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  1. An extremely high bioavailability of orally administered vancomycin in a patient with severe colitis and renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Shingo; Suzuki, Takaaki; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Takatsuka, Hirokazu; Ishikawa, Masayuki; Hattori, Noriyuki; Fujishiro, Takeshi; Miyauchi, Hideaki; Oami, Takehiko; Ariyoshi, Noritaka; Oda, Shigeto; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Ishii, Itsuko

    2017-12-01

    Because there is little absorption of orally administered vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) through the normal intestinal microvillus membrane, the pharmacokinetics of VCM absorbed from the digestive tract are mostly unknown. Here we report a case of severe colitis and renal insufficiency in which the serum concentration of VCM reached the supratherapeutic range after oral administration. A 54-year-old man receiving outpatient chemotherapy for rectal cancer was admitted to our hospital for severe sepsis and acute renal failure. Multimodal therapy including continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and mechanical ventilation was initiated, and oral VCM administration (0.5 g every 6 h) was begun for suspected severe pseudomembranous colitis with large amounts of watery stool. Despite continued CRRT, the serum VCM concentration increased to 30.6 μg/mL after 4 days. Based on pharmacokinetic analysis, the bioavailability of VCM was estimated to be over 54.5%. Colonoscopy showed that the mucosa was severely damaged throughout the large intestine, resulting in considerable exudation of plasma and blood. This case indicates the need for careful and early monitoring during high-dose oral VCM administration to patients with severe mucosal injury and renal insufficiency. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. LOSARTAN IN PATIENTS WITH RENAL-INSUFFICIENCY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEZEEUW, D; GANSEVOORT, RT; DEJONG, PE

    A choice of many antihypertensive strategies is not offered for the treatment of the hypertensive patient with renal insufficiency. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors appear to be the drugs of choice since they not only lower blood pressure but also reduce some important risk factors

  3. ANTICOAGULANT TREATMENT IN PATIENTS WITH RENAL INSUFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor Tratar; Alenka Mavri; Mirjam Gubenšek; Barbara Kravel; Mateja Kaja Ježovnik; Nina Ostaševski; Monika Štalc; Tjaša Vižintin Cuderman

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the recent years, the number of patients treated with anticoagulant therapy isincreasing. Among them, there is also an increased number of patients with renal insufficiency.Due to changes in coagulation and fibrinolityc system activity these patients are atincreased risk of bleeding and thrombotic complications when treated with anticoagulants.Unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight-heparins and vitamin K antagonistare used for anticoagulant therapy in patients with rena...

  4. Kidney lesions in diabetic patients with normoalbuminuric renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Miho; Furuichi, Kengo; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Toyama, Tadashi; Iwata, Yasunori; Sakai, Norihiko; Kaneko, Shuichi; Wada, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease in Japan. Microalbuminuria has been considered as the first clinical sign of diabetic nephropathy. However, recent studies demonstrated that normoalbuminuric renal insufficiency is not uncommon for diabetic patients, especially in type 2 diabetes. Although the pathogenesis of normoalbuminuric renal insufficiency in diabetic nephropathy remains to be fully elucidated, distinct clinical and pathological features of diabetic patients with this finding have been reported as compared to those in diabetic patients with a typical clinical course. In type 1 diabetes, more advanced glomerular lesions were found in patients with normoalbuminuric renal insufficiency than in patients with normoalbuminuric preserved renal function. In contrast, disproportionately advanced tubulointerstitial and vascular lesions, despite minor diabetic glomerular lesions, which denote the presence of diabetic kidney lesions as well as nephrosclerosis, were likely to be related to the development of normoalbuminuric renal insufficiency in some type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, long-term outcomes of diabetic patients with normoalbuminuric renal insufficiency remain controversial. Further studies to gain a better understanding of the structural-functional relationships and natural history of diabetic patients with normoalbuminuric renal insufficiency may improve the benefits of therapeutic interventions for diabetic nephropathy.

  5. [Terminal renal insufficiency and indication for kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protzel, C; Führer, A; Hakenberg, O W

    2015-10-01

    Terminal renal insufficiency is characterized by the need for renal replacement therapy for survival of the patient. In addition to several types of dialysis treatment, successful renal transplantation offers the best form of renal replacement therapy in terms of long-term patient survival and quality of life. Living donor renal transplantation offers the best conditions concerning quality of organ transplanted and graft survival. The risk of complications associated with renal transplantation are manageable; however, these must be weighed against the potential benefits of successful transplantation.

  6. Renal insufficiency in Ghanaian HIV infected patients: need for dose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antiretrovirals (ARVs) could lead to clinically significant nephrotoxicity and as such will require dose adjustments in the presence of renal insufficiency. Objective: To explore renal function estimating equations as alternatives for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement in a stable cohort of HIV-infected ...

  7. The porcine remnant kidney model of chronic renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sanjay; Gordon, Jeffery D; Fu, Alex A; Glockner, James F; Chade, Alejandro R; Mandrekar, Jaywant; Lerman, Lilach; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and characterize a porcine model of chronic renal insufficiency created by renal artery embolization. The model was created using 42 castrated juvenile male pigs (7-8 months old) in two parts (pilot (N = 10) group, definitive (N = 26) group, and control group (N = 6). In the pilot group, the embolization procedure was optimized with respect to the size of polyvinyl acrylide (PVA) particles, coils, and amount of kidney embolized. The animals were followed serially for 4 weeks after the embolization procedure to determine the renal function and hypertensive response. In the definitive group, these results were extended to later time points and a left total nephrectomy and a right partial nephrectomy (remnant) were performed and these animals were followed for 28 to 84 days. The kidney function after the embolization was characterized by acute deterioration in renal function, followed by improvement, and "stable" chronic renal insufficiency with statistically significant elevation in creatinine and BUN being observed until day 42. The mean arterial blood pressure remained significantly elevated until day 7 after which it began to decrease to pre-embolization value. The remnant kidney developed fibrosis in the tublointerstitial compartment as it hypertrophied and increased its weight which remained significantly elevated after embolization. A reproducible remnant kidney model of chronic renal insufficiency in pigs was developed. In this model, stable renal insufficiency develops by 4 weeks that lasts until 12 weeks.

  8. Treatment of osteoporosis in renal insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, L.G.; Fleuren, H.W.; Bergh, J.P. van den; Meinardi, J.R.; Veldman, B.A.; Kramers, C.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with osteoporosis often have chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD is associated with bone and mineral disturbances, renal osteodystrophy, which like osteoporosis leads to a higher risk of fractures. Bisphosphonates are first-line therapy for osteoporosis; however, these are contra-indicated in

  9. Lung cancer and renal insufficiency: prevalence and anticancer drug issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Etessami, Reza; Janus, Nicolas; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Oudard, Stéphane; Gligorov, Joseph; Pourrat, Xavier; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Deray, Gilbert; Morere, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The Renal Insufficiency and Anticancer Medications (IRMA) study reported the high prevalence of renal insufficiency in cancer patients. In this special report, we focused on patients with lung cancer, emphasizing some specific findings in this population of patients. Data on patients with lung cancer who were in the IRMA study were analyzed. Renal function was calculated using Cockcroft-Gault and abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (aMDRD) formulas to estimate the prevalence of renal insufficiency (RI) according to the KDOQI-KDIGO definition. Anticancer drugs were studied with regard to their potential renal toxicity and need for dosage adjustment. Of the 445 IRMA lung cancer patients, 14.4% had a serum creatinine (SCR) level > or =110 micromol/L. However, when they were assessed using the formulas, 62.1 and 55.9% had abnormal renal function. Of the 644 anticancer drug prescriptions, 67.5% required dose adjustments for RI or were drugs with no available data, and 78.3% of the patients received at least one such drug. Furthermore, 71.6% received potentially nephrotoxic drugs. Seventy percent of the patients had anemia but prevalence was not significantly associated with the existence of associated renal insufficiency. In the 445 IRMA patients with lung cancer, the prevalence of RI was high in spite of a normal SCR in most cases. Some anticancer drugs such as platinum salts may be nephrotoxic and need dosage adjustment. However, other important drugs such as gemcitabine do not require dose reduction and do not present with a high potential for nephrotoxicity. Lung cancer patients often present with anemia, which was not associated with the presence of RI.

  10. Cytotoxic therapy for membranous nephropathy and renal insufficiency: improved renal survival but high relapse rate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buf-Vereijken, P.W.G. du; Branten, A.J.W.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN) and renal insufficiency have a high risk for progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In the short term, treatment with oral cyclophosphamide and steroids attenuates the deterioration of renal function in these patients;

  11. Aluminium toxicity in chronic renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savory, J; Bertholf, R L; Wills, M R

    1985-08-01

    Aluminium is a ubiquitous element in the environment and has been demonstrated to be toxic, especially in individuals with impaired renal function. Not much is known about the biochemistry of aluminium and the mechanisms of its toxic effects. Most of the interest in aluminium has been in the clinical setting of the haemodialysis unit. Here aluminium toxicity occurs due to contamination of dialysis solutions, and treatment of the patients with aluminium-containing phosphate binding gels. Aluminium has been shown to be the major contributor to the dialysis encephalopathy syndrome and an osteomalacic component of dialysis osteodystrophy. Other clinical disturbances associated with aluminium toxicity are a microcytic anaemia and metastatic extraskeletal calcification. Aluminium overload can be treated effectively by chelation therapy with desferrioxamine and haemodialysis. Aluminium is readily transferred from the dialysate to the patient's bloodstream during haemodialysis. Once transferred, the aluminium is tightly bound to non-dialysable plasma constituents. Very low concentrations of dialysate aluminium in the range of 10-15 micrograms/l are recommended to guard against toxic effects. Very few studies have been directed towards the separation of the various plasma species which bind aluminium. Gel filtration chromatography has been used to identify five major fractions, one of which is of low molecular weight and the others appear to be protein-aluminium complexes. Recommendations on aluminium monitoring have been published and provide 'safe' and toxic concentrations. Also, the frequency of monitoring has been addressed. Major problems exist with the analytical methods for measuring aluminium which result from inaccurate techniques and contamination difficulties. The most widely used analytical technique is electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry which can provide reliable measurements in the hands of a careful analyst.

  12. Risk Factors for Chronic Renal Insufficiency Following Cardiac Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Kim; White, Michel; de Denus, Simon

    2015-09-29

    Although previous publications have discussed kidney disease in nonrenal solid-organ transplantation, none has reviewed thoroughly the potential predictors of long-term renal impairment in cardiac recipients. Thus, the purpose of this review article is to summarize the current state of knowledge on risk factors of chronic renal insufficiency in heart transplant patients. An English language Medline literature search (1946-April 2014) was conducted using the search terms renal insufficiency, kidney failure, kidney diseases, nephrotoxi$ ($ for truncation), creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, heart transplantation and organ transplantation. Additional references were identified from a review of literature citations. A total of 74 articles discussing key risk factors were included in the manuscript.         The existing literature reveals that several recipient characteristics (age, female sex, pretransplant/early post-transplant kidney impairment, diabetes, and hypertension) increase the risk of renal insufficiency after transplantation. Current data also indicate that, while cyclosporine and tacrolimus are most likely major determinants of post-transplant kidney failure, the effects of calcineurin inhibitor doses and concentrations remain unclear. A small number of studies suggest that tacrolimus could possibly induce less nephrotoxicity than cyclosporine, but meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials show the opposite with comparable incidences of dialysis after cardiac transplantation. Finally, the role of genetic variations has only been explored to a limited extent in heart transplant patients. This growing body of evidence should ultimately lead to a better risk prediction regarding chronic renal insufficiency following cardiac transplantation and a more personalized tailoring of immunosuppressive regimens.

  13. Safety and tolerability of voriconazole in patients with baseline renal insufficiency and candidemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lashof, A.M.L.; Sobel, J.D.; Ruhnke, M.; Pappas, P.G.; Viscoli, C.; Schlamm, H.T.; Rex, J.H.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Acutely ill patients with candidemia frequently suffer from renal insufficiency. Voriconazole's intravenous formulation with sulfobutylether beta-cyclodextrin (SBECD) is restricted in patients with renal insufficiency. We evaluated the use of intravenous voriconazole formulated with SBECD in

  14. Pharmacokinetics of flutamide in patients with renal insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, S; Swan, S K; Lambrecht, L J; Radwanski, E; Cutler, D L; Affrime, M B; Halstenson, C E

    1999-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of flutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogenic compound, and its pharmacologically active metabolite, hydroxyflutamide, in renal insufficiency. Haemodialysis (HD) clearance of flutamide and hydroxyflutamide was also determined. Methods Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed for flutamide and hydroxyflutamide in 26 male subjects with normal renal function (creatinine clearance by 24 h urine collection, CLcr, greater than 80 ml min−1 1.73 m−2; n = 6) or reduced renal function; CLcr = 50–80 (n = 7), 30–49 (n = 3), 5–29 (n = 4), and <5 ml min−1 1.73 m−2-HD (n = 6), following a single, oral 250 mg flutamide dose. Subjects undergoing HD received a second 250 mg dose of flutamide 4 h prior to HD; blood and dialysate were collected during HD to determine dialysability of flutamide and hydroxyflutamide. Results Cmax, tmax, AUC, t1/2, and renal clearance of flutamide and hydroxyflutamide did not differ between groups. Less than 1% of the dose appeared in dialysate as hydroxyflutamide. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions Renal function did not affect flutamide nor hydroxyflutamide disposition. HD did not alter hydroxyflutamide pharmacokinetics. Dosing adjustments for renal impairment or HD are not indicated for flutamide. PMID:10073738

  15. Renal and hepatic histopathology of intraperitoneally administered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biochemistry and histopathology of intraperitoneally administered potassium permanganate was investigated in Clarias gariepinus. Acute toxicity of the ... The potassium permanganate widely used in controlling external fungal, bacterial and protozoan infections of fish should not be indiscriminately used. Keywords: ...

  16. Effective antihypertensive treatment postpones renal insufficiency in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Smidt, U M; Hommel, E

    1993-01-01

    The effect of long-term, aggressive, antihypertensive treatment on kidney function in diabetic nephropathy was studied prospectively in 11 insulin-dependent diabetic patients (mean age, 30 years). Renal function was assessed every 4 months by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (single...... treatment to 2.5 mL/min/yr (range, 0.5 to 4.8 mL/min/yr) during treatment. The rate of decline in GFR is significantly smaller during the last 6 years compared with the first 3 years in patients who received long-term antihypertensive treatment (> or = 9 years). One patient died from acute myocardial...... infarction (GFR, 46 mL/min/1.73 m2). Effective antihypertensive treatment postpones renal insufficiency in diabetic nephropathy....

  17. Pharmacokinetics of ceftibuten-cis and its trans metabolite in healthy volunteers and in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelloway, J S; Awni, W M; Lin, C C; Lim, J; Affrime, M B; Keane, W F; Matzke, G R; Halstenson, C E

    1991-01-01

    The impact of renal insufficiency on the dispositions of 300 mg of orally administered ceftibuten-cis, a new broad-spectrum oral cephalosporin, and its primary metabolite ceftibuten-trans was characterized in 30 adult subjects. Subjects were divided into five groups of six subjects each on the basis of their 24-h ambulatory creatinine clearances (CLCR). The apparent total body clearance (CLP/F; where F is absolute bioavailability) and renal clearance of ceftibuten-cis were significantly lower...

  18. Renal, hepatic, and marrow dysfunction in a patient with chronic renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Rebecca C; Bissler, John J

    2003-03-01

    Severe illness with acute renal failure, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathy frequently occurs with hemolytic uremic syndrome/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, hematological malignancies, sepsis, and collagen-vascular diseases. We present a 16-year-old male fast-food worker with underlying chronic renal insufficiency who manifested these abnormalities as a result of Ehrlichia chaffeensis sepsis. Doxycycline therapy and aggressive supportive care led to complete recovery.

  19. Several issues regarding evaluation of renal injury and renal insufficiency in patients with liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAO Kunyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In patients with liver disease such as viral hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, renal injury and renal insufficiency can be generally classified as acute kidney injury (AKI, chronic kidney disease, and acute-on-chronic nephropathy. AKI can be classified as stage 1 (risk stage, stage 2 (injury stage, and stage 3 (failure stage. Traditionally hepatorenal syndrome is classified as types Ⅰ and Ⅱ, and in recent years, type Ⅲ hepatorenal syndrome with organic renal injury has been proposed. Hepatorenal disorder(HRD is used to describe any renal disease which occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis. At present, sensitive and accurate biochemical parameters used to evaluate renal function in patients with liver disease in clinical practice include estimated glomerular filtration rate, increase in serum creatinine within unit time, and serum cystatin C level, and urinary microalbumin level also plays an important role in the early diagnosis of nephropathy. Causes of liver disease, severity, complications including infection, nutritional status, therapeutic drugs, and underlying nephropathy may be associated with renal injury and renal insufficiency in patients with liver disease and should be differentiated.

  20. Prevalence of renal insufficiency in individuals with obesity

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    Vasiljević Nađa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The association of obesity with renal function disorders has been demonstrated by some studies. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of renal insufficiency (RI, measured as glomerular filtration rate (GFR <60 ml/min and impact of weight loss on kidney function in a cohort of 109 obese patients (body mass index - BMI >25 kg/m2, without previous kidney disease, and who underwent the dietician’s treatment. Methods. According to body mass index (BMI, the patients were classified as overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2, 25 patients, obesity grade I (30-34.9 kg/m2, 37 patients, obesity grade II (35 to 39.9 kg/m2, 23 patients, and obesity grade III (>40 kg/m2, 24 patients. Data on hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, family illness history on diabetes, obesity and hypertension, smoking and medications, lipid profile, serum creatinine (sCr measured before and after diet, and urine examination were collected from the patients’ records. GFR was estimated using MDRD formula (modification of diet in renal disease. Results The patients groups were similar in age and co-morbidities, lipids, and sCr values. In comparison to other obese patients, blood pressure was the highest in obesity grade III patients (p=0.0001. Mean GFR rate before diet was satisfactory in all studied groups. RI was present in 12.8% patients. After diet nine patients still had GFR < 60ml/min, while lipids decreased in all groups. Patients with the highest decrease of BMI also showed best improvement in GFR. The risk for the development of decreased GFR was higher in elderly patients (estimated rate: -0.434, p<0.0001. Conclusion. Obesity is a potentially reversible risk factor for the development of decreased GFR. The relationship between obesity and decreased GFR may be mediated by the presence of known cardiovascular risk factors. In order to clarify the obesity influence on renal functioning, further studies are needed.

  1. Renal insufficiency after heart transplantation: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Gelder (Teun); R. Zietse (Bob); C.J. Hesse (Cees); W. Weimar (Willem); A.H.M.M. Balk (Aggie); B. Mochtar (Bas)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In Rotterdam 304 heart transplants have been performed since 1984. End-stage renal failure, necessitating renal replacement therapy, has developed in 24 patients (8%) after an interval of 25-121 months (median 79 months). After starting renal

  2. Transplantation of induced mesenchymal stem cells for treating chronic renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xing-Hua; Zhou, Jing; Yao, Xiang; Shu, Jun; Liu, Ju-Fen; Yang, Jian-Yong; Pang, Rong-Qing; Ruan, Guang-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Discovering a new cell transplantation approach for treating chronic renal insufficiency is a goal of many nephrologists. In vitro-cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were reprogrammed into induced mesenchymal stem cells (iMSCs) by using natural inducing agents made in our laboratory. The stem cell phenotype of the iMSCs was then identified. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was used to create an animal model of chronic renal insufficiency characterized by renal interstitial fibrosis. The induced and non-induced PBMCs were transplanted, and the efficacy of iMSCs in treating chronic renal insufficiency was evaluated using a variety of methods. The ultimate goal was to explore the effects of iMSC transplantation on the treatment of chronic renal insufficiency, with the aim of providing a new therapeutic modality for this disease.

  3. Chronic kidney disease and underdiagnosis of renal insufficiency among diabetic patients attending a hospital in Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiseha, Temesgen; Kassim, Mehidi; Yemane, Tilahun

    2014-12-15

    Diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), as defined by a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR), are at greater risk for cardiovascular and renal events and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CKD among diabetic patients attending a hospital in southern Ethiopia, and to assess underdiagnosis of renal insufficiency among those with normal serum creatinine. A total of 214 randomly selected diabetics attending the follow-up clinic at Butajira hospital of southern Ethiopia participated in this study during the period from September 1 to October 31, 2013. All patients completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and underwent clinical assessment. The simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Cockroft-Gault (C-G) equations were used to estimate GFR (eGFR) from serum creatinine. CKD, defined as eGFR1.5 mg/dl. Normal serum creatinine was observed in 90.2% of participants attending the hospital. A large proportion of participants ranging from 38.9-56.5% have shown to have mild to moderate renal insufficiency (stage 2-3 CKD) despite normal creatinine levels. CKD, eGFRinsufficiency corresponding to stages 2-3 CKD despite normal creatinine levels. Therefore, GFR should be considered as an estimate of renal insufficiency, regardless of serum creatinine levels being in normal range.

  4. Mieloma Múltiplo e insuficiência renal Multiple Myeloma and renal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Maiolino

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência renal (IR é uma complicação freqüente em pacientes com mieloma múltiplo (MM podendo estar presente em 35% dos pacientes ao diagnóstico e em mais de 50% durante a evolução da doença. O mecanismo mais freqüente de IR é o assim chamado "rim do mieloma" decorrente da excreção de cadeias leves provocando um dano tubular. Outros mecanismos de IR são o depósito tissular de cadeias leves e a Síndrome de Fanconi Adquirida. Determinados fatores podem precipitar e agravar a IR tais como a hipercalcemia, hiperuricemia, desidratação, hiperviscosidade e drogas nefrotóxicas. O tratamento de suporte deve ser feito em todos os pacientes e nos casos em que a função renal não possa ser revertida deve ser considerado o tratamento dialítico. O tratamento específico do MM em pacientes com IR tem papel importante e impacto na sobrevida. A quimioterapia inicial mais adequada é VAD ou combinação de ciclofosfamida e dexametasona. Quimioterapia em altas doses e transplante autólogo podem ser considerados para pacientes com idade inferior a 60 anos e um bom performance status (PS.Renal insufficiency is a frequent complication in patients with Multiple Myeloma (MM. It occurs in 35% of newly diagnosed patients and in more than 50% during the evolution of the disease. The most frequent mechanism of renal failure is the so-called "myeloma kidney", which is the renal tubular damage caused by the excretion of light chains. Other mechanisms of renal damage are light chain tissue deposition and acquired Fanconi's syndrome. This renal impairment might be aggravated by precipitating factors such as hypercalcemia, hyperuricemia, dehydration, hyperviscosity, and nephrotoxic drugs. Supportive measures must be taken for all patients; for those with an irreversible renal function, dialysis must be considered. Specific myeloma treatment has an important prognostic value for patients with renal impairment. The recommendation of induction

  5. Evaluation of the single-dose pharmacokinetics of bilastine in subjects with various degrees of renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasseter, Kenneth C; Sologuren, Ander; La Noce, Anna; Dilzer, Stacy C

    2013-09-01

    Bilastine is a novel second-generation H1 antihistamine, which has not shown sedative or cardiotoxic effects in clinical trials and in post-marketing experience so far, developed for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. It has recently been granted marketing authorization for these therapeutic indications in adults and adolescents at a once-daily oral dose of 20 mg in several European countries. This study was conducted to determine the pharmacokinetics of bilastine at a single oral dose of 20 mg in renally impaired subjects. The need for a dose adjustment in patients with renal insufficiency was assessed by comparing the exposure to bilastine in these subjects with the estimated exposure of a dose corresponding to the safety margin. The study was an open-label, single-dose, parallel-group study of the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single dose of bilastine. The study was conducted as an in-patient setting at a clinical pharmacology facility. A total of 24 male or female subjects aged 18-80 years were to be enrolled in four groups of six subjects each. The groups were as follows: (1) healthy [glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >80 mL/min/1.73 m(2)]; (2) mild renal insufficiency (GFR 50-80 mL/min/1.73 m(2)); (3) moderate renal insufficiency (GFR 30-50 mL/min/1.73 m(2)); and (4) severe renal insufficiency (GFR ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). A single 20 mg bilastine tablet was administered in a fasted state. Blood and urine samples were collected from pre-dose up to 72 h post-dose for bilastine pharmacokinetic analysis. Pharmacokinetic results were summarized using appropriate descriptive statistics. There was a clear trend of increasing area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) through the groups 1-4. The mean AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC(∞)) ranged from 737.4 to 1708.5 ng·h/mL in healthy subjects and severely impaired subjects, respectively. No significant differences among

  6. The length of necrosis and renal insufficiency predict the outcome of acute mesenteric ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hızır Yakup Akyıldız

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The length of the necrosis and renal insufficiency are the primary factors that result in a poor outcome in AMI patients. Prompt diagnostic evaluation and early therapeutic interventions may help to prevent the development of these fatal predictors.

  7. Immunoglobulin G4-related Kidney Disease as a Cause of Acute Renal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai; Du, Xiao-Gang

    2015-09-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related kidney disease is a systemic autoimmune disease which characterized by elevated serum IgG4 and dense infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into tubular interstitium. It can be a mimicker of acute renal insufficiency. We herein report a rare case of IgG4-related kidney disease as a cause of acute renal insufficiency.

  8. Reversible renal insufficiency secondary to extrinsic splenic compression of the kidney in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Moussa, Miriam; Brown, James A

    2010-05-04

    While increased renal venous and direct renal parenchymal pressure may cause renal insufficiency, there are no prior reports of hypersplenism secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) doing so. This first report of massive splenomegaly leading to marked compression of the left kidney associated with renal insufficiency that resolved after splenectomy illustrates that profound extrinsic renal compression from splenomegaly may significantly compromise left renal function and splenectomy should be considered in this situation.

  9. Reversible Renal Insufficiency Secondary to Extrinsic Splenic Compression of the Kidney in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

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    Miriam Hadj-Moussa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While increased renal venous and direct renal parenchymal pressure may cause renal insufficiency, there are no prior reports of hypersplenism secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL doing so. This first report of massive splenomegaly leading to marked compression of the left kidney associated with renal insufficiency that resolved after splenectomy illustrates that profound extrinsic renal compression from splenomegaly may significantly compromise left renal function and splenectomy should be considered in this situation.

  10. Concomitant renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus as prognostic factors for acute myocardial infarction

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    Kim Chang Seong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus and renal dysfunction are prognostic factors after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. However, few studies have assessed the effects of renal insufficiency in association with diabetes in the context of AMI. Here, we investigated the clinical outcomes according to the concomitance of renal dysfunction and diabetes mellitus in patients with AMI. Methods From November 2005 to August 2008, 9905 patients (63 ± 13 years; 70% men with AMI were enrolled in a nationwide prospective Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR and were categorized into 4 groups: Group I (n = 5700 had neither diabetes nor renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, Group II (n = 1730 had diabetes but no renal insufficiency, Group III (n = 1431 had no diabetes but renal insufficiency, and Group IV (n = 1044 had both diabetes and renal insufficiency. The primary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACE, including a composite of all cause-of-death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, and coronary artery bypass graft after 1-year clinical follow-up. Results Primary endpoints occurred in 1804 (18.2% patients. There were significant differences in composite MACE among the 4 groups (Group I, 12.5%; Group II, 15.7%; Group III, 30.5%; Group IV, 36.5%; p p = 0.001; and HR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.62-3.62; p Conclusions Renal insufficiency, especially in association with diabetes, is associated with the occurrence of composite MACE and indicates poor prognosis in patients with AMI. Categorization of patients with diabetes and/or renal insufficiency provides valuable information for early-risk stratification of AMI patients.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of ceftibuten-cis and its trans metabolite in healthy volunteers and in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelloway, J S; Awni, W M; Lin, C C; Lim, J; Affrime, M B; Keane, W F; Matzke, G R; Halstenson, C E

    1991-01-01

    The impact of renal insufficiency on the dispositions of 300 mg of orally administered ceftibuten-cis, a new broad-spectrum oral cephalosporin, and its primary metabolite ceftibuten-trans was characterized in 30 adult subjects. Subjects were divided into five groups of six subjects each on the basis of their 24-h ambulatory creatinine clearances (CLCR). The apparent total body clearance (CLP/F; where F is absolute bioavailability) and renal clearance of ceftibuten-cis were significantly lower in subjects with end-stage renal disease (on maintenance hemodialysis; group V) and in those with severe (CLCR, 5 to 29 ml/min; group IV) and moderate (CLCR, 30 to 49 ml/min; group III) renal insufficiency than in those with mild renal insufficiency (CLCR, 50 to 80 ml/min; group II) or normal renal function (CLCR, greater than 80 ml/min; group I). A significant correlation was observed between CLCR and ceftibuten-cis CLP/F. The mean apparent steady-state volume of distribution (V beta/F) of ceftibuten-cis ranged from 0.21 to 0.24 liter/kg in subjects in group I, II, III, and IV. V beta/F was significantly greater in the group V subjects with end-stage renal disease (V beta/F, 0.39 +/- 0.27 liters/kg). These changes in V beta/F cannot be separated from possible changes in bioavailability. The maximum concentration of ceftibuten-trans in plasma was significantly higher and occurred significantly later in group IV subjects than it did in subjects in the other groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1803999

  12. Cardiovascular Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Patients with Preoperative Non-dialysis Dependent Renal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Temur; Kaplan, Mehmet; Muruvvet, Yilmaz; Nehir, Selcuk Ummuhan; Tolga, Can; Adlan, Olsun; Hakkı, Aydogan

    2015-04-28

    Preoperative renal insufficiency is a predictor of acute renal injury in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. From January 2010 to September 2012, 121 patients undergoing coronary bypass, valve replacement, or both were included in our retrospective study, using cardiopulmonary bypass. We compared the changes in renal function and clinical outcomes of 66 patients with a baseline serum creatinine level more than 1.5 mg/dL with 55 patients with normal serum creatinine levels. We analyzed the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with non-dialysis dependent renal insufficiency. In the group of patients with preoperative renal injury, the need for dialysis was greater, time of mechanical ventilation longer, and daily diuresis lesser compared with the group of patients with normal serum creatinine levels. Other clinical outcomes such as postoperative hemodynamic problems and organ dysfunction were similar. Prolonged time of cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp affected postoperative renal injury. The study also showed intraoperative dopamine infusion at renal dose and ultrafiltration are not effective with protecting renal tubular function. Serum creatinine levels and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were found to be useful parameters for renal injury. These results demonstrate the safety and trustworthiness of cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with non-dialysis dependent renal insufficiency.

  13. X-ray changes of children with chronic renal insufficiency

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    Ponhold, W.; Balzar, E. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Kinderklinik)

    1983-01-01

    The typical changes of renal osteopathy are shown in the X-rays of 7 children with end-stage renal disease treated with chronic intermittent hemodialysis. The exact evaluation of the granular structural changes of the cranium, the evidence of osteomalacia because of the hazy appearance of the vertebrae and the broadening of the sacroilical joints depend highly on subjective judgement and the technical X-ray procedures used. Unmistakable radiological diagnoses can be made when a broadening of the metalphyseal zones, epiphysioloysis as well as characteristic changes in the finder phalanges (acroosteolyses, spiculae, tunnelation) are present.

  14. Association of high blood pressure with renal insufficiency: role of albuminuria, from NHANES, 1999-2006.

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    Ping Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between hypertension and kidney disease is complicated. Clinical trials found intense blood pressure control was not associated with alterations in glomerular filtration rate (GFR in all patients but did slow the rate of GFR decline among those with a higher baseline proteinuria. However, the underlying mechanism has been unclear. METHODS: We tested the hypothesis that the association between high blood pressure and renal function is modified by albuminuria status by conducting analyses in a cross-sectional study with 12,440 adult participants without known kidney diseases, diabetes or cardiovascular diseases, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2006. RESULTS: 1226 out of 12440 were found to have unknown high blood pressure and 4494 were found to have reduced renal function. Overall, a moderate association was found between high blood pressure and renal function insufficiency in all participants analyzed. However, among participants with albuminuria, the prevalence of moderate-severe renal insufficiency substantially and progressively increased from normal subjects to prehypertensive and undiagnosed hypertensive subjects (1.43%, 3.44%, 10.96%, respectively, P for trend<0.0001; on the other hand, the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension was also significantly higher among subjects with moderate-severe renal insufficiency than those with mild renal insufficiency (35.54% Vs 19.09%, P value <0.05, supporting an association between hypertension and renal function damage. In contrast, no association between hypertension and renal insufficiency was observed among those without albuminuria in this population. Similar findings were observed when the CKD-EPI equation was used. CONCLUSIONS: The association between high blood pressure and reduced renal function could be dependent upon the albuminuria status. This finding may provide a possible explanation for results observed in

  15. False-positive newborn screening mimicking glutaric aciduria type I in infants with renal insufficiency.

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    Hennermann, Julia B; Roloff, Sylvia; Gellermann, Jutta; Grüters, Annette; Klein, Jeannette

    2009-12-01

    Glutaric aciduria type I (GA I), an autosomal-recessive deficiency of glutaryl-CoA-dehydrogenase, leads to encephalopathic crises resulting in irreversible neurological damage. As early diagnosis and implementation of appropriate treatment has significant benefit for these patients, GA I has been implemented in the extended newborn screening program in several countries. Screening parameter is glutarylcarnitine (C5DC) with its ratios. From 1 January 2005 until 31 December 2008, 173,846 newborns were examined by neonatal screening in our screening center. C5DC and/or at least three C5DC/acylcarnitine ratios were increased in 53 newborns (0.03%) and persisted in 11 infants after recall. GA I was not confirmed in any of these infants, but all 11 infants were suffering from renal insufficiency due to congenital (5/11) or acquired (6/11) renal disease. C5DC was shown to be significantly associated with renal affection and was significantly higher in infants with congenital renal insufficiency than in those with acquired renal insufficiency (p = 0.011). Creatinine correlated significantly with C5DC (p = 0.001) and all C5DC/acylcarnitine ratios, mainly with C5DC/(C8 + C10), C5DC/C0, C5DC/C2, C5DC/C4, and C5DC/C8 (for all: p = 0.001). Glutarylcarnitinemia associated with renal insufficiency has not yet been studied systematically. Renal damage in neonates might lead to disturbances in renal transporter systems of glutaric acid and its metabolites and a decreased excretion of C5DC, thus resulting in an increase of plasma C5DC. Therefore, newborns presenting with a positive screening indicating GA I may be considered not only to suffer from GA I but from renal insufficiency as well.

  16. Establishment of a model of renal impairment with mild renal insufficiency associated with atrial fibrillation in canines.

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    Zhuo Liang

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF are closely related. No studies have examined whether renal impairment (RI without severe renal dysfunction is associated with the occurrence of AF.Unilateral RI with mild renal insufficiency was induced in beagles by embolization of small branches of the renal artery in the left kidney for 2 weeks using gelatin sponge granules in the model group (n = 5. The sham group (n = 5 underwent the same procedure, except for embolization. Parameters associated with RI and renal function were tested, cardiac electrophysiological parameters, blood pressure, left ventricular pressure, and AF vulnerability were investigated. The activity of the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, inflammation, and oxidative stress were measured. Histological studies associated with atrial interstitial fibrosis were performed.Embolization of small branches of the renal artery in the left kidney led to ischemic RI with mild renal insufficiency. The following changes occurred after embolization. Heart rate and P wave duration were increased. Blood pressure and left ventricular systolic pressure were elevated. The atrial effective refractory period and antegrade Wenckebach point were shortened. Episodes and duration of AF, as well as atrial and ventricular rate during AF were increased in the model group. Plasma levels of norepinephrine, renin, and aldosterone were increased, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels in atrial tissue were elevated, and atrial interstitial fibrosis was enhanced after 2 weeks of embolization in the model group.We successfully established a model of RI with mild renal insufficiency in a large animal. We found that RI with mild renal insufficiency was associated with AF in this model.

  17. Establishment of a model of renal impairment with mild renal insufficiency associated with atrial fibrillation in canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhuo; Liu, Li-Feng; Chen, Xin-Pei; Shi, Xiang-Min; Guo, Hong-Yang; Lin, Kun; Guo, Jian-Ping; Shan, Zhao-Liang; Wang, Yu-Tang

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease and occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) are closely related. No studies have examined whether renal impairment (RI) without severe renal dysfunction is associated with the occurrence of AF. Unilateral RI with mild renal insufficiency was induced in beagles by embolization of small branches of the renal artery in the left kidney for 2 weeks using gelatin sponge granules in the model group (n = 5). The sham group (n = 5) underwent the same procedure, except for embolization. Parameters associated with RI and renal function were tested, cardiac electrophysiological parameters, blood pressure, left ventricular pressure, and AF vulnerability were investigated. The activity of the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, inflammation, and oxidative stress were measured. Histological studies associated with atrial interstitial fibrosis were performed. Embolization of small branches of the renal artery in the left kidney led to ischemic RI with mild renal insufficiency. The following changes occurred after embolization. Heart rate and P wave duration were increased. Blood pressure and left ventricular systolic pressure were elevated. The atrial effective refractory period and antegrade Wenckebach point were shortened. Episodes and duration of AF, as well as atrial and ventricular rate during AF were increased in the model group. Plasma levels of norepinephrine, renin, and aldosterone were increased, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels in atrial tissue were elevated, and atrial interstitial fibrosis was enhanced after 2 weeks of embolization in the model group. We successfully established a model of RI with mild renal insufficiency in a large animal. We found that RI with mild renal insufficiency was associated with AF in this model.

  18. Renal insufficiency increases mortality in acute coronary syndromes regardless of TIMI risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Dariusz; Chyrchel, Bernadeta; Siudak, Zbigniew; Depukat, Rafał; Chyrchel, Michał; Dziewierz, Artur; Mielecki, Waldemar; Rakowski, Tomasz; Rzeszutko, Łukasz; Dubiel, Jacek

    2008-01-01

    Non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) are the most frequent cause of admission to intensive care units. Early risk assessment and implementation of optimal treatment are of special importance in these patients. Previous studies have demonstrated that renal insufficiency is an independent risk factor in patients with cardiovascular disease. To assess the effects of renal function on the course of treatment and prognosis in patients with NSTE ACS admitted to hospitals without on-site invasive facilities but with a possibility of immediate transfer to a reference centre with a catheterisation laboratory. Twenty-nine community hospitals without on-site invasive facilities participated in the Krakow Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes - a prospective, multicentre, web-based, observational registry. Renal insufficiency (RI) was defined as creatinine clearance (CrCl) 60 ml/min (NS). In-hospital mortality among patients remaining on conservative treatment in community hospitals was significantly higher among RI patients (4.0 vs. 0.6%; p TIMI risk score group: 7.3 vs. 2.4% (p risk group, 4.1 vs. 1.4% (NS) in the moderate and 3.6 vs. 0% (p risk group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified reduced creatinine clearance and a history of heart failure as independent factors influencing mortality. Renal insufficiency was present in one-third of NSTE ACS patients. Patients with renal insufficiency had worse clinical risk profile and received less aggressive treatment. Patients with NSTE ACS and renal insufficiency treated conservatively had higher in-hospital mortality. Renal insufficiency modifies mortality irrespective of the TIMI risk score. Creatinine clearance should be considered in modification of the TIMI risk score scale.

  19. Utility of BNP in differentiating constrictive pericarditis from restrictive cardiomyopathy in patients with renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Proddutur R; Dieter, Robert S; Das, Pranab; Steen, Lowell H; Lewis, Bruce E; Leya, Ferdinand S

    2007-10-01

    Differentiating between constrictive pericarditis (CP) and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCMP) is difficult because of similar clinical and hemodynamic presentation. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been reported a useful noninvasive biomarker to differentiate CP from RCMP; however, its utility in patients with renal insufficiency has not been evaluated. Consecutive patients with suspected CP or RCMP were enrolled. All but 7 patients underwent transseptal catheterization. BNP, renal function, and comorbid conditions were recorded at the time of the procedure. Renal function was estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault formula. Descriptive statistics, Student t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test were performed; P 90 mL/min, mean 118). BNP was higher in patients with CP and renal insufficiency versus those with CP and normal renal function (433 versus 116 pg/mL; P = .016). BNP in patients with CP and normal renal function was lower than in patients with RC (116 versus 728 pg/mL; P = .005). BNP has reduced clinical utility in renal insufficiency to differentiate CP from RCMP.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of initial full and subsequent reduced doses of S-1 in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer-effect of renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomoko; Tahara, Makoto; Enokida, Tomohiro; Wakasugi, Tetsuro; Arahira, Satoko; Zenda, Sadamoto; Motegi, Atsushi; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Yoshisue, Kunihiro

    2017-05-01

    S-1 is a combination of tegafur [metabolized to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)] with the modulators gimeracil (5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine) and oteracil potassium. 5-Chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine maintains plasma 5-FU concentrations by inhibiting dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, a pyrimidine catabolism enzyme that degrades 5-FU. As 50% of 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine is excreted in urine, renal insufficiency may increase its blood level, increasing 5-FU concentrations. We investigated whether special dose modification is needed in the presence of renal insufficiency. We compared steady state pharmacokinetics of 5-FU for the initial S-1 dose and reduced doses in patients with head and neck cancer requiring dose reduction due to renal and non-renal toxicities. Chemoradiotherapy with S-1 and cisplatin was administered every 5 weeks for two courses with a radiation dose totaling 70 Gy over 33-35 fractions. Two additional courses of adjuvant chemotherapy were administered in the case of an objective response. The S-1 and/or cisplatin dose was reduced in response to renal, hematologic or other toxicities. The primary endpoint was the change in area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve from time 0-10 hours (5-FU AUCss 0-10) between the initial and reduced S-1 doses. Although the mean 5-FU levels in patients with non-renal toxicities significantly decreased between the full and reduced dose, the full-dose and reduced-dose mean maximum 5-FU plasma concentrations at steady state (Css max) and AUCss 0-10 in patients with renal insufficiency were similar. Standard S-1 dose reduction for renal toxicity did not result in a significant decrease in 5-FU levels at steady state. A greater reduction to lower plasma 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine may be necessary in patients with renal insufficiency.

  1. Blood Pressure Characteristics in Moderate to Severe Renal Insufficiency

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    Zheyou Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients has been extensively studied, but few investigations have attempted to relate ABPM with CKD stages. The objectives of this article were to compare ABPM parameters for the diagnosis and treatment determination of CKD with daytime clinic blood pressure (BP measurements. We also investigated BP and renal injury in combined hypertension and CKD. We supposed ABPM was important in combined hypertension and CKD. Methods: We compared ABPM in hypertension patients, including 152 patients with combined hypertension and CKD. Patients with combined hypertension and CKD were grouped according to severity into stages 1 through 3 (Stage 1-3 and stages 4 and 5 (Stage 4-5. Results: In the Stage 4-5 group, systolic BP (SBP (daytime, nighttime and 24 h mean, diastolic BP (DBP, pulse pressure and SBP standard deviations (SD (daytime and 24 h were higher. SBP and DBP loads were significantly higher in the Stage 4-5 group. The nighttime load was higher than the daytime load. Mean arterial pressure (MAP was higher and heart rates (HR were faster in the Stage 4-5 group. Conclusions: BP load should be a component employed in ABPM to determine cardiovascular risk stratification. MAP and HR might be associated with risk to develop end-stage renal disease.

  2. Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide concentration for diagnosis of acute heart failure with renal insufficiency

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    Naila Atik Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background : Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP is the diagnostic tool for acute heart failure (AHF.This natriu­retic peptide level depends on renal function, through renal metabolism and excretion. Therefore we examined the effect ofrenal impairment on plasma BNP level during diagnosis of AHF.Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the effect of renal dysfunction on plasma BNP level and to determine appropriate cutoff value of plasma BNP to diagnose the patients of AHF with renal insufficiency.Methods: This cross sectional analytical study was conducted in the Depart­ment of Biochemistry Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU. The study was done among 90 AHF patients selected from cardiology emergency department during the period of July 2012 to June 2013. After enrollment plasma BNP concentration was measured and eGFR was estimated from serum creatinine by the four parameter Modifica­tion of Diet and Renal Disease (MORD equation and then grouped into two groups on the basis of empirical cut off value of eGFR 60 ml/min/1.73 m2Results: In this study a significant negative correlation was found between plasma BNP evel and eGFR (P<0.001 , with higher BNP levels observed as eGFR declined. The optimal BNP cutoff value for diagno­sis of AHF patients with renal insufficiency was 824 pg/ml. At this cutoff level AHF with renal insufficiency could be diagnosed with sensitivity and specificity of 84% and 71 %, respectively.Conclusions: By adjusting the cutoff value, plasma BNP can be used to diagnose AHF with renal insufficiency with an acceptable sensitivity and specificity.

  3. [Case of severe renal insufficiency appearing during a course of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicagli, V; Barbanera, M; Pardelli, G C

    1975-12-15

    Notes on the literature data concerning renal alterations observed in the course of virus diseases, and on the results of experiments designed to show the nephrotoxic action of viruses and their possible investigation of certain nephropathies, are followed by the presentation of a case of serious renal insufficiency in a young woman with virus hepatitis. The clinical data, the history and the results of blood chemistry and function tests showed this to be attributable to glomerulonephritis, probably caused by the same virus.

  4. Renal insufficiency and mortality in coronary artery disease with reduced ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yong; Xia, Tian-Li; Liu, Wei; Huang, Bao-Tao; Zhao, Zhen-Gang; Huang, Fang-Yang; Zhang, Chen; Liao, Yan-Biao; Chai, Hua; Luo, Xiao-Lin; Li, Qiao; Xu, Yuan-Ning; Chen, Chi; Meng, Qing-Tao; Chen, Mao; Huang, De-Jia

    2016-04-01

    Despite strong evidence linking decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to worse cardiovascular outcome, the impact of eGFR on mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with different left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) is not well defined. A retrospective cohort study. From Jul. 2008 to Jan. 2012, consecutive patients with CAD of West China Hospital were enrolled and were grouped into 3 eGFR categories: ≥90, 60-90, and renal insufficiency significantly increases all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in a graded fashion (mortality rate, moderate or severe vs. normal: 29.3% vs. 5.4%, prenal insufficiency increased all-cause mortality by 6.10-fold (HR 6.10, 95% CI 2.50 to 14.87) and cardiac mortality by 4.10-fold (HR 4.10, 95% CI 1.51 to 11.13). Use of beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and statins was associated with decreased risk of mortality, but the use was lower in renal insufficiency patients, especially in combination of reduced EF. This study has found that the effect of renal function on prognosis in patients with CAD is closely related to cardiac function. In patients with reduced EF, renal insufficiency accompanies the higher risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. A higher number of treatments from beta-blocker, ACEIs or ARBs, and statin therapy were associated with decreased risk of mortality, even in the combination of renal insufficiency or declining cardiac function. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid deterioration of preexisting renal insufficiency after autologous mesenchymal stem cell therapy

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    Jun-Seop Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Administration of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs has been shown to improve renal function and histological findings in acute kidney injury (AKI models. However, its effects in chronic kidney disease (CKD are unclear, particularly in the clinical setting. Here, we report our experience with a CKD patient who was treated by intravenous infusion of autologous MSCs derived from adipose tissue in an unknown clinic outside of Korea. The renal function of the patient had been stable for several years before MSC administration. One week after the autologous MSC infusion, the preexisting renal insufficiency was rapidly aggravated without any other evidence of AKI. Hemodialysis was started 3 months after MSC administration. Renal biopsy findings at dialysis showed severe interstitial fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration, with a few cells expressing CD34 and CD117, 2 surface markers of stem cells. This case highlights the potential nephrotoxicity of autologous MSC therapy in CKD patients.

  6. Relationship of renal insufficiency and clinical features or comorbidities with clinical outcome in patients hospitalised for acute heart failure syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimoto, Katsuya; Sato, Naoki; Takano, Teruo

    2017-12-01

    Renal insufficiency is a well-known predictor of adverse events in patients with acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS). However, it remains unclear whether there are subgroups of AHFS patients in whom renal insufficiency is related to a higher risk of adverse events because of the heterogeneity of this patient population. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between renal insufficiency, clinical features or comorbidities, and the risk of adverse events in patients with AHFS. Of 4842 patients enrolled in the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Syndromes (ATTEND) registry, 4628 patients (95.6%) were evaluated in the present study in order to assess the relationship of renal insufficiency and clinical features or comorbidities with all-cause mortality after admission. Renal insufficiency was defined as an estimated creatinine clearance of ⩽40 mL/min (calculated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula) at admission. The median follow-up period after admission was 524 (391-789) days. The all-cause mortality rate after admission was significantly higher in patients with renal insufficiency (36.7%) than in patients without renal insufficiency (14.4%). Stratified analysis was performed in order to explore the heterogeneity of the influence of renal insufficiency on all-cause mortality. This analysis revealed that an ischaemic aetiology and a history of diabetes, atrial fibrillation, serum sodium, and anaemia at admission had significant influences on the relationship between renal insufficiency and all-cause mortality. The present study demonstrated that the relationship between renal insufficiency and all-cause mortality of AHFS patients varies markedly with clinical features or comorbidities and the mode of presentation due to the heterogeneity of this patient population.

  7. Acute renal insufficiency and renal replacement therapy after pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kist-van Holthe tot Echten, J. E.; Goedvolk, C. A.; Doornaar, M. B.; van der Vorst, M. M.; Bosman-Vermeeren, J. M.; Brand, R.; van der Heijden, A. J.; Schoof, P. H.; Hazekamp, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate renal function and renal replacement therapy after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in children. Patient characteristics (sex, age, diagnosis), operation type, and death were listed. The study was performed retrospectively using serum creatinine level before,

  8. Antithrombin III/SerpinC1 insufficiency exacerbates renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Guangyuan; Lu, Zeyuan; Geurts, Aron M; Usa, Kristie; Jacob, Howard J; Cowley, Allen W; Wang, Niansong; Liang, Mingyu

    2015-10-01

    Antithrombin III, encoded by SerpinC1, is a major anti-coagulation molecule in vivo and has anti-inflammatory effects. We found that patients with low antithrombin III activities presented a higher risk of developing acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. To study this further, we generated SerpinC1 heterozygous knockout rats and followed the development of acute kidney injury in a model of modest renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Renal injury, assessed by serum creatinine and renal tubular injury scores after 24 h of reperfusion, was significantly exacerbated in SerpinC1(+/-) rats compared to wild-type littermates. Concomitantly, renal oxidative stress, tubular apoptosis, and macrophage infiltration following this injury were significantly aggravated in SerpinC1(+/-) rats. However, significant thrombosis was not found in the kidneys of any group of rats. Antithrombin III is reported to stimulate the production of prostaglandin I2, a known regulator of renal cortical blood flow, in addition to having anti-inflammatory effects and to protect against renal failure. Prostaglandin F1α, an assayable metabolite of prostaglandin I2, was increased in the kidneys of the wild-type rats at 3 h after reperfusion. The increase of prostaglandin F1α was significantly blunted in SerpinC1(+/-) rats, which preceded increased tubular injury and oxidative stress. Thus, our study found a novel role of SerpinC1 insufficiency in increasing the severity of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  9. Piperazine side-effects in a patient with pre-existing renal insufficiency

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    Majid Malaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Piperazine as an antihelminth has many adverse effects, especially on patients with renal insufficiency. We report the use of piperazine in a girl with a moderately severe kidney disease due to Biedl Bardet syndrome. She developed coma and acute kidney injury due to acute interstitial nephritis (AIN, anemia and thrombocytopenia. The presence of fever, proteinuria, acidosis, anemia, sterile pyuria and non-oliguric renal failure strongly suggested AIN. Her problems abated mostly by discontinuing of piperazine and supportive therapy, except anemia and thrombocytopenia.

  10. Prevalence of renal insufficiency in elderly cancer patients in a tertiary cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Lucíola de Barros; Antunes, Yuri Philippe Pimentel Vieira; Bugano, Diogo Diniz Gomes; Karnakis, Theodora; Giglio, Auro Del; Kaliks, Rafael Aliosha

    2014-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of abnormal glomerular filtration rate in elderly patients with solid tumors. A retrospective study with patients aged >65 years diagnosed with solid tumors between January 2007 and December 2011 in a cancer center. The following data were collected: sex, age, serum creatinine at the time of diagnosis and type of tumor. Renal function was calculated using abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formulae and then staged in accordance with the clinical practice guidelines published by the Working Group of the National Kidney Foundation. A total of 666 patients were included and 60% were male. The median age was 74.2 years (range: 65 to 99 years). The most prevalent diagnosis in the study population were colorectal (24%), prostate (20%), breast (16%) and lung cancer (16%). The prevalence of elevated serum creatinine (>1.0mg/dL) was 30%. However, when patients were assessed using abbreviated MDRD formulae, 66% had abnormal renal function, stratified as follows: 45% with stage 2, 18% with stage 3, 3% with stage 4 and 0.3% with stage 5. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study to estimate the frequency of renal insufficiency in elderly cancer patients in Brazil. The prevalence of abnormal renal function among our cohort was high. As suspected, the absolute creatinine level does underestimate renal function impairment and should not be used as predictor of chemotherapy metabolism, excretion and consequent toxicity.

  11. Diabetes mellitus does not preclude stabilization or improvement of renal function after stent revascularization in patients with kidney insufficiency and renal artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jose A; Potluri, Srinivas; White, Christopher J; Collins, Tyrone J; Jenkins, J Stephen; Subramanian, Rajesh; Ramee, Stephen R

    2007-05-01

    To assess the impact of stent revascularization on the renal function of diabetic and nondiabetic patients with renal insufficiency. Renal artery revascularization has been shown to stabilize or improve renal function in patients with significant renal artery stenosis and impaired renal function. However, some studies have suggested negligible or no benefit of renal function in diabetic patients with the same condition. We retrospectively compared data from 50 consecutive patients undergoing renal artery stent placement with renal insufficiency (serum creatinine > or = 1.5-4.0 mg/dl) and global ischemia (bilateral or solitary [single] kidney renal artery stenosis) There were 17 diabetic (DM) and 33 nondiabetic (NDM) patients. The endpoints included the follow-up measurements of renal function, blood pressure, and number of antihypertensive medications. After stent placement, at a mean follow-up of 42 +/- 18 months (range: 6-62 months), 79% NDM (N = 26), and 76% DM patients (N = 13) (P = NS) had improvement in the slope of the reciprocal of creatinine (1/SCr), indicating a beneficial effect in renal function in many patients. Renal artery stent placement appears to be equally beneficial in preserving renal function in DM and NDM patients with ischemic nephropathy and global renal ischemia. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. [Variations in renal hemodynamics during acute renal insufficiency in anoxic neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, M R; Di Pietro, A; Coletta, M; Tammaro, V; Pescatore, L

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to verify if the increase of renal resistance, along with the consequent reduction of glomerular filtrate, and the activation of renina-angiotensin system, could be attributed to not only neonatal acute hypoxia but to other factors as well. These factors could provoke an increase in renal vascular resistance (R.V.R.), a reduction of renal blood flow (R.B.F.) and renal glomerular filtrate (R.G.F.) condition. These components are present in angiotensin as well as in endothelin (ET1), a potent peptide from vascular endothel with vasoconstricting action and whose secretion increases during hypoxia. The Authors have studied and compared two groups of newborns. The first group of newborns was affected by perinatal asphyxia or hypoxia of variable seriousness. It included 24 newborns with gestational age between 37 and 41 weeks and with a birth weight between 3.200 gms and 3.500 gms. The second, control group, was made of an identical number of newborns of the same gestational age with a weight adequate to the birth age. The dosage of the ET1 was evaluated on the plasma, using the RIA method. The diagnostic criteria for this evaluation included clinical and biohumoral evidence (tab. 1). Between the two groups, group 1 with anoxic syndrome showed the more intense increase of ET1. This increased is due to either an increase value of plasmatic creatinine that is present in normal situations or in physiopathologic role played by the ET1 in course of acute renal failure after asphyxia.

  13. Free and total plasma malondialdehyde in chronic renal insufficiency and in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vecchi, Amedeo F; Bamonti, Fabrizia; Novembrino, Cristina; Ippolito, Silvia; Guerra, Luisella; Lonati, Silvia; Salini, Silvia; Aman, Caroline S; Scurati-Manzoni, Elisabetta; Cighetti, Giuliana

    2009-08-01

    Available data about oxidative status in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or on dialysis are contradictory. The present cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the role of renal insufficiency and dialysis on lipid peroxidation. To separate the effects of uraemia from dialysis-induced stress, we enrolled 26 patients with renal insufficiency on conservative treatment (ESRD), 23 on peritoneal dialysis (PD), 30 on haemodialysis (HD) and 30 controls. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, both total (tMDA) and free (fMDA), were measured as indexes of oxidative stress by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bound MDA (bMDA) levels were calculated as the difference between tMDA and fMDA. Total and bMDA concentrations were significantly higher in patients than in controls (ESRD > HD > PD). In PD and HD patients, fMDA levels were similar and significantly higher than in ESRD. Multivariate analysis, with tMDA, fMDA and bMDA as dependent variables, showed similar and significant tMDA and bMDA relations with residual renal function (t = -2.160, P = 0.035) and albumin (t = -2.049, P = 0.045). Erythropoietin dose affected only fMDA values (t = -2.178, P = 0.034). Free and bMDA concentrations identified different MDA patterns. Bound MDA, not excreted by kidneys, accounts alone for high tMDA concentrations in ESRD patients, while both fMDA and bMDA contribute to tMDA values in dialysis patients. These findings show that increased tMDA could be indicative not only of recent lipid peroxidation, and they also highlight the importance of evaluating free, bound and total MDA in patients with reduced renal function in order to assess their oxidative status.

  14. Drug management of prostate cancer: prevalence and consequences of renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Ayllon, Jorge; Janus, Nicolas; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Gligorov, Joseph; Pourrat, Xavier; Morere, Jean-François; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Deray, Gilbert; Oudard, Stéphane

    2009-10-01

    The Renal Insufficiency and Anticancer Medications (IRMA) study reported a renal insufficiency (RI) prevalence of 50%-60% in a population of almost 5000 patients with solid tumors, 80% of whom were being treated with anticancer drugs that either necessitated dosage adjustment or were potentially nephrotoxic drugs. A national multicenter study from 15 cancer centers in France analyzed IRMA data on patients with prostate cancer. Data on patients with prostate cancer from the IRMA study were analyzed. Renal function was calculated using Cockcroft-Gault and abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (aMDRD) formulas to estimate the prevalence of RI. Anticancer drugs' potential renal toxicity and need for dosage adjustment were detailed. Of the 222 IRMA patients with prostate cancer, 14.9% had a serum creatinine (SCr) level of > 110 micromol/L. When using Cockcroft-Gault and aMDRD formulas, 62.6% and 55.9%, respectively, of the patients had RI. Of the 228 anticancer drug prescriptions, 82.9% required dose adjustments for RI or were drugs with no available data on their administration in patients with RI. Of the patients treated, 86.9% received >or= 1 such drug, but only 29.1% received nephrotoxic drugs. The prevalence of RI in patients with prostate cancer was very high in spite of a normal SCr level in most cases. Some anticancer drugs, particularly some bisphosphonates and platinum salts, might be nephrotoxic and/or need dosage adjustment. However, other important drugs in prostate cancer, such as docetaxel, neither require dose reduction nor present with potential nephrotoxicity. Both issues were significantly more important in the patients with bone metastases compared with those with nonmetastatic disease.

  15. Beneficial effect of aspirin on renal function in patients with renal insufficiency postcardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrah, R; Ehrlich, S; Tshori, S; Sahar, G

    2004-12-01

    Renal function is one of the most important prognostic factors following cardiac surgery. Whether aspirin affects cardiopulmonary bypass related renal injury is investigated in this study. Ninety-four patients with impaired renal function (creatinine = or >1.5 mg/dl) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were categorized into 2 groups according to aspirin administration before surgery. Serum creatinine, urinary output and creatinine clearance along with other perioperative factors were compared between the 2 groups prior to surgery, 24 hours and 48 hours following cardiopulmonary bypass. Creatinine levels increased significantly in the second postoperative day only in the non-aspirin (control) group (3.7+/-1.6 vs 2.9+/-1.7 mg/dl, p=0.03). Aspirin (study) group had lower creatinine levels in day 1 (p=0.03) and day 2 (p=0.001). Furthermore, in the study group creatinine clearance was higher in day 1 (34.3+/-14.3 vs 30.9+/-13.1 ml/min, p=0.01) and in day 2 (32.6+/-13.8 vs 26.4+/-9.8 ml, p<0.0001). Creatinine levels at discharge were elevated compared to the preoperative levels in the control group (p=0.01). However, the study group had lower creatinine levels at discharge (2.6+/-1.4 vs 3.8+/-1.6 mg/dl, p<0.0001). Urinary output was higher in the study group in the first postoperative day compared to the control group (p=0.01). Postoperative bleeding was slightly increased in the study group compared to the control group (760+/-230 ml vs 530+/-210 ml, p=0.01). Continuation of aspirin administration until the day of surgery may have a protective effect against renal injury resulting from cardiopulmonary bypass, with only a negligible increase in bleeding. Possible explanations for this effect are antiplatelet activity of aspirin during cardiopulmonary bypass causing inhibition of vasoconstrictive agents like thromboxane, and improvement of renal perfusion by reducing blood viscosity.

  16. Role of Soluble ST2 as a Prognostic Marker in Patients with Acute Heart Failure and Renal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Seok; Jeong, Tae-Dong; Han, Seung-Bong; Min, Won-Ki; Kim, Jae-Joong

    2015-05-01

    This study sought to assess the relationship between serum concentrations of the soluble ST2 (sST2) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and investigate the role of sST2 as a prognosticator in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure (HF) and renal insufficiency. sST2 was measured at admission and discharge in 66 patients hospitalized with acute decompensated HF and renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] renal insufficiency (eGFR renal function, even though BNP level was much higher in patients with severe renal insufficiency. During 3 month follow-up, 9 (13.6%) died and 16 (24.2%) were readmitted due to HF aggravation.On multivariate analysis, sST2 at discharge was independently associated with death or HF readmission during 3 months after discharge (hazard ratio, 1.038; 95% confidence interval, 1.011-1.066, P = 0.006). In conclusion, sST2 is not affected by renal function compared with BNP in acute HF patients. The measurement of predischarge sST2 can be helpful in predicting short-term outcomes in acute decompensated HF patients with renal insufficiency.

  17. Venous thromboembolism in patients with renal insufficiency: findings from the RIETE Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monreal, Manuel; Falgá, Conxita; Valle, Reina; Barba, Raquel; Bosco, Juan; Beato, José Luís; Maestre, Ana

    2006-12-01

    Current guidelines make no specific recommendations for venous thromboembolism (VTE) treatment in patients with renal insufficiency, but some experts recommend some reduction in heparin dose. Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) is an ongoing, prospective registry of consecutively enrolled patients with objectively confirmed, symptomatic, acute VTE. In this analysis we retrospectively analyzed the effect of renal insufficiency on the incidence of fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) and fatal bleeding within 15 days of diagnosis. Up to March 2005, 10,526 patients with acute VTE were enrolled in RIETE, of whom 9234 (88%) had a creatinine clearance (CrCl) greater than 60 mL/min, 704 (6.7%) had a CrCl 30 to 60 mL/min, and 588 (5.6%) had a CrCl less than 30 mL/min. The incidence of fatal PE during the study period was 1.0%, 2.6%, and 6.6%, respectively. Fatal bleeding occurred in 0.2%, 0.3%, and 1.2% of the patients, respectively. On multivariate analysis, patients with a CrCl less than 30 mL/min were independently associated with an increased risk for fatal PE and fatal bleeding. In addition, initial diagnosis of PE, immobility for 4 days or more, cancer, and initial therapy with unfractionated heparin were independent predictors of fatal PE; whereas immobility for 4 days or more and cancer were independent predictors of fatal bleeding. Patients with VTE who have renal insufficiency had an increased incidence of both fatal PE and fatal bleeding, but the risk of fatal PE far exceeded that of fatal bleeding. Our data support the use of full-dose anticoagulant therapy, even in patients with a CrCl less than 30 mL/min.

  18. Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Chronic Renal Insufficiency Undergoing Dialysis Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia E. Páez**

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the anxiety and depression levels in 30 patients (15 women with chronic renal insufficiency and haemodialysis treatment, ages between 25 and 85 (mean: 53.67; DE: 15.83. A semi-structured interview for dialysed patients, Beck’s Depression Inventory-II and Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used. 56.7% of participants manifested some degree of depression. Positives correlations were observed between state anxiety levels and depression scores; and between state and trait anxiety. State anxiety was higher on chronic renal patients of older age and during the first months of haemodialysis. Depression levels were higher on patients without work and on the older ones.

