anechoic space, atrophy of renal medulla, (hydronephrosis); enlarged kidneys with increased overall echogenicity of renal cortex (renomegaly and associated nephritis); hyperechoic-mineralized structure with shadowing (nephrolithiasis); diffuse, small, multiple hyperechoic structures in the renal parenchyma with distal acoustic shadowing (nephrocalcinosis); small spherical intercortical anechoic structures fluid (renal cysts). In the present study, ultrasound proved to be a quick, convenient, and sensitive modality in detecting alterations in renal size and parenchymal architecture. All the dogs so diagnosed with CRF were rendered conservative medical treatment to control clinical signs of uraemia; maintain adequate fluid, electrolyte, and acid/base balance; provide adequate nutrition; minimize progression of renal failure.

  19. Incidental renal neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Minne Nedergaard; Walter, Steen;

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of associations between tumor size, pathological stage, histological subtype and tumor grade in incidentally detected renal cell carcinoma vs symptomatic renal cell carcinoma, we discussed the need for a screening program of renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. We analyzed a consecutive...... series of 204 patients with renal tumors in 2011 and 2012. The tumors were classified according to detection mode: symptomatic and incidental and compared to pathological parameters. Eighty-nine patients (44%) were symptomatic, 113 (55%) were incidental. Information was not available in two patients...

  20. Insuficiencia renal aguda.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hernán Mejía

    2009-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a clinic syndrome characterized by decline in renal function occurring over a short time period. Is a relatively common complication in hospitalized critically ill patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. ARF has often a multi-factorial etiology syndrome usually approached diagnostically as pre-renal, post-renal, or intrinsic ARF. Most intrinsic ARF is caused by ischemia or nephrotoxins and is classically associated with acute tubular necrosis...

  1. Isolated Renal Hydatidosis Presenting as Renal Mass: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datteswar Hota

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation by larval form of Echinococcus granulosus. Isolated renal involvement is extremely rare. There are no specific signs and symptoms of renal hydatidosis. However it may present as palpable mass, flank pain, hematuria, malaise, fever, and hydatiduria or as a complication of it such as infection, abscess, hemorrhage, necrosis and pelviureteric junction obstruction, renal failure etc. Except hydatiduria, none are pathognomonic for renal hydatidosis. There is no literature on renal hydatidosis presenting as renal mass we report 2 cases of isolated renal hydatidosis, which mimicked a renal mass on imaging study.

  2. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    (1.1%) had complete distal renal tubular acidosis and 14 (15.5%) incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Our results confirm that distal renal tubular acidification defects are associated with a more severe form of stone disease and make distal renal tubular acidosis one of the most frequent...... metabolic disturbances in renal stone formers. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was relatively more common in female stone formers and most often found in patients with bilateral stone disease (36%). Since prophylactic treatment in renal stone formers with renal acidification defects is available...

  3. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  4. The Net Generation Cheating Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Valerie; Sandoe, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Integral to higher education, academic integrity stands as a cornerstone of academic life. However, compelling evidence of widespread academic dishonesty among Net-Generation students threatens to undermine both the environment of trust that nourishes integrity and the safeguards that help ensure it. Working from their experience with widespread…

  5. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het nu

  6. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het

  7. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het nu

  8. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrat...

  9. Communicating with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    narcissistic ―me‖ generation to a perceived lack of respect for authority. The Net Generation displays high self-esteem and confidence but appear much more...by our adversaries, especially by terrorist organizations that continually look for vulnerabilities to exploit. Location- based social networking

  10. Benefits of pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn) fruit extracts to weight changes, total protein, and uric acid in white rats (Rattus norvegicus) as an animal model of acute renal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primarizky, Hardany; Yuniarti, Wiwik Misaco; Lukiswanto, Bambang Sektiari

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The occurrence of acute renal failure (ARF) cases continues to increase every year. Some of the cases are due to nephrotoxic effect caused by overdose of antibiotic consumption or abuse of the drug, gentamicin. An antibiotic therapy that can be used to overcome in such a case is the pomegranate extracts. However, until now, studies using pomegranate for cases of ARF have not been done. This study aims to determine changes in body weight, the levels of total protein (TP), and the levels of serum uric acid (UA) as a result of the pomegranate extract consumption. Materials and Methods: A total number of 32 rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into four groups randomly. One group was assigned as the control group (P0) and given intraperitoneal (i.p.) saline and 0.3% carboxy methyl cellulose sodium (CMC) Na; P1 was provided with 80 mg/kg bw/i.p. gentamicin and 0.3% CMC Na orally, P2 was supplied with 80 mg/kg bw/i.p. gentamicin and ellagic acid in 0.3% CMC Na, and P3 was given 80 mg/kg bw/i.p. gentamicin and 150 mg/kg bw pomegranate extract in 0.3% CMC Na. The provision of treatment was carried out in 8 days and followed by making the overthrow of body weight and blood sampling for the examination of study variables. Results: The results taken by doing the analysis of variance method for the four treatment groups show that the control group (P0) has significant differences from P1, P2, and P3 (ppomegranate extracts in the treatment of nephrotoxicity toward rats is effective to maintain normal body weight, normal TP levels, and the UA blood serum of the rats. As this study is a preventive therapy, it needs further researches about the effective dose as a curative therapy, its level of effectiveness and its long-term side effects. PMID:27956780

  11. Renal pelvis or ureter cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter; Kidney cancer - renal pelvis; Ureter cancer ... Cancer can grow in the urine collection system, but it is uncommon. Renal pelvis and ureter cancers ...

  12. Net energy levels on the lipid profile of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Alexander da Silva Alencar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of net energy levels on the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle of swines. A total of 90 animals, with initial weight of 71.94±4.43kg, were used, and distributed in a randomized block design in five net energy levels (2,300, 2,425, 2,550, 2,675, and 2,800Kcal kg-1 feed, with nine replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Lipid profiles of adipose tissue and muscle were analyzed using gas chromatography. Increasing the levels of net energy using soybean oil, improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle, increased linearly (P<0.05 the concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and α-linolenic acid, reduced linearly (P<0.05 the monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids and omega 6: omega 3. In adipose tissue was observed linear reduction (P<0.05 of atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. In conclusion, increasing the level of net energy of the diet using soybean oil improved the lipid profile of adipose tissue and muscle.

  13. 26 CFR 1.172-4 - Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating... Corporations (continued) § 1.172-4 Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers. (a) General provisions—(1) Years to which loss may be carried—(i) In general. In order to compute the net operating...

  14. “The NET outcome”: are neutrophil extracellular traps of any relevance to the pathophysiology of autoimmune disorders in childhood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Giaglis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation represents a form of cell death distinct from apoptosis or necrosis, by which invading pathogens are simultaneously entangled and potentially eliminated. Increased NET formation is observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-associated and small vessel vasculitis (SVV, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS and psoriasis. NETs contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity by exposing cryptic autoepitopes, which may facilitate the generation of autoantibodies, induce the production of interferons and activate the complement cascade. In SLE, augmented disease activity and renal disease are associated with increased NET formation, so that NETs could serve as a marker for the monitoring of disease activity. NETs can additionally cause endothelial cell damage and death and stimulate inflammation in atheromatous plaques, adding to the accelerated atherosclerosis witnessed in autoimmune disease. Since NETs induce production of interferons, assessing the extent of NET formation might facilitate the prediction of IFN-alpha levels and identification of SLE patients with presumably better responses to anti-IFN-alpha therapies or other novel therapeutic concepts, such as N-acetyl-cysteine and inhibitors of DNase 1, and peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4, which also target NETs. In summary, the study of NETs provides a novel approach to the understanding of autoimmune disease pathogenesis and opens new vistas in the development of sensitive disease markers and therapies.

  15. “The NET Outcome”: Are Neutrophil Extracellular Traps of Any Relevance to the Pathophysiology of Autoimmune Disorders in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaglis, Stavros; Hahn, Sinuhe; Hasler, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation represents a form of cell death distinct from apoptosis or necrosis, by which invading pathogens are simultaneously entangled and potentially eliminated. Increased NET formation is observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated small vessel vasculitis, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), and psoriasis. NETs contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity by exposing cryptic autoepitopes, which may facilitate the generation of autoantibodies, induce the production of interferons, and activate the complement cascade. In SLE, augmented disease activity and renal disease are associated with increased NET formation, so that NETs could serve as a marker for the monitoring of disease activity. NETs can additionally cause endothelial cell damage and death and stimulate inflammation in atheromatous plaques, adding to the accelerated atherosclerosis witnessed in autoimmune disease. Since NETs induce production of interferons, assessing the extent of NET formation might facilitate the prediction of IFN-alpha levels and identification of SLE patients with presumably better responses to anti-IFN-alpha therapies or other novel therapeutic concepts, such as N-acetyl-cysteine and inhibitors of DNase 1 and peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4), which also target NETs. In summary, the study of NETs provides a novel approach to the understanding of autoimmune disease pathogenesis in childhood and opens new vistas in the development of sensitive disease markers and targeted therapies. PMID:27679792

  16. Colovesical fistula demonstrated on renal cortical scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathaki, Maria; Vamvakas, Lampros; Papadaki, Emmanouela; Papadimitraki, Elisavet; Tsaroucha, Angeliki; Karkavitsas, Nikolaos

    2012-11-01

    A 70-year-old man with a history of weight loss, changes in bowel habits, and hematochezia had rectal adenocarcinoma. He was palliated with diverting colostomy, followed by radiochemotherapy. Bilateral hydronephrosis was found incidentally on lower abdominal CT scan. He underwent 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid scan prior to percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement. Apart from the renal cortex, scintigraphy showed activity in the ascending colon continuous to the activity of the bladder. This indicated urine extravasation on account of a colovesical fistula, complicating postoperative radiation treatment. Here we highlight the contribution of renal cortical scintigraphy in the detection of colovesical fistulas.