  19. Extension of the Calvert formula to patients with severe renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Tomoyo; Shimokata, Tomoya; Ito, Isao; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Sassa, Naoto; Nishiyama, Masami; Hamada, Akinobu; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Ando, Yuichi

    2015-07-01

    The Calvert formula was derived from the study among patients with glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) of 33-135 ml/min, and it remains unclear whether the formula can be used to calculate optimal and safe dosages of carboplatin in patients with severe renal insufficiency. We evaluated the utility of this formula in patients with severe renal insufficiency. For pharmacokinetic analysis, we studied nine adult Japanese patients with advanced cancer who had an estimated GFR of lower than 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2), as calculated by the Japanese equation for estimating GFR, or who were receiving hemodialysis. The dose of carboplatin was calculated with the Calvert formula, in which GFR was measured by inulin clearance or was assumed to be 0 in patients requiring hemodialysis. Hemodialysis was started 23 h after the end of carboplatin infusion. Although there was a significant correlation between the estimated and measured carboplatin clearance, the estimated clearance was consistently higher than the measured clearance [mean prediction error ± standard deviation = 41.0 ± 26.3 %] in all seven patients with renal insufficiency (GFR, median 21.4, range 7.8-31.4 ml/min) and in the two hemodialysis patients. Actual areas under the concentration-time curve (AUC) (mg/ml min) were 5.4, 5.7, 6.2, and 9.0 for the four patients with a target AUC (mg/ml min) of 5; 5.7, 6.2, and 7.1 for the three patients with a target AUC (mg/ml min) of 4; and 5.1 and 8.7 for the two hemodialysis patients with a target AUC (mg/ml min) of 5. The measured clearance of carboplatin ranged from 23.0 to 51.3 ml/min in the seven patients not receiving hemodialysis. The pre-hemodialysis carboplatin clearance in the hemodialysis patients was 20.5 and 11.1 ml/min, respectively. For adult patients with severe renal insufficiency, the Calvert formula causes carboplatin overdosing by overestimating the carboplatin clearance.

  20. Worsening renal function definition is insufficient for evaluating acute renal failure in acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakabe, Akihiro; Hata, Noritake; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Okazaki, Hirotake; Matsushita, Masato; Shibata, Yusaku; Nishigoori, Suguru; Uchiyama, Saori; Asai, Kuniya; Shimizu, Wataru

    2018-02-01

    Whether or not the definition of a worsening renal function (WRF) is adequate for the evaluation of acute renal failure in patients with acute heart failure is unclear. One thousand and eighty-three patients with acute heart failure were analysed. A WRF, indicated by a change in serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/mL during the first 5 days, occurred in 360 patients while no-WRF, indicated by a change Acute kidney injury (AKI) upon admission was defined based on the ratio of the serum creatinine value recorded on admission to the baseline creatinine value and placed into groups based on the degree of AKI: no-AKI (n = 751), Class R (risk; n = 193), Class I (injury; n = 41), or Class F (failure; n = 98). The patients were assigned to another set of four groups: no-WRF/no-AKI (n = 512), no-WRF/AKI (n = 211), WRF/no-AKI (n = 239), and WRF/AKI (n = 121). A multivariate logistic regression model found that no-WRF/AKI and WRF/AKI were independently associated with 365 day mortality (hazard ratio: 1.916; 95% confidence interval: 1.234-2.974 and hazard ratio: 3.622; 95% confidence interval: 2.332-5.624). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the rate of any-cause death during 1 year was significantly poorer in the no-WRF/AKI and WRF/AKI groups than in the WRF/no-AKI and no-WRF/no-AKI groups and in Class I and Class F than in Class R and the no-AKI group. The presence of AKI on admission, especially Class I and Class F status, is associated with a poor prognosis despite the lack of a WRF within the first 5 days. The prognostic ability of AKI on admission may be superior to WRF within the first 5 days. © 2018 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  1. Impact of renal insufficiency on long-term clinical outcome in patients with heart failure treated by cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Junya; Ishikawa, Toshiyuki; Matsushita, Kohei; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Kimura, Yuichiro; Miyamoto, Mihoko; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Takamura, Takeshi; Sugano, Teruyasu; Ishigami, Tomoaki; Uchino, Kazuaki; Kimura, Kazuo; Umemura, Satoshi

    2012-10-01

    Renal insufficiency is recognized as a predictor of mortality and adverse outcome in heart failure (HF) patients. However, the long-term clinical outcome of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in Japanese HF patients with renal insufficiency remains uncertain. We evaluated 67 consecutive patients who underwent CRT at our hospital. The patients were divided into two groups according to a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) cut-off value of 50ml/min, which is defined as the time at which patients should be referred to a nephrologist, by the Japanese Society of Nephrology. Follow-up echocardiographic findings and renal function were examined at 3-6 months after CRT. Then, we compared long-term clinical outcomes between the two groups, and analyzed the effect of CRT on renal function, echocardiographic parameters and cardiac survival. During a mean follow-up period of 30.3 months, patients with advanced renal insufficiency (e-GFR50ml/min) had significant higher all-cause mortality (log-rank p=0.033) and higher cardiac mortality combined with HF hospitalization (log-rank p=0.017) than patients with e-GFR≥50ml/min. Multivariate analysis revealed that advanced renal insufficiency was an independent predictor of cardiac mortality combined with HF hospitalization (odds ratio=3.01, p=0.008). Subgroup analysis in the baseline advanced renal insufficiency group revealed that patients with preserved renal function by CRT (<10% reduction in e-GFR) had a higher rate of decrease of left ventricular end-systolic diameter (-14.0% vs. -0.8%, p=0.023) and lower cardiac mortality combined with HF hospitalization (log-rank p=0.029) compared with patients with deterioration of renal function (≥10% reduction in e-GFR). The present study suggests that advanced renal insufficiency is quite useful for the prediction of worsening clinical outcomes in HF patients treated by CRT. Preservation of renal function by CRT brings about better cardiac survival through

  2. Chronic kidney disease and prevalent atrial fibrillation: the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Elsayed Z; Prineas, Ronald J; Go, Alan S; Xie, Dawei; Lash, James P; Rahman, Mahboob; Ojo, Akinlolu; Teal, Val L; Jensvold, Nancy G; Robinson, Nancy L; Dries, Daniel L; Bazzano, Lydia; Mohler, Emile R; Wright, Jackson T; Feldman, Harold I

    2010-06-01

    The epidemiology of atrial fibrillation (AF) has been mainly investigated in patients with end-stage renal disease, with limited data on less advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages. A total of 3,267 adult participants (50% non-Hispanic blacks, 46% women) with CKD from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort were included in this study. None of the study participants had been on dialysis. Those with self-identified race/ethnicity other than non-Hispanic black or white (n = 323) or those without electrocardiographic data (n = 22) were excluded. Atrial fibrillation was ascertained by a 12-lead electrocardiogram and self-report. Age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific prevalence rates of AF were estimated and compared between subgroups. Cross-sectional associations and correlates with prevalent AF were examined using unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 43.6 (+/-13.0) mL/(min 1.73 m(2)). Atrial fibrillation was present in 18% of the study population and in >25% of those > or =70 years old. In multivariable-adjusted models, 1-SD increase in age (11 years) (odds ratio 1.27, CI 95% 1.13-1.43, P Insufficiency Cohort, a national study of CKD, had evidence of AF at study entry, a prevalence similar to that reported among patients with end-stage renal disease and 2 to 3 times of that reported in the general population. Risk factors for AF in this CKD population do not mirror those reported in the general population. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of ions in urine of animal model with acute renal insufficiency using NAA

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    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pessoa, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In last the years, important advances had been obtained in the investigation of the ARI (Acute Renal Insufficiency) what is defined as an abrupt or rapid decline in renal filtration function, what is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately, caused by the Ischemia and Reperfusion (I/R). However, the incidence of the mortality had not diminished in the last few decades. This kidney dysfunction includes a complex interaction between the tubular injury, inflammation and alterations in the renal homo dynamic. In this investigation we intend to quantify ions of clinical relevance in urine of Wistar rats of control group, an experimental model for ARI, and in urine of Wistar with ARI, using NAA technique (Neutron Activation Analysis). The use of this technique is an alternative to perform biochemistry analysis when the biological material is scarce. The quantitative knowledge of these elements allows an evaluation of the functions that regulate the kidneys behavior. The measurements in urine were performed before, during and after the ARI caused by ischemia-induced. The results of NAA indicated that the occurrence of the elements K and Mg evaluated in the ARI group (during and after de I/R) have no similarities when compared with control group. (author)

  4. [Respiratory and renal insufficiency as risk factors of surgical treatment of patients with aortic aneurysm of the infrarenal segment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaitskiĭ, N A; Bedrov, A Ia; Martynenko, G I; Vrabiĭ, A A; Moiseev, A A

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of data in 188 patients showed, that chronic nonspecific pulmonary disease was diagnosed in 65.4% of all. Disorders of bronchial patency of different degrees of manifestation were noted in 61.2% and 19.7% of patients had a hypoxemia. Renal diseases were found in 59% of patients, resulting in the development of chronic renal insufficiency in 17%. The data obtained indicate, that the presence of coexisting pulmonary pathology directly influences the frequency and severity of respiratory complications after surgery, which can be the cause of fatal outcome. The presence of renal diseases results in three times higher risk of the development of postoperative renal complications.

  5. Subjective global assessment of nutritional status of patients with chronic renal insufficiency and end stage renal disease on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiawala, Shruti; Vora, H; Patel, Zamrud; Badve, S; Shah, B

    2006-12-01

    (1)To assess the nutritional status of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) and dialysis patients using the subjective global assessment (SGA) method. (2) To validate SGA in assessing the nutritional status of this group of patients. The nutritional status of 81 patients was evaluated using dietary recall, anthropometry, biochemical parameters and SGA. There were 51 males and 30 females. Their mean +/- SD age was 53.8 +/- 14.3 years. There were 27 patients with (CRI) on conservative management, 38 patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and 16 patients with ESRD on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). SGA was done using seven variables derived from medical history and physical examination. Each variable was scored from 1-7 depending on the severity. The SGA scores were correlated with the standard methods. Thirteen (48%) patients with CRI, 22 (58%) patients on HD and 8 (50%) patients on CAPD were malnourished. It was seen that the dietary protein & calorie intake and serum albumin level did not correlate well with the SGA scores. The anthropometric measures correlated with the SGA scores (Skinfolds and SGA r = 0.2, MAC and SGA r = 0.5 and MAMC and SGA r = 0.5). Malnutrition is an important complication in CRI patients and ESRD patients on dialysis. SGA is a reliable method of assessing nutritional status. Most important is the fact that it can detect the changing trend of nutritional status, which may be missed by one-time anthropometry and biochemical methods.

  6. Mechanism of inhibitory effect of 3-hydroxykynurenine on erythropoiesis in patients with renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Dariusz; Koda, Mariusz; Wołczyński, Sawomir; Myśliwiec, Michal; Buczko, Wlodzimierz

    2003-01-01

    Increase of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HKYN) concentration was observed in plasma patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). These changes positively correlated with the concentration of creatinine, but negatively correlated with haematological parameters: haematocrit, haemoglobin and red blood cells count. The changes were accompanied by a slight decrease of the concentration of erythropoietin (EPO) in plasma of patients with CRI. The "in vitro" study in the conditions of hypoxia showed that 3-HKYN inhibited the release of EPO from HepG2 cells to the culture base. In conclusion, the erythropoiesis in CRI could be attributed to the influence of 3-HKYN on EPO synthesis. Thus, we propose that 3-HKYN can be an uraemic of toxin partially responsible for anaemia patients with CRI.

  7. N-acetylcysteine for prevention of acute renal failure in patients with chronic renal insufficiency undergoing cardiac surgery: a prospective, randomized, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisillo, Erminio; Ceriani, Roberto; Bortone, Franco; Juliano, Glauco; Salvi, Luca; Veglia, Fabrizio; Fiorentini, Cesare; Marenzi, Giancarlo

    2008-01-01

    To assess the preventive effect of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine on postoperative acute renal failure in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing cardiac surgery. Randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective study. University cardiology center. Two hundred fifty-four consecutive patients with chronic renal insufficiency (estimated creatinine clearance 25% increase in serum creatinine from baseline) and the in-hospital clinical course were evaluated. Acute renal failure occurred in 46% of patients and was associated with increased in-hospital mortality (7% vs. 0.7%; p = .024). It occurred in 52% of control patients and 40% of N-acetylcysteine-treated patients (p = .06). In-hospital mortality and need for renal replacement therapy were not affected by N-acetylcysteine, but a lower percentage of N-acetylcysteine-treated patients required mechanical ventilation prolonged for > 48 hrs (3% vs. 18%; p 4 days (13% vs. 33%; p < .001). Intravenous administration of N-acetylcysteine does not clearly prevent postoperative acute renal failure in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing cardiac surgery.

  8. Anemia and the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing contrast-enhanced MDCT

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    Murakami, Ryusuke, E-mail: rywakana@nms.ac.jp; Kumita, Shin-ichiro; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Sugizaki, Ken-ichi; Okazaki, Emi; Kiriyama, Tomonari; Hakozaki, Kenta; Tani, Hitomi; Miki, Izumi; Takeda, Minako

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of anemia on the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with renal impairment undergoing MDCT. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval was waived for this retrospective review of 843 patients with stable renal insufficiency (eGFR between 15 and 60 mL/min) who had undergone contrast-enhanced MDCT. Baseline hematocrit and hemoglobin values were measured. Serum creatinine (SCr) was assessed at the baseline and at 48–72 h after contrast administration. Results: The overall incidence of CIN in the patient population with renal insufficiency was 6.9%. CIN developed in 7.8% (54 of 695) of anemic patients, and in 2.8% (4 of 148) of non-anemic patients (P = .027). After adjustment for confounders, low hemoglobin and low hematocrit values remained independent predictors of CIN (odds ratio 4.6, 95% CI 1.0–20.5, P = .046). Conclusions: Anemia is associated with a higher incidence of CIN in patients with renal insufficiency. Anemia is a potentially modifiable risk factor for CIN, and has an unfavorable impact on prognosis in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing contrast-enhanced MDCT.

  9. The predictive role of histopathological findings in renal insufficiency and complete remission in Iranian adults with primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Taheri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to identify the histopathological findings that may act as possible predictors of complete remission or progression to chronic kidney disease in Iranian adults with primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. Methods: In this historical cohort study, pathological findings of 50 patients with primary FSGS were reviewed by single renal pathologist without knowing about patient’s identities or outcomes. We divided the patients based on their histopathological findings, and compared the outcomes (renal insufficiency and complete remission among these groups. Results: There were significant differences in the complete remission in subject with and without mesangial hypercellularity (p<0.05, and in patients with and without hyalinosis (p<0.05. According to the cut off points based on ROC curve analysis for the quantitative data, there was significant difference in renal insufficiency between the patients with and without global scars more than 12% (p<0.05.Also multiple logistic regression analysis strongly suggest the association of mesangial hypercellularity and global scar with no complete remission and progression to renal insufficiency, respectively. Conclusion: In the studied patients, presence of mesangial hypercellularity and hyalinosis have been suggested as prognostic factors for lower remission rate. According to multivariate analysis, only the presence of mesangial hypercellularity and global scar were found as independent prognostic predictors to lower complete remission rate and progression to renal insufficiency in patients with FSGS, respectively.

  10. An autopsy case of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia with renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuri, Takashi; Kondo, Yaeko; Kohno, Keiko; Lei, Yen-Chang; Kanematsu, Seika; Kuwata, Maki; Iwasaka, Toshiji; Tsubura, Airo

    2008-12-01

    An autopsy of a 44-year-old Japanese woman with mitochondrial cytopathy confirmed the presence of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO). Immunohistochemistry using antimitochondrial antibody was performed to observe the ultrastructure of the skeletal muscle and renal tissues. The patient was born of consanguineous parents, developed normally, and was of average intelligence. At 22 years of age, the patient noticed hearing loss, and subsequently, over time, developed a progressive generalized muscle weakness, which included limitation of eye movement and ptosis. At age 41, a muscle biopsy was performed using the modified Gomori trichrome method and demonstrated the presence of ragged red fibers. After the evaluation of her results in conjunction with her clinical course, she was diagnosed with CPEO. Renal insufficiency was discovered at age 30, and the patient died at the age of 44 of respiratory failure caused by respiratory muscle weakness and pneumonia. The autopsy revealed fiber size variation within the skeletal muscle, and an antimitochondrial antibody analysis demonstrated the accumulation of mitochondria between the bundles of myofibrils, as well as in subsarcolemmal locations. Ultrastructurally, abnormal mitochondria with disoriented cristae and paracrystalline inclusions were seen. Although no remarkable histological changes were noted in the kidneys, tubular epithelial cells exhibited accumulated abnormal mitochondria, similar to those seen in the skeletal muscle. Because mitochondrial diseases can affect other energy-dependent organs in addition to the skeletal muscle, immunohistochemical examinations employing an antimitochondrial antibody are useful for obtaining further ultrastructural observations that can assist in making a distinct diagnosis of this systemic disorder.

  11. Diuretics, calciuria and secondary hyperparathyroidism in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakova, Tamara; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Leonard, Mary B; Xie, Dawei; Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Rosen, Leigh K; Theurer, Jacquie; Bellovich, Keith; Steigerwalt, Susan P; Tang, Ignatius; Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Townsend, Raymond R; He, Jiang; Feldman, Harold I; Wolf, Myles

    2011-04-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that is associated with bone disease, cardiovascular disease and death. Pathophysiological factors that maintain secondary hyperparathyroidism in advanced CKD are well-known, but early mechanisms of the disease that can be targeted for its primary prevention are poorly understood. Diuretics are widely used to control volume status and blood pressure in CKD patients but are also known to have important effects on renal calcium handling, which we hypothesized could alter the risk of secondary hyperparathyroidism. We examined the relationship of diuretic treatment with urinary calcium excretion, parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism (PTH ≥ 65 pg/mL) in a cross-sectional study of 3616 CKD patients in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort. Compared with no diuretics, treatment with loop diuretics was independently associated with higher adjusted urinary calcium (55.0 versus 39.6 mg/day; P diuretics. However, coadministration of thiazide and loop diuretics was associated with blunted urinary calcium (30.3 versus 55.0 mg/day; P diuretics alone. Loop diuretic use was associated with greater calciuria, PTH levels and odds of secondary hyperparathyroidism compared to no treatment. These associations were attenuated in patients who were coadministered thiazides. Diuretic choice is a potentially modifiable determinant of secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD.

  12. Relation of aortic valve calcium to chronic kidney disease (from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerraty, Marie A; Chai, Boyang; Hsu, Jesse Y; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Gao, Yanlin; Yang, Wei; Keane, Martin G; Budoff, Matthew J; Mohler, Emile R

    2015-05-01

    Although subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at markedly increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, the relation between CKD and aortic valve calcification has not been fully elucidated. Also, few data are available on the relation of aortic valve calcification and earlier stages of CKD. We sought to assess the relation of aortic valve calcium (AVC) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of bone metabolism in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. All patients who underwent aortic valve scanning in the CRIC study were included. The relation between AVC and eGFR, traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of calcium metabolism were analyzed using both unadjusted and adjusted regression models. A total of 1,964 CRIC participants underwent computed tomography for AVC quantification. Decreased renal function was independently associated with increased levels of AVC (eGFR 47.11, 44.17, and 39 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively, p<0.001). This association persisted after adjusting for traditional, but not novel, AVC risk factors. Adjusted regression models identified several traditional and novel risk factors for AVC in patients with CKD. There was a difference in AVC risk factors between black and nonblack patients. In conclusion, our study shows that eGFR is associated in a dose-dependent manner with AVC in patients with CKD, and this association is independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic renal insufficiency among Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes: I. Role of RAAS gene polymorphisms

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    Chandra T Satish

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal failure in diabetes is mediated by multiple pathways. Experimental and clinical evidences suggest that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS has a crucial role in diabetic kidney disease. A relationship between the RAAS genotypes and chronic renal insufficiency (CRI among type 2 diabetes subjects has therefore been speculated. We investigated the contribution of selected RAAS gene polymorphisms to CRI among type 2 diabetic Asian Indian subjects. Methods Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from six genes namely-renin (REN, angiotensinogen (ATG, angiotensin converting enzyme I (ACE, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2 gene from the RAAS pathway and one from chymase pathway were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method and tested for their association with diabetic CRI using a case-control approach. Successive cases presenting to study centres with type 2 diabetes of ≥2 years duration and moderate CRI diagnosed by serum creatinine ≥3 mg/dl after exclusion of non-diabetic causes of CRI (n = 196 were compared with diabetes subjects with no evidence of renal disease (n = 225. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to correlate various clinical parameters with genotypes, and to study pair wise interactions between SNPs of different genes. Results Of the 12 SNPs genotyped, Glu53Stop in AGT and A>T (-777 in AT1 genes, were monomorphic and not included for further analysis. We observed a highly significant association of Met235Thr SNP in angiotensinogen gene with CRI (O.R. 2.68, 95%CI: 2.01–3.57 for Thr allele, O.R. 2.94, 95%CI: 1.88–4.59 for Thr/Thr genotype and O.R. 2.68, 95%CI: 1.97–3.64 for ACC haplotype. A significant allelic and genotypic association of T>C (-344 SNP in aldosterone synthase gene (O.R. 1.57, 95%CI: 1.16–2.14 and O.R. 1.81, 95%CI: 1.21–2.71 respectively, and genotypic association of

  14. Safety of low-dose dabigatran in patients with atrial fibrillation and mild renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, Hidehira; Niwano, Shinichi; Oikawa, Jun; Nishinarita, Ryo; Horiguchi, Ai; Nakamura, Hironori; Fujiishi, Tamami; Igarashi, Tazuru; Ishizue, Naruya; Yoshizawa, Tomoharu; Satoh, Akira; Kishihara, Jun; Murakami, Masami; Ako, Junya

    2017-03-01

    Dabigatran etexilate (DE), an effective direct oral anticoagulant for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), should be carefully used in patients with renal insufficiency. Data on the safety of DE in Japanese "real world" patients with mildly impaired renal function are limited. We hypothesized that low-dose DE (110mg, twice daily) could be safely used in Japanese AF patients with mildly impaired renal function compared to those with preserved renal function. One hundred ninety-six consecutive AF patients taking low-dose DE were retrospectively enrolled in this study, and were divided into two groups: preserved creatinine clearance (CCr ≥50ml/min; n=127) and reduced CCr (30-49ml/min; n=69). Baseline characteristics including CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and HAS-BLED scores were evaluated. Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) was measured as a surrogate marker of the anticoagulant activity of DE, which was evaluated at 661 time points in total and the data were divided into five time windows after the last DE intake. The incidence of bleeding complications was compared between the two groups of reduced and preserved CCr. Reduced CCr group showed higher age (76.9±6.3 years vs. 67.6±6.7 years), higher CHADS2 (2.6±1.4 vs. 1.8±1.2), higher CHA2DS2-VASc (4.3±1.6 vs. 3.2±1.6), and higher HAS-BLED (2.3±1.0 vs. 2.0±1.0) scores in comparison with preserved CCr group (p<0.01, respectively). There was no difference in aPTT over the entire time windows between the two groups. The incidence of total bleeding events was not significantly different between the two groups (reduced vs. preserved CCr=2/69 vs. 2/127). Low-dose DE was safe in AF patients with mildly reduced CCr. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phytochemical screening, and assessment of ameliorating effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Gmelina arborea on drug induced hepatic and renal insufficiency in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Ogbonnaya Enyinnaya; Mbuh, Awah Francis; Emmanuel, Mounmbegna Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Phytochemical screening of stem bark and leaves of Gmelina arborea; and effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Gmelina arborea stembark on hepatic and renal insufficiency in rats was assessed in this study. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the air-dried leaf, oven-dried leaf, air-dried stembark and oven-dried stembark samples. Sixty five (65) wister albino rats, (50.7-117.5 g) were divided into thirteen groups of five animals each. Three groups serve as Controls and were administered Cisplatin (5mg/kg b.w; i.p), Paracetamol (200mg/kg b.w; i.p) and Normal saline (0.002 ml/kg b.w; oral). Other groups were administered, either, cisplatin and extracts (1g/kg b.w; oral); Paracetamol and extracts (1g/kg b.w; oral); extracts alone; or drugs and combination of extracts. Animals were starved, 24 hours prior to sacrifice and sacrificed on the 9th day after commencement of treatment. Phytochemical screening results show the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin, saponin, cyanogenic glycoside, phytate, and carbohydrate. Saponin and carbohydrate were shown to be much higher in concentration than other phytochemicals. The percentage composition of cyanogenic glycoside and phytate were highest in air-dried stembark and oven-dried leaf samples, respectively. All the Gmelina arborea extracts and extract mixture administered to both paracetamol and cisplatin treated animals, significantly, lowers both the activities of the SGOT and SGPT, and the levels of serum creatinine and urea. When administered alone, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts show little or no sign of toxicity. Thus Gmelina arborea extracts may have ameliorating effect on hepatic and renal insufficiency caused by paracetamol and cisplatin respectively, and any inherent toxicity may be reduced or eliminated through adequate heat treatment.

  16. The influence of Helicobacter pylori infection on the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with renal insufficiency

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    Stolić Radojica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. Gastric acid is a key factor in the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease. A plausible mechanism by which the Helicobacter pylori infection might protect against reflux disease is by its propensity to produce atrophic gastritis. The aim of the study was to establish the influence of Helicobacter pylori infection on the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with different stages of renal insufficiency. Methods. The examination was organized as a prospective, clinical study and involved 68 patients − 33 patients with preterminal stage of renal failure and 35 patients with terminal renal insufficiency. Due to dyspeptic difficulties, in all the patients there was preformed upper esophagogastroscopy and Helicobacter pylori infection was found by ureasa test. Results. The patients with preterminal renal insufficiency were significantly younger than patients with terminal renal failure (53.4±11.1 vs. 65.4±12.3 years; p = 0.014. There was found a statistically significant difference between the groups in Helicobacter pylori infection (p = 0.03, hiatal hernia (p = 0.008, gastroesophageal reflux disease (p = 0.007, and duodenal ulcer (p = 0.002. Using the multiple non-parametric correlative analysis there was confirmed a negative correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (Kendal τB = -0.523; p = 0.003 and hiatal hernia (Kendal τB = 0.403; p = 0.021, while there was found a positive correlation between gastro-esophageal reflux disease and hiatal hernia (Kendal τB = 0.350; p = 0.044. Conclusion. Helicobacter pylori infection is a significant protective parameter of the incidence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease in patients with both pre-terminal and terminal renal insufficiency.

  17. The effect of renal denervation in an experimental model of chronic renal insufficiency, The REmnant kidney Denervation In Pigs study (REDIP study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubanda, Jean-Claude; Chochola, Miroslav; Mlček, Mikuláš; Neužil, Petr; Marek, Josef; Havránek, Štěpán; Kuchynková, Sylvie; Fingrová, Zdeňka; Huang, Kao-Hsuan Aimee; Linhart, Aleš

    2017-10-25

    Renal denervation (RDN) is a promising therapeutic method in cardiology. Its currently most investigated indication is resistant hypertension. Other potential indications are atrial fibrillation, type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic renal insufficiency among others. Previous trials showed conflicting but promising results, but the real benefits of RDN are still under investigation. Patients with renal insufficiency and resistant hypertension are proposed to be a good target for this therapy due to excessive activation of renal sympathetic drive. However, only limited number of studies showed benefits for these patients. We hypothesize that in our experimental model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to ischemia with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), renal denervation can have protective effects by slowing or blocking the progression of renal injury. An experimental biomodel of chronic renal insufficiency induced by ischemia was developed using selective renal artery embolization (remnant kidney porcine model). 27 biomodels were assessed. Renal denervation was performed in 19 biomodels (denervated group), and the remaining were used as controls (n = 8). The extent of renal injury and reparative process between the two groups were compared and assessed using biochemical parameters and histological findings. Viable remnant kidney biomodels were achieved and maintained in 27 swine. There were no significant differences in biochemical parameters between the two groups at baseline. Histological assessment proved successful RDN procedure in all biomodels in the denervated group. Over the 7-week period, there were significant increases in serum urea, creatinine, and aldosterone concentration in both groups. The difference in urea and creatinine levels were not statistically significant between the two groups. However, the level of aldosterone in the denervated was significantly lower in comparison to the controls. Histological

  18. The effect of renal denervation in an experimental model of chronic renal insufficiency, The REmnant kidney Denervation In Pigs study (REDIP study

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    Jean-Claude Lubanda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal denervation (RDN is a promising therapeutic method in cardiology. Its currently most investigated indication is resistant hypertension. Other potential indications are atrial fibrillation, type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic renal insufficiency among others. Previous trials showed conflicting but promising results, but the real benefits of RDN are still under investigation. Patients with renal insufficiency and resistant hypertension are proposed to be a good target for this therapy due to excessive activation of renal sympathetic drive. However, only limited number of studies showed benefits for these patients. We hypothesize that in our experimental model of chronic kidney disease (CKD due to ischemia with increased activity of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS, renal denervation can have protective effects by slowing or blocking the progression of renal injury. Methods An experimental biomodel of chronic renal insufficiency induced by ischemia was developed using selective renal artery embolization (remnant kidney porcine model. 27 biomodels were assessed. Renal denervation was performed in 19 biomodels (denervated group, and the remaining were used as controls (n = 8. The extent of renal injury and reparative process between the two groups were compared and assessed using biochemical parameters and histological findings. Results Viable remnant kidney biomodels were achieved and maintained in 27 swine. There were no significant differences in biochemical parameters between the two groups at baseline. Histological assessment proved successful RDN procedure in all biomodels in the denervated group. Over the 7-week period, there were significant increases in serum urea, creatinine, and aldosterone concentration in both groups. The difference in urea and creatinine levels were not statistically significant between the two groups. However, the level of aldosterone in the denervated was significantly

  19. Arterial stiffness and chronic kidney disease: lessons from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight what the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study has taught us regarding arterial stiffness in chronic kidney disease. The CRIC study began in mid-2003 and enrolled more than 3900 people with chronic kidney disease. The recent findings from the CRIC study are covered in 10 lessons. Within the CRIC study, we enrolled about 2800 participants who underwent a pulse wave velocity measurement. At the time of initial funding, very little was known about the role of arterial stiffness in chronic, nondialyzed, kidney disease. The lessons span the gamut from simple correlations to measures such as central arterial pressure profiles and reproducibility of pulse wave velocity measurements between operators, to relationships of pulse wave velocity to kidney function, protein excretion, cardiovascular disease prevalence, and incident cardiovascular events such as heart failure. The implications from these lessons are that pulse wave velocity is a robust, reproducible measure of arterial stiffness which adds important information to standard clinical assessments such as SBP and DBP in a population with chronic kidney disease, a disorder with high likelihood of progressive kidney function loss, and a substantial predisposition to cardiovascular disease.

  20. Habitual sleep and kidney function in chronic kidney disease: the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Kristen L; Lash, James; Ricardo, Ana C; Herdegen, James; Thornton, J D; Rahman, Mahboob; Turek, Nicolas; Cohan, Janet; Appel, Lawrence J; Bazzano, Lydia A; Tamura, Manjula K; Steigerwalt, Susan P; Weir, Matthew R; Van Cauter, Eve

    2017-06-23

    Physiological evidence suggests that sleep modulates kidney function. Our objective was to examine the cross-sectional association between kidney function and objectively-estimated habitual sleep duration, quality and timing in a cohort of patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease. This study involved two US clinical centers of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, including 432 participants in a CRIC ancillary sleep study. Habitual sleep duration, quality and timing were measured using wrist actigraphy for 5-7 days. Validated sleep questionnaires assessed subjective sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and risk of sleep apnea. Kidney function was assessed with the estimated glomerular filtration rate using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation, and the urinary protein to creatinine ratio. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate was associated with shorter sleep duration (-1.1 mL min-1  1.73 m-2 per hour less sleep, P = 0.03), greater sleep fragmentation (-2.6 mL min-1  1.73 m-2 per 10% higher fragmentation, P kidney disease should consider inquiring about sleep and possibly sending for clinical sleep assessment. Longitudinal and interventional trials are needed to understand causal direction. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Depressive Symptomatology in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Renal Insufficiency Undergoing Chronic Dialysis

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    Edith G. Hernandez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a descriptive study, using the Birleson Scale to determine the frequency of depressive symptomatology in children and adolescents with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI undergoing hemodialysis (HD and chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD. There were 67 patients (40 female and 27 male with a mean age of 14.76±2.71 years, duration of illness ≥3 months, 43 (64.18% patients with CPD and 24 (35.82% undergoing HD. The frequency of high occurrence, low occurrence, and absence of depressive symptomatology was 10.45% (=7, 43.28% (=29, and 46.27% (=31, respectively; all of the seven (100% patients with high occurrence of depressive symptomatology were female (=0.04, and none of these (0% had a friend to confide in (=0.03. Depressive symptomatology in patients with CPD was associated with a lower weekly / compared to those without depressive symptomatology (2.15±0.68 versus 2.52±0.65; =0.01. There was no association with patient age, caregiver, time and dialysis type, anemia, bone disease, nutritional or financial status, origin, schooling, or employment.

  2. Increased levels of 3-hydroxykynurenine in different brain regions of rats with chronic renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topczewska-Bruns, Joanna; Pawlak, Dariusz; Chabielska, Ewa; Tankiewicz, Anna; Buczko, Wlodzimierz

    2002-08-15

    Tryptophan (TRP) metabolism via the kynurenine pathway leads to formations of neuroactive substances like kynurenine (KYN) and 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), which may be involved in the pathogenesis of several human brain diseases. 3-Hydroxykynurenine especially is known to have strong neurotoxic properties. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to neuronal cell death with apoptotic features. Because the chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) results in disturbances in the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS), it is conceivable that the metabolism of some kynurenines may be altered and could play an important role in uremic encephalopathy. The levels of TRP, KYN and 3-HK were measured in the plasma and in different brain regions of uremic rats. The total plasma concentration of TRP as well as in all the studied brain samples was significantly diminished during uremia. Surprisingly, the level of KYN and 3-HK were elevated both in the plasma and different brain regions of CRI animals. KYN concentrations were approximately two times higher in the cerebellum, midbrain and cortex compared to the control group. The changes of 3-HK levels were more pronounced in the striatum and medulla than in other structures. This data suggests that CRI results in deep disturbances on the kynurenine pathway in CNS, which could be responsible for neurological abnormalities seen in uremia.

  3. Safety and efficacy of administering the maximal dose of candesartan in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumi, Masayoshi; Kawada, Noritaka; Ichimaru, Naotsugu; Kitamura, Harumi; Abe, Toyofumi; Imamura, Ryoichi; Kojima, Yasuyuki; Kokado, Yukito; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Rakugi, Hiromi; Nonomura, Norio; Moriyama, Toshiki; Takahara, Shiro

    2011-12-01

    The regular dose of an angiotensin II type-1 receptor blocker (ARB) in renal transplant patients for hypertension is shown to be safe and effective; however, information on the appropriate dosing of ARBs in renal transplant patients is limited. We evaluate the efficacy and safety of the maximal dose of candesartan administered to renal transplant patients. Sixty-nine recipients were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into three groups based on the basal dose of candesartan: patients not taking candesartan (Group A); patients taking a low to medium dose of candesartan (2-4 mg/day; Group B); and patients taking a high dose of candesartan (8 mg/day; Group C). During the course of the study, the dose of candesartan was gradually increased to a final dose of 12 mg/day. Physiological and biochemical parameters were measured before and after the 12-month study period. Ninety-one percent of patients succeeded in continuing their administration of candesartan for 1 year and 75% tolerated the administration of the maximal dose of candesartan. Significant differences in proteinuria, albuminuria, serum creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) level among the groups were detected. In Group A, candesartan reduced systolic blood pressure, decreased the levels of proteinuria, albuminuria, eGFR, and hemoglobin and increased plasma potassium, creatinine level, and plasma renin activity. The gradual increase of an ARB to its maximal dose in renal transplant patients is safe when carefully monitored. We were able to demonstrate the impact of maximal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade on both proteinuria and albuminuria, which indicates the need for future, long-term randomized prospective trials to further establish the impact of maximal RAS blockade on renal and cardiovascular protection in transplant patients.

  4. Underlying renal insufficiency: the pivotal risk factor for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients with non-transplant glomerular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wen-Ling; Tang, Nan; Wen, Yu-Bing; Li, Hang; Li, Min-Xi; Du, Bin; Li, Xue-Mei

    2016-11-01

    Data on PCP in patients with glomerular disease are rare. The aim of this study was to assess the predictors of PCP development, the risk factors for mortality and the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) when high-dose trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was used in patients with non-transplant glomerular disease. Forty-seven patients with PCP, as confirmed by positive results for Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA or Pneumocystis jirovecii cysts tested by a methenamine silver stain between January 1, 2003, and December 30, 2012, were retrospectively investigated. The baseline characteristics of glomerular disease, clinical findings of PCP and renal parameters after treatment were collected. Predictors for PCP development and risk factors for mortality were determined using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. All PCP patients exclusively received immunosuppressants. Baseline renal insufficiency [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) renal function to baseline values. PCP is a fatal complication in patients with glomerular disease, and the use of immunosuppressants may be a basic risk factor for this infection. Underlying renal insufficiency and high renal pathology chronicity are the key risk factors for PCP in IgA nephropathy. TMP-SMX therapy remains an ideal choice because of high treatment response and frequently reversible kidney injury.

  5. Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study: Baseline Characteristics and Associations with Kidney Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Alan S.; Appel, Lawrence J.; He, Jiang; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Townsend, Raymond R.; Xie, Dawei; Cifelli, Denise; Cohan, Janet; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Fischer, Michael J.; Gadegbeku, Crystal; Hamm, L. Lee; Kusek, John W.; Landis, J. Richard; Narva, Andrew; Robinson, Nancy; Teal, Valerie; Feldman, Harold I.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study was established to examine risk factors for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with CKD. We examined baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Seven clinical centers recruited adults who were aged 21 to 74 yr and had CKD using age-based estimated GFR (eGFR) inclusion criteria. At baseline, blood and urine specimens were collected and information regarding health behaviors, diet, quality of life, and functional status was obtained. GFR was measured using radiolabeled iothalamate in one third of participants. Results: A total of 3612 participants were enrolled with mean age ± SD of 58.2 ± 11.0 yr; 46% were women, and 47% had diabetes. Overall, 45% were non-Hispanic white, 46% were non-Hispanic black, and 5% were Hispanic. Eighty-six percent reported hypertension, 22% coronary disease, and 10% heart failure. Mean body mass index was 32.1 ± 7.9 kg/m2, and 47% had a BP >130/80 mmHg. Mean eGFR was 43.4 ± 13.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and median (interquartile range) protein excretion was 0.17 g/24 h (0.07 to 0.81 g/24 h). Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower socioeconomic and educational level, cigarette smoking, self-reported CVD, peripheral arterial disease, and elevated BP. Conclusions: Lower level of eGFR was associated with a greater burden of CVD as well as lower socioeconomic and educational status. Long-term follow-up of participants will provide critical insights into the epidemiology of CKD and its relationship to adverse outcomes. PMID:19541818

  6. Predictors of Death and Prolonged Renal Insufficiency in Ethylene Glycol Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Derrick D; Kearney, Thomas E; Brasiel, James A; Olson, Kent R

    2015-07-01

    We assessed the predictive value of selected factors on the outcomes of death and prolonged renal insufficiency (RI) from ethylene glycol poisoning. Retrospective, observational California Poison Control System study, over a 10-year period (1999-2008). We compared 2 groups. The first group (D/RI) included 59 patients who died (9 patients) or had prolonged RI (50 patients). Prolonged RI was defined as kidney injury in which dialysis was required for greater than 3 days after presentation. The second group (RECOV) of 62 patients had an uncomplicated recovery. Secondarily, we evaluated the association of time to antidote (ethanol and/or fomepizole) and time to dialysis with these outcomes. The D/RI group was more likely than the RECOV group to present comatose, have seizures, and require intubation. The D/RI group had a lower mean initial arterial pH of 7.03 (standard deviation [SD] 0.20), compared to 7.27 (SD 0.14) for the RECOV group. The D/RI group had a higher initial creatinine (1.7 mg/dL, SD 0.71) than that of the RECOV group (1.0 mg/dL, SD 0.33). Patients with a time to antidote greater than 6 hours had a higher odds of dying or having prolonged RI (OR 3.34, 95% CI : 1.21-9.26) Patients with a time to dialysis greater than 6 hours had a lower odds of dying or having prolonged RI (OR 0.36, 95% CI : 0.15-0.87). Compared to survivors with an uncomplicated recovery, patients poisoned with ethylene glycol who died or had prolonged RI were more likely to exhibit clinical signs such as coma, seizures, and acidosis. Antidote administration within 6 hours is associated with better outcomes, unlike earlier time to dialysis. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study: baseline characteristics and associations with kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, James P; Go, Alan S; Appel, Lawrence J; He, Jiang; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Townsend, Raymond R; Xie, Dawei; Cifelli, Denise; Cohan, Janet; Fink, Jeffrey C; Fischer, Michael J; Gadegbeku, Crystal; Hamm, L Lee; Kusek, John W; Landis, J Richard; Narva, Andrew; Robinson, Nancy; Teal, Valerie; Feldman, Harold I

    2009-08-01

    The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study was established to examine risk factors for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with CKD. We examined baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. Seven clinical centers recruited adults who were aged 21 to 74 yr and had CKD using age-based estimated GFR (eGFR) inclusion criteria. At baseline, blood and urine specimens were collected and information regarding health behaviors, diet, quality of life, and functional status was obtained. GFR was measured using radiolabeled iothalamate in one third of participants. A total of 3612 participants were enrolled with mean age +/- SD of 58.2 +/- 11.0 yr; 46% were women, and 47% had diabetes. Overall, 45% were non-Hispanic white, 46% were non-Hispanic black, and 5% were Hispanic. Eighty-six percent reported hypertension, 22% coronary disease, and 10% heart failure. Mean body mass index was 32.1 +/- 7.9 kg/m(2), and 47% had a BP >130/80 mmHg. Mean eGFR was 43.4 +/- 13.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and median (interquartile range) protein excretion was 0.17 g/24 h (0.07 to 0.81 g/24 h). Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower socioeconomic and educational level, cigarette smoking, self-reported CVD, peripheral arterial disease, and elevated BP. Lower level of eGFR was associated with a greater burden of CVD as well as lower socioeconomic and educational status. Long-term follow-up of participants will provide critical insights into the epidemiology of CKD and its relationship to adverse outcomes.

  8. Lipidomic Signature of Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshinnia, Farsad; Rajendiran, Thekkelnaycke M; Karnovsky, Alla; Soni, Tanu; Wang, Xue; Xie, Dawei; Yang, Wei; Shafi, Tariq; Weir, Matthew R; He, Jiang; Brecklin, Carolyn S; Rhee, Eugene P; Schelling, Jeffrey R; Ojo, Akinlolu; Feldman, Harold; Michailidis, George; Pennathur, Subramaniam

    2016-11-01

    Human studies report conflicting results on the predictive power of serum lipids on progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to systematically identify the lipids that predict progression to end-stage kidney disease. From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort, 79 patients with CKD stage 2 to 3 who progressed to ESKD over 6 years of follow up were selected and frequency-matched by age, sex, race, and diabetes with 121 non-progressors with less than 25% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during the follow up. The patients were randomly divided into Training and Test sets. We applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based lipidomics on visit year 1 samples. We identified 510 lipids, of which the top 10 coincided with false discovery threshold of 0.058 in the Training set. From the top 10 lipids, the abundance of diacylglycerols (DAGs) and cholesteryl esters was lower, but that of phosphatidic acid 44:4 and monoacylglycerol (MAG) 16:0 was significantly higher in progressors. Using logistic regression models a multi-marker panel consisting of DAGs, and MAG independently predicted progression. The c-statistic of the multimarker panel added to the base model consisting of eGFR and urine protein-creatinine ratio (UPCR) as compared to that of the base model was 0.92 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.88-0.97), and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.76-0.90, P<0.01), respectively; an observation which was validated in the Test subset. We conclude that a distinct panel of lipids may improve prediction of progression of CKD beyond eGFR and UPCR when added to the base model.

  9. Effects of a dimeric vs a monomeric nonionic contrast medium on renal function in patients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial

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    Carraro, M.; Malalan, F.; Antonione, R.; Faccini, L. [Institute of Medicina Clinica, Ospedale di Cattinara, University of Trieste, Strada di Fiume 447, I-34 149 Trieste (Italy); Stacul, F.; Cova, M.; Petz, S.; Assante, M.; Dalla Palma, L. [Institute of Radiology, Ospedale di Cattinara, University of Trieste, Strada di Fiume 447, I-34 149 Trieste (Italy); Grynne, B.; Haider, T. [Nycomed Imaging AS, Nycoveien 1-2, N-0401 Oslo (Norway)

    1998-02-01

    The efficacy and safety of nonionic dimeric contrast media in subjects with impaired renal function is largely unknown. The present study was aimed at determining the risk of tubular nephrotoxicity in patients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency who underwent intravenous urography (IVU) with the nonionic dimeric contrast agent iodixanol (Visipaque, Nycomed Imaging, Oslo, Norway). In a double-blind protocol 64 patients (55 males; mean age 68.3 years) with serum creatinine between 135 and 265 {mu}mol/l who were to undergo IVU were randomized to receive iodixanol (a nonionic dimer) or iopromide (a nonionic monomer), 600 mg I/kg b. w. Renal function was evaluated before and 1 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h and 7 days after IVU with analysis of serum creatinine, urinary enzymes alanylaminopeptidase and N-acetyl-{beta}-glucosaminidase, and urinary microproteins {alpha}-1-microglobulin and albumin. Renal function remained stable in both contrast medium groups during the follow-up period. No statistically significant differences were observed between the monomer and the dimer in terms of urinary enzyme and microprotein excretion or serum creatinine. Transient radiocontrast-induced nephropathy developed in 1 patient who had received iodixanol. The administration of the nonionic dimeric contrast medium iodixanol, or of the nonionic monomer iopromide, entailed a low nephrotoxic potential in patients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency undergoing excretory urography. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs.

  10. Etelcalcetide, A Novel Calcimimetic, Prevents Vascular Calcification in A Rat Model of Renal Insufficiency with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Longchuan; Tomlinson, James E.; Alexander, Shawn T.; Hensley, Kelly; Han, Chun-Ya; Dwyer, Denise; Stolina, Marina; Dean, Charles; Goodman, William G.; Richards, William G.; Li, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Etelcalcetide, a novel peptide agonist of the calcium-sensing receptor, prevents vascular calcification in a rat model of renal insufficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Vascular calcification occurs frequently in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is a consequence of impaired mineral homeostasis and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Etelcalcetide substantially lowers parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) levels in SHPT patients on hemodialy...

  11. Renal insufficiency, bleeding and prescription of discharge medication in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Dynamic Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Andrew O; Margey, Ronan J; Selzer, Faith; Bajrangee, Amrit; Jneid, Hani; Marroquin, Oscar C; Mulukutla, Suresh R; Laskey, Warren K; Jacobs, Alice K

    2016-01-01

    To establish the relationship between renal insufficiency, bleeding and prescription of cardiovascular medication. This was a prospective, multi-center, cohort study of consecutive patients undergoing PCI during three NHLBI Dynamic Registry recruitment waves. Major and minor bleeding, access site bleeding and rates of prescription of cardiovascular medication at discharge were determined based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Renal insufficiency was an independent predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Bleeding events and access site bleeding requiring transfusion were significantly associated with degrees of renal insufficiency (pinsufficiency is associated with bleeding in patients undergoing PCI. Patients with renal insufficiency are less likely to receive recommended discharge pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mild renal insufficiency is associated with increased left ventricular mass in men, but not in women: an arterial stiffness-related phenomenon--the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, R.M.A.; Kamp, O.; Kostense, P.J.; Spijkerman, A.M.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, M.G.A.A.M.; Heine, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Mild renal insufficiency has recently been recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanisms underlying this association are incompletely understood. Increased left ventricular mass (LVM) is an independent risk factor for CVD, which is particularly

  13. Late somatic and psycho-social consequences of renal insufficiency in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothoff, J. W.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the project was to establish the somatic and psycho-social consequences in adulthood of paediatric end-stage renal disease (ESRD). A long term follow up study of all Dutch patients who started renal replacement therapy at age 0-15 years between 1972 and 1992 and who were born before 1979

  14. N-acetylcysteine versus Dopamine to Prevent Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery in Patients with Preexisting Moderate Renal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savluk, Omer Faruk; Guzelmeric, Fusun; Yavuz, Yasemin; Cevirme, Deniz; Gurcu, Emre; Ogus, Halide; Orki, Tulay; Kocak, Tuncer

    2017-01-01

    Acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery is associated with mortality and morbidity. Therefore, strategies to prevent acute kidney injury are very important. The aim of this placebo-controlled randomized double-blind study was to compare the prophylactic efficacy of N-Acetylcysteine and dopamine administration in patients with pre-existing moderate renal insufficiency who were undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. This study included 135 patients with pre-existing moderate renal insufficiency who were scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Serum creatinine and GFR were recorded preoperatively and on the first and second postoperative days. On the first and second postoperative days, the drugs used showed statistically significant differences among the creatinine groups (P<0.001). According to Tukey's HSD, on the first and second PO, the creatinine of Group N, D and P were significantly different (P<0.001). On the first and second PO, the used drugs showed statistically significant differences among the effects of eGFR (P<0.001). According to Tukey's HSD on the first postoperative day, the average eGFR score of Group N compared to D and P were significantly difference (P<0.001). On the second postoperative day, the eGFR of Group N and D showed no difference (P=0.37), but P showed a difference (P<0.001). We found that the prophylactic use of intravenous N-Acetylcysteine had a protective effect on renal function, whereas the application of renal dose dopamine did not have a protective effect in patients with pre-existing moderate renal failure.

  15. CLINICAL PROFILE OF NON-ALBUMINURIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sathya Murthy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent metabolic diseases which is characterised by elevated blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes mellitus constitutes about 90 percent of this group. Untreated DM leads to many complications which are traditionally classified as acute and chronic. The microvascular complications include retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause for dialysis and end-stage renal failure across the world. Diabetic nephropathy usually starts with microalbuminuria (UAE 30-300 mg/dL followed by macroalbuminuria (UAE > 300 mg/dL and eventually there is progressive loss of renal function by tissue scarring leading on to end-stage renal disease. However, in type 2 DM, there can be a group of patients who can have impaired renal function without albuminuria (UAE<30 mg/ day. This is being called as “non-albuminuric renal failure”. Reduced GFR in long duration diabetic patients with normal urine albumin excretion have been reported in increasing frequency. There are very few Indian studies which have been done on this group of type 2 diabetic patients. Hence, this study is aimed to evaluate the clinical profile of non-albuminuric renal insufficiency in type 2 diabetes mellitus. AIM To study the clinical profile of non-albuminuric renal insufficiency in type 2 DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study population included 97 patients with non-albuminuric (urine microalbumin less than 30 mg/day, renal insufficiency (GFR less than 60 mL/min. as per Cockcroft–Gault formula and are diabetic (type 2 admitted in the Department of General Medicine and Nephrology. Patients with comorbidities other than diabetes which can cause renal insufficiency were excluded from the study. A detailed history was taken and clinical assessment was done for all patients. All patients underwent a panel of tests which included complete blood count, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine

  16. Rapid deterioration of preexisting renal insufficiency after autologous mesenchymal stem cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Seop Kim; Jong-Hak Lee; Owen Kwon; Jang-Hee Cho; Ji-Young Choi; Sun-Hee Park; Chan-Duck Kim; Yong-Jin Kim; Yong-Lim Kim

    2017-01-01

    Administration of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to improve renal function and histological findings in acute kidney injury (AKI) models. However, its effects in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are unclear, particularly in the clinical setting. Here, we report our experience with a CKD patient who was treated by intravenous infusion of autologous MSCs derived from adipose tissue in an unknown clinic outside of Korea. The renal function of the patient had been stable for ...

  17. Association of kidney disease outcomes with risk factors for CKD: findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Xie, Dawei; Anderson, Amanda H; Joffe, Marshall M; Greene, Tom; Teal, Valerie; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Fink, Jeffrey C; He, Jiang; Lash, James P; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Nessel, Lisa; Kusek, John W; Feldman, Harold I

    2014-02-01

    Various indicators of progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been used as outcomes in clinical research studies. The effect of using varying measures on the association of risk factors with CKD progression has not been well characterized. Prospective cohort study. The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study (N=3,939) enrolled men and women with mild to moderate CKD, 48% of whom had diabetes and 42% were self-reported black race. Age, race, sex, diabetes, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), proteinuria, and other established CKD risk factors. Death, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and eGFR events, including: (1) eGFR halving, (2) eGFRkidney disease outcomes is appropriate in follow-up studies to identify risk factors for CKD progression. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution of Arsenic, Manganese, and Selenium in the Human Brain in Chronic Renal Insufficiency, Parkinsons Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, N. A.; Pakkenberg, H.; Damsgaard, Else

    1981-01-01

    The concentrations of arsenic, manganese and selenium/g wet tissue weight were determined in samples from 24 areas of the human brain from 3 patients with chronic renal insufficiency, 2 with Parkinson's disease and 1 with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The concentrations of the 3 elements were...... determined for each sample by neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation. Overall arsenic concentrations were about 2.5 times higher in patients with chronic renal failure than in controls, and lower than normal in the patients with Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis....... There were no obvious differences in the overall concentrations of manganese and selenium from one group to another. Even multivariate data analysis by the SIMCA method failed to reveal any significant difference in the distribution pattern of manganese and selenium in Parkinson's disease compared to normal...

  19. Proteinuria, but Not eGFR, Predicts Stroke Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease: Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandsmark, Danielle K; Messé, Steven R; Zhang, Xiaoming; Roy, Jason; Nessel, Lisa; Lee Hamm, Lotuce; He, Jiang; Horwitz, Edward J; Jaar, Bernard G; Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Kusek, John W; Mohler, Emile R; Porter, Anna; Seliger, Stephen L; Sozio, Stephen M; Townsend, Raymond R; Feldman, Harold I; Kasner, Scott E

    2015-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, the impact of chronic kidney disease on cerebrovascular disease is less well understood. We hypothesized that renal function severity would be predictive of stroke risk, independent of other vascular risk factors. The study population included 3939 subjects enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, a prospective observational cohort. Stroke events were reported by participants and adjudicated by 2 vascular neurologists. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare measures of baseline renal function with stroke events. Multivariable analysis was performed to adjust for key covariates. In 3939 subjects, 143 new stroke events (0.62 events per 100 person-years) occurred over a mean follow-up of 6.4 years. Stroke risk was increased in subjects who had worse baseline measurements of renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate and total proteinuria or albuminuria). When adjusted for variables known to influence stroke risk, total proteinuria or albuminuria, but not estimated glomerular filtration rate, were associated with an increased risk of stroke. Treatment with blockers of the renin-angiotensin system did not decrease stroke risk in individuals with albuminuria. Proteinuria and albuminuria are better predictors of stroke risk in patients with chronic kidney disease than estimated glomerular filtration rate. The impact of therapies targeting proteinuria/albuminuria in individuals with chronic kidney disease on stroke prevention warrants further investigation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Proteinuria, but not eGFR, predicts stroke risk in chronic kidney disease: the chronic renal insufficiency cohort (CRIC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandsmark, Danielle K.; Messé, Steven R.; Zhang, Xiaoming; Roy, Jason; Nessel, Lisa; Hamm, Lotuce Lee; He, Jiang; Horwitz, Edward J.; Jaar, Bernard G.; Kallem, Radhakrishna R.; Kusek, John W.; Mohler, Emile R.; Porter, Anna; Seliger, Stephen L.; Sozio, Stephen M.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Feldman, Harold I.; Kasner, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, the impact of CKD on cerebrovascular disease is less well understood. We hypothesized that renal function severity would be predictive of stroke risk, independent of other vascular risk factors. Methods The study population included 3939 subjects enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, a prospective observational cohort. Stroke events were reported by participants and adjudicated by two vascular neurologists. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare measures of baseline renal function with stroke events. Multivariable analysis was performed to adjust for key covariates. Results In 3939 subjects, 143 new stroke events (0.62 events per 100 person-years) occurred over a mean follow-up of 6.4 years. Stroke risk was increased in subjects who had worse baseline measurements of renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and total proteinuria or albuminuria). When adjusted for variables known to influence stroke risk, total proteinuria or albuminuria, but not eGFR, were associated with an increased risk of stroke. Treatment with blockers of the renin-angiotensin system did not decrease stroke risk in individuals with albuminuria. Conclusions Proteinuria and albuminuria are better predictors of stroke risk in patients with chronic kidney disease than eGFR. The impact of therapies targeting proteinuria/albuminuria in individuals with CKD on stroke prevention warrants further investigation. PMID:26130097

  1. [Application of cell technologies for therapy of chronic renal insufficiency (experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatkin, N A; Kirpatovskiĭ, V I; Kazachenko, A V; Plotnikov, E Iu; Mareĭ, M V; Drozhzheva, V V; Sukhikh, G T

    2007-01-01

    The experiments on 29 white non-inbred rats with chronic renal failure (CRF) induced by right-side nephrectomy and coagulation of 1/2-2/3 of parenchyma of the left kidney were made to study the trend in renal function after injection (into renal cortex or intravenously) of cultured stem or progenitor cells from human fetuses (total culture of fetal kidney or mesenchymal stem cells of the bone marrow). In control tests with salt solution functional indices reflected persistence of CRF. On day 4 after introduction of the fetal cells into renal parenchyma renal function improved and normalized in 2 weeks. After intravenous injection of fetal cells CRF reduced slowly, especially after injection of medullary mesenchymal cells with normalization in 1 month. 2.5-3.5 months after the injection test parameters in some rats deteriorated but remained close to normal values. Glomerular filtration after injection of stem and progenitor cells recovered better while canalicular sodium reabsorption underwent normalization but was followed by deterioration.

  2. Alterations induced by large doses of furosemide in chronic renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, A; Ruilope, L; Jarillo, D; Alcázar, J; Millet, V; Rodicio, J L

    1979-03-01

    Eleven patients with different degrees of renal failure with creatinine clearances between 7 and 32 ml/min have been studied. After a standard water overload and control periods of clearances, furosemide 1 g was given/i.v. There followed significant increase of renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate. In one case the increase was maintained during a follow up period of 3 hours. A significant increase was evident in phosphate, uric acid, sodium, potassium, and calcium clearances, as well as an increase in the sodium delivery to the distal nephron and a decrease in tubular reabsorption of phosphate. All this may be interpreted as the result of renal vasodilation induced by furosemide and its effect upon the proximal tubule and on Henle's loop.

  3. Direct magnification technique of radiographs of the hand in children with chronic renal insufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponhold, W.; Balzar, E.

    1984-04-01

    The characteristic changes of renal osteopathy in the hand are shown by the X-rays of seven children with end stage renal disease using the direct magnification technique. All children had pathologic conditions in the hands. Most frequently tunnelation, spiculae in the phalanges and metaphyseal translucent bands in the forearm were seen. Less constantly acroosteolyses and generalized osteoporosis could be observed. The X-rays of the hands using the direct magnification technique with rare earth film-screen system and a microfocus X-ray tube are sufficient to determine renal osteopathy. If clinical symptoms are present, X-rays of other parts of the skeleton are necessary. By using the above mentioned radiologic technique the radiographic diagnostic effort could be minimized.

  4. Calcineurin inhibitor-associated early renal insufficiency in cardiac transplant recipients: risk factors and strategies for prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, David A; Galin, Ira D; Gass, Alan L

    2004-01-01

    Cardiac transplantation is the definitive treatment for eligible patients with end-stage cardiac failure. Techniques have evolved to reduce surgical mortality to under 5%. Immediate and subsequent long-term survival is more dependent on acute and chronic rejection and the complications of immunosuppressive therapy. Ten-year survival is greater than 50%.The success of transplantation over the last 20 years has been largely due to the advances in immunosuppression. The most notable and dramatic milestone was the introduction of cyclosporine in the early 1980s, which resulted in a significant improvement in allograft and patient survival. Cyclosporine is a peptide that inhibits the immune system by suppressing T-helper cell activation via inhibition of calcineurin, a critical intracellular enzyme. Tacrolimus has a similar (but not identical) mechanism of action, and was introduced in the 1990s. Drugs such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus, generically referred to as calcineurin inhibitors, have become the cornerstones of immunosuppressive protocols. As a group, calcineurin inhibitors have adverse effects, including neurotoxicity, hypertension, and nephrotoxicity, which complicate their use. Early renal insufficiency manifests as postoperative oliguria (cardiac output, and mechanical obstruction to urine flow. Given that there is no highly efficacious treatment for this syndrome, ways to avoid its occurrence are desirable. One paper is referenced that suggests that avoidance of rapid changes in tacrolimus level during the first three days of therapy is associated with a low occurrence of early renal insufficiency.

  5. Experimental mild renal insufficiency mediates early cardiac apoptosis, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction: a kidney-heart connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Fernando L; McKie, Paul M; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Sangaralingham, S Jeson; Korinek, Josef; Huntley, Brenda K; Oehler, Elise A; Harders, Gerald E; Ichiki, Tomoko; Mangiafico, Sarah; Nath, Karl A; Redfield, Margaret M; Chen, Horng H; Burnett, John C

    2012-01-15

    Impaired renal function with loss of nephron number in chronic renal disease (CKD) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the structural and functional cardiac response to early and mild reduction in renal mass is poorly defined. We hypothesized that mild renal impairment produced by unilateral nephrectomy (UNX) would result in early cardiac fibrosis and impaired diastolic function, which would progress to a more global left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Cardiorenal function and structure were assessed in rats at 4 and 16 wk following UNX or sham operation (Sham); (n = 10 per group). At 4 wk, blood pressure (BP), aldosterone, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria, and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were not altered by UNX, representing a model of mild early CKD. However, UNX was associated with significantly greater LV myocardial fibrosis compared with Sham. Importantly, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining revealed increased apoptosis in the LV myocardium. Further, diastolic dysfunction, assessed by strain echocardiography, but with preserved LVEF, was observed. Changes in genes related to the TGF-β and apoptosis pathways in the LV myocardium were also observed. At 16 wk post-UNX, we observed persistent LV fibrosis and impairment in LV diastolic function. In addition, LV mass significantly increased, as did LVEDd, while there was a reduction in LVEF. Aldosterone, BNP, and proteinuria were increased, while GFR was decreased. The myocardial, structural, and functional alterations were associated with persistent changes in the TGF-β pathway and even more widespread changes in the LV apoptotic pathway. These studies demonstrate that mild renal insufficiency in the rat results in early cardiac fibrosis and impaired diastolic function, which progresses to more global LV remodeling and dysfunction. Thus, these studies importantly advance the concept of a kidney

  6. Current Evidence on Treatment of Patients With Chronic Systolic Heart Failure and Renal Insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, Kevin; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Felker, G. Michael; Lassus, Johan; Zannad, Faiez; Krum, Henry; McMurray, John J. V.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly prevalent in patients with chronic systolic heart failure. Therefore, evidence-based therapies are more and more being used in patients with some degree of renal dysfunction. However, most pivotal randomized clinical trials specifically excluded patients

  7. Long-term consequences of renal insufficiency in children: lessons learned from the Dutch LERIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothoff, Jaap W.; Offringa, Martin; Grootenhuis, Martha; Jager, Kitty J.

    2017-01-01

    Few data exist on the prospects in adulthood for children on chronic renal replacement therapy (RRT). This article summarizes the results of a comprehensive Dutch long-term follow-up study performed in 2000 and 2010 of patients with RRT onset at age <15 years between 1972 and 1992. After a median of

  8. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide is a useful prognostic marker in patients with pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension and renal insufficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Harbaum

    Full Text Available N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP is a routinely used prognostic parameter in patients with pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension (PH. As it accumulates in the presence of impaired renal function, the clinical utility of NT-proBNP in PH patients with concomitant renal insufficiency remains unclear. In a retrospective approach, patients with pre-capillary PH (group I or IV and concomitant renal insufficiency at time of right heart catheterization (glomerular filtration rate (GFR ≤60 ml/min/1.73 m2 were identified out of all prevalent pre-capillary PH patients treated at a single center. Forty patients with renal insufficiency (25.8% were identified and matched regarding hemodynamic parameters with a control group of 56 PH patients with normal renal function (GFR >60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Correlations of NT-proBNP levels with hemodynamic and prognostic parameters (time to clinical worsening and overall survival were assessed. Overall, GFR correlated inversely with NT-proBNP and had the strongest influence on NT-proBNP levels in a stepwise multiple linear regression model including hemodynamic parameters and age (r2 = 0.167. PH patients with renal insufficiency had significant higher levels of NT-proBNP (median: 1935 ng/l vs. 573 ng/l, p = 0.001. Nevertheless, NT-proBNP correlated with invasive hemodynamic parameters in these patients. Using higher cut-off values than in patients with preserved renal function, NT-proBNP levels were significantly associated with time to clinical worsening (>1660 ng/l, p = 0.001 and survival (>2212 ng/l, p = 0.047 in patients with renal insufficiency. Multivariate Cox's proportional hazards analysis including established prognostic parameters, age and GFR confirmed NT-proBNP as an independent risk factor for clinical worsening in PH patients with renal insufficiency (hazard ratio 4.8, p = 0.007. Thus, in a retrospective analysis we showed that NT-proBNP levels correlated with

  9. Fournier's gangrene (necrotising fasciitis) complicated by renal and respiratory insufficiency: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisman, E; Rácz, O; Beck, J; Firment, J; Bodnárová, L

    2016-01-01

    A case report of a 68-year-old male obese diabetic patient with an abscess of left femoral region, and diffuse inflammation of abdominal wall and genital region developing sepsis, respiratory and renal failure. At admission in the regional hospital a diagnosis of polymicrobial necrotising fasciitis with suspected sepsis was declared. The patient was transferred to the special intensive care unit (SICU) of Burns and reconstructive surgery at the Kosice-Saca. The patient was treated surgically, with hyperbaric oxygen and pharmacologically to control his diabetes. The main aetiological agent of the condition was identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. In addition to respiratory and metabolic acidosis and gastric bleeding occurred. Due to acute renal failure (day 38) the patient was transferred to clinic of anaesthesiology and the intensive care medicine at the University Hospital in Kosice. The patient was treated by continuous veno-venous haemodialysis, mechanical ventilation and nasogastric nutritional support. On day 48 the conscious sub-febrile patient with healed wounds was transferred back to the regional hospital with ventilation support and continuous renal replacement therapy. His diabetes was uncontrolled, and only kidney parameters remained pathological. The survival of this patient with an extremely poor prognosis was achieved through prompt transfer to a specialised centre, early identification of the aetiological agent and immediate appropriate antibiotic treatment as a result of good cooperation between surgeons and laboratory specialists.

  10. THE FAILURE OF CHLOROFORM ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER TO INDUCE RENAL TUBULAR CELL NEOPLASIA IN MALE F344/N RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The failure of chloroform administered in drinking water to induce renal tubular cell neoplasia in male F344/N rats Chloroform (TCM) has been demonstrated to be a renal carcinogen in the male Osborne-Mendel rat when administered either by corn oil gavage or in drin...

  11. Attachment Styles in a group of Patients with Terminal Renal Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pía Santelices-Álvarez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies indicate that attachment in adults is feasible with modificationsthroughout life, especially in situations of change, as is the experienceof chronic disease. This study aims to describe the attachment patterns ofa group of patients with end-stage renal disease. We studied a group of 22patients with this disease requiring dialysis, compared with a group of 22adults for non-clinical sample (without disease, matching the participantsaccording to sex and age. The results showed differences significant patternsof attachment in both groups. Clinically healthy individuals tend to havepredominantly a secure attachment pattern, while those patients on dialysistend to have a preoccupied attachment pattern.

  12. The deadly triangle of anemia, renal insufficiency, and cardiovascular disease: implications for prognosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Peter A; Lepor, Norman E

    2005-01-01

    Recently there has been considerable interest in the associations between blood hemoglobin (Hb) level, renal function, and cardiovascular disease. Anemia is a common feature of end-stage renal disease, but it also accompanies lesser degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The degree of anemia roughly approximates the severity of CKD. Anemia seen in diabetes has been linked to diabetic nephropathy; however, diabetes itself affects the hematologic system in several ways. Anemia is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiovascular morbidity, progressive loss of kidney function, and poor quality of life. Anemia seems to act as a mortality multiplier; that is, at every decrease in Hb below 12 g/dL, mortality increases in patients with CKD, cardiovascular disease, and those with both. Unlike blood transfusion, treatment of anemia with exogenous erythropoietin in patients with cardiorenal disease has shown promise in reducing morbidity and in improving survival and quality of life. Increasing the Hb level from less than 10 g/dL to 12 g/dL has resulted in favorable changes in left ventricular remodeling, improved ejection fraction, improved functional classification, and higher levels of peak oxygen consumption with exercise testing. Clinical trials are underway to test the role of erythropoietin in patients with CKD and in patients with heart failure.

  13. Restricted Crystalloid Fluid Therapy during Orthotopic Liver Transplant Surgery and its Effect on Respiratory and Renal Insufficiency in the Early Post-operative Period: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmeddini, M A; Janatmakan, F; Khosravi, M B; Ghaffaripour, S; Eghbal, M H; Nickeghbalian, S; Malek-Hosseini, S A

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory and renal insufficiencies are common dysfunctions during post-liver transplantation period that increase post-operative mortality and morbidity rates. Intra-operative fluid therapy is an important factor associated with pulmonary and renal insufficiency. To evaluate the relation between intra-operative fluid therapy and early renal and respiratory insufficiency after liver transplantation. In this randomized clinical study, 67 adult patients with end-stage liver disease who underwent orthotopic deceased donor liver transplantation were randomly allocated into two groups. The restricted fluid group, which received a controlled fluid administration of normal saline, 5 mL/kg/hr during anesthesia, and non-restricted fluid group received a controlled infusion of normal saline 10 mL/kg/hr during anesthesia. Early post-operative respiratory and renal insufficiency in both groups were assessed. The patients were monitored during the three stages of liver transplantation for their hemodynamic indices. The trial is registered with the Iranian Randomized Clinical Trial Registry, number IRCT2013101811662N4. The baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both studied groups. The prevalence of respiratory insufficiency in the non-restricted fluid group (15%) significantly (p=0.01) higher than that in the restricted fluid group (0%). The post-operative mean±SD serum creatinine was 1.0±0.1 mg/dL in the non-restricted fluid group and 1.1±0.2 in the restricted fluid group (p=0.43). No patients in the studied groups required post-operative continuous renal replacement therapy. Restricted crystalloid fluid administration during orthotropic liver transplantation though decreased post-operative chance of pulmonary insufficiency, did not increase renal dysfunction.

  14. Prevalent Rate of Nonalbuminuric Renal Insufficiency and Its Association with Cardiovascular Disease Event in Korean Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Won Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNonalbuminuric renal insufficiency is a unique category of diabetic kidney diseases. The objectives of the study were to evaluate prevalent rate of nonalbuminuric renal insufficiency and to investigate its relationship with previous cardiovascular disease (CVD event in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.MethodsLaboratory and clinical data of 1,067 subjects with T2DM were obtained and reviewed. Study subjects were allocated into four subgroups according to the CKD classification. Major CVD events were included with coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular events.ResultsNonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group, when compared with albuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group, had shorter diabetic duration, lower concentrations of glycated hemoglobin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lower prevalent rates of retinopathy and previous CVD, and higher rate of treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers. Nonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group showed a greater association with prior CVD events than no CKD group; however, albuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group made addition to increase prevalence of prior CVD events significantly when CKD categories were applied as covariates. Association of prior CVD events, when compared with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and nonalbuminuria categories, became significant for declined eGFR, which was higher for eGFR of <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, and albuminuria.ConclusionThe results show that subjects with nonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD is significantly interrelated with occurrence of prior CVD events than those with normal eGFR with or without albuminuria. Comparing with normal eGFR and nonalbuminuria categories, the combination of increased degree of albuminuria and declined eGFR is becoming significant for the association of prior CVD events.

  15. Association of serum bicarbonate with risk of renal and cardiovascular outcomes in CKD: a report from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, Mirela; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Drawz, Paul; Hamm, L Lee; Horwitz, Edward; Hostetter, Thomas; Jaar, Bernard; Lora, Claudia M; Nessel, Lisa; Ojo, Akinlolu; Scialla, Julia; Steigerwalt, Susan; Teal, Valerie; Wolf, Myles; Rahman, Mahboob

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate serum bicarbonate level as a risk factor for renal outcomes, cardiovascular events, and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Observational cohort study. 3,939 participants with CKD stages 2-4 who enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) between June 2003 and December 2008. Serum bicarbonate level. Renal outcomes, defined as end-stage renal disease (either initiation of dialysis therapy or kidney transplantation) or 50% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); atherosclerotic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease); congestive heart failure events; and death. Time to event. Mean eGFR was 44.8 ± 16.8 (SD) mL/min/1.73 m(2), and median serum bicarbonate level was 24 (IQR, 22-26) mEq/L. During a median follow-up of 3.9 years, 374 participants died, 767 had a renal outcome, 332 experienced an atherosclerotic event, and 391 had a congestive heart failure event. In adjusted analyses, the risk of developing a renal end point was 3% lower per 1-mEq/L increase in serum bicarbonate level (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99; P = 0.01). The association was stronger for participants with eGFR >45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.97; P = 0.004). The risk of heart failure increased by 14% (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.26; P = 0.02) per 1-mEq/L increase in serum bicarbonate level over 24 mEq/L. Serum bicarbonate level was not associated independently with atherosclerotic events (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.95-1.03; P = 0.6) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.02; P = 0.3). Single measurement of sodium bicarbonate. In a cohort of participants with CKD, low serum bicarbonate level was an independent risk factor for kidney disease progression, particularly for participants with preserved kidney function. The risk of heart failure was higher at the upper extreme of serum bicarbonate levels. There was no association between serum bicarbonate level and all

  16. Aspirin and renal insufficiency progression in patients with atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastori, Daniele; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Perticone, Francesco; Sciacqua, Angela; Carnevale, Roberto; Farcomeni, Alessio; Basili, Stefania; Corazza, Gino R; Davì, Giovanni; Lip, Gregory Y H; Violi, Francesco

    2016-11-15

    In experimental models, thromboxane (Tx)A2 reduced renal perfusion and accelerated renal failure. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the use of aspirin, which inhibits TxA2 production, and the incidence of an estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) kidney disease (CKD). Prospective multicentre observational cohort study including 800 anticoagulated AF patients; CKD was defined as an eGFR <90ml/min/1.73m2 by CKD-EPI formula; eGFR was measured at baseline and after a median of 28.0months. Urinary 11-dehydro-TxB2, was measured in 401 patients. The incidence of cardiovascular events (CVEs) was also registered. Baseline eGFR was 65.1ml/min/1.73m2; 147 and 91 patients had incident eGFR<60 and <45ml/min/1.73m2, respectively; 16.5% patients received a concomitant treatment with aspirin 100mg/day. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a direct association with incident eGFR<45ml/min/1.73m2 for female sex (odds ratio [OR]:1.910, p=0.005) and hypertension (OR: 7.589, p=0.047), while aspirin use was inversely associated (OR: 0.347, p=0.016). Propensity score adjustment confirmed this association (p=0.017). Patients with incident eGFR<45ml/min/1.73m2 had higher TxB2, compared to those without (123.0 vs. 90.0ng/mg creatinine, p=0.031); TxB2 was inversely associated with incident eGFR<45ml/min/1.73m2 (log TxB2 OR 2.239, p=0.036). Incident eGFR<45ml/min was associated with an increased rate of CVEs (HR: 2.211, p=0.01). Aspirin use was associated with a less decline in eGFR in our cohort of AF patients with CKD. Our findings suggest that TxA2 may be implicated in renal function deterioration in AF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Amoniuria, urinary gap and osmolal in patients with moderate renal insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Laura K; Ruiz Pecchio, Adriana M; Munizaga, Marcela; Ponte, María G; Meunier, Edith G; Canzonieri, Romina A; Asia, Susana

    2012-01-01

    The chronic metabolic acidosis induces increase in the urinary ammonium production (NH4+u) like equalizer, reflected in major or measured minor, if the process is chronic or acute. The objective of the present work was to study the capacity of urinary acidification in patients with Failure Renal Chronic (FRC), stage II and III measuring NH4+u and to compare results with GAP urinary (GAPu), GAP urinary modified (GAPu mod), GAP Osmolal (GAPosm) and GAP Osmolal modified (GAPosm modif.) like indirect indices of amoniuria. Samples Venous/arterial blood and a draft fresh urine of 34 patients were analyzed. Statistically significant correlation was obtained (p excretion of NH4+u, having given this last protein nutritional information. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

  18. Risks of Adverse Events in Advanced CKD: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Morgan E; Yang, Wei; Rebholz, Casey M; Wang, Xue; Porter, Anna C; Inker, Lesley A; Horwitz, Edward; Sondheimer, James H; Hamm, L Lee; He, Jiang; Weir, Matthew R; Jaar, Bernard G; Shafi, Tariq; Appel, Lawrence J; Hsu, Chi-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    People with advanced chronic kidney disease are at risk for the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but also many other adverse outcomes, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and death. Determination of risk factors that explain the variability in prognosis and timing of these adverse outcomes can aid patient counseling and medical decision making. Prospective research cohort. 1,798 participants with estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs)kidney disease, and the vast majority had seen a nephrologist. The prognosis and timing of adverse outcomes in chronic kidney disease vary by patient characteristics. These results may help guide the development of personalized approaches for managing patients with advanced CKD. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Healthy lifestyle and risk of kidney disease progression, atherosclerotic events, and death in CKD: findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Ana C; Anderson, Cheryl A; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Fischer, Michael J; Dember, Laura M; Fink, Jeffrey C; Frydrych, Anne; Jensvold, Nancy G; Lustigova, Eva; Nessel, Lisa C; Porter, Anna C; Rahman, Mahboob; Wright Nunes, Julie A; Daviglus, Martha L; Lash, James P

    2015-03-01

    In general populations, healthy lifestyle is associated with fewer adverse outcomes. We estimated the degree to which adherence to a healthy lifestyle decreases the risk of renal and cardiovascular events among adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Prospective cohort. 3,006 adults enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. 4 lifestyle factors (regular physical activity, body mass index [BMI] of 20-Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Curcumin attenuates renal ischemia and reperfusion injury-induced restrictive respiratory insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, J-H; Yang, Y-C; Wang, J-C; Wang, D; Wang, J-J

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary failure, instead of kidney failure, is one of the leading causes of acute kidney injury (AKI)-related death. Volume overload was previously regarded as the primary cause of lung injury, presumably by impaired renal fluid clearance. Recent evidence suggested that proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and free radicals released during AKI are playing a crucial role in the lung injury. We aimed to examine the protective efficacy of lung function with curcumin pretreatment. AKI was induced by 45 minutes of kidney ischemia (bilateral occlusion of renal pedicles) followed by 3 hours of reperfusion. Rats were divided into 3 groups: sham-operated, kidney ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), and a group with 2 days of oral pretreatment with curcumin (12.5 mg/kg/d) before I/R injury. The pulmonary function test (PFT) was conducted at baseline and after 3 hours of reperfusion, yielding parameters of lung volumes, chord compliance (Cchord), inspiratory resistance (RI), and forced expiratory volume at the first 200 millisecond (FEV200). We also examined levels of protein concentration (PC), methylguanidine (MG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Ischemic AKI-induced restrictive lung disease was demonstrated by the decreased Cchord, total lung capacitance (TLC), and FEV200, in addition to the increased lavage PCBAL, MG, TNF-α, and MDA level. Curcumin pretreatment ameliorated lung function impairment and alveolar vascular protein leak and attenuated lung inflammation. The protective effect of curcumin pretreatment against restrictive lung disease is most likely associated with decreasing hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation in the lungs and improving alveolar vascular permeability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Heart and combined heart-kidney transplantation in patients with concomitant renal insufficiency and end-stage heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, J M; Chiu, P; Singh, S K; Oyer, P E; Reitz, B A; Mallidi, H R

    2014-02-01

    In patients with end-stage heart failure (ESHF) who are candidates for isolated heart transplant (HRT), dialysis dependence (DD) is considered an indication for combined heart-kidney transplantation (HKT). HKT remains controversial in ESHF transplant candidates with nondialysis-dependent renal insufficiency (NDDRI). Using United Network for Organ Sharing data, we examined the cumulative incidences of transplant and mortality in patients with DD and NDDRI waitlisted for HKT or HRT. In all groups, 3-month waitlist mortality was dismal: 31% and 21% for HRT- and HKT-listed patients with DD and 12% and 7% for HRT- and HKT-listed patients with NDDRI. Five-year posttransplant survival was improved in HKT recipients compared with HRT recipients for both patients with DD (73% vs. 51%, pkidney transplant in patients who do not recover renal function after HRT), as opposed to HKT, maximizes organ benefit for patients with NDDRI and ESHF requires assessment. Nevertheless, given their dismal waitlist outcomes and excellent posttransplant results, we suggest that patients with DD and NDDRI with ESHF be considered for early listing and transplant. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. Venous thromboembolism and bleeding in critically ill patients with severe renal insufficiency receiving dalteparin thromboprophylaxis: prevalence, incidence and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Deborah; Douketis, James; Meade, Maureen; Guyatt, Gordon; Zytaruk, Nicole; Granton, John; Skrobik, Yoanna; Albert, Martin; Fowler, Robert; Hebert, Paul; Pagliarello, Guiseppe; Friedrich, Jan; Freitag, Andreas; Karachi, Tim; Rabbat, Christian; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Geerts, William; Crowther, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Background Critically ill patients with renal insufficiency are predisposed to both deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and bleeding. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence, incidence and predictors of DVT and the incidence of bleeding in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with estimated creatinine clearance insufficiency or dialysis receiving subcutaneous dalteparin 5,000 IU once daily, we estimated the prevalence of proximal DVT by screening compression venous ultrasound of the lower limbs within 48 hours of ICU admission. DVT incidence was assessed on twice-weekly ultrasound testing. We estimated the incidence of major and minor bleeding by daily clinical assessments. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to identify independent predictors of both DVT and major bleeding. Results Of 156 patients with a mean (standard deviation) creatinine clearance of 18.9 (6.5) ml/min, 18 had DVT or pulmonary embolism within 48 hours of ICU admission, died or were discharged before ultrasound testing – leaving 138 evaluable patients who received at least one dose of dalteparin. The median duration of dalteparin administration was 7 days (interquartile range, 4 to 12 days). DVT developed in seven patients (5.1%; 95% confidence interval, 2.5 to 10.1). The only independent risk factor for DVT was an elevated baseline Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (hazard ratio for 10-point increase, 2.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 4.91). Major bleeding developed in 10 patients (7.2%; 95% confidence interval, 4.0 to 12.8), all with trough anti-activated factor X levels ≤ 0.18 IU/ml. Independent risk factors for major bleeding were aspirin use (hazard ratio, 6.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.35 to 29.4) and a high International Normalized Ratio (hazard ratio for 0.5-unit increase, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 2.66). Conclusion In ICU patients with renal insufficiency, the incidence of DVT and major bleeding are considerable but

  3. Male sexual dysfunction in patients with chronic end-stage renal insufficiency and in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Antonucci

    2016-01-01

    considered if not at all. Hypotestosteronemia is a risk factor for the onset of ED in end stage CKF patients. A significantly lower prevalence of hypogonadism among dialyzed patents and transplant recipients suggests that renal transplantation may be protective for the sexual capabilities of these patients.

  4. Influence of intravenously administered leptin on nitric oxide production, renal hemodynamics and renal function in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Jochem, Jerzy; Wójcicka, Grazyna; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna

    2004-08-15

    We investigated the effect of leptin on systemic nitric oxide (NO) production, arterial pressure, renal hemodynamics and renal excretory function in the rat. Leptin (1 mg/kg) was injected intravenously and mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), renal blood flow (RBF) and renal cortical blood flow (RCBF), were measured for 210 min after injection. Urine was collected for seven consecutive 30-min periods and blood samples were withdrawn at 15, 45, 75, 105, 135, 165 and 195 min after leptin administration. Leptin had no effect on MAP, HR, RBF, RCBF and creatinine clearance, but increased urine output by 37.8% (0-30 min), 32.4% (31-60 min) and 27.0% (61-90 min), as well as urinary sodium excretion by 175.8% (0-30 min), 136.4% (31-60 min) and 124.2% (61-90 min). In contrast, leptin had no effect on potassium and phosphate excretion. Plasma concentration of NO metabolites, nitrites + nitrates (NOx), increased following leptin injection at 15, 45, 75 and 105 min by 27.7%, 178.1%, 156.4% and 58.7%, respectively. Leptin increased urinary NOx excretion by 241.6% (0-30 min), 552.6% (31-60 min), 430.7% (61-90 min) and 88.9% (91-120 min). This was accompanied by increase in plasma and urinary cyclic GMP. These data indicate that leptin stimulates systemic NO production but has no effect on arterial pressure and renal hemodynamics.

  5. Differences in plasma and tissue aluminum concentrations due to different aluminum-containing drugs in patients with renal insufficiency and with normal renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, B; Bertram, H; Rolf, N; Roedig, M; Kisters, K; Remmers, S; Spieker, C; Zumkley, H

    1987-12-01

    The gastrointestinal absorption of aluminum from orally administered aluminum-containing drugs is well documented. Retention of the absorbed aluminum leads to elevated levels of this metal in the tissue of patients with renal failure. We studied two groups of dialysis patients who had received equal amounts of the different aluminum-containing phosphate-binders Aludrox and Antiphosphat. It has recently been shown that Antiphosphat releases only a few aluminum ions in an environment of low pH. Consistent with this finding, we found the aluminum levels to be significantly higher in the plasma, bone, and hair of patients who had received Aludrox as phosphate binder. Subjects with normal renal function excreted most of the ingested and absorbed aluminum. No data are available concerning the tissue load of the element in these subjects. We studied two groups of patients with normal renal function who had received antacid drugs prior to neurosurgery on a brain tumor. The first group of patients were treated with an aluminum-rich antacid (Maalox 70); the other group received an aluminum-poor drug (magaldrate) for 10 days prior to the operation. Analysis of the brain-tissue removed revealed twofold higher aluminum levels in the patients who had received Maalox 70. These results indicate that administration of aluminum-containing drugs leads to a tissue load of aluminum in patients with an impaired renal function as well as in those with a normal function. The extent of the aluminum load depends on the aluminum content and the liberation rate of the drug.

  6. A systematic review on the accumulation of prophylactic dosages of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) in patients with renal insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractPurpose Although therapeutic dosages of most low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are known to accumulate in patients with renal insufficiency, for the lower prophylactic dosages this has not been clearly proven. Nevertheless, dose reduction is often recommended. We conducted a

  7. Treatment-related changes in urinary excretion of high and low molecular weight proteins in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy and renal insufficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buf-Vereijken, P.W.G. du; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy, an increased urinary excretion of high (IgG) and low [beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)M), alpha(1)-microglobulin (alpha(1)M)] molecular weight proteins predicts prognosis and precedes renal insufficiency. We have studied the changes in

  8. Management of pregnancy in pancreas alone transplant recipient complicated with stage-4 chronic renal insufficiency and superimposed pre-eclampsia: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Shih Lee

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Child-bearing in solid organ transplantation recipients has become more promising nowadays, even for a difficult case of pancreas-alone transplant recipient complicated with chronic renal insufficiency and superimposed pre-eclampsia. Thorough antepartum counseling and cautious monitoring of maternal, fetal and graft conditions by multidisciplinary specialties are key to favorable pregnancy outcomes.

  9. Renal Insufficiency Following Contrast Media Administration Trial (REMEDIAL): a randomized comparison of 3 preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguori, Carlo; Airoldi, Flavio; D'Andrea, Davide; Bonizzoni, Erminio; Morici, Nuccia; Focaccio, Amelia; Michev, Iassen; Montorfano, Matteo; Carlino, Mauro; Cosgrave, John; Ricciardelli, Bruno; Colombo, Antonio

    2007-03-13

    Volume supplementation by saline infusion combined with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) represents an effective strategy to prevent contrast agent-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN). Preliminary data support the concept that sodium bicarbonate and ascorbic acid also may be effective in preventing CIN. Three hundred twenty-six consecutive patients with chronic kidney disease, referred to our institutions for coronary and/or peripheral procedures, were randomly assigned to prophylactic administration of 0.9% saline infusion plus NAC (n=111), sodium bicarbonate infusion plus NAC (n=108), and 0.9% saline plus ascorbic acid plus NAC (n=107). All enrolled patients had serum creatinine > or = 2.0 mg/dL and/or estimated glomerular filtration rate or = 25% in the creatinine concentration 48 hours after the procedure (CIN). The amount of contrast media administered (179+/-102, 169+/-92, and 169+/-94 mL, respectively; P=0.69) and risk scores (9.1+/-3.4, 9.5+/-3.6, and 9.3+/-3.6; P=0.21) were similar in the 3 groups. CIN occurred in 11 of 111 patients (9.9%) in the saline plus NAC group, in 2 of 108 (1.9%) in the bicarbonate plus NAC group (P=0.019 by Fisher exact test versus saline plus NAC group), and in 11 of 107 (10.3%) in the saline plus ascorbic acid plus NAC group (P=1.00 versus saline plus NAC group). The strategy of volume supplementation by sodium bicarbonate plus NAC seems to be superior to the combination of normal saline with NAC alone or with the addition of ascorbic acid in preventing CIN in patients at medium to high risk.

  10. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate in older patients with chronic renal insufficiency: is the modification of diet in renal disease formula an improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Edmund J; Webb, Michelle C; Simpson, David E; Coakley, Anthony J; Newman, David J; O'Riordan, Shelagh E

    2003-07-01

    To evaluate a new formula for glomerular filtration rate (GFR), derived from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study in older people. An observational study of the performance of the MDRD formula compared with other formulae and creatinine clearance (ClCr) as measures of the GFR. Volunteers were recruited via outpatient clinics. Fifty-two patients (27 men, 25 women: mean age 80, range 69-92) with a variety of medical diagnoses. Mean GFR was 53.3 mL/min/1.73 m2 (range 15.9-100.2). Exclusion criteria included renal replacement therapy/renal transplantation and cognitive impairment. 51Chromium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr EDTA) was used as the reference method against which the formulaic estimates of GFR were compared using bias plot and regression analyses. The MDRD and Cockcroft and Gault formulae (both coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.84) gave the best fit with GFR, followed by the Jelliffe formula (R2 = 0.81), ClCr (R2 = 0.73) and the Baracskay formula (R2 = 0.56). ClCr (-1.2%) demonstrated minimal bias compared with the MDRD (8.0%) and Cockcroft and Gault (-10.4%) formulae. However, imprecision compared with 51Cr EDTA was lowest for the Cockcroft and Gault formula, with 50% of estimates lying between -9.5 and -0.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 of measured 51Cr EDTA clearance. This compares with -6.7 and 10.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 for ClCr and 0.0 and 12.7 mL/min/1.73 m2 for the MDRD formula. Calculated estimates of GFR are an improvement over ClCr estimation. On balance, the MDRD formula does not improve the estimate of GFR compared with the Cockcroft and Gault formula in older Caucasian patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

  11. Secretion, degradation, and elimination of glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide in patients with chronic renal insufficiency and healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Nauck, Michael A; Kranz, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) are important factors in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and have a promising therapeutic potential. Alterations of their secretion, in vivo degradation, and elimination in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI.......4 +/- 3.0 min for the GIP metabolite (P = 0.032) for CRI patients vs. healthy control subjects, respectively. Insulin concentrations tended to be lower in the patients during all experiments, whereas C-peptide levels tended to be elevated. These data underline the importance of the kidneys for the final...... elimination of GIP and GLP-1. The initial dipeptidyl peptidase IV-mediated degradation of both hormones is almost unaffected by impairments in renal function. Delayed elimination of GLP-1 and GIP in renal insufficiency may influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dipeptidyl peptidase IV...

  12. Retinopathy and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Juan E; Pistilli, Maxwell; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen; Daniel, Ebenezer; Whittock-Martin, Revell; Parker-Ostroff, Candace; Mohler, Emile; Lo, Joan C; Townsend, Raymond R; Gadegbeku, Crystal Ann; Lash, James Phillip; Fink, Jeffrey Craig; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John W; Xie, Dawei

    2015-11-15

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience other diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to assess whether retinopathy predicts future CVD events in a subgroup of the participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. In this ancillary investigation, 2,605 participants of the CRIC study were invited to participate, and nonmydriatic fundus photographs were obtained in 1,936 subjects. Using standard protocols, presence and severity of retinopathy (diabetic, hypertensive, or other) and vessel diameter caliber were assessed at a central photograph reading center by trained graders masked to study participant's information. Patients with a self-reported history of cardiovascular disease were excluded. Incident CVD events were adjudicated using medical records. Kidney function measurements, traditional and nontraditional risk factors, for CVD were obtained. Presence and severity of retinopathy were associated with increased risk of development of any CVD in this population of CKD patients, and these associations persisted after adjustment for traditional risk factors for CVD. We also found a direct relation between increased venular diameter and risk of development of CVD; however, the relation was not statistically significant after adjustment for traditional risk factors. In conclusion, the presence of retinopathy was associated with future CVD events, suggesting that retinovascular pathology may be indicative of macrovascular disease even after adjustment for renal dysfunction and traditional CVD risk factors. Assessment of retinal morphology may be valuable in assessing risk of CVD in patients with CKD, both clinically and in research settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Perinatally administered losartan augments renal ACE2 expression but not cardiac or renal Mas receptor in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, Jan; Olvedy, Michael; Ochodnicka-Mackovicova, Katarina; Kruzliak, Peter; Cacanyiova, Sona; Kristek, Frantisek; Krenek, Peter; Ochodnicky, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Since the identification of the alternative angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a new complex target for a pharmacological intervention. We investigated the expression of RAS components in the heart and kidney during the development of hypertension and its perinatal treatment with losartan in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Expressions of RAS genes were studied by the RT-PCR in the left ventricle and kidney of rats: normotensive Wistar, untreated SHR, SHR treated with losartan since perinatal period until week 9 of age (20 mg/kg/day) and SHR treated with losartan only until week 4 of age and discontinued until week 9. In the hypertrophied left ventricle of SHR, cardiac expressions of Ace and Mas were decreased while those of AT1 receptor (Agtr1a) and Ace2 were unchanged. Continuous losartan administration reduced LV weight (0.43 ± 0.02; P losartan administration lowered blood pressure to control levels (105 ± 3 mmHg; P losartan was unrelated to cardiac or renal expression of Mas. Increased renal Ace2, and its further increase by losartan suggests the influence of locally generated Ang-(1-7) in organ response to the developing hypertension in SHRs. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  14. Preoperative Renal Insufficiency: Underreporting and Association With Readmission and Major Postoperative Morbidity in an Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, Jeanna D; Shoham, Marny H; Fang, Yixin; Narine, Venod; Mehta, Neeraj; Sharma, Beamy S; Shekane, Paul; Kendale, Samir

    2016-12-01

    Making a formal diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the preoperative setting may be challenging because of lack of longitudinal data. We explored the predictive value of a single reduced preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) value on adverse patient outcomes in the first 30 days after elective surgery. We compared the rate of major postoperative adverse events, including 30-day readmission rate, hospital length of stay, infection, acute kidney injury (AKI), and myocardial infarction across patients with declining preoperative eGFR values. We hypothesized that there is an association between decreasing preoperative eGFR values and major postoperative morbidity including readmission within 30 days of discharge and that the reasons for unplanned readmissions may be associated with poor preoperative renal function. This was a retrospective analysis of the electronic health record of 39 989 adult patients who underwent elective surgery between June 2011 and July 2013 at our institution. Patients with reduced eGFR (insufficiency may be underreported and appears to be significantly associated with postoperative complications. It extends the association between a single low preoperative eGFR and postoperative morbidity to a broader range of surgical populations than previously described. Our results suggest that preoperative calculation of eGFR may be a relatively low-cost, readily available tool to identify patients who are at an increased risk of readmission within 30 days of surgery and postoperative morbidity in patients presenting for elective surgery.

  15. Thoracic combined spinal epidural anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a geriatric patient with ischemic heart disease and renal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nandita Mehta, Sunana Gupta, Atul Sharma, Mohd Reidwan Dar Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Acharya Shri Chander College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India Abstract: Older people undergoing any surgery have a higher incidence of morbidity and mortality, resulting from a decline in physiological reserves, associated comorbidities, polypharmacy, cognitive dysfunction, and frailty. Most of the clinical trials comparing regional versus general anesthesia in elderly have failed to establish superiority of any single technique. However, the ideal approach in elderly is to be least invasive, thus minimizing alterations in homeostasis. The goal of anesthetic management in laparoscopic procedures includes management of pneumoperitoneum, achieving an adequate level of sensory blockade without any respiratory compromise, management of shoulder tip pain, provision of adequate postoperative pain relief, and early ambulation. Regional anesthesia fulfills all the aforementioned criteria and aids in quick recovery and thus has been suggested to be a suitable alternative to general anesthesia for laparoscopic surgeries, particularly in patients who are at high risk while under general anesthesia or for patients unwilling to undergo general anesthesia. In conclusion, we report results of successful management with thoracic combined spinal epidural for laparoscopic cholecystectomy of a geriatric patient with ischemic heart disease with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and renal insufficiency. Keywords: geriatric anesthesia, bupivacaine, segmental anesthesia, laparoscopic surgery

  16. NTP technical report on renal toxicity studies of selected halogenated ethanes administered by gavage to f344/n rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, J.R.

    1996-02-01

    The National Cancer Institute and National Toxicology Program have performed 2-year toxicology and carcinogenesis studies with a number of ethanes substituted with chloride or bromine. A review of the results of studies with these halogenated ethanes has revealed several consistencies between the pattern of halogen substitution and neoplastic responses in some affected organs. One of these consistencies was the finding of a modest increase in the incidence of renal tubule cell neoplasms in male rats administered penta- or hexachloroethane. Certain aspects of the nephrophathy also noted in these studies resembled what is now recognized as a distinct hyaline droplet nephropathy typically associatd with the accumulation of alpha-globulin in renal tubule cells. In an attempt to determine some of the structure activity relationships involved in the induction of hyaline droplet nephropathy by halogenated ethanes, a series of commercially available ethanes substituted with three or more chlorines, four or more bromines, or a combination of chlorines and fluorines was studied in a short-term renal toxicity assessment in male F344/N rats.

  17. Moderately Decreased Dietary Salt Intake Suppresses the Progression of Renal Insufficiency in Rats with 5/6 Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Burkert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Up to now, an appropriate salt intake in renal insufficiency has not been clearly determined. We hypothesize that even a moderate decrease in salt intake may affect functional and morphologic response of the rat remnant kidney after 5/6 nephrectomy. Methods. Subtotal nephrectomy was performed in 77 inbred 12 week-old-female AVN Wistar rats. The two groups of rats were fed either a standard or a low salt diet. Median of salt intake was 14.6 and 10.4 mg/100 g/24 h in the two groups. Results. Ten weeks after ablation, the remnant kidney parenchyma wet weight was 0.66 ± 0.16 g/100 g of body weight and 0.56 ± 0.11 g/100 g of body weight (P<0.01 in rats with a standard and low salt diet, respectively. In these two groups, systolic blood pressure was 151 ± 29 versus 126 ± 21 mmHg (P<0.05, serum creatinine levels were 164 ± 84 versus 106 ± 29 µmol/L (P<0.001, proteinuria was 84 ± 37 versus 83 ± 40 mg/100 g/24 h (N.S., and the glomerular injury score was 2.06 ± 0.49 versus 1.43 ± 0.62 (P<0.01, respectively. Conclusion. Moderately decreased salt intake slowed down the development of ablation nephropathy in AVN inbred strain of rats.

  18. Recruitment of Hispanics into an observational study of chronic kidney disease: the Hispanic Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Claudia M; Ricardo, Ana C; Brecklin, Carolyn S; Fischer, Michael J; Rosman, Robert T; Carmona, Eunice; Lopez, Amada; Balaram, Manjunath; Nessel, Lisa; Tao, Kaixiang Kelvin; Xie, Dawei; Kusek, John W; Go, Alan S; Lash, James P

    2012-11-01

    Despite the large burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Hispanics, this population has been underrepresented in research studies. We describe the recruitment strategies employed by the Hispanic Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study, which led to the successful enrollment of a large population of Hispanic adults with CKD into a prospective observational cohort study. Recruitment efforts by bilingual staff focused on community clinics with Hispanic providers in high-density Hispanic neighborhoods in Chicago, academic medical centers, and private nephrology practices. Methods of publicizing the study included church meetings, local Hispanic print media, Spanish television and radio stations, and local health fairs. From October 2005 to July 2008, we recruited 327 Hispanics aged 21-74 years with mild-to-moderate CKD as determined by age-specific estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Of 716 individuals completing a screening visit, 49% did not meet eGFR inclusion criteria and 46% completed a baseline visit. The mean age at enrollment was 57.1 and 67.1% of participants were male. Approximately 75% of enrolled individuals were Mexican American, 15% Puerto Rican, and 10% had other Latin American ancestry. Eighty two percent of participants were Spanish-speakers. Community-based and academic primary care clinics yielded the highest percentage of participants screened (45.9% and 22.4%) and enrolled (38.2% and 24.5%). However, academic and community-based specialty clinics achieved the highest enrollment yield from individuals screened (61.9% to 71.4%). A strategy focused on primary care and nephrology clinics and the use of bilingual recruiters allowed us to overcome barriers to the recruitment of Hispanics with CKD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Candidate Gene Association Study of Coronary Artery Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jane F; Matthews, Gregory J; Townsend, Raymond R; Raj, Dominic S; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Budoff, Matthew; Fischer, Michael J; Rosas, Sylvia E; Kanthety, Radhika; Rahman, Mahboob; Master, Stephen R; Qasim, Atif; Li, Mingyao; Mehta, Nehal N.; Shen, Haiqing; Mitchell, Braxton D; O’Connell, Jeffrey R; Shuldiner, Alan R; Ho, Weang Kee; Young, Robin; Rasheed, Asif; Danesh, John; He, Jiang; Kusek, John W; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Flack, John; Go, Alan S; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Wright, Jackson T; Saleheen, Danish; Feldman, Harold I; Rader, Daniel J; Foulkes, Andrea S; Reilly, Muredach P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify loci for coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Background CKD is associated with increased CAC and subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) but the mechanisms remain poorly defined. Genetic studies of CAC in CKD may provide a useful strategy for identifying novel pathways in CHD. Methods We performed a candidate gene study (~2,100 genes; ~50,000 SNPs) of CAC within the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study (n=1,509; 57% European, 43% African ancestry). SNPs with preliminary evidence of association with CAC in CRIC were examined for association with CAC in PennCAC (n=2,560) and Amish Family Calcification Study (AFCS; n=784) samples. SNPs with suggestive replication were further analyzed for association with myocardial infarction (MI) in the Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction study (PROMIS) (n=14,885). Results Of 268 SNPs reaching P <5×10−4 for CAC in CRIC, 28 SNPs in 23 loci had nominal support (P <0.05 and in same direction) for CAC in PennCAC or AFCS. Besides chr9p21 and COL4A1, known loci for CHD, these included SNPs having reported GWAS association with hypertension (e.g., ATP2B1). In PROMIS, four of the 23 suggestive CAC loci (chr9p21, COL4A1, ATP2B1 and ABCA4) had significant associations with MI consistent with their direction of effect on CAC. Conclusions We identified several loci associated with CAC in CKD that also relate to MI in a general population sample. CKD imparts a high risk of CHD and may provide a useful setting for discovery of novel CHD genes and pathways. PMID:23727086

  20. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Left Ventricular Structure and Function in Chronic Kidney Disease: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faraz S; Cai, Xuan; Kunkel, Katherine; Ricardo, Ana C; Lash, James P; Raj, Dominic S; He, Jiang; Anderson, Amanda H; Budoff, Matthew J; Wright Nunes, Julie A; Roy, Jason; Wright, Jackson T; Go, Alan S; St John Sutton, Martin G; Kusek, John W; Isakova, Tamara; Wolf, Myles; Keane, Martin G

    2017-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and it is especially common among Blacks. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an important subclinical marker of CVD, but there are limited data on racial variation in left ventricular structure and function among persons with CKD. In a cross-sectional analysis of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study, we compared the prevalence of different types of left ventricular remodeling (concentric hypertrophy, eccentric hypertrophy, and concentric remodeling) by race/ethnicity. We used multinomial logistic regression to test whether race/ethnicity associated with different types of left ventricular remodeling independently of potential confounding factors. We identified 1,164 non-Hispanic Black and 1,155 non-Hispanic White participants who completed Year 1 visits with echocardiograms that had sufficient data to categorize left ventricular geometry type. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks had higher mean left ventricular mass index (54.7 ± 14.6 vs. 47.4 ± 12.2 g/m2.7; P 3 antihypertensive medications, Black race/ethnicity was independently associated with higher odds of concentric LVH compared to White race/ethnicity (odds ratio: 2.73; 95% confidence interval: 2.02, 3.69). In a large, diverse cohort with CKD, we found significant differences in left ventricular mass and hypertrophic morphology between non-Hispanic Blacks and Whites. Future studies will evaluate whether higher prevalence of LVH contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular outcomes among CKD patients.

  1. Etelcalcetide, A Novel Calcimimetic, Prevents Vascular Calcification in A Rat Model of Renal Insufficiency with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Longchuan; Tomlinson, James E; Alexander, Shawn T; Hensley, Kelly; Han, Chun-Ya; Dwyer, Denise; Stolina, Marina; Dean, Charles; Goodman, William G; Richards, William G; Li, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    Etelcalcetide, a novel peptide agonist of the calcium-sensing receptor, prevents vascular calcification in a rat model of renal insufficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Vascular calcification occurs frequently in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is a consequence of impaired mineral homeostasis and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Etelcalcetide substantially lowers parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) levels in SHPT patients on hemodialysis. This study compared the effects of etelcalcetide and paricalcitol on vascular calcification in rats with adenine-induced CKD and SHPT. Uremia and SHPT were induced in male Wistar rats fed a diet supplemented with 0.75% adenine for 4 weeks. Rats were injected with vehicle, etelcalcetide, or paricalcitol for 4 weeks from the beginning of adenine diet. Rats fed an adenine-free diet were included as nonuremic controls. Similar reductions in plasma PTH and parathyroid chief cell proliferation were observed in both etelcalcetide- and paricalcitol-treated rats. Serum calcium and phosphorus were significantly lower in etelcalcetide-treated uremic rats and was unchanged in paricalcitol-treated rats. Both serum FGF23 and aortic calcium content were significantly lower in etelcalcetide-treated uremic rats compared with either vehicle- or paricalcitol-treated uremic rats. The degree of aortic calcium content for etelcalcetide-treated rats was similar to that in nonuremic controls and corroborated findings of lack of histologic aortic mineralization in those groups. In conclusion, etelcalcetide and paricalcitol similarly attenuated progression of SHPT in an adenine rat model of CKD. However, etelcalcetide differentially prevented vascular calcification, at least in part, due to reductions in serum FGF23, calcium, and phosphorus levels.

  2. Vascular Risk Factors and Cognitive Impairment in Chronic Kidney Disease: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dawei; Yaffe, Kristine; Cohen, Debbie L.; Teal, Valerie; Kasner, Scott E.; Messé, Steven R.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.; Kusek, John; DeSalvo, Karen B.; Cornish-Zirker, Denise; Cohan, Janet; Seliger, Stephen L.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Go, Alan S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Cognitive impairment is common among persons with chronic kidney disease, but the extent to which nontraditional vascular risk factors mediate this association is unclear. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We conducted cross-sectional analyses of baseline data collected from adults with chronic kidney disease participating in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Modified Mini-Mental State Exam score >1 SD below the mean score. Results Among 3591 participants, the mean age was 58.2 ± 11.0 years, and the mean estimated GFR (eGFR) was 43.4 ± 13.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Cognitive impairment was present in 13%. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, prevalent vascular disease (stroke, coronary artery disease, and peripheral arterial disease) and traditional vascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and elevated cholesterol), an eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was associated with a 47% increased odds of cognitive impairment (odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.05, 2.05) relative to those with an eGFR 45 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m2. This association was attenuated and no longer significant after adjustment for hemoglobin concentration. While other nontraditional vascular risk factors including C-reactive protein, homocysteine, serum albumin, and albuminuria were correlated with cognitive impairment in unadjusted analyses, they were not significantly associated with cognitive impairment after adjustment for eGFR and other confounders. Conclusions The prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher among those with lower eGFR, independent of traditional vascular risk factors. This association may be explained in part by anemia. PMID:20930087

  3. Risk Factors for Heart Failure in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: The CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Shlipak, Michael; Anderson, Amanda; Roy, Jason A; Feldman, Harold I; Kallem, Radhakrishna Reddy; Kanthety, Radhika; Kusek, John W; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Ricardo, Ana C; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Wolf, Myles; Zhang, Xiaoming; Raj, Dominic; Hamm, Lee

    2017-05-17

    Heart failure is common in patients with chronic kidney disease. We studied risk factors for incident heart failure among 3557 participants in the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study. Kidney function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using serum creatinine, cystatin C, or both, and 24-hour urine albumin excretion. During an average of 6.3 years of follow-up, 452 participants developed incident heart failure. After adjustment for age, sex, race, and clinical site, hazard ratio (95% CI) for heart failure associated with 1 SD lower creatinine-based eGFR was 1.67 (1.49, 1.89), 1 SD lower cystatin C-based-eGFR was 2.43 (2.10, 2.80), and 1 SD higher log-albuminuria was 1.65 (1.53, 1.78), all Pkidney function measures were simultaneously included in the model, lower cystatin C-based eGFR and higher log-albuminuria remained significantly and directly associated with incidence of heart failure. After adjusting for eGFR, albuminuria, and other traditional cardiovascular risk factors, anemia (1.37, 95% CI 1.09, 1.72, P=0.006), insulin resistance (1.16, 95% CI 1.04, 1.28, P=0.006), hemoglobin A1c (1.27, 95% CI 1.14, 1.41, Pkidney disease. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. Blood Pressure and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis: The CRIC Study (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Nisha; McCulloch, Charles E; Lin, Feng; Alper, Arnold; Anderson, Amanda H; Cuevas, Magda; Go, Alan S; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Kusek, John W; Lora, Claudia M; Lustigova, Eva; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Townsend, Raymond R; Wright, Jackson; Xie, Dawei; Hsu, Chi-Yuan

    2017-08-01

    We recently reported a linear association between higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and risk of mortality in hemodialysis patients when SBP is measured outside of the dialysis unit (out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP), despite there being a U-shaped association between SBP measured at the dialysis unit (dialysis-unit-SBP) with risk of mortality. Here, we explored the relationship between SBP with cardiovascular events, which has important treatment implications but has not been well elucidated. Among 383 hemodialysis participants enrolled in the prospective CRIC study (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort), multivariable splines and Cox models were used to study the association between SBP and adjudicated cardiovascular events (heart failure, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and peripheral artery disease), controlling for differences in demographics, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and dialysis parameters. Dialysis-unit-SBP and out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP were modestly correlated (r=0.34; Pdialysis-unit-SBP and risk of cardiovascular events, with the nadir risk between 140 and 170 mm Hg. In contrast, there was a linear stepwise association between out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP with risk of cardiovascular events. Participants with out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP ≥128 mm Hg (top 2 quartiles) had >2-fold increased risk of cardiovascular events compared with those with out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP ≤112 mm Hg (3rd SBP quartile: adjusted hazard ratio, 2.08 [95% confidence interval, 1.12-3.87] and fourth SBP quartile: adjusted hazard ratio, 2.76 [95% confidence interval, 1.42-5.33]). In conclusion, among hemodialysis patients, although there is a U-shaped (paradoxical) association of dialysis-unit-SBP and risk of cardiovascular disease, there is a linear association of out-of-dialysis-unit-SBP with risk of cardiovascular disease. Out-of-dialysis-unit blood pressure provides key information and may be an important therapeutic target. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Feasibility of three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography-fluoroscopy image fusion technique in guiding complex endovascular aortic procedures in patients with renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwein, Adeline; Chinnadurai, Ponraj; Shah, Dipan J; Lumsden, Alan B; Bechara, Carlos F; Bismuth, Jean

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional image fusion of preoperative computed tomography (CT) angiography with fluoroscopy using intraoperative noncontrast cone-beam CT (CBCT) has been shown to improve endovascular procedures by reducing procedure length, radiation dose, and contrast media volume. However, patients with a contraindication to CT angiography (renal insufficiency, iodinated contrast allergy) may not benefit from this image fusion technique. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and fluoroscopy image fusion using noncontrast CBCT as a guidance tool during complex endovascular aortic procedures, especially in patients with renal insufficiency. All endovascular aortic procedures done under MRA image fusion guidance at a single-center were retrospectively reviewed. The patients had moderate to severe renal insufficiency and underwent diagnostic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging after gadolinium or ferumoxytol injection. Relevant vascular landmarks electronically marked in MRA images were overlaid on real-time two-dimensional fluoroscopy for image guidance, after image fusion with noncontrast intraoperative CBCT. Technical success, time for image registration, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, number of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) acquisitions before stent deployment or vessel catheterization, and renal function before and after the procedure were recorded. The image fusion accuracy was qualitatively evaluated on a binary scale by three physicians after review of image data showing virtual landmarks from MRA on fluoroscopy. Between November 2012 and March 2016, 10 patients underwent endovascular procedures for aortoiliac aneurysmal disease or aortic dissection using MRA image fusion guidance. All procedures were technically successful. A paired t-test analysis showed no difference between preimaging and postoperative renal function (P = .6). The mean time required for MRA-CBCT image

  6. Excessively High Hydration Volume May Not Be Associated With Decreased Risk of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Renal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Li, Hualong; Chen, Shiqun; Chen, Jiyan; Tan, Ning; Zhou, Yingling; Liu, Yuanhui; Ye, Piao; Ran, Peng; Duan, Chongyang; Chen, Pingyan

    2016-05-27

    No well-defined protocols currently exist regarding the optimal rate and duration of normal saline administration to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients with renal insufficiency. Hydration volume ratios (hydration volume/weight; HV/W) were calculated in 1406 patients with renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], 0.05) and even increased CI-AKI risk (HV/W >25 mL/kg: adjusted OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.24-3.59; P=0.006). Additionally, higher HV/W was significantly associated with an increased risk of death (Q4 vs Q1: adjusted hazard ratio, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.20-9.88; P=0.022). Excessively high hydration volume at routine speed might be associated with increased risk of CI-AKI and death post-PCI in patients with renal insufficiency. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  7. Drug dosing in patients with renal insufficiency in a hospital setting using electronic prescribing and automated reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anita L; Henriksen, Daniel P; Marinakis, Christianna

    2014-01-01

    In patients with impaired renal function, drug dose adjustment is often required. Non-adherence to clinical prescribing recommendations may result in severe adverse events. In previous studies, the prevalence rate of non-adherence to recommended dosing has been reported to be 19-67%. Using....... We conclude that despite implementation of electronic prescribing and automated reporting of eGFR, patients with renal insufficiency may still be exposed to inappropriate drug use, with potential increased risk of adverse effects. Initiatives to reduce medication errors such as the use of electronic...... the clinical support system Renbase(®) as reference, we investigated the use and dosing of drugs in patients with impaired renal function in a university hospital setting using electronic prescription and automatic reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In all, 232 patients with an e...

  8. Total Sulfur Amino Acid Requirements Are Not Altered in Children with Chronic Renal Insufficiency, but Minimum Methionine Needs Are Increased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Rajavel; Humayun, Mohammad A; Turner, Justine M; Rafii, Mahroukh; Langos, Veronika; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2017-10-01

    Background: The total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) and minimum Met requirements have been previously determined in healthy children. TSAA metabolism is altered in kidney disease. Whether TSAA requirements are altered in children with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is unknown.Objective: We sought to determine the TSAA (Met in the absence of Cys) requirements and minimum Met (in the presence of excess Cys) requirements in children with CRI.Methods: Five children (4 boys, 1 girl) aged 10 ± 2.6 y with CRI were randomly assigned to receive graded intakes of Met (0, 5, 10, 15, 25, and 35 mg · kg-1 · d-1) with no Cys in the diet. Four of the children (3 boys, 1 girl) were then randomly assigned to receive graded dietary intakes of Met (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 15 mg · kg-1 · d-1) with 21 mg · kg-1 · d-1 Cys. The mean TSAA and minimum Met requirements were determined by measuring the oxidation of l-[1-13C]Phe to 13CO2 (F13CO2). A 2-phase linear-regression crossover analysis of the F13CO2 data identified a breakpoint at minimal F13CO2 Urine samples collected from all study days and from previous studies of healthy children were measured for sulfur metabolites.Results: The mean and population-safe (upper 95% CI) intakes of TSAA and minimum Met in children with CRI were determined to be 12.6 and 15.9 mg · kg-1 · d-1 and 7.3 and 10.9 mg · kg-1 · d-1, respectively. In healthy school-aged children the mean and upper 95% CI intakes of TSAA and minimum Met were determined to be 12.9 and 17.2 mg · kg-1 · d-1 and 5.8 and 7.3 mg · kg-1 · d-1, respectively. A comparison of the minimum Met requirements between healthy children and children with CRI indicated significant (P requirement, suggesting reduced remethylation rates. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Disparate effects of mild, moderate, and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism on cancellous and cortical bone in rats with chronic renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M A; Chin, J; Miller, S C; Fox, J

    1998-09-01

    The subtotally nephrectomized rat has often been used to investigate the etiology and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (secondaryHPT), but it has been used less frequently to study the effects of secondaryHPT on bone. The recent development of a reliable and specific rat parathyroid hormone (PTH) immunoradiometric assay has provided an opportunity for a thorough investigation of the relationship between circulating, biologically active PTH, and the skeletal abnormalities that occur in chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). Rats were 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) or sham operated and fed diets with varying levels of Ca and P for 12-14 weeks to induce differing magnitudes of secondaryHPT. Parathyroid gland volume increased by 80%-90% in 5/6 Nx rats in the mild and moderate secondaryHPT groups (2.3- and 7.7-fold higher PTH levels, respectively) and by 3.3-fold in the severe secondaryHPT group (12-fold increase in PTH). The increases in gland volume were caused primarily by cell hyperplasia. Mild secondaryHPT resulted in a 12% decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) across the entire femur, increased osteoclast numbers (N.Oc), unchanged osteoblast numbers (N.Ob), and decreased cancellous bone volume (Cn.BV) in the tibial metaphysis but, apart from increased marrow area, no major changes in cortical bone at the tibio-fibular junction. Moderate secondaryHPT was associated with no changes in femoral BMD, or in tibial Cn.BV, but N.Ob and bone formation rate (BFR) were markedly elevated. Increased periosteal, intracortical, and endocortical BFR and turnover were evident, and contributed to increased cortical porosity (Ct.Po). The changes were exaggerated in the severe secondaryHPT group; BMD was lower in the proximal, but higher in the distal femur, and Cn.BV, N.Ob, N.Oc, and BFR were increased by six-, seven-, three-, and 30-fold, respectively. Endocortical BFR was elevated 31-fold and the extensive Ct.Po (10%) decreased bone strength. However, Ct.Po was not apparent until

  10. Phosphate, fibroblast growth factor 23 and retinopathy in chronic kidney disease: the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rupal; Ying, Gui Shuang; Houston, Samuel; Isakova, Tamara; Nessel, Lisa; Ojo, Akinlolu; Go, Alan; Lash, Jim; Kusek, John; Grunwald, Juan; Wolf, Myles

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated circulating concentrations of phosphate and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Retinopathy is a common manifestation of microvascular disease in CKD, but its associations with phosphate and FGF23 have not been studied. We tested the hypothesis that higher serum phosphate is associated with more severe retinopathy in individuals with CKD, independent of FGF23 and known risk factors for retinopathy. Methods We tested the associations of serum phosphate and plasma FGF23 with retinopathy in a cross-sectional analysis of 1800 participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study who underwent fundus photography. Retinopathy severity was graded according to the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Severity score, and retinal venous and arterial diameters were measured. Results Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 46.5 ± 15.4 mL/min/1.73 m2, mean serum phosphate was 3.7 ± 0.6 mg/dl and median plasma C-terminal FGF23 was 133 RU/mL (interquartile range 87.2, 217.8 RU/mL). In multivariable ordinal logistic regression models, higher serum phosphate was associated with greater retinopathy severity independent of hypertension, diabetes, CKD severity and FGF23 [adjusted odds ratio of being in one higher category of retinopathy severity: 1.19 per 1 standard deviation increase; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05, 1.36; P = 0.007]. Presence of diabetes or hypertension did not modify the results. Higher serum phosphate was also independently associated with greater retinal venous diameter (multivariable-adjusted 1.70 µm increase per 1 standard deviation increase in phosphate; 95% CI 0.46, 2.93; P = 0.007). FGF23 levels were not independently associated with retinopathy severity or retinal venous diameter, and neither FGF23 nor phosphate was associated with retinal arterial diameter. Conclusions Among individuals with moderate-to-severe CKD

  11. Association of TGFβ1, TNFα, CCR2 and CCR5 gene polymorphisms in type-2 diabetes and renal insufficiency among Asian Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Arvind

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytokines play an important role in the development of diabetic chronic renal insufficiency (CRI. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF β1 induces renal hypertrophy and fibrosis, and cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα, chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and regulated upon activation and normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES mediate macrophage infiltration into kidney. Over expression of these chemokines leads to glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. The effect of MCP-1 and RANTES on kidney is conferred by their receptors i.e., chemokine receptor (CCR-2 and CCR-5 respectively. We tested association of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from TGFβ1, TNFα, CCR2 and CCR5 genes among individuals with type-2 diabetes with and without renal insufficiency. Methods Type-2 diabetes subjects with chronic renal insufficiency (serum creatinine ≥ 3.0 mg/dl constituted the cases, and matched individuals with diabetes of duration ≥ 10 years and normoalbuminuria were evaluated as controls from four centres in India. Allelic and genotypic contributions of nine SNPs from TGFβ1, TNFα, CCR2 and CCR5 genes to diabetic CRI were tested by computing odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Sub-analysis of CRI cases diabetic retinopathy status as dependent variable and SNP genotypes as independent variable in a univariate logistic regression was also performed. Results SNPs Tyr81His and Thr263Ile in TGF β1 gene were monomorphic, and Arg25Pro in TGF β1 gene and Δ32 polymorphism in CCR5 gene were minor variants (minor allele frequency A SNP of CCR5 gene has been observed and the allele 59029A seems to confer predisposition to development of diabetic CRI (OR 1.39; CI 1.04–1.84. In CRI subjects a compound group of genotypes "GA and AA" of SNP G>A -800 was found to confer predisposition for proliferative retinopathy (OR 3.03; CI 1.08–8.50, p = 0.035. Conclusion Of the various cytokine gene

  12. Polypharmacy and Renal Failure in Nursing Home Residents: Results of the Inappropriate Medication in Patients with Renal Insufficiency in Nursing Homes (IMREN) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörks, Michael; Herget-Rosenthal, Stefan; Schmiemann, Guido; Hoffmann, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Polypharmacy has become an emerging public health issue in recent years, since use of multiple medications or polypharmacy is beneficial for many conditions, but may also have negative effects like adverse drug reactions. The risk further increases in patients with chronic renal failure, a comorbidity very frequent in nursing home residents. Since more than 50% of all drugs were renally excreted, dose adjustments in patients with renal failure are required. To assess polypharmacy in German nursing homes, in particular in residents with renal failure. Multi-center cross-sectional study in 21 nursing homes in Bremen and Lower Saxony/Germany. Baseline data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Multivariable logistic regression model and 95% confidence intervals were used to study the association of renal failure and polypharmacy. Of all 852 residents, the analysis comprised those 685 with at least one serum creatinine value so that the estimated creatinine clearance could be calculated. Of those, 436 (63.6%) had a severe or moderate renal failure, defined as estimated creatinine clearance renal failure (estimated creatinine clearance renal failure are common in German nursing home residents and an association of both could be found. Further studies are needed to assess the appropriateness of polypharmacy in these patients.

  13. Ciliopathies with Skeletal Anomalies and Renal Insufficiency due to Mutations in the IFT-A Gene WDR19

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredrup, Cecilie; Saunier, Sophie; Oud, Machteld M.; Fiskerstrand, Torunn; Hoischen, Alexander; Brackman, Damien; Leh, Sabine M.; Midtbo, Marit; Filhol, Emilie; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Nitschke, Patrick; Gilissen, Christian; Haugen, Olav H.; Sanders, Jan-Stephan F.; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Mans, Dorus A.; Steenbergen, Eric J.; Hamel, Ben C. J.; Matignon, Marie; Pfundt, Rolph; Jeanpierre, Cecile; Boman, Helge; Rodahl, Eyvind; Veltman, Joris A.; Knappskog, Per M.; Knoers, Nine V. A. M.; Roepman, Ronald; Arts, Heleen H.

    2011-01-01

    A subset of ciliopathies, including Sensenbrenner, Jeune, and short-rib polydactyly syndromes are characterized by skeletal anomalies accompanied by multiorgan defects such as chronic renal failure and retinitis pigmentosa. Through exome sequencing we identified compound heterozygous mutations in

  14. Suboptimal medical care of patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Renal Insufficiency: results from the Korea acute Myocardial Infarction Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Joon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical outcomes of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI are poor in patients with renal insufficiency. This study investigated changes in the likelihood that patients received optimal medical care throughout the entire process of myocardial infarction management, on the basis of their glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Methods This study analyzed 7,679 patients (age, 63 ± 13 years; men 73.6% who had STEMI and were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR from November 2005 to August 2008. The study subjects were divided into 5 groups corresponding to strata used to define chronic kidney disease stages. Results Patients with lower GFR were less likely to present with typical chest pain. The average symptom-to-door time, door-to-balloon time, and symptom-to-balloon time were longer with lower GFR than higher GFR. Primary reperfusion therapy was performed less frequently and the results of reperfusion therapy were poorer in patients with renal insufficiency; these patients were less likely to receive adjunctive medical treatment, such as treatment with aspirin, clopidogrel, β-blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor/angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB, or statin, during hospitalization and at discharge. Patients who received less intense medical therapy had worse clinical outcomes than those who received more intense medical therapy. Conclusions Patients with STEMI and renal insufficiency had less chance of receiving optimal medical care throughout the entire process of MI management, which may contribute to worse outcomes in these patients.

  15. Evaluación nutricional de niños con insuficiencia renal aguda que reciben diálisis Nutritional assessment of children presenting with acute renal insufficiency and underwent to dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Silva Ferrera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La insuficiencia renal aguda se produce en horas o en algunos días, y durante su evolución se produce un deterioro del estado nutricional del paciente. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar el estado nutricional de niños con esta enfermedad que requirieron terapias de reemplazo renal. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y transversal que incluyó a los pacientes ingresados por insuficiencia renal aguda en dos hospitales pediátricos de Santiago de Cuba entre diciembre de 2006 y diciembre de 2008. Se analizó edad, sexo, etiología, terapia de reemplazo renal, causa del uso de nutrición parenteral, evaluación nutricional según tablas cubanas de percentiles y parámetros antropométricos (edad, peso, talla y aporte de nutrientes parenterales. RESULTADOS. Eventos prerrenales fueron la causa de la insuficiencia renal aguda en el 44,4 % de los casos, y renales y posrenales, en el 33,4 y 22,2 %, respectivamente. Como método de depuración renal se utilizó la diálisis peritoneal en el 66,6 % de los casos y la hemodiálisis en los restantes pacientes. Las principales causas que motivaron la nutrición parenteral fueron las afecciones quirúrgicas, los estados hipercatabólicos, la hemorragia digestiva y la pancreatitis, en orden decreciente. Cuatro pacientes fueron evaluados como de bajo peso. CONCLUSIONES. El aporte promedio de proteínas y lípidos estuvo por debajo de los aportes nutricionales establecidos, y el aporte de kilocalorías fue superior a lo recomendado. Se deben mejorar estos parámetros en el tratamiento de estos pacientes.INTRODUCTION: Acute renal insufficiency appears in hours or in a few days and during its course there is a deterioration of patient nutritional status. The aim of present study was to characterize the nutritional status of children with this disease requiring renal replacement therapies. METHODS: A crossed-sectional and retrospective study was conducted including the patients

  16. Screening for renal insufficiency following ESUR (European Society of Urogenital Radiology) guidelines with on-site creatinine measurements in an outpatient setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledermann, H.P.; Mengiardi, B.; Schmid, A. [IMAMED Radiologie Nordwest, Basel (Switzerland); Froehlich, J.M. [Guerbet AG, Medical Affairs, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Bern, Radiology Department, Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    To report the results and implications for workflow following introduction of ESUR guidelines to screen for potential renal insufficiency (RI) in private practice with on-site creatinine measurements. A total of 1,766 consecutive outpatients scheduled for contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) completed the ESUR questionnaire enquiring about kidney disease, renal surgery, proteinuria, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, gout or use of nephrotoxic drugs. Patients with positive risk factors underwent on-site creatinine measurement and calculation of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Attending radiologists adapted subsequent imaging depending on renal function and presence of risk factors. One or more ESUR risk factors were present in 796 (45.1%) patients, including hypertension (37.7%), nephrotoxic medication (21.3%), diabetes mellitus (8.0%), proteinuria (3.9%), renal disease (4.1%), gout (3.1%) and renal surgery (2.6%). Pre-procedural creatinine measurements revealed severe RI (eGFR < 30 ml min{sup -1} 1.73 m{sup -2}) in 10 (1.3%) and moderate RI (eGFR 30-59 ml min{sup -1} 1.73 m{sup -2}) in 106 (13.8%). Imaging work-up was adapted in 132 (16.6%) as follows: reduction of contrast material dose (n = 85), CT without contrast (n = 40), changeover to MRI (n = 3) or scintigraphy (n = 4). Screening for RI following ESUR guidelines requires creatinine measurements in nearly half of outpatients scheduled for CECT and reveals moderate to severe renal impairment in 6.6%. (orig.)