  17. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  18. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    reclaim system does not enable Fort Carson to achieve its net zero water goal, which is to reclaim water through the WWTP equal to or greater than the...Class A Recycled Water Plant WWTP rapid infiltration basin #1 (of 4) 426,000 gal water supply storage reservoir Primary Lagoon for WWTP 6 7...cost of water = Longer time to payback  Double charged for incoming and outgoing  Army owned WWTP – true cost of water = water/sewer rates It

  19. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Integrated Net Zero Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    Program Office (Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Installations and Environment) 5850 21st Street, Building 211, Second Floor Fort...of energy, water, and waste to capture and commercialize the resource value and/or enhance the ecological productivity of land, water, and air. A...water, and waste to capture and commercialize the resource value and/or enhance the ecological productivity of land, water, and air. A Net Zero

  20. Process expression of bounded Petri nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴哲辉

    1996-01-01

    The concept of process expression of bounded Petri nets is presented.Moreover,an algorithm to find the process expression for a bounded Petri net is given.A process expression of a bounded Petri net is a regular expression whose every alphabet symbol represents a basic subprocess of the net.The regular set expressed by the regular expression is the set of all surjective processes of a bounded Petri net.A surjective process of a bounded Petri net is a process of this net in which every s-cut corresponds to a reachable marking of the net.Therefore,all surjective processes of a bounded Petri net can be obtained as long as its process expression and the basic subprocess represented by the alphabet symbols of the process expression are given.

  1. Cintilografia renal com ácido dimercaptossuccínico marcado com tecnécio no diagnóstico da pielonefrite na infância: estudo de 17 casos Renal scintigraphy using technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid in the diagnosis of pyelonephritis in children: study of 17 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana B.M. Guidoni

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: a infecção do trato urinário é uma das doenças bacterianas mais freqüentes em pediatria. O envolvimento infeccioso renal (pielonefrite pode evoluir com formação de cicatriz renal irreversível com conseqüente perda funcional e dano renal progressivo. Estudos recentes sugerem que até 50-60% das cicatrizes renais poderiam ser evitadas ou atenuadas com o diagnóstico precoce da pielonefrite. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar se a presença de alterações na cintilografia renal com DMSA na fase aguda da infecção urinária pode ser indicadora de pielonefrite. MÉTODOS: empregamos a técnica de washout em 17 meninas portadoras de infecção urinária como padrão-ouro na localização do sítio da infecção. Todas as crianças realizaram cintilografia renal com DMSA na fase aguda da infecção. Os resultados foram analisados pelo teste do qui-quadrado ou de Fisher. RESULTADOS: a cintilografia renal com DMSA detectou alterações em todos os cinco casos de pielonefrite diagnosticados pelo washout sugerindo envolvimento renal. Observamos também que apenas uma das crianças com cistite (total = 12 casos apresentava alterações ao DMSA. Portanto, a sensibilidade e especificidade deste estudo com DMSA na fase aguda da infecção foi de 100% e 92% respectivamente no diagnóstico da pielonefrite. CONCLUSÕES: a cintilografia renal com DMSA mostrou-se método sensível no diagnóstico da pielonefrite aguda em crianças.OBJECTIVE: to determine whether the presence of abnormal results in DMSA renal scintigraphy indicates pyelonephritis. METHODS: we performed the washout test in 17 children with urinary tract infection, as a criterion standard, to locate the infection site. All the children underwent DMSA renal scintigraphy in the acute phase of the disease. The results were analyzed by the chi-square test or Fisher test. RESULTS: DMSA renal scintigraphy revealed changes in all five cases of pyelonephritis, suggesting acute kidney

  2. [Hemorrhagic bilateral renal angiomyolipoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjelloun, Mohamed; Rabii, Redouane; Mezzour, Mohamed Hicham; Joual, Abdenbi; Bennani, Saâd; el Mrini, Mohamed

    2003-09-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare benign tumour, often associated with congenital diseases especially de Bourneville's tuberous sclerosis. Bilateral angiomyolipoma is exceptional. The authors report a case of bilateral renal angiomyolipoma in a 33-year-old patient presenting with haemorrhagic shock. In the light of this case and a review of the literature, the authors discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this disease.

  3. FARMACOFISIOLOGÍA RENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso CG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Renal physiology plays a key role in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. Knowledge of the particularities of each nephron function (filtration, secretion, reabsorption and excretion and each of renal tubular transport mechanisms (simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, facilitated transport, active transport, endocytosis and pinocytosis is fundamental to achieve better management of drug prescriptions.

  4. Renal tubular acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, M; Obialo, C; Hruska, K A

    1990-12-01

    Renal tubular acidosis refers to a group of disorders that result from pure tubular damage without concomitant glomerular damage. They could be hereditary (primary) or acquired (secondary to various disease states like sickle cell disease, obstructive uropathy, postrenal transplant, autoimmune disease, or drugs). The hallmark of the disorder is the presence of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with, or without, associated defects in potassium homeostasis, a UpH greater than 5.5 in the presence of systemic acidemia, and absence of an easily identifiable cause of the acidemia. There are three physiologic types whose basic defects are impairment of or a decrease in acid excretion, i.e., type 1 (dRTA); a failure in bicarbonate reabsorption, i.e., type 2 (pRTA); and deficiency of buffer or impaired generation of NH4+, i.e., type 4 RTA. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms have been postulated for these various types. pRTA is the least common of all in the adult population. It rarely occurs as an isolated defect. It is frequently accompanied by diffuse proximal tubule transport defects with aminoaciduria, glycosuria, hyperphosphaturia, and so forth (Fanconi syndrome). dRTA is associated with a high incidence of nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, osteodystrophy, and growth retardation (in children). Osteodystrophy also occurs in pRTA to a lesser degree and is believed to be secondary to hypophosphatemia. Patients with type 4 RTA usually have mild renal insufficiency from either diabetes mellitus or interstitial nephritis. Acute bicarbonate loading will result in a high fractional excretion of bicarbonate greater than 15% (FEHCO3- greater than 15%) in patients with pRTA, but FEHCO3- less than 3% in patients with dRTA. Type I patients will also have a low (U - B) PCO2 with bicarbonate loading. They are also unable to lower their urine pH to less than 5.5 with NH4Cl loading. The treatment of these patients involves avoidance of precipitating factors when possible, treatment

  5. Primary renal hydatidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnsy Merla Joel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis or hydatidosis caused by the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus, has the highest prevalence in endemic regions and sheep farming areas. The most common organ involved is the liver (50–75% followed by the lungs (15–20% and other organs (10–20%. Primary involvement of the kidney without the involvement of the liver and lungs, i.e., isolated renal hydatid disease is extremely rare even in endemic areas. The incidence of renal echinococcosis is 2–4%. Renal hydatid cysts usually remain asymptomatic for many years and are multiloculated. A 63-year-old male presented with left loin pain. Computed tomography scan abdomen revealed a presumptive diagnosis of renal hydatid disease. The nephrectomy specimen received in histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. We describe a rare case of primary renal hydatidosis.

  6. The Changes of renal excretion of uric acid in the subjects with different glucose tolerance conditions%肾脏尿酸排泄在不同糖耐量状态下的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩学尧; 崔纪芳; 纪立农

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the changes of renal uric acid excretion in different stages of type 2 diabetes, and identify its relating facts, providing the evidence for individualized treatment for hyperuricemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods 168 participants without history of diabetes were included in this study. OGTTs were conducted, the concentrations of uric acid, creatinine and albumin in spot morning fasting urine, concurrently the concentrations of uric acid and creatinine of fasting serum samples were determined. The fraction of uric acid excretion (FUE) and ratio of uric acid/creatinine (UUA/CRE) were calculated. Results No significant difference among three groups with normal OGTT(n= 61), pre-diabetes(impaired fasting glucose and /or impaired glucose tolerance, n=55) and diabetes(n=52) was observed; The subjects with male gender(P = 0. 007) , central obesity(P=0. 001) and hyperuricemia(P<0. 0001) have relatively low FUE and UUA/CRE compared with female gender, no central obesity and normal serum uric acid levels; Waist circumference was an independent fact associated with UUA/CRE(P<0.0001). 16 subjects with diabetes or pre-diabetes have hyperuricemia, of whom 12. 5% subjects have lower than 1% percentile of UUA/CRE obtained from 16 men and 29 women without hyperglycemia, hypertension and hyperuricemia. Conclusion Reduced renal excretion of uric acid play an important role in pathogenesis of hyperuricemia, and most patients with hyperglycemia and hyperuricemia might have combined excess product and low excretion of uric acid. Therefore, it's necessary to determine UUA/CRE before and after initiation of treatment for hyperuricemia in the patients with type 2 diabetes.%目的 研究T2DM自然病程的不同阶段肾脏尿酸排泄的变化,识别影响尿酸排泄的相关因素,为T2DM合并高尿酸血症个体化用药提供依据. 方法 收集168名无糖尿病病史的志愿者,行75 g OGTT,测定UA1b、Cr、Scr、UA与SUA,计算尿中尿

  7. Relation between hyper-uricemia and renal resistivity index in non diabetic non hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Hussein

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Serum uric acid significantly correlates with RRI in the absence of other risk factors affecting renal vasculature. Improvement of serum uric acid is accompanied by the improvement in RRI.