  17. Impact of renal insufficiency on mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabroe, Jonas Emil; Thayssen, Per; Antonsen, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is associated with increased risk of mortality. We examined the impact of moderate and severe renal insufficiency (RI) on short- and long-term mortality among unselected patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary...... and more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension and to present with a higher Killip class.Among patients with a preserved kidney function and patients with RI, 30-day all-cause mortality was 3.5% vs. 20.9% (log-rank p

  18. Persistent high serum bicarbonate and the risk of heart failure in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD): A report from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, Mirela; Yang, Wei; Pan, Qiang; Appel, Lawrence; Bellovich, Keith; Chen, Jing; Feldman, Harold; Fischer, Michael J; Ham, L L; Hostetter, Thomas; Jaar, Bernard G; Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Rosas, Sylvia E; Scialla, Julia J; Wolf, Myles; Rahman, Mahboob

    2015-04-20

    Serum bicarbonate varies over time in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and this variability may portend poor cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct a time-updated longitudinal analysis to evaluate the association of serum bicarbonate with long-term clinical outcomes: heart failure, atherosclerotic events, renal events (halving of estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] or end-stage renal disease), and mortality. Serum bicarbonate was measured annually, in 3586 participants with CKD, enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Marginal structural models were created to allow for integration of all available bicarbonate measurements and proper adjustment for time-dependent confounding. During the 6 years follow-up, 512 participants developed congestive heart failure (26/1000 person-years) and 749 developed renal events (37/1000 person-years). The risk of heart failure and death was significantly higher for participants who maintained serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L for the entire duration of follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 2.23, and HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.82, respectively) compared with participants who kept their bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L, after adjusting for demographics, co-morbidities, medications including diuretics, eGFR, and proteinuria. Participants who maintained serum bicarbonate renal disease progression (HR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.57) compared with participants with bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L. In this large CKD cohort, persistent serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L was associated with increased risk of heart failure events and mortality. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal range of serum bicarbonate in CKD to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. Case of multiple myeloma mimicking an infectious disease with fever, intrahepatic cholestasis, renal failure, and pulmonary insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Francesco S; Simone, Barbara; Giannelli, Gianluigi; Pesolo, MariaTeresa; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Gentile, Antonia; Antonaci, Salvatore

    2003-01-01

    We describe a case of multiple myeloma (MM) presenting with high fever, inflammatory chemistry abnormalities, simultaneous acute renal failure, cholestatic hepatitis, and acute lung failure. The extremely aggressive course and pulmonary involvement in the form of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) are discussed, stressing the unusual nature of the findings and the variable picture of MM. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Time-updated systolic blood pressure and the progression of chronic kidney disease: Findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Amanda H; Yang, Wei; Townsend, Raymond R; Pan, Qiang; Chertow, Glenn M; Kusek, John W; Charleston, Jeanne; He, Jiang; Kallem, RadhaKrishna; Lash, James P; Miller, Edgar R; Rahman, Mahboob; Steigerwalt, Susan; Weir, Matthew; Wright, Jackson T; Feldman, Harold I

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood pressure (BP) is often inadequately controlled in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Previous reports of the longitudinal association between achieved level of BP and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have not incorporated time-updated BP with appropriate adjustment for known confounders. Objective To assess the association between baseline and time-updated systolic BP (SBP) with the progression of CKD. Design Observational, prospective cohort study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00304148) Setting Seven US clinical centers Patients Participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study (N=3,708) followed for a median (25th, 75th percentiles) of 5.7 (4.6, 6.7) years Measurements The mean of three seated SBP measurements were used as the visit-specific SBP. SBP was time-updated as the mean of that visit and all prior visits. Outcomes were ESRD and the composite renal endpoint of ESRD (dialysis or transplantation) or halving of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Analyses investigating baseline and time-updated SBP utilized traditional Cox proportional hazards models and marginal structural models, respectively. Results SBP was ≥130 mmHg at all study visits in 19.2% of participants, and ≥140 mmHg in 10.6%. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for ESRD among participants with SBP 130–139 mmHg, compared to SBP Kidney Diseases, Clinical Translational Science Awards, and other NIH grants. PMID:25686166

  1. [Ischemia is not an independent predictive factor of chronic renal failure after partial nephrectomy in a solitary kidney in patients without pre-operative renal insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, R; Pignot, G; Hammoudi, Y; Bensalah, K; Oger, E; Laguna, P; Barwari, K; Bessède, T; Rigaud, J; Roupret, M; Bernhard, J-C; Long, J-A; Zisman, A; Berger, J; Paparel, P; Lechevallier, E; Bertini, R; Salomon, L; Bex, A; Farfara, R; Ljungberg, B; Rodriguez, A R; Patard, J-J

    2015-01-01

    To assess the influence of vascular clamping and ischemia time on long-term post-operative renal function following partial nephrectomy (PN) for cancer in a solitary kidney. This is a retrospective study including 259 patients managed by PN between 1979 and 2010 in 13 centers. Clamping use, technique choice (pedicular or parenchymal clamping), ischemia time, and peri-operative data were collected. Pre-operative and last follow-up glomerular filtration rates were compared. A multivariate analysis using a Cox model was performed to assess the impact of ischemia on post-operative chronic renal failure risk. Mean tumor size was 4.0±2.3cm and mean pre-operative glomerular filtration rate was 60.8±18.9mL/min. One hundred and six patients were managed with warm ischemia (40.9%) and 53 patients with cold ischemia (20.5%). Thirty patients (11.6%) have had a chronic kidney disease. In multivariate analysis, neither vascular clamping (P=0.44) nor warm ischemia time (P=0.1) were associated with a pejorative evolution of renal function. Pre-operative glomerular filtration rate (Prenal failure. Renal function following PN in a solitary kidney seems to depend on non-reversible factors such as pre-operative glomerular filtration rate. Our findings minimize the role of vascular clamping and ischemia time, which were not significantly associated with chronic renal failure risk in our study. 5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Association analysis of ADPRT1, AKR1B1, RAGE, GFPT2 and PAI-1 gene polymorphisms with chronic renal insufficiency among Asian Indians with type-2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Arvind

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine association of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in ADP ribosyltransferase-1 (ADPRT1, aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B1 (AKR1B1, receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE, glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase-2 (GFPT2, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 genes with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI among Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes; and to identify epistatic interactionss between genes from the present study and those from renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS, and chemokine-cytokine, dopaminergic and oxidative stress pathways (previously investigated using the same sample set. Methods Type 2 diabetes subjects with CRI (serum creatinine ≥3.0 mg/dl constituted the cases (n = 196, and ethnicity and age matched individuals with diabetes for a duration of ≥ 10 years, normal renal functions and normoalbuminuria recruited as controls (n = 225. Allelic and genotypic constitution of 10 polymorphisms (SNPs from five genes namely- ADPRT1, AKR1B1, RAGE, GFPT2 and PAI-1 with diabetic CRI was investigated. The genetic associations were evaluated by computation of odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to correlate various clinical parameters with genotypes, and to study epistatic interactions between SNPs in different genes. Results Single nucleotide polymorphisms -429 T>C in RAGE and rs7725 C>T SNP in 3' UTR in GFPT2 gene showed a trend towards association with diabetic CRI. Investigation using miRBase statistical tool revealed that rs7725 in GFPT2 was a perfect target for predicted miRNA (hsa miR-378 suggesting the presence of the variant 'T' allele may result in an upregulation of GFPT2 contributing to diabetic renal complication. Epistatic interaction between SNPs in transforming growth factor TGF-β1 (investigated using the same sample set and reported elsewhere and GFPT2 genotype was observed. Conclusions

  3. Maintenance treatment of renal anaemia in haemodialysis patients with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta versus darbepoetin alfa administered monthly: a randomized comparative trial

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera, Fernando; Charmaine E. Lok; de Francisco, Angel; Locatelli, Francesco; Mann, Johannes F.E.; Canaud, Bernard; Kerr, Peter G.; Macdougall, Iain C.; Besarab, Anatole; Villa, Giuseppe; Kazes, Isabelle; Van Vlem, Bruno; Jolly, Shivinder; Beyer, Ulrich; Dougherty, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Several studies with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents claim that maintenance therapy of renal anaemia may be possible at extended dosing intervals; however, few studies were randomized, results varied, and comparisons between agents were absent. We report results of a multi-national, randomized, prospective trial comparing haemoglobin maintenance with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and darbepoetin alfa administered once monthly. Methods. Haemodialysis patients (n = 490)...

  4. Immunohistochemical study of pathological alterations of peritoneum in patients with terminal renal insufficiency and on peritoneal dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trbojević-Stanković Jasna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. During peritoneal dialysis (PD an exchange of substances between blood and dialysate takes place through specific histological structures of peritoneum. Peritoneal double-layered serous membrane has, so far, mostly been studied with electron microscopy on experimental animals. The aim of this study was to assess integrity of peritoneal tissue in end-stage renal disease (ESRD and PD patients using standard light microscopy and immunohistochemical methods. Methods. Peritoneal tissue biopsies were performed on 25 persons: 8 healthy donors during nephrectomy, 9 ESRD patients upon insertion of PD catheter, and 8 PD patients upon removal of the catheter for medical indications. The samples were fixed and prepared routinely for immunocytochemical staining by standardized streptavidin biotin AEC method using a LSAB2® HRP kit (Dako®, Denmark for collagen IV and analyzed by light microscopy. Results. We observed mesothelial detachment from lamina propria, duplicated basement membrane and much thicker blood vessel walls in ESRD and PD patients, compared to healthy subjects. Differences in histological structure, emphasized with immunostaining, indicated pathological alterations of peritoneal tissue in the renal patients. Conclusions. Imunohistochemistry can be used in studying histological alterations of peritoneal tissue in ESRD and PD patients. This method may indicate possible problems in filtration and secretion processes in this tissue.

  5. Renal insufficiency is the leading cause of double maintenance (bevacizumab and pemetrexed) discontinuation for toxicity to advanced non-small cell lung cancer in real world setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassier, Marion; Dugué, Audrey Emmanuelle; Clarisse, Bénédicte; Lesueur, Paul; Avrillon, Virginie; Bizieux-Thaminy, Acya; Auliac, Jean-Bernard; Kaluzinski, Laure; Tillon, Julie; Robinet, Gilles; Le Caer, Hervé; Monnet, Isabelle; Madroszyk, Anne; Boza, Gabriella; Falchero, Lionel; Fournel, Pierre; Egenod, Thomas; Toffart, Anne-Claire; Leiber, Nathalie; Do, Pascal; Gervais, Radj

    2015-08-01

    In advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), maintenance therapy has emerged as a novel therapeutic reference for patients with non-progressive disease after platinum-based induction chemotherapy. However, the use of double maintenance (DM) with pemetrexed and bevacizumab is still being evaluated in terms of its clinical benefits and safety profile. The objective of this retrospective study was to describe the reasons for DM discontinuation in a real-world setting. Patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC were eligible if they had received at least 4 cycles of induction chemotherapy, followed by at least 1 cycle of DM. They were identified by using the oncology pharmacy database of 17 French centers. Eighty-one patients who began a DM after induction chemotherapy were identified from September 2009 to April 2013. Among the 78 patients who had stopped DM at the time of the analysis, the main reasons for discontinuation were disease progression (42%), adverse events (33%), and personal preference (8%). The most frequent toxicity responsible for DM discontinuation was renal insufficiency (54%). For patients with advanced NSCLC eligible for DM therapy, a particular attention should be paid to potential renal failure. Kidney function should be monitored carefully before and during DM to detect and manage early this adverse event. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lipoprotein(a) and Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Death in Chronic Kidney Disease: Findings From the CRIC Study (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Archna; Damrauer, Scott M; Anderson, Amanda H; Xie, Dawei; Budoff, Matthew J; Go, Alan S; He, Jiang; Lash, James P; Ojo, Akinlolu; Post, Wendy S; Rahman, Mahboob; Reilly, Muredach P; Saleheen, Danish; Townsend, Raymond R; Chen, Jinbo; Rader, Daniel J

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the effect of LPA gene variants and renal function on lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels in people with chronic kidney disease and determine the association between elevated Lp(a) and myocardial infarction and death in this setting. The CRIC Study (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) is an ongoing prospective study of 3939 participants with chronic kidney disease. In 3635 CRIC participants with genotype data, carriers of the rs10455872 or rs6930542 variants had a higher median Lp(a) level (mg/dL) compared with noncarriers (73 versus 23; P61.3. There were 315 myocardial infarctions and 822 deaths during a median follow-up of 7.5 years. The second quartile had the lowest event rate. After adjusting for potential confounders and using a Cox proportional hazards model, the highest quartile of Lp(a) was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.11), death (hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.57), and the composite outcome (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.56) compared with the second quartile of Lp(a). Among adults with chronic kidney disease, elevated Lp(a) is independently associated with myocardial infarction and death. Future studies exploring pharmacological Lp(a) reduction in this population are warranted. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Renal insufficiency following contrast media administration trial II (REMEDIAL II): RenalGuard system in high-risk patients for contrast-induced acute kidney injury: rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguori, Carlo; Visconti, Gabriella; Ricciardelli, Bruno; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2011-04-01

    The combined prophylactic strategy of sodium bicarbonate plus N-acetylsyteine (NAC) seems to be effective in preventing contrast induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients at low-to-medium risk. However, in patients at high and very high risk the rate of CI-AKI is still high. In this subset of patients the anticipated advantages of the RenalGuard(tm) System should be investigated. The RenalGuard(tm) System (PLC Medical Systems, Inc., Franklin, MA, USA) is a real-time measurement and real time matched fluid replacement device designed to accommodate the RenalGuard therapy, which is based on the theory that creating and maintaining a high urine output is beneficial by allowing a quick elimination of contrast media, and, therefore, reducing its toxic effects. The REMEDIAL II trial is a randomised, multicentre, investigator-sponsored trial addressing the hypothesis that the RenalGuard System is superior to the prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate infusion plus NAC in preventing CI-AKI in high and very high risk patients. Consecutive patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and at high to very high risk for CI-AKI, referred to our institutions for coronary and/or peripheral procedures, will be randomly assigned to 1) prophylactic administration of sodium bicarbonate plus NAC (control group) and 2) RenalGuard System treatment (RenalGuard group). All enrolled patients must have an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤ 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 and/or a contrast nephropathy risk score ≥ 11. In all cases iodixanol (an iso-osmolar, non-ionic contrast agent) will be administered. The primary endpoint is an increase of ≥ 0.3 mg/dL in the serum creatinine concentration 48 hours after the procedure. The REMEDIAL II trial will give important answers on how to prevent CI-AKI in high and very high risk patients undergoing contrast media exposure.

  8. Urine Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Death in CKD: Results From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kathleen D.; Yang, Wei; Go, Alan S.; Anderson, Amanda H.; Feldman, Harold I.; Fischer, Michael J.; He, Jiang; Kallem, Radhakrishna R.; Kusek, John W.; Master, Stephen R.; Miller, Edgar R.; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Steigerwalt, Susan; Tao, Kaixiang; Weir, Matthew R.; Hsu, Chi-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease is common and associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Currently, markers of renal tubular injury are not used routinely to describe kidney health and little is known about risk of cardiovascular events and death associated with these biomarkers independent of glomerular filtration—based markers (such as serum creatinine or albuminuria). Study Design Cohort study, Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. Setting & Participants 3386 participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate of 20-70 mL/min/1.73 m2 enrolled from June 2003 through August 2008. Predictor Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) concentration. Outcomes Adjudicated heart failure event, ischemic atherosclerotic event (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke or peripheral artery disease) and death through March 2011. Measurements Urine NGAL concentration measured at baseline with a two-step assay using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay technology on an ARCHITECT i2000SR (Abbott Laboratories). Results There were 428 heart failure events (during 16383 person-years of follow-up), 361 ischemic atherosclerotic events (during 16584 person-years of follow-up) and 522 deaths (during 18214 person-years of follow-up). In Cox regression models adjusted for estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, demographics, traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiac medications, higher urine NGAL levels remained independently associated with ischemic atherosclerotic events (adjusted HR for the highest [>49.5 ng/ml] vs. lowest [≤6.9 ng/ml] quintile, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.20-2.81]; HR, per 0.1-unit increase in log urine NGAL, 1.012 [95% CI, 1.001-1.023]), but not heart failure events or deaths. Limitations Urine NGAL was measured only once. Conclusions Among patients with chronic kidney disease, urine levels of NGAL, a marker of renal tubular injury, were independently associated with future ischemic atherosclerotic

  9. Prevalence and Prognostic Significance of Apparent Treatment Resistant Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease: Report From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George; Xie, Dawei; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Anderson, Amanda H; Appel, Lawrence J; Bodana, Shirisha; Brecklin, Carolyn S; Drawz, Paul; Flack, John M; Miller, Edgar R; Steigerwalt, Susan P; Townsend, Raymond R; Weir, Matthew R; Wright, Jackson T; Rahman, Mahboob

    2016-02-01

    The association between apparent treatment resistant hypertension (ATRH) and clinical outcomes is not well studied in chronic kidney disease. We analyzed data on 3367 hypertensive participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) to determine prevalence, associations, and clinical outcomes of ATRH in nondialysis chronic kidney disease patients. ATRH was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥3 antihypertensives, or use of ≥4 antihypertensives with blood pressure at goal at baseline visit. Prevalence of ATRH was 40.4%. Older age, male sex, black race, diabetes mellitus, and higher body mass index were independently associated with higher odds of having ATRH. Participants with ATRH had a higher risk of clinical events than participants without ATRH-composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, congestive heart failure (CHF), and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.38 [1.22-1.56]); renal events (1.28 [1.11-1.46]); CHF (1.66 [1.38-2.00]); and all-cause mortality (1.24 [1.06-1.45]). The subset of participants with ATRH and blood pressure at goal on ≥4 medications also had higher risk for composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, CHF, and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], (1.30 [1.12-1.51]) and CHF (1.59 [1.28-1.99]) than those without ATRH. ATRH was associated with significantly higher risk for CHF and renal events only among those with estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Our findings show that ATRH is common and associated with high risk of adverse outcomes in a cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease. This underscores the need for early identification and management of patients with ATRH and chronic kidney disease. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Clinical effect of trimetazidine on prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with renal insufficiency: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ziliang; Lu, Haili; Su, Qiang; Guo, Wenqin; Dai, Weiran; Li, Hongqing; Yang, Huafeng; Li, Lang

    2017-03-01

    With the continuous development of cardiac interventional medicine, the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is increasing every year, which is a serious threat to people's physical and mental health. Trimetazidine (TMZ) is a type of anti-ischemic drug developed in recent years, which can significantly reduce the incidence of CIN. At present, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the clinical effect of TMZ on prevention of CIN in patients with renal insufficiency. However, the study did not include patients from other countries and speaking different languages. So we conducted this study to update the previous meta-analysis that investigated the effects of TMZ on prevention of CIN in patients with renal insufficiency, and provided some theoretical reference for clinical. By searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, VIP database, and Wang Fang database for randomized controlled trial, which is comparing TMZ versus conventional hydration for prevention of CIN. Two researchers independently screened literature, and then evaluated the quality of literature and extracted the relevant data. Stata 11.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Finally, this updated review showed that 3 studies that were not included in the previous meta-analysis were included in our study (3 articles were published in the Chinese Journal, 1 study for CIN, 1 study for CIN, serum creatinine (Scr), and superoxide dismutase, 1 study for CIN and Scr), and 1 outcome (Scr) reflecting the change of renal function was additionally included in our study. Of the 932 studies, 6 randomized controlled trials met the criteria, including 377 patients in TMZ group and 387 patients in control group. This meta-analysis for all studies showed that TMZ can significantly reduce the incidence of CIN (relative risk 0.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16, 0.46, P = 0.000), and can decrease the level of Scr after operation, including Scr

  11. Pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine administered to patients with end-stage renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, W; Zhang, Y; Zhang, M-Z; Huang, X-H; Li, Y; Li, R; Liu, Q-W

    2017-12-16

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine in patients with end-stage renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism with those in normal individuals. Fifteen patients with end-stage renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism (Renal-failure Group) and 8 patients with normal renal and parathyroid gland function (Control Group) received intravenous 0.6 μg/kg dexmedetomidine for 10 minutes before anaesthesia induction. Arterial blood samples for plasma dexmedetomidine concentration analysis were drawn at regular intervals after the infusion was stopped. The pharmacokinetics were analysed using a nonlinear mixed-effect model with NONMEM software. The statistical significance of covariates was examined using the objective function (-2 log likelihood). In the forward inclusion and backward deletion, covariates (age, weight, sex, height, lean body mass [LBM], body surface area [BSA], body mass index [BMI], plasma albumin and grouping factor [renal failure or not]) were tested for significant effects on pharmacokinetic parameters. The validity of our population model was also evaluated using bootstrap simulations. The dexmedetomidine concentration-time curves fitted best with the principles of a two-compartmental pharmacokinetic model. No covariate of systemic clearance further improved the model. The final pharmacokinetic parameter values were as follows: V1  = 60.6 L, V2  = 222 L, Cl1  = 0.825 L/min and Cl2  = 4.48 L/min. There was no influence of age, weight, sex, height, LBM, BSA, BMI, plasma albumin and grouping factor (renal failure or not) on pharmacokinetic parameters. Although the plasma albumin concentrations (35.46 ± 4.13 vs 44.10 ± 1.12 mmol/L, respectively, P Renal-failure Group than in the Control Group (81.68 ± 18.08 vs 63.07 ± 13.45 μg/kg/min, respectively, P renal failure and hyperparathyroidism were similar to those in patients with normal renal function. Further studies

  12. Renal Osteodystrophy

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    Aynur Metin Terzibaşoğlu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency is a functional definition which is characterized by irreversible and progressive decreasing in renal functions. This impairment is in collaboration with glomeruler filtration rate and serum creatinine levels. Besides this, different grades of bone metabolism disorders develop in chronic renal insufficiency. Pathologic changes in bone tissue due to loss of renal paranchyme is interrelated with calcium, phosphorus vitamine-D and parathyroid hormone. Clinically we can see high turnover bone disease, low turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis and osteoporosis in renal osteodystropy. In this article we aimed to review pathology of bone metabolism disorders due to chronic renal insufficiency, clinic aspects and treatment approaches briefly.

  13. Comparison of the effects of dexmedetomidine administered at two different times on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

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    Edip Gonullu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: We investigated the effect of dexmedetomidine on ischemic renal failure in rats. Methods: In the present study, 26 male adult Wistar albino rats weighting 230-300 g were randomly separated into four groups: sham-operated (n = 5, ischemia reperfusion (IR (IR group, n = 7, IR/reperfusion treatment with dexmedetomidine (Dex. R group, n = 7 and IR/pre-ischemic treatment with dexmedetomidine (Dex. I group, n = 7. In the first group, sham operation was achieved and renal clamps were not applied. For the IR group, renal ischemia was induced by occlusion of the bilateral renal arteries and veins for 60 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. For the Dex. R and Dex. I groups, the same surgical procedure as in the IR group was performed, and dexmedetomidine (100 mcg/kg intraperitoneal was administrated at the 5th min after reperfusion and before ischemia. At the end of reperfusion, blood samples were drawn, the rats were sacrificed, and the left kidney was processed for histopathology. Results: The blood urea nitrogen (BUN levels in groups Dex. R and Dex. I were significantly lower than in the IR group (p = 0.015, p = 0.043, although urine flow was significantly higher in group Dex. R (p = 0.003. The renal histopathological score in the IR group was significantly higher than in the other groups. There was no significant difference between the Dex. R and Dex. I groups. Conclusions: The results were shown that administration of dexmedetomidine reduced the renal IR injury histomorphologically. Administration of dexmedetomidine in the reperfusion period was considered as more effective due to increase in urinary output and decrease in BUN levels.

  14. EVALUATION OF ODONTO-PERIODONTAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY (IRC TREATED BY HEMODIALYSIS (HD

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    Cerasella Dorina Şincar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the study was to evaluate the odontoperiodontal modifications observed in patients with renal pathology in terminal stage, installed as a result of several chronic systemic pathologies, subjected to either dialysis or transplants. Materials and method. The group of patients suffering from IRC included 42 persons (30 men and 12 women, with an average age of 42.6 ± 9.2 years, while the control group was formed of 88 patients (36 men and 52 women, with an average age of 41.3 ± 8.4 years. 28 patients with IRC were treated by HD – hemodialysis, 8 by DPAC – continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, and 6 by CCPD – continuous assisted cycle of peritoneal dialysis. The investigation was developed in the Specialized Policlinics of the „Sf. Apostol Andrei” Urgency Hospital of Galaţi. Results and discussion. The distribution of dialysed patients affected with IRC according to the type of therapy applied is the following: the highest ratio – 59% – is recorded for the patients treated by hemodialysis, followed by those subjected to ambulatory continuous peritoneal dialysis (DPAC and by those with continuous cycle assisted by peritoneal dialysis (CCDP. A statistically significant association was observed between the number of teeth covered by dental plaque or scale and the number of elements with bleeding on probing (r = 0.543, P<0.001 and r = 0.568, P<0.001, respectively. Conclusions: The study shows that the dialysed patients suffering from IRC are more susceptible to periodontal diseases, comparatively with those without IRC, which shows that maintaining of an optimum oral hygiene is essential.

  15. [HELLP syndrome requiring therapeutic plasma exchange due to progression to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome with predominant encephalopathy, respiratory and renal insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trávniková, M; Gumulec, J; Kořístek, Z; Navrátil, M; Janáč, M; Pelková, J; Šuráň, P; Doležálková, E; Šimetka, O

    2017-01-01

    Case report of woman with twin pregnancy complicated by HELLP syndrome which progressed to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome with predominant encephalopathy, renal and respiratory insufficiency with the need to perform repeated therapeutic plasma exchange. Case report. Department of gynecology and obstetrics, University Hospital in Ostrava; Departmet of hematooncology, University Hospital in Ostrava; Department of gynecology and obstetrics, Vsetín hospital; Department of hematology and transfusion, Vsetín Hospital. Case of 35-year-old III gravida/II para with previously normal ongoing twin bichorionic biamniotic pregnancy in week 35+0, which was admitted to secondary care delivery room for three days lasting "flu like" symptoms and the right upper quadrant pain. She was icteric, exhausted, but normotensive (120/75 mm Hg). Acute caesarean section was performed for suspected fetal hypoxia and HELLP syndrome. The laboratory exams confirmed coagulopathy and HELLP syndrome second class during the operation. Blood loss was 800 ml. Despite standard treatment of HELLP syndrome, the condition had developed to renal insufficiency, bilateral fluidothorax, alveolar pulmonary edema, encephalopathy and hypertension. In laboratory results dominates markers of coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia with presence of schistocytes. Due to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome with hemolysis of unclear origin, patient was transferred to referral hospital on sixth postoperative day. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPEX) was promptly begun. Improvement of laboratory parameters occurred already after the first TPEX and after two days there was a significant improvement of neurological status. Nine TPEX procedures were performed. The treatment was terminated after platelet count reached 100×109/l. She was discharged from hospital 21 days after delivery. After exclusion of other clinical entities, the case was closed as postpartum thrombotic microangiopathic

  16. Blood pressure and risk of all-cause mortality in advanced chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis: the chronic renal insufficiency cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Nisha; McCulloch, Charles E; Rahman, Mahboob; Kusek, John W; Anderson, Amanda H; Xie, Dawei; Townsend, Raymond R; Lora, Claudia M; Wright, Jackson; Go, Alan S; Ojo, Akinlolu; Alper, Arnold; Lustigova, Eva; Cuevas, Magda; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Hsu, Chi-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Studies of hemodialysis patients have shown a U-shaped association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mortality. These studies have largely relied on dialysis-unit SBP measures and have not evaluated whether this U-shape also exists in advanced chronic kidney disease, before starting hemodialysis. We determined the association between SBP and mortality at advanced chronic kidney disease and again after initiation of hemodialysis. This was a prospective study of Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort participants with advanced chronic kidney disease followed through initiation of hemodialysis. We studied the association between SBP and mortality when participants (1) had an estimated glomerular filtration rate Insufficiency Cohort study visit (n=326). Cox models were adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and dialysis parameters. A quadratic term for SBP was included to test for a U-shaped association. At advanced chronic kidney disease, there was no association between SBP and mortality (hazard ratio, 1.02 [95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.07] per every 10 mm Hg increase). Among participants who started hemodialysis, a U-shaped association between dialysis-unit SBP and mortality was observed. In contrast, there was a linear association between out-of-dialysis-unit SBP and mortality (hazard ratio, 1.26 [95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.40] per every 10 mm Hg increase). In conclusion, more efforts should be made to obtain out-of-dialysis-unit SBP, which may merit more consideration as a target for clinical management and in interventional trials. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Abrupt Decline in Kidney Function Before Initiating Hemodialysis and All-Cause Mortality: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Raymond K; Chai, Boyang; Roy, Jason A; Anderson, Amanda H; Bansal, Nisha; Feldman, Harold I; Go, Alan S; He, Jiang; Horwitz, Edward J; Kusek, John W; Lash, James P; Ojo, Akinlolu; Sondheimer, James H; Townsend, Raymond R; Zhan, Min; Hsu, Chi-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    It is not clear whether the pattern of kidney function decline in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may relate to outcomes after reaching end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We hypothesize that an abrupt decline in kidney function prior to ESRD predicts early death after initiating maintenance hemodialysis therapy. Prospective cohort study. The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study enrolled men and women with mild to moderate CKD. For this study, we studied 661 individuals who developed chronic kidney failure that required hemodialysis therapy initiation. The primary predictor was the presence of an abrupt decline in kidney function prior to ESRD. We incorporated annual estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) into a mixed-effects model to estimate patient-specific eGFRs at 3 months prior to initiation of hemodialysis therapy. Abrupt decline was defined as having an extrapolated eGFR≥30mL/min/1.73m(2) at that time point. All-cause mortality within 1 year after initiating hemodialysis therapy. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards. Among 661 patients with CKD initiating hemodialysis therapy, 56 (8.5%) had an abrupt predialysis decline in kidney function and 69 died within 1 year after initiating hemodialysis therapy. After adjustment for demographics, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer, abrupt decline in kidney function was associated with a 3-fold higher risk for death within the first year of ESRD (adjusted HR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.65-5.76). Relatively small number of outcomes; infrequent (yearly) eGFR determinations; lack of more granular clinical data. Abrupt decline in kidney function prior to ESRD occurred in a significant minority of incident hemodialysis patients and predicted early death in ESRD. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Imaging of insufficiency fractures

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    Krestan, Christian [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Waehringerstr. 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: christian.krestan@meduniwien.ac.at; Hojreh, Azadeh [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Waehringerstr. 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-09-15

    This review focuses on the occurrence, imaging and differential diagnosis of insufficiency fractures. Prevalence, the most common sites of insufficiency fractures and their clinical implications are discussed. Insufficiency fractures occur with normal stress exerted on weakened bone. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most common cause of insufficiency fractures. Other conditions which affect bone turnover include osteomalacia, hyperparathyroidism, chronic renal failure and high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. It is a challenge for the radiologist to detect and diagnose insufficiency fractures, and to differentiate them from other bone lesions. Radiographs are still the most widely used imaging method for identification of insufficiency fractures, but sensitivity is limited, depending on the location of the fractures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a very sensitive tool to visualize bone marrow abnormalities associated with insufficiency fractures. Thin section, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) depicts subtle fracture lines allowing direct visualization of cortical and trabecular bone. Bone scintigraphy still plays a role in detecting fractures, with good sensitivity but limited specificity. The most important differential diagnosis is underlying malignant disease leading to pathologic fractures. Bone densitometry and clinical history may also be helpful in confirming the diagnosis of insufficiency fractures.

  19. [The condition of the oxidant-antioxidant system of plasma and of blood erythrocytes in patients with severe renal insufficiency, anuria stage, due to compression trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakanov, A V; Klimov, L V; Usalev, N N

    2004-01-01

    The lipid peroxidation processes as well as the activity of the antioxidant system of plasma and of blood erythrocytes were analyzed in severe renal insufficiency due to acute compression trauma. The levels of diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde and shiff bases were found to be reliably higher in plasma in the anuria stage; as for erythrocytes, only the level of the final peroxidation products, i.e. shiff bases, turned out to be higher in their case. The antioxidant system reaction was as follows: a reliable decrease of the ceruplasmin level was registered in blood plasma, and a reduced activity of superoxide dismutase was detected in erythrocytes. No changed catalase activity was registered either in plasma or erythrocytes versus the controls. The occurred lipid-peroxidation activation had, in the erythrocyte membranes, a negative effect on the protein-lipid contact zones. According to the obtained results, it is necessary to use antioxidants and activation of the non-enzyme system within the complex therapy for the purpose of preventing the secondary damage to cellular membranes.

  20. Comparison of sirolimus- and paclitaxel-eluting stents in patients with moderate renal insufficiency: results from the J-DESsERT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Masaya; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Shiode, Nobuo; Masaoka, Yoshiko; Okimoto, Tomokazu; Tamekiyo, Hiromichi; Kawase, Tomoharu; Yamane, Kenichi; Kagawa, Yuzo; Nakamura, Masato; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Nanto, Shinsuke

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether there are differences in clinical outcomes between sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) in patients with moderate renal insufficiency (RI). The Japan-Drug Eluting Stents Evaluation; a Randomized Trial (J-DESsERT) was a prospective, randomized multicenter trial which compared 1:1 coronary stenting between SES and PES patients. Patient with serious RI (serum creatinine value 2mg/dL or higher) were excluded. Patients were classified into 2 arms according to renal function: a non-RI arm of 2220 patients (SES 1094 and PES 1126 patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL min(-1) 1.73 m(-2)) and an RI arm of 1206 patients (SES 613, PES 593 with 30≤eGFR <60 mL min(-1) 1.73 m(-2)). At 12 months, the primary endpoint of target vessel failure in the non-RI arm occurred in 6.0% in the SES group and 8.7% in the PES group (p=0.02). In the RI arm, this occurred in 5.7% and 8.1% (p=0.10). Mortality rates were 0.8% vs 0.7% (p=0.78) in the non-RI arm, and 2.2% vs 2.1% (p=0.90) in the RI arm. Cardiac death was 0.4% vs 0.1% (p=0.17) in the non-RI arm, and 1.0% vs 1.0% (p=0.96) in the RI arm. Mortality was higher in patients with RI than those without RI (2.1% vs 0.8%; p<0.01). Cardiac death rates increased in the RI arm compared with those in the non-RI arm (1.0% vs 0.2%; p<0.01). Regardless of the presence or absence of moderate RI, differences in outcomes between SES and PES change little except mortality and cardiac death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Race/Ethnicity and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Adults With CKD: Findings From the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) and Hispanic CRIC Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, James P; Ricardo, Ana C; Roy, Jason; Deo, Rajat; Fischer, Michael; Flack, John; He, Jiang; Keane, Martin; Lora, Claudia; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Steigerwalt, Susan; Tao, Kaixiang; Wolf, Myles; Wright, Jackson T; Go, Alan S

    2016-10-01

    Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics with end-stage renal disease have a lower risk for death than non-Hispanic whites, but data for racial/ethnic variation in cardiovascular outcomes for non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease are limited. Prospective cohort. 3,785 adults with entry estimated glomerular filtration rates of 20 to 70mL/min/1.73m(2) enrolled in the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study. Race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic). Cardiovascular outcomes (atherosclerotic events [myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease] and heart failure) and a composite of each cardiovascular outcome or all-cause death. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards. During a median follow-up of 6.6 years, we observed 506 atherosclerotic events, 551 heart failure events, and 692 deaths. In regression analyses, there were no significant differences in atherosclerotic events among the 3 racial/ethnic groups. In analyses stratified by clinical site, non-Hispanic blacks had a higher risk for heart failure events (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.95), which became nonsignificant after adjustment for demographic factors and baseline kidney function. In contrast, Hispanics had similar risk for heart failure events as non-Hispanic whites. In analyses stratified by clinical site, compared with non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks were at similar risk for atherosclerotic events or death. However, after further adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, medications, and mineral metabolism markers, non-Hispanic blacks had 17% lower risk for the outcome (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-0.99) than non-Hispanic whites, whereas there was no significant association with Hispanic ethnicity. Hispanics were largely recruited from a single center, and the study was underpowered to evaluate the association between Hispanic ethnicity and mortality. There were no significant racial/ethnic differences in adjusted risk for atherosclerotic or heart

  2. Baseline incidence and severity of renal insufficiency evaluated by estimated glomerular filtration rates in patients scheduled for contrast-enhanced CT

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    Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Yanaga, Yumi; Oda, Seitaro; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)), email: utsunomi@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Awai, Kazuo (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan)); Funama, Yoshinori (Dept. of Medical Physics, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan))

    2011-06-15

    Background Although pre-existing renal insufficiency (RI) is the most important risk factor for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), the background distribution of baseline renal function has not been investigated thoroughly in patients scheduled for contrast-enhanced CT. Purpose To investigate the incidence and severity of baseline RI evaluated by estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT at an academic center. Material and Methods A total of 6586 patients (3630 men and 2956 women; mean age 57.0 +- 11.9 years) who underwent contrast-enhanced CT between January and December 2008 were retrospectively studied. Of these, 829 had cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 5116 had oncologic diseases, 178 had diabetes mellitus (DM), and 1572 had chronic liver disease (CLD). The eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) was calculated from their serum creatinine level. Mild, moderate-a, moderate-b, and severe RI were recorded at 60 < =eGFR < 90, 45 < =eGFR < 60, 30 < =eGFR < 45 and eGFR < 30, respectively. Results Of the 6586 patients, 1.6%, 3.7%, 13.7%, and 54.2% were judged to present with severe, moderate-b, moderate-a, and mild RI, respectively. While moderate-b-to-severe RI was recorded in 133 (3.2%) of 4161 patients aged 70 years or less, it was observed in 218 (9.0%) of the 2425 patients who were 71 years or older. Among the 829 CVD patients, 9.9% manifested moderate-b-to-severe- and 73.0% mild-to-moderate-a RI. The corresponding rates were 4.4% and 68.9% for oncologic disease, 16.9% and 61.2% for DM, and 4.8% and 71.5% for CLD patients. By univariate analysis, there was a significant association between moderate-b-to-severe RI and the advanced age, CVD, DM, and non-oncologic disease. Multivariate analysis showed that the advanced age, DM, and non-oncologic disease were statistically associated with moderate-b-to-severe RI. Conclusion The incidence of RI of eGFR < 45mL/min/1.73 m2 at baseline was high in patients with advanced age, CVD and DM and

  3. Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Score Is Associated With Incident Heart Failure Hospitalization in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Without Previously Diagnosed Heart Failure: Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rakesh K; Yang, Wei; Roy, Jason; Anderson, Amanda H; Bansal, Nisha; Chen, Jing; DeFilippi, Christopher; Delafontaine, Patrice; Feldman, Harold I; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Kusek, John W; Lora, Claudia M; Rosas, Sylvia E; Go, Alan S; Shlipak, Michael G

    2015-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for heart failure (HF). Patients with chronic kidney disease without diagnosed HF have an increased burden of symptoms characteristic of HF. It is not known whether these symptoms are associated with occurrence of new onset HF. We studied the association of a modified Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire with newly identified cases of hospitalized HF among 3093 participants enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study who did not report HF at baseline. The annually updated Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score was categorized into quartiles (Q1-4) with the lower scores representing the worse symptoms. Multivariable-adjusted repeated measure logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, clinical risk factors for HF, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide level and left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Over a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 4.3±1.6 years, there were 211 new cases of HF hospitalizations. The risk of HF hospitalization increased with increasing symptom quartiles; 2.62, 1.85, 1.14, and 0.74 events per 100 person-years, respectively. The median number of annual Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire assessments per participant was 5 (interquartile range, 3-6). The annually updated Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score was independently associated with higher risk of incident HF hospitalization in multivariable-adjusted models (odds ratio, 3.30 [1.66-6.52]; P=0.001 for Q1 compared with Q4). Symptoms characteristic of HF are common in patients with chronic kidney disease and are associated with higher short-term risk for new hospitalization for HF, independent of level of kidney function, and other known HF risk factors. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Candidate gene association study of coronary artery calcification in chronic kidney disease: findings from the CRIC study (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jane F; Matthews, Gregory J; Townsend, Raymond R; Raj, Dominic S; Kanetsky, Peter A; Budoff, Matthew; Fischer, Michael J; Rosas, Sylvia E; Kanthety, Radhika; Rahman, Mahboob; Master, Stephen R; Qasim, Atif; Li, Mingyao; Mehta, Nehal N; Shen, Haiqing; Mitchell, Braxton D; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Shuldiner, Alan R; Ho, Weang Kee; Young, Robin; Rasheed, Asif; Danesh, John; He, Jiang; Kusek, John W; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Flack, John; Go, Alan S; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Wright, Jackson T; Saleheen, Danish; Feldman, Harold I; Rader, Daniel J; Foulkes, Andrea S; Reilly, Muredach P

    2013-08-27

    This study sought to identify loci for coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD is associated with increased CAC and subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD), but the mechanisms remain poorly defined. Genetic studies of CAC in CKD may provide a useful strategy for identifying novel pathways in CHD. We performed a candidate gene study (∼2,100 genes; ∼50,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) of CAC within the CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) study (N = 1,509; 57% European, 43% African ancestry). SNPs with preliminary evidence of association with CAC in CRIC were examined for association with CAC in the PennCAC (Penn Coronary Artery Calcification) (N = 2,560) and AFCS (Amish Family Calcification Study) (N = 784) samples. SNPs with suggestive replication were further analyzed for association with myocardial infarction (MI) in the PROMIS (Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study) (N = 14,885). Of 268 SNPs reaching p < 5 × 10(-4) for CAC in CRIC, 28 SNPs in 23 loci had nominal support (p < 0.05 and in same direction) for CAC in PennCAC or AFCS. Besides chr9p21 and COL4A1, known loci for CHD, these included SNPs having reported genome-wide association study association with hypertension (e.g., ATP2B1). In PROMIS, 4 of the 23 suggestive CAC loci (chr9p21, COL4A1, ATP2B1, and ABCA4) had significant associations with MI, consistent with their direction of effect on CAC. We identified several loci associated with CAC in CKD that also relate to MI in a general population sample. CKD imparts a high risk of CHD and may provide a useful setting for discovery of novel CHD genes and pathways. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization of administered radionuclide activity in renal studies using {sup 9}9mTc -DMSA in Cuba; Optimizacion de actividad a administrar para estudios de gammagrafia renal con {sup 9}9mTc-DMSA en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Perez Diaz, M.; Lopez Bejerano, G. M.; Varela Corona, C.; Paz Viera, J. E.

    2009-07-01

    The present research is focused on the optimization of administered radionuclide activity in renal studies using {sup 9}9mTc-DMSA. The patients sample included 35 subjects, 23 of them were children and the other 12 were adults. Physical and metabolic characteristics of patients, total time of the study as well as radiopharmaceuticals quality and gamma camera performance was considered in the experiments. Image quality of each study was evaluated using subjective criteria from two expert observers, without previous information about administered activity, and objective criteria based on signal/noise ratios and variance of the random noise in the images. They were used to develop clustering and discriminant analysis over the independent variables to detect groups of images with differentiated quality from the physical and mathematical point of view. As a conclusion, we found that it is possible to reduce the given activities in 50%. (Author) 30 refs.

  6. Statistical tools for dose individualization of mycophenolic acid and tacrolimus co-administered during the first month after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musuamba, Flora T; Mourad, Michel; Haufroid, Vincent; De Meyer, Martine; Capron, Arnaud; Delattre, Isabelle K; Verbeeck, Roger K; Wallemacq, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    To predict simultaneously the area under the concentration-time curve during one dosing interval [AUC(0,12 h)] for mycophenolic acid (MPA) and tacrolimus (TAC), when concomitantly used during the first month after transplantation, based on common blood samples. Data were from two different sources, real patient pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles from 65 renal transplant recipients and 9000 PK profiles simulated from previously published models on MPA or TAC in the first month after transplantation. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and Bayesian estimation using optimal samples were performed to predict MPA and TAC AUC(0,12 h) based on two concentrations. The following models were retained: AUC(0,12 h) = 16.5 + 4.9 × C1.5 + 6.7 × C3.5 (r(2) = 0.82, rRMSE = 9%, with simulations and r(2) = 0.66, rRMSE = 24%, with observed data) and AUC(0,12 h) = 24.3 + 5.9 × C1.5 + 12.2 × C3.5 (r(2) = 0.94, rRMSE = 12.3%, with simulations r(2) = 0.74, rRMSE = 15%, with observed data) for MPA and TAC, respectively. In addition, bayesian estimators were developed including parameter values from final models and values of concentrations at 1.5 and 3.5 h after dose. Good agreement was found between predicted and reference AUC(0,12 h) values: r(2) = 0.90, rRMSE = 13% and r(2) = 0.97, rRMSE = 5% with simulations for MPA and TAC, respectively and r(2) = 0.75, rRMSE = 11% and r(2) = 0.83, rRMSE = 7% with observed data for MPA and TAC, respectively. Statistical tools were developed for simultaneous MPA and TAC therapeutic drug monitoring. They can be incorporated in computer programs for patient dose individualization. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Higher plasma CXCL12 levels predict incident myocardial infarction and death in chronic kidney disease: findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Nehal N; Matthews, Gregory J; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Shah, Rhia; McLaughlin, Catherine; Patel, Parth; Budoff, Matthew; Chen, Jing; Wolman, Melanie; Go, Alan; He, Jiang; Kanetsky, Peter A; Master, Stephen R; Rader, Daniel J; Raj, Dominic; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Shah, Rachana; Schreiber, Marty; Fischer, Michael J; Townsend, Raymond R; Kusek, John; Feldman, Harold I; Foulkes, Andrea S; Reilly, Muredach P

    2014-08-14

    Genome-wide association studies revealed an association between a locus at 10q11, downstream from CXCL12, and myocardial infarction (MI). However, the relationship among plasma CXCL12, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, incident MI, and death is unknown. We analysed study-entry plasma CXCL12 levels in 3687 participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study, a prospective study of cardiovascular and kidney outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Mean follow-up was 6 years for incident MI or death. Plasma CXCL12 levels were positively associated with several cardiovascular risk factors (age, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia), lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and higher inflammatory cytokine levels (P < 0.05). In fully adjusted models, higher study-entry CXCL12 was associated with increased odds of prevalent CVD (OR 1.23; 95% confidence interval 1.14, 1.33, P < 0.001) for one standard deviation (SD) increase in CXCL12. Similarly, one SD higher CXCL12 increased the hazard of incident MI (1.26; 1.09,1.45, P < 0.001), death (1.20; 1.09,1.33, P < 0.001), and combined MI/death (1.23; 1.13-1.34, P < 0.001) adjusting for demographic factors, known CVD risk factors, and inflammatory markers and remained significant for MI (1.19; 1.03,1.39, P = 0.01) and the combined MI/death (1.13; 1.03,1.24, P = 0.01) after further controlling for eGFR and urinary albumin:creatinine ratio. In CKD, higher plasma CXCL12 was associated with CVD risk factors and prevalent CVD as well as the hazard of incident MI and death. Further studies are required to establish if plasma CXCL12 reflect causal actions at the vessel wall and is a tool for genomic and therapeutic trials. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology 2013. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Insufficient Living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Moons, Philip

    2015-01-01

    AND METHODS:: Within a phenomenological-hermeneutical framework, a qualitative interview study was conducted that included 6 men and 5 women (aged 29-86 years). Patients were interviewed 3 to 6 months after discharge. Analysis consisted of 3 levels: naive reading, structured analysis, and critical...... interpretation and discussion. FINDINGS:: The overall concept that emerged was "Insufficient Living." Patients all experienced a life after illness, which was perceived as insufficient. The overall concept can be interpreted in terms of the following 3 themes. The first was "an altered life," where participants...

  9. Adrenal Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The adrenal glands, located on top of the kidneys, make hormones that are essential for body functions. The outer layer (cortex) of the adrenal glands makes three types of steroid hormones. In adrenal insufficiency (AI), the cortex does not make enough steroid ...

  10. Hypertriglyceridemia Is Independently Associated with Renal, but Not Retinal Complications in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE Italian Multicenter Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Penno

    Full Text Available Atherogenic dyslipidemia seems to play a major role in microvascular complications and in residual microvascular risk after statin therapy, which reduces triglycerides up to 40%. We assessed whether raised TG levels are associated with an increased burden from microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes.Subjects from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE Italian Multicentre Study (n=15,773 were divided in 4 groups depending on whether they had plasma triglycerides below (NTG, 67.8% or above (HTG, 32.2% 1.7 mmol/L and were (42.4% or not on (57.6% statin therapy. Estimated GFR (eGFR was calculated from serum creatinine, albuminuria was measured by immunonephelometry or immunoturbidimetry, and retinopathy was evaluated by fundus examination.HTG subjects, either with or without statin, had higher prevalence of albuminuria, reduced eGFR and chronic kidney disease (CKD, especially the albuminuric forms, but not of retinopathy, than NTG subjects. In contrast, cardiovascular disease and advanced DR were more prevalent in subjects on statin than in those not, independently of triglyceride levels. Logistic regression analysis confirmed that HTG, without or with statin, was independently associated with micro and macroalbuminuria, mildly to severely reduced eGFR, and all CKD phenotypes, but not with retinopathy. The adjusted odd ratios for CKD increased linearly for every 0.26 mmol/L increase (approximately one decile in triglyceride levels. The increase was higher with increasing severity of albuminuria, eGFR loss and CKD phenotype as well as in subjects receiving than in those not receiving statin treatment.Triglycerides are associated with CKD, but not retinopathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes, independently of statin treatment. These data point to a possible role of hypertriglyceridemia in the development of CKD, though it remains to be demonstrated that diabetic individuals might benefit from triglyceride

  11. The Effect of Furosemide Dose Administered in the Out-of-hospital Setting on Renal Function Among Patients with Suspected Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, L Celeste; Mehrtens, Gia M; Pores, Noah; Pickrell, Christie; Tanis, James; Satty, Timothy; Chuang, Michelle; Young, Tina C; Merlin, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    The most effective dose of prehospital furosemide in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) has not yet been identified and concerns of worsening renal function have limited its use. To assess if administering high-dose furosemide is associated with worsening renal function. The authors conducted a 2-center chart review for patients who presented via a single Emergency Medical Service (EMS) from June 5, 2009 through May 17, 2013. Inclusion criteria were shortness of breath, primarily coded as ADHF, and the administration of furosemide prior to emergency department (ED) arrival. A total of 331 charts were identified. The primary endpoint was an increase in creatinine (Cr) of more than 0.3 mg/dL from admission to any time during hospital stay. Exploratory endpoints included survival, length-of-stay (LOS), disposition, urine output in the ED, change in BUN/Cr from admission to discharge, and change in Cr from admission to 72 hours and discharge. When treated as a binary variable, there was no association observed between an increase in Cr of more than 0.3 mg/dL and prehospital furosemide dose. Baseline characteristics found to be associated with dose were included in the logistic regression model. Lowering the dose of prehospital furosemide was associated with higher odds of attaining a 0.3 mg/dL increase in Cr (adjusted OR = 1.49 for a 20 mg decrease; P = .019). There was no association found with any of the exploratory endpoints. Patients who received higher doses of furosemide prehospitally were less likely to have an increase of greater than 0.3 mg/dL in Cr during the hospital course.

  12. Qualidade de vida de pacientes portadores de insuficiência renal crônica em tratamento de hemodiálise Calidad de vida de pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica en tratamiento dialítico Quality of life of patients with chronic renal insufficiency undergoing dyalisis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Higa

    2008-01-01

    dominios psicológico y social, relacionados a la creencia en la curación de la insuficiencia renal crónica a través de un transplante renal, proporcionando a los pacientes confianza en el proceso dialítico.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the quality of life of patients with chronic renal insufficiency undergoing dialysis treatment. METHODS: a quantitative research carried out in a dialysis service clinic in Campinas, São Paulo State, through the analysis of patients' general identification data and application of the WHOQOL-brief questionnaire, divided in four domains: physical, psychological, social, and environment. Twenty subjects were randomly chosen and analyzed. RESULTS: Male (75% and female (25% patients, most patients in the age group 40 - 60 years, undergoing dialysis treatment, with lower index for 20 to 40 year-olds. The analysis of the domains showed that the patients dealt better with the psychological aspects when compared to the other analyzes aspects (physical, psychological, and environment. CONCLUSION: The best results, concerning psychological and social domains, regard the belief in the cure for the chronic renal insufficiency through a renal transplant, providing patients with confidence in the dialysis process.

  13. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and renal failure in nursing home residents-results of the study "Inappropriate Medication in Patients with Renal Insufficiency in Nursing Homes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörks, Michael; Herget-Rosenthal, Stefan; Schmiemann, Guido; Hoffmann, Falk

    2016-04-01

    Use of potentially inappropriate medications may result in increased morbidity, mortality and resource utilisation. Due to polypharmacy and age-related decline in renal function the elderly population is at particular risk. Therefore, the Beers Criteria include use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in chronic renal failure stage 4 and 5 as these drugs may worsen renal function. According to the summary of product characteristics, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ibuprofen and diclofenac are contraindicated in these patients. Objective was to assess the extent of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in nursing homes with a focus on residents with severe renal failure. Multi-centre cross-sectional study in 21 German nursing homes. The study population comprised residents for whom at least one serum creatinine value and information about sex were available, so that creatinine clearance rate could be estimated. In all, 685 of 852 residents were included as they fulfilled the abovementioned criteria. Renal failure was severe (estimated creatinine clearance rate renal failure (20.8 %). With one exception, all residents prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with severe renal failure were treated with at least one nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that was contraindicated due to the underlying renal function. Notwithstanding their classification as potentially inappropriate medications and underlying contraindications, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is common among nursing home residents with severe renal failure.

  14. Renal Insufficiency and Early Bystander CPR Predict In-Hospital Outcomes in Cardiac Arrest Patients Undergoing Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia and Cardiac Catheterization: Return of Spontaneous Circulation, Cooling, and Catheterization Registry (ROSCCC Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjala Chelvanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA patients are a critically ill patient population with high mortality. Combining mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH with early coronary intervention may improve outcomes in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate predictors of mortality in OHCA patients undergoing MTH with and without cardiac catheterization. Design. A retrospective cohort of OHCA patients who underwent MTH with catheterization (MTH + C and without catheterization (MTH + NC between 2006 and 2011 was analyzed at a single tertiary care centre. Predictors of in-hospital mortality and neurologic outcome were determined. Results. The study population included 176 patients who underwent MTH for OHCA. A total of 66 patients underwent cardiac catheterization (MTH + C and 110 patients did not undergo cardiac catheterization (MTH + NC. Immediate bystander CPR occurred in approximately half of the total population. In the MTH + C and MTH + NC groups, the in-hospital mortality was 48% and 78%, respectively. The only independent predictor of in-hospital mortality for patients with MTH + C, after multivariate analysis, was baseline renal insufficiency (OR = 8.2, 95% CI 1.8–47.1, and p = 0.009. Conclusion. Despite early cardiac catheterization, renal insufficiency and the absence of immediate CPR are potent predictors of death and poor neurologic outcome in patients with OHCA.

  15. Maintenance treatment of renal anaemia in haemodialysis patients with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta versus darbepoetin alfa administered monthly: a randomized comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Fernando; Lok, Charmaine E; de Francisco, Angel; Locatelli, Francesco; Mann, Johannes F E; Canaud, Bernard; Kerr, Peter G; Macdougall, Iain C; Besarab, Anatole; Villa, Giuseppe; Kazes, Isabelle; Van Vlem, Bruno; Jolly, Shivinder; Beyer, Ulrich; Dougherty, Frank C

    2010-12-01

    Several studies with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents claim that maintenance therapy of renal anaemia may be possible at extended dosing intervals; however, few studies were randomized, results varied, and comparisons between agents were absent. We report results of a multi-national, randomized, prospective trial comparing haemoglobin maintenance with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and darbepoetin alfa administered once monthly. Haemodialysis patients (n = 490) on stable once-weekly intravenous darbepoetin alfa were randomized to methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta once monthly or darbepoetin alfa every 2 weeks for 26 weeks, with dose adjustment for individual haemoglobin target (11-13 g/dL; maximum decrease from baseline 1 g/dL). Subsequently, patients entered a second 26-week period of once-monthly methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and darbepoetin alfa. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who maintained average haemoglobin ≥10.5 g/dL, with a decrease from baseline ≤1 g/dL, in Weeks 50-53; the secondary endpoint was dose change over time. The trial is registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00394953. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. One hundred and fifty-seven of 245 patients treated with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and 99 of 245 patients with darbepoetin alfa met the response definition (64.1% and 40.4%; P polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and 58.8% with darbepoetin alfa during once-monthly treatment. Death rates were equal between treatments (5.7%). Most common adverse events included hypertension, procedural hypotension, nasopharyngitis and muscle spasms, with no differences between groups. Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta maintained target haemoglobin more successfully than darbepoetin alfa at once-monthly dosing intervals despite dose increases with darbepoetin alfa.

  16. Relative Incidence of ESRD Versus Cardiovascular Mortality in Proteinuric Type 2 Diabetes and Nephropathy : Results From the DIAMETRIC (Diabetes Mellitus Treatment for Renal Insufficiency Consortium) Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Packham, David K.; Alves, Tahira P.; Dwyer, Jamie P.; Atkins, Robert; de Zeeuw, Dick; Cooper, Mark; Shahinfar, Shahnaz; Lewis, Julia B.; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.

    Background: Previous studies have shown that patients with chronic kidney disease, including those with diabetic nephropathy, are more likely to die of cardiovascular disease than reach end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This analysis was conducted to determine whether ESRD is a more common outcome

  17. ' RENAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    METASTASE OSSEUSE: SOLITAIRE D'UN ADENOCARCINOME RENAL. Fig. 2: TDM ... du gène de résistance aux médicaments. NIDR1. ... vie. La néphrectomie trouve sa place dans quatre situations: En cas de métastase unique, dans un but de réduction tumorale avant immunothérapie, elle peut être adjuvante après.

  18. Serum uric acid is a GFR-independent long-term predictor of acute and chronic renal insufficiency: the Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Kidney disease is commonly accompanied by hyperuricemia. However, the contribution of serum uric acid (SUA) to kidney injury is debated. Our objective was to assess the long-term prediction of renal failure by SUA. Methods. Visit 2 participants in the Jerusalem Lipid Research Clinic cohort with normal baseline kidney function were followed for 24–28 years. SUA levels were assessed for associations with acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic renal failure (CRF) as defined by hospital discharge records, and mortality, ascertained through linkage with the national population registry. Results. Among 2449 eligible participants (1470 men, 979 women aged 35–78 years in 1976–79), SUA was positively linked with male sex, serum creatinine and components of the metabolic syndrome but was lower in smokers and in diabetic subjects. The 22- to 25-year incidence of hospital-diagnosed kidney failure (145 first events, 67% CRF) and the 24- to 28-year mortality (587 events) were higher in subject with hyperuricemia (>6.5 mg/dL in men and >5.3 mg/dL in women, reflecting the upper quintiles), independent of baseline kidney function and covariates. Hyperuricemia conferred adjusted hazard ratios of 1.36 (P = 0.003), 2.14 (P < 0.001) and 2.87 (P = 0.003) for mortality, CRF and ARF, respectively. Conclusions. SUA predicts renal failure incidence and all-cause mortality independently of demographic and clinical covariates. These results lend support to the undertaking of clinical trials to examine the effect of uric acid-lowering strategies on kidney outcomes. PMID:21220750

  19. Gut microbiota-dependent trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) pathway contributes to both development of renal insufficiency and mortality risk in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W H Wilson; Wang, Zeneng; Kennedy, David J; Wu, Yuping; Buffa, Jennifer A; Agatisa-Boyle, Brendan; Li, Xinmin S; Levison, Bruce S; Hazen, Stanley L

    2015-01-30

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbial-dependent metabolite of dietary choline, phosphatidylcholine (lecithin), and l-carnitine, is elevated in chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and associated with coronary artery disease pathogenesis. To both investigate the clinical prognostic value of TMAO in subjects with versus without CKD, and test the hypothesis that TMAO plays a direct contributory role in the development and progression of renal dysfunction. We first examined the relationship between fasting plasma TMAO and all-cause mortality over 5-year follow-up in 521 stable subjects with CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate, <60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)). Median TMAO level among CKD subjects was 7.9 μmol/L (interquartile range, 5.2-12.4 μmol/L), which was markedly higher (P<0.001) than in non-CKD subjects (n=3166). Within CKD subjects, higher (fourth versus first quartile) plasma TMAO level was associated with a 2.8-fold increased mortality risk. After adjustments for traditional risk factors, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate, elevated TMAO levels remained predictive of 5-year mortality risk (hazard ratio, 1.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-3.29; P<0.05). TMAO provided significant incremental prognostic value (net reclassification index, 17.26%; P<0.001 and differences in area under receiver operator characteristic curve, 63.26% versus 65.95%; P=0.036). Among non-CKD subjects, elevated TMAO levels portend poorer prognosis within cohorts of high and low cystatin C. In animal models, elevated dietary choline or TMAO directly led to progressive renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and dysfunction. Plasma TMAO levels are both elevated in patients with CKD and portend poorer long-term survival. Chronic dietary exposures that increase TMAO directly contributes to progressive renal fibrosis and dysfunction in animal models. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Investigation of possible interference by digoxin-like immunoreactive substances on the Architect iDigoxin CMIA in serum samples from pregnant women, and patients with liver disease, renal insufficiency, critical illness, and kidney and liver transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampon, Natalia; Pampin, Fernando; Tutor, J Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Although the possible interference of digoxin-like immunoreactive substances (DLIS) on the Architect iDigoxin chemiluminiscent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) has been emphasized by the manufacturer, a specific study about this subject has still not been carried out. Apparent serum digoxin concentrations were determined using the Architect iDigoxin CMIA from Abbott Laboratories in digoxin-free pregnant women (n = 50), and patients with liver disease (n = 50), renal insufficiency (n = 50), kidney (n = 25) or liver (n = 25) transplant, and critical illness (n = 50). In all of the patients included in this study, apparent serum digoxin concentrations were lower than the correspondent quantification limit (Architect iDigoxin CMIA assay would be relatively free from endogenous DLIS positive interferences.

  1. Maintenance treatment of renal anaemia in haemodialysis patients with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta versus darbepoetin alfa administered monthly: a randomized comparative trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carrera, Fernando; Lok, Charmaine E; de Francisco, Angel; Locatelli, Francesco; Mann, Johannes F E; Canaud, Bernard; Kerr, Peter G; Macdougall, Iain C; Besarab, Anatole; Villa, Giuseppe; Kazes, Isabelle; Van Vlem, Bruno; Jolly, Shivinder; Beyer, Ulrich; Dougherty, Frank C

    2010-01-01

    .... We report results of a multi-national, randomized, prospective trial comparing haemoglobin maintenance with methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta and darbepoetin alfa administered once monthly...

  2. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand inhibitor osteoprotegerin is a bone-protective agent in a rat model of chronic renal insufficiency and hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padagas, J; Colloton, M; Shalhoub, V; Kostenuik, P; Morony, S; Munyakazi, L; Guo, M; Gianneschi, D; Shatzen, E; Geng, Z; Tan, H-L; Dunstan, C; Lacey, D; Martin, D

    2006-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) acts by neutralizing the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL), the primary mediator of osteoclast differentiation, function, and survival. We examined whether OPG could affect the bone loss associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a rodent model of CKD and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). SHPT was induced in rats by 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) and a 1.2% P/0.6% Ca(2+) diet. Starting 1 week after 5/6 Nx, rats were treated with vehicle (veh) or OPG-Fc (3 mg/kg, intravenously) every 2 weeks for 9 weeks. At baseline, 3, 6, and 9 weeks, blood was taken and bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum parathyroid hormone (sPTH) levels reached 912 pg/ml in 5/6 Nx rats vs. 97 pg/ml in shams at 9 weeks. OPG-Fc had no effect on sPTH or Ca(2+) levels throughout the 9-week study, indicating that SHPT was a renal effect independent of bone changes. At 3 weeks, 5/6 Nx-veh rats had osteopenia compared with sham-veh rats and 5/6 Nx-OPG-Fc rats had significantly higher percent changes in whole-body BMC, leg BMD, and lumbar BMD versus 5/6 Nx-veh rats. By 6-9 weeks, elevated sPTH was associated with reversal of bone loss and osteitis fibrosa in the proximal tibial metaphysis. OPG-Fc decreased this sPTH-driven high bone turnover, resulting in augmented thickness of proximal tibial trabeculae in 5/6 Nx rats. Thus, RANKL inhibition with OPG-Fc can block the deleterious effects of continuously elevated sPTH on bone, suggesting that RANKL may be an important therapeutic target for protecting bone in patients with CKD and SHPT.

  3. Seizure occurrence in patients with chronic renal insufficiency in regular hemodialysis program Ocorrência de crises epilépticas em pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica em programa dialítico regular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Alexandre Scorza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis-associated seizure is a complication of hemodialysis. This report describes the occurrence of seizures in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis therapy at the Nephrology Institute of Mogi das Cruzes, São Paulo State, Brazil. A retrospective medical history of 189 patients was reviewed to investigate the occurrence of convulsive seizures during dialytic program. Seven patients with history of seizures were selected but five of them were included in our study. Three patients presented generalized tonic-clonic seizures, one had partial seizure with secondary generalization, and one presented unclassified seizure. Three patients presented seizure just during the dialysis (unique seizure and one of them presented convulsive status epilepticus. The two other patients had already presented seizures prior the beginning of dialysis. We conclude that seizures in renal failure could be considered as occasional events that do not usually become chronic.Convulsões durante o tratamento dialítico podem constituir uma complicação da hemodiálise. Esse artigo descreve a ocorrência de crises em pacientes em estágio final de insuficiência renal crônica sob tratamento dialítico no Instituto de Nefrologia de Mogi das Cruzes, São Paulo, Brasil. Foram revistos os prontuários de 189 pacientes, com o objetivo de investigar a ocorrência de crises convulsivas durante o tratamento dialítico. Dos sete pacientes selecionados com história de crises, cinco concordaram em participar de nosso estudo. Três pacientes apresentaram crises generalizadas tônico-clônicas, um apresentou crise parcial com generalização subseqüente e um apresentou crise inclassificada. Três pacientes apresentaram crises apenas durante o processo dialítico (crise única sendo que um deles apresentou status epilepticus convulsivo. Os outros dois pacientes já haviam apresentado crises antes do início do tratamento dialítico. Nós concluímos que as crises

  4. Human leptin administered intraperitoneally stimulates natriuresis and decreases renal medullary Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the rat -- impaired effect in dietary-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; W jcicka, Grazyna; Górny, Dionizy; Marciniak, Andrzej

    2002-06-01

    Leptin, produced by adipose tissue, apart from regulating food intake and energy expenditure, also has natriuretic activity. In this study we examined the effect of leptin on renal Na+, K+-ATPase responsible for active tubular sodium reabsorption, and compared the renal effects of leptin in lean and obese rats. Male Wistar rats were either kept on normal laboratory chow or made obese by a high-calorie diet. The animals were placed in metabolic cages and urine was collected in 2-hour periods. In lean animals, leptin (1 mg/kg i.p.) caused a 139.5% increase in urine output, a 112.4% increase in natriuresis, and a 57.2% increase in the fractional excretion of sodium, but had no effect on the glomerular filtration rate. Leptin at this dose decreased renal medullary Na+, K+-ATPase activity at 30 minutes, 1 hour and 2 hours by 31%, 34.3% and 21.2%, respectively. The effect of leptin on Na+, K+-ATPase at 1 hour was dose-dependent; the lowest dose inducing significant inhibition was 0.25 mg/kg. By contrast, leptin had no effect on either cortical Na+, K+-ATPase or the ouabain-resistant fraction of ATPase. In obese rats, leptin increased urine output by only 29.1% and natriuresis by 28.9%, and had no significant effect on medullary Na+, K+-ATPase. Leptin stimulates natriuresis primarily by inhibiting tubular sodium reabsorption. This effect is mediated, at least partially, by decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the renal medulla, and is impaired in obese rats.

  5. Distribution of cardiovascular disease and retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes according to different classification systems for chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional analysis of the renal insufficiency and cardiovascular events (RIACE) Italian multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Giuseppe; Solini, Anna; Bonora, Enzo; Orsi, Emanuela; Zerbini, Gianpaolo; Fondelli, Cecilia; Gruden, Gabriella; Cavalot, Franco; Lamacchia, Olga; Trevisan, Roberto; Vedovato, Monica; Penno, Giuseppe

    2014-03-13

    The National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF's KDOQI) staging system for chronic kidney disease (CKD) is based primarily on estimated GFR (eGFR). This study aimed at assessing whether reclassification of subjects with type 2 diabetes using two recent classifications based on both eGFR and albuminuria, the Alberta Kidney Disease Network (AKDN) and the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO), provides a better definition of burden from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) than the NKF's KDOQI classification. This is a cross-sectional analysis of patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 15,773) from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events Italian Multicenter Study, consecutively visiting 19 Diabetes Clinics throughout Italy in years 2007-2008. Exclusion criteria were dialysis or renal transplantation. CKD was defined based on eGFR, as calculated from serum creatinine by the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation, and albuminuria, as measured by immunonephelometry or immunoturbidimetry. DR was assessed by dilated fundoscopy. Prevalent CVD, total and by vascular bed, was assessed from medical history by recording previous documented major acute events. Though prevalence of complications increased with increasing CKD severity with all three classifications, it differed significantly between NKF's KDOQI stages and AKDN or KDIGO risk categories. The AKDN and KDIGO systems resulted in appropriate reclassification of uncomplicated patients in the lowest risk categories and a more graded independent association with CVD and DR than the NKF's KDOQI classification. However, CVD, but not DR prevalence was higher in the lowest risk categories of the new classifications than in the lowest stages of the NKF's KDOQI, due to the inclusion of subjects with reduced eGFR without albuminuria. CVD prevalence differed also among eGFR and albuminuria categories grouped into AKDN and KDIGO

  6. Bilateral Renal Mass-Renal Disorder: Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Tiryaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old woman has presented complaining of weakness and fatigue to her primary care physician. The renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When the renal masses have been discovered by sonography in this setting, the functional imaging may be critical. We reported a case about bilateral renal masses in a young female patient with tuberculosis and renal insufficiency. Magnetic resonance (MR has revealed the bilateral renal masses in patient, and this patient has been referred to our hospital for further management. The patient’s past medical and surgical history was unremarkable.

  7. Doença renal crônica: conhecendo a experiência da criança Insuficiencia Renal Crónica: conociendo la experiencia del niño Chronic Renal Insufficiency: understanding the child's point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila de Souza Vieira

    2009-03-01

    complejo que se modifica a la medida en que el niño y su familia superan enfrentamientos anteriores. El relato del niño es muy importante para que podamos identificar sus necesidades y asegurarle una asistencia más humanizada.This research aimed to understand the child's experiences with Chronic Renal Insufficiency and analyze the significance it attaches to this experience. As a theoretical and methodological reference, it has been used, respectively, the Symbolic Interactionism and the Grounded Theory. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect the data, allowing us to explore the definitions exposed by each child. There were eight children interviewed, between the ages of seven and fourteen years old. Eight conceptual categories emerged that outlined the child's psychological changes when confronted with the disease: "Discovering the disease", "Suffering Daily Changes", "Feeling that he or she is being a burden to others", "Suffering with other problems", "Trying to get used to it", "Making himself equal to other children", "Not being strong enough" and "Planning the future". The process of adapting to a chronic disease during childhood is very complex and it changes as the child and his family, overcome the previous obstacles. Listening to the child is very important for us to identify his needs and to assure compassionate assistance.

  8. Cuidado em situação de Doença Renal Crônica: representações sociais elaboradas por adolescentes Atención en situación de Enfermedad Renal Crónica: representaciones sociales de adolescentes Care in situation of Severe Renal Insufficiency: social representations elaborated by adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islane Costa Ramos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi apreender as representações sociais dos adolescentes em relação ao cuidado em situação de Insuficiência Renal Crônica. Aplicou-se o teste de associação livre de palavras a 70 adolescentes e a entrevista semi-estruturada a oito adolescentes. Foram evocadas 1630 palavras a partir dos estímulos doença, saúde, diálise, cuidado de si, cuidado profissional e cuidado familiar. Das entrevistas foram construídos dois núcleos temáticos que trazem significações sobre o cuidado familiar e o cuidado profissional que influenciam nas formas de perceber e agir em relação ao cuidado à saúde. Conclui-se que a representação social do adolescente focaliza as significações do adoecimento e do cuidado, marcada pela indissociabilidade entre as práticas de cuidado e as relações psico-afetivas e sociais imbrincadas na sua vivência.El estudio tuvo como objetivo aprehender las representaciones sociales de los adolescentes en relación a la atención en situación de Insuficiencia Renal Crónica. Se utilizó la prueba de asociación libre de palabras y la entrevista estructura en parte. Fueron 1.630 palabras a partir de los estímulos enfermedad, salud, dialisis, atención de si, atención profesional y atención familiar. De las entrevistas fueron construídos dos grupos de temas que tuvieron significaciones sobre la atención familiar y la atención profesional com influjos en las maneras de percibir y además agir en relación a la atención a la salud. La representación social del adolescente observa las significaciones del adoecimiento y de la atención, señalada, todavía, por la indisociabilidad entre las prácticas de atención y las relaciones psicoafectivas y sociales que hay en su vivencia.The objective of the study was to apprehend the social representations of teenagers in relation to care in situation of Severe Renal Insufficiency. It was applied the test of free association of words to 70 teenagers

  9. Cotidiano e trabalho: concepções de indivíduos portadores de insuficiência renal crônica e seus familiares Cotidiano y trabajo: concepciones de individuos portadores de insuficiencia renal crónica y sus familiares Daily life and work: conceptions of chronic renal insufficiency patients and their relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Carreira

    2003-12-01

    importantes. Consideramos que los profesionales de la salud se deben unir para buscar apoyo en familiares y en la sociedad en general para que estos individuos puedan ser inseridos en el mercado de trabajo cuando lo deseen y tengan condiciones para ello.This descriptive and exploratory research aimed to know the conceptions, attitudes and behaviors about work as reported by 16 chronic renal insufficiency patients and their relatives. Data were collected from April to August 2000 through semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that work is valued by all families as a source of health and financial resources, besides being important for individuals' character formation; that most CRI patients do not carry out any remunerated activities and, when they do, they count on the help and understanding of the boss and relatives. We conclude that CRI and its treatment do not directly or absolutely impede the realization of this kind of activity, but entail important limitations. We consider it is necessary for health professionals to join in the search for support by relatives and society, so that these people can be inserted in the labor market when they want to and are in the right conditions.

  10. High-Sensitivity Troponin T and N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) and Risk of Incident Heart Failure in Patients with CKD: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyre Anderson, Amanda; Yang, Wei; Christenson, Robert H.; deFilippi, Christopher R.; Deo, Rajat; Dries, Daniel L.; Go, Alan S.; He, Jiang; Kusek, John W.; Lash, James P.; Raj, Dominic; Rosas, Sylvia; Wolf, Myles; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shlipak, Michael G.; Feldman, Harold I.

    2015-01-01

    High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) strongly predict heart failure (HF) in the general population. However, the interpretation of levels of these biomarkers as predictors of HF is uncertain among patients with CKD. Here, we investigated whether hsTnT and NT-proBNP are associated with incident HF among patients with CKD. In a prospective cohort analysis, we studied 3483 people with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study recruited from June of 2003 to August of 2008 who were free of HF at baseline. We used Cox regression to examine the association of baseline levels of hsTnT and NT-proBNP with incident HF after adjustment for demographic factors, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, markers of kidney disease, pertinent medication use, and mineral metabolism markers. At baseline, hsTnT levels ranged from ≤5.0 to 378.7 pg/ml, and NT-proBNP levels ranged from ≤5 to 35,000 pg/ml. Compared with those who had undetectable hsTnT, participants in the highest quartile (>26.5 ng/ml) had a significantly higher rate of HF (hazard ratio, 4.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.49 to 9.14). Similarly, compared with those in the lowest NT-proBNP quintile (433.0 ng/ml) experienced a substantially higher rate of HF (hazard ratio, 9.57; 95% confidence interval, 4.40 to 20.83). In conclusion, hsTnT and NT-proBNP were strongly associated with incident HF among a diverse cohort of individuals with mild to severe CKD. Elevations in these biomarkers may indicate subclinical changes in volume and myocardial stress that subsequently contribute to clinical HF. PMID:25278510

  11. Renal Hemangiopericytoma

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    İbrahim Halil Bozkurt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon perivascular tumor originating from pericytes in the pelvis, head and tneck, and the meninges; extremely rarely in the urinary system. We report a case of incidentally detected renal mass in which radiologic evaluation was suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. First, we performed partial nephrectomy, and then, radical nephrectomy because of positive surgical margins and the pathological examination of the surgical specimen that revealed a hemangiopericytoma. No additional treatment was administered.

  12. Prevalence, Cause, and Treatment of Respiratory Insufficiency After Orthotopic Heart Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaş Bozbaş, Şerife; Ulubay, Gaye; Öner Eyüboğlu, Füsun; Sezgin, Atilla; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Heart transplant is the best treatment for end-stage heart failure. Respiratory insufficiency after heart transplant is a potentially serious complication. Pulmonary complications, pulmonary hypertension, allograft failure or rejection, and structural heart defects in the donor heart are among the causes of hypoxemia after transplant. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of hypoxemia and respiratory insufficiency in patients with orthotopic heart transplant during the early postoperative period. We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 45 patients who had received orthotopic heart transplant at our center. Clinical and demographic variables and laboratory data were noted. Oxygen saturation values from patients in the first week and the first month after transplant were analyzed. We also documented the cause of respiratory insufficiency and the type of treatment. Mean age was 35.3 ± 15.3 years (range, 12-61 y), with males comprising 32 of 45 patients (71.1%). Two patients had mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 1 had asthma. Twenty-five patients (55.6%) had a history of smoking. Respiratory insufficiency was noted in 9 patients (20%) during the first postoperative week. Regarding cause, 5 of these patients (11.1%) had pleural effusion, 2 (4.4%) had atelectasis, 1 (2.2%) had pneumonia, and 1 (2.2%) had acute renal failure. Therapies administered to patients with respiratory insufficiency were as follows: 5 patients had oxygen therapy with nasal canula/mask, 3 patients had continuous positive airway pressure, and 1 patient had mechanical ventilation. One month after transplant, 2 patients (4.4%) had respiratory insufficiency 1 (2.2%) due to pleural effusion and 1 (2.2%) due to atelectasis. Respiratory insufficiency is a common complication in the first week after orthotopic heart transplant. Identification of the underlying cause is an important indicator for therapy. With appropriate care, respiratory insufficiency can be treated

  13. O Transplante renal sob a ótica de crianças portadoras de insuficiência renal crônica em tratamento dialítico: estudo de caso El transplante renal bajo la óptica de los niños que llevan la insuficiencia renal crónica en el tratamiento dialítico: estudio del caso The renal transplant under the optics of children with chronic renal insufficiency in dialysis treatment: study of case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Grespan Setz

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Para compreender quais são as implicações da doença crônica para a criança e seus familiares é necessário partir-se da premissa de que a doença crônica não pode ser curada e que a cura almejada pode se transformar em mito perigoso, que compromete todo o processo de desenvolvimento da criança. OBJETIVOS: Compreender o significado do transplante renal para crianças em tratamento dialítico e conhecer suas expectativas em relação a este tratamento. MÉTODO: Estudo qualitativo, utilizando o Estudo de Caso como método de investigação e os pressupostos de Mayeroff como referencial teórico-filosófico. Para coleta de dados foram utilizadas as técnicas de entrevista semi-estruturada e o Desenho-Estória com tema. Foram entrevistadas 15 crianças em tratamento dialítico e hemodialítico, com idades entre 6 e 16 anos que consentiram em participar do estudo RESULTADO: Da análise de conteúdo emergiram quatro categorias: Construindo o conhecimento sobre o transplante; Buscando entender a espera pelo transplante; Criando expectativas de mudanças; Em contato com a frustração. E do desenho-estória com tema a categoria: Desvelando os sentimentos através do desenho. Neste artigo apresentaremos os resultados referentes às questões semi-estruturadas que emergiram das falas dos sujeitos. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo possibilitou compreender que as crianças percebem a realização do transplante renal como a única possibilidade de voltarem a vivenciar uma vida normal.RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: Para comprender cuales son las implicaciones de la enfermedad crónica para el niño y sus familiares és necessário partir del presupuesto de que la enfermedad crónica no puede ser curada y que la cura deseada puede se transformarse en un mito peligroso, que puede comprometer todo el proceso de desarrolo del niño. OBJETIVOS: Compreender el significado del transplante renal para los niños en tratamiento dialítico y conocer sus expectativas

  14. Renal and hepatic histopathology of intraperitoneally administered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-12

    Oct 12, 2016 ... Acute toxicity of the KMnO4 was determined by intraperitoneally injecting the fish with 0.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 mg/kg. .... with Coppens fish feed containing 55% crude protein and the water quality was maintained daily with a standard test ...... water and waste water. 21st edition. New York: American Public.

  15. Renal and hepatic histopathology of intraperitoneally administered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-12

    Oct 12, 2016 ... It is a water disinfectant. (Wells, Ponds) and is .... tissues were dehydrated in graded level of ethanol (70 to 100%) in ascending order. Alcohol ... bioassay, a total percentage mortality of 20, 60, 90 and. 100% were observed at ...

  16. Hemoglobin A1c variability as an independent correlate of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional analysis of the Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous reports have clearly indicated a significant relationship between hemoglobin (Hb) A1c change from one visit to the next and microvascular complications, especially nephropathy (albuminuria and albuminuric chronic kidney disease, CKD). In contrast, data on macrovascular disease are less clear. This study was aimed at examining the association of HbA1c variability with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the large cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study. Methods Serial (3–5) HbA1c values obtained during the 2-year period preceding recruitment, including that obtained at the enrolment, were available from 8,290 subjects from 9 centers (out of 15,773 patients from 19 centers). Average HbA1c and HbA1c variability were calculated as the intra-individual mean (HbA1c-MEAN) and standard deviation (HbA1c-SD), respectively, of 4.52±0.76 values. Prevalent CVD, total and by vascular bed, was assessed from medical history by recording previous documented major acute events. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was assessed by dilated fundoscopy. CKD was defined based on albuminuria, as measured by immunonephelometry or immunoturbidimetry, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, as calculated from serum creatinine. Results HbA1c-MEAN, but not HbA1c-SD, was significantly higher (P<0.0001) in subjects with history of any CVD (n. 2,133, 25.7%) than in those without CVD (n. 6,157, 74.3%). Median and interquartile range were 7.78 (7.04-8.56) and 7.49 (6.81-8.31), respectively, for HbA1c-MEAN, and 0.47 (0.29-0.75) and 0.46 (0.28-0.73), respectively, for HbA1c-SD. Logistic regression analyses showed that HbA1c-MEAN, but not HbA1c-SD (and independent of it), was a significant correlate of any CVD. Similar findings were observed in subjects with versus those without any coronary or cerebrovascular event or myocardial infarction. Conversely, none of these measures were associated with stroke

  17. Prevalência de anemia e insuficiência renal em portadores de insuficiência cardíaca não-hospitalizados Prevalencia de anemia e insuficiencia renal en portadores de insuficiencia cardiaca no hospitalizados Prevalence of anemia and renal insufficiency in non-hospitalized patients with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Farias Borges dos Reis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Insuficiência cardíaca (IC é uma doença comum com alta taxa de mortalidade. Anemia e insuficiência renal (IR são frequentemente encontradas em portadores de IC associadas com maior gravidade da doença cardíaca e pior prognóstico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de anemia e insuficiência renal, bem como a associação entre esses dois quadros, em portadores de IC não hospitalizados. MÉTODOS: Foram observados pacientes acompanhandos na clínica de IC de um hospital universitário de julho de 2003 a novembro de 2006. Anemia foi definida como níveis de hemoglobina abaixo de 13 mg/dl para homens e de 12 mg/dl para mulheres. A função renal foi avaliada por meio da taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG, calculada pela fórmula simplificada do estudo MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease. RESULTADOS: Dos trezentos e quarenta e cinco pacientes incluídos neste estudo, 26,4% (n = 91 tinham anemia e 29,6% tinham insuficiência renal moderada a grave (TFG FUNDAMENTO: La insuficiencia cardiaca (IC es una enfermedad común con alta tasa de mortalidad. La anemia y la insuficiencia renal (IR, encontradas frecuentemente en portadores de IC, son asociadas a mayor severidad de la enfermedad cardiaca y peor pronóstico. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la prevalencia de anemia e insuficiencia renal, así como la asociación entre esos dos cuadros, en portadores de IC no hospitalizados. MÉTODOS: Se observaron a pacientes seguidos en la clínica de IC de un hospital universitario de julio de 2003 a noviembre de 2006. Se definió la anemia como niveles de hemoglobina abajo de 13 mg/dl para varones y de 12 mg/dl para mujeres. La función renal se evaluó por medio de la tasa de filtración glomerular (TFG, calculada por la fórmula simplificada del estudio MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease. RESULTADOS: Teniendo en cuenta los trescientos y cuarenta y cinco pacientes incluidos en este estudio, el 26,4% (n = 91 tenía anemia y el 29

  18. Managing Adrenal Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIH Clinical Center Patient Education Materials Managing Adrenal Insufficiency What are the adrenal glands? Your body has two adrenal glands. Each gland is located above a kidney. The adrenal glands secrete many hormones needed for ...

  19. Efeitos do exercício físico durante a hemodiálise em indivíduos com insuficiência renal crônica: uma revisão Effects of physical exercise during hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal insufficiency: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Márcia Faria de Moura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As principais alterações observadas em indivíduos com insuficiência renal crônica são anemia, hipertensão arterial sistêmica e atrofia muscular, que levam à baixa capacidade aeróbica e perda de força muscular. Assim, parte do tratamento desses indivíduos consiste em programas de exercício físico. O objetivo desta revisão da literatura foi documentar os efeitos agudos e as adaptações crônicas, cardiovasculares e musculares em indivíduos no estágio final da doença renal, submetidos a programas de exercício físico durante a hemodiálise. Foram selecionados artigos científicos nas bases eletrônicas Medline, Lilacs e PEDro, assim como no acervo de periódicos da biblioteca da Faculdade de Medicina da UFMG. Foram analisados 13 artigos envolvendo exercício físico aeróbico associado ou não a fortalecimento muscular durante a hemodiálise, variando quanto à intensidade, freqüência e duração da intervenção. A maioria demonstrou que exercícios físicos realizados durante a hemodiálise promovem efeitos benéficos na melhora da capacidade aeróbica, força muscular e no controle dos fatores de risco cardiovasculares, auxiliando a remoção dos solutos durante a hemodiálise. Embora o tema seja ainda pouco explorado, a literatura disponível evidencia benefícios do exercício durante a hemodiálise sobre a capacidade aeróbica e força muscular dos pacientes.Main alterations seen in patients with chronic renal insufficiency are anemia, systemic arterial hypertension, and muscular atrophy, which lead to low aerobic capacity and loss of muscle strength. Hence part of these patients treatment consists in programs of physical exercise. The purpose of this literature review was to assess muscle and cardiovascular acute effects and chronic adaptations in end-stage renal disease patients submitted to physical exercise during hemodialysis. After browsing through Medline, Lilacs and PEDro databases, as well as searching for

  20. Adrenal insufficiency presenting as hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Seung Won; Kim, Tong Yoon; Lee, Sangmin; Jeong, Jeong Yeon; Shim, Hojoon; Han, Yu Min; Choi, Kyu Eun; Shin, Seok Joon; Yoon, Hye Eun

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is an uncommon cause of hypercalcemia and not easily considered as an etiology of adrenal insufficiency in clinical practice, as not all cases of adrenal insufficiency manifest as hypercalcemia. We report a case of secondary adrenal insufficiency presenting as hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury in a 66-year-old female. The patient was admitted to the emergency department with general weakness and poor oral intake. Hypercalcemia (11.5 mg/dL) and moderate renal dysfunction (serum creatinine 4.9 mg/dL) were shown in her initial laboratory findings. Studies for malignancy and hyperparathyroidism showed negative results. Basal cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels and adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test confirmed the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency. With the administration of oral hydrocortisone, hypercalcemia was dramatically resolved within 3 days. This case shows that adrenal insufficiency may manifest as hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury, which implicates that adrenal insufficiency should be considered a cause of hypercalcemia in clinical practice.

  1. Food insufficiency in rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyna, G H; Mnyika, K S; Mmbaga, E J; Hussain, A; Klouman, E; Holm-Hansen, C; Klepp, K I

    2007-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of reported food insufficiency associated socio-demographic factors and health indicators in rural Tanzania. A cross-sectional study. A rural community in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Eight hundred and ninety nine individuals aged 15-36 years. A structured questionnaire was administered to collect information on socio-demographic factors, health indicators and food insufficiency. Participants were tested for HIV-1 using saliva samples. The prevalence of food insufficiency was 25.3% with no sex difference. After controlling for potential confounders age (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 1.05; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.02-1.08), low education level (AOR = 4.73; CI: 1.30-17.11), being a peasant (AOR = 2.29; CI: 1.04-5.04), poor self-rated health status (AOR = 4.35; CI: 1.71-11.00) and having health problems (AOR = 2.23; CI: 1.21-4.08) were associated with food insufficiency among women but not men. In unadjusted analysis, women with food insufficiency had over twice the odds of testing HIV positive although the association did not reach statistical significance (AOR = 2.12; CI: 0.87-5.19) in adjusted analysis. Food insufficiency was prevalent in rural Tanzania. It was associated with sociodemographic factors and health indicators among women but not men. Our findings suggest that food insufficiency may play a role in increasing vulnerability to HIV infection particularly among women however; more research is needed to explore further this relationship.

  2. Is there something special about cardiovascular abnormalities and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy among patients with chronic renal insufficiency in regular hemodialysis program? Existe algo de especial a respeito das anormalidades cardíacas e morte súbita e inesperada na epilepsia nos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica no programa regular de hemodiálise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui A. Gomes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Of the many risk factors suggested for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP, higher frequency of seizures is a very consistent issue. Following this reasoning, it has been established that hemodialysis-associated seizure is a complication of dialysis procedure. Based on these facts, this study investigated a possible association between cardiovascular abnormalities and SUDEP among patients with chronic renal insufficiency in regular hemodialysis program. For that, a retrospective medical history of 209 patients was reviewed to investigate the occurrence of convulsive seizures and EKG abnormalities during dialytic program. Three patients presented generalized tonic-clonic seizures, one had partial seizure with secondary generalization, and one presented unclassified seizure. Any EKG abnormalities and SUDEP event were found in all patients evaluated. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrated uncommon the occurrence of seizures and also SUDEP. Probably, the main justification to not allow us to demonstrated a direct relation between SUDEP and cardiovascular diseases in hemodialysis are the reduced number of cases examined.Um dos principais fatores de risco para a morte súbita e inesperada na epilepsia (SUDEP é a alta freqüência de crises epilépticas. Seguindo este raciocínio, tem sido estabelecido que as crises epilépticas associadas à hemodiálise seja uma complicação do procedimento dialítico. Baseado neste fato, este estudo investigou uma possível associação entre anormalidades cardiovasculares e SUDEP nos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica em um programa regular de hemodiálise. Para isto, um histórico médico retrospectivo de 209 pacientes foi revisado para avaliar a ocorrência de crises epilépticas e possíveis anormalidades no ECG durante o programa de diálise. Três pacientes apresentaram crises tônico-clonica generalizadas, um apresentou crise parcial com generalização secundária e um apresentou

  3. Renal arteriography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal angiogram; Angiography - kidney; Renal angiography; Renal artery stenosis - arteriography ... an artery by a blood clot Renal artery stenosis Renal cell cancer Angiomyolipomas (noncancerous tumors of the ...

  4. Growth retardation in children with chronic renal disease

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    Peco-Antić Amira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the management of children with chronic renal disease (CRD, growth retardation remains its most visible comorbid condition. Growth retardation has adverse impact on morbidity and mortality rates, quality of life and education, and in adult patients on job family life, and independent leaving accomodation. Pathophysiology of impaired growth in CRD is complex and still not fully understood. The following complications are: anorexia, malnutrition, inflammation, decreased residual renal function, dialysis frequency and adequacy, renal anemia, metabolic acidosis, fluid/electrolyte imbalance, renal osteodistrophy, growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor -1 (IGF-1 resistance. Malnutrition is most frequent and most important factor contributing to the degree of growth retardation in infancy. The degree of renal dysfunction is the major determinant of variability in growth from third year of age until puberty onset, while in puberty hypergonadotropic hypogonadism has negative effect. The main factors that influence growth after renal transplantation are the age of the recipient and glucocorticoid drugs dosage with negative effect and allograft function with positive effect. In order to improve growth in children with CRD it is necessary to include: diet with optimal caloric intake, correction of fluid/ electrolyte imbalance, correction of acidosis, renal osteodistrophy and anemia. If growth velocity is insufficient to normalize growth, it is necessary to start recombinant human GH (rhGH therapy at 0.05 mg/kg per day (0.35 mg/kg per week or 28 IU/m2 per week administered by subcutaneous injection.

  5. Urinary potassium excretion, renal ammoniagenesis, and risk of graft failure and mortality in renal transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenga, Michele F.; Kieneker, Lyanne M.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; van den Berg, Else; Deetman, Petronella E.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073810339; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Joosten, Michel M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) have commonly been urged to limit their potassium intake during renal insufficiency and may adhere to this principle after transplantation. Importantly, in experimental animal models, low dietary potassium intake induces kidney injury through

  6. Adesão de portadores de insuficiência renal crônica ao tratamento de hemodiálise Adhesión de portadores de insuficiencia renal crónica al tratamiento de hemodiálisis Adherence of chronic renal insufficiency patients to hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Cláudio Madeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a adesão do cliente com insuficiência renal crônica (IRC ao tratamento de hemodiálise. MÉTODO: Estudo descritivo, quantitativo, realizado em uma unidade de hemodiálise, Fortaleza-CE, alvo foi composta de 45 clientes em hemodiálise, que participaram de uma entrevista. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se como reações dos clientes diante do diagnóstico de IRC: 58% negativas, 33% indiferentes e 9% positivas. Reações diante da hemodiálise: 73,4% negativas, 13,3% indiferentes e 13,3% positivas. Principais dificuldades de adesão: transporte; tempo das sessões; dor da punção da fístula; fatores financeiros; dependência de acompanhantes e déficit de conhecimento. Estratégias de adesão: medo da morte; fé em Deus; esperança de transplante e suporte familiar. CONCLUSÃO: Constatou-se que o cliente portador de IRC adere ao tratamento para sobreviver, mas muitos não se adaptam.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la adhesión del cliente, con insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC, al tratamiento de hemodiálisis. MÉTODO: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo cuantitativo, realizado en una unidad de hemodiálisis, en Fortaleza-CE; la población objeto fue compuesta de 45 clientes que realizaban hemodiálisis, los que fueron entrevistados. RESULTADOS: Delante del diagnóstico se constató como reacciones de los clientes de IRC: 58% negativas, 33% indiferentes y 9% positivas. Las reacciones delante de la hemodiálisis fueron: 73,4% negativas, 13,3% indiferentes y 13,3% positivas. Las principales dificultades en la adhesión fueron: transporte; tiempo de las sesiones; dolor de la punción de la fístula; factores financieros; dependencia de acompañantes; y, déficit de conocimiento. Las estrategias de adhesión fueron: miedo a la muerte; fe en Dios; esperanza de trasplante; y, soporte familiar. CONCLUSIÓN: Se constató que el cliente portador de IRC adhiere al tratamiento para sobrevivir, sin embargo muchos no se adaptan.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the

  7. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevtic, V. E-mail: vladimir.jevtic@mf.uni-lj.si

    2003-05-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination.

  8. [Estimating renal function with formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J.C.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Bakker, S.J.; Gansevoort, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    A glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and renal insufficiency. The formula of the 'Modification of diet in renal disease' (MDRD) study is derived from plasma-creatinine concentrations and estimates GFR based on age, sex

  9. Renal histopathology in toxicity and carcinogenicity studies with tert-butyl alcohol administered in drinking water to F344 rats: a pathology working group review and re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, Gordon C; Bruner, Richard H; Cohen, Samuel M; Pletcher, John M; Regan, Karen S

    2011-04-01

    An independent Pathology Working Group (PWG) re-evaluated the kidney changes in National Toxicology Program (NTP) toxicology/carcinogenicity studies of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in F344/N rats to determine possible mode(s) of action underlying renal tubule tumors in male rats at 2-years. In the 13-week study, the PWG confirmed that the normal pattern of round hyaline droplets in proximal convoluted tubules was replaced by angular droplet accumulation, and identified precursors of granular casts in the outer medulla, changes typical of alpha(2u)-globulin (α(2u)-g) nephropathy. In the 2-year study, the PWG confirmed the NTP observation of increased renal tubule tumors in treated male groups. Linear papillary mineralization, another hallmark of the α(2u)-g pathway was present only in treated male rats. Chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) was exacerbated in high-dose males and females, with a relationship between advanced grades of CPN and renal tumor occurrence. Hyperplasia of the papilla lining was a component of CPN in both sexes, but there was no pelvic urothelial hyperplasia. High-dose females showed no TBA-related nephrotoxicity. The PWG concluded that both α(2u)-g nephropathy and exacerbated CPN modes of action were operative in TBA renal tumorigenicity in male rats, neither of which has relevance for human cancer risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. TRPV5 gene polymorphisms in renal hypercalciuria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, K.Y.; Lee, K.; Topala, C.N.; Goossens, M.; Houillier, P.; Bindels, R.J.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kidney stone formation is a major socioeconomic problem in humans, involving pain, recurrent treatment and renal insufficiency. As most renal precipitates contain calcium as a major component, hypercalciuria is the main risk factor for renal stone formation. Different forms of

  11. [Nutrition and respiratory insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, M; Burgos, R

    2000-01-01

    Unlike other pathologies, not much attention has been paid to the relationship between nutrition and respiratory disease. This is probably because some of these diseases, such as cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are closely associated with smoking while others that could be more directly linked with nutrition such as cystic fibrosis and emphysema are not directly caused by nutrition disorders. Not all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are undernourished. When malnutrition is present in these patients it is because of multiple reasons and is associated with an increase in both mortality and morbidity. In patients with acute respiratory insufficiency, malnutrition is often secondary to a heightened catabolic state leading to the severe fundamental illness. We also know that nutritional treatment may not only correct malnutrition but also help in improving the respiratory function. This nutritional therapy is not normally easy to comply with. It must be accompanied by other non-pharmacological therapies such as rehabilitation. Renourishment may also entail risks for patients with respiratory diseases so it is very important to know as closely as possible their nutritional requirements and to focus on specific actions.

  12. Captopril-induced acute renal artery thrombosis and persistent anuria in a patient with documented pre-existing renal artery stenosis and renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. S.; Hendy, M. S.; Ackrill, P.

    1984-01-01

    We describe an elderly man, with pre-existing renal failure and atheromatous renal artery stenosis, who developed persistent anuria due to renal artery thrombosis after acute hypotension following captopril administration. Caution should be used when captopril is first administered to patients with impaired renal function in whom renal artery stenosis is known or suspected. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6382225

  13. Microangiopathic hemolysis and renal failure in malignant hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Born, Bert Jan H.; Honnebier, Uwkje P. F.; Koopmans, Richard P.; van Montfrans, Gert A.

    2005-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with malignant hypertension. Microangiopathic hemolysis (MAHA) related to malignant hypertension may cause renal insufficiency by obstruction of interlobular arteries. We hypothesized that the presence of MAHA is an

  14. Effects of withdrawing vs continuing renin-angiotensin blockers on incidence of acute kidney injury in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing cardiac catheterization: Results from the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor/Angiotensin Receptor Blocker and Contrast Induced Nephropathy in Patients Receiving Cardiac Catheterization (CAPTAIN) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainey, Kevin R; Rahim, Sherali; Etherington, Krystal; Rokoss, Michael L; Natarajan, Madhu K; Velianou, James L; Brons, Sonya; Mehta, Shamir R

    2015-07-01

    It is unclear if holding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) prior to coronary angiography reduces contrast-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). We undertook a randomized trial to investigate the effect of holding ACEI/ARB therapy prior to coronary angiography on the incidence of AKI. We randomly assigned 208 patients with moderate renal insufficiency (creatinine ≥ 1.7mg/dL within 3 months and/or documented creatinine ≥ 1.5mg/dL within 1 week before cardiac catheterization) to hold ACEI/ARB ≥24 hours preprocedure or continue ACEI/ARB. The primary outcome was the incidence of AKI defined as an absolute rise in serum creatinine of ≥0.5mg/dL from baseline and/or a relative rise in serum creatinine of ≥25% compared with baseline measured at 48 to 96 hours postcardiac catheterization. All patients were taking an ACEI (72.1%) or ARB (27.9%) prior to randomization. At 48 to 96 hours, the primary outcome occurred in 18.4% of patients who continued ACEI/ARB compared with 10.9% of the patients who held ACEI/ARB (hazard ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.30-1.19, P = .16). In a prespecified secondary outcome, there was a lower rise in mean serum creatinine after the procedure in patients who held ACEI/ARB (0.3 ± 0.5 vs 0.1 ± 0.3mg/dL, P = .03). The clinical composite of death, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, congestive heart failure, rehospitalization for cardiovascular cause, or need for dialysis preprocedure occurred in 3.9% who continued ACEI/ARB compared with 0% who held the ACEI/ARB (hazard ratio 0.11, 95% CI 0.01-2.96, P = .06). In this pilot study of patients with moderate renal insufficiency undergoing cardiac catheterization, with-holding ACEI/ARB resulted in a non-significant reduction in contrast-induced AKI and a significant reduction in post-procedural rise of creatinine. This low cost intervention could be considered when referring a patient for cardiac catheterization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  15. Factores sociales que contribuyen a la morbi-mortalidad en pacientes con Insuficiencia Renal Crónica sometidos a hemodiálisis. Un estudio necesario Social factors contributing to morbi-mortality in patients suffering from Chronical Kidney Insufficiency subjected to hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Pérez Escobar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio sobre los factores sociales que contribuyen a la morbi-mortalidad en pacientes crónicos sometidos a hemodiálisis en el servicio de nefrología del Hospital Provincial Manuel Ascunce Domenech de Camagüey. Entre los factores sociales más relevantes que atentan contra la calidad de vida y la supervivencia del paciente dialítico crónico se encontraron; la derivación tardía de los pacientes con Insuficiencia Renal Crónica a consultas Nefrológicas, las dificultades en la creación y supervivencia de los accesos vasculares, el escaso número de enfermeros por riñón artificial, las roturas de las máquinas de hemodiálisis, de las plantas de tratamiento del agua y las dificultades con transporte de los pacientes.It was carried out a study about the social factors contributing to the morbi-mortality in chronic patients subjected to hemodialysis in the service of nephrology of the "Manuel Ascunce DomEnech" Provincial Hospital, in Camagüey. They were among the most outstanding social factors that attempt against the quality of life and the survival of the chronic dialytic patient, the late derivation of the patients with Renal Chronic Insufficiency in Nephrologic consultations, the difficulties in the creation and survival of the vascular accesses, the scarce number of male nurses for artificial kidney, the breaks of the hemodialysis machines, of the plants of water treatment and the difficulties with the patients' transportation.

  16. Renal replacement therapy in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing and managing critically ill patients with renal dysfunction is a part of the daily routine of an intensivist. Acute kidney insufficiency substantially contributes to the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. Renal replacement therapy (RRT not only does play a significant role in the treatment of patients with renal failure, acute as well as chronic, but also has spread its domains to the treatment of many other disease conditions such as myaesthenia gravis, septic shock and acute on chronic liver failure. This article briefly outlines the role of renal replacement therapy in ICU.

  17. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  18. Prognostic value of renal biopsy and clinical variables in patients with lupus nephritis and normal serum creatinine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Starklint, Henrik; Petersen, J

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate factors with possible influence on the renal outcome in patients with lupus nephritis but without chronic renal insufficiency (CRI).......To evaluate factors with possible influence on the renal outcome in patients with lupus nephritis but without chronic renal insufficiency (CRI)....

  19. [Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, H

    1980-12-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency usually does not develop before reduction of enzyme output by more than 90%. Patients with pancreatic insufficiency have a ravenous appetite but fail to thrive from malnutrition. The caloric deprivation is primarily due to fat malabsorption, recognized by the passage of bulky foul smelling greasy stools. Several isolated enzyme deficiencies can be separated from diseases with generalised pancreatic insufficiency. Under replacement therapy with pancreatic enzyme supplements most patients improve and gain weight, although fat and bile acid malabsorption are not abolished.

  20. Elimination kinetics of labetalol in severe renal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A. J.; Ferry, D. G.; Bailey, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    1 The pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered labetalol were studied in four patients with severe renal failure and in three normal subjects. 2 A new and sensitive method for the assay of plasma labetalol concentrations using high performance liquid chromatography is described. 3 Labetalol has a relatively large apparent volume of distribution (3.3-7.9 l/kg, two-compartment open model) and a relatively high plasma clearance (0.3-1.6 1 h-1 kg-1). 4 There were no significant differences between the patients with severe renal failure and the controls for any of the pharmacokinetic parameters measured. 5 In the presence of renal functional impairment, no modification of labetalol dosage is required. 6 In another study of 31 patients, glomerular filtration rate was measured at 3-month intervals for 3-18 months. In ten patients there was no change, in ten there was an improvement and in 11 there was deterioration, but in only three was this attributable to treatment. 7 In our experience with over 300 patients, we conclude that labetalol plus diuretic treatment is efficacious and safe in all grades of hypertension including those with all degrees of renal insufficiency. PMID:7093103

  1. Renal insufficiency in Ghanaian HIV infected patients: need for dose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    antiretroviral therapy (drug induced kidney damage) and long-standing HIV ... disease because of the attendant problems associated with creatinine measurement and 24-hour urine creatinine clearance estimation12,13. Kidney function can be reliably ..... bound to protein nor have a high molecular weight, they may be ...

  2. [Assessment and characteristics of chronic renal insufficiency in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongard, V; Dallongeville, J; Arveiler, D; Ruidavets, J-B; Cottel, D; Wagner, A; Ferrières, J

    2012-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health issue. In France, few studies have evaluated CKD prevalence. The objective of the MONA LISA study was to estimate and to characterize CKD in three representative cross-sectional surveys in subjects aged 35-74.9 years. CKD was defined as subjects having MDRD glomerular filtration rate lower than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Prevalence of CKD in MONA LISA was standardized according to the French population. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed in order to find independent factors associated to CKD. The French estimate of CKD prevalence was 8.2% (95% confidence interval: 7.4-8.9%), that is 2,454,548 (95% confidence interval: 2,215,080-2,664,082) subjects aged 35-74.9 years. Factors significantly and independently associated to CKD were older age, hypertension and dyslipidemias. In conclusion, the MONA LISA study evaluated for the first time in France CKD prevalence in subjects aged 35-74.9 years. This prevalence probably underestimates the real CKD size due to selection bias present in every representative cross-sectional survey. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth failure in children with renal disease : incidence, pathophysiology, new perspectives with growth hormone therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractStunted growth is a serious problem for children with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). Advances in the treatment of renal insufficiency, including dialysis and renal transplantation, have greatly improved the survival rate for these patients. Consequently the failure to grow has become

  4. Can Stoss Therapy Be Used in Children with Vitamin D Deficiency or Insufficiency without Rickets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçyiğit, Cemil; Çatlı, Gönül; İnce, Gülberat; Özkan, Elif Büşra; Dündar, Bumin Nuri

    2017-06-01

    Stoss vitamin D treatment has been recommended for its non-skeletal benefits in adults, but there is a lack of data on the optimal dose of vitamin D stoss therapy in children with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency without rickets. This study aimed to compare efficiency/side effects of two different stoss therapy regimens (10 000 IU/kg and 300 000 IU vitamin D3) administered in children with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency without rickets. Sixty-four children who had vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency were studied. A serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25-OH-D) level of 15-20 ng/mL was considered as vitamin D insufficient and <15 ng/mL was considered as vitamin D deficient. The patients were divided into two groups according to the stoss therapy doses they received. Serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-OH-D, parathyroid hormone levels, and spot urine calcium/creatinine ratios before/after treatment were recorded. Wrist radiography and renal ultrasonography were performed. The mean age of the subjects was 10.6±4.4 years. Thirty-two children were treated with a single vitamin D3 dose of 10 000 IU/kg and 32 patients received 300 000 IU. No difference was found in 25-OH-D levels between the two groups at presentation. The mean level of 25-OH-D was higher in the 10 000 IU/kg group at the second week of therapy. There was no difference between the groups at post-treatment weeks 4 and 12. The 25-OH-D was found to be below optimal levels (≥30 ng/mL) in 66.5% and <20 ng/mL in 21.8% of patients at the third month in both groups. None developed hypercalcemia and/or hypercalciuria. Nephrolithiasis was not detected in any patient. This study showed that both doses of stoss therapy used in the treatment of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency are effective and safe. However, an optimal level of 25-OH-D cannot be maintained for more than three months.

  5. Neonatal Sepsis and Neutrophil Insufficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvan, John Nicholas; Bagby, Gregory J.; Welsh, David A.; Nelson, Steve; Zhang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis has continuously been a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality despite current advances in chemotherapy and patient intensive care facilities. Neonates are at high risk for developing bacterial infections due to quantitative and qualitative insufficiencies of innate immunity, particularly granulocyte lineage development and response to infection. Although antibiotics remain the mainstay of treatment, adjuvant therapies enhancing immune function have shown promise in treating sepsis in neonates. This chapter reviews current strategies for the clinical management of neonatal sepsis and analyzes mechanisms underlying insufficiencies of neutrophil defense in neonates with emphasis on new directions for adjuvant therapy development. PMID:20521927

  6. Acute Respiratory Insufficiency After Adenotonsillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Şen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adenotonsillectomy is one of the frequently performed surgical procedures in children and the most common complications of this procedure are bleeding and respiratory insufficiency. Here, we present a 20-month-old boy who was born prematurely. He underwent adenotonsillectomy and bilateral grommet insertion due to recurrent tonsilitis, snoring, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The patient required a prolonged intensive care unit stay due to postoperative respiratory insufficiency. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the potential complications of adenotonsillectomy. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2013;51:193-6

  7. Renal Leiomyosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Pastora Beardo; Maria José Ledo; Jose Luis Ruiz Campos

    2013-01-01

    Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare malignant tumor of smooth muscle origin that generally stems from soft tissues and uterine tissue. Although, a small percentage of these may originate from the smooth muscle or vessel walls, most of which are of venous origin. Renal leiomyosarcomas may arise from the smooth muscle fibers of renal pelvis, renal capsule or renal vessels, last one is the most frequent. We report a case of renal LMS that could be originated in the renal capsule.

  8. X-ray signals in renal osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieden, K.

    1984-10-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency is associated with metabolic disturbances which ultimately lead to typical, partly extremely painful changes in the skeletal system the longer the disease persists. Regular X-ray control of certain skeletal segments allows early detection of renal oesteopathy if the radiological findings described in this article are carefully scrutinised and interpreted.

  9. PREVALENCE OF ACCOMMODATIVE INSUFFICIENCY AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    essary for accurate and efficient reception of visual input, it is therefore necessary for these functions to be tested in all basic school children. Effects of accommodative dysfunctions on academic performance need to be studied. Keywords: Amplitude of Accommodation, Accommodative Insufficiency, Accommodative Infacil-.

  10. Prevalence and Significance of Unrecognized Renal Dysfunction in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbaum, Zach; Leader, Avi; Neuman, Yoram; Shlezinger, Meital; Goldenberg, Ilan; Mosseri, Morris; Pereg, David

    2016-02-01

    Unrecognized renal insufficiency, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate acute coronary syndrome. We aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of unrecognized renal insufficiency in a large unselected population of patients with acute coronary syndrome. The study population consisted of patients with acute coronary syndrome included in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli biennial Surveys during 2000-2013. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Patients were stratified into 3 groups: 1) normal renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rates ≥60 mL/min/1/73 m(2)); 2) unrecognized renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rates acute coronary syndrome patients. Unrecognized renal insufficiency was present in 2536 (19.8%). Patients with unrecognized renal insufficiency were older and more frequently females. All-cause mortality rates at 1 year were highest among patients with recognized renal insufficiency, followed by patients with unrecognized renal insufficiency, with the lowest mortality rates observed in patients with normal renal function (19.4%, 9.9%, and 3.3%, respectively, P coronary angiography and were less commonly treated with guideline-based cardiovascular medications. Acute coronary syndrome patients with unrecognized renal insufficiency should be considered as a high-risk population. The question of whether this group would benefit from a more aggressive therapeutic approach should still be evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Normative ultrasound values of renal parenchymal thickness among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Reduction in renal length was found to be an insufficient independent indicator of chronic renal disease. Objective: To determine the ultrasound normative values of renal parenchymal thickness (RPT) among adults and correlate them with age and somatometric parameters. Methods: This was a prospective ...

  12. Renal parenchymal histopathology predicts life-threatening chronic kidney disease as a result of radical nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejima, Takehiro; Honda, Masashi; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    The preoperative prediction of post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency plays an important role in the decision-making process regarding renal surgery options. Furthermore, the prediction of both postoperative renal insufficiency and postoperative cardiovascular disease occurrence, which is suggested to be an adverse consequence caused by renal insufficiency, contributes to the preoperative policy decision as well as the precise informed consent for a renal cell carcinoma patient. Preoperative nomograms for the prediction of post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency, calculated using patient backgrounds, are advocated. The use of these nomograms together with other types of nomograms predicting oncological outcome is beneficial. Post-radical nephrectomy attending physicians can predict renal insufficiency based on the normal renal parenchymal pathology in addition to preoperative patient characteristics. It is suggested that a high level of global glomerulosclerosis in nephrectomized normal renal parenchyma is closely associated with severe renal insufficiency. Some studies showed that post-radical nephrectomy severe renal insufficiency might have an association with increased mortality as a result of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, such pathophysiology should be recognized as life-threatening, surgically-related chronic kidney disease. On the contrary, the investigation of the prediction of mild post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency, which is not related to adverse consequences in the postoperative long-term period, is also promising because the prediction of mild renal insufficiency might be the basis for the substitution of radical nephrectomy for nephron-sparing surgery in technically difficult or compromised cases. The deterioration of quality of life caused by post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency should be investigated in conjunction with life-threatening matters. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  13. Primary ovarian insufficiency: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Leticia Cox, James H LiuUH Case Medical Center, MacDonald Women's Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Department of Reproductive Biology, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Primary ovarian insufficiency is a condition that represents impaired ovarian function on a continuum with intermittent ovulation. This condition commonly leads to premature menopause, defined as cessation of ovulation prior to the age of 40 years. Because there are potential immediate and long-term consequences of hypoestrogenism, a timely diagnosis is invaluable. This comprehensive review will discuss identifiable causes for primary ovarian insufficiency, including genetic disorders and metabolic abnormalities, as well as review current strategies for diagnosis, evaluation, and management of women with this condition.Keywords: premature ovarian failure, premature menopause, ovarian dysfunction

  14. Renal leiomyosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gelincik, İ; Tok, A

    2013-01-01

    Renal leiomyosarcomas are very rare and only account for 1-3% of primary renal malignancies. The prognosis for a renal sarcoma is poor, and differentiation from sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma and a renal sarcoma is particularly necessary. The patient's clinical presentation and imaging findings are not helpful for accurate preoperative diagnosis. The primary treatment is radical nephrectomy with or without adjuvant radiotherapy chemotherapy. The prognosis is poor. We report a case of primar...

  15. Parasites and chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Manesh, Reza; Hosseini Safa, Ahmad; Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Jafari, Rasool; Bahadoran, Mehran; Yousefi, Morteza; Nasri, Hamid; Yousofi Darani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Suppression of the human immune system results in an increase in susceptibility to infection by various infectious agents. Conditions such as AIDS, organ transplantation and chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) are the most important cause of insufficient immune response against infections. Long term renal disorders result in uremia, which can suppress human immune system. Parasitic infections are one of the most important factors indicating the public health problems of the societies. These infections can be more hostile and life threatening in susceptible individuals than in the normal people. In these patients some parasitic infections such as blastocystiosis, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis have been reported to be more prevalent. This review aimed to give an overview about parasitic infections in patients with renal disorders.

  16. The role of intraperitoneally administered vitamin C during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... The effects of daily intraperitoneally administered doses of 100 mg/kg bd. wt. vitamin C on levels of some endogenous antioxidants as well as hepatic and renal function were investigated in a group of rabbits infected with a strain of Trypanosoma congolense (strain number: BS2/TC/SP28/P4). Values of.

  17. The role of intraperitoneally administered vitamin C during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of daily intraperitoneally administered doses of 100 mg/kg bd. wt. vitamin C on levels of some endogenous antioxidants as well as hepatic and renal function were investigated in a group of rabbits infected with a strain of Trypanosoma congolense (strain number: BS2/TC /SP28/P4). Values of parameters ...

  18. Treatment of acute renal failure due to myeloma kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Bear, R. A.; Cole, E H; Lang, A; Johnson, M.

    1980-01-01

    Severe renal insufficiency is considered to indicate a poor prognosis in patients with multiple myeloma, their reported median survival being approximately 2 months. In five consecutive patients with severe renal failure secondary to acute myeloma kidney early aggressive therapy, including chemotherapy and peritoneal dialysis, led to a significant improvement in the renal function of four; the fifth patient received a cadaveric renal transplant after 1 year of peritoneal dialysis. After a med...

  19. Pregnancy Complications: Cervical Insufficiency and Short Cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care ... Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Cervical insufficiency and short cervix Cervical insufficiency and ...

  20. Acute secondary adrenal insufficiency as the presenting manifestation of small-cell lung carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Kinjal K; Anderson, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A 66-year-old man, chronic smoker, presented with episodes of syncope, hypotension and constitutional symptoms. Initial evaluation revealed pre-renal azotaemia and acute secondary adrenal insufficiency.MRI performed was interpreted as a pituitary macroadenoma with enlargement of the infundibulum (stalk). Further endocrinological tests performed suggested central hypothyroidism and hypogonadism. Subsequent development of haemoptysis, headache and diplopia warranted further investigations, whic...

  1. Adrenal Insufficiency in Metastatic Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, F.; Louro, F; Zakout, R

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of adrenal insufficiency in patient with lung cancer. Although adrenal metastases are common in cancer patients, adrenal insufficiency is a rare occurrence. Diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency will improve the physical status and the quality of life in those patients.

  2. Adrenal Insufficiency in Metastatic Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Filipe; Louro, Fernanda; Zakout, Raed

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of adrenal insufficiency in patient with lung cancer. Although adrenal metastases are common in cancer patients, adrenal insufficiency is a rare occurrence. Diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency will improve the physical status and the quality of life in those patients.

  3. Renal angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1988-01-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare lesion composed of smooth muscle cells, adipose tissue and abnormal vessels. It is currently classified as a benign, non-epithelial renal tumor. It has a high incidence in patients suffering from tuberous sclerosis but is more frequently found as an isolated renal...... lesion. Three cases of renal angiomyolipoma, 2 of which underwent perfusion-fixation, were studied by electron microscopy to clarify the cellular composition of this lesion. In the smooth muscle cells abundant accumulation of glycogen was found, whereas the lipocytes disclosed normal ultrastructural......-specific vesicular structures. These findings suggest a secondary vascular damage, i.e. the thickened vessels may not be a primary, integral part of renal angiomyolipoma. Evidence of a common precursor cell of renal angiomyolipoma was not disclosed. It is concluded that renal angiomyolipoma is a hamartoma composed...

  4. Adrenal Insufficiency Caused by Locally Applied Glucocorticoids-Myth or Fact?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinsen, Stina; Klose, Marianne; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2015-01-01

    Case-reports have made it evident that both inhaled, percutaneous, intranasal, intraarticular and ophthalmic administered glucocorticoids have the potential to cause life threatening adrenal insufficiency. With few and sometimes conflicting data and study methodology the prevalence of adrenal...... insufficiency secondary to locally applied glucocorticoids is not clear. Adrenal insufficiency can only be correctly evaluated by a stimulation test, and has by this procedure been reported in up to 40-50% of patients treated with high-dose inhaled glucocorticoids. Medium- to low-dose inhaled glucocorticoids...... have been shown to cause adrenal suppression in 0-16% of patients. Glucocorticoid creams and nasal glucocorticoids can cause adrenal insufficiency, also when used within prescribed doses, but the frequency seems to be less than with inhaled glucocorticoids. Intraarticularly administered glucocorticoids...

  5. [Primary adrenal insufficiency in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longui, Carlos Alberto

    2004-10-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency is a rare pediatric condition, which can be presented as chronic or acute forms, especially during stress. The clinical features are unspecific and include weakness, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea, arterial hypotension, hypoglycemia and dehydration. The etiology can be acquired such as infectious, hemorrhagic and drug-induced disorders, or be dependent on a genetic origin, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Addisons disease, congenital adrenal hypoplasia, adrenoleucodystrophy, or deposit disorders of the adrenal gland. The familial history, presence of consanguinity, adjacent diseases and associate factors, should be considered to confirm the diagnosis. Laboratory investigation includes cortisol, ACTH and the determination of the steroidogenic precursors. The ACTH stimulation test is performed in intermediate conditions. Adrenal auto-antibodies quantitation and molecular studies can be helpful to confirm specific diseases. A substitutive glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid therapy should be started as soon as the diagnosis is confirmed. The treatment aimed to control the symptoms with the smaller dose that can allow an adequate growth and pubertal development.

  6. Renal biopsy diagnosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchman, T E; Gale, G B; O'Connor, D M; Salinas-Madrigal, L; Chu, J Y

    1992-09-01

    Hyperuricemia, due to inborn errors of metabolism, dehydration, or tumor lysis, may cause renal insufficiency. Hyperuricemia from tumor lysis syndrome in malignancy is usually associated with electrolyte disturbances such as hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia or hyper or hypocalcemia. Tumor infiltration into the kidneys can occur, yet this accounts for renal insufficiency in only 1% of patients. This infiltration of tumor cells into the kidneys is usually associated with evidence of malignancy elsewhere as identified by physical exam, radiographic studies, and examination of the peripheral smear or bone marrow. We report an unusual presentation of a child with acute lymphocytic leukemia presenting with acute renal failure, nephromegaly and hyperuricemia without electrolyte disturbances or systemic evidence of tumor elsewhere. We stress the importance of kidney biopsy in order to identify the etiology of the renal failure and hyperuricemia.

  7. Effects of initiating chronic renal replacement therapy in children, now and later in life: Data from the LERIC cohort and ERA-EDTA Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the most important results of LERIC (Late Effects of Renal Insufficiency in Children), a very a long-term follow-up study to the late somatic and psychosocial consequences of renal insufficiency in children. LERIC is a comprehensive study to evaluate the late effects of renal

  8. Renal Afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Alissa A; Carmichael, Casey Y; Wainford, Richard D

    2016-09-01

    The etiology of hypertension, a critical public health issue affecting one in three US adults, involves the integration of the actions of multiple organ systems, including the renal sympathetic nerves. The renal sympathetic nerves, which are comprised of both afferent (sensory input) and efferent (sympathetic outflow) arms, have emerged as a major potential therapeutic target to treat hypertension and disease states exhibiting excess renal sympathetic activity. This review highlights recent advances in both clinical and basic science that have provided new insight into the distribution, function, and reinnervation of the renal sympathetic nerves, with a focus on the renal afferent nerves, in hypertension and hypertension-evoked disease states including salt-sensitive hypertension, obesity-induced hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. Increased understanding of the differential role of the renal afferent versus efferent nerves in the pathophysiology of hypertension has the potential to identify novel targets and refine therapeutic interventions designed to treat hypertension.

  9. [Management of renal complications during primary angioplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenzi, Giancarlo; Marana, Ivana; Bartorelli, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Primary angioplasty represents the best strategy for myocardial reperfusion in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. However, it is associated with a high risk of developing contrast-induced nephropathy, a renal complication coupled with markedly increased morbidity and mortality rates. This paper summarizes, on the current evidence available, the clinical and prognostic relevance of renal insufficiency and contrast-induced nephropathy in acute myocardial infarction, and emphasizes new possible preventive strategies for kidney protection in this clinical setting.

  10. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Govorov; A. O. Vasilyev; D. Yu. Pushkar

    2014-01-01

    Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat session...

  11. Renal liposarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo A.L. Bader

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Liposarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor frequently located in retroperitoneum, and rarely presenting an isolated lesion in kidney. CASE REPORT: Female, Caucasian, 49-year old patient, with family history of renal polycystic disease, was selected for organ donation. During preoperative examinations a renal pleomorphic liposarcoma was detected. She was treated with radical nephrectomy and remains asymptomatic, without evidences of recurrence in control ecographic examinations after a 4-year follow-up. COMMENTS: Renal liposarcoma is a rare tumor. We report one case incidentally diagnosed during a routine pre-transplantation assessment in renal donor.

  12. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  13. Renal disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Chronic renal failure in its various stages, requires certain nutritional restrictions associated with the accumulation of minerals and waste products that cannot be easily eliminated by the kidneys...

  14. Platelet Levels and Implications For Pre-Dialysis Chronic Renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Platelet count is assumed to be normal in chronic renal insufficiency. However, the possible effect of loss of platelet function in chronic renal failure (CFR) in relation to occult chronic blood loss, haematuria and overall health of the patient has not been given the desired attention. The aim of this study was to determine the ...

  15. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  16. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  17. Renal abscess caused by Brucella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of the renal parenchyma in the acute phase of brucellosis is very rare. Only two cases of renal brucelloma have been reported in the English language literature to date. We report a case of renal abscess caused by Brucella in the acute phase. A 45-year-old Chinese man presented with a high fever, urine occult blood, and a low density lesion in the right kidney. Ultrasound-guided aspiration was done. Brucella melitensis was isolated from both blood and puncture fluid culture. Minocycline combined with moxifloxacin was prescribed for 4 months. The infection relapsed at 6 months after discontinuation. Minocycline combined with rifampin was administered for another 2 months. The brucellosis had not relapsed at more than 20 months later. It is possible to cure renal brucelloma with antibiotics and ultrasound-guided aspiration. Treatment should not be discontinued until the abscess has disappeared and two consecutive blood cultures taken 1 month apart are negative.

  18. Hypothalamic functions in patients with pituitary insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to increase our understanding of hypothalamic (dys)function in patients with pituitary insufficiency. This goal is driven by the clinical experience of persisting symptoms in patients adequately treated for pituitary insufficiency. We focus primarily on patients

  19. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and respiratory insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siirala, Waltteri; Korpela, Jaana; Vuori, Arno; Saaresranta, Tarja; Olkkola, Klaus T; Aantaa, Riku

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease causing degeneration of motor neurons, without any curative treatment. The most common cause of death is respiratory arrest due to atrophy of the respiratory musculature. ALS-associated respiratory insufficiency differs in mechanism from the more common causes of dyspnea, such as diseases of pulmonary or cardiac origin. Recognizing the respiratory insufficiency can be challenging for a clinician. It should be possible to predict the development of respiratory insufficiency in order to avoid leaving the treatment decisions concerning respiratory insufficiency to emergency services. Noninvasive ventilatory support can be used to alleviate the patient's dyspnea. It is actually recommended as the first-line treatment of ALS-associated respiratory insufficiency.

  20. Acute secondary adrenal insufficiency as the presenting manifestation of small-cell lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kinjal K; Anderson, Robert J

    2014-02-14

    A 66-year-old man, chronic smoker, presented with episodes of syncope, hypotension and constitutional symptoms. Initial evaluation revealed pre-renal azotaemia and acute secondary adrenal insufficiency.MRI performed was interpreted as a pituitary macroadenoma with enlargement of the infundibulum (stalk). Further endocrinological tests performed suggested central hypothyroidism and hypogonadism. Subsequent development of haemoptysis, headache and diplopia warranted further investigations, which revealed stage IV small-cell lung carcinoma with adrenal metastases. Subsequent brain imaging showed lesions in the brain parenchyma, pituitary and stalk, characteristic of metastases. Thus, we present a very atypical case of pituitary metastases presenting with acute secondary adrenal insufficiency.

  1. Academic behaviors in children with convergence insufficiency with and without parent-reported ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Michael; Borsting, Eric; Mitchell, G Lynn; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Scheiman, Mitchell; Amster, Deborah; Coulter, Rachael; Fecho, Gregory; Gallaway, Michael

    2009-10-01

    To determine if children with symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency without the presence of parent-reported Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have higher scores on the academic behavior survey (ABS). The ABS is a 6-item survey that evaluates parent concern about school performance and the parents' perceptions of the frequency of problem behaviors that their child may exhibit when reading or performing schoolwork (such as difficulty completing work, avoidance, and inattention). Each item is scored on an ordinal scale from 0 (Never) to 4 (Always) with a total score ranging from 0 to 24. The survey was administered to the parents of 212 children 9- to 17-year old (mean age 11.8 years.) with symptomatic convergence insufficiency before enrolling into the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial and to 49 children with normal binocular vision (NBV) (mean age 12.5 years). The parents reported whether the child had ADHD, and this information was used to divide the symptomatic convergence insufficiency group into the convergence insufficiency with parent report of ADHD or convergence insufficiency with parent report of no ADHD groups. Sixteen percent of the convergence insufficiency group and 6% of the NBV group were classified as ADHD by parental report. An analysis of covariance showed that the total ABS score for the symptomatic convergence insufficiency with parent report of ADHD group (15.6) was significantly higher than the symptomatic convergence insufficiency with parent report of no ADHD group (11.7, p = 0.001) and the NBV group (8.7, p parent report of no ADHD scored significantly higher on the ABS than the NBV group (p = 0.036). Children with symptomatic convergence insufficiency with parent report of no ADHD scored higher on the ABS, when compared to children with NBV. Children with parent report of ADHD or related learning problems may benefit from comprehensive vision evaluation to assess for the presence of convergence insufficiency.

  2. Renal angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1988-01-01

    features. However, a smaller number of smooth muscle cells also contained lipid, thus simulating an intermediate cell stage between adipose- and smooth muscle cells. The abnormal thickening of the subendothelial spaces contained collagen fibrils in a homogeneous matrix, fibroblast-like cells and non......-specific vesicular structures. These findings suggest a secondary vascular damage, i.e. the thickened vessels may not be a primary, integral part of renal angiomyolipoma. Evidence of a common precursor cell of renal angiomyolipoma was not disclosed. It is concluded that renal angiomyolipoma is a hamartoma composed...