  8. Capturing birds with mist nets: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, B.E.; Grue, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Herein we have tried to provide a comprehensive review of mist-netting techniques suitable for both novice and experienced netters. General mist-netting procedures and modifications developed by netters for particular bird species and habitats are included. Factors which influence capture success, including site selection, net specifications and placement, weather, and time of day, are discussed. Guidelines are presented for the care of netted birds and the use of mist-net data in the study of bird communities. The advantages of the use of mist nets over other methods of capturing birds are also discussed.

  9. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    , etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...... analysts have difficulties grasping the dynamics implied by a process model. Recent empirical studies show that people make numerous errors when modeling complex business processes, e.g., about 20 percent of the EPCs in the SAP reference model have design flaws resulting in potential deadlocks, livelocks...... for a subclass of Petri nets named Workflow nets, but the results can easily be applied to other languages. To demonstrate the applicability of these metrics, we have applied our approach and tool to 262 relatively complex Protos models made in the context of various student projects. This allows us to validate...

  10. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple......ClinicalDocument object. This software component is adopted by several Danish companies as PHMR engine for telemedical applications, and is used in the process of writing the Danish PHMR standard....

  11. Behavior Relativity of Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊; 王怀清; 廖少毅

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a novel methodology for modelling and analyzing of behav-ior relations of concurrent systems. The set of all firing sequences of a Petri net is an importanttool for describing the dynamic behavior of concurrent systems. In this paper, the behaviorrelativity of two concurrent subsystems in their synchronous composition is presented. Such be-havior relativities, including Controlled Relativity, United Relativity, Interactive Relativity andExclusive Relativity, are defined respectively. The properties of the relativities are discussed indetail. The analysis method for these properties is based on minimum T-invariants, when twosubsystems are live bounded Petri nets. A well-known example has also been analyaed usingthe new methodology to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed methodology.

  12. Prosocial behavior on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproull, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers and charitable organizations contribute significantly to community welfare through their prosocial behavior: that is, discretionary behavior such as assisting, comforting, sharing, and cooperating intended to help worthy beneficiaries. This essay focuses on prosocial behavior on the Internet. It describes how offline charitable organizations are using the Net to become more efficient and effective. It also considers entirely new models of Net-based volunteer behavior directed at creating socially beneficial information goods and services. After exploring the scope and diversity of online prosocial behavior, the essay focuses on ways to encourage this kind of behavior through appropriate task and social structures, motivational signals, and trust indicators. It concludes by asking how local offline communities ultimately could be diminished or strengthened as prosocial behavior increases online.

  13. Net sustainable buildings: Approaching future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojić, Milorad

    2012-11-01

    For a net sustainable building (NSB), the paper develops its definition, and gives its characteristics. The NSB should provide the maximum thermal comfort were its energy consumption is totally covered by energy of renewable origin during its life cycle. The covered energy consumption should be operational and embodied. The used renewable energy may be that of sun and of anergy. The building may be furthermore evaluated regarding its status with regard to the mismatch, primary energy, emergy, exergy, fossil energy, carbon and dissemination.

  14. 1990 Joint Military Net Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the Office of Net Assessment 6 Deputy Director for Theater Assessments and Planning, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Program Analysis ...countermeasures electronic countermeasures European Economic Community electronic warfare -F- FOFA FY follow-on-forces attack fiscal year -G... analysis of current and projected capabilities of US forces, assisted by allies where appropriate, to deter war and, if deterrence fails, to terminate the

  15. Renal replacement therapy after cardiac surgery; renal function recovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinthorsdottir, Kristin Julia; Kandler, Kristian; Agerlin Windeløv, Nis

    2013-01-01

    To assess renal outcome in patients discharged from hospital following cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) with need for renal replacement therapy.......To assess renal outcome in patients discharged from hospital following cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) with need for renal replacement therapy....

  16. Advanced Near Net Shape Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) project is to radically improve near net shape manufacturing methods from the current Technology/ Manufacturing Readiness Levels (TRL/MRL 3-4) to the point where they are viable candidates (TRL/ MRL-6) for shortening the time and cost for insertion of new aluminum alloys and revolutionary manufacturing methods into the development/improvement of space structures. Conventional cyrotank manufacturing processes require fabrication of multiple pieces welded together to form a complete tank. A variety of near net shape manufacturing processes has demonstrated excellent potential for enabling single-piece construction of components such as domes, barrels, and ring frames. Utilization of such processes can dramatically reduce the extent of welding and joining needed to construct cryogenic tanks and other aerospace structures. The specific focus of this project is to successfully mature the integrally stiffened cylinder (ISC) process in which a single-piece cylinder with integral stiffeners is formed in one spin/flow forming process. Structural launch vehicle components, like cryogenic fuel tanks (e.g., space shuttle external tank), are currently fabricated via multipiece assembly of parts produced through subtractive manufacturing techniques. Stiffened structural panels are heavily machined from thick plate, which results in excessive scrap rates. Multipiece construction requires welds to assemble the structure, which increases the risk for defects and catastrophic failures.

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF 99m-Tc DMSA RENAL SCINTIGRAPHY IN EVALUATION OF RENAL LESIONS IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE PYELONEPHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ataei

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nUrinary tract infection (UTI may lead to irreversible changes in renal parenchyma. Early diagnosis using scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scan and early treatment may decrease or prevent development of renal parenchymal lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of renal parenchymal lesion in children admitted with a first-time symptomatic UTI and to evaluate the relation between renal parenchymal damage and severity of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. A total of 102 children with first time acute pyelonephritis (APN were enrolled in the study. All children studied with DMSA scan and ultrasonography (US. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG was performed in 98 children when urine culture became negative. Changes on the DMSA scan and US were found in 178 (88% and 5 (2.4% out of 203 renal units during the acute phase, respectively. All abnormal renal units on US showed severe parenchymal involvement on DMSA. We also found significant correlation between severity of VUR and abnormal US results on kidneys. Of 40 kidneys with reflux, 38 (95% were found to have abnormal renal scan. Among 155 kidneys with non-refluxing ureters 132 (85.2% revealed parenchymal changes on renal cortical scintigraphy. Kidneys with moderate to severe reflux were more likely to have severe renal involvement. We found a high incidence of renal parenchymal changes in children with APN. Additionally, renal involvement was significantly higher in children with moderate to severe reflux. When there are high-grade VUR and female gender, the risk of renal parenchymal involvement is higher.

  18. The effects of a dialysis solution with a combination of glycerol/amino acids/dextrose on the peritoneal membrane in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, Marijke; Zegwaard, Agnes H; Zweers, Machteld M; Vlijm, Anniek; de Waart, Dirk R; Vandemaele, Fréderic; Struijk, Dirk G; Krediet, Raymond T

    2010-01-01

    Long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) with conventional glucose based, lactate-buffered PD fluids may lead to morphological and functional alterations of the peritoneal membrane. It was hypothesized that long-term exposure to a different buffer and a mixture of osmotic agents would cause less peritoneal abnormality. To investigate the effects of long-term exposure to a bicarbonate/lactate-buffered dialysis solution with a mixture of osmotic agents: glycerol 1.4%, amino acids 0.5%, and dextrose 1.1% (= 1% glucose) (GLAD) in a rat model with chronic kidney failure. All rats underwent a peritoneal catheter implantation and a 70% nephrectomy. Thereafter, the rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: GLAD, 3.86% Dianeal (Baxter, Nivelles, Belgium), and buffer (Physioneal without glucose, Baxter). All rats were infused daily for 16 weeks with the appropriate PD fluid. Afterwards, a peritoneal permeability analysis (SPARa) was performed using 3.86% Physioneal in all groups. After the SPARa, the rats were sacrificed to obtain tissue samples for morphometric determinations. Omental tissue was stained with picro Sirius red for assessment of fibrosis and with CD31 for vessel density. GLAD and Dianeal showed faster small solute transport compared to the hypotonic buffer. No differences between the groups were present in ultrafiltration. Dianeal had the lowest value for free water transport and the highest protein clearances. Total triglyceride in plasma was not different between GLAD and the buffer. Vessel density after GLAD exposure (20 V/F) was very similar to the value found for the buffer solution (17 V/F); Dianeal caused a significantly higher value (35 V/F, p dialysis solutions increased peritoneal solute transport. GLAD exposure was associated with the best preservation of peritoneal morphology. The results of GLAD were very similar to those of the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution without osmotic agents. Studies in humans are needed for further assessment of GLAD.