  3. Belatacept for renal rescue in lung transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofte, Irina; Terrin, Michael; Barr, Erik; Sanchez, Pablo; Kim, June; Reed, Robert; Britt, Edward; Ravichandran, Bharath; Rajagopal, Keshava; Griffith, Bartley; Pham, Si; Pierson, Richard N; Iacono, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    Renal failure causes morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation and is aggravated by exposure to nephrotoxic immunosuppressant (IS) drugs. We report an off-label experience using belatacept for lung transplant recipients with severe renal insufficiency to reduce nephrotoxic IS exposure. We analyzed data retrospectively from a consecutive series of lung transplant patients with renal insufficiency in whom belatacept treatment was initiated between June 2012 and June 2014 at the University of Maryland Medical Center. Eight patients received belatacept because of acute or chronic renal insufficiency (median) GFR 24 (IQR 18-26). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) remained stable in two patients and increased in five. One patient with established renal and respiratory failure received only the induction dose of belatacept and died 4 months later of respiratory and multisystem organ failure. Calcineurin inhibitor or sirolimus exposure was safely withheld or reduced without moderate or severe acute rejection during ongoing belatacept in the other seven patients. FEV1 remained stable over the 6-month study interval. Belatacept use appears to permit safe transient reduction in conventional immunosuppressive therapy and was associated with stable or improved renal function in a small retrospective series of lung transplant recipients with acute or chronic renal insufficiency. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  4. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  5. Renal involvement in secondary amyloidosis of Muckle-Wells syndrome: marked improvement of renal function and reduction of proteinuria after therapy with human anti-interleukin-1β monoclonal antibody canakinumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpioni, Roberto; Rigante, Donato; Cantarini, Luca; Ricardi, Marco; Albertazzi, Vittorio; Melfa, Luigi; Lazzaro, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) is a rare hereditary autoinflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent urticaria-like skin rashes, arthralgias, conjunctivitis, hypoacusia, and risk of reactive AA amyloidosis due to the progressive accumulation of amyloid fibrils in different organs. Its genetic defect lies in mutations in the NLRP3 gene, encoding the cryopyrin protein, and resulting in interleukin (IL)-1β oversecretion. Renal involvement, in terms of proteinuria or renal insufficiency, can be observed in up to 25% of patients. Herein, we describe our experience with two Caucasian patients, father and son, aged 52 and 26 years, respectively, heterozygous for both V198M and R260W NLRP3 mutations who had AA amyloid deposits on renal biopsy. The fully human monoclonal antibody canakinumab, providing selective and prolonged IL-1β blockade, was administered in both patients every 60 days over a period of 18 months. This treatment allowed to obtain amazing results: a rapid disappearance of any clinical symptoms, the stable normalization of serum amyloid-A and, furthermore, a marked improvement of glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria with no adverse events. Our data, though limited to only two patients, emphasize that therapeutic intervention with canakinumab, suppressing both inflammation and IL-1β-mediated manifestations, can contribute to improve kidney function in MWS with overt renal amyloidosis.

  6. Adrenal insufficiency in primary adrenal lymphoma: Innocuous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-13

    Feb 13, 2011 ... to expeditiously initiate steroid replacement in patients with adrenal insufficiency, while efforts are made ... anemia of chronic kidney disease and early iron deficiency. ... elderly (38-81years) with an extremely poor prognosis.

  7. Prevalence of 25(OH) Vitamin D Insufficiency and Deficiency in Pediatric Patients on Chronic Dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hee Yeon; Hyun, Hye Sun; Kang, Hee Gyung; Ha, Il Soo; Cheong, Hae Il

    2013-01-01

    ♦ Background: 25(OH) Vitamin D [25(OH)D] is the major circulating form of vitamin D and the parameter used to reflect vitamin D status. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are likely to have low levels of 25(OH)D, and recent observations have linked suboptimal vitamin D status with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, inflammation, insulin resistance, and the rate of progression of renal insufficiency. Little is known about the magnitude of vitamin D deficiency in pediatric patients with s...

  8. Addison, pernicious anemia and adrenal insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Graner, John L

    1985-01-01

    In 1849 Thomas Addison described the clinical entity now known as pernicious anemia. In 1855 he reported several cases of adrenal insufficiency, or Addison's disease. Considering the importance of these works, there remains a great deal of confusion about them. Contrary to what many historians have written, a review of Addison's original publications demonstrates a firm appreciation of the distinction between pernicious anemia and adrenal insufficiency, based particularly on the discoloration...

  9. Renal artery anatomy affects the blood pressure response to renal denervation in patients with resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Dagmara; Marusic, Petra; Walton, Antony S; Duval, Jacqueline; Lee, Rebecca; Sata, Yusuke; Krum, Henry; Lambert, Elisabeth; Peter, Karlheinz; Head, Geoff; Lambert, Gavin; Esler, Murray D; Schlaich, Markus P

    2016-01-01

    Renal denervation (RDN) has been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and target organ damage in patients with resistant hypertension (RH) and bilateral single renal arteries. The safety and efficacy of RDN in patients with multiple renal arteries remains unclear. We measured office and 24-hour BP at baseline, 3 and 6 months following RDN in 91 patients with RH, including 65 patients with single renal arteries bilaterally (group 1), 16 patients with dual renal arteries on either one or both sides (group 2) and 10 patients with other anatomical constellations or structural abnormalities (group 3). Thirty nine out of 91 patients completed MSNA at baseline and follow-up. RDN significantly reduced office and daytime SBP in group 1 at both 3 and 6 months follow-up (Prenal anatomy, the presence of single renal arteries with or without structural abnormalities is associated with a more pronounced BP and MSNA lowering effect than the presence of dual renal arteries in patients with RH. However, when patients with dual renal arteries received renal nerve ablation in all arteries there was trend towards a greater BP reduction. Insufficient renal sympathetic nerve ablation may account for these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nationwide Trends and Variations in Urological Surgical Interventions and Renal Outcome in Patients with Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin-Hsiao S; Lloyd, Jessica C; Wiener, John S; Routh, Jonathan C

    2016-04-01

    Bladder dysfunction in patients with spina bifida can lead to significant morbidity due to renal insufficiency. Indications for surgery vary among institutions and the impact is unclear. We examined trends and variations in urological interventions and chronic renal insufficiency in patients with spina bifida. We reviewed NIS (Nationwide Inpatient Sample) for all patients with spina bifida treated from 1998 to 2011. We used ICD-9-CM codes to identify urological surgery and chronic renal insufficiency. We calculated the Spearman correlation coefficients between rates of spina bifida related bladder surgeries and rates of chronic renal insufficiency outcomes by state. Linear regression models were fitted to investigate the associations between rates of spina bifida related surgery and chronic renal insufficiency across treatment years. We identified 427,616 spina bifida hospital admissions. Mean patient age was 26 years and 56% of patients were female. Of the admissions 35,249 (8%) were for chronic renal insufficiency and 11,078 (3%) were for surgery. During the study period chronic renal insufficiency rates doubled from 6% to 12% and surgery rates decreased from 2.0% to 1.8%. There was a moderately weak inverse association between surgery and chronic renal insufficiency rates with time (r = -0.3, p = 0.06) and by state (r = -0.3, p = 0.04). On multivariate analysis higher rates of surgery were associated with the state in which the patient was treated (p spina bifida related surgery (p = 0.67). We observed a temporal and geographic trend toward decreasing urological surgery and increasing chronic renal insufficiency rates in spina bifida and a wide variation in urological surgical rates among states. Further study is needed to determine the factors behind these trends and variations in spina bifida management. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Factores sociales que contribuyen a la morbi-mortalidad en pacientes con Insuficiencia Renal Crónica sometidos a hemodiálisis. Un estudio necesario Social factors contributing to morbi-mortality in patients suffering from Chronical Kidney Insufficiency subjected to hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    María Mercedes Pérez Escobar; Nuria Herrera Cruz; Elizabeth Pérez Escobar; Zenaida Cabrejas Hernández

    2008-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio sobre los factores sociales que contribuyen a la morbi-mortalidad en pacientes crónicos sometidos a hemodiálisis en el servicio de nefrología del Hospital Provincial Manuel Ascunce Domenech de Camagüey. Entre los factores sociales más relevantes que atentan contra la calidad de vida y la supervivencia del paciente dialítico crónico se encontraron; la derivación tardía de los pacientes con Insuficiencia Renal Crónica a consultas Nefrológicas, las dificultades en la creaci...

  12. Effect of fluoridated water on plasma insulin levels and glucose homeostasis in rats with renal deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Maela; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2011-05-01

    Glucose intolerance in fluorosis areas and when fluoride is administered for the treatment of osteoporosis has been reported. Controlled fluoridation of drinking water is regarded as a safe and effective measure to control dental caries. However, the effect on glucose homeostasis was not studied so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the intake of fluoridated water supply on glucose metabolism in rats with normal and deficient renal function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups of four rats. Renal insufficiency was induced in four groups (NX) which received drinking water containing 0, 1, 5, and 15 ppm F (NaF) for 60 days. Four groups with simulated surgery acted as controls. There were no differences in plasma glucose concentration after a glucose tolerance test between controls and NX rats and among rats with different intakes of fluoride. However, plasma insulin level increased as a function of fluoride concentration in drinking water, both in controls and in NX rats. It is concluded that the consumption of fluoridated water from water supply did not affect plasma glucose levels even in cases of animals with renal disease. However, a resistance to insulin action was demonstrated.

  13. The rise, fall, and possible resurrection of renal denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Rajiv; Raphael, Claire E; Negoita, Manuela; Pocock, Stuart J; Gersh, Bernard J

    2016-04-01

    Renal denervation has a chequered history. Dramatic reductions in blood pressure after denervation of the renal arteries were observed in early trials, but later trials in which denervation was tested against a sham procedure produced neutral results. Although a sound pathophysiological basis exists for interruption of the renal sympathetic nervous system as a treatment for hypertension, trial data to date are insufficient to support renal denervation as an established clinical therapy. In this Perspectives article, we summarize the currently available trial data, device development, and trials in progress, and provide recommendations for future trial design.

  14. Low-contrast medium doses for ultrasound imaging during renal revascularization by PTA-stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianci, Rosario; Lavini, Raffaella; Letizia, Claudio; Zaccaria, Alvaro; Manfredini, Paolo; Cerroni, Franca; Ciano, Giuseppe; Clemenzia, Gianfranco; Coen, Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of progressive renal damage in patients with chronic renal insufficiency and renal-artery stenosis undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTA-stenting), color Doppler ultrasound (CDU)-guided, a procedure requiring low-contrast medium doses, or digital subtraction angiography were compared. Thirty patients with renal artery stenosis and severe renal insufficiency underwent PTA-stenting for revascularization, 15 patients with CDU guidance and 15 patients with standard selective digital subtraction angiography (SDSA). Serum creatinine (Cr) concentrations were compared in the two groups at 6 days and 12 months after revascularization. The stents were properly positioned and resolved the renal artery stenosis. None of the patients who underwent ultrasound-guided PTA-stenting had significantly increased Cr values (>50% or >1 mg/dL) at 6 days after surgery (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0-21.8); and none had progressive chronic renal insufficiency at 12 months. Conversely, six of the 15 patients in the group who underwent PTA-stenting with standard SDSA had significantly increased Cr values at 6 days (95% CI, 16.3-67.7) and two patients had progressive chronic renal insufficiency at 12 months. Our results suggest that PTA-stenting under CDU guidance, a procedure requiring low-contrast medium doses, is suitable for patients with severe renal dysfunction and especially for those with diabetes mellitus undergoing percutaneous renal revascularization.

  15. Glomerular filtration rate in children with advanced chronic renal failure: methods of determination and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J C; Sharpe, A R

    1982-01-01

    The rationale, significance and pitfalls of currently available methods for the determination of glomerular filtration rates in children with advanced chronic renal diseases are reviewed. Normal renal clearances in infants and children from birth to adulthood are presented. Methods of serial measurements of renal function, especially by the reciprocals of serum creatinine concentrations, are evaluated. They are applied clinically to monitor the effectiveness of conservative and new modalities of treatment, such as dietary supplementation with essential amino acids plus their keto analogues, and to determine that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 treatment of renal osteodystrophy does not accelerate the deterioration of renal function in children with chronic renal insufficiency.

  16. Renal leiomyosarkom

    OpenAIRE

    A, Gelincik İ Tok

    2013-01-01

    Renal leiomyosarkomlar, oldukça nadirdir ve primer böbrek malignitelerinin %1-3'ünü oluştururlar. Renal sarkomların prognozu kötüdür ve özellikle sarkomatoid renal hücreli karsinomdan ayrımının yapılması gerekir. Hastanın klinik prezentasyonu ve radyolojik bulguları kesin olarak preoperatif tanı koymaya yardımcı değildir. Başlıca tedavi adjuvan radyoterapi veya kemoterapi ile birlikte veya tek başına radikal nefrektomidir. Prognozu kötüdür. Tanısını immünohistokimya ile doğruladığımız pr...

  17. Trauma renal

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Júnior, Gerson Alves; Paganelli, Fernando; Scarpelini, Sandro; Stracieri, Luís Donizetti Silva; Féres, Ornar; Andrade, José Ivan de

    1999-01-01

    Apresentamos uma revisão sobre trauma renal, com ênfase na avaliação radiológica, particularmente com o uso da tomografia computadorizada, que tem se tornado o exame de eleição, ao invés da urografia excretora e arteriografia. O sucesso no tratamento conservador dos pacientes com trauma renal depende de um acurado estadiamento da extensão da lesão, classificado de acordo com a Organ Injury Scaling do Colégio Americano de Cirurgiões. O tratamento conservador não-operatório é seguro e consiste ...

  18. Sarcoidose renal

    OpenAIRE

    AQUINO, MARIA ENEDINA CLAUDINO DE; SALES, ROBERTA KARLA BARBOSA DE; SANTOS, JOSÉ ANTÔNIO FREIRE DOS; RÉGIS, ANA LIDIA; MORRONE, NELSON

    2001-01-01

    Em uma mulher de 62 anos, branca, em avaliação pré-operatória de facectomia, foram detectadas alterações urinárias, tendo sido firmados os diagnósticos de calculose renal esquerda e exclusão renal homolateral. No pré-operatório da nefrectomia foram evidenciados processo pulmonar intersticial bilateral e adenopatia torácica, cuja investigação foi adiada para após a cirurgia. No rim retirado foram detectados granulomas epitelióides não necrotizantes, o mesmo ocorrendo posteriormente em biópsia ...

  19. Renal transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Bugeja, Mark

    1983-01-01

    The first Renal Transplantation ever to be carried out in Malta was performed on the 22nd April, 1983, a day that may well be included in the Medical History of our Islands. This .event is another step -forward following the introduction, not very long'ago, at St. Luke's Hospital, of Haemodialysis or as the lay- man would call it, the 'Kidney Machine'. What follows is not meant to be a case- presentation proper but is intended to serve as a base over which some pros and cons of renal transpla...

  20. Multiple insufficiency fractures with severe osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iba, Kousuke; Wada, Takuro; Takada, Junichi; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2003-01-01

    Multiple insufficiency fracture is a rare injury. We report a 63-year-old woman who spontaneously developed insufficiency fractures at multiple sites including ribs, sacrum, pubis, ischium, acetabulum, metatarsal bone, and femoral neck. The patient had severe osteoporosis with a bone mineral density of 0.267 g/cm(2), although there was no evidence of bone metabolic disease or metastatic bone tumor. Risk factors for osteoporosis in this case were her postmenopausal state and a history of gastrectomy. Interestingly, the serum level of insulin-like growth factor I, recognized as a growth factor that stimulates bone formation, was markedly decreased, and the patient had had viral hepatitis C. It was speculated that the synergistic effects of these disorders might have produced the osteoporosis, leading ultimately to the multiple insufficiency fractures.

  1. Dark adaptation during systemic hypoxia induced by chronic respiratory insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thylefors, Joakim; Piitulainen, Eeva; Havelius, Ulf

    2009-03-01

    To investigate dark adaptation during hypoxia in patients with chronic respiratory failure. At three visits, dark adaptation was recorded by computerized dark adaptometry in 13 patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency treated by long-term oxygen therapy. At visits 1 and 3, the patients were administered their usual oxygen supplement. At visit 2, no oxygen was given. At each visit, an analysis of arterial blood gases measured pH, partial pressure of O(2) (Pao(2)), partial pressure of CO(2) (Paco(2)), base excess (BE), standard bicarbonate (HCO(3)), and arterial oxygen saturation. Pulse oximetry (POX) was also recorded. Significant differences were recorded between visits 1 and 2 and between visits 2 and 3 for Pao(2), arterial oxygen saturation, and POX; no differences were found for pH, Paco(2), BE, or HCO(3). No differences were seen between visits 1 and 3 for any of the laboratory parameters. All patients had normal and unchanged dark adaptation at the three visits. Hypoxia in chronic respiratory insufficiency was associated with normal dark adaptation, in contrast to hypoxia in healthy persons at high altitudes, which is known to produce impaired dark adaptation. The result may partly reflect the influence of Paco(2) on the lumen of choroidal and retinal vessels. At high altitudes, with hypocapnic vasoconstriction the oxygen supply to the retina is further compromised, resulting in reduced dark adaptation. The authors hypothesize that respiratory insufficiency with hypercapnia or normocapnia will have larger choroidal and retinal vessel lumens, added to by further dilation of retinal vessels during hypoxia. The tentative net effect would be preserved dark adaptation.

  2. Academic Performance among Adolescents with Behaviorally Induced Insufficient Sleep Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Jin; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Seog Ju

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The present study investigated academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BISS) and attempted to identify independent predictors of academic performance among BISS-related factors. Methods: A total of 51 students with BISS and 50 without BISS were recruited from high schools in South Korea based on self-reported weekday sleep durations, weekend oversleep, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Participants reported their academic performance in the form of class quartile ranking. The Korean version of the Composite Scale (KtCS) for morningness/eveningness, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for depression, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-II (BIS-II) for impulsivity were administered. Results: Adolescents with BISS reported poorer academic performance than adolescents without BISS (p = 0.02). Adolescents with BISS also exhibited greater levels of eveningness (p academic performance among adolescents with BISS even after controlling for ESS, KtCS, BDI, and BIS-II (β = 0.42, p academic performance and that sleep debt, as represented by weekend oversleep, predicts poorer academic performance independent of depression, impulsiveness, weekday sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and morningness/eveningness among adolescents with BISS. Citation: Lee YJ, Park J, Kim S, Cho SJ, Kim SJ. Academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(1):61–68. PMID:25515277

  3. Hiperparatiroidismos renales

    OpenAIRE

    Malagón Castro, Valentín

    2011-01-01

    En la presente monografía presentamos una síntesis, lo más completa posible, del gran problema de los Hiperparatirodismos secundarios a lesiones renales, enfocando su estudio con un criterio unicista, con el objeto de hacer más didáctico este amplio capítulo de la patología.

  4. Renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lene Kjær; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Renal denervation (RDN) has, within recent years, been suggested as a novel treatment option for patients with resistant hypertension. This review summarizes the current knowledge on this procedure as well as limitations and questions that remain to be answered. RECENT FINDINGS...

  5. Trauma renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Alves Pereira Júnior

    Full Text Available Apresentamos uma revisão sobre trauma renal, com ênfase na avaliação radiológica, particularmente com o uso da tomografia computadorizada, que tem se tornado o exame de eleição, ao invés da urografia excretora e arteriografia. O sucesso no tratamento conservador dos pacientes com trauma renal depende de um acurado estadiamento da extensão da lesão, classificado de acordo com a Organ Injury Scaling do Colégio Americano de Cirurgiões. O tratamento conservador não-operatório é seguro e consiste de observação contínua, repouso no leito, hidratação endovenosa adequada e antibioti- coterapia profilática, evitando-se uma exploração cirúrgica desnecessária e possível perda renal. As indicações para exploração cirúrgica imediata são abdome agudo, rápida queda do hematócrito ou lesões associadas determinadas na avaliação radiológica. Quando indicada, a exploração renal após controle vascular prévio é segura, permitindo cuidadosa inspeção do rim e sua reconstrução com sucesso, reduzindo a probabilidade de nefrectomia.

  6. Early serum creatinine changes and outcomes in patients admitted for acute heart failure: the cardio-renal syndrome revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Julio; Garcia, Sergio; Núñez, Eduardo; Bonanad, Clara; Bodí, Vicent; Miñana, Gema; Santas, Enrique; Escribano, David; Bayes-Genis, Antonio; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Chorro, Francisco J; Sanchis, Juan

    2017-08-01

    The changes in renal function that occurred in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are prevalent, and have multifactorial etiology and dissimilar prognosis. To what extent the prognostic role of such changes may vary according to the presence of renal insufficiency at admission is not clear. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether early creatinine changes (ΔCr) (admission to 48-72 hours) had an effect on 1-year mortality relative to the presence of renal insufficiency at admission. We included 705 consecutive patients admitted with the diagnosis of ADHF. Admission renal insufficiency was defined as serum creatinine ≥1.4mg/dl (A-RI cr ) or estimated glomerular filtration rate renal insufficiency (24.7% and 42.8% for A-RIcr and A-RIGFR, respectively) had higher prevalence of extreme values in ΔCr in either direction (increasing/decreasing). At 1-year follow-up, 114 (16.2%) deaths were registered. The multivariable analysis showed a significant interaction between admission renal insufficiency and ΔCr ( p=0.004 and p=0.019 for A-RIcr and A-RIGFR, respectively). In the presence of renal insufficiency, the continuum of ΔCr followed a positive and almost linear relationship with mortality risk. Conversely, in patients without renal insufficiency, those changes adopted a 'J-shape' trajectory with increased mortality at both ends of the curve distribution. In patients with ADHF the effect of ΔCr on 1-year mortality varied according to its magnitude and the presence of admission renal insufficiency. There was a graded-association with mortality when renal insufficiency was present on admission.

  7. The long-term effect of simultaneous heart and kidney transplantation on native renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergler-Klein, J; Pirich, C; Laufer, G; Grimm, M; Regele, H; Mayer, G; Oberbauer, R

    2001-06-15

    It is unclear whether patients with heart failure and renal insufficiency should receive a simultaneous heart and kidney transplant or whether a single heart transplantation is sufficient to restore native renal function. We analyzed the renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration of the native and transplant kidneys in eight patients long term after simultaneous heart and kidney transplantation using a dynamic MAG3 radioisotope scan and serum creatinine determinations. All subjects had been hemodialysis dependent before transplantation. Seven patients suffered from an intrinsic renal disease that were diabetic nephropathy in three cases, small fibrotic kidneys of undetermined origin in two cases, one lupus nephritis, and cyclosporine nephrotoxicity in one patient who had a previous heart transplant. In one patient renal insufficiency was considered to be solely due to renal hypoperfusion because no intrinsic renal disease could be detected. All patients were on cyclosporine-based triple immunosuppression, transplanted for 4 to 10 years, exhibited cardiac ejection fractions of more than 50% and had normal serum creatinine values. Radioisotopic scan showed no function of the native kidneys in all seven patients with intrinsic renal disease but exhibited normal function of the native kidneys as well as the renal transplant in the patient without intrinsic kidney disease before transplantation. These data suggest that a simultaneous heart and kidney transplantation is necessary in patients with cardiomyopathy and renal insufficiency due to primary kidney disease, but not in those with hemodynamically mediated renal failure, even if an immunosuppressive regimen with calcineurin inhibitors is used.

  8. [Chronic respiratory insufficiency and the elderly patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobarzan, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Chronic respiratory failure is a complex entity of varied etiology and physio-pathological mechanisms. It is mainly characterised by the respiratory system's difficulty in ensuring correct aeration at rest, resulting initially in insufficient oxygenation of arterial blood. Treatment is adapted to each etiology and aims to compensate for respiratory failure and to ensure the oxygenation of the organism.

  9. AMH as Predictor of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunding, Stine Aa; Aksglæde, Lise; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The majority of Turner syndrome (TS) patients suffer from accelerated loss of primordial follicles. Low circulating levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) may predict the lack of spontaneous puberty in prepubertal girls and imminent premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in TS women...

  10. Tarlov Cyst Causing Sacral Insufficiency Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Gates, Marcus J; Copeland, William; Krauss, William E; Fogelson, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    Tarlov cysts, also known as perineural cysts, have been described as meningeal dilations of the spinal nerve root sheath between the peri- and endoneurium at the dorsal root ganglion. Most often they are found in the sacrum involving the nerve roots. Normally asymptomatic, they have been reported to present with radiculopathy, paresthesias, and even urinary or bowel dysfunction. Sacral insufficiency has not been a well-documented presentation. The patient is a 38-year-old female who started to develop left low back pain and buttock pain that rapidly progressed into severe pain with some radiation down the posterior aspect of her left leg. There was no recent history of spine or pelvic trauma. These symptoms prompted her initial emergency department evaluation, and imaging demonstrated a large Tarlov cyst with an associated sacral insufficiency fracture. She was noted to have a normal neurological examination notable only for an antalgic gait. She was taken to surgery via a posterior approach and the cyst was identified eccentric to the left. The cyst was fenestrated and the nerve roots identified. Given her large area of bone erosion and insufficiency fractures, fixation of the sacroiliac joints was deemed necessary. Fusion was extended to the L5 vertebral body to buttress the fixation. She tolerated the procedure well and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 3. Tarlov cysts of the sacrum can lead to significant bone erosion and subsequent insufficiency fractures, requiring fenestration and in some cases, complex sacropelvic fixation.

  11. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency with stages of chronic kidney disease in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satirapoj, Bancha; Limwannata, Pokkrong; Chaiprasert, Amnart; Supasyndh, Ouppatham; Choovichian, Panbuppa

    2013-10-02

    Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with proteinuria and could be a risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, few studies have examined the significance of vitamin D insufficiency as a contributing factor for the development of ESRD in the Asian chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. Authors examined the relationship between vitamin D status and the staging of CKD using data from an outpatient clinic-based screening in 2,895 Thai CKD patients. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were analyzed according to CKD stages. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration insufficiency was from CKD stage 3a, 3b, 4 to 5, 66.6%, 70.9%, 74.6%, and 84.7% (pinsufficiency/deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≤ 30 ng/mL) and vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are more common and associated with the level of kidney function in the Thai CKD population especially advanced stage of CKD.

  12. Long-term results of external valvuloplasty in adult patients with isolated great saphenous vein insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarac A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Atilla Sarac,1 Artan Jahollari,1 Sureyya Talay,1 Sevket Ozkaya,2 Ertugrul Ozal1 1Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Samsun Medical Park Hospital, Samsun, Turkey; 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Bahcesehir University, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: The aim of this study is to present our 7-year results of external valvuloplasty for isolated great saphenous vein (GSV insufficiency. Methods: External valvuloplasty was applied in 83 patients with isolated GSV insufficiency. Follow-up consisted of venous color duplex scanning performed on the first postoperative day, the first postoperative month, and then annually. Valvular insufficiency, venous reflux, and venous thrombosis formation in the saphenofemoral junction were the main outcomes. Results: A complete clinical and radiological healing was observed in 50 patients (60%. In 13 cases (15.6%, a secondary surgical treatment was performed consisting of vena saphena magna high ligation/stripping and varicose vein excisions, mainly due to severe and progressive vena saphena magna valvular insufficiency and clinical persistence of symptoms. Eight patients (9.6% developed superficial vein thrombosis, and only one patient (1.2% developed deep vein thrombosis. Contact was lost from 32 patients (38.5% for different reasons. Conclusion: External valvuloplasty is an effective surgical technique for selected cases of isolated GSV insufficiency without extensive varicose dilatations. This alternative method can be safely administered as an alternative to high ligation and conventional GSV stripping. Keyword: vein, saphenous, insufficiency, external valv, valvuloplasty, varicosis

  13. Acute renal failure in high dose carboplatin chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, J.; Kool, G.; de Kraker, J.

    1995-01-01

    Carboplatin has been reported to cause acute renal failure when administered in high doses to adult patients. We report a 4 1/2-year-old girl who was treated with high-dose carboplatin for metastatic parameningeal embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Acute renal failure developed followed by a slow partial

  14. Early Onset of Tenofovir-Induced Renal Failure: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa M. Patel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tenofovir is an acyclic nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor that is commonly prescribed as part of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART regimen in HIV-infected patients. Although it is generally well tolerated, renal insufficiency has been associated with its use. We report a biopsy-proven case of acute renal failure that developed within weeks of initiating a HAART regimen containing tenofovir, and review the literature with specific attention to cases of renal failure occurring within 8 weeks of tenofovir initiation. Our patient developed renal insufficiency within 3 weeks of initiating tenofovir-containing HAART and overt renal failure was noted within 5 weeks. Renal biopsy demonstrated histopathologic changes suggestive of HIV nephropathy, despite normal baseline serum creatinine values. Thirty additional cases of tenofovir-associated renal failure have been reported. In the majority (n = 22, 73%, renal failure occurred months after initiating therapy (range: 5–26 months. However, in a significant subset (n = 8, 27%, renal failure occurred within 8 weeks of treatment initiation. Our data suggest that some patients are at risk for developing renal failure within weeks of tenofovir initiation. Thorough evaluation of renal function should be undertaken before prescription of tenofovir-containing HAART. For those in whom subclinical renal disease is discerned, added vigilance when monitoring renal function may be warranted.

  15. Renal failure following hospitalization for heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the number of patients with heart failure readmitted for renal failure to IU Health Bloomington within 30 days of hospital discharge in 2010, and to determine whether there are factors that might have been identified before the original discharge that would have prevented the readmission. The goal of the research is to identify factors from previous admissions of patients with heart failure that would have possibly predicted a subsequent admission for renal failure, so that interventions can be developed to prevent such readmissions. The results from this study are applicable to all primary care settings. A retrospective descriptive design was employed. Subjects were patients diagnosed with heart failure in 2010 and subsequently readmitted with renal failure within 30 days of their previous hospital admission. A retrospective chart review was completed extracting the variables blood urea nitrogen levels upon patients' discharge and readmission, serum creatinine levels upon discharge and readmission, weight in kilograms upon discharge and readmission, total intake and output during the first hospitalization, diuretic medication dosage, history of renal failure, history of renal insufficiency, and death. Renal failure may be a predictable complication of heart failure. Although there are varying secondary pathophysiologies, which could account for readmission with renal failure and the severity of the renal failure, more attention should be paid to the variables identified in this study. Case managers can play a crucial role in identifying potential patients with renal failure and, where possible, collaborating with other health care providers to proactively preventing renal complications in patients with heart failure.

  16. [A retrospective study of kidney insufficiency in adult patients after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cheng-Wei; DU, Xin; Weng, Jiang-Yu; Wu, Sui-Jing; Guo, Rong; Lu, Ze-Sheng; Ling, Wei

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the renal function in 149 patients receiving myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) from June 2005 to June 2010 in our hospital, and analyze the risk factors resulting in kidney insufficiency and experience in diagnose and therapy. The creatinine clearance (CrCL) and serial creatinine level were evaluated before and after allo-HSCT within 100 days and 1 year. Non-radiation conditioning regimens were used for any patients. The acute kidney insufficiency (AKI) was defined as at least a 1.5-fold rise in serum creatinine level after allo-HSCT within the first 100 days. The chronic kidney insufficiency (CKI) was defined as the creatinine clearance kidney insufficiency was found in 41 patients, in which the incidence of AKI was 32/149 (21.5%). CsA, amphotericin B (P = 0.025) and ES (P = 0.022) were defined as risk factors for AKI. The incidence of CKI was 18/138 (13%). cGVHD (P = 0.013) and TA-TMA (P = 0.012) were associated with the development of CKI. The 2-year survival was lower in patients with kidney dysfunction than that in patients without kidney dysfunction (39% vs 74.1%, P kidney insufficiency were defined as infection (52%), GVHD (20%), TA-TMA (12%) and tumor relapse (12%). It is concluded that kidney insufficiency is an important complication of allo-HSCT. Careful monitoring kidney function, minimizing the use of amphotericin B, prophylaxis and effective treatment of fungal infection, GVHD and TA-TMA may be effective preventive measures to decrease the incidence of kidney insufficiency.

  17. Dyslipidemia in pediatric renal disease: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saland, Jeffrey M; Ginsberg, Henry; Fisher, Edward A

    2002-04-01

    Dyslipidemia increases the risk of cardiovascular events among individuals with renal disease, and there is a growing body of evidence that it hastens the progression of renal disease itself. Children with nephrotic syndrome or renal transplants have easily recognized hyperlipidemia. Among those with chronic renal insufficiency or end-stage renal disease, detection of dyslipidemia requires more careful analysis and knowledge of normal pediatric ranges. Disordered lipoprotein metabolism results from complex interactions among many factors, including the primary disease process, use of medications such as corticosteroids, the presence of malnutrition or obesity, and diet. The systematic treatment of dyslipidemia in children with chronic renal disease is controversial because conclusive data regarding the risks and benefits are lacking. Hepatic 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins), fibrates, plant stanols, bile acid-binding resins, and dietary manipulation are options for individualized treatment. Prospective investigations are required to guide clinical management.

  18. Trasplante renal

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Moreno, P.L. (Paloma L.); P. Errasti

    2006-01-01

    The kidney transplant is the therapy of choice for the majority of the causes of chronic terminal kidney insufficiency, because it improves the quality of life and survival in comparison with dialysis. A kidney transplant from a live donor is an excellent alternative for the young patient in a state of pre-dialysis because it offers the best results. Immunosuppressive treatment must be individualised, seeking immunosuppressive synergy and the best safety profile, an...

  19. Renale Osteopathie

    OpenAIRE

    Horn S

    2001-01-01

    Die renale Osteopathie umfaßt Erkrankungen des Knochens, die bei Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen auftreten, wie den sekundären bzw. tertiären Hyperparathyreoidismus, die adynamische Knochenerkrankung und die Osteopathie nach Nierentransplantation. Durch die Identifikation des Kalzium-Sensing-Rezeptors bzw. des Vitamin D-Rezeptors hat sich unser Verständnis der Zusammenhänge in den letzten Jahren erheblich verbessert. Neue Medikamente versprechen effizientere Prophylaxe- und Thera...

  20. Renale Knochenerkrankungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Störungen des Mineral- und Knochenstoffwechsels sind bei fast allen Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen anzutreffen. Pathogenetisch spielt eine Neigung zur Phosphatretention bei einer Reduktion der glomerulären Filtrationsrate die zentrale Rolle. Neben typischen, aber sehr variablen Veränderungen der Knochenstruktur (renale Osteopathie besteht auch eine sehr enge Assoziation zwischen diesen Störungen und dem massiv erhöhten kardiovaskulären Risiko der Patienten.

  1. Renal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Džamić Zoran; Dimitrijević Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is charac...

  2. Hiperparatiroidismos renales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín Malagón Castro

    1957-04-01

    Full Text Available En la presente monografía presentamos una síntesis, lo más completa posible, del gran problema de los Hiperparatirodismos secundarios a lesiones renales, enfocando su estudio con un criterio unicista, con el objeto de hacer más didáctico este amplio capítulo de la patología.

  3. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  4. Insufficient sleep and suicidality in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Seog Ju

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the association between the behaviorally induced insufficient sleep and suicidality among adolescents. A population-based, cross-sectional survey. General community. A sample of 8,530 students (grades 7-11) was recruited in the Republic of Korea. The participants were 8,010 students who completed all questionnaires. N/A. The survey included the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), a modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and questionnaires about sleep (weekday/weekend sleep schedule/duration, insomnia and snoring). Adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BISS) had higher SSI scores than those who slept ≥ 7 hours on weekdays, even after controlling for age, sex, and BDI score (F = 11.71, P sleep duration predicted a higher SSI score (β = 0.19, P sleep restriction among adolescents may increase suicidal risk.

  5. [Postoperative respiratory insufficiency and its treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kösek, V; Wiebe, K

    2015-05-01

    The development of a postoperative respiratory insufficiency is typically caused by several factors and include patient-related risks, the extent of the procedure and postoperative complications. Morbidity and mortality rates in acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are high. It is important to have consistent strategies for prevention and preoperative conditioning is essential primarily for high-risk patients. Treatment of established postoperative lung failure requires early tracheotomy, protective ventilation (tidal volume 6 ml/kg body weight), elevated positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP, 10-20 mmH2O), recurrent bronchoscopy and early patient mobilization. In critical cases an extracorporeal lung assist is considered to be beneficial as a bridge to recovery and for realizing a protective ventilation protocol. Different systems with separate indications are available. The temporary application of a lung assist allows thoracic surgery to be performed safely in patients presenting with insufficient respiratory function.

  6. Allgrove Syndrome: Adrenal Insufficiency with Hypertensive Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Sommayya; Manzoor, Jaida; Talat, Nabila; Khan, Hafiz Sajid; Subhanie, Maroof; Khalid, Nauman Abbas

    2016-09-01

    Allgrove syndrome or triple-Asyndrome is a rare familial multisystem autosomal recessive disorder. It is characterised by triad of alacrima, achalasia and adrenal insufficiency due to adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) resistance. If it is associated with autonomic dysfunction, it is termed as 4-Asyndrome. This syndrome is caused by a mutation in the Achalasia - Addisonism - Alacrima (AAAS) gene on chromosome 12q13 encoding the nuclear pore protein ALADIN. A5-year boy presented with history of fits and altered sensorium for one day. He also had increased pigmentation of body and persistent vomiting since six months of age. Laboratory investigations and imaging revealed alacrimia, achalasia and adrenal insufficiency due to ACTH resistance. He had episodes of hypertensive crises, for which he was thoroughly investigated and it was found to be due to autonomic instability. Based on clinical findings and investigations he was diagnosed as case of Allgrove syndrome or 4-Asyndrome with autonomic dysfunction.

  7. Evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with chronic renal failure: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeu, Marta; Nogues, Rosa; Marcas, Luís; Sánchez-Martos, Vanesa; Mulero, Miquel; Martinez-Vea, Alberto; Mallol, Jordi; Giralt, Montserrat

    2010-01-25

    Oxidative stress is related to several diseases, including chronic renal insufficiency. The disequilibrium in the oxidant-antioxidant balance is the result of several metabolic changes. The majority of studies to-date have evaluated the grade of oxidative stress with a single biomarker, or a very limited number of them. The present study used several important biomarkers to establish a score relating to oxidative stress status (glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, reduced and oxidized glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hemolysis test). The score of oxidative stress (SOS) was then applied to a group of patients with renal insufficiency not on hemodialysis, and compared to healthy control individuals.The score for patients with chronic renal insufficiency was significantly different from that of the healthy control group (0.62 +/- 1.41 vs. -0.05 +/- 0.94; p < 0.001). The comparison between patients with chronic renal insufficiency and control individuals showed significant differences with respect to changes in the enzymatic antioxidant systems (glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase), non-enzymatic antioxidant system (oxidized glutathione) and oxidizability (hemolysis test) indicating significant oxidative stress associated with chronic renal insufficiency. Patients with chronic renal insufficiency not on hemodialysis are susceptible to oxidative stress. The mechanisms that underlie this status are the consequence of changes in glutathione and related enzymes. The SOS scoring system is a useful biochemical parameter to evaluate the influence of oxidative stress on the clinical status of these patients.

  8. Cleft lip, cleft palate, and velopharyngeal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David M; Sommerlad, Brian C

    2011-10-01

    This article provides an introduction to the anatomical and clinical features of the primary deformities associated with unilateral cleft lip-cleft palate, bilateral cleft lip-cleft palate, and cleft palate. The diagnosis and management of secondary velopharyngeal insufficiency are discussed. The accompanying videos demonstrate the features of the cleft lip nasal deformities and reliable surgical techniques for unilateral cleft lip repair, bilateral cleft lip repair, and radical intravelar veloplasty.

  9. Diagnosis and management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikfarjam, Mehrdad; Wilson, Jeremy S; Smith, Ross C

    2017-08-21

    In 2015, the Australasian Pancreatic Club (APC) published the Australasian guidelines for the management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (http://pancreas.org.au/2016/01/pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency-guidelines). Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) occurs when normal digestion cannot be sustained due to insufficient pancreatic digestive enzyme activity. This may be related to a breakdown, at any point, in the pancreatic digestive chain: pancreatic stimulation; synthesis, release or transportation of pancreatic enzymes; or synchronisation of secretions to mix with ingested food. Main recommendations: The guidelines provide advice on diagnosis and management of PEI, noting the following: A high prevalence of PEI is seen in certain diseases and conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and pancreatic surgery. The main symptoms of PEI are steatorrhoea or diarrhoea, abdominal pain, bloating and weight loss. These symptoms are non-specific and often go undetected and untreated. PEI diagnosis is predominantly based on clinical findings and the presence of underlying disease. The likelihood of PEI in suspected patients has been categorised into three groups: definite, possible and unlikely. If left untreated, PEI may lead to complications related to fat malabsorption and malnutrition, and have an impact on quality of life. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) remains the mainstay of PEI treatment with the recommended adult initial enzyme dose being 25 000-40 000 units of lipase per meal, titrating up to a maximum of 75 000-80 000 units of lipase per meal. Adjunct acid-suppressing therapy may be useful when patients still experience symptoms of PEI on high dose PERT. Nutritional management by an experienced dietitian is essential. Changes in management as a result of these guidelines: These are the first guidelines to classify PEI as being definite, possible or unlikely, and provide a diagnostic algorithm to

  10. Homeostatic responses to amino acid insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy G. Anthony

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview describing how two key signaling pathways, namely the integrated stress response and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, work together to facilitate cellular adaptation to dietary amino acid insufficiency. A deeper understanding of these mechanisms is leading to identification of novel targets which aid in disease treatments, improve stress recovery and increase health span through slowed aging and enhanced metabolic fitness.

  11. Chronic Heroin Dependence Leading to Adrenal Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Opioids have been the mainstay for pain relief and palliation over a long period of time. They are commonly abused by drug addicts and such dependence usually imparts severe physiologic effects on multiple organ systems. The negative impact of opioids on the endocrine system is poorly understood and often underestimated. We describe a patient who developed severe suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA axis leading to secondary adrenal insufficiency due to long standing abuse of opioids.

  12. Renal replacement therapy in acute poisonings--one center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mydlík, Miroslav; Derzsiová, Katarina; Frank, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    The authors described three groups of patients after acute poisonings. In the first group were 60 patients after carbon tetrachioride poisoning, the second group consisted of 81 patients after mushroom poisoning and 20 patients after ethylene glycol poisoning were in the third group. Besides two patients with rare poisonings after potassium dichromate and after paraquat poisoning were analysed. All groups of patients with the kidney damage were presented from the diagnostic, differential diagnostic, conservative, ntra- and extracorporeal elimination treatment point of view. In the group of patients suffering from acute carbon tetrachloride poisoning and with acute renal failure following therapy was used: conservative treatment, exchange blood transfusion--in 4 patients in hepatic coma, renal replacement therapy (peritoneal dialysis, haemodialysis, plasmapheresis). From the total number of 60 patients 58 survived and 2 patients died in liver coma. Survival of patients after mushroom poisoning depended on amount of oral use of mushroom (Amanita phalloides), on early admission in dialysis centre and on early beginning of renal replacement therapy within 24 hr after acute poisoning. Twenty four patients from 81 patients of this group died. Main clinical signs of ethylene glycol poisoning were various neurological symptoms (cramps, hemiparesis, coma), severe metabolic acidosis (pH = 7.06 +/- 0.14), leucocytosis (26.4 +/- 5.5x 10(9)/L) and the signs of acute toxic hepatitis and of acute renal failure. Calcium oxalic crystals in urine were present in 17 patients and leucocytosis was observed in every patient. In the first 4 patients we administered intravenously ethylalcohol as an antidotum and later in other patients we used ethylalcohol in dialysis solution. The concentration of ethylalcohol in dialysis solution was 100 mg%. Severe metabolic acidosis improved in 17 patients using bicarbonate haemodialysis and 3 patients died before the possibility to use bicarbonate

  13. Biomarkers of Renal Tumor Burden and Progression in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    with normal (or nearly normal) and abnormal kidneys . In contrast, the TIMP-1 ELISA displayed a wider range of data points. Of the 8 patients with...mechanism for collecting, storing and annotating patient samples that will hopefully be fruitful upon expansion. Chronic kidney disease in TSC: During...exists for predicting renal insufficiency in this population. This realization prompted the assessment of renal function in our patient cohort

  14. Adrenal Insufficiency - Aetiology, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazma Akter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal insufficiency is caused by either primary adrenal failure or by hypothalamic-pituitary impairment of the corticotropic axis. Adrenal insufficiency, first codified in 1855 by Thomas Addison, remains relevant in 2014 because of its lethal nature. Though, it is a rare disease but is life threatening when overlooked. Main presenting symptoms such as fatigue, anorexia and weight loss are nonspecific, thus diagnosis is often delayed. The diagnostic work-up is well established but some pitfalls remain. The diagnosis is adequately established by the 250 μg ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test in most cases. Glucocorticoids provide life saving treatment but long-term quality of life is impaired, perhaps because therapy is not given in a physiologic way. Dehydroepiandrosterone-replacement therapy has been introduced that could help to restore quality of life. It may be useful in pubertal girls, but not in adults. Monitoring of glucocorticoid-replacement is difficult due to lack of objective methods of assessment and is therefore largely based on clinical grounds. Thus, long-term management of patients with adrenal insufficiency remains a challenge, requiring an experienced specialist.

  15. [Surgical treatment of chronic venous insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Antonio; Slagsvold, Carl-Erik; Jørgensen, Jørgen J; Sandbaek, Gunnar

    2009-11-19

    Patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) may develop serious symptoms such as pain, oedema, venous claudication and leg ulcers. Conventional therapy includes compression therapy, elevation of the extremities, and in some cases surgical elimination of superficial varicose veins. This article presents and discusses surgical treatment (reconstructive deep venous surgery and transplantation) and endovascular therapy (percutaneous recanalization of post-thrombotic deep venous occlusions). The article is based on literature identified through non-systematic searches in the PubMed and Cochrane databases. After reconstructive deep venous surgery, ulcer healing is reported in 60-78 % of cases and clinical improvement in 90 %. After such surgery, the median ulcer-free period seems to be longer in primary (congenital, familial), 54 months, than in secondary (after deep vein thrombosis) chronic venous insufficiency (18 months). Recanalization of deep venous occlusions is successful in 90 % of patients who have undergone endovascular treatment of venous claudication and leg ulcer. Reconstructive deep venous surgery constitutes a real treatment choice for patients with chronic venous insufficiency for whom conventional measures have failed. The benefits are ulcer-free periods, clinical improvement, return to work and improved quality of life.

  16. Conduct protocol in emergency: Acute adrenal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Bachir Fares

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Acute adrenal insufficiency or addisonian crisis is a rare comorbidity in emergency; however, if not properly diagnosed and treated, it may progress unfavorably. Objective: To alert all health professionals about the diagnosis and correct treatment of this complication. Method: We performed an extensive search of the medical literature using specific search tools, retrieving 20 articles on the topic. Results: Addisonian crisis is a difficult diagnosis due to the unspecificity of its signs and symptoms. Nevertheless, it can be suspected in patients who enter the emergency room with complaints of abdominal pain, hypotension unresponsive to volume or vasopressor agents, clouding, and torpor. This situation may be associated with symptoms suggestive of chronic adrenal insufficiency such as hyperpigmentation, salt craving, and association with autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Hemodynamically stable patients may undergo more accurate diagnostic methods to confirm or rule out addisonian crisis. Delay to perform diagnostic tests should be avoided, in any circumstances, and unstable patients should be immediately medicated with intravenous glucocorticoid, even before confirmatory tests. Conclusion: Acute adrenal insufficiency is a severe disease that is difficult to diagnose. It should be part of the differential diagnosis in cases of hypotensive patient who is unresponsive to vasoactive agents. Therefore, whenever this complication is considered, health professionals should aim specifically at this pathology.

  17. Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Vujasinovic

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Cancer patients experience weight loss for a variety of reasons, commencing with the tumor’s metabolism (Warburg effect and proceeding via cachexia to loss of appetite. In pancreatic cancer, several other factors are involved, including a loss of appetite with a particular aversion to meat and the incapacity of the pancreatic gland to function normally when a tumor is present in the pancreatic head. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is characterized by a deficiency of the enzymes secreted from the pancreas due to the obstructive tumor, resulting in maldigestion. This, in turn, contributes to malnutrition, specifically a lack of fat-soluble vitamins, antioxidants, and other micronutrients. Patients with pancreatic cancer and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency have, overall, an extremely poor prognosis with regard to surgical outcome and overall survival. Therefore, it is crucial to be aware of the mechanisms involved in the disease, to be able to diagnose pancreatic exocrine insufficiency early on, and to treat malnutrition appropriately, for example, with pancreatic enzymes.

  18. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  19. Usefulness of MR angiography in renal tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Toshitsugu; Morimoto, Kouji; Nishimura, Kenji; Tsujimura, Akira; Yasunaga, Yutaka; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Takaha, Minato (Osaka National Hospital (Japan))

    1992-11-01

    MR angiography using a gradient-echo, pulse sequence FLASH (fast, low-angle shot) method during breath-hold with a MAGNETOM H-15 scanner (1.5 Tesla; Siemens Medical System) was performed on 27 patients with renal tumor at our clinic between Feburary 20, 1990 and September 30, 1991 and we studied to evaluate its usefulness. Of these 27 patients, 22 patients including one patient under hemodialysis treatment had renal cell carcinoma and one patient had oncocytoma pathologically proven from the excised specimens. The remaining four patients including two patients associated with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus were clinically diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma based on the result of imaging examinations such as excretory urography, ultrasonography, computed tomography and conventional angiography. However, they could not be operated on because their tumors were too advanced. By reconstruction of the data of consecutive coronal scans of the abdominal blood vessels such as the abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava and renal arteries and veins simultaneously without any intravenous contrast materials. Our present study revealed that MR angiography has some advantages, especially with regard to preoperative angiographic information about the abdomen of patients with renal tumor. That is, MR angiography can delineate many kinds of arteries and veins of the abdomen simultaneously and in a broader range, as well as it can be performed on the patients with hypersensitivity to iodinate contrast materials or renal insufficiency in a usual fashion. Furthermore, our present study suggested that the MR angiography is useful for assessing the presence and extent of inferior vena caval tumor thrombus of renal cell carcinoma and for clearly distinguishing tumor lesion and the surrounding normal renal parenchyma in the patients with renal tumor. (author).

  20. Bilateral renal artery variation

    OpenAIRE

    Üçerler, Hülya; Üzüm, Yusuf; İkiz, Z. Aslı Aktan

    2015-01-01

    Each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery, although renal artery variations are common. Variations of the renal arteryhave become important with the increasing number of renal transplantations. Numerous studies describe variations in renalartery anatomy. Especially the left renal artery is among the most critical arterial variations, because it is the referred side forresecting the donor kidney. During routine dissection in a formalin fixed male cadaver, we have found a bilateral renal...

  1. Drug-induced renal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced renal toxicity into four major renal syndromes: • acute renal failure. • chronic renal failure. • glomerulonephritis. • tubulopathies. These major renal syndromes are discussed in further detail below (see summary in Table I). Acute renal failure. Drugs can cause acute renal failure by causing pre-renal, intrinsic or.

  2. Renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  3. p38 MAPK Inhibitor Insufficiently Attenuates HSC Senescence Administered Long-Term after 6 Gy Total Body Irradiation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Senescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs accumulate with age and exposure to stress, such as total-body irradiation (TBI, which may cause long-term myelosuppression in the clinic. However, the methods available for long-term myelosuppression remain limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that sustained p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK activation in HSCs following exposure to TBI in mice and the administration of its inhibitor twenty-four hours after TBI may partially prevent long-term myelosuppression. However, long-term myelosuppression is latent and identified long after the administration of radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of SB203580 (a small molecule inhibitor of p38 MAPK on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI. Mice with hematopoietic injury were injected intraperitoneally with SB203580 every other day five times beginning 70 days after 6 Gy of 137Cs γ ray TBI. Our results at 80 days demonstrated that SB203580 did not significantly improve the TBI-induced long-term reduction of peripheral blood cell and bone marrow nucleated cell (BMNC counts, or defects in hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs and HSC clonogenic function. SB203580 reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production and p-p38 expression; however, SB203580 had no effect on p16 expression in the HSCs of mice. In conclusion, these findings suggest that treatment with SB203580 70 days after TBI in mice inhibits the ROS-p38 oxidative stress pathway; however, it has no therapeutic effect on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI.

  4. High Fat High Cholesterol Diet (Western Diet Aggravates Atherosclerosis, Hyperglycemia and Renal Failure in Nephrectomized LDL Receptor Knockout Mice: Role of Intestine Derived Lipopolysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha S Ghosh

    Full Text Available A high fat meal, frequently known as western diet (WD, exacerbates atherosclerosis and diabetes. Both these diseases are frequently associated with renal failure. Recent studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS leaks into the circulation from the intestine in the setting of renal failure and after WD. However, it is not clear how renal function and associated disorders are affected by LPS. This study demonstrates that circulatory LPS exacerbates renal insufficiency, atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance. Renal insufficiency was induced by 2/3 nephrectomy in LDL receptor knockout mice. Nx animals were given normal diet (Nx or WD (Nx+WD. The controls were sham operated animals on normal diet (control and WD (WD. To verify if LPS plays a role in exaggerating renal insufficiency, polymyxin (PM, a known LPS antagonist, and curcumin (CU, a compound known to ameliorate chronic kidney disease (CKD, was given to Nx animals on western diet (Nx+WD+PM and Nx+WD+CU, respectively. Compared to control, all other groups displayed increased circulatory LPS. The Nx+WD cohort had the highest levels of LPS. Nx group had significant renal insufficiency and glucose intolerance but not atherosclerosis. WD had intense atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance but it did not show signs of renal insufficiency. Compared to other groups, Nx+WD had significantly higher cytokine expression, macrophage infiltration in the kidney, renal insufficiency, glucose intolerance and atherosclerosis. PM treatment blunted the expression of cytokines, deterioration of renal function and associated disorders, albeit not to the levels of Nx, and was significantly inferior to CU. PM is a non-absorbable antibiotic with LPS binding properties, hence its beneficial effect can only be due to its effect within the GI tract. We conclude that LPS may not cause renal insufficiency but can exaggerate kidney failure and associated disorders following renal insufficiency.

  5. Growth hormone therapy influences endothelial function in children with renal failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lilien, M.R.; Schröder, C.H.; Levtchenko, E.N.; Koomans, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction, an early step in atherogenesis, is prevalent in children with renal insufficiency. Endothelial dysfunction in growth hormone deficiency is reversed by growth hormone (rhGH) therapy. Renal failure induces growth hormone resistance at the receptor and post-receptor level,

  6. Accuracy of unenhanced magnetic resonance angiography for the assessment of renal artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sebastià

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: U-MRA is a reliable diagnostic method to depict normal and stenotic main renal arteries. U-MRA can be used as an alternative to contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography or computer tomography angiography in patients with renal insufficiency unless FMD is suspected.

  7. Branchio-oto-renal syndrome caused by partial EYA1 deletion due to LINE-1 insertion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morisada, Naoya; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Nozu, Kandai

    2010-01-01

    A 7-year-old Japanese girl with conductive deafness and preauricular fistulae developed proteinuria. She had renal insufficiency, and ultrasound revealed bilateral small kidneys. These findings indicated that she had branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome. In the present patient, we identified, by using...

  8. Illness/treatment perceptions and overprotection as determinants of labour participation in renal patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, D.; Heijmans, M.; Rijken, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives (1): To gain insight into the role of illness/treatment perceptions and overprotection in the labour participation and autonomy of patients with renal insufficiency and (2) to develop a protocol to assist renal patients to start, stay or reintegrate on the labour market. Methods (1):

  9. Renale Osteopathie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Die renale Osteopathie umfaßt Erkrankungen des Knochens, die bei Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen auftreten, wie den sekundären bzw. tertiären Hyperparathyreoidismus, die adynamische Knochenerkrankung und die Osteopathie nach Nierentransplantation. Durch die Identifikation des Kalzium-Sensing-Rezeptors bzw. des Vitamin D-Rezeptors hat sich unser Verständnis der Zusammenhänge in den letzten Jahren erheblich verbessert. Neue Medikamente versprechen effizientere Prophylaxe- und Therapiemöglichkeiten. Wir beeinflussen dadurch nicht nur die Morbidität und Lebensqualität, sondern auch die Mortalität unserer Patienten.

  10. Severe bilateral adrenal hemorrhages in  a  newborn complicated by persistent adrenal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Zessis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral adrenal hemorrhages rarely occur during the neonatal period and are often associated with traumatic vaginal deliveries. However, the adrenal gland has highly regenerative capabilities and adrenal insufficiency typically resolves over time. We evaluated a newborn female after experiencing fetal macrosomia and a traumatic vaginal delivery. She developed acidosis and acute renal injury. Large adrenal hemorrhages were noted bilaterally on ultrasound, and she was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency based on characteristic electrolyte changes and a low cortisol (4.2 μg/dL. On follow-up testing, this patient was unable to be weaned off of hydrocortisone or fludrocortisone despite resolution of hemorrhages on ultrasound. Providers should consider bilateral adrenal hemorrhage when evaluating critically ill neonates after a traumatic delivery. In extreme cases, this may be a persistent process.

  11. Hyperuricemia and Acute Renal Failure in Renal Transplant Recipients Treated With High-Dose Mizoribine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akioka, K; Ishikawa, T; Osaka, M; Kadotani, Y; Okugawa, K; Nakano, K; Osaka, Y; Tsuchiya, K; Sako, H

    Hyperuricemia is a common adverse event frequently found in renal transplant recipients with mizoribine (MZ). Hyperuricemia itself will be a cause of renal dysfunction, and renal dysfunction also will be a cause of hyperuricemia simultaneously. This study investigates frequency of hyperuricemia and renal failure in renal transplant recipients treated with high-dose MZ. From December 2007 to October 2015, there was a total of 32 living related renal transplant recipients treated with high-dose MZ. Of the 32 patients, 28 were treated with urate-lowering medications. One patient received allopurinol (AP) and 13 patients received benzbromarone (BB). For 6 of them, their urate-lowering medications were converted to febuxostat (FX) form AP or BB. In the remaining 14 patients, FX was administered from the beginning. In 2 cases of ABO-incompatible living related renal transplant recipients who were maintained with high-dose MZ and BB, severe hyperuricemia and acute renal failure occurred. One patient was a 48-year-old man, and his creatinine (Cr) level increased to 8.14 mg/dL and his serum uric acid (UA) was 24.6 mg/dL. Another patient was a 57-year-old man, and his Cr level increased to 3.59 mg/dL and his UA was 13.2 mg/dL. In both cases Cr and UA were improved, and no finding of acute rejection and drug toxicity was observed in graft biopsy specimens. BB was switched to FX and discontinuance or reduction of MZ was done. Combination of MZ and BB has the risk of acute renal dysfunction after renal transplantation. Latent renal dysfunction should be watched for in renal transplant recipients receiving high-dose MZ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in insufficiency of arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chung Sik; Goo, Dong Erk; Kim Kyeung Suk; Kim, Hun Hwa; Kim, Dae Ho; Choi, Deuk Lin; Mun, Chul; Lee, Hee Bal [Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty(PTA) and to determine the factors affecting the long-term patency rate in the management of insufficient hemodialytic arteriovenous fistula(AVF). Forty-nine cases of insufficient hemodialytic AVF were treated in 44 patients(native AVF:20, graft AVF:29, M:17, F:27, Age:22-70 years). In 28 thrombus patients, thrombolysis was performed with urokinase, and was followed by PTA. The initial success rate and complications of PTA were evaluated. According to the site and length of the stenosis, type and age of the AVF, the presence or abscence of thrombus, a history of diabetic mellitus, the patient's age, and the duration of renal failure, patency rates were compared within each subgroup using the Kaplan-Meier logrank test. The initial success rate of PTA for insufficient hemodialytic AVF was 88%(43/49), the patency rate of PTA was 67% at 6 months, and 50% at 12 months. The initial success rate of thrombolysis was 89%(25/28). The complication rate of PTA was 12%(6/49), of which five cases were vein rupture, and one was subcutaneous hematoma. Statistically, the patency rates in the above mentioned subgroups were not significantly different. PTA with or without thrombolysis offers safe and effective management of insufficient hemodialytic AVF.

  13. Insufficient insulin administration to diabetic rats increases substrate utilization and maintains lactate production in the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Lipsø, Hans Kasper Wigh; Østergaard, Jakob Appel

    2014-01-01

    with insulin, resulting in poor glycemic control, has an additional effect on progression of late diabetic complications, than poor glycemic control on its own. We therefore compared renal metabolic alterations during conditions of poor glycemic control with and without suboptimal insulin administration, which......Good glycemic control is crucial to prevent the onset and progression of late diabetic complications, but insulin treatment often fails to achieve normalization of glycemic control to the level seen in healthy controls. In fact, recent experimental studies indicate that insufficient treatment...... did not restore glycemic control, to streptozotocin (STZ)‐diabetic rats using noninvasive hyperpolarized 13C‐pyruvate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood oxygenation level–dependent (BOLD) 1H‐MRI to determine renal metabolic flux and oxygen availability, respectively. Suboptimal insulin...

  14. Ramadan fasting in patients with adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihaoui, Mélika; Chaker, Fatma; Yazidi, Meriem; Grira, Wafa; Ben Amor, Zohra; Rejeb, Ons; Slimane, Hedia

    2017-01-01

    The risks of fasting during Ramadan in patients with adrenal insufficiency are unknown. The aims of this study were to evaluate these risks in such patients, to determine the risk factors and finally to set some recommendations. It is a cross-sectional study about 180 patients with known and treated adrenal insufficiency. The patients responded to a 14-item questionnaire concerning their knowledge about the disease and fasting during the last month of Ramadan. There were 132 women and 48 men. The mean age was 47.6 ± 15.0 years (14-79). One hundred and thirty eight patients (76.7 %) were advised by their physician not to fast. Ninety-one patients (50.5 %) tried to fast. Complications occurred in 61 cases (67.0 %): asthenia in 88.5 % of cases, intense thirst in 32.8 %, symptoms of dehydration in 49.2 % and symptoms of hypoglycaemia in 18 %. One patient was hospitalized. Fifty-five patients (60.4 %) were able to fast for the whole month. Age, gender, duration of the disease, its primary origin, associated hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, hypertension or diabetes insipidus and daily dose of hydrocortisone did not significantly differ between fasters and non-fasters, full-month-fasters and partial-month-fasters, and fasters with complications and fasters without complications. The frequency of adequate knowledge about the disease was significantly higher in full-month-fasters vs. partial-month-fasters, and in fasters without complications vs. those with complications. In patients with adrenal insufficiency, fasting can cause complications especially if the level of knowledge about the disease is low.

  15. Renal calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrah, Leslie N

    1979-01-01

    Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long an...

  16. Tumour lysis syndrome and acute renal failure in Burkitt's lymphoma. Description of 2 cases and a review of the literature on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, J.; Krediet, R. T.; Somers, R.; Arisz, L.

    1994-01-01

    Two patients with Burkitt's lymphoma and acute renal failure are described, one with acute uric acid nephropathy and the other with acute renal failure due to hyperphosphataemia. Renal insufficiency caused by the precipitation of calcium phosphate salts only occurs after starting treatment of the

  17. High serum enalaprilat in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, T; Heisterberg, J; Kamper, A L

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and their metabolites are excreted renally and doses should hence be reduced in renal insufficiency. We studied whether the dosage of enalapril in daily clinical practice is associated with drug accumulation of enalaprilat in chronic...... was 10 (2.5-20) mg and the trough serum concentration of enalaprilat was 31.8 (concentrations of enalaprilat than has been reported in subjects with normal kidney function, and a marked elevation of serum enalaprilat was observed......-68) ml/minute and correlated linearly with GFR (r=0.86, p=0.003). Intra-subject day-to-day variation in trough concentrations was 19.7%. CONCLUSION: Patients with chronic renal failure given small or moderately high doses of enalapril may thus have markedly elevated levels of serum enalaprilat. Whether...

  18. Inflammatory manifestations of experimental lymphatic insufficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Tabibiazar

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sustained lymph stagnation engenders a pathological response that is complex and not well characterized. Tissue inflammation in lymphedema may reflect either an active or passive consequence of impaired immune traffic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied an experimental model of acute post-surgical lymphedema in the tails of female hairless, immunocompetent SKH-1 mice. We performed in vivo imaging of impaired immune traffic in experimental, murine acquired lymphatic insufficiency. We demonstrated impaired mobilization of immunocompetent cells from the lymphedematous region. These findings correlated with histopathological alterations and large-scale transcriptional profiling results. We found intense inflammatory changes in the dermis and the subdermis. The molecular pattern in the RNA extracted from the whole tissue was dominated by the upregulation of genes related to acute inflammation, immune response, complement activation, wound healing, fibrosis, and oxidative stress response. CONCLUSIONS: We have characterized a mouse model of acute, acquired lymphedema using in vivo functional imaging and histopathological correlation. The model closely simulates the volume response, histopathology, and lymphoscintigraphic characteristics of human acquired lymphedema, and the response is accompanied by an increase in the number and size of microlymphatic structures in the lymphedematous cutaneous tissues. Molecular characterization through clustering of genes with known functions provides insights into processes and signaling pathways that compose the acute tissue response to lymph stagnation. Further study of genes identified through this effort will continue to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and lead to potential therapeutic strategies for lymphatic vascular insufficiency.

  19. Renal pelvic stones: choosing shock wave lithotripsy or percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Marcovich

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of minimally invasive techniques has revolutionized the surgical management of renal calculi. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are now both well-established procedures. Each modality has advantages and disadvantages, and the application of each should be based on well-defined factors. These variables include stone factors such as number, size, and composition; factors related to the stone's environment, including the stone's location, spatial anatomy of the renal collecting system, presence of hydronephrosis, and other anatomic variables, such as the presence of calyceal diverticula and renal anomalies; and clinical or patient factors like morbid obesity, the presence of a solitary kidney, and renal insufficiency. The morbidity of each procedure in relation to its efficacy should be taken in to account. This article will review current knowledge and suggest an algorithm for the rational management of renal calculi with shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

  20. Traumatismo Renal

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Martinez S.

    2017-01-01

    Introdução: A realização deste trabalho visa a elaboração de uma revisão sistematizada subordinada à temática da traumatologia renal. Objectivos: Os principais objectivos deste trabalho são: apurar a etiologia, definir a classificação, analisar o diagnóstico e expôr o tratamento e as complicações. Desenvolvimento: Os traumatismos são a principal causa de morte antes dos 40 anos. O rim é o órgão do aparelho génito-urinário mais frequentemente atingido. Os traumatismos renais são mais fre...

  1. TRANSPLANTE RENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Geraldo Rozza Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprender el significado de espera del trasplante renal para las mujeres en hemodiálisis. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo-interpretativo, realizado con 12 mujeres en hemodiálisis en Florianópolis. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas en profundidad en el domicilio. Fue utilizado el software Etnografh 6.0 para la pre-codificación y posterior al análisis interpretativo emergieron dos categorías: “las sombras del momento actual”, que mostró que las dificultades iniciales de la enfermedad están presentes, pero las mujeres pueden hacer frente mejor a la enfermedad y el tratamiento. La segunda categoría, “la luz del trasplante renal”, muestra la esperanza impulsada por la entrada en la lista de espera para un trasplante.

  2. [Hypertension and renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions FXPOI Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency ( FXPOI ) is a condition ...

  4. Academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Jin; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Seog Ju

    2015-01-15

    The present study investigated academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BISS) and attempted to identify independent predictors of academic performance among BISS-related factors. A total of 51 students with BISS and 50 without BISS were recruited from high schools in South Korea based on self-reported weekday sleep durations, weekend oversleep, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Participants reported their academic performance in the form of class quartile ranking. The Korean version of the Composite Scale (KtCS) for morningness/eveningness, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for depression, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-II (BIS-II) for impulsivity were administered. Adolescents with BISS reported poorer academic performance than adolescents without BISS (p = 0.02). Adolescents with BISS also exhibited greater levels of eveningness (p academic performance among adolescents with BISS even after controlling for ESS, KtCS, BDI, and BIS-II (β = 0.42, p academic performance and that sleep debt, as represented by weekend oversleep, predicts poorer academic performance independent of depression, impulsiveness, weekday sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and morningness/eveningness among adolescents with BISS. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  5. Renal vascular and thrombotic effects of cyclosporine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remuzzi, G; Bertani, T

    1989-04-01

    Cyclosporine A (CyA) given to prevent xenograft rejection induces renal function impairment. In the last few years many studies have been devoted to understanding the mechanism(s) of CyA-induced renal insufficiency. In humans, several specific findings--interstitial fibrosis, toxic tubulopathy, peritubular capillary congestion, arteriolopathy--have been associated with CyA administration. It is now recognized that CyA renal toxicity mainly manifests under three different syndromes: (1) acute reversible decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), (2) acute microvascular disease with the pattern of thrombotic microangiopathy, and (3) chronic irreversible renal damage. This review analyzes the available evidence that the clinical syndromes of CyA nephrotoxicity are related to changes induced by CyA on renal vessels. Experimental studies have failed to document that the activation of renin-angiotensin axis or sympathetic nervous system plays a relevant role in the development of CyA-associated renal vasoconstriction, which is the main causal factor of acute reversible decrease in GFR, whereas it is possible that changes in arachidonic acid metabolites with vasoactive properties contribute to this CyA-induced phenomenon. In this context, findings of increased urinary TxB2 and protective effect of TxA2 receptor blocking are of particular interest. Since the introduction of CyA in clinical practice, a syndrome of thrombotic microangiopathy resembling hemolytic uremic syndrome/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura has been recognized in humans and reproduced in experimental animals. This is a rare form of vascular toxicity attributed to CyA which may have a poor prognosis and possibly results from a direct toxic effect of CyA on vascular endothelium. The syndrome of chronic progressive deterioration of renal function associated with CyA was first recognized in humans. Until recently the possibility of reproducing this syndrome in animals in order to better understand its

  6. Renal scar formation after urinary tract infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Seo Park

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common bacterial illness in children. Acute pyelonephritis in children may lead to renal scarring with the risk of later hypertension, preeclampsia during pregnancy, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency. Until now, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR has been considered the most important risk factor for post-UTI renal scar formation in children. VUR predisposes children with UTI to pyelonephritis, and both are associated with renal scarring. However, reflux nephropathy is not always acquired; rather, it reflects refluxassociated congenital dysplastic kidneys. The viewpoint that chronic kidney disease results from renal maldevelopment-associated VUR has led to questioning the utility of any regimen directed at identifying or treating VUR. Despite the recognition that underlying renal anomalies may be the cause of renal scarring that was previously attributed to infection, the prevention of renal scarring remains the goal of all therapies for childhood UTI. Therefore, children at high risk of renal scar formation after UTI should be treated and investigated until a large clinical study and basic research give us more information.

  7. Aquaporin 11 insufficiency modulates kidney susceptibility to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atochina-Vasserman, Elena N; Biktasova, Asel; Abramova, Elena; Cheng, Dong-Sheng; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Takahashi, Saki; Sonoda, Hiroko; Foye, Liberty; Venkov, Christo; Ryzhov, Sergey V; Novitskiy, Sergey; Shlonimskaya, Natalia; Ikeda, Masahiro; Blackwell, Timothy S; Lawson, William E; Gow, Andrew J; Harris, Raymond C; Dikov, Mikhail M; Tchekneva, Elena E

    2013-05-15

    Aquaporin 11 (AQP11) is a newly described member of the protein family of transport channels. AQP11 associates with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is highly expressed in proximal tubular epithelial cells in the kidney. Previously, we identified and characterized a recessive mutation of the highly conserved Cys227 to Ser227 in mouse AQP11 that caused proximal tubule (PT) injury and kidney failure in mutant mice. The current study revealed induction of ER stress, unfolded protein response, and apoptosis as molecular mechanisms of this PT injury. Cys227Ser mutation interfered with maintenance of AQP11 oligomeric structure. AQP11 is abundantly expressed in the S1 PT segment, a site of major renal glucose flux, and Aqp11 mutant mice developed PT-specific mitochondrial injury. Glucose increased AQP11 protein expression in wild-type kidney and upregulation of AQP11 expression by glucose in vitro was prevented by phlorizin, an inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose transport across PT. Total AQP11 levels in heterozygotes were higher than in wild-type mice but were not further increased in response to glucose. In Aqp11 insufficient PT cells, glucose potentiated increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. ROS production was also elevated in Aqp11 mutation carriers. Phenotypically normal mice heterozygous for the Aqp11 mutation repeatedly treated with glucose showed increased blood urea nitrogen levels that were prevented by the antioxidant sulforaphane or by phlorizin. Our results indicate an important role for AQP11 to prevent glucose-induced oxidative stress in proximal tubules.

  8. BILATERAL DUPLICATION OF RENAL ARTERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Prajkta A Thete; Mehera Bhoir; M.V.Ambiye

    2014-01-01

    Routine dissection of a male cadaver revealed the presence of bilateral double renal arteries. On the right side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta just above the main renal artery. On the left side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta about 1 cm above the main renal artery. Knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, su...

  9. Loss of function of NaPiIIa causes nephrocalcinosis and possibly kidney insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinour, Dganit; Davidovits, Miriam; Ganon, Liat; Ruminska, Justyna; Forster, Ian C; Hernando, Nati; Eyal, Eran; Holtzman, Eli J; Wagner, Carsten A

    2016-12-01

    Inherited metabolic disorders associated with nephrocalcinosis are rare conditions. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic cause of an Israeli-Arab boy from a consanguineous family with severe nephrocalcinosis and kidney insufficiency. Clinical and biochemical data of the proband and family members were obtained from both previous and recent medical charts. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells. The coding sequence and splice sites of candidate genes (CYP24A1, CYP27B1, FGF23, KLOTHO, SLC34A3 and SLC34A1) were sequenced directly. Functional studies were performed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in transfected opossum kidney (OK) cells. Our patient was identified as having nephrocalcinosis in utero, and at the age of 16.5 years, he had kidney insufficiency but no bone disease. Genetic analysis revealed a novel homozygous missense mutation, Arg215Gln, in SLC34A1, which encodes the renal sodium phosphate cotransporter NaPiIIa. Functional studies of the Arg215Gln mutant revealed reduced transport activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes and increased intracellular cytoplasmic accumulation in OK cells. Our findings show that dysfunction of the human NaPiIIa causes severe renal calcification that may eventually lead to reduced kidney function, rather than complications of phosphate loss.

  10. LMWH in cancer patients with renal impairment - better than warfarin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauersachs, Rupert M

    2016-04-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the leading causes of death in cancer patients, which are known to have a 5- to 7-fold increased risk for VTE. The anticoagulant treatment of VTE in cancer patients is less effective with a three-fold increased risk of VTE recurrence compared to non-cancer patients, and it is less safe with more than double rates of major bleeding. Compared to vitamin-K antagonists (VKA), long-term secondary prevention with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent VTE in cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), and therefore, current international guidelines recommend the use of LMWH over VKA. With increasing age, cancer prevalence and VTE incidence increase while renal function decreases. Anti-cancer treatment may impair renal function additionally. Therefore, renal insufficiency is a frequent challenge in CAT patients, which is associated with a higher risk of both bleeding and recurrent VTE. Both VKA and LMWH may be associated with less efficacy and higher bleeding risk in renal insufficiency. Unfortunately, there is a lack of prospective data on renal insufficiency and CAT. A recent sub-analysis from a large randomized controlled trial shows that the bleeding risk in patients with severe renal insufficiency in CAT is not elevated with the use of LMWH compared to VKA while efficacy is maintained. In addition, LMWH treatment has several practical advantages over VKA, particularly in patients with CAT while they are receiving anti-cancer treatment. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-surgical interventions for convergence insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, Mitchell; Gwiazda, Jane; Li, Tianjing

    2011-03-16

    Convergence insufficiency is a common eye muscle co-ordination problem in which the eyes have a strong tendency to drift outward (exophoria) when reading or doing close work. Symptoms may include eye strain, headaches, double vision, print moving on the page, frequent loss of place when reading, inability to concentrate, and short attention span. To systematically assess and synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effectiveness of non-surgical interventions for convergence insufficiency. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) and ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov ) on 7 October 2010. We manually searched reference lists and optometric journals. We included RCTs examining any form of non-surgical intervention against placebo, no treatment, sham treatment, or each other. Two authors independently assessed eligibility, risk of bias, and extracted data. We performed meta-analyses when appropriate. We included six trials (three in children, three in adults) with a total of 475 participants. We graded four trials at low risk of bias.Evidence from one trial (graded at low risk of bias) suggests that base-in prism reading glasses was no more effective than placebo reading glasses in improving clinical signs or symptoms in children.Evidence from one trial (graded at high risk of bias) suggests that base-in prism glasses using a progressive addition lens design was more effective than progressive addition lens alone in decreasing symptoms in adults. At three weeks of therapy, the mean difference in Convergence Insufficiency Symptoms Survey (CISS) score was -10.24 points (95% confidence interval (CI) -15.45 to -5.03).Evidence from two trials (graded at low risk of bias) suggests that outpatient (or office-based as used in the US) vision therapy/orthoptics was more effective than home-based convergence exercises (or pencil push

  12. Non-surgical interventions for convergence insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, Mitchell; Gwiazda, Jane; Li, Tianjing

    2014-01-01

    Background Convergence insufficiency is a common eye muscle co-ordination problem in which the eyes have a strong tendency to drift outward (exophoria) when reading or doing close work. Symptoms may include eye strain, headaches, double vision, print moving on the page, frequent loss of place when reading, inability to concentrate, and short attention span. Objectives To systematically assess and synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effectiveness of non-surgical interventions for convergence insufficiency. Search strategy We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com) and ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) on 7 October 2010. We manually searched reference lists and optometric journals. Selection criteria We included RCTs examining any form of non-surgical intervention against placebo, no treatment, sham treatment, or each other. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed eligibility, risk of bias, and extracted data. We performed meta-analyses when appropriate. Main results We included six trials (three in children, three in adults) with a total of 475 participants. We graded four trials at low risk of bias. Evidence from one trial (graded at low risk of bias) suggests that base-in prism reading glasses was no more effective than placebo reading glasses in improving clinical signs or symptoms in children. Evidence from one trial (graded at high risk of bias) suggests that base-in prism glasses using a progressive addition lens design was more effective than progressive addition lens alone in decreasing symptoms in adults. At three weeks of therapy, the mean difference in Convergence Insufficiency Symptoms Survey (CISS) score was −10.24 points (95% confidence interval (CI) −15.45 to −5.03). Evidence from two trials (graded at low risk of bias) suggests that outpatient (or office-based as used in the

  13. Co-existence of chronic renal failure, renal clear cell carcinoma, and Blau syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Ipek; Ozguven, Aykan; Canda, Ebru; Yilmaz, Omer; Nese, Nalan; Ozkol, Mine; May, Sandra; Franke, Andre; Cirak, Sebahattin

    2010-05-01

    Blau syndrome is a rare, multisystem, autosomal-dominant, and granulomatous disorder caused by susceptibility variants in the NOD2 gene. We describe here a 14-year-old girl with Blau syndrome with incidentally diagnosed renal carcinoma. The index case presented with growth retardation and recurrent symmetric arthritis. Her clinical symptoms included bilateral cataract due to recurrent uveitis, camptodactyly, and persistent erythematous rash with ichthyosis. Her two sisters and her mother were affected with combinations of these conditions-symmetric polyarthritis, uveitis, and skin involvement-suggesting an autosomal dominant trait. The index case developed a chronic renal insufficiency, and an abdominal computerized tomography scan revealed a 2.5-cm mass in the left kidney. The histopathological examination showed renal clear cell carcinoma, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis,and giant cell granulomas in both the tumor and nonneoplastic renal tissue. Granulomatous inflammation was observed in the skin biopsy specimen. The patient was diagnosed with Blau syndrome based on her family history, uveitis, granulomatous inflammation proved by skin biopsy, and polyarthritis. Sequencing of the NOD2 gene showed a heterozygous p.R334Q mutation in all affected family members. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient with Blau syndrome accompanied by chronic renal failure and renal carcinoma.

  14. Nurse-administered propofol sedation for endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J T; Vilmann, P; Horsted, T

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program.......The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program....

  15. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of State.... Pickering Foreign Affairs/Graduate Foreign Affairs Fellowship Program and grants to post-secondary... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4...

  16. [Vertebrobasilar insufficiency and obstructive sleep apnea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgić, Vjekoslav

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to point to correlation between vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) that has not been perceived sufficiently till now. Namely, in the voluminous literature about sleep-disordered breathing, VBI has been cited only as one of the possible causes of central and mixed sleep apnea. However, according to our clinical observation, VBI could be one of the most important factors in etiopathogenesis of OSA. Results of recent research, which confirm the correlation between VBI and OSA, contribute to our hypothesis. High prevalence and pathogenesis of OSA in patients with VBI can be explained by hypoxia of the medulla oblongata during sleep (sleep+positional VBI --> hypoxia of the medulla oblongata --> hypoxia of the respiratory centre which regulates breathing function+hypoxia of the motor nuclei of the IX, X and XII cranial nerves whose neurons regulate the tone in upper airway muscles (IX, X) and tongue (XII) --> OSA). The development of OSA in certain patients with VBI is probably in close correlation with the degree of hypoxia of the medulla oblongata during sleep (moderate VBI --> OSA; severe VBI --> central or mixed sleep apnea). Considering the fact that VBI of vascular and/or compressive etiology can be the primary cause of OSA, the Doppler sonography examination ofVB system (VBS) with the positional functional tests should be included in the diagnostic algorithm for OSA. Since the functional and organic disorders of cervical spine can either cause circulation disturbances in VBS or aggravate insufficient circulation, especially during sleep in certain head and neck positions, detailed examination of cervical spine including physiatric examination, manual functional examination and radiological examination, should become a part of the routine examination in patients with either suspected or confirmed OSA. Circulation in VBS can be improved or normalized by an appropriate therapy for vascular disorders (for

  17. Gastric surgery for respiratory insufficiency of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugerman, H J; Fairman, R P; Baron, P L; Kwentus, J A

    1986-07-01

    Morbid obesity is often associated with severe respiratory insufficiency, commonly known as the pickwickian syndrome. This can be divided into the following two primary breathing disorders which can affect patients alone or in combination: the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (SAS); and the obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). Thirty-eight (14 percent) of 263 morbidly obese patients with respiratory insufficiency of obesity underwent gastric surgery for weight reduction. Ten had OHS, nine has SAS, and 19 had both. Of these patients, one died of postoperative complications, one died at five weeks with an inconclusive autopsy, one was lost to follow-up, and the time since surgery was too short (less than three months) in three. A total of 30 patients lost 45 +/- 25 percent (p less than 0.0001) of excess body weight within 3 to 12 months following surgery, when repeat pulmonary studies were done. Most patients continued to lose additional weight until two years, when they had lost 62 +/- 26 percent of excess weight. Nine patients failed initial surgery (gastroplasty); seven of these were successfully converted to gastric bypass. Weight loss was associated with a significant decrease in the percentage of sleep apnea from 44 +/- 15 to 8 +/- 11 (p less than 0.0001). In patients with OHS, the arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) increased from 53 +/- 9 to 68 +/- 11 mm Hg (p less than 0.0001), and the arterial carbon dioxide tension decreased from 51 +/- 7 to 41 +/- 4 mm Hg (p less than 0.0001). Pulmonary function tests in the patients with OHS revealed significant increases, as a percentage of predicted normal, in the forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, expiratory reserve volume, functional residual capacity, and total lung capacity. Secondary polycythemia, defined as a hemoglobin level greater than 16 g/dl associated with a PaO2 less than 60 mm Hg, was noted in 13 of 29 patients with OHS. This fell from 16.9 +/- 1.1 to 14.9 +/- 1.7 g/dl (p less

  18. Relationship between sonographic renal length and renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Sonography, Renal length, Renal. Parenchymal Thickness, Renal Biopsy. Résumé. But: Pour determiner 1e rapport entre l'épaisseur parenchymal rénale sonographic (RPT) et la longueur rénale (RL) dans le nigérien normal (1' adulte. Conception D'Etude: Le RL et le RPT de 309 sujets normaux dans la marge ...

  19. Current concepts in the diagnosis and classification of renal dysfunction in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindikoglu, Ayse L; Weir, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is one of the most common complications of cirrhosis with high morbidity and mortality. In subjects with cirrhosis, renal dysfunction can present either as a direct consequence of cirrhosis (e.g. hepatorenal syndrome type I and type II) or secondary to etiologies other than cirrhosis (chronic kidney disease due to diabetic nephropathy, prerenal azotemia), or patients with cirrhosis may have renal dysfunction resulting directly from cirrhosis and an underlying chronic kidney disease. Given the challenges in the differential diagnosis of renal dysfunction and insufficient accuracy of serum creatinine and creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate estimating equations in cirrhosis, there is an urgent need for more accurate biomarkers of renal dysfunction in this population. This review will discuss novel concepts for the diagnosis and classification of renal dysfunction in cirrhosis to overcome at least some of the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Additionally, a new classification will be proposed for renal dysfunction in cirrhosis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Obesity-Mediated Autophagy Insufficiency Exacerbates Proteinuria-induced Tubulointerstitial Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamahara, Kosuke; Kume, Shinji; Koya, Daisuke; Tanaka, Yuki; Morita, Yoshikata; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Hisazumi; Isshiki, Keiji; Araki, Shin-ichi; Haneda, Masakazu; Matsusaka, Taiji; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for renal dysfunction in patients with CKDs, including diabetic nephropathy, but the mechanism underlying this connection remains unclear. Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that maintains intracellular homeostasis by removing damaged proteins and organelles, and autophagy insufficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases. We therefore examined the role of autophagy in obesity-mediated exacerbation of proteinuria-induced proximal tubular epithelial cell damage in mice and in human renal biopsy specimens. In nonobese mice, overt proteinuria, induced by intraperitoneal free fatty acid–albumin overload, led to mild tubular damage and apoptosis, and activated autophagy in proximal tubules reabsorbing urinary albumin. In contrast, diet-induced obesity suppressed proteinuria-induced autophagy and exacerbated proteinuria-induced tubular cell damage. Proximal tubule-specific autophagy-deficient mice, resulting from an Atg5 gene deletion, subjected to intraperitoneal free fatty acid–albumin overload developed severe proteinuria-induced tubular damage, suggesting that proteinuria-induced autophagy is renoprotective. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a potent suppressor of autophagy, was activated in proximal tubules of obese mice, and treatment with an mTOR inhibitor ameliorated obesity-mediated autophagy insufficiency. Furthermore, both mTOR hyperactivation and autophagy suppression were observed in tubular cells of specimens obtained from obese patients with proteinuria. Thus, in addition to enhancing the understanding of obesity-related cell vulnerability in the kidneys, these results suggest that restoring the renoprotective action of autophagy in proximal tubules may improve renal outcomes in obese patients. PMID:24092929

  1. Insufficient sleep in adolescents: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Judith A; Weiss, Miriam R

    2017-08-01

    Insufficient sleep poses an important and complicated set of health risks in the adolescent population. Not only is deficient sleep (defined as both sleep duration inadequate to meet sleep needs and sleep timing misaligned with the body's circadian rhythms) at epidemic levels in this population, but the contributing factors are both complex and numerous and there are a myriad of negative physical and mental health, safety and performance consequences. Causes of inadequate sleep identified in this population include internal biological processes such as the normal shift (delay) in circadian rhythm that occurs in association with puberty and a developmentally-based slowing of the "sleep drive", and external factors including extracurricular activities, excessive homework load, evening use of electronic media, caffeine intake and early school start times. Consequences range from inattentiveness, reduction in executive functioning and poor academic performance to increased risk of obesity and cardio-metabolic dysfunction, mood disturbances which include increased suicidal ideation, a higher risk of engaging in health risk behaviors such as alcohol and substance use, and increased rates of car crashes, occupational injuries and sports-related injuries. In response to these concerns, a number of promising measures have been proposed to reduce the burden of adolescent sleep loss, including healthy sleep education for students and families, and later school start times to allow adolescents to obtain sufficient and appropriately-timed sleep.

  2. Premature ovarian insufficiency: Pathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J Fenton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term premature ovarian insufficiency (POI describes a continuum of declining ovarian function in a young woman, resulting in an earlier than average menopause. It is a term that reflects the variable nature of the condition and is substantially less emotive than the formerly used "premature ovarian failure" which signaled a single event in time. Contrary to the decline in the age of menarche seen over the last 3-4 decades there has been no similar change in the age of menopause. In developed nations, the average age for cessation of menstrual cycles is 50-52 years. The age is younger among women from developing nations. Much has been written about POI despite a lack of good data on the incidence of this condition. It is believed that 1% of women under the age of 40 years and 0.1% under the age of 30 years will develop POI. Research is increasingly providing information about the pathogenesis and treatments are being developed to better preserve ovarian function during cancer treatment and to improve fertility options. This narrative review summarizes the current literature to provide an approach to best practice management of POI.

  3. Indicators of acute and persistent renal damage in adult thrombotic microangiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierkes, Firuseh; Andriopoulos, Nikolaos; Sucker, Christoph; Kuhr, Kathrin; Hollenbeck, Markus; Hetzel, Gerd R; Burst, Volker; Teschner, Sven; Rump, Lars C; Benzing, Thomas; Grabensee, Bernd; Kurschat, Christine E

    2012-01-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) in adults such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) are life-threatening disorders if untreated. Clinical presentation is highly variable and prognostic factors for clinical course and outcome are not well established. We performed a retrospective observational study of 62 patients with TMA, 22 males and 40 females aged 16 to 76 years, treated with plasma exchange at one center to identify clinical risk factors for the development of renal insufficiency. On admission, 39 of 62 patients (63%) had acute renal failure (ARF) with 32 patients (52%) requiring dialysis treatment. High systolic arterial pressure (SAP, p = 0.009) or mean arterial pressure (MAP, p = 0.027) on admission was associated with acute renal failure. Patients with SAP>140 mmHg on admission had a sevenfold increased risk of severe kidney disease (OR 7.464, CI 2.097-26.565). MAP>100 mmHg indicated a fourfold increased risk for acute renal failure (OR 4.261, CI 1.400-12.972). High SAP, diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and MAP on admission were also independent risk factors for persistent renal insufficiency with the strongest correlation for high MAP. Moreover, a high C-reactive protein (CRP) level on admission correlated with renal failure in the course of the disease (p = 0.003). At discharge, renal function in 11 of 39 patients (28%) had fully recovered, 14 patients (23%) remained on dialysis, and 14 patients (23%) had non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease. Seven patients (11%) died. We identified an older age as risk factor for death. High blood pressure as well as high CRP serum levels on admission are associated with renal insufficiency in TMA. High blood pressure on admission is also a strong predictor of sustained renal insufficiency. Thus, adult TMA patients with high blood pressure may require special attention to prevent persistent renal failure.

  4. Convergence Insufficiency, Accommodative Insufficiency, Visual Symptoms, and Astigmatism in Tohono O’odham Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Davis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine rate of convergence insufficiency (CI and accommodative insufficiency (AI and assess the relation between CI, AI, visual symptoms, and astigmatism in school-age children. Methods. 3rd–8th-grade students completed the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS and binocular vision testing with correction if prescribed. Students were categorized by astigmatism magnitude (no/low: <1.00 D, moderate: 1.00 D to <3.00 D, and high: ≥3.00 D, presence/absence of clinical signs of CI and AI, and presence of symptoms. Analyses determine rate of clinical CI and AI and symptomatic CI and AI and assessed the relation between CI, AI, visual symptoms, and astigmatism. Results. In the sample of 484 students (11.67 ± 1.81 years of age, rate of symptomatic CI was 6.2% and symptomatic AI 18.2%. AI was more common in students with CI than without CI. Students with AI only (p=0.02 and with CI and AI (p=0.001 had higher symptom scores than students with neither CI nor AI. Moderate and high astigmats were not at increased risk for CI or AI. Conclusions. With-the-rule astigmats are not at increased risk for CI or AI. High comorbidity rates of CI and AI and higher symptoms scores with AI suggest that research is needed to determine symptomatology specific to CI.

  5. Evaluation of the Pharmacokinetics and Renal Excretion of Simeprevir in Subjects with Renal Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan, Sivi; Beumont-Mauviel, Maria; Mortier, Steven; Peeters, Monika; Verloes, Rene; Truyers, Carla; Mannens, Geert; Wynant, Inneke; Simion, Alexandru

    2015-09-01

    Simeprevir is a N3/4 protease inhibitor approved for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV prevalence is higher in patients with chronic kidney disease compared with the general population; safe and efficacious therapies in renal impairment are needed. To evaluate simeprevir renal excretion in healthy subjects and to compare the simeprevir steady-state pharmacokinetics between subjects with severe renal impairment and healthy subjects. In the mass balance study, healthy adults received a single 200-mg dose of (14)C-simeprevir; radioactivity in the urine and feces was quantified until concentrations were 150 mg simeprevir for 7 days. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed post-dose on Day 7. (14)C-simeprevir recovery from the urine was low (0.009-0.138% of total dose). The minimum plasma concentration, maximum plasma concentration, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve at 24 h were 71, 34, and 62% higher, respectively, in subjects with severe renal impairment compared with healthy subjects. The mean fraction of simeprevir unbound to protein was <0.0001 (all subjects). Most adverse events were grade I or II; one subject with renal impairment who was receiving fenofibrate presented with grade 3 rhabdomyolysis. Simeprevir plasma concentrations were mildly elevated in subjects with severe renal impairment. The results suggest that simeprevir may be administered without dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment.

  6. NHP or SIP : a comparative study in renal insufficiency associated anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essink-Bot, M L; Krabbe, P F; van Agt, H M; Bonsel, G J

    In this study we compared the feasibility, internal structure and psychometric characteristics (internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity) of two widely used generic health status measures, i.e. the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) and the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) when

  7. NHP or SIP--a comparative study in renal insufficiency associated anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essink-Bot, M. L.; Krabbe, P. F.; van Agt, H. M.; Bonsel, G. J.

    1996-01-01

    In this study we compared the feasibility, internal structure and psychometric characteristics (internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity) of two widely used generic health status measures, i.e. the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) and the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) when

  8. Late renal dysfunction in adult survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, C.A.; Cohen, E.P.; Barber-Derus, S.W.; Murray, K.J.; Ash, R.C.; Casper, J.T.; Moulder, J.E. (Medical College of Wisconsin Affiliated Hospitals, Milwaukee (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Until recently long-term renal toxicity has not been considered a major late complication of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Late renal dysfunction has been described in a pediatric population status post-BMT which was attributable to the radiation in the preparatory regimen. A thorough review of adults with this type of late renal dysfunction has not previously been described. Fourteen of 103 evaluable adult patients undergoing allogeneic (96) or autologous (7) bone marrow transplantation, predominantly for leukemia and lymphomas, at the Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI) have had a syndrome of renal insufficiency characterized by increased serum creatinine, decreased glomerular filtration rate, anemia, and hypertension. This syndrome developed at a median of 9 months (range, 4.5 to 26 months) posttransplantation in the absence of specific identifiable causes. The cumulative probability of having this renal dysfunction is 20% at 1 year. Renal biopsies performed on seven of these cases showed the endothelium widely separated from the basement membrane, extreme thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, and microthrombi. Previous chemotherapy, antibiotics, and antifungals as well as cyclosporin may add to and possibly potentiate a primary chemoradiation marrow transplant renal injury, but this clinical syndrome is most analogous to clinical and experimental models of radiation nephritis. This late marrow transplant-associated nephritis should be recognized as a potentially limiting factor in the use of some intensive chemoradiation conditioning regimens used for BMT. Some selective attenuation of the radiation to the kidneys may decrease the incidence of this renal dysfunction.

  9. Renal Function Recovery with Total Artificial Heart Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quader, Mohammed A; Goodreau, Adam M; Shah, Keyur B; Katlaps, Gundars; Cooke, Richard; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna F; Wolfe, Luke G; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure patients requiring total artificial heart (TAH) support often have concomitant renal insufficiency (RI). We sought to quantify renal function recovery in patients supported with TAH at our institution. Renal function data at 30, 90, and 180 days after TAH implantation were analyzed for patients with RI, defined as hemodialysis supported or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m. Between January 2008 and December 2013, 20 of the 46 (43.5%) TAH recipients (age 51 ± 9 years, 85% men) had RI, mean preoperative eGFR of 48 ± 7 ml/min/1.73 m. Renal function recovery was noted at each follow-up interval: increment in eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m) at 30, 90, and 180 days was 21 ± 35 (p = 0.1), 16.5 ± 18 (p = 0.05), and 10 ± 9 (p = 0.1), respectively. Six patients (30%) required preoperative dialysis. Of these, four recovered renal function, one remained on dialysis, and one died. Six patients (30%) required new-onset dialysis. Of these, three recovered renal function and three died. Overall, 75% (15 of 20) of patients' renal function improved with TAH support. Total artificial heart support improved renal function in 75% of patients with pre-existing significant RI, including those who required preoperative dialysis.

  10. 2 Cases of Renal Cell Carcinoma on Long-Term Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    高原, 正信; 原, 繁; 松村,勉; 村上, 信乃; 浅田,学; 松嵜, 理

    1984-01-01

    Two cases of renal cell carcinoma on maintenance dialysis for chronic renal insufficiency are reported. The first case, a 40-year-old man, complained of hematuria after 9.3 years of dialysis. Nephrectomy was done and small renal cell carcinoma with acquired cystic disease of the kidney were observed. The second case, a 48-year-old man, was found to have renal cell carcinoma after 2.5 years of dialysis by means of routine examination without any symptoms. The kidney showed carcinoma with small...

  11. Trend from cardiovascular to non-cardiovascular late mortality in patients with renal replacement therapy since childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, Judith L.; van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Jager, Kitty J.; Groothoff, Jaap W.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate transitions in causes of death in patients with renal replacement therapy (RRT) since childhood over time, we performed a 10-year extension of the Late Effects of Renal Insufficiency in Children (LERIC) study. The LERIC cohort consisted of all 249 Dutch patients, who were born before

  12. Renal Cell Protection of Erythropoietin beyond Correcting The Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Currently many patients with chronic renal failure have profited from the use of erythropoietin to correct anemia (1,2). In chronic kidney disease, anemia is believed to be a surrogate index for tissue hypoxia that continues preexisting renal tissue injury (1-3). Erythropoietin is an essential glycoprotein that accelerates red blood cell maturation from erythroid progenitors and facilitates erythropoiesis. It is a 30.4 kD glycoprotein and class I cytokine containing 165 amino acids (3,4). Approximately 90% of systemic erythropoietin in adults is produced by peritubular interstitial fibroblasts in the renal cortex and outer medulla of the kidney (3-5). A feedback mechanism involving oxygen delivery to the tissues seems to regulate erythropoietin production. Hypoxia-inducible factor regulates transcription of the erythropoietin gene in the kidney, which determines erythropoietin synthesis (3-5). Erythropoietin is an essential glycoprotein that accelerates red blood cell maturation from erythroid progenitors and mediates erythropoiesis in the bone marrow (4-6). Kidney fibrosis is the last common pathway in chronic renal failure irrespective of the initial etiology (5,6). Constant inflammatory cell infiltration and pericyte-myofibroblast transition lead to renal fibrosis and insufficiency which result in decreased production of erythropoietin (4-7). Thus far, therapeutic efforts to treat patients with chronic renal failure by administering erythropoietin have been made only to correct anemia and putative hypoxic tissue damage. The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin has marked a significant advance in the management of anemia associated with chronic renal failure (6-9). With an increasing number of patients with chronic renal failure receiving erythropoietin treatment, emerging evidence suggests that erythropoietin not only has an erythropoietic function, but also has renoprotective potential. In fact, in recent years, the additional non

  13. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this disorder. Alternative Names Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Krapf R, ...

  14. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain proper fluid ... marrow and strengthen the bones. The term kidney (renal) failure describes a situation in which the kidneys have ...

  15. Cardio Renal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KV Sahasranam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, physicians have recognized that the kidney and the heart are related especially when there is severe dysfunction of either of them. Dysfunction of one of these organs seldom occurs in isolation. Of late the cardio renal syndrome is assuming significance because of its increasing incidence, awareness and complications. There is no definite definition of the cardio renal syndrome. However, an attempted definition states that it is a "decline in renal function in the setting of advanced heart failure". This definition does not cover the whole gamut of the cardio renal syndrome. Cardiac diseases are associated independently with a decrease in renal function and progression of existing renal disease. Chronic Kidney disease (CKD is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and outcome. This bidirectional nature of cardiac and renal interaction is called Cardio Renal Syndrome (CRS.

  16. The effect of recombinant hirudin on rabbit ear flaps with venous insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Duzgun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of recombinant hirudin, which is the most powerful antithrombotic agent, on flaps with venous insufficiency was investigated. Oedema and congestion are frequent on flaps, causing necrosis unpredictably. Venous insufficiency and thrombosis are experimentally and clinically more frequent than arterial occlusion. Twenty-one adult New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Skin flaps (3 × 6 cm were elevated on a 1-cm-wide pedicle on rabbit ears. The artery, nerve, and vein were exposed and examined with the aid of a surgical microscope. Venous insufficiency was established by cutting the vein and nerve. In the control group, no additional surgical or medical procedures were performed and the ear flap was inset to its original location. Subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; 320 IU/kg was administered to a second group of rabbits after the same surgery, and recombinant hirudin (2 μg was administered via the pedicle artery 5 minutes after the vein and nerve were bound and cut in a third group of rabbits. Compared with control and LMWH groups on day 3 and 7, the hirudin-treated group had less hair loss, lower oedema scores and less haematoma formation. Furthermore, a lower size of necrotic areas and an increase in the circulating area on day 7 was found in the hirudin-treated group. In addition, angiography revealed new vessel development (neovascularisation only in the hirudin group. On histologic sections, hirudin-treated animals had lower oedema, inflammation and congestion scores than animals in the other two groups. Thus, when administered into the ear flap through the pedicle as a pure recombinant preparation, hirudin increased flap survival by its antithrombotic effects and by accelerating neoangiogenesis. Recombinant hirudin may be used in clinical practice to treat flaps with venous problems and to increase survival rates.

  17. Cigarette smoking and cardio-renal events in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Drummond

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking causes cardiovascular disease and is associated with poor kidney function in individuals with diabetes mellitus and primary kidney diseases. However, the association of smoking on patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis has not been studied. The current study utilized data from the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL, NCT00081731 clinical trial to evaluate the effects of smoking on the risk of cardio-renal events and kidney function in this population. Baseline data showed that smokers (n = 277 out of 931 were significantly younger at enrollment than non-smokers (63.3±9.1 years vs 72.4±7.8 years; p<0.001. In addition, patients who smoke were also more likely to have bilateral renal artery stenoses and peripheral vascular disease (PVD. Longitudinal analysis showed that smokers experienced composite endpoint events (defined as first occurrence of: stroke; cardiovascular or renal death; myocardial infarction; hospitalization for congestive heart failure; permanent renal replacement; and progressive renal insufficiency defined as 30% reduction of GFR from baseline sustained for ≥ 60 days at a substantially younger age compared to non-smokers (67.1±9.0 versus 76.1±7.9, p<0.001. Using linear regression and generalized linear modeling analysis controlled by age, sex, and ethnicity, smokers had significantly higher cystatin C levels (1.3±0.7 vs 1.2±0.9, p<0.01 whereas creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR were not different from non-smokers. From these data we conclude that smoking has a significant association with deleterious cardio-renal outcomes in patients with renovascular hypertension.

  18. The controversy on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Zamboni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to analyze the actual scientific controversy on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI and its association with both neurodegenerative disorders and multiple sclerosis (MS. We revised all published studies on prevalence of CCSVI in MS patients, including ultrasound and catheter venography series. Furthermore, we take into consideration other publications dealing with the pathophysiologic consequences of CCSVI in the brain, as well as ecent data characterizing the pathology of the venous wall in course of CCSVI. Finally, safety and pilot data on effectiveness of endovascular CCSVI treatment were further updated. Studies of prevalence show a big variability in prevalence of CCSVI in MS patients assessed by established ultrasonographic criteria. This could be related to high operator dependency of ultrasound. However, 12 studies, by the means of more objective catheter venography, show a prevalence >90% of CCSVI in MS. Global hypo-hypoperfusion of the brain, and reduced cerebral spinal fluid dynamics in MS was shown to be related to CCSVI. Postmortem studies and histology corroborate the 2009 International Union of Phlebology (UIP Consensus decision to insert CCSVI among venous malformations. Finally, safety of balloon angioplasty of the extracranial veins was certainly demonstrated, while prospective data on the potential effectiveness of endovascular treatment of CCSVI support to increase the level of evidence by proceeding with a randomized control trial (RCT. Taking into account the current epidemiological data, including studies on catheter venography, the autoptic findings, and the relationship between CCSVI and both hypo-perfusion and cerebro-spinal fluid flow, we conclude that CCSVI can be definitively inserted among the medical entities. Research is still inconclusive in elucidating the CCSVI role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. The controversy between the vascular and the

  19. Inflammatory mediators in mastitis and lactation insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is a common inflammatory disease during lactation that causes reduced milk supply. A growing body of evidence challenges the central role of pathogenic bacteria in mastitis, with disease severity associated with markers of inflammation rather than infection. Inflammation in the mammary gland may be triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) binding to pattern recognition receptors such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammary epithelial cells and local immune cell populations. Activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway and downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) is critical to mediating local mammary gland inflammation and systemic immune responses in mouse models of mastitis. However, activation of NFkB also induces epithelial cell apoptosis and reduced milk protein synthesis, suggesting that inflammatory mediators activated during mastitis promote partial involution. Perturbed milk flow, maternal stress and genetic predisposition are significant risk factors for mastitis, and could lead to a heightened TLR4-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in increased susceptibility and severity of mastitis disease in the context of low MAMP abundance. Therefore, heightened host inflammatory signalling may act in concert with pathogenic or commensal bacterial species to cause both the inflammation associated with mastitis and lactation insufficiency. Here, we present an alternate paradigm to the widely held notion that breast inflammation is driven principally by infectious bacterial pathogens, and suggest there may be other therapeutic strategies, apart from the currently utilised antimicrobial agents, that could be employed to prevent and treat mastitis in women.

  20. Relationship between sonographic renal length and renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the relationship between sonographic renal parenchymal thickness (RPT) and renal length (RL) in normal adult Nigerian. Study design: The RL and RPT of 309 normal subjects within the age range of 18 – 80years were measured sonographically and prospectively. Correlation was performed between ...

  1. PINOT NOIR: pulmonic insufficiency improvement with nitric oxide inhalational response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen A; Devendra, Ganesh P; Kim, Yuli Y; Flamm, Scott D; Kalahasti, Vidyasagar; Arruda, Janine; Walker, Esteban; Boonyasirinant, Thananya; Bolen, Michael; Setser, Randolph; Krasuski, Richard A

    2013-09-04

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair and pulmonary valvotomy for pulmonary stenosis (PS) lead to progressive pulmonary insufficiency (PI), right ventricular enlargement and dysfunction. This study assessed whether pulmonary regurgitant fraction measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) could be reduced with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). Patients with at least moderate PI by echocardiography undergoing clinically indicated CMR were prospectively enrolled. Patients with residual hemodynamic lesions were excluded. Ventricular volume and blood flow sequences were obtained at baseline and during administration of 40 ppm iNO. Sixteen patients (11 with repaired TOF and 5 with repaired PS) completed the protocol with adequate data for analysis. The median age [range] was 35 [19-46] years, BMI was 26 ± 5 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD), 50% were women and 75% were in NYHA class I. Right ventricular end diastolic volume index for the cohort was 157 ± 33 mL/m(2), end systolic volume index was 93 ± 20 mL/m(2) and right ventricular ejection fraction was 40 ± 6%. Baseline pulmonary regurgitant volume was 45 ± 25 mL/beat and regurgitant fraction was 35 ± 16%. During administration of iNO, regurgitant volume was reduced by an average of 6 ± 9% (p=0.01) and regurgitant fraction was reduced by an average of 5 ± 8% (p=0.02). No significant changes were observed in ventricular indices for either the left or right ventricle. iNO was successfully administered during CMR acquisition and appears to reduce regurgitant fraction in patients with at least moderate PI suggesting a potential role for selective pulmonary vasodilator therapy in these patients. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00543933.

  2. Deteriorated glucose metabolism with a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet in db mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes, might be caused by insufficient insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Emi; Pulong, Wijang Pralampita; Marchianti, Ancah Caesarina Novi; Nakakuma, Miwa; Abe, Masaharu; Ushikai, Miharu; Horiuchi, Masahisa

    2017-02-01

    We previously showed the deleterious effects of increased dietary protein on renal manifestations and glucose metabolism in leptin receptor-deficient (db) mice. Here, we further examined its effects on glucose metabolism, including urinary C-peptide. We also orally administered mixtures corresponding to low- or high-protein diets to diabetic mice. In diet experiments, under pair-feeding (equivalent energy and fat) conditions using a metabolic cage, mice were fed diets with different protein content (L diet: 12 % protein, 71 % carbohydrate, 17 % fat; H diet: 24 % protein, 59 % carbohydrate, 17 % fat) for 15 days. In oral administration experiments, the respective mixtures (L mixture: 12 % proline, 71 % maltose or starch, 17 % linoleic acid; H mixture: 24 % proline, 59 % maltose or starch, 17 % linoleic acid) were supplied to mice. Biochemical parameters related to glucose metabolism were measured. The db-H diet mice showed significantly higher water intake, urinary volume, and glucose levels than db-L diet mice but similar levels of excreted urinary C-peptide. In contrast, control-H diet mice showed significantly higher C-peptide excretion than control-L diet mice. Both types of mice fed H diet excreted high levels of urinary albumin. When maltose mixtures were administered, db-L mixture mice showed significantly higher blood glucose after 30 min than db-H mixture mice. However, db mice administered starch-H mixture showed significantly higher blood glucose 120-300 min post-administration than db-L mixture mice, although both groups exhibited similar insulin levels. High-protein, low-carbohydrate diets deteriorated diabetic conditions and were associated with insufficient insulin secretion in db mice. Our findings may have implications for dietary management of diabetic symptoms in human patients.

  3. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  4. Cardio-renal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Gnanaraj; Jai Radhakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-renal syndrome is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The purpose of this article is to highlight the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the renal system and how their interaction results in the complex syndrome of cardio-renal dysfunction. Additionally, we outline the available therapeutic strategies to manage this complex syndrome.

  5. Bilateral adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with adrenal insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, R.; D.; Read

    2000-01-01

    A 74 year old women presented with lethargy and weight loss and was found to have profound adrenal insufficiency and bilateral adrenal mass lesions. Histological examination revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There was no evidence of lymphoma outside the adrenal glands. Isolated bilateral adrenal masses may rarely be due to primary adrenal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which is often associated with adrenal insufficiency.


Keywords: lymphoma; adrenal insufficiency

  6. Dementia risk in renal dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Ileana; van Boxtel, Martin P.J.; Verhey, Frans R.J.; Irving, Kate; Brayne, Carol; Kivipelto, Miia; Starr, John M.; Yaffe, Kristine; de Leeuw, Peter W.; Köhler, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Renal dysfunction has been linked with increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia, but studies are conflicting. For that reason, the aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to summarize the best available evidence on the prospective association between potential markers of renal dysfunction and development of cognitive impairment or dementia. Methods: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for potential publications until August 1, 2016. Studies were eligible if they fulfilled the following criteria: population-based study, prospective design, ≥100 participants, aged ≥45 years, ≥1 year follow-up, and cognition/dementia outcomes. Where appropriate, random effects meta-analyses were conducted yielding pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Twenty-two out of 8,494 abstracts fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Sufficient evidence was found for albuminuria, mixed results for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), insufficient support for cystatin C, and tentative evidence for serum creatinine and creatinine clearance. Meta-analyses of 5 studies representing 27,805 persons showed a 35% increased risk of cognitive impairment or dementia in those with albuminuria (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06–1.73, p = 0.015), whereas eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 showed no significant association (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.99–1.65, p = 0.063). No meta-analyses could be done for serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, or cystatin C. Conclusions: The overall evidence for an association between renal dysfunction and cognitive impairment or dementia is modest. Evidence suggests that albuminuria is associated with higher odds of developing cognitive impairment or dementia. PMID:27974647

  7. Aortobifemoral reconstruction and renal transplantation in a patient with abdominal aortic aneurysm and occlusion of iliac arteries: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aortoiliac occlusive disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm in patients with renal insufficiency on hemodialysis can significantly influence the success of renal transplantation. In the recent past, advanced atherosclerosis was considered as contraindication for renal transplantation. Complicated creation of vascular anastomoses and progression of occlusive or aneurysmal disease were the main reasons. Case report. We presented a 52-year-old man with a 5-year history of end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis. The patient was previously excluded from renal transplantation program because of severe aortoiliac atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Resection of abdominal aortic aneurysm with occlusion of the iliac arteries and reconstruction with aortobifemoral synthetic grafts was performed and followed by cadaveric renal transplantation. Conclusion. Advanced atherosclerotic disease in aortoiliac segment requires elective vascular surgical reconstruction, as part of preparation for renal transplantation in patients with end-stage renal disease.

  8. Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis with Compartment Syndrome and Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Colleen Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exertional rhabdomyolysis is sequela that is occasionally seen after strenuous exercise. The progression to compartment syndrome or renal failure is a rare complication that requires prompt recognition and treatment to prevent morbidity (Giannoglou et al. 2007. We present a case of a 22-year-old college football player who presented to the emergency department (ED after a typical leg workout as part of his weight conditioning. He was found to have rhabdomyolysis with evidence of renal insufficiency. His condition progressed to bilateral compartment syndrome and renal failure requiring dialysis. After bilateral fasciotomies were performed he had resolution of his compartment syndrome. He continued to be dialysis dependent and had no return of his renal function at discharge 12 days after admission.

  9. [Treatment of type II diabetic patients with chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, Henri; Perlemoine, Caroline; Raffaitin, Christelle; Rigalleau, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Glycaemic control is a key element in the management of patients with chronic renal insufficiency, associated of course with treatment of all the other associated factors. Dietary management should not merely be wishful thinking but a reality, involving the control of body weight, the maintenance of lean body mass, the observance of a sufficient carbohydrate intake and the control of protein intake, which, always tends to be excessive in diabetics. Drug treatment with oral antidiabetics may be given without risk of iatrogenic effects: glitazone has no effect on renal metabolism but may increase water retention; glinides are insulin secretagogues without renal metabolism so there is no risk of hypoglycaemia in the event of impaired renal function; if not insulin remains an excellent alternative with, however, a change in its half-life with the elevated creatinine clearance. In all cases, the goal remains the control of glycosylated haemoglobin without iatrogenic effects.

  10. Use of Renal Replacement Therapy in a Neonatal Foal with Postresuscitation Acute Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D M; Ruby, R E; Eatroff, A; Yaeger, M J

    2017-03-01

    A newborn foal was presented because it was unresponsive and in cardiopulmonary arrest. Aggressive cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation was administered to the foal, which revived the foal; however, acute renal failure developed. Fluid retention and azotemia occurred although the foal was alert and able to suckle. A 6-hour renal replacement therapy session using hemodiafiltration and a continuous renal replacement therapy machine was administered to the foal at 3 days of age which lowered the foal's azotemia and facilitated removal of some of the excess body fluid. Despite therapy, the foal developed pulmonary edema and was euthanized. Although the foal in this case did not survive, this report highlights the possibility of developing postresuscitation complications such as acute renal failure and describes the use of renal replacement therapy using hemodiafiltration as a viable option in neonatal foals with acute kidney injury. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Respiratory Insufficiency with Preserved Diaphragmatic Function in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamauchi, Rika; Imai, Tomihiro; Tsuda, Emiko; Hozuki, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Shimohama, Shun

    2014-01-01

    Objective We performed a longitudinal study to elucidate the correlation between respiratory insufficiency and respiratory biomarkers, including diaphragmatic compound muscle action potential (DCMAP...

  12. Risk factors for cervical insufficiency after term delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Nisha A; Vink, Joy S; Ghidini, Alessandro; Pezzullo, John C; Korker, Victoria; Landy, Helain J; Poggi, Sarah H

    2006-09-01

    Cervical insufficiency can be unexpected in a woman with a previous term birth. Our objective was to determine what risk factors, if any, place women with a term delivery at risk for cervical insufficiency in a subsequent pregnancy. Demographic characteristics were collected for a cohort of women with at least 1 previous term birth followed by cervical insufficiency (subject group) and for uncomplicated multiparous women (control group). Multiparous women with cervical insufficiency (subjects; n = 49) were compared with multiparous women who were experiencing repeat term birth with no history of cervical insufficiency (control group; n = 49). Patients with cervical insufficiency were similar to control subjects demographically. No difference was noted in previous cervical procedures or spontaneous preterm deliveries. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified a history of curettage (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.7-12.5), precipitous delivery (odds ratio, 6.8; 95% CI, 1.6-29.6), and prolonged second stage of labor (odds ratio, 24.9; 95% CI, 2.4-253) as independent predictors of cervical insufficiency. Multiparous women who experience cervical insufficiency after a term birth are more likely to have had a previous precipitous delivery, a prolonged second stage of labor, or a previous curettage compared with multiparous women who experience a repeat term birth with no cervical insufficiency.

  13. Temporal trends in management and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome according to renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvy, Mony; Chen, Shmuel; Vorobeichik, Dina; Krashin, Eilon; Shlomo, Nir; Goldenberg, Ilan; Pereg, David

    2017-04-01

    Recent new therapeutic options have improved outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. However, data regarding the incremental effect of the improved treatment on patients with renal dysfunction are limited. We sought to evaluate temporal trends in management and outcome of ACS patients according to renal function. The study population consisted of all ACS patients enrolled in the Acute Coronary Syndromes Israeli Survey (ACSIS) during 2002-2013. Patients were categorized as normal renal function, mild to moderate and severe renal insufficiency. Patient's characteristics, clinical data and outcomes were compared in each group between 2 time frames - early (2002-2006) vs. late (2008-2013). The study population included 11,234 patients. Regardless of renal function, patients enrolled in the recent surveys were more frequently selected for an invasive approach and were more commonly treated with guideline-based therapy. Among patients with normal renal function or mild to moderate renal dysfunction the improvement in treatment was associated with a significant reduction in 5-year mortality (10.1% vs. 12.6%, p=0.004, and 36% vs. 41.9%, p=0.01, respectively). On the other hand, outcomes of patients with severe renal insufficiency were unchanged. Multivariate analysis showed that reperfusion was associated with 41% mortality reduction in patients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency (HR=0.59 CI 95 0.48-0.72, pfunction and mild to moderate renal dysfunction but not in patients with severe renal dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Insuficiencia renal aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Miyahira Arakaki

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a clinic syndrome characterized by decline in renal function occurring over a short time period. Is a relatively common complication in hospitalized critically ill patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. ARF has often a multi-factorial etiology syndrome usually approached diagnostically as pre-renal, post-renal, or intrinsic ARF. Most intrinsic ARF is caused by ischemia or nephrotoxins and is classically associated with acute tubular necrosis (ATN. High mortality is associated with severity of ARF, age more than 60 years old and presence of pulmonar and cardiovascular complications. Most patients who survive an episode of ARF recover sufficient renal function; however, 50% have subclinical functional defects in renal function or scarring on renal biopsy. ARF is irreversible in approximately 5% of patients, usually as a consequence of complete cortical necrosis. ( Rev Med Hered 2003; 14: 36-43.

  15. Glucose-induced down regulation of thiamine transporters in the kidney proximal tubular epithelium produces thiamine insufficiency in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, James R; Zhang, Fang; Godfrey, Lisa; Molostvov, Guerman; Zehnder, Daniel; Rabbani, Naila; Thornalley, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Increased renal clearance of thiamine (vitamin B(1)) occurs in experimental and clinical diabetes producing thiamine insufficiency mediated by impaired tubular re-uptake and linked to the development of diabetic nephropathy. We studied the mechanism of impaired renal re-uptake of thiamine in diabetes. Expression of thiamine transporter proteins THTR-1 and THTR-2 in normal human kidney sections examined by immunohistochemistry showed intense polarised staining of the apical, luminal membranes in proximal tubules for THTR-1 and THTR-2 of the cortex and uniform, diffuse staining throughout cells of the collecting duct for THTR-1 and THTR-2 of the medulla. Human primary proximal tubule epithelial cells were incubated with low and high glucose concentration, 5 and 26 mmol/l, respectively. In high glucose concentration there was decreased expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 (transporter mRNA: -76% and -53% respectively, ptransporter protein -77% and -83% respectively, pglucose concentration also produced a 37% decrease in apical to basolateral transport of thiamine transport across cell monolayers. Intensification of glycemic control corrected increased fractional excretion of thiamine in experimental diabetes. We conclude that glucose-induced decreased expression of thiamine transporters in the tubular epithelium may mediate renal mishandling of thiamine in diabetes. This is a novel mechanism of thiamine insufficiency linked to diabetic nephropathy.

  16. Glucose-induced down regulation of thiamine transporters in the kidney proximal tubular epithelium produces thiamine insufficiency in diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Larkin

    Full Text Available Increased renal clearance of thiamine (vitamin B(1 occurs in experimental and clinical diabetes producing thiamine insufficiency mediated by impaired tubular re-uptake and linked to the development of diabetic nephropathy. We studied the mechanism of impaired renal re-uptake of thiamine in diabetes. Expression of thiamine transporter proteins THTR-1 and THTR-2 in normal human kidney sections examined by immunohistochemistry showed intense polarised staining of the apical, luminal membranes in proximal tubules for THTR-1 and THTR-2 of the cortex and uniform, diffuse staining throughout cells of the collecting duct for THTR-1 and THTR-2 of the medulla. Human primary proximal tubule epithelial cells were incubated with low and high glucose concentration, 5 and 26 mmol/l, respectively. In high glucose concentration there was decreased expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 (transporter mRNA: -76% and -53% respectively, p<0.001; transporter protein -77% and -83% respectively, p<0.05, concomitant with decreased expression of transcription factor specificity protein-1. High glucose concentration also produced a 37% decrease in apical to basolateral transport of thiamine transport across cell monolayers. Intensification of glycemic control corrected increased fractional excretion of thiamine in experimental diabetes. We conclude that glucose-induced decreased expression of thiamine transporters in the tubular epithelium may mediate renal mishandling of thiamine in diabetes. This is a novel mechanism of thiamine insufficiency linked to diabetic nephropathy.

  17. Insufficient natriuretic response to continuous intravenous furosemide is associated with poor long-term outcomes in acute decompensated heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dhssraj; Shrestha, Kevin; Testani, Jeffrey M; Verbrugge, Frederik H; Dupont, Matthias; Mullens, Wilfried; Tang, W H Wilson

    2014-06-01

    Treatment of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) with loop diuretics, such as furosemide, is frequently complicated by insufficient urine sodium excretion. We hypothesize that insufficient natriuretic response to diuretic therapy, characterized by lower urine sodium (UNa) and urine furosemide, is associated with subsequent inadequate decongestion, worsening renal function, and adverse long term events. We enrolled 52 consecutive patients with ADHF and measured serum and urine sodium (UNa), urine creatinine (UCr), and urine furosemide (UFurosemide) levels on a spot sample taken after treatment with continuous intravenous furosemide, and followed clinical and renal variables as well as adverse long-term clinical outcomes (death, rehospitalizations, and cardiac transplantation). We observed similar correlations between UNa:UFurosemide ratio and UNa and fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) with 24-hour net urine output (r = 0.52-0.64, all P furosemide were observed when UNa:UFurosemide ratios were furosemide infusion, impaired natriuretic response to furosemide is associated with greater likelihood of worsening renal function and future adverse long-term outcomes, independently from and incrementally with decreasing intrinsic glomerular filtration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of renal masses including retrograde renal brushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, W B; Bibbo, M; Thomsen, S; Lu, C T

    1976-02-01

    1. The evaluation of renal masses has become an increasingly important topic because of the increasing incidence of kidney cancer, the improved cure rate of renal carcinoma with the proper preoperative diagnosis, and the proliferation in renal mass diagnostic methodology. 2. A variety of benign entities can produce an abnormal renal mass with attendant difficulties in being distinguished from malignant neoplasms. Among these benign lesions are: simple renal cysts, polycystic kidneys, congenital variations in renal size and shape, segmental renal hypertrophy, renal infarcts, intrarenal hematomas, renal hamartomas, renal leiomyomas, renal adenomas, renal angiomas, renal fibrolipomatosis, hydronephrosis of a duplicated collecting system, renal abscesses, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. 3. Nephrotomography, nephrosonography (ultrasound), adrenalin renal arteriography, selective magnification renal arteriography, renal venography and cavography, lymphangiography, renal scintillation scanning, abnormal levels of enzymes in blood and urine, immunologic studies (circulating antibodies and tumor-associated antigens), percutaneous needle aspirations, and retrograde renal brushing have all increased the diagnostic accuracy of determining the etiology of renal masses. None of these diagnostic procedures is infallible. A judicious combination of procedures gives the most reliable diagnostic results. 4. A search continues for (a) chemical agent(s) or a chemical profile in the blood or urine which is (are) specific for renal carcinoma, but as yet this is an investigational area and not a practical clinical reality.

  19. Infection by Cryptosporidium parvum in renal patients submitted to renal transplant or hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieffi Pedro Paulo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium parvum was determined in two groups of renal patients submitted to immunosuppression. One group consisted of 23 renal transplanted individuals, and the other consisted of 32 patients with chronic renal insufficiency, periodically submitted to hemodialysis. A third group of 27 patients with systemic arterial hypertension, not immunosuppressed, was used as control. During a period of 18 months all the patients were submitted to faecal examination to detect C. parvum oocysts, for a total of 1 to 6 tests per patient. The results showed frequencies of C. parvum infection of 34.8%, 25% and 17.4%, respectively, for the renal transplanted group, the patients submitted to hemodialysis and the control group. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences among the three groups even though the frequency of C. parvum infection was higher in the transplanted group. However, when the number of fecal samples containing C. parvum oocysts was taken in account, a significantly higher frequency was found in the renal transplanted group.

  20. Cathelicidin Insufficiency in Patients with Fatal Leptospirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet C Lindow

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, the role of the host immune response in disease progression and high case fatality (>10-50% is poorly understood. We conducted a multi-parameter investigation of patients with acute leptospirosis to identify mechanisms associated with case fatality. Whole blood transcriptional profiling of 16 hospitalized Brazilian patients with acute leptospirosis (13 survivors, 3 deceased revealed fatal cases had lower expression of the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, and chemokines, but more abundant pro-inflammatory cytokine receptors. In contrast, survivors generated strong adaptive immune signatures, including transcripts relevant to antigen presentation and immunoglobulin production. In an independent cohort (23 survivors, 22 deceased, fatal cases had higher bacterial loads (P = 0.0004 and lower anti-Leptospira antibody titers (P = 0.02 at the time of hospitalization, independent of the duration of illness. Low serum cathelicidin and RANTES levels during acute illness were independent risk factors for higher bacterial loads (P = 0.005 and death (P = 0.04, respectively. To investigate the mechanism of cathelicidin in patients surviving acute disease, we administered LL-37, the active peptide of cathelicidin, in a hamster model of lethal leptospirosis and found it significantly decreased bacterial loads and increased survival. Our findings indicate that the host immune response plays a central role in severe leptospirosis disease progression. While drawn from a limited study size, significant conclusions include that poor clinical outcomes are associated with high systemic bacterial loads, and a decreased antibody response. Furthermore, our data identified a key role for the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, in mounting an effective bactericidal response against the pathogen, which represents a valuable new therapeutic approach for leptospirosis.

  1. Cathelicidin Insufficiency in Patients with Fatal Leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, Janet C; Wunder, Elsio A; Popper, Stephen J; Min, Jin-Na; Mannam, Praveen; Srivastava, Anup; Yao, Yi; Hacker, Kathryn P; Raddassi, Khadir; Lee, Patty J; Montgomery, Ruth R; Shaw, Albert C; Hagan, Jose E; Araújo, Guilherme C; Nery, Nivison; Relman, David A; Kim, Charles C; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I

    2016-11-01

    Leptospirosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, the role of the host immune response in disease progression and high case fatality (>10-50%) is poorly understood. We conducted a multi-parameter investigation of patients with acute leptospirosis to identify mechanisms associated with case fatality. Whole blood transcriptional profiling of 16 hospitalized Brazilian patients with acute leptospirosis (13 survivors, 3 deceased) revealed fatal cases had lower expression of the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, and chemokines, but more abundant pro-inflammatory cytokine receptors. In contrast, survivors generated strong adaptive immune signatures, including transcripts relevant to antigen presentation and immunoglobulin production. In an independent cohort (23 survivors, 22 deceased), fatal cases had higher bacterial loads (P = 0.0004) and lower anti-Leptospira antibody titers (P = 0.02) at the time of hospitalization, independent of the duration of illness. Low serum cathelicidin and RANTES levels during acute illness were independent risk factors for higher bacterial loads (P = 0.005) and death (P = 0.04), respectively. To investigate the mechanism of cathelicidin in patients surviving acute disease, we administered LL-37, the active peptide of cathelicidin, in a hamster model of lethal leptospirosis and found it significantly decreased bacterial loads and increased survival. Our findings indicate that the host immune response plays a central role in severe leptospirosis disease progression. While drawn from a limited study size, significant conclusions include that poor clinical outcomes are associated with high systemic bacterial loads, and a decreased antibody response. Furthermore, our data identified a key role for the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, in mounting an effective bactericidal response against the pathogen, which represents a valuable new therapeutic approach for leptospirosis.

  2. Adrenal insufficiency presenting as bilateral rigid auricles: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.V. Koning (Mark V.); A. Struijs (Ard)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. Stiff ears appear to be a warning sign for adrenal insufficiency. This remarkable and rare sign has not been described to present in adrenal insufficiency in the setting of critical care.Case presentation. We present the case of a 68-year-old Caucasian male who underwent a

  3. [EFFICIENT TREATMENT OF CHRONIC RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY IN PATIENTS WITH KYPHOSCOLIOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, O A; Pal'man, A D; Abdulaeva, G B

    2015-01-01

    We report efficient treatment of chronic respiratory insufficiency in patients with congenital kyphoscoliosis by non-invasive auxiliary ventilation and low-flow oxygen therapy. It proved possible to effectively control severe chronic respiratory insufficiency under conditions of a pulmonological ward without application of means and measures of intensive therapy.