  19. Empirical prediction of net portal appearance of volatile fatty acids, glucose, and their secondary metabolites (beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate) from dietary characteristics in ruminants: A meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncke, C; Ortigues-Marty, I; Vernet, J; Lapierre, H; Sauvant, D; Nozière, P

    2009-01-01

    The current trend in energy feeding systems for ruminants toward a nutrient-based system requires dietary energy supply to be determined in terms of amount and nature of absorbed energy-yielding nutrients. The objective of this study was to establish response equations on the net portal appearance (NPA) of VFA and glucose, and their secondary metabolites beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and lactate, to changes in intake level and chemical dietary characteristics based on the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Feed Evaluation System for Ruminants. Meta-analyses were applied on published data compiled from the FLORA database, which pools the results on net splanchnic nutrient fluxes in multi-catheterized ruminants from international publications. For each nutrient, several prediction variables were tested. We obtained robust models for intakes up to 30 g of DM x d(-1) x kg of BW(-1) and diets containing less than 70 g of concentrate per 100 g of DM. These models were designed to predict the NPA (mmol x h(-1) x kg of BW(-1)) of total VFA based on the amount of ruminally fermented OM (RfOM) intake [adjusted R(2) (R(2)(adj)) = 0.95; residual means square errors (RMSE) = 0.24], to predict VFA profile (mol/100 mol of total VFA) based on type of RfOM intake (acetate: R(2)(adj) = 0.85, RMSE = 2.2; propionate: R(2)(adj) = 0.76, RMSE = 2.2; butyrate: R(2)(adj) = 0.76, RMSE = 1.09), and to predict the NPA (mmol x h(-1) x kg of BW(-1)) of glucose based on the starch digested in the small intestine independent of ruminant species, and while presenting no interfering factors on the residuals and individual slopes. The model predicting the NPA (mmol x h(-1) x kg of BW(-1)) of BHBA based on the amount of RfOM intake (R(2)(adj) = 0.91; RMSE = 0.036) was species-dependent, and the model predicting NPA (mmol x h(-1) x kg of BW(-1)) of lactate based on starch digested in the rumen (R(2)(adj) = 0.77; RMSE = 0.042) presented a wide dispersion. However, the NPA (mmol x h(-1) x kg of

  20. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  1. Introduktion til udvikling af bayesianske net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Bogen introducerer på let og uformelt de centrale grundbegreber i bayesianske net og introducerer til en udviklingsmetode for software, som inkluderer bayesianske net. Metoden kaldes BNAD og inkluderer aktiviteterne preprojekt, kvalitativ modellering, kvantitativ modellering samt...

  2. Special Section on Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications.......Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications....

  3. RadNet Databases and Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet data are available for viewing in a searchable database or as PDF reports. Historical and current RadNet monitoring data are used to estimate long-term trends in environmental radiation levels.

  4. Pregnancy and renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, O; Emiroğlu, R; Seçme, S; Moray, G; Haberal, M

    2004-01-01

    Ovarian dysfunction, anovulatory vaginal bleeding, amenorrhea, high prolactin levels, and loss of libido are the causes of infertility in women with chronic renal failure. After renal transplantation, endocrine function generally improves after recovery of renal function. In this study we retrospectively evaluated the prepregnancy and postdelivery renal function, outcome of gestation, as well as maternal and fetal complications for eight pregnancies in eight renal transplant recipients between November 1975 and March 2003 of 1095 among 1425. Eight planned pregnancies occurred at a mean of 3.6 years posttransplant. Spontaneous abortion occured in the first trimester in one case. One intrauterine growth retardation was observed with a full-term pregnancy; one intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery; one preeclampsia with preterm delivery and urinary tract infection; and one preeclampsia with preterm delivery and oligohydramnios. The mean gestation period was 35.5 +/- 3.0 weeks (31.2 to 38.0). Pregnancy had no negative impact on renal function during a 2-year follow-up. No significant proteinuria or acute rejection episodes were observed. Among the seven deliveries, no congenital anomaly was documented and no postpartum problems for the child and the mother were observed. Our study suggests that successful pregnancy is possible in renal transplant recipients. In cases with good graft function and absence of severe proteinuria or hypertension, pregnancy does not affect graft function or patient survival; however, fetal problems are encountered such as intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and preeclampsia.

  5. Renal autotransplantation: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, B H; Banowsky, L H; Hewitt, C B; Straffon, R A

    1976-01-01

    Autotransplantation, with or without an extracorporeal renal operation, has been done 39 times in 37 patients. Indications for the procedure included severe ureteral injury in 4 patients, failed supravesical diversion in 2, renal carcinoma in a solitary kidney in 1, renovascular hypertension in 1 and donor arterial reconstruction before renal transplantation in 29. Success was obtained in all but 2 procedures, both of which involved previously operated kidneys with severe inflammation and adhesions involving the renal pelvis and pedicle. Based on our experience and a review of currently available literature we believe that renal autotransplantation and extracorporeal reconstruction can provide the best solution for patients with severe renovascular and ureteral disease not correctable by conventional operative techniques. The technique can be of particular value in removing centrally located tumors in solitary kidneys and in preparing donor kidneys with abnormal arteries for renal transplantation. The role of autotransplantation in the management of advanced renal trauma and calculus disease is less clear. A long-term comparison of patients treated by extracorporeal nephrolithotomy versus conventional lithotomy techniques will be necessary before a conclusion is reached in these disease categories.

  6. Perioperative acute renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahon, Padraig

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent biochemical evidence increasingly implicates inflammatory mechanisms as precipitants of acute renal failure. In this review, we detail some of these pathways together with potential new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears to be a sensitive, specific and reliable biomarker of renal injury, which may be predictive of renal outcome in the perioperative setting. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C is superior to creatinine. No drug is definitively effective at preventing postoperative renal failure. Clinical trials of fenoldopam and atrial natriuretic peptide are, at best, equivocal. As with pharmacological preconditioning of the heart, volatile anaesthetic agents appear to offer a protective effect to the subsequently ischaemic kidney. SUMMARY: Although a greatly improved understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure has offered even more therapeutic targets, the maintenance of intravascular euvolaemia and perfusion pressure is most effective at preventing new postoperative acute renal failure. In the future, strategies targeting renal regeneration after injury will use bone marrow-derived stem cells and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1.

  7. Factors Influencing Renal Vasculature during Anesthesia, Trauma, and Oliguric Renal Failure States in Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    Harrison, J.H.: Intrarenal distribution of blood flow in canine renal allografts treated with immunosuppressive drugs . J. Urol. 101:482-486, 1969...Ethacrynic acid induced a dramatic response, providing that diuretic -induced plasma volume production was prevented. The hemodynamic response to... diuretic phase. Initially, the rapid flow component was small and evanascent, disappearing on some occasions. Diuresis became established when the

  8. Nitro-oleic acid ameliorates oxygen and glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation triggered oxidative stress in renal tubular cells via activation of Nrf2 and suppression of NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Huibin; Xue, Xia; Liu, Gang; Guan, Guangju; Liu, Haiying; Sun, Lina; Zhao, Long; Wang, Xueling; Chen, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    Nitroalkene derivative of oleic acid (OA-NO2), due to its ability to mediate revisable Michael addition, has been demonstrated to have various biological properties and become a therapeutic agent in various diseases. Though its antioxidant properties have been reported in different models of acute kidney injury (AKI), the mechanism by which OA-NO2 attenuates intracellular oxidative stress is not well investigated. Here, we elucidated the anti-oxidative mechanism of OA-NO2 in an in vitro model of renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Human tubular epithelial cells were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation (OGD/R) injury. Pretreatment with OA-NO2 (1.25 μM, 45 min) attenuated OGD/R triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and subsequent mitochondrial membrane potential disruption. This action was mediated via up-regulating endogenous antioxidant defense components including superoxide dismutase (SOD1), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), and γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase modulatory subunits (GCLM). Moreover, subcellular fractionation analyses demonstrated that OA-NO2 promoted nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2- related factor-2 (Nrf2) and Nrf2 siRNA partially abrogated these protective effects. In addition, OA-NO2 inhibited NADPH oxidase activation and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and p22(phox) up-regulation after OGD/R injury, which was not relevant to Nrf2. These results contribute to clarify that the mechanism of OA-NO2 reno-protection involves both inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity and induction of SOD1, Nrf2-dependent HO-1, and GCLM.

  9. [Renal markers and predictors, and renal and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Andrade, C

    2002-01-01

    prediction. And also, its possible association nexuses, its injuring mechanisms, and the characterization of the new "emergent" renal and cardiovascular risk's markers and factors. 4. The impact on the possibility to treat the end stage renal disease with effective and prolonged procedures, by hemodialisis or kidney transplantation, has been occurred. The affected population's survival with the adequacy renal-sustitution treatment, and the possibility of indefinite duration of its treatment, has also impacted on the public health, and its resources, in an evident way. Simultaneously to increase of the incidence in the population, the electivity for the treatment has been enlarged and extended increasing it exponentially. These facts are documented here, and are defined the characteristics of the factors and markers of risk, of renal and cardiovascular diseases. The defined factors are valued to mark, so far as with the well-known evidence is possible, the prediction and the progression of the renal and cardiovascular functional deterioration: The hypertension, cardiovascular remodeling, the arterial stiffness, the heart rate, the sympathetic activation, the modification of the physiological response of the target organ to the overcharge, the metabolic syndrome, the obesity, the insulin resistance, the altered lipid profile, and metabolism of the fatty acids, the salt-sensibility, the decrease of the renal functional reserve, the glomerular hyperfiltration, the absence of the arterial pressure nocturnal descent, the abnormal excretion of proteins for the urine, the phenomenon induced by dysfunctions of the clotting, superoxide production, growth factors, the production of chronic inflammation and its markers, the factors of the glomerulosclerosis progression, the hyperuricemic status, the endothelial dysfunction and others, are evaluated. As well as their association among them and with other factors of risk not changeable like the age, and in turn, with other acquired

  10. Lactulose and renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, B; Frey, F J

    1997-01-01

    The introduction of lactulose as a new therapeutic agent for treatment of hepatic encephalopathy was a major breakthrough in this field. It was hypothesized that lactulose might prevent postoperative renal impairment after biliary surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice. The presumable mechanism purported was the diminished endotoxinemia by lactulose. Unfortunately, such a reno-protective effect has not been shown conclusively until now in clinical studies. In chronic renal failure lactulose is known to promote fecal excretion of water, sodium, potassium, amonium, urea, creatinine and protons. Thus, lactulose could be useful for the treatment of chronic renal failure. However, compliance to the therapy represents a major problem.

  11. Renal tubule cell repair following acute renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humes, H D; Lake, E W; Liu, S

    1995-01-01

    Experimental data suggests the recovery of renal function after ischemic or nephrotoxic acute renal failure is due to a replicative repair process dependent upon predominantly paracrine release of growth factors. These growth factors promote renal proximal tubule cell proliferation and a differentiation phase dependent on the interaction between tubule cells and basement membrane. These insights identify the molecular basis of renal repair and ischemic and nephrotoxic acute renal failure, and may lead to potential therapeutic modalities that accelerate renal repair and lessen the morbidity and mortality associated with these renal disease processes. In this regard, there is a prominent vasoconstrictor response of the renal vasculature during the postischemic period of developing acute renal failure. The intravenous administration of pharmacologic doses of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in the postischemic period have proven efficacious by altering renal vascular resistance, so that renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate improve. ANF also appears to protect renal tubular epithelial integrity and holds significant promise as a therapeutic agent in acute renal failure. Of equal or greater promise are the therapeutic interventions targeting the proliferative reparative zone during the postischemic period. The exogenous administration of epidermal growth factor or insulin-like growth factor-1 in the postischemic period have effectively decreased the degree of renal insufficiency as measured by the peak serum creatinine and has hastened renal recovery as measured by the duration of time required to return the baseline serum creatinine values. A similarly efficacious role for hepatocyte growth factor has also been recently demonstrated.

  12. 缬沙坦对尿酸性肾病大鼠肾间质纤维化的干预机制研究%Intervention Mechanism of Valsartan on Renal Interstitial Fibrosis in Uric Acid Nephropathy Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔翠文; 闫慧; 李靖; 杨堃; 王艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of thrombospondin - 1 ( TSP - 1 ) and hypoxia - inducible factor - 1 a ( HIF - 1 a ) in uric acid nephropathy rats and the effect of Valsartan in order to understand the intervention mechanism of Valsartan on renal interstitial fibrosis. Methods 36 male Wistar rats were selected and were randomly divided into normal group, model group and valsartan group with each group 12 rats. Yeast and adenine were used to establish uric acid nephropathy, and meanwhile, valsartan intervention was also performed. After three and five weeks, UA, Scr and renal histological changes were observed. Immunohistochemical method and RT - PCR method was used to detect the expression of TSP - 1 and HIF - la. Results The body weight, UA and Scr between the three groups at three and five weeks all showed statistically significant differences ( P < 0. 05 ) . The body weight of model group and valsartan group at three and five weeks was significantly lower than the normal group, while the UA and Scr were significantly higher than the normal group ( P < 0. 05 ) . The body weight of the model group at three and five weeks was significantly lower than the valsartan group, while the Scr was significantly higher than the valsartan group ( P <0. 01 ) .The expression of TSP - 1 mRNA and HIF - la mRNA detected by RT - PCR at three and five weeks between the three groups showed statistically significant differences ( P < 0. 05 ) . The expression of TSP - 1 mRNA and HIF - 1 a mRNA in model group and valsartan group at three and five weeks were significantly higher than the normal group ( P < 0. 01 ), and the expression of TSP - 1 mRNA and HIF - la mRNA in model group was significantly higher than the valsartan group ( P < 0. 05 ) . The expression of TSP - 1 mRNA and HIF - 1 a mRNA in model group at three and five weeks was positively correlated ( r =0. 821 and 0. 736, P <0. 05 ) . Conclusion The hypoxia condition exists in uric acid nephropathy rats. Valsartan can

  13. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  14. Net analyte signal calculation for multivariate calibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferre, J.; Faber, N.M.

    2003-01-01

    A unifying framework for calibration and prediction in multivariate calibration is shown based on the concept of the net analyte signal (NAS). From this perspective, the calibration step can be regarded as the calculation of a net sensitivity vector, whose length is the amount of net signal when the

  15. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if...

  16. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  17. No such thing as the Net Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. H.M.M. van Vliet

    2009-01-01

    The propagandization of a Net Generation adds nothing to our understanding of the digital behaviour of young people. Indeed, it is becoming increasingly obvious that the whole concept of a Net Generation rests on incorrect assumptions. Hence, arguments based on a Net Generation are not only irreleva

  18. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a new building design, net savings is the difference between the life cycle costs of an...

  19. Nets, tiles, and metal-organic frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O’Keeffe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An account is given of the basic nets that are important in the description and design of metal-organic framework (MOF structures. These are generally of minimal transitivity, a concept which is explained. Derived nets are defined and the advantages of using derived nets to describe the topology of MOF frameworks with multiple branch points are emphasized.

  20. Renal scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B

    2014-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed.

  1. Renal control of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Judith; Chonchol, Michel; Levi, Moshe

    2015-07-01

    Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels. Renal regulation of these ions occurs through glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and/or secretion and is therefore an important determinant of plasma ion concentration. Under physiologic conditions, the whole body balance of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium is maintained by fine adjustments of urinary excretion to equal the net intake. This review discusses how calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are handled by the kidneys.

  2. Renal tubular acidosis secondary to jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B; Ladefoged, Jens; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1985-01-01

    Renal handling of acid and base was studied in patients with persistent metabolic acidosis 3-9 years after jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity. Excretion of acid was studied before and after intravenous infusion of NH4Cl and excretion of bicarbonate after infusion of NaHCO3. Bypass patients...

  3. Primary renal synovial sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish D. Bakhshi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary Renal Sarcoma is rare tumor comprising only 1% of all renal tumours. Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors arising in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults and account for 5-10% of all soft tissue tumours. Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney is rare and has poor prognosis. It can only be diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. It should be considered as a differential in sarcomatoid and spindle cell tumours. We present a case of 33-year-old female, who underwent left sided radical nephrectomy for renal tumour. Histopathology and genetic analysis diagnosed it to be primary renal synovial sarcoma. Patient underwent radiation therapy and 2 years follow up is uneventful. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  4. Renal protection in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Tarnow, L; Rossing, P

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The combination of diabetes and hypertension increases the chances of progressive renal disorder and, ultimately, renal failure. Roughly 40% of all diabetics, whether insulin-dependent or not, develop diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is the single most important cause of end......-stage renal disease in the Western world and accounts for more than a quarter of all end-stage renal diseases. Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Increased arterial blood pressure is an early and common phenomenon in incipient and overt diabetic...... nephropathy. The relationship between arterial blood pressure and diabetic nephropathy is a complex one, with diabetic nephropathy increasing blood pressure and blood pressure accelerating the course of nephropathy. OVERVIEW: Calcium antagonists antagonize preglomerular vasoconstriction. Additional putative...

  5. Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, Tanner; Parwani, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors exist as a part of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor family. These tumors most commonly arise in the chest wall and paraspinal regions; cases with a renal origin are rare entities, but have become increasingly reported in recent years. Although such cases occur across a wide age distribution, the average age for a patient with a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor is the mid- to late 20s, with both males and females susceptible. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pseudorosettes. Immunohistochemically, CD99 is an important diagnostic marker. Clinically, these are aggressive tumors, with an average 5-year disease-free survival rate of only 45% to 55%. Given that renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor bears many similarities to other renal tumors, it is important to review the histologic features, immunostaining profile, and genetic abnormalities that can be used for its correct diagnosis.

  6. Renal vein thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2012:chap 34. Read More Acute kidney failure Arteriogram Blood clots Dehydration Nephrotic syndrome Pulmonary embolus Renal Tumor Review Date 5/19/2015 Updated by: Charles Silberberg, ...

  7. Eligibility for renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persu, Alexandre; Jin, Yu; Baelen, Marie;

    2014-01-01

    -resistant hypertension (ENCOReD). The analysis included 731 patients. Age averaged 61.6 years, office blood pressure at screening was 177/96 mm Hg, and the number of blood pressure-lowering drugs taken was 4.1. Specialists referred 75.6% of patients. The proportion of patients eligible for renal denervation according......Based on the SYMPLICITY studies and CE (Conformité Européenne) certification, renal denervation is currently applied as a novel treatment of resistant hypertension in Europe. However, information on the proportion of patients with resistant hypertension qualifying for renal denervation after...... undetected secondary causes of hypertension (11.1%). In conclusion, after careful screening and treatment adjustment at hypertension expert centers, only ≈40% of patients referred for renal denervation, mostly by specialists, were eligible for the procedure. The most frequent cause of ineligibility...

  8. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  9. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system......, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...

  10. Complete renal recovery from severe acute renal failure after thrombolysis of bilateral renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Suresh; Jones, Robert G; Foggensteiner, Lukas; Willis, Andrew P; Duddy, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    A previously healthy young man presented with acute renal failure due to extensive spontaneous deep vein thrombosis, including the inferior vena cava (IVC) and both renal veins. The patient was treated with selectively delivered thrombolytic therapy over a 7-day-period, which resulted in renal vein patency and complete recovery of renal function. A stent was placed over a segment stenosis of the IVC. No thrombophilic factors were identified. Bilateral renal vein thrombosis in young fit individuals is an unusual cause of acute renal failure. Thrombolytic therapy, even with delay, can completely restore renal function.

  11. A functional and transcriptomic analysis of NET1 bioactivity in gastric cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, Gayle

    2011-02-01

    Abstract Background NET1, a RhoA guanine exchange factor, is up-regulated in gastric cancer (GC) tissue and drives the invasive phenotype of this disease. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of NET1 in GC by monitoring the proliferation, motility and invasion of GC cells in which NET1 has been stably knocked down. Additionally, we aimed to determine NET1-dependent transcriptomic events that occur in GC. Methods An in vitro model of stable knockdown of NET1 was achieved in AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells via lentiviral mediated transduction of short-hairpin (sh) RNA targeting NET1. Knockdown was assessed using quantitative PCR. Cell proliferation was assessed using an MTS assay and cell migration was assessed using a wound healing scratch assay. Cell invasion was assessed using a transwell matrigel invasion assay. Gene expression profiles were examined using affymetrix oligonucleotide U133A expression arrays. A student\\'s t test was used to determine changes of statistical significance. Results GC cells were transduced with NET1 shRNA resulting in a 97% reduction in NET1 mRNA (p < 0.0001). NET1 knockdown significantly reduced the invasion and migration of GC cells by 94% (p < 0.05) and 24% (p < 0.001) respectively, while cell proliferation was not significantly altered following NET1 knockdown. Microarray analysis was performed on non-target and knockdown cell lines, treated with and without 10 μM lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) allowing us to identify NET1-dependent, LPA-dependent and NET1-mediated LPA-induced gene transcription. Differential gene expression was confirmed by quantitative PCR. Shortlisted NET1-dependent genes included STAT1, TSPAN1, TGFBi and CCL5 all of which were downregulatd upon NET1 downregulation. Shortlisted LPA-dependent genes included EGFR and PPARD where EGFR was upregulated and PPARD was downregulated upon LPA stimulation. Shortlisted NET1 and LPA dependent genes included IGFR1 and PIP5K3. These LPA induced genes were

  12. OBSTETRIC RENAL FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Renal failure in obstetrics is rare but important complication, associated with significant mortality and long term morbidity.1,2 It includes acute renal failure due to obstetrical complications or due to deterioration of existing renal disease. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the etiology and outcome of renal failure in obstetric patients. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 30 pregnant and puerperal women with acute renal failure or pre-existing renal disease developing renal failure during pregnancy between November 2007 to sep-2009. Patients who presented/developed ARF during the hospital stay were included in this study. RESULTS: Among 30 patients, mean age was 23 years and 33 years age group. 12 cases (40% patients were primigravidae and 9(30% patients were multigravidae and 9 cases (30% presented in post-partum period. Eighteen cases (60% with ARF were seen in third trimester, followed by in postpartum period 9 cases (30%. Most common contributing factors to ARF were Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome 60%, sepsis 56.6%, post abortal ARF 10%. DIC 40%. Haemorrhage as the aetiology for ARF was present 46%, APH in 20% and PPH in 26.6%. The type of ARF was renal in (63% and prerenal (36%; Oliguric seen in 10 patients (33% and high mortality (30%. Among the 20 pregnant patients with ARF, The average period of gestation was 33±2 weeks (30 -36 weeks, 5 cases (25% presented with intrauterine fetal demise and 18 cases (66% had preterm vaginal delivery and 2 cases (10% had induced abortion. And the average birth weight was 2±0.5 kg (1.5 kg. Eight cases (26% required dialysis. 80% of patients recovered completely of renal functions. 63% patients recovered without renal replacement therapy whereas 17% required dialysis. the maternal mortality was 20%, the main reason for mortality was septic shock and multi organ dysfunction (66%. CONCLUSION: ARF related pregnancy was seen commonly in the primigravidae and in the third trimester, the most

  13. Mapping PUNITY to UniNet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuoFu(周国富); YUAN ChongYi(袁崇义)

    2003-01-01

    To solve the problems of the interleaving assumption and the single resource inPUNITY (Petri net and UNITY) and Petri net respectively, this paper proposes a set of mappingrules from PUNITY to UniNet. Based on these rules, problems of one field can be transformed toproblems of the other field and powerful tools of Petri net and UNITY can be used. The papergives a sketch of the mapping rules and applies the rules to an example. Meanwhile, the mappingrules can help computer to translate PUNITY to UniNet easily.

  14. Petri nets semantics ofπ-calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhua YU; Yuanli CAI; Haiping XU

    2008-01-01

    As π-calculus based on the interleaving semantics cannot depict the true concurrency and has few supporting tools,it is translated into Petri nets.π-calculus is divided into basic elements,sequence,concurrency,choice and recursive modules.These modules are translated into Petri nets to construct a complicated system.Petri nets semantics for π-calculus visualize system structure as well as system behaviors.The structural analysis techniques allow direct qualitative analysis of the system properties on the structure of the nets.Finally,Petri nets semantics for π-calculus are illustrated by applying them to mobile telephone systems.

  15. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    as a mechanism for modules in Petri nets that is independent from a particular version of Petri nets and that can mimic many composition mechanisms by a simple import and export concept. Due to its generality, the semantics of modular PNML was only informally defined. Moreover, modular PNML did not define which...... concepts could or should be subject to import and export in high-level Petri nets. In this paper, we formalise a minimal version of modular high-level Petri nets, which is based on the concepts of modular PNML. This shows that modular PNML can be formalised once a specific version of Petri net is fixed...

  16. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...... and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  17. Verifying Time Petri Nets by Linear Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宣东

    2001-01-01

    The paper proposes an approach to solving some verification problems of time Petri nets using linear programming. The approach is based on the observation that for loop-closed time Petri nets, it is only necessary to investigate a finite prefix of an untimed run of the underlying Petri net. Using the technique the paper gives solutions to reachability and bounded delay timing analysis problems. For both problems algorithms are given, that are decision procedures for loop-closed time Petri nets, and semi-decision procedures for general time Petri nets.

  18. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Renal Imaging in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramida, Georgia; James, Jacqueline M; Prescott, Mary C; Peters, Adrien Michael

    2015-09-01

    To understand pitfalls and limitations in adult renography, it is necessary to understand firstly the physiology of the kidney, especially the magnitude and control of renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and tubular fluid flow rate, and secondly the pharmacokinetics and renal handling of the three most often used tracers, Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), Tc-99m-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). The kidneys may be imaged dynamically with Tc-99m-MAG3 or Tc-99m-DTPA, with or without diuretic challenge, or by static imaging with Tc-99m-DMSA. Protocols are different according to whether the kidney is native or transplanted. Quantitative analysis of dynamic data includes measurement of renal vascularity (important for the transplanted kidney), absolute tracer clearance rates, differential renal function (DRF) and response to diuretic challenge. Static image reveals functional renal parenchymal damage, both focal and global, is useful in the clinical management of obstructive uropathy, renal stone disease and hypertension (under angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition), and is the preferred technique for determining DRF. Diagnosis based on morphological appearances is important in transplant management. Even though nuclear medicine is now in the era of hybrid imaging, renal imaging remains an important subspecialty in nuclear medicine and requires a sound basing in applied physiology, the classical supporting discipline of nuclear medicine.

  19. Renal papillary necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1877, Dr. Nikolaus Friedreich (1825-1882; student of Virchow who became Professor of Pathology at Heidelberg and who also described Friedreich’s ataxia first described renal papillary necrosis (RPN in patients with prostatic hypertrophy and secondary hydronephrosis. Thereafter in 1937, Froboese and Günther emphasized the association of this entity with diabetes mellitus. These authors also observed renal papillary necrosis in cases of urinary tract obstruction even in the absence of diabetes mellitus.

  20. Laparoscopic Renal Cryoablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Marc; Moshfegh, Amiel; Talenfeld, Adam; Del Pizzo, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    In light of evidence linking radical nephrectomy and consequent suboptimal renal function to adverse cardiovascular events and increased mortality, research into nephron-sparing techniques for renal masses widely expanded in the past two decades. The American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines now explicitly list partial nephrectomy as the standard of care for the management of T1a renal tumors. Because of the increasing utilization of cross-sectional imaging, up to 70% of newly detected renal masses are stage T1a, making them more amenable to minimally invasive nephron-sparing therapies including laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy and ablative therapies. Cryosurgery has emerged as a leading option for renal ablation, and compared with surgical techniques it offers benefits in preserving renal function with fewer complications, shorter hospitalization times, and allows for quicker convalescence. A mature dataset exists at this time, with intermediate and long-term follow-up data available. Cryosurgical recommendations as a first-line therapy are made at this time in limited populations, including elderly patients, patients with multiple comorbidities, and those with a solitary kidney. As more data emerge on oncologic efficacy, and technical experience and the technology continue to improve, the application of this modality will likely be extended in future treatment guidelines. PMID:24596441

  1. Neonatal renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Leonardo R; Simpson, Ewurabena A; Lau, Keith K

    2011-12-01

    Neonatal renal vein thrombosis (RVT) continues to pose significant challenges for pediatric hematologists and nephrologists. The precise mechanism for the onset and propagation of renal thrombosis within the neonatal population is unclear, but there is suggestion that acquired and/or inherited thrombophilia traits may increase the risk for renal thromboembolic disease during the newborn period. This review summarizes the most recent studies of neonatal RVT, examining its most common features, the prevalence of acquired and inherited prothrombotic risk factors among these patients, and evaluates their short and long term renal and thrombotic outcomes as they may relate to these risk factors. Although there is some consensus regarding the management of neonatal RVT, the most recent antithrombotic therapy guidelines for the management of childhood thrombosis do not provide a risk-based algorithm for the acute management of RVT among newborns with hereditary prothrombotic disorders. Whereas neonatal RVT is not a condition associated with a high mortality rate, it is associated with significant morbidity due to renal impairment. Recent evidence to evaluate the effects of heparin-based anticoagulation and thrombolytic therapy on the long term renal function of these patients has yielded conflicting results. Long term cohort studies and randomized trials may be helpful to clarify the impact of acute versus prolonged antithrombotic therapy for reducing the morbidity that is associated with neonatal RVT.

  2. Zhang Qi's Experience in Treating Chronic Renal Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qi-zhan; XU Da-ji; MA Yu-peng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Chronic renal failure is a result of the parenchymatous injury of kidney and progressive exacerbation due to many reasons.It is a svstematic clinical syndrome caused by the disturbance in excreting metabolites,adjusting water-electrolyte and acid-base balance as well as production and inactivation of active substances of endocrine.Prof Zhang Qi has rich clinical experience in treating renal failure.A report follows.

  3. Targeting Strategies for Renal Cell Carcinoma: From Renal Cancer Cells to Renal Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-xiang Yuan; Jingxin Mo; Guixian Zhao; Gang Shu; Hua-lin Fu; Wei Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common form of urologic tumor that originates from the highly heterogeneous epithelium of renal tubules. Over the last decade, targeting therapies to renal cancer cells have transformed clinical care for RCC. Recently, it was proposed that renal cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from renal carcinomas were responsible for driving tumor growth and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, according to the theory of CSCs; this has provided the rati...

  4. RENAL MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS: RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Giachini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of malignant kidney tumors, to contribute to identifying factors which the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas. Through this study, we understand that kidney disease over the years had higher incidence rates, especially in adults in the sixth decade of life. The renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the third most common malignancy of the genitourinary tract, affecting 2% to 3% of the population. There are numerous ways of diagnosis; however, the most important are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In general most of the patients affected by the CCR, have a good prognosis when diagnosed early and subjected to an effective treatment. This study conducted a literature review about the CCR, through this it was possible to understand the development needs of the imaging methods used for precise diagnosis and classification of RCC through the TNM system.

  5. Diuretic use in renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Domenic A

    2011-12-20

    Diuretics are agents commonly used in diseases characterized by excess extracellular fluid, including chronic kidney disease, the nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis and heart failure. Multiple diuretic classes, including thiazide-type diuretics, loop diuretics and K(+)-sparing diuretics, are used to treat patients with these diseases, either individually or as combination therapies. An understanding of what determines a patient's response to a diuretic is a prerequisite to the correct use of these drugs. The response of patients with these diseases to diuretics, which is related to the dose, is best described by a sigmoid curve whose contour can become distorted by any of the several sodium-retaining states that are directly or indirectly associated with renal disease. Diuretic actions are of considerable importance to patients who have renal disease, as their effective use assists in extracellular fluid volume control, reducing excretion of protein in urine and lessening the risk of developing hyperkalemia. Diuretic-related adverse events that involve the uric acid, Na(+) and K(+) axes are not uncommon; therefore the clinician must be vigilant in looking for biochemical disturbances. As a result of diuretic-related adverse events, clinicians must be resourceful in the dose amount and frequency of dosing.

  6. PGI2 synthesis and excretion in dog kidney: evidence for renal PG compartmentalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, R.M.; Nasjletti, A.; Heerdt, P.M.; Baer, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    To assess the concept of compartmentalization of renal prostaglandins (PG), we compared entry of PGE2 and the PGI2 metabolite 6-keto-PGF1 alpha into the renal vascular and tubular compartments, in sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. Renal arterial 6-keto-PGF1 alpha infusion increased both renal venous and urinary 6-keto-PGF1 alpha outflow. In contrast, renal arterial infusion of arachidonic acid (AA) or bradykinin (BK) increased renal venous 6-keto-PGF1 alpha outflow but had no effect on its urinary outflow. Both urinary and renal venous PGE2 outflows increased during AA or BK infusion. Ureteral stopped-flow studies revealed no postglomerular 6-keto-PGF1 alpha entry into tubular fluid. During renal arterial infusion of (3H)PGI2 and inulin, first-pass 3H clearance was 40% of inulin clearance; 35% of urinary 3H was 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and two other urinary metabolites were found. During renal arterial infusion of (3H)6-keto-PGF1 alpha and inulin, first-pass 3H clearance was 150% of inulin clearance; 75% of urinary 3H was 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and only one other metabolite was found. We conclude that in the dog PGE2 synthesized in the kidney enters directly into both the renal vascular and tubular compartments, but 6-keto-PGF1 alpha of renal origin enters directly into only the renal vascular compartment.

  7. Acid-base and ionic fluxes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during exposure to chloramine-T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, M.D.; Perry, S.F. [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    The effects of chloramine-T and its degradation products, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and para-toluenesulphonamide (pTSA), on whole body acid-base and branchial and renal ion (Na{sup +}and Cl{sup -}) fluxes were examined in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Exposure to chloramine-T (3.5 h, 18 mg l{sup -1}) resulted in increases in plasma total CO{sub 2} but no coincident rise in P{sub a}CO{sub 2} or reduction in blood pH. Exposure of fish to 2, 9 or 18 mg l{sup -1} chloramine-T (3.5 h duration) resulted in a reduction in net acid uptake suggesting the development of a metabolic alkalosis. Exposure to the chloramine-T breakdown product pTSA (dissolved in DMSO) resulted in increased net acid uptake (decreased acid excretion) suggesting a metabolic acidosis. Whole body ion fluxes demonstrated increases in the losses of both Na{sup +}and Cl{sup -} with chloramine-T, NaOCl and pTSA. However, the effect of DMSO alone could not be isolated. Confirmatory studies using fish in which the urinary bladder (to allow collection of urine) and dorsal aorta (to allow injection of [{sup 14}C]polyethylene glycol 4000 ([{sup 14}C]PEG), an extracellular fluid marker) were catheterised, revealed that changes in whole body ion fluxes during chloramine-T exposure could not be explained by increased renal efflux through urine flow, glomerular filtration or renal clearance. Branchial effluxes of [{sup 14}C]PEG were not significantly affected by chloramine-T exposure suggesting that the changes in whole body ionic fluxes were caused by transcellular rather than paracellular processes. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. The QuarkNet Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, A.

    2003-12-01

    QuarkNet is a long-term high school education project, supported by NSF and DOE and carried out by a collaboration of university and laboratory research groups. These research groups are part of major international particle physics experiments, including those at CERN in Switzerland, Fermilab in Illinois, and SLAC in California. Goals and Objectives: A major goal is to engage students and teachers in authentic scientific research; they gain a first-hand understanding of research and its application in the inquiry method of learning. Teachers enhance their content knowledge, increase their abilities to solve science-related problems, engage students in scientific inquiry, and develop responsibility for their own professional development. Students learn fundamental physics and are motivated by current research questions as they analyze real data. A second goal is to engage particle physicists with current issues in science education, including their understanding of the National Science Education Standards and local science education needs and what constitutes age-appropriate content. Project Design: Working with physicists nationwide, we have established a project framework with three program areas-teacher research experience, teacher development programs, and online resources and inquiry-based activities. Eight-week research appointments allow teachers to experience scientific research first-hand. In teacher institutes the next summer these teachers and scientists lead a group of teachers through a short research scenario lasting two to three weeks and assist them in creating similar scenarios for their students. When fully implemented QuarkNet will support centers associated with 60 particle physics research groups at universities and laboratories in the U. S. The QuarkNet website provides: - Experimental data for use in inquiry-based activities. - Opportunities for communication and collaboration among physicists, teachers and students. - A place for students to

  9. Food composition and acid-base balance: alimentary alkali depletion and acid load in herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwull-Schöne, Heidrun; Kiwull, Peter; Manz, Friedrich; Kalhoff, Hermann

    2008-02-01

    Alkali-enriched diets are recommended for humans to diminish the net acid load of their usual diet. In contrast, herbivores have to deal with a high dietary alkali impact on acid-base balance. Here we explore the role of nutritional alkali in experimentally induced chronic metabolic acidosis. Data were collected from healthy male adult rabbits kept in metabolism cages to obtain 24-h urine and arterial blood samples. Randomized groups consumed rabbit diets ad libitum, providing sufficient energy but variable alkali load. One subgroup (n = 10) received high-alkali food and approximately 15 mEq/kg ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) with its drinking water for 5 d. Another group (n = 14) was fed low-alkali food for 5 d and given approximately 4 mEq/kg NH4Cl daily for the last 2 d. The wide range of alimentary acid-base load was significantly reflected by renal base excretion, but normal acid-base conditions were maintained in the arterial blood. In rabbits fed a high-alkali diet, the excreted alkaline urine (pH(u) > 8.0) typically contained a large amount of precipitated carbonate, whereas in rabbits fed a low-alkali diet, both pH(u) and precipitate decreased considerably. During high-alkali feeding, application of NH4Cl likewise decreased pH(u), but arterial pH was still maintained with no indication of metabolic acidosis. During low-alkali feeding, a comparably small amount of added NH4Cl further lowered pH(u) and was accompanied by a significant systemic metabolic acidosis. We conclude that exhausted renal base-saving function by dietary alkali depletion is a prerequisite for growing susceptibility to NH4Cl-induced chronic metabolic acidosis in the herbivore rabbit.

  10. Malignant renal tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Scott Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Renal malignancies are common in children. While the majority of malignant renal masses are secondary to Wilms tumor, it can be challenging to distinguish from more aggressive renal masses. For suspicious renal lesions, it is crucial to ensure prompt diagnosis in order to select the appropriate surgical procedure and treatment. This review article will discuss the common differential diagnosis that can be encountered when evaluating a suspicious renal mass in the pediatric population. This includes clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, malignant rhabdoid tumor, renal medullary carcinoma and lymphoma. 

  11. The first three-fold interpenetrated framework with two different four-connected uniform nets of 6(6) dia and new chiral 8(6) mdf networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Long; Fang, Wei-Hui; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2010-11-21

    Two three-fold interpenetrated frameworks, [LnCuL(4)][Ln(0.25)Cu(0.25)L] (Ln = Dy 1, Er 2; HL = 4-(pyridin-4-yl)benzoic acid), have been made. Their structures contain two kinds of four-connected uniform nets: dia and mdf nets. The mdf net is a new chiral 8(6) net with the long vertex symbol (8(1).8(3).8(4).8(4).8(4).8(4)).

  12. Net-Shape HIP Powder Metallurgy Components for Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampton, Cliff; Goodin, Wes; VanDaam, Tom; Creeger, Gordon; James, Steve

    2005-01-01

    True net shape consolidation of powder metal (PM) by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) provides opportunities for many cost, performance and life benefits over conventional fabrication processes for large rocket engine structures. Various forms of selectively net-shape PM have been around for thirty years or so. However, it is only recently that major applications have been pursued for rocket engine hardware fabricated in the United States. The method employs sacrificial metallic tooling (HIP capsule and shaped inserts), which is removed from the part after HIP consolidation of the powder, by selective acid dissolution. Full exploitation of net-shape PM requires innovative approaches in both component design and materials and processing details. The benefits include: uniform and homogeneous microstructure with no porosity, irrespective of component shape and size; elimination of welds and the associated quality and life limitations; removal of traditional producibility constraints on design freedom, such as forgeability and machinability, and scale-up to very large, monolithic parts, limited only by the size of existing HIP furnaces. Net-shape PM HIP also enables fabrication of complex configurations providing additional, unique functionalities. The progress made in these areas will be described. Then critical aspects of the technology that still require significant further development and maturation will be discussed from the perspective of an engine systems builder and end-user of the technology.

  13. Bound states in string nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  14. Bound states in string nets

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, M D; Vidal, J

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  15. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  16. Retroperitoneal neoplasms within the perirenal space in infants and children: Differentiation of renal and non-renal origin in enhanced CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yinghua [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); The Secondly Clinical Medicine College, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 610041 (China); Song Bin, E-mail: cjr.songbin@vip.163.co [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xu Juan [Department of Radiology, The Fourth People Hospital, Sichuan Province, Chengdu 610015 (China); Chen Weixia [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zhao Xiaofei; Jia Rui [The Secondly Clinical Medicine College, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wu Bi; Li Zhenlin [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively demonstrate the specific CT findings of retroperitoneal neoplasms to diagnosis and differential diagnosis renal and non-renal tumors within the perirenal space in infants and children. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and CT images of 42 consecutive patients with surgically and pathologically proven retroperitoneal neoplasms within the perirenal space. The patients were divided into renal tumors group (n = 16) and non-renal tumors group (n = 26). The former included nephroblastoma (n = 15) and renal lymphoma (n = 1), while the latter included neuroblastoma (n = 12), retroperitoneal teratoma (n = 6), adrenal ganglioneuroma (n = 4), retroperitoneal lymphoma (n = 2), ectopic pheochromocytoma (n = 1) and adrenal cortical carcinoma (n = 1). The clinical information of these patients and the major CT imaging findings which were related to lesion localization in the two groups were compared and statistically analyzed using Pearson Chi-Square Test and Risk Estimate. Results: The mean diameter of tumors was 9.82 {+-} 6.13 cm (n = 42 range: 2.3-32 cm). The demographic data and chief clinical symptoms between the renal tumor group and the non-renal tumor group showed no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05). 30.8% (8/26) of non-renal tumor patients presented elevated urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) level, while no patient showed elevated VMA in renal tumor group (P < 0.05). Some CT imaging signs of the renal tumors including 'crescent sign' (odds ratio, OR = 52), 'beak sign' (OR = 84), 'embedded organ sign' (OR = 84), and 'prominent feeding artery sign' (OR = 36) showed significantly higher incidence when compared to the non-renal tumors (P < 0.001). The sign of 'renal displacement and renal axis rotation' (OR = 0.059) was seen in 23 of 26 (88.5%) non-renal tumors, but in only 5 of 16 (31.3%) renal tumors (P < 0.001). The sign of 'extra-renal

  17. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  18. Percutaneous renal tumour biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunt, Brett; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Martignoni, Guido; Srigley, John R; Evans, Andrew J; Brunelli, Matteo

    2014-09-01

    The use of percutaneous renal tumour biopsy (RTB) as a diagnostic tool for the histological characterization of renal masses has increased dramatically within the last 30 years. This increased utilization has paralleled advances in imaging techniques and an evolving knowledge of the clinical value of nephron sparing surgery. Improved biopsy techniques using image guidance, coupled with the use of smaller gauge needles has led to a decrease in complication rates. Reports from series containing a large number of cases have shown the non-diagnostic rate of RTB to range from 4% to 21%. Re-biopsy has been shown to reduce this rate, while the use of molecular markers further improves diagnostic sensitivity. In parallel with refinements of the biopsy procedure, there has been a rapid expansion in our understanding of the complexity of renal cell neoplasia. The 2013 Vancouver Classification is the current classification for renal tumours, and contains five additional entities recognized as novel forms of renal malignancy. The diagnosis of tumour morphotype on RTB is usually achievable on routine histology; however, immunohistochemical studies may be of assistance in difficult cases. The morphology of the main tumour subtypes, based upon the Vancouver Classification, is described and differentiating features are discussed.

  19. Can renal infarction occur after renal cyst aspiration? Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emre, Habib; Soyoral, Yasemin Usul; Tanik, Serhat; Gecit, Ilhan; Begenik, Huseyin; Pirincci, Necip; Erkoc, Reha

    2011-01-01

    Renal infarction (RI) is a rarely seen disorder, and the diagnosis is often missed. The two major causes of RI are thromboemboli originhating from a thrombus in the heart or aorta, and in-situ thrombosis of a renal artery. We report a case of RI that developed due to renal artery and vein thrombosis, as confirmed by pathological evaluation of the nephrectomy material, three weeks after renal cyst aspiration.

  20. Tubular overexpression of gremlin induces renal damage susceptibility in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Droguett

    Full Text Available A growing number of patients are recognized worldwide to have chronic kidney disease. Glomerular and interstitial fibrosis are hallmarks of renal progression. However, fibrosis of the kidney remains an unresolved challenge, and its molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Gremlin is an embryogenic gene that has been shown to play a key role in nephrogenesis, and its expression is generally low in the normal adult kidney. However, gremlin expression is elevated in many human renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy, pauci-immune glomerulonephritis and chronic allograft nephropathy. Several studies have proposed that gremlin may be involved in renal damage by acting as a downstream mediator of TGF-β. To examine the in vivo role of gremlin in kidney pathophysiology, we generated seven viable transgenic mouse lines expressing human gremlin (GREM1 specifically in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells under the control of an androgen-regulated promoter. These lines demonstrated 1.2- to 200-fold increased GREM1 expression. GREM1 transgenic mice presented a normal phenotype and were without proteinuria and renal function involvement. In response to the acute renal damage cause by folic acid nephrotoxicity, tubule-specific GREM1 transgenic mice developed increased proteinuria after 7 and 14 days compared with wild-type treated mice. At 14 days tubular lesions, such as dilatation, epithelium flattening and hyaline casts, with interstitial cell infiltration and mild fibrosis were significantly more prominent in transgenic mice than wild-type mice. Tubular GREM1 overexpression was correlated with the renal upregulation of profibrotic factors, such as TGF-β and αSMA, and with increased numbers of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes compared to wild-type mice. Taken together, our results suggest that GREM1-overexpressing mice have an increased susceptibility to renal damage, supporting the involvement of gremlin in renal damage