  4. Self-management support in patients with adrenal insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Nick T M; van Leeuwaarde, Rachel S; Vervoort, Sigrid C J M; Zelissen, Pierre M J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patient education is an important intervention to prevent an adrenal crisis in patients with adrenal insufficiency. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of adjusting the dose of glucocorticoids in special circumstances in patients with adrenal insufficiency who had

  5. 21 CFR 316.36 - Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ORPHAN DRUGS Orphan-drug Exclusive Approval § 316.36 Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs. (a) Under section 527 of the act, whenever the Director has reason to believe that... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs. 316.36...

  6. NEW APPROACHES TO STUDIES OF IMMUNOLOGICAL IMBALANCE IN LIVER INSUFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Plekhanov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The review article deals with modern aspects of liver immune status in hepatic insufficiency caused by hepatobiliary disorders. The mechanisms of cytokine effects are substantiated, as well as their action upon clinical course of hepatic insufficiency, and their influence upon development of potential post-surgical complications is discussed.

  7. Coffee, nutritional status, and renal artery resistive index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Guglielmo M; Pirri, Clara; Martines, Giuseppe Fabio; Trovato, Francesca; Catalano, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between nutrition and atherosclerosis is known, even dissociated from protein malnutrition. Cardiovascular impact of several nutrients is known; among them the action of coffee is still debated and cardiovascular effect of caffeine has been investigated without definite results. The aim of this study is to investigate whether coffee habits, and/or quantity of coffee consumption, have any relationship with renal resistive index (RRI), a hallmark of arterial stiffness (AS). The relationship of AS with nutritional status assessed by body composition and serum albumin, insulin resistance (assessed by HOMA), and renal function assessed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is concurrently investigated. This study was done with 221 consecutive patients, without diabetes, cancer, liver, renal, and heart disease, referred for clinical noninvasive assessment and nutritional counseling: 124 essential hypertensive and 97 nonhypertensive patients were eligible. Personalized Mediterranean diet, physical activity increase, and smoking withdrawal counseling were provided. By multiple linear regression, fat-free mass (FFM), HOMA (positive relationship), and number of cups of coffee/day (negative relationship) account for 17.2% of the variance to RRI. By odds ratios lower risk to increased RRI is associated with higher serum albumin, higher hemoglobin, and FFM; greater risk is associated with hypertension, insulin resistance (HOMA ≥ 3.0), and renal insufficiency (GFR ≤ 90); coffee, assessed by number of cups/day, reduces risk. Coffee use is inversely associated with RRI. Habitual coffee users have risk protection to higher RRI; lower serum albumin, insulin resistance, and renal insufficiency are associated with greater RRI.

  8. Prevalence and determinants of insufficient work ability in older HIV-positive and HIV-negative workers

    OpenAIRE

    M?ller, Lisanne M.; Brands, Ronald; Sluiter, Judith K; Schouten, Judith; Wit, Ferdinand W; Reiss, Peter; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore whether the prevalence and determinants of insufficient work ability (WA) of older HIV-positive workers differ from a comparable group of HIV-negative workers. Methods Cross-sectional data from 359 HIV-negative and 264 HIV-positive middle-aged individuals (45?65?years) participating in paid labor, collected within the AGEhIV Cohort Study between October 2010?September 2012, were selected. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires and physical examination. Part...

  9. Concept of family insufficiency in the aged: critical literature analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Alessandra; Pelegrini, Tamara Dos Santos; Ribeiro, João Henrique de Morais; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Mendes, Maria Angélica

    2015-01-01

    to identify the attributes of the "family insufficiency" concept of the aged in the literature. critical literature analysis. family insufficiency is characterized as a complex process of psychosocial interaction, founded mainly on low social support of the aged and impaired family ties. Its antecedents are found in contemporary transformations within the family system, intergenerational conflicts, impaired family relationships and social vulnerability of the family. The consequences of family insufficiency include social vulnerability of the aged, decline of psychological and functional health, lower quality of life and unsuccessful aging. An original theoretical proposal was elaborated for the concept of family insufficiency in the elderly, with the identification of its attributes, antecedents and consequences. the findings of this study constitute a theoretical advancement in the Family Insufficiency Syndrome in elderly people and provide data for future field research in developing the concept.

  10. Acute renal failure in patients with tumour lysis sindrome

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    Poskurica Mileta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematologic malignancies (leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, et al., as well as solid tumours (renal, liver, lung, ovarian, etc., can lead to acute or chronic renal failure. The most common clinical manifestation is acute renal failure within the tumour lysis syndrome (TLS. It is characterized by specific laboratory and clinical criteria in order to prove that kidney disorders result from cytolysis of tumour cells after chemotherapy regimen given, although on significantly fewer occasions it is likely to occur spontaneously or after radiotherapy. Essentially, failure is the disorder of functionally conserved kidney or of kidney with varying degrees of renal insufficiency, which render the kidney impaired and unable to effectively eliminate the end products of massive cytolysis and to correct the resulting disorders: hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphatemia, and others. The risk of TLS depends on tumour size, proliferative potential of malignant cells, renal function and the presence of accompanying diseases and disorders. Hydration providing adequate diuresis and administration of urinary suppressants (allopurinol, febuxostat significantly reduce the risk of developing TLS. If prevention of renal impairment isn’t possible, the treatment should be supplemented with hemodynamic monitoring and pharmacological support, with the possible application of recombinant urate-oxidase enzyme (rasburicase. Depending on the severity of azotemia and hydroelectrolytic disorders, application of some of the methods of renal replacement therapy may be considered.

  11. Active Surveillance for Renal Neoplasms with Oncocytic Features is Safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Patrick O; Jewett, Michael A S; Bhatt, Jaimin R; Evans, Andrew J; Timilsina, Narhari; Finelli, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Oncocytomas are benign tumors often diagnosed incidentally on imaging. Small case series have suggested that the growth kinetics of oncocytomas are similar to those of malignant renal tumors. Biopsy material may be insufficient to exclude a diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. We evaluated and compared the growth rates of oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma to improve our understanding of their natural history. This was a single center, retrospective study of patients diagnosed with lesions suggestive of oncocytoma or chromophobe renal cell carcinoma between 2003 and 2014. The growth rates were estimated using a mixed effect linear model. Patient and lesion characteristics were tested using a similar model for association with growth rate. Of the 95 lesions (oncocytoma 81, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma 14) included in the analysis 98% were diagnosed on biopsy. The annual growth rate was 0.14 cm and 0.38 cm for oncocytoma (median followup 34 months) and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (median followup 25 months), respectively (p=0.5). Baseline lesion size was significantly associated with growth (p oncocytomas (74%) and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (67%) followed up to the 3-year mark had grown. Of these, 8 underwent surgery (6 in the chromophobe renal cell carcinoma group). The initial diagnosis was confirmed in all. Overall 5 patients died, all of nonrenal related causes. Although the majority of oncocytic renal neoplasms will grow with time, surveillance appears to remain safe. Patients opting for this strategy should be made aware that a diagnosis of oncocytoma following biopsy is associated with some degree of uncertainty due to the difficulty of differentiating them from other oncocytic renal neoplasms. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Refractory anemia leading to renal hemosiderosis and renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddappa, Sujatha; Mythri, K M; Kowsalya, R; Parekh, Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Renal hemosiderosis is a rare cause of renal failure and, as a result, may not be diagnosed unless a detailed history, careful interpretation of blood parameters and renal biopsy with special staining is done. Here, we present a rare case of renal hemosiderosis presenting with renal failure.

  13. Refractory anemia leading to renal hemosiderosis and renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Siddappa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal hemosiderosis is a rare cause of renal failure and, as a result, may not be diagnosed unless a detailed history, careful interpretation of blood parameters and renal biopsy with special staining is done. Here, we present a rare case of renal hemosiderosis presenting with renal failure.

  14. Salvageability of renal function following renal revascularisation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion for the aortic arch and its branches.[1,2] It is ... Renal artery revascularisation procedures are usually carried out on children with renal artery stenosis from varied causes, including ... Salvageability of renal function in children who underwent renal revascularisation for Takayasu's arteritisinduced renal artery stenosis ...

  15. Vitamin D Insufficiency and Asthma in a US Nationwide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Forno, Erick; Celedón, Juan C

    Vitamin D insufficiency (a serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level of insufficiency, asthma, and lung function among US children and adults. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2010, we examined vitamin D insufficiency and (1) current asthma or wheeze in 10,860 children (6-17 years) and 24,115 adults (18-79 years) and (2) lung function in a subset of participants. Logistic or linear regression was used for the multivariable analysis, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, body mass index, smoking, and C-reactive protein level. Vitamin D insufficiency was associated with current asthma (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.11-1.64) and current wheeze in children, as well as with current wheeze in adults (odds ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.31). After stratifying the analysis by race/ethnicity and (in adults) current smoking, vitamin D insufficiency was associated with current asthma and wheeze in non-Hispanic white children only; in adults, vitamin D insufficiency was associated with current wheeze in non-Hispanic whites and blacks. Vitamin D insufficiency was also associated with lower FEV1 and forced vital capacity in children and adults. When analyzing each National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey wave separately, vitamin D insufficiency prevalence was 72% to 76% from 2001 to 2006, and then decreased from 2007 to 2010 (64%-65%); interestingly, asthma prevalence decreased for the first time from the period 2007 to 2008 (8.2%) to the period 2009 to 2010 (7.4%). We show racial/ethnic-specific associations between vitamin D insufficiency and current asthma or wheeze in children and adults. Moreover, we report parallel recent decrements in the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and asthma. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Predicting angiography-induced acute renal function impairment: clinical risk model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, S.T. (UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA); Wong, W.S.; Roe, D.J.

    1983-11-01

    Two hundred sixty-six patients were evaluated for development of acute renal function impairment after renal angiography. Forty-five (16.9%) had a significant increase in serum level of creatinine (sCr), six developed oliguria or anuria, and one required permanent dialysis. Age, proteinuria, abnormal baseline sCr, use of Renografin 76, and preexisting renal disease were the five independent risk factors in the series. An odds-ratio analysis establishes the relative risk (i.e., likelihood) of developing acute renal insufficientcy after renal angiography on the basis of the number of risk factors present. An increasing relation was demonstrated; the more factors present, the more likely it becomes that a patient will develop acute renal insufficiency.

  17. Unusual cause of postrenal biopsy anuria in a renal transplant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Wei; Chou, Kang-Ju; Fang, Hua-Chang; Chen, Chien-Liang; Lee, Po-Tsang; Hsu, Chih-Yang; Chung, Hsiao-Min

    2011-03-01

    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is an uncommon but well-known complication of percutaneous renal biopsy. Most postbiopsy AVFs are asymptomatic and regress spontaneously; however, some AVFs result in hypertension, hematuria and renal insufficiency. Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a potentially curable cause of posttransplant arterial hypertension, allograft dysfunction and graft loss. Whether postbiopsy AVF superimposed on TRAS also regresses spontaneously is unknown. The authors present a case of acute renal failure in a 56-year-old male renal allograft recipient with the combination of postbiopsy AVF and TRAS. At first, the authors performed percutaneous angioplasty with stent implantation for the TRAS, but the AVF gradually enlarged. Eighteen months later, the patient began to experience hypertension, and his serum creatinine level increased; he received transcatheter arterial embolization therapy for enlarged AVF, and his renal function returned to baseline level.

  18. Relationship of Albuminuria and Renal Artery Stent Outcomes: Results From the CORAL Randomized Clinical Trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes With Renal Artery Lesions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy P; Cooper, Christopher J; Pencina, Karol M; D'Agostino, Ralph; Massaro, Joseph; Cutlip, Donald E; Jamerson, Kenneth; Matsumoto, Alan H; Henrich, William; Shapiro, Joseph I; Tuttle, Katherine R; Cohen, David J; Steffes, Michael; Gao, Qi; Metzger, D Christopher; Abernethy, William B; Textor, Stephen C; Briguglio, John; Hirsch, Alan T; Tobe, Sheldon; Dworkin, Lance D

    2016-11-01

    Randomized clinical trials have not shown an additional clinical benefit of renal artery stent placement over optimal medical therapy alone. However, studies of renal artery stent placement have not examined the relationship of albuminuria and treatment group outcomes. The CORAL study (Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions) is a prospective clinical trial of 947 participants with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis randomized to optimal medical therapy with or without renal artery stent which showed no treatment differences (3(5.8% and 35.1% event rate at mean 43-month follow-up). In a post hoc analysis, the study population was stratified by the median baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio (n=826) and analyzed for the 5-year incidence of the primary end point (myocardial infarction, hospitalization for congestive heart failure, stroke, renal replacement therapy, progressive renal insufficiency, or cardiovascular disease- or kidney disease-related death), for each component of the primary end point, and overall survival. When baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio was ≤ median (22.5 mg/g, n=413), renal artery stenting was associated with significantly better event-free survival from the primary composite end point (73% versus 59% at 5 years; P=0.02), cardiovascular disease-related death (93% versus 85%; P≤ 0.01), progressive renal insufficiency (91% versus 77%; P=0.03), and overall survival (89% versus 76%; P≤0.01), but not when baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio was greater than median (n=413). These data suggest that low albuminuria may indicate a potentially large subgroup of those with renal artery stenosis that could experience improved event-free and overall-survival after renal artery stent placement plus optimal medical therapy compared with optimal medical therapy alone. Further research is needed to confirm these preliminary observations. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00081731. © 2016

  19. Adrenal Insufficiency under Standard Dosage of Glucocorticoid Replacement after Unilateral Adrenalectomy for Cushing’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Fujii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid replacement is needed for patients after adrenal surgery for Cushing’s syndrome; however, the adequate dosage is not easily determined. The patient was a 62-year-old woman who has had hypertension for 5 years and presented with heart failure due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. She consulted with us because of general fatigue, facial edema, and muscle weakness and was diagnosed with Cushing’s syndrome. A laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed, standard dosage of postoperative replacement was administered, and she was discharged with 30 mg/day of hydrocortisone (cortisol. However, she suffered from loss of appetite and was transferred to an emergency unit with the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency on postoperative day 15. After initial hydrocortisone replacement with 200 mg/day, the dosage was gradually decreased during hospitalization; however, reduction of hydrocortisone dosage lower than 60 mg/day was difficult because of nausea and fatigue. Her circadian cortisol profile after hydrocortisone administration showed delayed and lowered peaks, which suggested that hydrocortisone absorption in the intestine was impaired. Therefore, complicated heart failure may have led to the adrenal insufficiency in the patient. In such cases, we should consider postoperative administration of more than the standard dosage of hydrocortisone to avoid adrenal insufficiency after surgery for Cushing’s syndrome.

  20. Recurrent renal giant leiomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öziş, Salih Erpulat; Gülpınar, Kamil; Şahlı, Zafer; Konak, Baha Burak; Keskin, Mete; Özdemir, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Ömür

    2016-01-01

    Primary renal leiomyosarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors. They constitute 1-2% of adult malignant renal tumors. Although leiomyosarcomas are the most common histological type (50-60%) of renal sarcomas, information on renal leiomyosarcoma is limited. Local or systemic recurrences are common. The radiological appearance of renal leiomyosarcomas is not specific, therefore renal leiomyosarcoma cannot be distinguished from renal cell carcinoma by imaging methods in all patients. A 74-year-old female patient presented to our clinic complaining of a palpable mass on the right side of her abdomen in November 2012. The abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass, 25 × 24 × 23 cm in size. Her past medical history revealed that she has undergone right radical nephrectomy in 2007, due to a 11 × 12 × 13 cm renal mass that was then reported as renal cell carcinoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, but the pathological diagnosis was low-grade renal leiomyosarcoma. The most recent follow-up of the patient was in 2011, with no signs of local recurrence or distant metastases within this four-year period. The patient underwent laparotomy on November 2012, and a 35 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The pathological examination of the mass was reported as high-grade leiomyosarcoma. The formation of this giant retroperitoneal mass in 1 year can be explained by the transformation of the lesion's pathology from low-grade to a high-grade tumor.

  1. A case of Noonan`s syndrome with terminal renal failure and neoplasmic disease; Przypadek zespolu Noonan z niewydolnoscia nerek i rozrostem nowotworowym

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierzbowska-Lange, B.; Sieniawska, M.; Polanski, J.; Kisiel, M. [Akademia Medyczna, Warsaw (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    A 16 year old boy with Noonan syndrome diagnosed in the 3rd month of life was treated for renal insufficiency and hepatic tumor. Hemodialisis was started in preparation for surgery. Exacerbation of renal insufficiency occurred after surgical removal of the hepatic tumor together with the right hepatic lobe. Histopathologic examination showed adenoma hepatocellulare. Cysts in the extraperitoneal space appeared in the following months and were identified as cystes dysontogenetici benigni ``hamartia``. Renal function deteriorated during this time to end stage renal disease. The authors emphasize the possibility of good mental development in a patients with Noonan syndrome as well as the presence of urinary tract abnormalities and renal insufficiency of unknown origin - a phenomenon that has not yet been reported in other cases of Noonan syndrome. (author) 11 refs, 1 fig

  2. Nurse-administered propofol sedation for endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J T; Vilmann, P; Horsted, T

    2011-01-01

    for endoscopists and for endoscopy nurses who were administering propofol sedation. The nurses' program comprised a 6-week course including theoretical and practical training in airway management, and the endoscopists' program consisted of 2.5 h of theory and a short course in practical airway management...

  3. Administered Prices and Kinked Demand Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, David

    1977-01-01

    Identifies some of the more essential features of the administered price thesis and discusses ways they might be integrated into mainstream economic theory. Available from: General Secretary, Economics Association, Room 340, Hamilton House, Mabledon Place, London WC1H 9BH, England. (Author/AV)

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in osteomalacic insufficiency fractures of the pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanberoglu, K. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: zkanber@istanbul.edu.tr; Kantarci, F. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Cebi, D. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Yilmaz, M.H. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Kurugoglu, S. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Bilici, A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Koyuncu, H. [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To report the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of osteomalacic insufficiency fractures of the pelvis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 12 persons presenting with chronic pelvic pain and with a definitive diagnosis of osteomalacia (OM) were enrolled in this study. Radiological work-up included direct radiographs (n=12), computed tomography (n=5), scintigraphy n=12) and MRI (n=12). The location of the insufficiency fractures and corresponding MRI appearances were evaluated. Depending on the presence or absence of signal intensity around the fractures, the lesions were grouped into active and chronic forms. RESULTS: A total of 34 insufficiency fractures were depicted on imaging studies. MRI demonstrated 33 of the lesions. All the insufficiency fractures were seen as a hypointense lines or fissures on T1- and T2-weighted and STIR MR images. There was a high frequency of insufficiency fractures at the sacrum and iliac bone (16/34, 47%). Overall, 11 chronic-type (no abnormal signal intensity around the fissure) and 22 active-type (abnormal signal intensity around the fissure) insufficiency fractures were detected by MRI. Follow-up MR examinations of 2 subjects showed that abnormal signal intensity had disappeared after appropriate treatment. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that the iliac and sacral bones are frequently involved in patients with OM. MRI can determine the clinical activity of the disease, and can monitor the response to treatment of the active type of insufficiency fractures.

  5. A design thinking approach to primary ovarian insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa A; Porter, Alison G; Pelligrini, Vincent A; Schnatz, Peter F; Jiang, Xuezhi; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Hall, Janet E; Verbiest, Sarah; Olmstead, Jill; Fair, Ryan; Falorni, Alberto; Persani, Luca; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Mehta, Khanjan; Nelson, Lawrence M

    2017-03-01

    Most clinicians are not prepared to provide integrated personal care to address all the clinical needs of women with primary ovarian insufficiency. Design thinking is an engineering methodology used to develop and evaluate novel concepts for systems operation. Here we articulate the need for a seamlessly integrated mobile health system to support genomic research as well as patient care. We also review the pathophysiology and management of primary ovarian insufficiency. Molecular understanding regarding the pathogenesis is essential to developing strategies for prevention, earlier diagnosis, and appropriate management of the disorder. The syndrome is a chronic disorder characterized by oligo/amenorrhea and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism before age 40 years. There may be significant morbidity due to: 1) depression and anxiety related to the loss of reproductive hormones and infertility; 2) associated autoimmune adrenal insufficiency or hypothyroidism; and 3) reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of cardiovascular disease related to estrogen deficiency. Approximately 5% to 10% of women with primary ovarian insufficiency conceive and have a child. Women who develop primary ovarian insufficiency related to a premutation in FMR1 are at risk of having a child with fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability. In most cases of spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency no environmental exposure or genetic mechanism can be identified. As a rare disease, the diagnosis of primary ovarian insufficiency presents special challenges. Connecting patients and community health providers in real time with investigators who have the requisite knowledge and expertise would help solve this dilemma.

  6. Renal MRI findings and their clinical associations in nephropathia epidemica: analysis of quantitative findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paakkala, A. [University of Tampere, Medical School, Tampere (Finland); Tampere University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tampere (Finland); Dastidar, P.; Ryymin, P. [Tampere University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tampere (Finland); Huhtala, H. [University of Tampere, School of Public Health, Tampere (Finland); Mustonen, J. [University of Tampere, Medical School, Tampere (Finland); Tampere University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Tampere (Finland)

    2005-05-01

    Morphologic renal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with nephropathia epidemica (NE) were evaluated, and these findings were correlated with the clinical course of NE. Renal MRI was performed in 20 hospitalized NE patients during the acute phase of their disease. A repeat MRI study was made 5-8 months later. Renal parenchymal volume, renal length and parenchymal thickness were decreased in all patients in the repeat study. Edema/fluid collections were found bilaterally in 16 patients in the primary MRI study. Greater change in parenchymal volume, renal length and parenchymal thickness between the primary and the repeat MRI study as well as the presence of edema/fluid collections in the primary study evinced mild association with clinical fluid volume overload, high blood pressure level, inflammation, thrombocytopenia and severe clinical renal insufficiency. Change in parenchymal volume was associated with a severe clinical course more markedly than the other MRI findings. Measurable renal MRI changes occurred in every NE patient. The severity of the findings in MRI evinced mild association with clinical fluid volume overload, high blood pressure level, inflammation, thrombocytopenia and severe clinical renal insufficiency. Based on this study and our previous ultrasound (US) findings, we prefer US as the primary examination mode in NE patients. (orig.)

  7. The use of diuretics in varying degrees of renal impairment: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, D T; Dickerman, D

    1983-01-01

    Administration of diuretics during acute renal failure in animals has been demonstrated to be of value with mannitol and/or loop-blocking diuretics, furosemide or ethacrynic acid. There is evidence that if these drugs are given very early in the controlled experimental environment that there will be some beneficial effect in maintaining renal function. However, in man the temporal relationship between the acute onset and the successful response to the administration of the drugs is, at best, coincidental and the use of diuretics in acute renal failure may not produce the same results as seen in the laboratory. One of the best guides to the underlying disease when there is acute decompensation in renal function is the utility of the renal failure index which utilizes urine and plasma sodium and urine and plasma creatinine ratios. Large doses of loop-blocking diuretics can be of benefit in patients with mild to moderate chronic renal insufficiency and fluid retention and/or hypertension. When renal insufficiency is severe in the pre-dialysis setting, furosemide, bumetanide or muzolimine may be of some benefit; however, as renal failure worsens the response of the kidney is sluggish and it is wise to begin to dialyze when glomerular filtration deteriorates below 5 ml per minute.

  8. Prevalence and determinants of insufficient work ability in older HIV-positive and HIV-negative workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Lisanne M; Brands, Ronald; Sluiter, Judith K; Schouten, Judith; Wit, Ferdinand W; Reiss, Peter; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G

    2016-05-01

    To explore whether the prevalence and determinants of insufficient work ability (WA) of older HIV-positive workers differ from a comparable group of HIV-negative workers. Cross-sectional data from 359 HIV-negative and 264 HIV-positive middle-aged individuals (45-65 years) participating in paid labor, collected within the AGEhIV Cohort Study between October 2010-September 2012, were selected. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires and physical examination. Participants self-rated their current WA, ranging from 0 to 10. WA was dichotomized into insufficient (HIV status on insufficient WA and determinants of insufficient WA. Overall, 8% of participants reported insufficient WA (HIV-positive 9 vs. HIV-negative 7%, P = 0.20). Twice as many HIV-positive as HIV-negative individuals were declared partly unfit for work (6 vs. 3%, P = 0.02). HIV status itself was not associated with WA in univariable and multivariable analyses. Multivariable analyses revealed that low educational level, working fewer hours, being partly unfit for work, experiencing a high need for recovery after work, staying home from work ≥2 times in the past 6 months, and reporting depressive symptoms were associated with insufficient WA, independent of HIV status. HIV-positive individuals aged 45-65 years participating in paid labor seem to function as well at work as HIV-negative individuals. HIV-positive participants were more often formally declared partly unfit for work, but percentages were low in both groups. Knowledge of determinants of insufficient WA may help employers and professionals to optimize WA.

  9. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Renal Dysfunction Among HIV-Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    underestimation of its effect. Impaired kidney function due to acute renal failure versus gradually developing chronic renal insufficiency was not...KM, Lee MP, et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Chinese HIV-infected patients. Nephrol Dialysis Transplant 2007;22:3186-3190. 27. Schaaf...American ethnicity, and CD4 nadir cells/mm3. Con- sideration for more frequent monitoring of kidney function among these select HIV patients may be

  10. Calcified renal oncocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, N.F. (Veterans Administration, Minneapolis, MN); Ewing, S.L.

    1983-10-01

    Renal oncocytoma, a neoplasm thought to derive from cells of the proximal convoluted tubules, exhibits benign clinical features. Its preoperative distinction from typical renal cell carcinoma would enable the surgeon to perform a more limited procedure. In a patient who is a poor operative candidate, surgery might be deferred. However, preoperative diagnosis has been elusive. A rare case of bilateral renal oncocytoma is reported. One of these tumors represents the first reported oncocytoma showing radiologically demonstrable calcification.

  11. Thrombospondin in Renal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo, Christian; Daniel, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Thrombospondins (TSPs) are multifunctional matricellular glycoproteins which are involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, proliferation, apoptosis, the NO-cGMP-dependent protein kinase pathway and transforming growth factor (TGF) _ activation. The TSP family consists of 5 members, but currently only data on effects of TSP-1 and TSP-2 in renal disease are available. Both TSPs are hardly expressed within the healthy renal cortex and can be upregulated during renal disease. Using different an...

  12. Lithium and Renal Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nolen, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment......, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results. RESULTS: An increased risk of renal impairment...

  13. First experience using navigation-guided radiofrequency kyphoplasty for sacroplasty in sacral insufficiency fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, J.H.; Kluge, P.; Sircar, R.; Kogias, E.; Scholz, C.; Krueger, M.T.; Scheiwe, C.; Hubbe, U. [Freiburg Univ. Medical Center, Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of navigation-guided radiofrequency kyphoplasty for sacroplasty in patients with sacral insufficiency fractures. Methods: In this single-center retrospective observational study, four consecutive patients with sacral insufficiency fractures were treated with navigation-guided radiofrequency kyphoplasty for sacroplasty between April 2010 and May 2012. Symptom characteristics, pain duration and pain intensity were recorded for each patient. Cement extravasation was evaluated in thin-sliced and triplanar reconstructed CT scans of the sacrum. Results: Four female patients with painful sacral insufficiency fractures and extensive osteopenic areas significantly improved from an average pre-treatment VAS score of 8.3 {+-} 0.5 to 2.3 {+-} 1.0 (p < 0.001) on the first postoperative day and to 1.3 {+-} 1.9 (p < 0.004) at follow-up (mean, 20.1 weeks). Slight cement extravasations were observed without evidence of being symptomatic. No major complications or procedure-related morbidity were noted. Conclusion: From the limited experience in four patients, navigation-guided radiofrequency kyphoplasty appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for sacral insufficiency fractures even though asymptomatic cement extravasation was noted. The use of navigation based on intraoperative 3 D images simplifies the positioning of the navigated bone needles via the long axis approach. The radiofrequency kyphoplasty system provides the possibility to administer a sufficient amount of bone cement with a well-defined viscosity over the entire period of the procedure leading to high security and low cement extravasation. Sacroplasty provides rapid and enduring pain relief and facilitates prompt mobilization. (orig.)

  14. Incidental renal neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Minne Nedergaard; Walter, Steen

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of associations between tumor size, pathological stage, histological subtype and tumor grade in incidentally detected renal cell carcinoma vs symptomatic renal cell carcinoma, we discussed the need for a screening program of renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. We analyzed a consecutive...... series of 204 patients with renal tumors in 2011 and 2012. The tumors were classified according to detection mode: symptomatic and incidental and compared to pathological parameters. Eighty-nine patients (44%) were symptomatic, 113 (55%) were incidental. Information was not available in two patients...

  15. Spontaneous renal artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Santhosh G; Pillai, Unnikrishnan; Vaidyan, Philip B; Ishiyama, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Isolated spontaneous dissection of renal arteries or its branches are extremely rare. Most cases of renal artery dissection are associated with underlying pathology of the renal arteries. We report a case of spontaneous dissection of the left main renal artery and infarction of the left kidney with positive antiphospholipid antibody. Extensive work up of the patient including imaging studies confirmed the diagnosis of SRAD. Antiphospholipid antibodies may have a role in the pathogenesis of arterial dissection by causing endothelial dysfunction. This is a first literature report.

  16. Atheroembolic renal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk factors for atherosclerosis, including age, male gender, cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes. Alternative Names Renal disease - atheroembolic; Cholesterol embolization syndrome; Atheroemboli - ...

  17. Primary renal angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar E. Souza

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal Angiosarcoma is a rare neoplasm and only 24 cases have been reported in specialized literature. We describe a case of primary renal angiosarcoma in a patient presenting with hematuria, palpable abdominal mass, left flank pain and anemia. A computerized tomography of the abdomen with contrast medium showed a tumor with 15 cm diameter, in the upper pole of the left kidney, with a low-density central area, suggesting necrosis or hemorrhage. Diagnosis was given in a morphologic base and proven by an immunohistochemical study. Primary renal angiosarcoma should be included among differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal hematoma and hemorrhagic renal tumors.

  18. Renal cell carcinoma in patient with crossed fused renal ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Cakmak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal cell carcinomas have rarely been reported in patients with crossed fused renal ectopia. We presented a patient with right to left crossed fused kidney harbouring renal tumor. The most frequent tumor encountered in crossed fused renal ectopia is renal cell carcinoma. In this case, partial nephrectomy was performed which pave way to preservation of the uninvolved both renal units. Due to unpredictable anatomy, careful preoperative planning and meticulous delineation of renal vasculature is essential for preservation of the uninvolved renal units.

  19. [Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration in the management of patients with shock and multiorgan insufficiency syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajda, Z; Wysocki, T

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous continuous arterio-venous hemofiltration (CAVH) is a blood purification system based on blood filtration through capillary hemofilters without pumps, using the arterio-venous pressure gradient for blood perfusion. In 2-nd Department of Surgery of Medical University of Gdańsk in the years 1989-1996 we introduced CAVH 13 times in 6 women and 7 men, aged from 17 till 79 years. We used this technique to maintain fluid balance in anuric patients needing parenteral fluids. Due to circulatory and respiratory insufficiency all patients needed catecholamines infusion and controlled respiration. In 7 patients acute renal failure was caused by septic shock and in 6 patients by shock after severe multiorgan injuries. The CAVH therapy lasted from 3 till 16 days. The stabilisation of hemodynamic and renal parameters was observed in all patients. 3 patients died of cranio-cerebral injuries and 2 due to longlasting septic shock induced by necrotic pancreatitis. In all patients CAVH was required to remove the excess water given as carrier in total parenteral nutrition. Experience with 13 cases has shown the CAVH technique, to be particularly useful in patients with vascular instability or severe fluid overload. The above method which needs no technical investment is simple to handle.

  20. Effects of dexmedetomidine on renal tissue after lower limb ischemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether dexmedetomidine – administered before ischemia – has protective effects against lower extremity ischemia reperfusion injury that induced by clamping and subsequent declamping of infra-renal abdominal aorta in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Material and ...

  1. INTERMEDIATE SYNDROME: A TYPICAL PATTERN OF PRE-RENAL ACUTE RENAL FAILURE IN THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greloni G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure is a frequent entity in the elderly. This is due on one hand to the structural and physiological changes of the aged kidney, and on the other hand to the exposure of this population to polypharmacy and their reduced capability to metabolize drugs. In the present report we present a case of a seventy year-old woman who developed acute renal failure secondary to severe dehydration with a clinical and laboratory pattern of intermediate syndrome: laboratory results compatible with parenchymal renal insufficiency (elevated urinary sodium, plasma urea and creatinine, but with a positive response to hydration. The main characteristics of the aged kidney that predispose to the development of an intermediate syndrome are: the vascular dysautonomy and reduced capability of sodium and water reabsorption. The intermediate syndrome is a typical pattern of pre-renal insufficiency in the elderly. RESUMEN: La insuficiencia renal aguda es frecuente en el anciano. Esto se debe por un lado a los cambios estructurales y funcionales propios del riñón senil, y por otro a la gran exposición que esta población tiene a la polifarmacia, y su reducida capacidad para metabolizar los medicamentos. En este reporte presentamos el caso de una mujer de 70 años que desarrolló una insuficiencia renal aguda secundaria a severa deshidratación, mostrando un patrón clínico y de laboratorio propio de un sindrome intermedio: laboratorios compatibles con una insuficiencia renal parenquimatosa (sodio urinario, uremia y creatininemia elevadas, pero con una respuesta favorable a la hidratación. Las principales características del riñón senil que predisponen al desarrollo del sindrome intermedio: son la disautonomía vascular y la reducida capacidad en la recuperación de sodio y agua El sindrome intermedio es un patrón típico de insuficiencia prerrenal en el anciano.

  2. Correction of pancreatic insufficiency in young children with atopic dermatitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solodovnichenko, I.G; Voloshina, L.G; Babadzhanyan, E.N; Savitskaya, E.V

    2016-01-01

    ...% of patients with atopic dermatitis. Objective: evaluation of the effectiveness of the enzyme mini-tableted Ermital 10,000 for the compensation of pancreatic insufficiency in children with atopic dermatitis...

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of premanipulative vertebrobasilar insufficiency tests: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutting, N.; Verhagen, A.P.; Vijverman, V.; Keesenberg, M.D.; Dixon, G.; Scholten-Peeters, G.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of diagnostic accuracy studies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the premanipulative vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) tests. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The aim of premanipulative vertebrobasilar testing is to evaluate the adequacy of blood

  4. A case of renal oncocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    村本, 将俊; 内田, 豊昭; 及能, 久隆; 石田, 裕則; 宇都宮, 拓治; 頴川, 晋; 真下, 節夫; 小柴, 健

    1994-01-01

    A case of renal oncocytoma found incidentally by routine medical checkups is reported. An asymptomatic 70-year-old male was found to have a right renal mass by abdominal ultrasonography. Selective renal arteriography supported the diagnosis of renal oncocytoma with a typical appearance of "spoke-wheel" pattern. Right radical nephrectomy was performed. However, in consideration of the possibility of renal cell carcinoma. The diagnosis of renal oncocytoma was finally confirmed pathologically. T...

  5. Administering social security: challenges yesterday and today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, the Social Security Administration (SSA) celebrates the 75th anniversary of the passage of the Social Security Act. In those 75 years, SSA has been responsible for programs providing unemployment insurance, child welfare, and supervision of credit unions, among other duties. This article focuses on the administration of the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance program, although it also covers some of the other major programs SSA has been tasked with administering over the years-in particular, Medicare, Black Lung benefits, and Supplemental Security Income. The article depicts some of the challenges that have accompanied administering these programs and the steps that SSA has taken to meet those challenges. Whether implementing complex legislation in short timeframes or coping with natural disasters, SSA has found innovative ways to overcome problems and has evolved to meet society's changing needs.

  6. Prevalence of Pancreatic insufficiency & FTT in Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Najafi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease that affects multiple organ systems. It is the most common cause of severe progressive lung disease and exocrine panceratic insufficiency. In our investigation 67 patients had CF. Of these, 79% had panceratic insufficiency and 92% had lung disease under 2 years age. Also 67% of patients were < 2 percentile and 28% between 3-10 percentile weight for age. Unfortunately 27% of them died because of respiratory problems

  7. Value of Renal Biopsy in Diagnosing Infantile Nephropathic Cystinosis Associated With Secondary Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Emily; Ho, Jacqueline; El-Gharbawy, Areeg; Salgado, Cláudia M; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Reyes-Múgica, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Cystinosis is the most common cause of inherited renal Fanconi syndrome in young children, and typically presents with laboratory findings of a proximal tubulopathy and corneal crystals by one year of age. We describe here renal biopsy findings in a 20-month-old patient with an atypical presentation of distal renal tubular acidosis, diabetes insipidus, and the absence of corneal crystals. Although renal biopsy is usually not necessary to establish the diagnosis of cystinosis, when the patient presents with atypical signs and symptoms, a renal biopsy may be extremely valuable. A 20-month-old boy presented with failure to thrive, polyuria, polydipsia, and rickets. He initially showed evidence of a renal tubular acidosis, mild renal insufficiency, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. His initial ophthalmologic examination did not demonstrate corneal crystals. His subsequent workup revealed phosphaturia, suggesting a partial proximal tubulopathy. Concomitantly, a renal biopsy revealed prominent podocytes with an immature glomerular appearance, and electron microscopy analysis showed numerous intracellular crystals within tubular epithelial cells. Subsequent laboratory and genetic testing confirmed a diagnosis of infantile nephropathic cystinosis. This case highlights the variability in the clinical presentation of cystinosis, resulting in an uncommon clinical picture of a rare disease. Given that treatment is available to prolong renal function and minimize the extra-renal manifestations of this disorder, early diagnosis is essential. It is important to raise the index of suspicion of cystinosis by recognizing its subtle morphological changes in young patients, and that nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can be secondary to this disorder.

  8. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient...... (1.1%) had complete distal renal tubular acidosis and 14 (15.5%) incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Our results confirm that distal renal tubular acidification defects are associated with a more severe form of stone disease and make distal renal tubular acidosis one of the most frequent...... metabolic disturbances in renal stone formers. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was relatively more common in female stone formers and most often found in patients with bilateral stone disease (36%). Since prophylactic treatment in renal stone formers with renal acidification defects is available...

  9. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    (1.1%) had complete distal renal tubular acidosis and 14 (15.5%) incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Our results confirm that distal renal tubular acidification defects are associated with a more severe form of stone disease and make distal renal tubular acidosis one of the most frequent...... metabolic disturbances in renal stone formers. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was relatively more common in female stone formers and most often found in patients with bilateral stone disease (36%). Since prophylactic treatment in renal stone formers with renal acidification defects is available......Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient...

  10. Cancer - renal pelvis or ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney cancer - renal pelvis; Ureter cancer Images Kidney anatomy References National Cancer Institute. PDQ transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer ...

  11. Atherosclerotic ischemic renal disease. Diagnosis and prevalence in an hypertensive and/or uremic elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Michele

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerotic ischemic renal disease is a frequent cause of end-stage renal failure leading to dialysis among the elderly; Its prevalence is inferred from autopsy or retrospective arteriographic studies. This study has been conducted on 269 subjects over 50 with hypertension and/or CRF, unrelated to other known causes of renal disease. Methods All 269 patients were studied either by color-flow duplex sonography (n = 238 or by renal scintigraphy (n = 224, and 199 of the 269 patients were evaluated using both of these techniques. 40 patients, found to have renal artery stenosis (RAS, were subjected to 3D-contrast enhancement Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA and/or Selective Angiography (SA. An additional 23 cases, negative both to scintigraphy and to ultrasound study, underwent renal angiography (MRA and/or SA. Results Color-duplex sonography, carried out in 238 patients, revealed 49 cases of RAS. MR or SA was carried out in 35 of these 49 patients, and confirmed the diagnosis in 33. Color-duplex sonography showed a PPV value of 94.3% and NPV of 87.0% while renal scintigraphy, carried out in 224 patients, had a PPV of 72.2% and a NPV of 29.4%. Patients with RAS showed a higher degree of renal insufficiency compared to non stenotic patients while there were no differences in proteinuria. RAS, based on color-duplex sonography studies, was present in 11% of patients in the age group 50–59, 18% in the 60–69 and 23% at age 70 and above. Conclusions A relatively large percentage of the elderly population with renal insufficiency and/or hypertension is affected by RAS and is at risk of developing end-stage renal failure. Color-duplex ultrasonography is a valid routine method of investigation of population at risk for renal artery stenosis.

  12. Renal dysfunction in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrunaga, Nathalie H; Mindikoglu, Ayse L; Rockey, Don C

    2015-05-01

    Renal dysfunction causes significant morbidity in cirrhotic patients. Diagnosis is challenging because it is based on serum creatinine, which is used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate, which itself is not an ideal measure of renal function in patients with cirrhosis. Finding the exact cause of renal injury in patients with cirrhosis remains problematic due to the limitations of the current diagnostic tests. The purpose of this review is to highlight studies used to diagnose renal dysfunction in patients with renal dysfunction and review current treatments. New diagnostic criteria and classification of renal dysfunction, especially for acute kidney injury (AKI), have been proposed in hopes of optimizing treatment and improving outcomes. New biomarkers that help to differentiate structural from functional AKI in cirrhotic patients have been developed, but require further investigation. Vasoconstrictors are the most commonly recommended treatment of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Given the high mortality in patients with type 1 HRS, all patients with HRS should be evaluated for liver transplantation. When renal dysfunction is considered irreversible, combined liver-kidney transplantation is advised. Development of new biomarkers to differentiate the different types of AKI in cirrhosis holds promise. Early intervention in cirrhotic patients with renal dysfunction offers the best hope of improving outcomes.

  13. Potentials and limitations of microorganisms as renal failure biotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Jain

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Poonam Jain, Sapna Shah, Razek Coussa, Satya PrakashBiomedical Technology and Cell Therapy Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physiology, Artificial Cells and Organs Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, CanadaAbstract: Renal insufficiency leads to uremia, a complicated syndrome. It thus becomes vital to reduce waste metabolites and regulate water and electrolytes in kidney failure. The most common treatment of this disease is either dialysis or transplantation. Although these treatments are very effective, they are extremely costly. Recently artificial cells, microencapsulated live bacterial cells, and other cells have been studied to manage renal failure metabolic wastes. The procedure for microencapsulation of biologically active material is well documented and offers many biomedical applications. Microencapsulated bacteria have been documented to efficiently remove urea and several uremic markers such as ammonia, creatinine, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride. These bacteria also have further potential as biotherapeutic agents because they can be engineered to remove selected unwanted waste. This application has enormous potential for removal of waste metabolites and electrolytes in renal failure as well as other diseases such as liver failure, phenylketonuria, and Crohn’s disease, to name a few. This paper discusses the various options available to date to manage renal failure metabolites and focuses on the potential of using encapsulated live cells as biotherapeutic agents to control renal failure waste metabolites and electrolytes. Keywords: renal failure, microencapsulation, artificial cells, oral administration, bacterial cells, metabolites, electrolytes, polymeric membrane

  14. Comparison of renal function following donor nephrectomy versus radical nephrectomy for renal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Etafy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared renal function in patients after donor nephrectomy (DN and radical nephrectomy (RN. We retrospectively reviewed 68 patients (mean follow-up 15 months, including 30 patients who had undergone DN and 38 patients who had undergone RN. The study was performed between April 2006 and July 2010 at a single institute. Patients were matched for age and co-morbidities (hypertension and diabetes mellitus. We calculated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study group equation. Parameters studied included GFR (≥60 to 2.0 mg/dL, metabolic acidosis (serum bicarbonate 30 mg. There were no significant demographic differences between the two study groups. After a mean follow-up of 15 months, low eGFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 was seen in 28% and 6.7% of patients in the RN and DN groups, respectively (P = 0.03. Similarly, proteinuria was seen in 21% vs 0%, P = 0.007, and de novo elevated creatinine was seen in 13% vs 0%, respectively P = 0.04; thus the changes were greater in the RN group. Our study shows that undergoing RN had a significantly greater risk of developing renal insufficiency and proteinuria compared with age-and co-morbidity-matched patients undergoing DN. We concluded that patients undergoing RN show a significantly greater risk of developing renal insufficiency and proteinuria compared with the patients undergoing DN.

  15. Eligibility for renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persu, Alexandre; Jin, Yu; Baelen, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Based on the SYMPLICITY studies and CE (Conformité Européenne) certification, renal denervation is currently applied as a novel treatment of resistant hypertension in Europe. However, information on the proportion of patients with resistant hypertension qualifying for renal denervation after...... a thorough work-up and treatment adjustment remains scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the proportion of patients eligible for renal denervation and the reasons for noneligibility at 11 expert centers participating in the European Network COordinating Research on renal Denervation in treatment......-resistant hypertension (ENCOReD). The analysis included 731 patients. Age averaged 61.6 years, office blood pressure at screening was 177/96 mm Hg, and the number of blood pressure-lowering drugs taken was 4.1. Specialists referred 75.6% of patients. The proportion of patients eligible for renal denervation according...

  16. Angiogenic Factors and Renal Disease in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie S. Rhee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Preeclampsia is difficult to diagnose in patients with underlying renal disease and proteinuria. Prior studies show that there is an angiogenic factor imbalance with elevated levels of antiangiogenic proteins soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1 and soluble endoglin (sEng and reduced levels of the proangiogenic protein, placental growth factor (PlGF in women with preeclampsia. These angiogenic biomarkers may be useful in distinguishing preeclampsia from other conditions of pregnancy, which may present with overlapping clinical characteristics. Cases. Case 1: A multiparous woman at 18 weeks gestation with nephrotic syndrome presented with hypertensive emergency and worsening renal insufficiency. She underwent induction of labor for severe preeclampsia. Her sFlt1 and sEng levels were at the 97 percentile while her PlGF level was undetectable (less than the 1st percentile. Case 2: A nulliparous woman with lupus nephritis at 22 weeks gestation presented with fetal demise and heart failure. Three weeks previously, the patient had developed thrombocytopenia and hypertensive urgency. She underwent dilation and evacuation. Her angiogenic profile was consistent with severe preeclampsia. Conclusion. Angiogenic factors may provide evidence to support a diagnosis of preeclampsia in patients with preexisting renal disease and proteinuria, conditions in which the classical definition of hypertension and proteinuria cannot be used.

  17. Renal vascular changes in renal disease independent of hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, W. J.; Demircan, M. M.; Weening, J. J.; Krediet, R. T.; van der Wal, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is common in patients with renal disease, but little is known about the effect of renal disease and loss of renal function on vascular morphology. Intima proliferation of small renal arteries, which correlates with atherosclerosis in the aorta, is sometimes

  18. Renal replacement therapy after cardiac surgery; renal function recovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinthorsdottir, Kristin Julia; Kandler, Kristian; Agerlin Windeløv, Nis

    2013-01-01

    To assess renal outcome in patients discharged from hospital following cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) with need for renal replacement therapy.......To assess renal outcome in patients discharged from hospital following cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) with need for renal replacement therapy....

  19. End Stage and Chronic Kidney Disease:Associations with Renal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eRusso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a well known association between end stage renal disease and the development of kidney cancer in the native kidney of patients requiring renal replacement therapy. There is now emerging evidence that lesser degrees of renal insufficiency (chronic kidney disease, CKD are also associated with an increased likelihood of cancer in general and kidney cancer in particular. Nephro pathological changes are commonly observed in the non tumor bearing portions of kidney resected at the time of partial and radical nephrectomy. In addition, patients with renal cancer are more likely to have CKD at the time of diagnosis and treatment than the general population. The exact mechanism by which renal insufficiency transforms normal kidney cells into tumor cells is not known. Possible mechanisms include uremic immune inhibition or increased exposure to circulating toxins not adequately cleared by the kidneys. Surgeons managing kidney tumors must have an increased awareness of their patient’s renal functional status as they plan their resection. Kidney sparing approaches, including partial nephrectomy or active surveillance in older and morbidly ill patients, can prevent CKD or delay the further decline in renal function which is well documented with radical nephrectomy. Despite emerging evidence that partial nephrectomy provides equivalent local tumor control to radical nephrectomy while at the same time preventing CKD, this operation remains under utilized in the United States and abroad. Increased awareness of the bi directional relationship between kidney function and kidney cancer is essential in the contemporary management of kidney cancer.

  20. Renal Preservation Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichun Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal preservation therapy has been a promising concept for the treatment of localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC for 20 years. Nowadays partial nephrectomy (PN is well accepted to treat the localized RCC and the oncological control is proved to be the same as the radical nephrectomy (RN. Under the result of well oncological control, minimal invasive method gains more popularity than the open PN, like laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN and robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN. On the other hand, thermoablative therapy and cryoablation also play an important role in the renal preservation therapy to improve the patient procedural tolerance. Novel modalities, but limited to small number of patients, include high-intensity ultrasound (HIFU, radiosurgery, microwave therapy (MWT, laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT, and pulsed cavitational ultrasound (PCU. Although initial results are encouraging, their real clinical roles are still under evaluation. On the other hand, active surveillance (AS has also been advocated by some for patients who are unfit for surgery. It is reasonable to choose the best therapeutic method among varieties of treatment modalities according to patients' age, physical status, and financial aid to maximize the treatment effect among cancer control, patient morbidity, and preservation of renal function.

  1. Uteroplacental insufficiency affects kidney VEGF expression in a model of IUGR with compensatory glomerular hypertrophy and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baserga, Mariana; Bares, Allyson L; Hale, Merica A; Callaway, Christopher W; McKnight, Robert A; Lane, Pascale H; Lane, Robert H

    2009-06-01

    Low nephron endowment secondary to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results in compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining glomeruli, which in turn is associated with hypertension. However, gender differences exist in the response of the kidney to injury, and IUGR female offspring seems protected from an unfavorable outcome. We previously reported differences in gender-specific gene expression in the IUGR kidney as well as increased circulating corticosterone levels following uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is critical for renal development, is an important candidate in the IUGR kidney since its expression can be regulated by sex-steroids and glucocorticoids. We hypothesize that IUGR leads to altered kidney VEGF expression in a gender-specific manner. Following uterine ligation in the pregnant rat, UPI decreases renal VEGF levels in male and female IUGR animals at birth and through postnatal day 21. However, by day 120 of life, IUGR females have increased kidney VEGF expression, not present in the IUGR males. In addition, IUGR males exhibit increased serum testosterone levels as well as proteinuria. These findings are intriguing in light of the difference in glomerular hypertrophy observed: IUGR males show increased glomerular area when compared to IUGR females. In this model characterized by decreased nephron number and adult onset hypertension, UPI decreases renal VEGF expression during nephrogenesis. Our most intriguing finding is the increased renal VEGF levels in adult IUGR females, associated with a more benign phenotype. We suggest that the mechanisms underlying renal disease in response to IUGR are most likely regulated in a gender specific manner.

  2. Renal failure (chronic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clase, Catherine

    2011-05-25

    Continued progression of renal failure will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments used to reduce progression rate of chronic renal failure? What are the effects of lifestyle changes used to reduce progression rate of chronic renal failure? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 44 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: angiotensin II receptor antagonists, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (with or without angiotensin II receptor antagonists), exercise, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, fibrates, lowering blood pressure below usual targets, nicotinates, psychoeducational intervention, smoking cessation, sodium (dietary), statins, structured programmes to achieve therapeutic goals, and targeted lowering of albuminuria/proteinuria.

  3. Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Vijaykumar Wader

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the kidney comprised of different histological variants. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC mainly diagnosed in the sixth decade of life. It is important to identify this entity because it has significantly better prognosis than the clear cell (conventional and papillary renal cell carcinomas. The chromophobe renal cell carcinoma should be differentiated from oncocytoma and clear cell carcinoma. We report a case of a 70 year-old male who presented with a six month history of hematuria, left sided flank pain and a palpable non-tender lump in the left lumbar region. On radiology, the possibility of a left renal neoplasm was raised. A left radical nephrectomy was done and histopathological diagnosis of Type 2 (mixed chromophobe renal cell carcinoma was given. We present this case owing to its relative rarity of incidence, difficulties encountered and differential diagnoses to be considered during diagnosis as the prognosis and management protocols differ with different variants.

  4. Perioperative acute renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahon, Padraig

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent biochemical evidence increasingly implicates inflammatory mechanisms as precipitants of acute renal failure. In this review, we detail some of these pathways together with potential new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears to be a sensitive, specific and reliable biomarker of renal injury, which may be predictive of renal outcome in the perioperative setting. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C is superior to creatinine. No drug is definitively effective at preventing postoperative renal failure. Clinical trials of fenoldopam and atrial natriuretic peptide are, at best, equivocal. As with pharmacological preconditioning of the heart, volatile anaesthetic agents appear to offer a protective effect to the subsequently ischaemic kidney. SUMMARY: Although a greatly improved understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure has offered even more therapeutic targets, the maintenance of intravascular euvolaemia and perfusion pressure is most effective at preventing new postoperative acute renal failure. In the future, strategies targeting renal regeneration after injury will use bone marrow-derived stem cells and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1.

  5. Insufficient sleep impairs driving performance and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Seiko; Noda, Akiko; Ozaki, Norio; Hara, Yuki; Minoshima, Makoto; Iwamoto, Kunihiro; Takahashi, Masahiro; Iidaka, Tetsuya; Koike, Yasuo

    2010-01-22

    Cumulative sleep deprivation may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders, other disorders, and accidents. We examined the effect of insufficient sleep on cognitive function, driving performance, and cerebral blood flow in 19 healthy adults (mean age 29.2 years). All participants were in bed for 8h (sufficient sleep), and for sleep). The oxyhaemoglobin (oxyHb) level by a word fluency task was measured with a near-infrared spectroscopy recorder on the morning following sufficient and insufficient sleep periods. Wisconsin card sorting test, continuous performance test, N-back test, and driving performance were evaluated on the same days. The peak oxyHb level was significantly lower, in the left and right frontal lobes after insufficient sleep than after sufficient sleep (left: 0.25+/-0.13 vs. 0.74+/-0.33 mmol, Psleep was significantly lower than that after sufficient sleep (96.1+/-4.5 vs. 86.6+/-9.8%, Psleep than after sufficient sleep (546.2+/-23.0 vs. 478.0+/-51.2 ms, Pcognitive function or driving performance between insufficient sleep and sufficient sleep. One night of insufficient sleep affects daytime cognitive function and driving performance and this was accompanied by the changes of cortical oxygenation response. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Case of Adrenal Mass Causing Adrenal Insufficiency: Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Şişman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis, the prevalence of which has continued to decline in developed countries, is still one of the reasons of adrenal insufficiency. In this report, we aimed to present a case of adrenal and miliary tuberculosis presenting with adrenal insufficiency. A 71-year-old woman with a history of unilateral adrenalectomy was admitted with the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency. In her further medical investigations, the diagnosis of primary adrenal insufficiency was established and a mass presenting as involvement of tuberculosis was detected in the adrenal gland. Bilateral pulmonary nodules compatible with miliary tuberculosis were observed. After anti-tuberculosis treatment, pulmonary nodules disappeared, but there was no significant decrease in the size of the adrenal mass. The patient, who underwent adrenalectomy, was followed with glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid treatment. Tuberculosis of the adrenal glands is a common cause of adrenal insufficiency in developing countries. Tuberculosis can destroy the adrenal glands and the diagnosis of adrenal tuberculosis, especially presenting with enlargement of the adrenal glands, can be difficult.

  7. MRI of occult sacral insufficiency fractures following radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammone, J.F. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, and Jefferson Medical Coll., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schweitzer, M.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, and Jefferson Medical Coll., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Following radiation therapy, marrow abnormalities noted on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are frequent and may mimic metastases. Specific radiotherapy changes are usually easily identifiable; however, traumatic lesions cause more interpretive difficulties. We assessed the incidence and MRI characteristics of insufficiency fractures in this population. During a 5-year span (1987-1991), 546 patients received pelvic radiotherapy for primary malignancies. MRI was performed in 25 of these patients at least 3 months after treatment. The mean dose in this group was 53 Gy. These MRI scans were retrospectively reviewed for the appearance of the sacrum with particular attention to the presence of insufficiency fractures. This was correlated with clinical course and scintigraphic findings. Presumed insufficiency fractures on MRI paralleled the sacral side of the sacroiliac joint, enhanced with Gd-DTPA, were most prominent or initially seen anteriorly, and had ill-defined margins on all imaging sequences. The incidence of occult sacral insufficiency fractures was at least 20%. Insufficiency fractures of the sacrum in the post-radiotherapy patient are a relatively frequent occurrence which can mimic metastases. Consideration of this phenomenon and knowledge of differential features may avoid overdiagnosis of osseous metastases. (orig.)

  8. Midterm renal functions following acute renal infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakir Ongun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore clinical features of renal infarction (RI that may have a role in diagnosis and treatment in our patient cohort and provide data on midterm renal functions. Medical records of patients with diagnosis of acute RI, established by contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT and at least 1 year follow-up data, who were hospitalized in our clinic between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed; including descriptive data, clinical signs and symptoms, etiologic factors, laboratory findings, and prescribed treatments. Patients with solitary infarct were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA only, whereas patients with atrial fibrillation (AF or multiple or global infarct were treated with anticoagulants. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR referring to renal functions was determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formula. Twenty-seven renal units of 23 patients with acute RI were identified. The mean age was 59.7 ± 15.7 years. Fourteen patients (60.8% with RI had atrial fibrillation (AF as an etiologic factor of which four had concomitant mesenteric ischemia at diagnosis. At presentation, 20 patients (86.9% had elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, 18 patients (78.2% had leukocytosis, and 16 patients (69.5% had microscopic hematuria. Two patients with concomitant mesenteric ischemia and AF passed away during follow up. Mean eGFR was 70.8 ± 23.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 at admission and increased to 82.3 ± 23.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 at 1 year follow up. RI should be considered in patients with persistent flank or abdominal pain, particularly if they are at high risk of thromboembolism. Antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant drugs are both effective treatment options according to the amplitude of the infarct for preserving kidney functions.

  9. [Renal impairment in patients with thromboembolic event: prevalence and clinical implications. A systematic review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Thomas; Wehling, Martin; Amann, Steffen; Bauersachs, Rupert M; Böttger, Björn

    2015-08-01

    The assessment of the renal function of patients with a deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism (VTE patients) is of utmost importance for the selection/dosage of an agent in the initial anticoagulation management of these patients because the majority of available anticoagulants are cleared renally. Specifically, there is a high risk of drug accumulation and subsequent bleedings in patients with severe renal insufficiency. Consequently, specific recommendations have been made for the initial anticoagulation management of these patients in both product labels and AWMF treatment recommendations: some drugs should not be used in these patients, for other drugs a careful use, intensified screening (anti-Xa), or, in the case of enoxaparin, a dose-adjustment are recommended.This literature review aimed to answer the following questions: · What is the prevalence of renal insufficiency in VTE patients?. · Which data are available with regard to the real-world initial anticoagulation management and corresponding clinical outcomes (recurrent VTE events, bleedings, mortality) of these patients? We did a systematic review of existing publications in german or english published in 2004-2014. Only quantitative analyses have been included in the review. We identified 1,135 publications, 37 of them were included in our review. The prevalence of renal insufficiency in VTE patients, defined as CrCl management of VTE patients face the risk of drug accumulation in renally insufficent patients. So, for example, a standard enoxaparin dosage was shown to be associated with elevated bleeding risk compared to adjusted enoxaparin dosage in renally insufficient patients. However, similar data do not exist for other low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) or unfractioned heparins (UFHs). Only for two LMWHs, Certoparin and Tinzaparin, safety data with regard to renally insufficient patients have been published so far.None of the included studies showed advantages of UFH therapy in

  10. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...... that perform well in the diagnosis of main renal artery stenosis may fall short when it comes to branch artery stenosis. We report 2 cases that illustrate these difficulties and show that a branch artery stenosis may be overlooked even by the gold standard method, renal angiography....

  11. Renal oncocytoma: new observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, M.J.; Hartman, D.S.; Friedman, A.C.; Sherman, J.L.; Lautin, E.M.; Pyatt, R.S.; Ho, C.K.; Csere, R.; Fromowitz, F.B.

    1984-10-01

    Renal oncocytomas are uncommon, benign tumors that can be treated by local incision or heminephrectomy; their preoperative differentiation from renal cell carcinoma, treated by radical nephrectomy, would be invaluable. A particularly important finding, a central scar, not stressed in previous reports, is frequently demonstrated by CT examination. The authors evaluated radiographic studies of 18 pathologically confirmed cases of oncocytoma and compared findings with results of CT, sonography, and angiogrpahy studies of 18 renal cell carcinoma cases. Oncocytomas can be suggested if a stellate scar is identified within an otherwise homogeneous tumor on ultrasound (US) and CT; if the mass appears homogeneous but no scar is present, angiography should be performed.

  12. Litiasis coraliforme renal izquierda

    OpenAIRE

    Polo Barzallo, Humberto; Vintimilla Carzola, María Paz

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El cálculo coraliforme se denomina de esta manera porque ocupan la mayor parte del sistema colector y se asemeja al coral marino, o a las astas de un venado. (1) Estos cálculos comprometen la función renal por un fenómeno obstructivo e infeccioso, patología que de no ser tratada efectivamente lleva al daño renal progresivo e irreversible. (2) Caso Clínico: Paciente de sexo masculino de 60 años de edad.Antecedentes: Litiasis Renal Izquierda con tratamiento quirúrgico a base...

  13. Blood pressure response to conventional and low-dose enalapril in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, Thomas; Heisterberg, Jens; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2003-01-01

    potassium concentrations at day 90 and patients in the low group experienced a slight increase in GFR. CONCLUSIONS: In moderate to severe chronic renal insufficiency the same degree of blood pressure control was achieved on low as well as moderate daily doses of enalapril. This was irrespective...

  14. Plasma Exchange for Renal Vasculitis and Idiopathic Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis: A Meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Michael; Catapano, Fausta; Szpirt, Wladimir

    2010-01-01

    .9). LIMITATIONS:: Although the primary result was statistically significant, there is insufficient statistical information to reliably determine whether plasma exchange decreases the composite of end-stage renal disease or death. CONCLUSIONS:: Plasma exchange may decrease the composite end point of end...

  15. Acute adrenal insufficiency due to primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Kumar Behera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We report a case of acute adrenal insufficiency (AAI in a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS. Case Report: A 44-year-old female patient presented to us with acute abdominal pain associated with recurrent vomiting and giddiness. On examination, her blood pressure was 80/50 mm Hg. Systemic examination was normal. Further evaluation revealed hypocortisolemia with elevated plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone indicative of primary adrenal insufficiency. Her abdominal computed tomography scan showed features of evolving bilateral adrenal infarction. Etiological work-up revealed prolonged activated thromboplastin time, which didn′t correct with normal plasma, her anti-cardiolipin antibody and lupus anticoagulant were also positive. She was diagnosed to have APS with adrenal insufficiency and she was started on intravenous steroids and heparin infusion. Conclusion: AAI due to the APS can present with acute abdominal pain followed by hypotension. A high index of suspicion is needed to make the correct diagnosis and to initiate appropriate treatment.

  16. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy and Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Cardias Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kolesnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the combined use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO and continuous renal replacement therapy with switching into the ECMO circuit in cardiac surgical patients over 18 years of age and to reveal predictors of a fatal outcome in this combination of auxiliary organ support techniques. Materials and methods. The retrospective cohort study postoperatively used a combination of ECMO and continuous renal replacement therapy in 27 cardiac surgical patients aged over 18 years with severe cardiopulmonary insufficiency concurrent with acute kidney lesion. In all cases, the continuous renal replacement therapy circuit was switched into the line after an ECMO pump. The end points of the study were the duration of dialysis-dependent acute renal failure, the frequency of complications, and hospital mortality. Results. In all cases with a favorable outcome, the duration of continuous renal replacement therapy was 3 days longer than that of ECMO. There were no cases of recovery if the duration of continuous renal replacement therapy was shorter than that of ECMO and the duration of the latter was more than 10 days. The duration of sympathomimetic support (>3.5 days was shown to be an independent and significant predictor of death (AUC 0.99; CI 99.9%, 0.96—1.0 in the patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy and ECMO. It was established that the number of inotrophic drugs (>2 and the highest lactate level (>1.99 mmol/l could be used to predict hospital mortality in patients with acute kidney injury and severe cardiopulmonary insufficiency (AUC 0.85 and 0.86; sensitivity/specificity 0.83/0.67 and 0.86/0.67, respectively.Conclusion. The concurrent use of ECMO and continuous renal replacement therapy in severe cardiac surgical patients with potentially reversible cardiopulmonary insufficiency and acute kidney injury is a sound and complementary combination of auxiliary organ support techniques.  

  17. Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency in Hospitalized COPD Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeni Mekov

    Full Text Available 31-77% of patients with COPD have vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, with results being highly variable between studies. Vitamin D may also correlate with disease characteristics.To find out the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency