WorldWideScience

Sample records for renal extraction efficiencies

  1. Automated renal histopathology: digital extraction and quantification of renal pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarder, Pinaki; Ginley, Brandon; Tomaszewski, John E.

    2016-03-01

    The branch of pathology concerned with excess blood serum proteins being excreted in the urine pays particular attention to the glomerulus, a small intertwined bunch of capillaries located at the beginning of the nephron. Normal glomeruli allow moderate amount of blood proteins to be filtered; proteinuric glomeruli allow large amount of blood proteins to be filtered. Diagnosis of proteinuric diseases requires time intensive manual examination of the structural compartments of the glomerulus from renal biopsies. Pathological examination includes cellularity of individual compartments, Bowman's and luminal space segmentation, cellular morphology, glomerular volume, capillary morphology, and more. Long examination times may lead to increased diagnosis time and/or lead to reduced precision of the diagnostic process. Automatic quantification holds strong potential to reduce renal diagnostic time. We have developed a computational pipeline capable of automatically segmenting relevant features from renal biopsies. Our method first segments glomerular compartments from renal biopsies by isolating regions with high nuclear density. Gabor texture segmentation is used to accurately define glomerular boundaries. Bowman's and luminal spaces are segmented using morphological operators. Nuclei structures are segmented using color deconvolution, morphological processing, and bottleneck detection. Average computation time of feature extraction for a typical biopsy, comprising of ~12 glomeruli, is ˜69 s using an Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-4790 CPU, and is ~65X faster than manual processing. Using images from rat renal tissue samples, automatic glomerular structural feature estimation was reproducibly demonstrated for 15 biopsy images, which contained 148 individual glomeruli images. The proposed method holds immense potential to enhance information available while making clinical diagnoses.

  2. Renal 131I-hippuran extraction in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, M; Hesse, B; Grønvall, J

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the 131I-hippuran extraction fraction during baseline renal blood flow rates and at high flow rates induced by dopamine.......This study examined the 131I-hippuran extraction fraction during baseline renal blood flow rates and at high flow rates induced by dopamine....

  3. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  4. Therapy for renal calculi via percutaneous nephrostomy: dissolution and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, J H; Pfister, R C

    1981-01-01

    Nephrostomy catheters offer nonsurgical modes of therapy for some renal stones. Continuous lavage of the stones using hemiacidrin (Renacidin) for struvite stones, THAM-E or acetylcysteine for cystine stones, and bicarbonate solution for uric acid stones may dissolve either entire stones or stone fragments remaining after surgery. Although irrigation is not without potential complications, recent developments in technique have minimized these. Nephrostomy tubes can also be used to transmit stone baskets through steerable catheters to snare stones from the upper collecting system or from the ureter; any stone that can be engaged and withdrawn through the tube tract can be removed; stones larger than those which can be safely extracted through the ureterovesical junction can be so treated. Neither of these procedures requires general anesthesia, the rate of serious morbidity is low, and the required hospital stay is often less than that for surgery; these modes of therapy are therefore valuable for certain patients.

  5. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Zheng; Matthew Stough

    2008-09-30

    The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die and phosphor layer to recover inward yellow emission. At the end of the project we expect to recycle approximately 50% of the unrecovered backward light in current package construction, and develop a pcLED device with 80 lm/W{sub e} using our technology improvements and commercially available chip/package source. The success of the project will benefit luminous efficacy of white LEDs by increasing package extraction efficiency. In most phosphor-converting white LEDs, the white color is obtained by combining a blue LED die (or chip) with a powdered phosphor layer. The phosphor partially absorbs the blue light from the LED die and converts it into a broad green-yellow emission. The mixture of the transmitted blue light and green-yellow light emerging gives white light. There are two major drawbacks for current pcLEDs in terms of package extraction efficiency. The first is light scattering caused by phosphor particles. When the blue photons from the chip strike the phosphor particles, some blue light will be scattered by phosphor particles. Converted yellow emission photons are also scattered. A portion of scattered light is in the backward direction toward the die. The amount of this backward light varies and depends in part on the particle size of phosphors. The other drawback is that yellow emission from phosphor powders is isotropic. Although some backward light can be recovered by the reflector in current LED packages, there is still a portion of backward light that will be absorbed inside the package and further converted to heat. Heat

  6. Sympathetic nervous activity and renal and systemic hemodynamics in cirrhosis: plasma norepinephrine concentration, hepatic extraction, and renal release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring-Larsen, H; Hesse, B; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1982-01-01

    Systemic and renal neurovascular reactivity was investigated in eight patients with cirrhosis and in eight control subjects with fatty liver during postural changes. In the supine position, mean renal blood flow averaged 1.51 and 2.97 ml per gm per min in patients and controls, respectively (p less...... 60 degrees head-up tilt, the increase in NE was similar in both groups. In another 10 patients with cirrhosis in recumbency, the splanchnic arterial-hepatic venous extraction of NE averaged 0.43 (p less than 0.01), and the hepatic clearance of NE averaged 315 ml per min which is of the same order...... be responsible for renal vasoconstriction in these patients. However, systemic and renal neurovascular reactivity seems to be maintained even at an advanced stage of the disease....

  7. Extraction Efficiency of Belonolaimus longicaudatus from Sandy Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Frederick, J J

    1991-10-01

    Numbers of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from sandy soils (91-92% sand) by sieving and centrifugation were only 40-55% of those extracted by sieving and incubation on a Baermann tray. Residues normally discarded at each step of the sieving plus Baermann tray extraction procedure were examined for nematodes to obtain estimates of extraction efficiencies. For third-stage and fourth-stage juveniles, males, and females, estimates of extraction efficiency ranged from 60 to 65% in one experiment and 73 to 82% in another. Estimated extraction efficiencies for second-stage juveniles were lower (33% in one experiment, 67% in another) due to losses during sieving. When sterilized soil was seeded with known numbers of B. longicaudatus, 60% of second-stage juveniles and 68-76% of other stages were recovered. Most stages of B. longicaudatus could be extracted from these soils by sieving plus Baermann incubation with an efficiency of 60-70%.

  8. Dielectric nanoparticles for the enhancement of OLED light extraction efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Vidhi; Rastogi, Vipul

    2017-03-01

    This work reports the use of dielectric nanoparticles placed at glass substrate in the improvement of light extraction efficiency of organic light emitting diode (OLED). The nanoparticles will act as scattering medium for the light trapped in the waveguiding modes of the device. The scattering efficiency of dielectric nanoparticles has been calculated by Mie Theory. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis and simulation estimate the effect of dielectric nanoparticles on the light extraction efficiency of OLED. The efficiency depends upon the diameter, interparticle separation and refractive index of dielectric nanoparticles. It is shown that the dielectric nanoparticles layer can enhance the light extraction efficiency by a factor of 1.7.

  9. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb leaf extract ameliorates gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2010-10-28

    Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) known as "Mahabala" in Ayurveda and marketed as "Shahadeyi" is used in ethnomedicine to treat ailments such as dysuria and urinary disorders. To evaluate nephroprotective potential of SR against gentamicin (GM) induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction. Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats with GM (100 mg/kg bodyweight (i.p.) for 8 days) and were treated with SR extract (200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight (p.o.) for 8 days) or 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (vehicle). Plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants along with lipid peroxidation were evaluated in various experimental groups. GM treatment induced significant elevation (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea, creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant decrement (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR treatment to GM treated rats (GM+SR) recorded significant decrement (p<0.05) in plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant increment (p<0.05) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. SR leaf extract ameliorates GM induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction and thus validates its ethnomedicinal use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of pyrethrins extraction methods efficiencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... Best developed method was used for determination of pyrethrin content in three different ... There are many areas of application of .... The extractions were made on a soxtec avanti 2055 manual system ... was automated.

  11. Highly fluorescent resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules with efficient renal clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Kalpana; Patthipati, Venkata Suresh; Han, Sangbum; Swanson, R. James; Whelan, Eoin C.; Osgood, Christopher; Balasubramanian, Ramjee

    2016-08-01

    Nanomaterial based imaging approaches hold substantial promise in addressing current diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. One of the key requirements for the successful clinical translation of nanomaterials is their complete clearance from the body within a reasonable time period preferably via the renal filtration route. This article describes the synthesis of highly fluorescent, water soluble, resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules and demonstrates their effective renal clearance in mice. The synthesis and functionalization of nanocapsules was accomplished in a one-pot operation via thiol-ene reactions without involving self-assembly, sacrificial templates or emulsions. Water soluble resorcinarene cavitand nanocapsules obtained by this approach were covalently functionalized with Alexa Fluor 750. Highly fluorescent nanocapsules with hydrodynamic diameters of 122 nm and 68 nm and extinction coefficients of 1.3 × 109 M-1 cm-1 and 1.5 × 108 M-1 cm-1 respectively were prepared by varying the reaction conditions. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of these nanocapsules in mice followed by whole-body fluorescence imaging showed that they were both cleared renally within a few hours. Given the inherent encapsulation capabilities of nanocapsules, the renal clearance demonstrated in this work opens up new opportunities for their theranostic applications especially for targeting and treating the urinary tract.

  12. [Efficient extraction of transmembrane proteins using ProteoExtract Transmembrane Protein Extraction Kit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Karina

    2010-01-01

    Detergents commonly used for solubilization of membrane proteins may be ionic or non-ionic. Exposing membrane proteins to detergents, however, can adversely affect their native structure, which can be a major hindrance for functional studies. This is especially true for proteins with multiple transmembrane domains. The ProteoExtract Transmembrane Protein Extraction Kit (TM-PEK), offered by Merck, provides a detergent-free novel reagents to enable the mild and efficient extraction of proteins containing seven transmembrane domains, such as GPCRs (G-Protein Coupled Receptors) e.g.: Frizzled-4 and CELSR-3, from mammalian cells. The fraction enriched in transmembrane proteins using TM-PEK is directly compatible with enzyme assays, non-denaturing gel electrophoresis, 1- and 2-D SDS-PAGE, MS analysis, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation and ELISA. Unlike many alternatives, TM-PEK extraction procedure does not require sonication, extended rigorous vortexing, ultracentrifugation, or incubation of samples at elevated temperatures--thus minimizing the risk of post-extraction degradation or modifications.

  13. Protective Effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Extract Against Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of pre-treatment with Salvia miltiorrhiza ethanol extracts (SMEE on renal function markers, immunity and antioxidant activities in renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR rats. Wistar rat kidneys were subjected to 60 min of global ischemia at 37 °C followed by 30 min of reperfusion, and were randomly assigned into the sham, IR model and three SMEE-treated groups (n = 8 per group. Results showed that high serum creatinin (Scr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and malondialhehyde (MDA levels, and low antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in IR rats compared to the sham rats. Pre-treatment of Salvia miltiorrhiza ethanol extracts for 20 days prior to IR operation improved renal function, reduced IR induced renal inflammatory and oxidative injury. It is concluded that Salvia miltiorrhiza ethanol extracts could be beneficial in the treatment of renal ischemic injury.

  14. Protective effect of pomegranate flower extract against gentamicin-induced renal toxicity in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, Ferdos; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Noori-Diziche, Ali; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Nasri, Hamid; Mansouri, Azam; Dehghani, Aghdas; Saberi, Shadan; Shirdavani, Soheila; Ashrafi, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Gentamicin (GM) as an antibiotic is used in clinic. However, its administration is limited by side effects such as nephrotoxicity. Herbal extracts could be used in therapeutic approaches. Objectives: The present study was planned to investigate whether pomegranate flower extract (PFE) could ameliorate GM-induced renal toxicity in male rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty eight male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups. Groups 1 and 2 respectively received PFE 25 and 50 mg/kg fo...

  15. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF OCIMUM CANUM IN PREVENTION OF RENAL ISCHEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotirmoy D. Choudhury et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extracts of aerial part of Ocimum canum (OC were studied for its antioxidant activity and its role to prevent renal ischemia. The in vitro antioxidant models used were DPPH radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl peroxide radical scavenging method, reducing power assay & FRAP assay. The study was carried out at different concentration (250, 500, 1000, 2000 µg/ml. Further, the antioxidant activity was studied by using in vivo method to prove its potency in preventing ischemia by incorporating renal ischemia/reperfusion model in Wistar albino rats. The animals were divided into four different groups of six rats in each group. Group-1 was served as Control and received oral saline only once daily for 28 days. Group-2 received (oral saline + RI. Group 3 received Ocimum canum ethanolic leaf extract 300mg/kg bwt dose orally for 28 days, Group-4 were pretreated with Ocimum canum ethanolic leaf extract an oral dose of 100mg/kg bwt for 28 days. After the experimental period all rats were sacrificed and antioxidant defense system and oxidative stress in renal tissue was investigated by histopathological study. The significant results were obtained for all in vitro models and in vivo models. A significant increase in levels of Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD, & decrease of Malondialdehyde (MDA was found in rats of Group-4 when compared with control. The results of present study indicate that the ethanolic leaf extract of Ocimum canum has significant antioxidant activity and can prevent renal ischemia.

  16. Nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jesurun RS

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root has nephron protective effect in gentamicin induced acute renal failure. Nephro protective action in this study could be due to the antioxidant and other phytochemical of abutilon indicum root. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 841-845

  17. High extraction efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierer, Jonathan; Montano, Ines; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-11-24

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with tailored AlGaN quantum wells can achieve high extraction efficiency. For efficient bottom light extraction, parallel polarized light is preferred, because it propagates predominately perpendicular to the QW plane and into the typical and more efficient light escape cones. This is favored over perpendicular polarized light that propagates along the QW plane which requires multiple, lossy bounces before extraction. The thickness and carrier density of AlGaN QW layers have a strong influence on the valence subband structure, and the resulting optical polarization and light extraction of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes. At Al>0.3, thinner QW layers (efficiently inject carriers in all the QWs, are preferred.

  18. Light Extraction Efficiency in OLED with Sub-wavelength Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    By simulating with finite-difference time-domain(FDTD) method, it is proved that two kinds of new photonic crystal slab(PCS) structures could enhance the light extraction efficiency of OLED. By comparing the results, the most effective PCS structure with maximum light extraction efficiency(Er=1.99) is got. The optimized geometric parameters and optimized performance parameters of the PCS structures are also obtained.

  19. Improving extraction efficiency of the third integer resonant extraction using higher order multipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tomizawa, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-03-09

    The new accelerator complex at J-PARC will operate with both high energy and very high intensity proton beams. With a design slow extraction efficiency of greater than 99% this facility will still be depositing significant beam power onto accelerator components [2]. To achieve even higher efficiencies requires some new ideas. The design of the extraction system and the accelerator lattice structure leaves little room for improvement using conventional techniques. In this report we will present one method for improving the slow extraction efficiency at J-PARC by adding duodecapoles or octupoles to the slow extraction system. We will review the theory of resonant extraction, describe simulation methods, and present the results of detailed simulations. From our investigations we find that we can improve extraction efficiency and thereby reduce the level of residual activation in the accelerator components and surrounding shielding.

  20. An efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moslem, M.A.; Bahkali, A.H.; Abd-Elsalam, K.A.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi, which are important fungal plant pathogens. The cell wall of Cladosporioid fungi is often melanized, which makes it difficult to extract DNA from their cells. In order to overcome this we grew these fungi for three days on

  1. An efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moslem, M.A.; Bahkali, A.H.; Abd-Elsalam, K.A.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi, which are important fungal plant pathogens. The cell wall of Cladosporioid fungi is often melanized, which makes it difficult to extract DNA from their cells. In order to overcome this we grew these fungi for three days on

  2. Protective Effect of Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala Fruit Extract against Oxidative Renal Damage Caused by Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warut Poontawee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium nephrotoxicity is a serious environmental health problem as it will eventually end up with end stage renal disease. The pathobiochemical mechanism of this toxic heavy metal is related to oxidative stress. This study investigated whether Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala fruit extract (CNFE could protect the kidney against oxidative injury caused by cadmium. Initial analysis of the extract revealed antioxidant abilities and high levels of polyphenols, particularly catechin. Its potential renal benefits was further explored in rats treated with vehicle, CNFE, cadmium (2 mg/kg, and cadmium plus CNFE (0.5, 1, 2 g/kg for four weeks. Oxidative renal injury was developed after cadmium exposure as evidenced by blood urea nitrogen and creatinine retention, glomerular filtration reduction, renal structural damage, together with increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, but decreased antioxidant thiols, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in renal tissues. Cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity was diminished in rats supplemented with CNFE, particularly at the doses of 1 and 2 g/kg. It is concluded that CNFE is able to protect against the progression of cadmium nephrotoxicity, mostly via its antioxidant power. The results also point towards a promising role for this naturally-occurring antioxidant to combat other human disorders elicited by disruption of redox homeostasis.

  3. Açai berry extract attenuates glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unis, Amina

    2015-03-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is one of the most common problems encountered in hospitalized critically ill patients. In recent years great effort has been focused on the introduction of herbal medicine as a novel therapeutic agent for prevention of ARF. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate the effect of Açai berry extract (ABE) on glycerol-induced ARF in rats. Results of the present study showed that rat groups that received oral ABE in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for 7 days before or 7 days after induction of ARF by a single intramuscular glycerol injection reported a significant improvement in kidney functions tests [decrease in serum urea, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)] when compared to the ARF model groups. Moreover, there was significant amelioration in renal oxidative stress markers [renal catalase (CAT), renal reduced glutathione (GSH)] and renal histopathological changes in the ABE-treated groups when compared to ARF model groups. The most significant improvement was reported in the groups where ABE was administered in a dose 200 mg/kg/day. These results indicate that ABE has a potential role in ameliorating renal damage involved in ARF.

  4. A High-Efficiency Cellular Extraction System for Biological Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhabaria, Avantika; Cifani, Paolo; Reed, Casie; Steen, Hanno; Kentsis, Alex

    2015-08-07

    Recent developments in quantitative high-resolution mass spectrometry have led to significant improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of the biochemical analyses of cellular reactions, protein-protein interactions, and small-molecule-drug discovery. These approaches depend on cellular proteome extraction that preserves native protein activities. Here, we systematically analyzed mechanical methods of cell lysis and physical protein extraction to identify those that maximize the extraction of cellular proteins while minimizing their denaturation. Cells were mechanically disrupted using Potter-Elvehjem homogenization, probe- or adaptive-focused acoustic sonication, and were in the presence of various detergents, including polyoxyethylene ethers and esters, glycosides, and zwitterions. Using fluorescence spectroscopy, biochemical assays, and mass spectrometry proteomics, we identified the combination of adaptive focused acoustic (AFA) sonication in the presence of a binary poloxamer-based mixture of octyl-β-glucoside and Pluronic F-127 to maximize the depth and yield of the proteome extraction while maintaining native protein activity. This binary poloxamer extraction system allowed for native proteome extraction comparable in coverage to the proteomes extracted using denaturing SDS or guanidine-containing buffers, including the efficient extraction of all major cellular organelles. This high-efficiency cellular extraction system should prove useful for a variety of cell biochemical studies, including structural and functional proteomics.

  5. Improving the efficiency of antioxidant extraction from mango peel by using microwave-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorta, Eva; Lobo, M Gloria; González, Mónica

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extraction efficiency of antioxidants from mango peel by comparing two techniques: microwave-assisted (MAE) and traditional solvent (TE) extraction. The number of extraction steps, water content in the extractant, peel weight-to-solvent volume ratio in extractions and extraction time all had an influence on obtaining extracts with high antioxidant capacity, but the extraction technique and the water content in the extractant were the factors with the greatest effect. Using three steps, a water content of 50 % in the ethanol:water extractant, an extraction time of 60 min and a weight-to-volume ratio of 1:10 or 1:50 (w/v) led to the highest antioxidant activity and phytochemicals content in extracts. The extraction time needed to extract phytochemicals from mango peel was similar when MAE and TE were used. However, the antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content were around 1.5-6.0 times higher in the extracts obtained by MAE.

  6. Safflower extract: a novel renal fibrosis antagonist that functions by suppressing autocrine TGF-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Lin; Chang, Shan-Yu; Teng, Hsiang-Chun; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Lee, Tao-Chen; Chuang, Lea-Yea; Guh, Jinn-Yuh; Chang, Fang-Rong; Liao, Tung-Nan; Huang, Jau-Shyang; Yeh, Jeng-Hsien; Chang, Wen-Teng; Hung, Min-Yuan; Wang, Ching-Jen; Chiang, Tai-An; Hung, Chien-Ya; Hung, Tsung-Jen

    2008-06-01

    Progressive renal disease is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the renal interstitium. Hence, developing agents that antagonize fibrogenic signals is a critical issue facing researchers. The present study investigated the blood-circulation-promoting Chinese herb, safflower, on fibrosis status in NRK-49F cells, a normal rat kidney interstitial fibroblast, to evaluate the underlying signal transduction mechanism of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a potent fibrogenic growth factor. Safflower was characterized and extracted using water. Renal fibrosis model was established both in vitro with fibroblast cells treated with beta-hydroxybutyrate and in vivo using rats undergone unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Western blotting was used to examine protein expression in TGF-beta-related signal proteins such as type I and type II TGF-beta receptor, Smads2/3, pSmad2/3, Smads4, and Smads7. ELISA was used to analyze bioactive TGF-beta1 and fibronectin levels in the culture media. Safflower extract (SE) significantly inhibited beta-HB-induced fibrosis in NRK cells concomitantly with dose-dependent inhibition of the type I TGF-beta1 receptor and its down-stream signals (i.e., Smad). Moreover, SE dose-dependently enhanced inhibitory Smad7. Thus, SE can suppress renal cellular fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-beta autocrine loop. Moreover, remarkably lower levels of tissue collagen were noted in the nephron and serum TGF-beta1 of UUO rats receiving oral SE (0.15 g/3 ml/0.25 kg/day) compared with the untreated controls. Hence, SE is a potential inhibitor of renal fibrosis. We suggest that safflower is a novel renal fibrosis antagonist that functions by down-regulating TGF-beta signals.

  7. Batteries for efficient energy extraction from a water salinity difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Mantia, Fabio; Pasta, Mauro; Deshazer, Heather D; Logan, Bruce E; Cui, Yi

    2011-04-13

    The salinity difference between seawater and river water is a renewable source of enormous entropic energy, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a device called "mixing entropy battery", which can extract and store it as useful electrochemical energy. The battery, containing a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod electrode, was shown to extract energy from real seawater and river water and can be applied to a variety of salt waters. We demonstrated energy extraction efficiencies of up to 74%. Considering the flow rate of river water into oceans as the limiting factor, the renewable energy production could potentially reach 2 TW, or ∼13% of the current world energy consumption. The mixing entropy battery is simple to fabricate and could contribute significantly to renewable energy in the future.

  8. Batteries for Efficient Energy Extraction from a Water Salinity Difference

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, Fabio

    2011-04-13

    The salinity difference between seawater and river water is a renewable source of enormous entropic energy, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a device called "mixing entropy battery", which can extract and store it as useful electrochemical energy. The battery, containing a Na2-xMn 5O10 nanorod electrode, was shown to extract energy from real seawater and river water and can be applied to a variety of salt waters. We demonstrated energy extraction efficiencies of up to 74%. Considering the flow rate of river water into oceans as the limiting factor, the renewable energy production could potentially reach 2 TW, or ∼13% of the current world energy consumption. The mixing entropy battery is simple to fabricate and could contribute significantly to renewable energy in the future. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. The influence of substrate on DNA transfer and extraction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Timothy J; Mitchell, R John; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2013-01-01

    The circumstances surrounding deposition of DNA profiles are increasingly becoming an issue in court proceedings, especially whether or not the deposit was made by primary transfer. In order to improve the currently problematic evaluation of transfer scenarios in court proceedings, we examined the influence a variety of nine substrate types (six varieties of fabric, plywood, tarpaulin, and plastic sheets) has on DNA transfer involving blood. DNA transfer percentages were significantly higher (p=0.03) when the primary substrate was of non-porous material (such as tarpaulin, plastic or, to a lesser degree, wood) and the secondary substrate porous (such as fabrics). These findings on transfer percentages confirm the results of previous studies. Fabric composition was also shown to have a significant (p=0.03) effect on DNA transfer; when experiments were performed with friction from a variety of fabrics to a specific weave of cotton, transfer percentages ranged from 4% (flannelette) to 94% (acetate). The propensity for the same nine substrates to impact upon the efficiency of DNA extraction procedures was also examined. Significant (p=0.03) differences were found among the extraction efficiencies from different materials. When 15μL of blood was deposited on each of the substrates, the lowest quantity of DNA was extracted from plastic (20ng) and the highest quantities extracted from calico and flannelette (650ng). Significant (pDNA extraction yield from different initial blood volumes from all substrates. Also, significantly greater (pDNA was seen during concentration of extracts with higher compared to lower initial quantities of DNA. These findings suggest that the efficiency of extraction and concentration impacts upon the final amount of DNA available for analysis and that consideration of these effects should not be ignored. The application of correction factors to adjust for any variation among extraction and concentration efficiencies among substrates is

  10. Effect of methanol leaf extract of Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f (fabaceae on renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Ismail Hassan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dalbegia saxatilis (D.saxatilis is used as a decoction in traditional medicine for ailments such as cough, small pox, skin lesions, bronchial ailments and toothache. This study is aimed at evaluating the toxic effect of methanol leaf extract of D.saxatilis on renal function. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into four groups of five: control animals (group 1 received distilled water 1 ml/kg while groups 2, 3 and 4 were given graded doses of the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively daily for 28 days. Body weight changes were estimated by weighing the rats twice weekly using digital weighing balance. After 28 days, blood samples were obtained for evaluation of renal indices and the kidney was used for histopathology. Data were analysed using one–way and repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS version 20. Results: Significant weight increase in all groups were observed (p

  11. An efficient procedure for protein extraction from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues for reverse phase protein arrays

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    Guo Huifang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Protein extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues is challenging due to extensive molecular crosslinking that occurs upon formalin fixation. Reverse-phase protein array (RPPA is a high-throughput technology, which can detect changes in protein levels and protein functionality in numerous tissue and cell sources. It has been used to evaluate protein expression mainly in frozen preparations or FFPE-based studies of limited scope. Reproducibility and reliability of the technique in FFPE samples has not yet been demonstrated extensively. We developed and optimized an efficient and reproducible procedure for extraction of proteins from FFPE cells and xenografts, and then applied the method to FFPE patient tissues and evaluated its performance on RPPA. Results Fresh frozen and FFPE preparations from cell lines, xenografts and breast cancer and renal tissues were included in the study. Serial FFPE cell or xenograft sections were deparaffinized and extracted by six different protein extraction protocols. The yield and level of protein degradation were evaluated by SDS-PAGE and Western Blots. The most efficient protocol was used to prepare protein lysates from breast cancer and renal tissues, which were subsequently subjected to RPPA. Reproducibility was evaluated and Spearman correlation was calculated between matching fresh frozen and FFPE samples. The most effective approach from six protein extraction protocols tested enabled efficient extraction of immunoreactive protein from cell line, breast cancer and renal tissue sample sets. 85% of the total of 169 markers tested on RPPA demonstrated significant correlation between FFPE and frozen preparations (p Conclusions With optimized protein extraction methods, FFPE tissues can be a valuable source in generating reproducible and biologically relevant proteomic profiles using RPPA, with specific marker performance varying according to tissue type.

  12. Photocurrent extraction efficiency in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Kemp, K. W.

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of photocurrent extraction was studied directly inside operating Colloidal Quantum Dot (CQD) photovoltaic devices. A model was derived from first principles for a thin film p-n junction with a linearly spatially dependent electric field. Using this model, we were able to clarify the origins of recent improvement in CQD solar cell performance. From current-voltage diode characteristics under 1 sun conditions, we extracted transport lengths ranging from 39 nm to 86 nm for these materials. Characterization of the intensity dependence of photocurrent extraction revealed that the dominant loss mechanism limiting the transport length is trap-mediated recombination. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  13. Protection of renal function by four selected plant extracts during Plasmodium berghei infection

    OpenAIRE

    Adewale Adetutu; Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola; Kazeem Iyanda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Weakening of renal function from reactive oxygen species generated during malaria infection is one of the prominent causes of death in prevalent regions. The potential toxicity of free radical generated by malaria parasites are counteracted by a large number of cytoprotective phytochemicals. Therefore, this study examined the influence of extracts of five selected antimalarial plants (Azadirachta indica, Parquetina nigrescens, Citrus paradisi, and Khaya senigalensis) on reduction ...

  14. An efficient genomic DNA extraction from whole blood using Nextractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Tae-Dong; Cho, Young-Uk; Lee, Woochang; Chun, Sail; Min, Won-Ki

    2014-08-05

    We evaluated the performance of the Nextractor NX-48 nucleic acid extractor system for the extraction of genomic DNA from whole blood samples. We compared the performance of the Nextractor to that of the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit and the Maxwell system, using five whole blood samples. Extraction efficiencies were compared based on the total amount of extracted DNA adjusted by input blood volume, and the purity was compared. Polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed using ACTB as a target. The real-time PCR assay was carried out for housekeeping gene GAPDH. Total elapsed time for DNA extraction was compared. Extraction efficiencies for the QIAamp, Maxwell, and Nextractor were 25.4±3.8ng/μL, 9.2±0.6ng/μL, and 31.0±5.6ng/μL, respectively. No significant differences in purity were observed among three methods. DNA extracted using the ACTB was successfully amplified in all three methods. There were no obvious differences in Ct values for GAPDH real-time PCR. Total elapsed time for DNA extraction was about 50min for the QIAamp, 40min for the Maxwell, and 20min for the Nextractor. As the Nextractor is faster and requires less hands-on time than manual procedures, it may be useful for molecular diagnostic testing in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Protection of renal function by four selected plant extracts during Plasmodium berghei infection

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    Adewale Adetutu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weakening of renal function from reactive oxygen species generated during malaria infection is one of the prominent causes of death in prevalent regions. The potential toxicity of free radical generated by malaria parasites are counteracted by a large number of cytoprotective phytochemicals. Therefore, this study examined the influence of extracts of five selected antimalarial plants (Azadirachta indica, Parquetina nigrescens, Citrus paradisi, and Khaya senigalensis on reduction of inflammation in renal tissue, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels during malaria infection using Plasmodium berghei infected Swiss albino mice. For in vivo assay, mice were inoculated with 1 × 107 parasitized erythrocytes and plant extracts were subsequently administered orally at 100 mg/kg body weight once a day for 17 consecutive days. The chemo-suppressive and prophylaxis effects of the plant extracts against P. berghei were investigated and compared with those of standard antimalarial drug, chloroquine. Tail bleeding was performed to check the percentage parasitaemia by making a thin film smear on a slide, stained in Giemsa. The numbers of parasited cells against the unparasitised cells were counted using a microscope. The effect of malaria infection on renal tissue was assessed by histological analysis and measurement of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in plasma. At 100 mg/kg per body weight, aqueous extract of K. senegalensis, A. indica, C. paradisi and P. nigrescens exhibited significant (p<0.05 percentage inhibition and chemo-suppressive effects in comparison with the chloroquine treated mice. The result of the untreated group showed that there was a significant (p<0.05 increase in the level of plasma urea while the level of the groups treated with plants extract stabilized the level of urea and creatinine in the blood. Also there was a pathological lesion on the kidney tissue of untreated group whereas the group treated with

  16. Cordyceps cicadae extracts ameliorate renal malfunction in a remnant kidney model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong ZHU; Yi-ping CHEN; Yue-yi DENG; Rong ZHENG; Yi-fei ZHONG; Lin WANG; Lan-ping DU

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing public health problem with an urgent need for new pharmacological agents.Cordyceps cicadae is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has potential renoprotective benefits.The current study aimed to determine any scientific evidence to support its clinical use.Methods: We analyzed the potential of two kinds of C.cicadae extract,total extract (TE) and acetic ether extract (AE),in treating kidney disease simulated by a subtotal nephrectomy (SNx) model.Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into seven groups: sham-operated group,vehicle-treated SNx,Cozaar,2 g/(kg.d) TE SNx,1 g/(kg·d)TE SNx,92 mg/(kg.d) AE SNx,and 46 mg/(kg.d) AE SNx.Renal injury was monitored using urine and serum analyses,and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stainings were used to analyze the level of fibrosis.The expression of type Ⅳ collagen (Col Ⅳ),fibronectin (FN),transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1),and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was detected by immunohistochemistry.Results: Renal injury,reflected in urine and serum analyses,and pathological changes induced by SNx were attenuated by TE and AE intervention.The depositions of Col Ⅳ and FN were also decreased by the treatments and were accompanied by reduced expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF.In some respects,2 g/(kg.d) of TE produced better effects than Cozaar.Conclusions: For the first time,we have shown that C.cicadae may inhibit renal fibrosis in vivo through the TGF-β1/CTGF pathway.Therefore,we conclude that the use of C.cicadae could provide a rational strategy for combating renal fibrosis.

  17. Cordyceps cicadae extracts ameliorate renal malfunction in a remnant kidney model*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Chen, Yi-ping; Deng, Yue-yi; Zheng, Rong; Zhong, Yi-fei; Wang, Lin; Du, Lan-ping

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing public health problem with an urgent need for new pharmacological agents. Cordyceps cicadae is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has potential renoprotective benefits. The current study aimed to determine any scientific evidence to support its clinical use. Methods: We analyzed the potential of two kinds of C. cicadae extract, total extract (TE) and acetic ether extract (AE), in treating kidney disease simulated by a subtotal nephrectomy (SNx) model. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into seven groups: sham-operated group, vehicle-treated SNx, Cozaar, 2 g/(kg∙d) TE SNx, 1 g/(kg∙d) TE SNx, 92 mg/(kg∙d) AE SNx, and 46 mg/(kg∙d) AE SNx. Renal injury was monitored using urine and serum analyses, and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stainings were used to analyze the level of fibrosis. The expression of type IV collagen (Col IV), fibronectin (FN), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: Renal injury, reflected in urine and serum analyses, and pathological changes induced by SNx were attenuated by TE and AE intervention. The depositions of Col IV and FN were also decreased by the treatments and were accompanied by reduced expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF. In some respects, 2 g/(kg∙d) of TE produced better effects than Cozaar. Conclusions: For the first time, we have shown that C. cicadae may inhibit renal fibrosis in vivo through the TGF-β1/CTGF pathway. Therefore, we conclude that the use of C. cicadae could provide a rational strategy for combating renal fibrosis. PMID:22135152

  18. The protective effects of pomegranate extracts against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in male rats

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    Ahmet A Sancaktutar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the possible protective effect of pomegranate extract (PE on rats following renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into three groups. Sham group underwent laparotomy then waited for 45 minutes without ischemia. I/R group were subjected to left renal ischemia for 45 minutes followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. I/R + PE group were subjected to the same renal I/R as the I/R group were also given 225 mg/kg PE peroral 30 minutes prior to the ischemia. Malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total oxidant status (TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI were determined on the blood samples and kidney tissues. Histopathological analyses were conducted on the kidney tissues. Results: Serum TAC levels were significantly decreased in I/R group when compared with S group (P = 0.001. Serum MDA levels were increased in I/R group; however, it was not statistically significant. In rat kidney tissues, TOS levels and OSI index were significantly increased after I/R injury, while TAC levels were decreased. In I/R + PE group, PE reversed the negative effects of I/R injury. PE pretreatment was effective in decreasing tubular necrosis score. Conclusion: PE pretreatment ameliorated the oxidative damage and histopathological changes occurring following renal I/R injury.

  19. Therapeutic efficiency of continuous renal replacement therapy--experience of a single Romanian center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiculescu, M; Ionescu, Camelia; Ismail, G; Roşu, Mihaela; Szigeti, A; Iliescu, Olguţa

    2004-01-01

    We have studied 24 patients with acute renal failure (ARF) or acutization of chronic renal failure (CRF) caused by a variety of different disorders. A rapid decline in renal excretory function, fluid, electrolyte, and divalent ion disturbances determined us to initiate continuous renal replacement: continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVHF)--28 procedures in 15 patients and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF)--11 procedures in 11 patients. Mean duration of CVVHF was 21.6+/-6.9 h, with a mean blood flow rate of 116.9+/-16.4 ml/min and an ultrafiltration rate of 6.4+/-4.6 ml/min. Serum creatinine level decreased from 12.6 to 8.3 mg% and the concentration of urea from 237 to 166 mg%. Mean duration of hemodiafiltration was 24+/-8.5 h, with mean blood flow rate of 134+/-15.2 ml/min, mean dialysate flow of 35+/-7 ml/min and mean ultrafiltration rate of 5.6+/-2.1 ml/min. Serum creatinine level decreased from 11.6 to 6.36 mg% and the concentration of urea from 236 to 137 mg%. Survival rate was 79.2% (19/24 patients). Complete recover of renal function was achieved in 5 patients, partial recover in 5 patients and 9 patients were included in chronic dialysis. In 8/24 (30%) patients we encountered complications, such as hypotension in 2 cases, bleeding disorders in 5 cases or diselectrolithemias in 2 cases. As a consequence, continuous renal replacement therapy is efficient, having an acceptable rate of adverse effects in patients with ARF or acutization of CRF.

  20. Efficient Short Boundary Detection & Key Frame Extraction using Image Compression

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    Shilpa. R. Jadhav Anup. V. Kalaskar Shruti Bhargava

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper present novel algorithm for efficient short boundary detection and key frames extraction using image compression. The algorithm differs from conventional methods mainly in the use of image segmentation and attention model.. Matching difference between two consecutive frames is computed with different weight. Shot boundaries are detected with automatic threshold. Key frame is extracted by using reference frame-based approach. Experimental results show improved performance of short boundary detection by using the proposed algorithms, and key frames represent shot content. And also satisfactorily image compression of result frame.

  1. Anticarcinogenic activity of polyphenolic extracts from grape stems against breast, colon, renal and thyroid cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahpazidou, Despina; Geromichalos, George D; Stagos, Dimitrios; Apostolou, Anna; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Tzanakakis, George N; Hayes, A Wallace; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2014-10-15

    A major part of the wineries' wastes is composed of grape stems which are discarded mainly in open fields and cause environmental problems due mainly to their high polyphenolic content. The grape stem extracts' use as a source of high added value polyphenols presents great interest because this combines a profitable venture with environmental protection close to wine-producing zones. In the present study, at first, the Total Polyphenolic Content (TPC) and the polyphenolic composition of grape stem extracts from four different Greek Vitis vinifera varieties were determined by HPLC methods. Afterwards, the grape stem extracts were examined for their ability to inhibit growth of colon (HT29), breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-23), renal (786-0 and Caki-1) and thyroid (K1) cancer cells. The cancer cells were exposed to the extracts for 72 h and the effects on cell growth were evaluated using the SRB assay. The results indicated that all extracts inhibited cell proliferation, with IC₅₀ values of 121-230 μg/ml (MCF-7), 121-184 μg/ml (MDA-MD-23), 175-309 μg/ml (HT29), 159-314 μg/ml (K1), 180-225 μg/ml (786-0) and 134->400 μg/ml (Caki-1). This is the first study presenting the inhibitory activity of grape stem extracts against growth of colon, breast, renal and thyroid cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimizing RNA Extraction of Renal Papilla Biopsy Tissue in Kidney Stone Formers: A New Methodology for Genomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Kazumi; Usawachintachit, Manint; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Unno, Rei; Tzou, David T; Sherer, Benjamin A; Wang, Yongmei; Okada, Atsushi; Stoller, Marshall L; Yasui, Takahiro; Chi, Thomas

    2017-08-11

    Endoscopic tools have provided versatile examination and treatment for kidney stone procedures. Despite endourologists researching urinary stone disease using endoscopes to collect tissue, this tissue collection method is limited. Endoscopically removed tissues are small in size, restricting the types of genome-based examination possible. We investigated a new method of renal papilla biopsy and RNA extraction to establish a genomic research methodology for kidney stone disease. We conducted a prospective multi-institutional study and collected renal papilla specimens from consecutive percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy (URS) cases performed for removal of upper urinary tract stones. Renal papilla tissue was extracted using ureteroscopic biopsy forceps after stone removal. RNA was extracted using two different extraction kits, and their quantity and quality were examined. Additionally, the impact of biopsy on surgical complications was compared between cases performed with and without biopsy by matched case-control analysis adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, bilaterality, and stone burden. A total of 90 biopsies from 49 patients were performed, and the median duration between specimen collection and RNA extraction was 61 days. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed BIGopsy(®) forceps usage significantly increased the total yield (p = 0.004) and quality (p = 0.001 for A260/280, p = 0.004 for A260/A230) of extracted RNA. Extraction using the RNeasy Micro Kit(®) also improved A260/A230, whereas reduced RNA integrity number of extracted RNA by univariate and multivariate analyses (p = 0.002 and p case-control study demonstrated that endoscopic renal papilla biopsy caused no significant surgical complications, including bleeding, decreased stone clearance and hematocrit, and renal dysfunction. Biopsies during URS imparted an average of 20 minutes of procedure time over nonbiopsy cases. We demonstrate a safe methodology for

  3. Protective Effect of Aqueous Crude Extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves on Plasmodium berghei-Induced Renal Damage in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsak, Voravuth; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Jaihan, Ubonwan; Nakinchat, Somrudee

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in the world because it can cause of death in patients. Malaria-associated renal injury is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. Therefore, new plant extracts to protect against renal injury induced by malaria infection are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves on renal injury induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in mice. ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of PbANKA, and neem extracts (500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg) were given orally for 4 consecutive days. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were subsequently measured. Malaria-induced renal injury was evidenced as marked increases of BUN and creatinine levels. However, the oral administration of neem leaf extract to PbANKA infected mice for 4 days brought back BUN and creatinine levels to near normalcy, and the highest activity was observed at doses of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg. Additionally, no toxic effects were found in normal mice treated with this extract. Hence, neem leaf extract can be considered a potential candidate for protection against renal injury induced by malaria.

  4. Extraction efficiency of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants from lyophilized foods using pressurized liquid extraction and manual extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun; Oki, Tomoyuki; Takebayashi, Jun; Takano-Ishikawa, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    The efficient extraction of antioxidants from food samples is necessary in order to accurately measure their antioxidant capacities. α-Tocopherol and gallic acid were spiked into samples of 5 lyophilized and pulverized vegetables and fruits (onion, cabbage, Satsuma mandarin orange, pumpkin, and spinach). The lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the samples were sequentially extracted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane and dichloromethane, and then with acetic acid-acidified aqueous methanol. Duplicate samples were extracted: one set was extracted using an automated pressurized liquid extraction apparatus, and the other set was extracted manually. Spiked α-tocopherol and gallic acid were recovered almost quantitatively in the extracted lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions, respectively, especially when pressurized liquid extraction was used. The expected increase in lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (L-ORAC) due to spiking with α-tocopherol, and the expected increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and total polyphenol content due to spiking with gallic acid, were all recovered in high yield. Relatively low recoveries, as reflected in the hydrophilic ORAC (H-ORAC) value, were obtained following spiking with gallic acid, suggesting an interaction between gallic acid and endogenous antioxidants. The H-ORAC values of gallic acid-spiked samples were almost the same as those of postadded (spiked) samples. These results clearly indicate that lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants are effectively extracted from lyophilized food, especially when pressurized liquid extraction is used.

  5. Analysis of entropy extraction efficiencies in random number generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-05-01

    Random numbers (RNs) have applications in many areas: lottery games, gambling, computer simulation, and, most importantly, cryptography [N. Gisin et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 74 (2002) 145]. In cryptography theory, the theoretical security of the system calls for high quality RNs. Therefore, developing methods for producing unpredictable RNs with adequate speed is an attractive topic. Early on, despite the lack of theoretical support, pseudo RNs generated by algorithmic methods performed well and satisfied reasonable statistical requirements. However, as implemented, those pseudorandom sequences were completely determined by mathematical formulas and initial seeds, which cannot introduce extra entropy or information. In these cases, “random” bits are generated that are not at all random. Physical random number generators (RNGs), which, in contrast to algorithmic methods, are based on unpredictable physical random phenomena, have attracted considerable research interest. However, the way that we extract random bits from those physical entropy sources has a large influence on the efficiency and performance of the system. In this manuscript, we will review and discuss several randomness extraction schemes that are based on radiation or photon arrival times. We analyze the robustness, post-processing requirements and, in particular, the extraction efficiency of those methods to aid in the construction of efficient, compact and robust physical RNG systems.

  6. Sub-10-nm Pd nanosheets with renal clearance for efficient near-infrared photothermal cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shaoheng; Chen, Mei; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2014-08-13

    Efficient renal clearance is of fundamentally important property of nanoparticles for their in vivo biomedical applications. In this work, we report the successful synthesis of ultra-small Pd nanosheets (SPNS) with an average diameter of 4.4 nm and their application in photothermal cancer therapy using a near infrared laser. The ultra-small Pd nanosheets have strong optical absorption in the NIR region and high photothermal conversion efficiency (52.0%) at 808 nm. After being surface-functionalized with reduced glutathione (GSH), the SPNS-GSH was administered to mice to investigate the biodistribution, photothermal efficacy and tumor ablation in vivo. The in vivo photothermal therapy studies clearly demonstrate that surface modification with GSH allows the nanosheets to exhibit prolonged blood circulation and thus high accumulation in tumors. Upon 808 nm NIR irradiation, the tumors can be completely ablated. More importantly, with the size below the renal filtration limit (photothermal therapy, the unique renal clearance properties make the ultra-small Pd nanosheets promising for practical use in photothermal cancer therapy.

  7. MAG3 diuresis renography and output efficiency measurement in renal transplant patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spicer, T.; Gruenewald, S.; Chi, K.K.; Larcos, G.; Farlow, D.; Choong, K.; Chapman, J. [Westmead Hospital, Weastmead, NSW, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound

    1997-09-01

    Full text: Urinary tract obstruction following renal transplantation often presents a diagnostic dilemma, as some patients with equivocal investigations subsequently show improvement following stenting. The purposes of this study were to (1) establish a normal range of renal output efficiency (ROE) in transplants, and (2) assess the usefulness of MAG3 diuresis renography and ROE in suspected allograft obstruction. Twenty-two renal transplant patients with stable function and no evidence of hydronephrosis on serial ultrasound had a diuretic MAG3 scan with calculation of ROE. Three patients with proven graft obstruction underwent the same scanning procedure. Methodology was as follows: (1) 60 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA GFR was performed (single injection-dual blood sample method); (2) patients were then prehydrated with either oral or IV fluid; (3) 10 min prior to scanning, intravenous Frusemide 20-80 mg (dose depending on renal function) was injected, and then (4) 200 MBq of MAG3 for a 20 min scan. The studies were then qualitatively and quantitatively reviewed to assess uptake and excretion, and the ROE was calculated. The mean ROE for the twenty-two normal renal transplant patients was 85.7% {+-} 4.1% (range 78 - 90%). Technetium-99m-DTPA GFR was 55.5 mL/min/1.73m{sup 2} (range 27 to 83). The MAG3 scans in the three obstructed patients were equivocal for obstruction but the ROE values of 59%, 68% and 75% were more than 2.5 standard deviations below our calculated normal mean. The {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA GFRs were 61,17 and 57 mL/min/1.73m{sup 2}, respectively. Thus, in normal grafts the ROE should exceed 78 per cent. Our data suggest that ROE may be a useful addition to standard scintigraphic parameters in diagnosis of graft obstruction.

  8. Effect of Brown Algae Cystoseira trinodis Methanolic Extract on Renal Tissue

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    Rouhollah Gazor, Ardalan Pasdaran Lashgari, Shabnam Almasi, Saeed Ghasemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: C.trinodisis brown algae of Oman Sea coast is used traditionally as a diuretic in Chabahar, Sistan and Baluchestan province of Iran. But no researches have been conducted on the distractive effects of this alga on the renal tissues until now. Methods: Forty-two adult male mice were divided into 6 groups. Control group received normal saline (E0, group (E1 treated with 5mg/kg methanolic extract (ME and group (E2 to (E5 received 10, 15, 25 and 50 mg/kg of ME of alga respectively. All animals in 6 groups were treated for 2 weeks (once every other day. Finally, histopathological evaluations were made especially by morphology and photometric method. Results: ME of C.trinodis induced histological damage in kidney. Administration of ME in all experimental groups induced severe glomerular congestion, hyaline cast and severe interstitial inflammatory centers in treated groups. All distractive parameter in test groups increased with increasing dose of extract (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results showed that ME of the C.trinodis has a nephrotoxic effect on the renal tissues.

  9. Renal and vascular studies of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica in rats and rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F. Dizaye

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for genitourinary ailments kidney disorders, allergies, diabetes, anemia, gastrointestinal tract ailments, musculoskeletal aches and alopecia. However, only a few of these uses have scientific bases that support their clinical uses. This study was done to evaluate some of the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological actions of this plant. Eighteen local domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were used for in vitro studies (effect of the plant extract on isolated pulmonary arteries and isolated urinary bladder smooth muscle and in vivo studies (effect of the extract on renal function. Six male albino rats were used for studying the effects of the plant extract on blood pressure and heart rate. Urtica dioica extract produced a significant increase in urine volume and urinary Na+ excretion without significant changes in K+ excretion rates in experimental rabbits. No changes occurred in Glomerular filtration rate and %Na+ reabsorption of filtered load. Neither vasodilatation nor vasoconstriction of isolated pulmonary arteries of the rabbit was seen after applying the aqueous extract of U. dioica. Besides it could not reverse the vasoconstrictor effect of phenylephrine. Urtica dioica has no detectable effects on the isolated bladder; moreover it did not reverse the contraction that was produced by pilocarpine. In experimental rats, the plant extract produced a profound drop in blood pressure associated with decreased heart rate. In conclusion the aqueous extract of U. dioica produced diuretic and natriuretic effects with out significant effect on the K+ excretion rate in rabbits. Moreover it produced a profound drop in blood pressure and heart rate.

  10. Silymarin and Nigella sativa extract ameliorate paracetamol induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in male mice

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    Reham Zakaria Hamza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the ameliorative role of silymarin or/and Nigella sativa (N. sativa water extract against N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP-induced renal function deterioration in male mice at the biochemical levels. Methods: The mice were divided into seven groups (10/group. The first group was served as control. The second group was treated with dose of APAP. The third and fourth groups were treated with silymarin alone and N. sativa water extract alone, respectively. The fifth and sixth groups were treated with combination of APAP with silymarin and APAP with N. sativa water extract, respectively. The seventh group was treated with a combination of both ameliorative compounds (silymarin and N. sativa water extract with APAP and all animals were treated for a period of 30 days. Results: Exposure to APAP at the treated dose for mice led to an alteration of kidney function parameters, increase in the level of serum urea and creatinine. Also, paracetamol administration induced oxidative stress in kidney homogenates by increasing malondialdhyde level and decreasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and this stress was ameliorated by administration of either silymarin or N. sativa water extract. Conclusions: Administration of silymarin or/and N. sativa water extract to APAP-treated mice alleviate the toxicity of APAP, and this appeared clearly by biochemical improvement of kidney function parameters and antioxidant parameters. But, the alleviation is more pronounced with the both antioxidants. Thus, the pronounce effect of silymarin and N. sativa water extract is most effective in reducing the toxicity induced by APAP and improving the kidney function parameters and antioxidant status of kidney of male mice.

  11. Accurate and efficient maximal ball algorithm for pore network extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arand, Frederick; Hesser, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    The maximal ball (MB) algorithm is a well established method for the morphological analysis of porous media. It extracts a network of pores and throats from volumetric data. This paper describes structural modifications to the algorithm, while the basic concepts are preserved. Substantial improvements to accuracy and efficiency are achieved as follows: First, all calculations are performed on a subvoxel accurate distance field, and no approximations to discretize balls are made. Second, data structures are simplified to keep memory usage low and improve algorithmic speed. Third, small and reasonable adjustments increase speed significantly. In volumes with high porosity, memory usage is improved compared to classic MB algorithms. Furthermore, processing is accelerated more than three times. Finally, the modified MB algorithm is verified by extracting several network properties from reference as well as real data sets. Runtimes are measured and compared to literature.

  12. EFFICIENT IMPLEMENTATION OF 3D FILTER FOR MOVING OBJECT EXTRACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the design and implementation of Multi-Dimensional (MD) filter, particularly 3-Dimensional (3D) filter, are presented. Digital (discrete domain) filters applied to image and video signal processing using the novel 3D multirate algorithms for efficient implementation of moving object extraction are engineered with an example. The multirate (decimation and/or interpolation) signal processing algorithms can achieve significant savings in computation and memory usage. The proposed algorithm uses the mapping relations of z-transfer functions between non-multirate and multirate mathematical expressions in terms of time-varying coefficient instead of traditional polyphase decomposition counterparts. The mapping properties can be readily used to efficiently analyze and synthesize MD multirate filters.

  13. An efficient semi-blind source extraction algorithm and its applications to biomedical signal extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE YaLan; SHEU Phillip C-Y; ZENG JiaZhi; WANG Gang; LU Ke

    2009-01-01

    In many applications, such as biomedical engineering, it is often required to extract a desired signal instead of all source signals. This can be achieved by blind source extraction (BSE) or semi-blind source extraction, which is a powerful technique emerging from the neural network field. In this paper, we propose an efficient semi-blind source extraction algorithm to extract a desired source signal as its first output signal by using a priori information about its kurtosis range. The algorithm is robust to outliers and spiky noise because of adopting a classical robust contrast function. And it is also robust to the estimation errors of the kurtoaia range of the desired signal providing the estimation errors are not large. The algorithm has good extraction performance, even in some poor situations when the kurtosis values of some source signals are very close to each other. Its convergence stability and robustness are theoretically analyzed. Simulations and experiments on artificial generated data and real-world data have confirmed these results.

  14. Efficient genomic DNA extraction from low target concentration bacterial cultures using SCODA DNA extraction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Austin; Pel, Joel; Rajan, Sweta; Marziali, Andre

    2010-10-01

    Methods for the extraction of nucleic acids are straightforward in instances where there is ample nucleic acid mass in the sample and contamination is minimal. However, applications in areas such as metagenomics, life science research, clinical research, and forensics, that are limited by smaller amounts of starting materials or more dilute samples, require sample preparation methods that are more efficient at extracting nucleic acids. Synchronous coefficient of drag alteration (SCODA) is a novel electrophoretic nucleic acid purification technology that has been tested successfully with both highly contaminated and dilute samples and is a promising candidate for new sample preparation challenges. In this article, as an example of SCODA's performance with limited sample material, we outline a genomic DNA (gDNA) extraction protocol from low abundance cultures of Escherichia coli DH10B. This method is equally well suited to high biomass samples.

  15. Dynamic electromembrane extraction: Automated movement of donor and acceptor phases to improve extraction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, Yousef Abdossalami; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Amanzadeh, Hatam

    2015-11-06

    In the present research, dynamic electromembrane extraction (DEME) was introduced for the first time for extraction and determination of ionizable species from different biological matrices. The setup proposed for DEME provides an efficient, stable, and reproducible method to increase extraction efficiency. This setup consists of a piece of hollow fiber mounted inside a glass flow cell by means of two plastics connector tubes. In this dynamic system, an organic solvent is impregnated into the pores of hollow fiber as supported liquid membrane (SLM); an aqueous acceptor solution is repeatedly pumped into the lumen of hollow fiber by a syringe pump whereas a peristaltic pump is used to move sample solution around the mounted hollow fiber into the flow cell. Two platinum electrodes connected to a power supply are used during extractions which are located into the lumen of the hollow fiber and glass flow cell, respectively. The method was applied for extraction of amitriptyline (AMI) and nortriptyline (NOR) as model analytes from biological fluids. Effective parameters on DEME of the model analytes were investigated and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the calibration curves were linear in the range of 2.0-100μgL(-1) with coefficient of determination (r(2)) more than 0.9902 for both of the analytes. The relative standard deviations (RSD %) were less than 8.4% based on four replicate measurements. LODs less than 1.0μgL(-1) were obtained for both AMI and NOR. The preconcentration factors higher than 83-fold were obtained for the extraction of AMI and NOR in various biological samples.

  16. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lei; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Dai, Xiaoqian; Ding, Ye; Jiang, Yanfei; Li, Yujie; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is known to be an effective natural polyphenol capable of removing free radicals in vivo. It has been reported that GSPE has biological functions including antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-radiation, and prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to investigate the effects of GSPE on renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats induced with low-dose streptozotocin and a high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet. Rats (n=12 per group) were administered GSPE at either a low (125 mg/kg · bw), medium (250 mg/kg · bw) or high (500 mg/kg · bw) dose, while control rats and diabetes mellitus group rats received no specific treatment. After 16 weeks, GSPE slightly increased body weight and decreased food consumption, water intake and urine volume in rats. Diabetic rats treated with GSPE demonstrated decreased fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, HbA1c and systolic blood pressure (P<0.05). GSPE significantly improved renal function parameters, reduced the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and also increased the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Moreover, GSPE (particularly at a dose of 500 mg/kg · bw) increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the levels of c-reactive proteins (P<0.01) in serum and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (P<0.05) in the kidney. These findings suggest that GSPE ameliorates renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats through its antioxidative activity and anti-inflammatory effects.

  17. Efficient reactivation of Xenopus erythrocyte nuclei in Xenopus egg extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangh, L J; DeGrace, D; Sanchez, J A; Gold, A; Yeghiazarians, Y; Wiedemann, K; Daniels, S

    1995-06-01

    Rapid genome replication is one of the hallmarks of the frog embryonic cell cycle. We report here that complete reactivation of quiescent somatic cell nuclei in Xenopus egg extracts depends on prior restructuring of the nuclear substrate and prior preparation of cytoplasmic extract with the highest capacity to initiate and sustain DNA synthesis. Nuclei from mature erythrocytes swell, replicate their DNA efficiently, and enter mitosis in frozen/thawed extracts prepared from activated Xenopus eggs, provided the nuclei are first treated with trypsin, heparin, and an extract prepared from unactivated, meiotically arrested, eggs. Optimal replicating extracts are prepared from large batches of unfertilized eggs that are synchronously activated into the cell cycle for 28 minutes (at 20 degrees C). Because the Xenopus cell cycle progresses so rapidly, extracts prepared just a few minutes before or after this time have substantially lower DNA synthetic capacities. At the optimal time and temperature, eggs have just reached the G1/S boundary of the first cell cycle. This fact was revealed by injecting and replicating an SV40 plasmid in intact unfertilized eggs as described previously. We estimate that under optimal conditions approximately 6.14 x 10(9) base pairs of DNA/per nucleus are synthesized in 30-40 minutes, a rate that rivals that observed in the zygotic nucleus. The findings reported here are one step in our long term effort to develop a new in vitro/in vivo approach to nuclear transplantation. Nuclear transplantation in amphibian embryos has been used to establish that the genomes of many types of differentiated somatic cells are pluripotent. But very few such nuclei have ever developed into advanced tadpoles or adult frogs, probably because somatic nuclei injected directly into activated eggs fail to reactivate quickly enough to avoid being damaged during first mitosis. We have already shown that unfertilized eggs can be injected prior to activation of the first

  18. Biochemical, liver and renal toxicities of Melissa officinals hydroalcoholic extract on balb/C mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namjoo Abdolrasool

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melissa officinalis is usually used as antispasmodic, antiaxiety and antibacterial agent. However, its toxicity has not been evaluated, yet. In this study biochemical, liver and renal toxicities of Melissa officinals hydroalcoholic extract were evaluated in balb/C mice. Methods: In an experimental study, 21 balb/C male mice were randomly designated to three equal groups. Group I was treated with normal saline and groups II and III were respectively treated with 0.450 and 1.350 g/kg, hydroalcoholic extract of Melissa officinals daily for two weeks, intraperitoneally. Then on 15th day of the experiment, blood samples were obtained from the heart. The blood was centrifuged and then the sera were evaluated for alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, urea and creatinine, using autoanalyzer and commercial kits. The liver and kidney tissues were also hystopathologically evaluated. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Tukey’s post hoc test, and Kruskal-Wallis at a significance level of p<0.05. Results: Melissa officinals dose dependently caused a significant reduction in alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase levels compared to the control group. Furthermore, Melissa officinals extract had no effect on the amount of urea and creatinine compared to the control group. The liver and kidney histopathological changes in the groups that received different doses of the extract showed mild, moderate, and severe tissue injuries. Conclusion: The biochemical analysis in this study indicates that the extract of Melissa officinals causes liver tissue damage in mice; therefore, its consumption in high doses should be avoided.

  19. Extraction of hidden information by efficient community detection in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Juyong; Lee, Jooyoung

    2012-01-01

    Currently, we are overwhelmed by a deluge of experimental data, and network physics has the potential to become an invaluable method to increase our understanding of large interacting datasets. However, this potential is often unrealized for two reasons: uncovering the hidden community structure of a network, known as community detection, is difficult, and further, even if one has an idea of this community structure, it is not a priori obvious how to efficiently use this information. Here, to address both of these issues, we, first, identify optimal community structure of given networks in terms of modularity by utilizing a recently introduced community detection method. Second, we develop an approach to use this community information to extract hidden information from a network. When applied to a protein-protein interaction network, the proposed method outperforms current state-of-the-art methods that use only the local information of a network. The method is generally applicable to networks from many areas.

  20. RGANN: An Efficient Algorithm to Extract Rules from ANNs

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient rule generation algorithm, called rule generation from artificial neural networks (RGANN) to generate symbolic rules from ANNs. Classification rules are sought in many areas from automatic knowledge acquisition to data mining and ANN rule extraction. This is because classification rules possess some attractive features. They are explicit, understandable and verifiable by domain experts, and can be modified, extended and passed on as modular knowledge. A standard three-layer feedforward ANN is the basis of the algorithm. A four-phase training algorithm is proposed for backpropagation learning. Comparing them to the symbolic rules generated by other methods supports explicitness of the generated rules. Generated rules are comparable with other methods in terms of number of rules, average number of conditions for a rule, and predictive accuracy. Extensive experimental studies on several benchmarks classification problems, including breast cancer, wine, season, golf-playing, and ...

  1. Electro-extractive fermentation for efficient biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood, Mark D; Orozco, Rafael L; Majewski, Artur J; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2012-03-01

    Electrodialysis, an electrochemical membrane technique, was found to prolong and enhance the production of biohydrogen and purified organic acids via the anaerobic fermentation of glucose by Escherichia coli. Through the design of a model electrodialysis medium using cationic buffer, pH was precisely controlled electrokinetically, i.e. by the regulated extraction of acidic products with coulombic efficiencies of organic acid recovery in the range 50-70% maintained over continuous 30-day experiments. Contrary to previous reports, E. coli produced H(2) after aerobic growth in minimal medium without inducers and with a mixture of organic acids dominated by butyrate. The selective separation of organic acids from fermentation provides a potential nitrogen-free carbon source for further biohydrogen production in a parallel photofermentation. A parallel study incorporated this fermentation system into an integrated biohydrogen refinery (IBR) for the conversion of organic waste to hydrogen and energy.

  2. Efficiency and Reliability of Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy for Renal Tumors Larger than 4 cm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Özgör

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate safety and efficiency of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for renal tumors larger than 4 cm. Methods: We retrospectivelly evaluated the medical records of 65 patients who underwent laparascopic partial nephrectomy between May 2009 and June 2013 in our clinic. The patients were divided into two groups according to tumor size. Patients with a tumor 4 cm were included in group 1 (n=45 and group 2 (n=20, respectively. Demographic, perioperative and postoperative parameters were compared between the groups. Histopathological examination and surgical margin status were also evaluated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 59.2±10.9 (range: 26- 81 years. The mean tumor size and the mean RENAL nephrometry score were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1. The mean operation time and warm ischemia time were similar between groups but estimated blood loss and transfusion requirement were significantly higher in group 2. Convertion to open surgery was seen two patients in group 2 and one patient in group 1. Only one patient underwent radical nephrectomy for uncontrolled bleeding in group 2. There was no difference in preoperative and 3-month postoperative serum creatinine levels between the groups. The incidence of positive surgical margin was 0% and 5% in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Conclusion: Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for renal tumors is an effective and feasible procedure with acceptable oncologic results. However, tranfusion rate and requiremet of pelvicaliceal system repair were more common in patients with tumor >4 cm. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:30-5

  3. Renal Extraction and Acute Effects of Glucagon-like peptide-1 on Central and Renal Hemodynamics in Healthy Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Simonsen, Lene; Asmar, Meena

    2015-01-01

    catheterization of a renal vein. The subjects remained supine during the experiments. During GLP-1 infusion, the systolic blood pressure and arterial pulse pressure both increased by 5 ± 1 mm Hg (p=0.015 and p=0.002, respectively). Heart rate increased by 5 ± 1 bpm (p=0.005) and cardiac output increased by 18...

  4. Endothelin-like action of Pausinystalia yohimbe aqueous extract on vascular and renal regional hemodynamics in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, A A; Newaz, M; Hercule, H; Saleh, M; Bode, C O; Oyekan, A O

    2003-12-01

    The bark of the African tree Pausinystalia yohimbe has been used as a food additive with aphrodisiac and penile erection enhancing properties. The effect of an aqueous extract of P. yohimbe (CCD-X) on renal circulation was assessed in order to test the hypothesis that it possesses additional effects on nitric oxide production and/or endothelin-1 (ET-1)-like actions. In vivo studies with CCD-X in Sprague Dawley rats demonstrated a dose-dependent (1-1000 ng/kg) increase in mean blood pressure (p < 0.001) and an increase in medullary blood flow (MBF) (p < 0.001). Both the pressor action and renal medullary vasodilation were blocked by endothelinA (ETA) receptor antagonist BMS182874 and endothelinB (ETB) receptor antagonist BQ788 in combination. L-Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg) also inhibited the increase in MBF induced by CCD-X. In vitro studies in isolated perfused kidney and in pressurized renal microvessels confirmed the dose-dependent vasoconstrictor action of this extract. ETA receptor antagonist BQ610 and ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 separately and significantly attenuated the renal vasoconstrictor actions of the extract (p < 0.001 ANOVA). These preliminary observations indicate that, in addition to the alpha-adrenergic antagonist actions that characterize yohimbine, CCD-X possesses endothelin-like actions and affects nitric oxide (NO) production in renal circulation. These findings suggest a strong possibility of post-receptor cross-talk between alpha2-adrenoceptors and endothelin, as well as a direct effect of alpha2-adrenoceptors on renal NO production.

  5. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Grosso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.

  6. Alternative and efficient extraction methods for marine-derived compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B

    2015-05-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe's surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.

  7. Aqueous garlic extract alleviates liver fibrosis and renal dysfunction in bile-duct-ligated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mona F; Zakaria, Sara; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis. Garlic was found to lower the activity of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the serum of rats in a diabetic model. We examined the effect of an aqueous garlic extract (AGE) on the ACE activity, cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis, and associated renal dysfunction in comparison with the effect of the standard drug enalapril. Both AGE and enalapril were administered orally for six weeks starting from the third day after bile duct ligation (BDL). BDL significantly increased the serum activities of liver enzymes, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, an indicator of liver cell death, serum total bilirubin (TB) level, liver myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) content. BDL was associated with elevation of serum urea and creatinine levels indicating renal dysfunction. BDL also caused an increase in the transcript levels of the genes coding for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1), and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), a collagenase, in liver tissues. A significant decrease in hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) was observed in BDL rats, while serum ACE activity was increased. Both AGE and enalapril counteracted all these deleterious changes, with the exception that only AGE reduced the MPO activity. These findings suggest that AGE possesses hepato- and renoprotective properties, similar to enalapril, probably by modulating the levels of proteins such as TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1 and MMP-13, and involving a reduction of ACE and of oxidative stress.

  8. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Escárcega-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200–300 g, divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous, GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal, followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0–5, 5–24, 24–48, and 48–72 h. Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5–24, 24–48, and 48–72. Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats.

  9. The Ginkgo biloba Extract Reverses the Renal Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Adult Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso-Andeola, Irma Guadalupe; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Martínez-Ruvalcaba, Haydée; Posadas del Rio, Francisco A.

    2016-01-01

    The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200–300 g), divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous), GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal), followed, 24 h later, by 5.0 mg/kg of TiO2-NPs intravenously. The statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test for grouped data with ANOVA posttest. The GbE protected renal cells against the effects of TiO2-NPs because it reversed the increased activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and the enzymatic activity of dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV at all times tested (0–5, 5–24, 24–48, and 48–72 h). Also it reversed the glucosuria, hypernatriuria, and urine osmolarity at three times tested (5–24, 24–48, and 48–72). Thus, we conclude that GbE has a beneficial activity in the cytoplasmic membranes of brush border cells on the renal tubules, against the adverse effects that can be produced by some xenobiotics in this case the TiO2-NPs, in experimental rats. PMID:27042354

  10. Highly efficient DNA extraction method from skeletal remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper precisely describes the method of DNA extraction developed to acquire high quality DNA from the Second World War skeletal remains. The same method is also used for molecular genetic identification of unknown decomposed bodies in routine forensic casework where only bones and teeth are suitable for DNA typing. We analysed 109 bones and two teeth from WWII mass graves in Slovenia. Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contaminants and ground the bones into powder, using liquid nitrogen . Prior to isolating the DNA in parallel using the BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, the powder was decalcified for three days. The nuclear DNA of the samples were quantified by real-time PCR method. We acquired autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes of the bones and teeth with PCR amplification of microsatellites, and mtDNA haplotypes 99. For the purpose of traceability in the event of contamination, we prepared elimination data bases including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons who have been in touch with the skeletal remains in any way. Results: We extracted up to 55 ng DNA/g of the teeth, up to 100 ng DNA/g of the femurs, up to 30 ng DNA/g of the tibias and up to 0.5 ng DNA/g of the humerus. The typing of autosomal and YSTR loci was successful in all of the teeth, in 98 % dekalof the femurs, and in 75 % to 81 % of the tibias and humerus. The typing of mtDNA was successful in all of the teeth, and in 96 % to 98 % of the bones. Conclusions: We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 60 years old . The method of DNA extraction described here has proved to be highly efficient. We obtained 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of teeth or bones and complete genetic profiles of autosomal DNA, Y-STR haplotypes, and mtDNA haplotypes from only 0.5g bone and teeth samples.

  11. Nephroprotective activity ofSolanum xanthocarpum fruit extract against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction in experimental rodents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Talib Hussain; Ramesh K Gupta; K Sweety; Bavani Eswaran; M Vijayakumar; Chandana Venkateswara Rao

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate nephroprotective potential ofSolanum xanthocarpum(S. xanthocarpum) fruit extract(SXE) against gentamicin(GM) induced nephrotoxicity and renal dysfunction. Methods:Twenty-fourWistar rats were divided into four groups(n=6).Control rats that received normal saline(i.p.) and0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose(p.o.) per day for8 d.Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration ofGM(100 mg/kg/d for8 d) and were treated withSXE(200 and400 mg/kg/d(p.o.) for8 d).Plasma and urine urea and creatinine, kidney weight, urine output, blood urea nitrogen, renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation was evaluated along with histopathological investigation in various experimental groupsof rats.Results:It was observed that theGM treatment induced significant elevation(P<0.001) in plasma and urine urea, creatinine, kidney weight, blood urea nitrogen, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant decrement(P<0.001) in urine output, renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants.SXE200 and400 mg/kg treatment toGM treated rats recorded significant decrement(up toP<0.001) in plasma and urine urea and creatinine, renal lipid peroxidation along with significant increment(up toP<0.001) in renal enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants.Histological observations of kidney tissues too correlated with the biochemical observations.Conclusions:These finding powerfully supports thatS. xanthocarpum fruit extract acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent the toxic effects ofGM both in the biochemical and histopathological parameters and thus validates its ethnomedicinal use.

  12. Extraction of hidden information by efficient community detection in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooyoung; Lee, Juyong; Gross, Steven

    2013-03-01

    Currently, we are overwhelmed by a deluge of experimental data, and network physics has the potential to become an invaluable method to increase our understanding of large interacting datasets. However, this potential is often unrealized for two reasons: uncovering the hidden community structure of a network, known as community detection, is difficult, and further, even if one has an idea of this community structure, it is not a priori obvious how to efficiently use this information. Here, to address both of these issues, we, first, identify optimal community structure of given networks in terms of modularity by utilizing a recently introduced community detection method. Second, we develop an approach to use this community information to extract hidden information from a network. When applied to a protein-protein interaction network, the proposed method outperforms current state-of-the-art methods that use only the local information of a network. The method is generally applicable to networks from many areas. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 20120001222).

  13. Seawater-cultured Botryococcus braunii for efficient hydrocarbon extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Furuhashi

    Full Text Available As a potential source of biofuel, the green colonial microalga Botryococcus braunii produces large amounts of hydrocarbons that are accumulated in the extracellular matrix. Generally, pretreatment such as drying or heating of wet algae is needed for sufficient recoveries of hydrocarbons from B. braunii using organic solvents. In this study, the Showa strain of B. braunii was cultured in media derived from the modified Chu13 medium by supplying artificial seawater, natural seawater, or NaCl. After a certain period of culture in the media with an osmotic pressure corresponding to 1/4-seawater, hydrocarbon recovery rates exceeding 90% were obtained by simply mixing intact wet algae with n-hexane without any pretreatments and the results using the present culture conditions indicate the potential for hydrocarbon milking.Seawater was used for efficient hydrocarbon extraction from Botryococcus braunii. The alga was cultured in media prepared with seawater or NaCl. Hydrocarbon recovery rate exceeding 90% was obtained without any pretreatment.

  14. Extracting TARs from XML for Efficient Query Answering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasree

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The massive amount of datasets expressed in different formats,such as relational, XML, and RDF, avail-able in several realapplications, may cause some difficulties to non-expert userstrying to access these datasets without having sufficientknowledge on their content and structure. Moreover, theprocesses of query composition, especially in the absence of aschema, and interpretation of the obtained answers may benon-trivial. The existing data mining process is often guided bythe designer, who determines the portion of a dataset whereuseful patterns can be extracted based on his/her deepknowledge of the application scenario. In this paper, wepropose efficient mining techniques to mine hiddeninformation from huge datasets, and then use it in order to gainuseful knowledge which helps inexperienced users to accesshuge XML datasets. We also describe XML mining tool whichimplemented using Java encompasses two main features 1 itmines all the frequent association rules from input documentswithout any a-priori specification of the desired results 2 itprovides quick, summarized, thus often approximate answersto user’s queries, by using the previously mined knowledge.

  15. Hepatic and renal extraction of circulating type III procollagen amino-terminal propeptide and hyaluronan in pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, K D; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Boesby, S

    1989-01-01

    of different PIIINP-related antigens. One was the PIIINP RIA Kit, which measures the intact propeptide. The other was the PIIINP Fab assay, in which the antibody has an equal affinity to the intact propeptide and to smaller fragments, of which the latter constitutes most of the antigenic activity in serum...... fragments. No gastrointestinal extraction of any of the tested substances could be demonstrated. Only smaller PIIINP fragments (such as the col 1 fragment) were extracted by the kidneys (the extraction ratio in the PIIINP Fab assay was 0.19). The renal extraction ratio of HA was 0.14. The amounts of PIIINP...... fragments and of HA extracted by the kidneys were 50- and 3-times the amounts found in urine, respectively, indicating that the col 1 fragment and HA are degraded in the kidneys in addition to urinary excretion. Our results suggest a dynamic turnover of connective tissue-related components with a fast...

  16. Efficient removal of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jingjing; Cheng, Yan; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Wencan; Jiao, Panpan; He, Huijun

    2016-09-01

    Naphthalene-2-ol is a typical biologically recalcitrant pollutant in dye wastewater. Solvent extraction of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions using mixed solvents was investigated. Various extractants and diluents were evaluated, and the effects of volume ratio of extractant to diluent, initial pH, initial concentration of naphthalene-2-ol in aqueous solution, extraction time, temperature, volume ratio of organic phase to aqueous phase (O/A), stirring rate and extraction stages, on extraction efficiency were examined separately. Regeneration and reuse of the spent extractant were also investigated. Results showed that tributyl phosphate (TBP) achieved 98% extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol in a single stage extraction, the highest among the 12 extractants evaluated. Extraction efficiency was optimized when cyclohexane and n-octane were used as diluents. The solvent combination of 20% TBP, 20% n-octanol and 60% cyclohexane (V/V) obtained the maximum extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol, 99.3%, within 20min using three cross-current extraction stages under the following extraction conditions: O/A ratio of 1:1, initial pH of 3, 25°C and stirring rate of 150r/min. Recovery of mixed solvents was achieved by using 15% (W/W) NaOH solution at an O:A ratio of 1:1 and a contact time of 15min. The mixed solvents achieved an extraction capacity for naphthalene-2-ol stably higher than 90% during five cycles after regeneration.

  17. Renal Protective Activity of Hsian-tsao Extracts in Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN YANG; ZHENG-PING XU; CAI-JU XU; JIA MENG; GANG-QIANG DING; XIAO-MING ZHANG; YAN WENG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the renal protective activity of Hsian-tsao Mesona procumbens Hemsl. water extracts in diabetic rats. Methods Thirty Sprague-dawley female rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 each), "control group" with intraperitoneal saline injection, "diabetic group" with 60 mg of intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection per kg of body weight and "Hsian-tsao group" with intragastric administration of Hsian-tsao extraction everyday for 4 weeks after intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection. The body weight and blood sugar were measured before and after model induction in the three groups. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) expressions in the kidney were monitored by immunohistochemistry. Kidney ultrastructural changes were also analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy. Results Before diabetic model induction, there were no significant differences among the three groups in body weight and blood sugar. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, the differences became statistically significant. Electron microscopy also revealed disruption of the foot processes of the podocytes and other damages in diabetic group. These damages were significantly less severe in Hsian-tsao group when compared with the diabetic group. TSP-1 expressions in the kidney were significantly increased in both the diabetic group and Hsian-tsao group, but it was relatively lower in Hsian-tsao group than in diabetic group. Conclusion Our results showed that Hsian-tsao treatment in the diabetic rats effectively prevented the pathological alterations in the kidney and decreased the TSP-1 expression. It was suggested that Hsian-tsao had protective effect on the kidneys of the diabetic rats.

  18. Efficient salt-aided aqueous extraction of bitter almond oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Yu, Xiuzhu; Zhao, Zhong; Xu, Lirong; Zhang, Rui

    2017-08-01

    Salt-aided aqueous extraction (SAAE) is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly method of oil extraction that is influenced by many factors. In the present study, we investigated the effect of SAAE on bitter almond oil yield. This study used sodium bicarbonate solution as extraction solvent and the optimal extraction parameters predicted by Box-Behnken design (i.e., concentration of sodium bicarbonate, 0.4 mol L(-1) ; solvent-to-sample ratio, 5:1; extraction temperature, 84 °C; extraction time, 60 min), for oil recovery of 90.9%. The physiochemical characteristics of the extracted oil suggest that the quality was similar to that of the aqueous enzymatic extracted oil. Moreover, the content of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) in bitter almond oil was found to be less than 5 mg kg(-1) , which was lower compared to that obtained by other reported methods. Results of microanalysis indicated that SAAE led to significant improvement in oil yield by allowing the release of oil and decreasing the emulsion fraction. Therefore, extraction of bitter almond oil by SAAE is feasible. These results demonstrate that extraction of bitter almond oil by SAAE based on the salt effect is feasible on a laboratory scale. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. A high-efficiency cellular extraction system for biological proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in quantitative high-resolution mass spectrometry have led to significant improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of biochemical analyses of cellular reactions, protein-protein interactions, and small molecule drug discovery. These approaches depend on cellular proteome extraction that preserves native protein activities. Here, we systematically analyzed mechanical methods of cell lysis and physical protein extraction to identify those that maximize the extraction ...

  20. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Stephen R.

    2005-11-01

    residue revealed that it contains calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, and other yet unidentified minor components when calcium hydroxide was used as the electrolyte. The surface film can be completely removed mechanically or to some extent inhibited chemically, with both of these processes resulting in an increase in the efficiency of the electrochemical chloride extraction process. In addition, an obvious relationship between the cover depth, water-to-cement ratio, and chloride extraction efficiency does not exist, however, cover depth does influence the current density. The final phase of this study will be presented in a VTRC/FHWA final report. This report will include the results that are presented in this dissertation, in addition to the results from the ongoing research. It will also include an estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment.

  1. Protective effects of Saffron hydroalcoholic extract against renal tissue damages induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Najafi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of saffron hydroalcoholic extract against tissue damages induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups; 1. sham group which underwent surgery with no vessel occlusion and passed equivalent reperfusion period, 2. Ischemia/reperfusion group which received solvent of extract and went through surgery, bilateral renal ischemia for 30 min and 24-h reperfusion period (I/R. The other three groups underwent ischemia/reperfusion receiving saffron extracts of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg/ip, respectively. At the end of reperfusion period, the left kidney tissue was collected and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histological studies. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Following ischemia/reperfusion, the size of Bowman's space increased significantly (P<0.001. In addition, cell necrosis in the tubules of the cortex and outer medulla, vascular congestion and tubular casts in the outer and inner medulla increased. However, the number of RBCs in glomerular capillaries decreased. Administration of saffron extract could significantly improve all the injuries by all three doses. Nevertheless, the effect of 20 mg dose was smaller. Conclusion: Intraperitoneal administration of saffron hydroalcoholic extract has protective effects against tissue damages induced by 30 min ischemia and 24-h reperfusion in the rat’s kidney.

  2. Efficient extraction of intracellular reduced glutathione from fermentation broth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Mei-Jin; Guo, Yuan-Xin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Ying-Ping; Zhang, Si-Liang

    2009-01-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) from fermentation broth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was extracted with ethanol without disruption of the cells. The effects of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature and extraction time were assessed by using 2(3) full factorial designs (FFD). Preliminary studies showed that ethanol concentration had the most influence on GSH yield by ethanol extraction, based on the first order regression coefficients derived using MINITAB software, and an optimal ethanol concentration (25%, v/v) was obtained. However, compared to the conventional extraction technique (hot water extraction), there was no significant advantage in yield of GSH from yeast cells using ethanol extraction under these optimized conditions. But ethanol extraction has several advantages, such as lower energy consumption and lower protein concentration of extraction broth, which may reduce the complexity and cost of the purification process. Hence, ethanol extraction which does not disrupt yeast cells could be an inexpensive, simple and efficient alternative to conventional extraction techniques in the GSH industry.

  3. Efficient extraction strategies of tea (Camellia sinensis) biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Satarupa; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2015-06-01

    Tea is a popular daily beverage worldwide. Modulation and modifications of its basic components like catechins, alkaloids, proteins and carbohydrate during fermentation or extraction process changes organoleptic, gustatory and medicinal properties of tea. Through these processes increase or decrease in yield of desired components are evident. Considering the varied impacts of parameters in tea production, storage and processes that affect the yield, extraction of tea biomolecules at optimized condition is thought to be challenging. Implementation of technological advancements in green chemistry approaches can minimize the deviation retaining maximum qualitative properties in environment friendly way. Existed extraction processes with optimization parameters of tea have been discussed in this paper including its prospects and limitations. This exhaustive review of various extraction parameters, decaffeination process of tea and large scale cost effective isolation of tea components with aid of modern technology can assist people to choose extraction condition of tea according to necessity.

  4. Extraction time and temperature affect the extraction efficiencies of coumarin and phenylpropanoids from Cinnamomum cassia bark using a microwave-assisted extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hoon

    2017-09-15

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), an efficient extraction tool, was employed to extract a coumarin and five phenylpropanoids (cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamaldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamadehyde, and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde) from Cinnamomum cassia bark using water as the extraction solvent. Six marker compounds were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector using a validated analytical method. To investigate the influences of temperature and time on the extraction yields of the six marker compounds, the water extracts of C. cassia bark were prepared using a MAE method at six different extraction temperatures (70, 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95°C) and times (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12min). Their influences were assessed by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained demonstrated that higher extraction temperature and longer extraction time positively affected coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol contents, but negatively affected extract contents of cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde and 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (all p-extraction of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde was affected by both positively and negatively by increasing temperature and time. These changes during MAE were assumed by the chemical natures of the marker compounds with various functional groups. In conclusion, temperature and times significantly affected the extraction efficiencies of a coumarin and five phenylpropanoids from C. cassia bark when a water-based MAE method was used. This study provides a novel approach to the preparation of the water extract of C. cassia bark using MAE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An efficient and cost-effective method for DNA extraction from athalassohaline soil using a newly formulated cell extraction buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Avinash; Jain, Kunal; Shah, Amita R; Madamwar, Datta

    2016-06-01

    The present study describes the rapid and efficient indirect lysis method for environmental DNA extraction from athalassohaline soil by newly formulated cell extraction buffer. The available methods are mostly based on direct lysis which leads to DNA shearing and co-extraction of extra cellular DNA that influences the community and functional analysis. Moreover, during extraction of DNA by direct lysis from athalassohaline soil, it was observed that, upon addition of poly ethylene glycol (PEG), isopropanol or absolute ethanol for precipitation of DNA, salt precipitates out and affecting DNA yield significantly. Therefore, indirect lysis method was optimized for extraction of environmental DNA from such soil containing high salts and low microbial biomass (CFU 4.3 × 10(4) per gram soil) using newly formulated cell extraction buffer in combination with low and high speed centrifugation. The cell extraction buffer composition and its concentration were optimized and PEG 8000 (1 %; w/v) and 1 M NaCl gave maximum cell mass for DNA extraction. The cell extraction efficiency was assessed with acridine orange staining of soil samples before and after cell extraction. The efficiency, reproducibility and purity of extracted DNA by newly developed procedure were compared with previously recognized methods and kits having different protocols including indirect lysis. The extracted environmental DNA showed better yield (5.6 ± 0.7 μg g(-1)) along with high purity ratios. The purity of DNA was validated by assessing its usability in various molecular techniques like restriction enzyme digestion, amplification of 16S rRNA gene using PCR and UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis.

  6. Efficient sparse kernel feature extraction based on partial least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanjal, Charanpal; Gunn, Steve R; Shawe-Taylor, John

    2009-08-01

    The presence of irrelevant features in training data is a significant obstacle for many machine learning tasks. One approach to this problem is to extract appropriate features and, often, one selects a feature extraction method based on the inference algorithm. Here, we formalize a general framework for feature extraction, based on Partial Least Squares, in which one can select a user-defined criterion to compute projection directions. The framework draws together a number of existing results and provides additional insights into several popular feature extraction methods. Two new sparse kernel feature extraction methods are derived under the framework, called Sparse Maximal Alignment (SMA) and Sparse Maximal Covariance (SMC), respectively. Key advantages of these approaches include simple implementation and a training time which scales linearly in the number of examples. Furthermore, one can project a new test example using only k kernel evaluations, where k is the output dimensionality. Computational results on several real-world data sets show that SMA and SMC extract features which are as predictive as those found using other popular feature extraction methods. Additionally, on large text retrieval and face detection data sets, they produce features which match the performance of the original ones in conjunction with a Support Vector Machine.

  7. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Grosso; Patrícia Valentão; Federico Ferreres; Paula B. Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extracti...

  8. Efficient staining of actinomycetoma and eumycetoma grains using henna extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakout, Y M; Batran, S E

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural, nontoxic, convenient and eco-friendly dyes for histopathological diagnosis avoids some of the synthetic dyes' hazards. I used an aqueous extract of henna at a concentration of 20 g/ml and acidified with acetic acid to stain mycetoma grains. Henna stained mycetoma grains orange-red to brown. The engulfed mycetoma grains within inflammatory cells stained well with henna extract compared to hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) and hexamine silver.

  9. Extractant efficiency in the solubilization of alternative sources of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Nogueira dos Reis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of a rock’s composition allows for inferences regarding several properties, ranging from its physical characteristics to its solubility. This study aimed to evaluate the use of different extractants to solubilize the K present in rocks as a potential source of nutrients and the effects of extractant contact time and temperature on rock solubilization. Samples of two rocks and a mineral concentrated from a granitic rock were treated with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4(H2PO4, calcium dihydrogen phosphate (Ca(H2PO42, sodium hydroxide (NaOH and water (control. Sample-extractant treatments were performed using a water bath shaker at temperatures of 25 and 50°C for periods of 3, 7, 10, 20, and 30 days. The amounts of K extracted from rocks using the extractants were in the following order: NH4H2PO4>Ca(HPO42>NaOH>water. The sequence of K release (ppm based on the rocks studied was as follows: nepheline syenite>green banded argillite>concentrated biotite. Increasing the extractant contact time and temperature enhanced the solubilized K content.

  10. Studies on the mechanism of efficient extraction of tea components by aqueous ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ci-Jie; Gao, Ying; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong; Lu, Jian-Liang

    2016-03-01

    Effect of solvent on the extraction yield and its relevant mechanism have been studied in this paper. Compared with extraction by water, catechins and caffeine could be easily extracted from green tea by aqueous ethanol, but hardly at all by absolute ethanol. Results of the vacuum-assisted extraction, solubility determination of EGCG and caffeine, as well as swelling ratio analysis of the infused leaves, indicated that an excellent leaf-matrix-swelling effect and high solubility of tea components might be the key mechanisms for high extraction efficiency by the aqueous ethanol. These mechanisms were further confirmed by the pre-swelling extraction. This is a first report on the mechanism of efficient extraction by aqueous organic solvent. Application of pre-swelling extraction is also discussed.

  11. Comparative clinical evaluation of Boerhavia diffusa root extract with standard Enalapril treatment in Canine chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nethaji Lokeswar Oburai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complementing herbal drugs with conservative modern treatment could improve renal condition in canine chronic renal failure (CRF. Objective: In this study, clinical evaluation of Boerhavia diffusa root extract was carried out in CRF in dogs in comparison with standard enalapril. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 dogs of mixed breeds suffering from CRF from 1 to 2 months were divided into two groups (n = 10 and treated as follows: Group I - Enalapril at 0.5 mg/kg p.o. once daily for 90 days + amoxicillin and cloxacillin at 25 mg/kg i.m. once daily for 1-week; Group II - B. diffusa root extract at 500 mg p.o per dog daily for 90 days. Both groups were maintained on a supportive fluid therapy. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post-hoc test. Results: CRF caused a significant (P < 0.05 increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, urinary protein, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and glutamyl transferase (GGT. A significant (P < 0.05 decrease in hemoglobin and total erythrocyte count (TEC was also observed. Nephrosonography revealed indistinct corticomedullary junction, altered renal architecture, hyper-echoic cortex, medulla, and sunken kidneys. Both the treatments significantly (P < 0.05 reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure by day 30. Serum Creatinine, urea nitrogen, phosphorus, urinary protein, ALP, and GGT showed significant (P < 0.05 reduction by day 60 in both the treatments. However, potassium levels were normalized only by B. diffusa root extract treatment by day 30. Both the treatments failed to show a significant improvement in nephrosonographic picture even after 90 days posttreatment. Conclusions: In conclusion, the efficacy of B. diffusa root extract was comparable to standard enalapril treatment of CRF in dogs.

  12. Efficiency and selectivity of triterpene acid extraction from decoctions and tinctures prepared from apple peels

    OpenAIRE

    Siani, Antonio C.; Nakamura, Marcos J.; dos Santos, Daniel S.; Jose L. Mazzei; do Nascimento, Adriana C.; Ligia M.M. Valente

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the extraction efficiency of ursolic (UA) and oleanolic acids (OA), as well as the total phenols in aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of dry apple peels at room temperature. Materials and Methods: After running preliminary assays on decoctions and tinctures (ethanol: water 7:3 v/v), the extracts from dried apple (cv. Fuji) peels were obtained by static maceration over varied intervals (2 to 180 days). The UA and OA content in the extracts was quantified by Hi...

  13. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of tribulus terrestris on cisplatin induced renal tissue damage in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Raoofi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According beneficial effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT extract on tissue damage, the present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic extract of TT plant on cisplatin (CIS (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria induced renal tissue damage in male mice. Methods: Thirty mice were divided into five groups (n = 6. The first group (control was treated with normal saline (0.9% NaCl and experimental groups with CIS (E1, CIS + 100 mg/kg extract of TT (E2, CIS + 300 mg/kg extract of TT (E3, CIS + 500 mg/kg extract of TT (E4 intraperitoneally. The kidneys were removed after 4 days of injections, and histological evaluations were performed. Results: The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey′s post-hoc test, paired-sample t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. In the CIS treated group, the whole kidney tissue showed an increased dilatation of Bowman′s capsule, medullar congestion, and dilatation of collecting tubules and a decreased in the body weight and kidney weight. These parameters reached to the normal range after administration of fruit extracts of TT for 4 days. Conclusions: The results suggested that the oral administration of TT fruit extract at dose 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight provided protection against the CIS induced toxicity in the mice.

  14. Protective effect of Petroselinum crispum extract in abortion using prostadin-induced renal dysfunction in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rezazad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present study investigated the effects of parsley extract on pregnant rat kidneys which have undergone clinical abortion using prostaglandins. The renal protective effect of parsley extract was evaluated in pregnant rats which had an abortion. Parsley was used due to its antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods:  Fifty-four female rats were divided in 9 groups of 6: control pregnant, two pregnant groups which received parsley extract and prostadin, two non-pregnant groups treated with parsley extract and prostadin, a group administered with both treatments, and three groups which received parsley extract in pre-implantation, implantation, and post-implantation periods of embryos. Ethanolic extract (5 mg/kg was given daily to animals for 18 days of pregnancy period. Parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant statues (TAS, creatinine, and urea were measured using biochemical assays. Histopathologic studies were also done with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining method. Results: After 18 days of treatment, significant differences were observed in serum creatinine, urea, and MDA and TAS levels. Kidney cross-sections showed edema in prostadin-treated rats while improvements in parsley + prostadin -treated rats were observed. Conclusion: These results suggested that ethanolic extract of Petroselinum crispum reduced the dysfunction in rats kidney caused by prostadin-induced abortion and could have beneficial effect in reducing the progression of prostaglandin-induced edema.

  15. A rapid and efficient assay for extracting DNA from fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Kellogg, C.A.; Peak, K.K.; Shinn, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: A method for the rapid extraction of fungal DNA from small quantities of tissue in a batch-processing format was investigated. Methods and Results: Tissue (DNA for PCR/ sequencing applications. Conclusions: The method allowed batch DNA extraction from multiple fungal isolates using a simple yet rapid and reliable assay. Significance and Impact of the Study: Use of this assay will allow researchers to obtain DNA from fungi quickly for use in molecular assays that previously required specialized instrumentation, was time-consuming or was not conducive to batch processing.

  16. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chai Siah; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-07-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25-90 °C), time (0.25-5 h), solvent loading (0.5-5 w/w) and agitation speed (0-225 rpm). Results showed that extraction yield was affected non-linearly by all experimental variables, whilst the sludge dewatering ability was only influenced by the temperature of the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C, 2 h, solvent loading of 2.5 w/w and agitation at 200 rpm. Under the optimal conditions, the extract yield was 2.38%, which is comparable to the extraction of other polysaccharides (0.69-3.66%). The bio-flocculants displayed >98% removal of suspended solids and 68% water recovery during sludge dewatering, and were shown to be comparable with commercial polyacrylamide flocculants. This work shows that bio-flocculants could offer a feasible alternative to synthetic flocculants for water treatment and sludge dewatering applications, and can be extracted using only water as a solvent, minimising the environmental footprint of the extraction process.

  17. Amelioration of pancreatic and renal derangements in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by polyphenol extracts of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Mutiu Idowu; Akanji, Musbau Adewunmi; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2015-12-01

    Free and bound polyphenol extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizome were investigated for their antidiabetic potential in the pancreatic and renal tissues of diabetic rats at a dose of 500mg/kg body weight. Forty Wistar rats were completely randomized into five groups: A-E consisting of eight animals each. Group A (control) comprises normal healthy animals and were orally administered 1.0mL distilled water on a daily basis for 42 days while group B-E were made up of 50mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Group C and D received 1.0mL 500mg/kg body weight free and bound polyphenol extracts respectively while group E received 1.0mL 0.6mg/kg of glibenclamide. Administration of the extracts to the diabetic rats significantly reduced (pdiabetic rats compared to the control groups. Therefore, polyphenols from Zingiber officinale could ameliorate diabetes-induced pancreatic and renal derangements in rats.

  18. Determination of an efficient and reliable method for DNA extraction from ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halos, Lénaïg; Jamal, Taoufik; Vial, Laurence; Maillard, Renaud; Suau, Antonia; Le Menach, Arnaud; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2004-01-01

    Molecular detection of pathogenic microorganisms in ticks is based on DNA amplification of the target pathogen; therefore, extraction of DNA from the tick is a major step. In this study, we compared three different tick DNA extraction protocols based on an enzymatic digestion by proteinase K followed by DNA extraction by a commercial kit (method 1), or on mortar crushing, proteinase K digestion and phenol/chloroform DNA extraction (method 2) and fine crushing with a beads beater, proteinase K digestion and DNA extraction using a commercial kit (method 3). The absence of PCR inhibitors and the DNA quality were evaluated by PCR amplification of the tick mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene using tick-specific primers. With method 1, 23/30 (77%) of the samples were extracted; with method 2, 30/31 (97%) of the samples were extracted and with method 3, 30/30 (100%) of the samples were extracted. DNA extraction efficiency using method 3 is significantly higher than DNA extraction efficiency using method 1 (100% versus 77%, P DNA extraction and applicable to the treatment of small samples such as nymphs and soft ticks with 100% efficiency.

  19. Possibility of high efficient beam extraction from the CERN SPS with a bent crystal. Simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandale, W.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Taratin, A. M.

    2017-03-01

    The extraction of the SPS beam of 270 GeV/c protons assisted by a bent crystal was studied by simulation. Two methods for delivering the SPS beam onto a crystal were considered: transverse diffusion and orbit bump of the beam. It was shown that the main condition for high efficient beam extraction with a bent crystal, which is a small divergence of the incident beam, can be fulfilled. Extraction efficiency up to 99% can be reached for both methods of the beam delivering. The irradiation of the electrostatic septum wires during the beam extraction can be considerably reduced.

  20. High light-extraction-efficiency OLED based on photonic crystal slab structures with taper unit cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Rong-jin; WANG Qing-kang

    2006-01-01

    To improve the light-extraction-efficiency of OLED,we introduced PCS (Photonic Crystal Slab) structures into the interface of ITO layer and glass substrate.PCS structures with Taper unit cells are proved to be effective in reducing the energy of guided wave trapped in high refractive index material,and an increase of light-extraction-efficiency to 95.26% is gained.This enhancement is much greater than the traditional PCS with cylinder unit cells (60%-70%).Physical mechanisms of light-extraction-efficiency enhancement in these structures are further discussed.

  1. Efficient ion beam extraction from a flowing plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, M.; John, P.K.

    1979-10-01

    A moving plasma with directed flow velocities v larger than the ion acoustic speed c/sub s/ is used as a source of high-current ion beams in the 10--20-keV range of energies. Current densities up to 3 A/cm/sup 2/ are obtained at the plasma boundary which is an order of magnitude larger than the limiting value of Bohm current in a stationary plasma. The observed current densities were proportional to v, unlike the Bohm current densities which are proportional to ion acoustic speed. Total ion currents up to approx.100 A were extracted from the plasma through a two electrode extraction system. Simple geometric shaping of the electrodes enabled an 8-cm-diam beam to be focused to approx.7 mm.

  2. Efficient Extraction of Content from Enriched Geospatial and Networked Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Qiang

    Social network services such as Google Places and Twitter have led to a proliferation of user-generated web content that is constantly shared among users. These services enable access to various types of content, covering geospatial locations, textual descriptions, social relationships, and so...... of compressing weighted networks. Such networks are weighted graphs that model objects and their relationships and where weights indicate, for instance, importance. Methods are introduced that extract implicit structure in a weighted graph, representing this structure as a smaller generalized graph obtained....... First, the dissertation investigates the extraction of relevant sets of objects from collections of geo-tagged web objects, such as business directory entries. The increasing availability of such objects gives prominence to location-based queries that consider both spatial and textual properties...

  3. Optimization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Extraction Efficiency Parameters for Sub- and Supercritical Water Extraction (SCWE) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Asahi A.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of molecules composed of multiple, bonded benzene rings. As PAHS are believed to be present on Mars, positive confirmation of their presence on Mars is highly desirable. To extract PAHS, which have low volatility, a fluid extraction method is ideal, and one that does not utilize organic solvents is especially ideal for in situ instrumental analysis. The use of water as a solvent, which at subcritical pressures and temperatures is relatively non-Polar, has significant potential. As SCWE instruments have not yet been commercialized, all instruments are individually-built research prototypes: thus, initial efforts were intended to determine if extraction efficiencies on the JPL-built laboratory-scale SCWE instrument are comparable to differing designs built elsewhere. Samples of soil with certified reference concentrations of PAHs were extracted using SCWE as well as conventional Soxhlet extraction. Continuation of the work would involve extractions on JPL'S newer, portable SCWE instrument prototype to determine its efficiency in extracting PAHs.

  4. High efficiency multi-pass proton beam extraction with a bent crystal at the SPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuna, X.; Bussa, M. P.; Carboni, G.; Dehning, B.; Elsener, K.; Ferrari, A.; Fidecaro, G.; Freund, A.; Guinand, R.; Gyr, M.; Herr, W.; Klem, J.; Laffin, M.; Lanceri, L.; Mikkelsen, U.; Møller, S. P.; Scandale, W.; Tosello, F.; Uggerhøj, E.; Vuagnin, G.; Weisse, E.; Weisz, S.

    1995-02-01

    Recent measurements of 120 GeV proton extraction by means of a bent silicon crystal at the CERN-SPS accelerator are summarized. The existence of multi-pass extraction has been proven by blocking first-pass extraction: using a crystal covered with an amorphous layer, extracted beam with high efficiency was observed, which provides a direct proof for the importance of the multi-pass mechanism. This opens new possibilities in the design and optimization of a bent crystal extraction scheme.

  5. Protective effect of grape seed and skin extract on high dosage garlic-induced renal oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Hamlaoui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the protective role of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE against high garlic dose-induced renal toxicity has been evaluated. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with garlic (5 g/kg bw or GSSE (500 mg/kg bw or a combination of garlic and GSSE at the same doses daily for one month. Renal oxidative stress markers and antioxidant status were evaluated. We also measured plasma creatinine and urea. Data showed that high garlic dose induced renal toxicity by increasing creatinine and urea and a pro-oxidative status characterized by increased malondialdehyde, carbonyl protein, calcium and H2O2, but decreased free iron. Unexpectedly garlic increased catalase but decreased peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. GSSE co-treatment counteracted almost all garlic-induced deleterious effects. In conclusion, high garlic dose induced a pro-oxidative state characterized by the Fenton reaction between H2O2 and free iron, inducing Ca2+ depletion, while GSSE exerted antioxidant properties and Ca2+ repletion.

  6. Efficiently extract recurring tree fragments from large treebanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangati, F.; Zuidema, W.; Bod, R.; Calzolari, N.; Choukri, K.; Maegaard, B.; Mariani, J.; Odijk, J.; Piperidis, S.; Rosner, M.; Tapias, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe FragmentSeeker, a tool which is capable to identify all those tree constructions which are recurring multiple times in a large Phrase Structure treebank. The tool is based on an efficient kernel-based dynamic algorithm, which compares every pair of trees of a given treebank

  7. Efficiently extract recurring tree fragments from large treebanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangati, F.; Zuidema, W.; Bod, R.; Calzolari, N.; Choukri, K.; Maegaard, B.; Mariani, J.; Odijk, J.; Piperidis, S.; Rosner, M.; Tapias, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe FragmentSeeker, a tool which is capable to identify all those tree constructions which are recurring multiple times in a large Phrase Structure treebank. The tool is based on an efficient kernel-based dynamic algorithm, which compares every pair of trees of a given treebank

  8. Efficient Removal of Ruthenium Byproducts from Olefin Metathesis Products by Simple Aqueous Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon Hyeok; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    Simple aqueous extraction removed ruthenium byproducts efficiently from ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reactions catalyzed by a PEG-supported N-heterocyclic carbene-based ruthenium complex. PMID:17428062

  9. Protective effects of Rosa canina L fruit extracts on renal disturbances induced by reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Najafi, Houshang; Jalalvandi, Sepeideh; Hosseinei, Fatemeh

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Rosa canina L fruit extracts on histological damages, oxidative stress, and functional disturbances induced by bilateral renal ischemia and reperfusion. Ischemia and reperfusion were induced on the kidneys of anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats in the reperfusion and Rosa canina groups were administered extract solvent and Rosa canina extract, respectively. In addition, in the sham group, surgery was done without ischemia. In the last 6 hours of the reperfusion period, urine sample were collected using metabolic cage and at the end of this period, blood samples were taken from the descending aorta. The kidney tissues were collected and subjected to microscopic study for histological damages, while oxidative stress was measured by determining malondialdehyde and ferric reducing/antioxidant power levels. The comparison between the reperfusion and sham groups indicated reductions in creatinine clearance, absolute excretion of potassium, urine osmilarity, and increase in absolute excretion of sodium in the reperfusion group. These changes were less pronounced with Rosa canina fruit extract. In addition, blood creatinine and urea concentrations which increased in the reperfusion group, were significantly lower in the Rosa canina group. In this group, the degree of histological damages and the level of malondialdehyde were lower than the reperfusion group, while ferric reducing/antioxidant power level was significantly higher. The findings of this study showed that Rosa canina fruit extract possesses protective effects against kidney function disturbances, oxidative stress, and histological damages.

  10. Life-threatening rupture of a renal angiomyolipoma in a patient taking over-the-counter horse chestnut seed extract.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Snow, Aisling

    2011-02-09

    BACKGROUND: Alternative medical therapies are increasingly being prescribed due to their good safety profile and perceived limited side effects. They are often unregulated and prescribed over the counter. One such medication is horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE), which is used for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and is known to affect blood coagulation. Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign fat-containing mesenchymal tumor of the kidney. It is often found incidentally and in most cases can be managed conservatively. Rupture of the kidney with hemorrhage is a well-known complication that may be serious and life-threatening. Known risk factors for hemorrhage include anticoagulation as well as pregnancy, increased size of the lesion, high lesion vascularity, and aneurysm formation within the tumor. OBJECTIVES: The aim is to raise awareness of potential HCSE-induced anticoagulation, including, as in the case presented, acute renal AML hemorrhage. CASE REPORT: The case of a patient taking HCSE for venous insufficiency is presented. The patient suffered a life-threatening rupture of the kidney in the presence of known renal AML. She underwent emergency embolization with a successful outcome. Because HCSE-containing products are thought to be generally safe in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, it is important to be mindful of their potential anticoagulant properties and, therefore, their relative contraindication both in patients taking other anticoagulants and those with known renal AML. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate a potentially life-threatening association between HSCE-containing products and renal AML, highlighting the risk associated with HSCE-induced anticoagulation.

  11. The extraction of natural resources. The role of thermodynamic efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roma, Antonio [Dipartimento di Economia Politica, Universita degli Studi di Siena (Italy); London Business School (United Kingdom); Pirino, Davide [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Enrico Fermi' , Universita degli Studi di Pisa (Italy)

    2009-08-15

    The modelling of production in microeconomics has been the subject of heated debate. The controversial issues include the substitutability between production inputs, the role of time and the economic consequences of irreversibility in the production process. A case in point is the use of Cobb-Douglas type production functions, which completely ignore the physical process underlying the production of a good. We examine these issues in the context of the production of a basic commodity (such as copper or aluminium). We model the extraction and the refinement of a valuable substance which is mixed with waste material, in a way which is fully consistent with the physical constraints of the process. The resulting analytical description of production unambiguously reveals that perfect substitutability between production inputs fails if a corrected thermodynamic approach is used. We analyze the equilibrium pricing of a commodity extracted in an irreversible way. We force consumers to purchase goods using energy as the means of payment and force the firm to account in terms of energy. The resulting market provides the firm with a form of reversibility of its use of energy. Under an energy numeraire, energy resources will naturally be used in a more parsimonious way. (author)

  12. Current Physical and SDS Extraction Methods Do Not Efficiently Remove Exosporium Proteins from Bacillus anthracis spores

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Brian M.; Binkley, Jana M; Stewart, George C.

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical studies of the outermost spore layers of the Bacillus cereus family are hindered by difficulties in efficient dispersal of the external spore layers and difficulties in dissociating protein complexes that comprise the exosporium layer. Detergent and physical methods have been utilized to disrupt the exosporium layer. Herein we compare commonly used SDS extraction buffers used to extract spore proteins and demonstrate the incomplete extractability of the exosporium layer by these m...

  13. Establishment and application of an efficient, economic, and rapid rice DNA extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid, economic, and efficient method for DNA extraction from rice leaf, root and seed was developed, and the extracted DNA was used as a template to successfully amplify the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta. Profiles of Pi-ta in 165 breeding lines detected by DNA markers were verified using diff...

  14. Renal effects of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae stem bark methanol/methylene chloride extract on L-NAME hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguelefack-Mbuyo Elvine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The present study aims at evaluating the effects of methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of Mammea africana on the renal function of L-NAME treated rats. Material and Methods : Normotensive male Wistar rats were divided into five groups respectively treated with distilled water, L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day, L-NAME + L-arginine (100 mg/kg/day, L-NAME + captopril (20 mg/kg/day or L-NAME + M. africana extract (200 mg/kg/day for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure was measured before and at the end of treatment. Body weight was measured at the end of each week. Urine was collected 6 and 24 h after the first administration and further on day 15 and 30 of treatment for creatinine, sodium and potassium quantification, while plasma was collected at the end of treatment for the creatinine assay. ANOVA two way followed by Bonferonni or one way followed by Tukey were used for statistical analysis. Results : M. africana successfully prevented the rise in blood pressure and the acute natriuresis and diuresis induced by L-NAME. When given chronically, the extract produced a sustained antinatriuretic effect, a non-significant increase in urine excretion and reduced the glomerular hyperfiltration induced by L-NAME. Conclusions : The above results suggest that the methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of M. africana may protect kidney against renal dysfunction and further demonstrate that its antihypertensive effect does not depend on a diuretic or natriuretic activity.

  15. Direct Reprogramming of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells into Functional Renal Cells Using Cell-free Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimou, Evangelia; Morigi, Marina; Iatropoulos, Paraskevas; Xinaris, Christodoulos; Tomasoni, Susanna; Benedetti, Valentina; Longaretti, Lorena; Rota, Cinzia; Todeschini, Marta; Rizzo, Paola; Introna, Martino; Grazia de Simoni, Maria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Goligorsky, Michael S.; Benigni, Ariela

    2015-01-01

    Summary The application of cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine is gaining recognition. Here, we show that human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), also known as bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, can be reprogrammed into renal proximal tubular-like epithelial cells using cell-free extracts. Streptolysin-O-permeabilized BMSCs exposed to HK2-cell extracts underwent morphological changes—formation of “domes” and tubule-like structures—and acquired epithelial functional properties such as transepithelial-resistance, albumin-binding, and uptake and specific markers E-cadherin and aquaporin-1. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of brush border microvilli and tight intercellular contacts. RNA sequencing showed tubular epithelial transcript abundance and revealed the upregulation of components of the EGFR pathway. Reprogrammed BMSCs integrated into self-forming kidney tissue and formed tubular structures. Reprogrammed BMSCs infused in immunodeficient mice with cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury engrafted into proximal tubuli, reduced renal injury and improved function. Thus, reprogrammed BMSCs are a promising cell resource for future cell therapy. PMID:25754206

  16. Direct Reprogramming of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells into Functional Renal Cells Using Cell-free Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Papadimou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine is gaining recognition. Here, we show that human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, can be reprogrammed into renal proximal tubular-like epithelial cells using cell-free extracts. Streptolysin-O-permeabilized BMSCs exposed to HK2-cell extracts underwent morphological changes—formation of “domes” and tubule-like structures—and acquired epithelial functional properties such as transepithelial-resistance, albumin-binding, and uptake and specific markers E-cadherin and aquaporin-1. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of brush border microvilli and tight intercellular contacts. RNA sequencing showed tubular epithelial transcript abundance and revealed the upregulation of components of the EGFR pathway. Reprogrammed BMSCs integrated into self-forming kidney tissue and formed tubular structures. Reprogrammed BMSCs infused in immunodeficient mice with cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury engrafted into proximal tubuli, reduced renal injury and improved function. Thus, reprogrammed BMSCs are a promising cell resource for future cell therapy.

  17. Quick and efficient extraction of uranium from a contaminated solution by a calixarene nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnul, Aurélie; Bouvier-Capely, Céline; Adam, Marc; Phan, Guillaume; Rebière, François; Fattal, Elias

    2010-10-15

    This work aims to evaluate the efficiency of a calixarene emulsion for uranium extraction from a contaminated solution prior to apply such a delivery system to uranium skin decontamination. For this purpose, various experimental parameters that can influence the efficiency of the calixarene emulsion on uranium extraction were determined. The results show that the calixarene nanoemulsion effect can be observed after a very short time of contact with uranium-contaminated solution (5 min) and that it is still efficient in case of small volumes of contaminated solution. The pH of the contaminated solution was found to be the most important parameter affecting the calixarene nanoemulsion efficiency with a dramatic reduction of the uranium extraction rate in case of acidification of the contaminated medium. This lack of efficiency can be overcome by buffering the nanoemulsion continuous phase. The obtained results reveal that the calixarene nanoemulsion could represent a promising system for the emergency treatment of uranium cutaneous contamination.

  18. Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of plasma and renal tissue in cisplatin (cDDP) induced nephrotoxic rats and its protection by treatments with floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Treatment with cDDP elevated (p GSH) and antioxidant enzymes compared to the control group. Pre- and post-treatments of ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis along with cDDP restored (p > 0.05) CR, albumin, TOS, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and renal tissue. Ethanolic extract treatments reduced (p < 0.05) MDA level in renal tissue without restoring the erythrocyte MDA level following cDDP treatment. These observations were further supported by the histopathological findings in renal tissue. Observations of the present study have shown that treatments with ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis protect cDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system of the renal tissue.

  19. Efficiency of genomic DNA extraction dependent on the size of magnetic nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun Ah; Hyun Min, Ji; Hua Wu, Jun; Woo Jang, Jin; Lim, Chae-Seung; Keun Kim, Young

    2014-05-01

    We report the efficiency of genomic DNA extraction as a function of particle size and quantity. For DNA extraction, we synthesized magnetic nanoclusters of various sizes and coated the surface of these magnetic nanoclusters with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid. We showed that the nanoclusters had a tight particle size distribution and high crystallinity. Furthermore, we observed that the three types of magnetic nanoclusters studied exhibited ferrimagnetic behavior and that larger nanoclusters showed larger saturation magnetization values. The resultant efficiency of DNA extraction is inversely proportional to particle size in the range of nanoclusters tested, due to the fact that the surface-to-volume ratio decreases as particle size increases.

  20. High light extraction efficiency in bulk-GaN based volumetric violet light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Aurelien, E-mail: adavid@soraa.com; Hurni, Christophe A.; Aldaz, Rafael I.; Cich, Michael J.; Ellis, Bryan; Huang, Kevin; Steranka, Frank M.; Krames, Michael R. [Soraa Inc., 6500 Kaiser Dr., Fremont, California 94555 (United States)

    2014-12-08

    We report on the light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride violet light-emitting diodes with a volumetric flip-chip architecture. We introduce an accurate optical model to account for light extraction. We fabricate a series of devices with varying optical configurations and fit their measured performance with our model. We show the importance of second-order optical effects like photon recycling and residual surface roughness to account for data. We conclude that our devices reach an extraction efficiency of 89%.

  1. [An orientational examination of the effects of extracts from mixtures of herbal drugs on selected renal functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masteiková, R; Klimas, R; Samura, B B; Savickas, A; Samura, B A; Belaij, S I; Samura, I B; Rabisková, M; Chalupová, Z; Bernatoniene, J

    2007-04-01

    The paper aimed to determine the effects of mixtures of selected medicinal plants on some physiological renal functions, i.e. excretion of urine and electrolytes and changes in the quantity of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and kallikrein-kinins in rat blood plasma after water and salt load. The following medicinal plants were selected for the examination: downy birch (Betula pubescens EHRH.), everlasting flower (Helichrysum arenarium L. MOENCH.), hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L.), woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.), sweet corn (Zea mays L.), German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), and field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.). Herbal drugs were used to compose 6 mixtures. Extracts from these mixtures were administered to Wistar strain males and their effects were compared with the effects of an administered suspension of hydrochlorothiazide, an extract from field horsetail herb alone, and a control group of animals which was not administered any preparation. The greatest diuretic effect was found in a mixture composed of birch leaves (Betulae folium), hawthorn berries (Crataegi fructus), strawberry leaves (Fragariae folium), corn silk (Maydis stigmata), chamomile flowers (Matricariae flos), and horsetail herb (Equiseti herba). Its effect was greater by 47% and 34% than the effect of a horsetail herb extract and a hydrochlorothiazide suspension (p < 0.05), respectively. The extract from this mixture also increased the quantity of prostaglandins E2 and kallikrein-kinins in rat blood plasma in water and salt load.

  2. Extraction and Binding Efficiency of Calix[8]arene Derivative Toward Selected Transition Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imdadullah Qureshi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have explored the extraction efficiency as well as binding ability of calix[8]arene derivative (3 for selected transition metal ions (Co2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Pb2+ and Cu2+. Picrate salt solutions of these metals were used in the liquid-liquid extraction experiments. It is apparent from the results that ligand 3 shows appreciable high extraction of transition metal cations, with the relative order Pb2+>Cu2+>Ni2+>Co2+>Cd2+ being observed. Highest extraction efficiency has been observed for Pb2+ and Cu2+ i.e. 95 and 91% respectively. The significant extraction and complexation ability for these metal ions may be attributed to the nature, size, structure and geometry of both ligand and metal ions.

  3. An efficient method for genomic DNA extraction from different molluscs species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge C; Chaves, Raquel; Bastos, Estela; Leitão, Alexandra; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique

    2011-01-01

    The selection of a DNA extraction method is a critical step when subsequent analysis depends on the DNA quality and quantity. Unlike mammals, for which several capable DNA extraction methods have been developed, for molluscs the availability of optimized genomic DNA extraction protocols is clearly insufficient. Several aspects such as animal physiology, the type (e.g., adductor muscle or gills) or quantity of tissue, can explain the lack of efficiency (quality and yield) in molluscs genomic DNA extraction procedure. In an attempt to overcome these aspects, this work describes an efficient method for molluscs genomic DNA extraction that was tested in several species from different orders: Veneridae, Ostreidae, Anomiidae, Cardiidae (Bivalvia) and Muricidae (Gastropoda), with different weight sample tissues. The isolated DNA was of high molecular weight with high yield and purity, even with reduced quantities of tissue. Moreover, the genomic DNA isolated, demonstrated to be suitable for several downstream molecular techniques, such as PCR sequencing among others.

  4. An Efficient Method for Genomic DNA Extraction from Different Molluscs Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Guedes-Pinto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The selection of a DNA extraction method is a critical step when subsequent analysis depends on the DNA quality and quantity. Unlike mammals, for which several capable DNA extraction methods have been developed, for molluscs the availability of optimized genomic DNA extraction protocols is clearly insufficient. Several aspects such as animal physiology, the type (e.g., adductor muscle or gills or quantity of tissue, can explain the lack of efficiency (quality and yield in molluscs genomic DNA extraction procedure. In an attempt to overcome these aspects, this work describes an efficient method for molluscs genomic DNA extraction that was tested in several species from different orders: Veneridae, Ostreidae, Anomiidae, Cardiidae (Bivalvia and Muricidae (Gastropoda, with different weight sample tissues. The isolated DNA was of high molecular weight with high yield and purity, even with reduced quantities of tissue. Moreover, the genomic DNA isolated, demonstrated to be suitable for several downstream molecular techniques, such as PCR sequencing among others.

  5. Efficiency of solvent extraction methods for the determination of methyl mercury in forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J; Skyllberg, U; Tu, Q; Bleam, W F; Frech, W

    2000-07-01

    Methyl mercury was determined by gas chromatography, microwave induced plasma, atomic emission spectrometry (GC-MIP-AES) using two different methods. One was based on extraction of mercury species into toluene, pre-concentration by evaporation and butylation of methyl mercury with a Grignard reagent followed by determination. With the other, methyl mercury was extracted into dichloromethane and back extracted into water followed by in situ ethylation, collection of ethylated mercury species on Tenax and determination. The accuracy of the entire procedure based on butylation was validated for the individual steps involved in the method. Methyl mercury added to various types of soil samples showed an overall average recovery of 87.5%. Reduced recovery was only caused by losses of methyl mercury during extraction into toluene and during pre-concentration by evaporation. The extraction of methyl mercury added to the soil was therefore quantitative. Since it is not possible to directly determine the extraction efficiency of incipient methyl mercury, the extraction efficiency of total mercury with an acidified solution containing CuSO4 and KBr was compared with high-pressure microwave acid digestion. The solvent extraction efficiency was 93%. For the IAEA 356 sediment certified reference material, mercury was less efficiently extracted and determined methyl mercury concentrations were below the certified value. Incomplete extraction could be explained by the presence of a large part of inorganic sulfides, as determined by x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES). Analyses of sediment reference material CRM 580 gave results in agreement with the certified value. The butylation method gave a detection limit for methyl mercury of 0.1 ng g(-1), calculated as three times the standard deviation for repeated analysis of soil samples. Lower values were obtained with the ethylation method. The precision, expressed as RSD for concentrations 20 times above the

  6. Enhancement of light extraction efficiency in OLED with two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongjin Yan; Qingkang Wang

    2006-01-01

    Light extraction efficiency of organic light emitting diode (OLED) based on various photonic crystal slab (PCS) structures was studied. By using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we investigated the effect of several parameters, including filling factor and lattice constant, on the enhancement of light extraction efficiency of three basic PCSs, and got the most effective one. Two novel designs of "interlaced"and "double-interlaced" PCS structures based on the most effective basic PCS structure were introduced,and the "interlaced" one was proved to be even more efficient than its prototype. Large enhancement of light extraction efficiency resulted from the coupling to leaky modes in the expended light cone of a band structure, the diffraction in the space between columns, as well as the strong scattering at indium-tinoxide/glass interfaces.

  7. Extraction of resinoids from St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L: I. Efficiency and optimization of extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenović Dragan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of resinoids from St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L was studied in a series of two papers. In the first part, the effects of the operating conditions on the yield of resinoids (total extract were analyzed, while the mathematical models of extraction kinetics were compared in the second one. The extraction was carried out using an aqueous solution of ethanol (70 and 95 % v/v at a hydromodulus (plant material to solvent ratio, w/v of 1:5 or 1:10. The plant material was disintegrated and divided into three fractions (mean particle size: 0.23, 0.57 and 1.05 mm. The temperature was 25, 50 or about 80°C (boiling temperature. A higher yield of resinoids was obtained when the plant material of greater disintegration degree (0.23 mm was treated with 70% v/v aqueous ethanol solution at higher hydromoduli (1:10 and temperatures (80°C. The effects of the operating factors on the yield of resinoids were estimated by using both the full factorial experimental plan 24 and artificial neuronic networks (ANN of 3-4-1 topology. Of the two methods, the ANN one was found to be advantageous because of its capability of estimating the yield of resinoids in the whole range of the applied operating conditions.

  8. Percutaneous renal biopsy of native kidneys: efficiency, safety and risk factors associated with major complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Muñoz, Abel; Valdez-Ortiz, Rafael; González-Parra, Carlos; Espinoza-Dávila, Elvy; Morales-Buenrostro, Luis E.; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The use of an automated biopsy device and real-time ultrasound (current technology) for percutaneous renal biopsies (PRBs) has improved the likelihood of obtaining adequate tissue for diagnosis and has reduced the complications associated with renal biopsies. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the current PRB procedure and identify possible risk factors for the development of major complications. Material and methods We collected all native kidney PRBs performed with current technology in our institute from January 1998 to April 2008. Studied variables were collected from the patient's chart at the time of the biopsy. Results We analyzed 623 (96.4%) of 646 renal biopsies performed with the current automated procedure guided by real-time ultrasound. Although the effectiveness was 97.6%, there were 110 complications. Fourteen (2.24%) of these complications were major: 9 cases of renal hematoma, 2 cases with macroscopic hematuria (which needed blood transfusion), 1 case of intestinal perforation (which required exploratory laparotomy), 1 nephrectomy and 1 case of a dissecting hematoma. The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following risk factors for developing major complications: diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, RR 7.6 (95% CI 1.35-43); platelet count ≤ 120×103/µl; RR 7.0 (95% CI 1.9-26.2); and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) ≥ 60 mg/dl, RR 9.27 (95% CI 2.8-30.7). Conclusions The observed efficacy and safety of the current technique in the present study were similar to observations in previous studies. Diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, platelets ≤ 120×103/µl and BUN ≥ 60 mg/dl were independent risk factors for the development of major complications following PRB. PMID:22291827

  9. An efficient method for the extraction of astaxanthin from the red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seok-Keun; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Park, Young-Sam; Kim, Young-Jin; Chang, Hyo-Ihl

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated an efficient method for the extraction of astaxanthin from the red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. The extraction process comprised three steps: (1) cultivating the yeast; (2) treating the yeast culture suspension with microwaves to destroy the cell walls and microbodies; and (3) drying the yeast and extracting the astaxanthin pigment using ethanol, methanol, acetone, or a mixture of the three as the extraction solvent. Ultimately, various treatment tests were performed to determine the conditions for optimal pigment extraction, and the total carotenoid and astaxanthin contents were quantified. A frequency of 2,450 MHz, an output of 500 watts, and irradiation time of 60 s were the most optimum conditions for yeast cell wall destruction. Furthermore, optimal pigment extraction occurred when using a cell density of 10 g/l at 30 C over 24 h, with a 10% volume of ethanol.

  10. Microalgae based biorefinery: evaluation of oil extraction methods in terms of efficiency, costs, toxicity and energy in lab-scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Darío González-Delgado; Viatcheslav Kafarov

    2013-01-01

    Several alternatives of microalgal metabolites extraction and transformation are being studied for achieving the total utilization of this energy crop of great interest worldwide. Microalgae oil extraction is a key stage in microalgal biodiesel production chains and their efficiency affects significantly the global process efficiency. In this study, a comparison of five oil extraction methods in lab-scale was made taking as additional parameters, besides extraction efficiency, the costs of me...

  11. Liver Ameliorative Effects of the Hydroalcohol Extract of Rosa canina L. Fruit against Ischemic Acute Renal Failure-induced Hepatic Damage in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gholampour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown remote effects of renal Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R injury on the liver. Furthermore, I/R injury is correlated with the generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. This study investigated the effect of Rosa canina on the hepatic dysfunction and histological damage induced by renal ischaemia/ reperfusion at an early stage. There were three groups (n = 10, in which rats received orally 7 days before induction of ischemia, extract of Rosa canina (500 mg kg-1 in RC+I/R group and distilled water in I/R group. In sham group, the renal arteries were not occluded and distilled water was administered orally 7 days before surgery. Renal ischemia was induced by both renal arteries occlusion for 45 min followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and finally liver samples were preserved for future histological examination. The renal ischaemic challenge resulted in major histological damages of the liver (pRosa canina exhibited a hepatoameliorative effect against renal ischemia/reperfusion-induced lesions.

  12. Chronic Administration of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Leaves Extract Attenuates Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress and Improves Renal Histopathology and Function in Experimental Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varatharajan Rajavel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis leaves extract (OPLE has antioxidant properties and because oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN, we tested the hypothesis that OPLE prevents diabetes renal oxidative stress, attenuating injury. Sprague-Dawley rats received OPLE (200 and 500 mg kg−1 for 4 and 12 weeks after diabetes induction (streptozotocin 60 mg kg−1. Blood glucose level, body and kidney weights, urine flow rate (UFR, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and proteinuria were assessed. Oxidative stress variables such as 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, glutathione (GSH, and lipid peroxides (LPO were quantified. Renal morphology was analysed, and plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1 was measured. Diabetic rats demonstrated increase in blood glucose and decreased body and increased kidney weights. Renal dysfunction (proteinuria, elevations in UFR and GFR was observed in association with increases in LPO, 8-OHdG, and TGF-β1 and a decrease in GSH. Histological evaluation of diabetic kidney demonstrated glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. OPLE attenuated renal dysfunction, improved oxidative stress markers, and reduced renal pathology in diabetic animals. These results suggest OPLE improves renal dysfunction and pathology in diabetes by reducing oxidative stress; furthermore, the protective effect of OPLE against renal damage in diabetes depends on the dose of OPLE as well as progression of DN.

  13. Chronic Administration of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Leaves Extract Attenuates Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress and Improves Renal Histopathology and Function in Experimental Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavel, Varatharajan; Abdul Sattar, Munavvar Zubaid; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Kassim, Normadiah M; Abdullah, Nor Azizan

    2012-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) leaves extract (OPLE) has antioxidant properties and because oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), we tested the hypothesis that OPLE prevents diabetes renal oxidative stress, attenuating injury. Sprague-Dawley rats received OPLE (200 and 500 mg kg(-1)) for 4 and 12 weeks after diabetes induction (streptozotocin 60 mg kg(-1)). Blood glucose level, body and kidney weights, urine flow rate (UFR), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and proteinuria were assessed. Oxidative stress variables such as 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxides (LPO) were quantified. Renal morphology was analysed, and plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) was measured. Diabetic rats demonstrated increase in blood glucose and decreased body and increased kidney weights. Renal dysfunction (proteinuria, elevations in UFR and GFR) was observed in association with increases in LPO, 8-OHdG, and TGF-β1 and a decrease in GSH. Histological evaluation of diabetic kidney demonstrated glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. OPLE attenuated renal dysfunction, improved oxidative stress markers, and reduced renal pathology in diabetic animals. These results suggest OPLE improves renal dysfunction and pathology in diabetes by reducing oxidative stress; furthermore, the protective effect of OPLE against renal damage in diabetes depends on the dose of OPLE as well as progression of DN.

  14. Double-Grating Displacement Structure for Improving the Light Extraction Efficiency of LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes (LEDs, grating patterns were etched on GaN and silver film surfaces. The grating-patterned surface etching enabled the establishment of an LED model with a double-grating displacement structure that is based on the surface plasmon resonance principle. A numerical simulation was conducted using the finite difference time domain method. The influence of different grating periods for GaN surface and silver film thickness on light extraction efficiency was analyzed. The light extraction efficiency of LEDs was highest when the grating period satisfied grating coupling conditions. The wavelength of the highest value was also close to the light wavelength of the medium. The plasmon resonance frequencies on both sides of the silver film were affected by silver film thickness. With increasing film thickness, plasmon resonance frequency tended toward the same value and light extraction efficiency reached its maximum. When the grating period for the GaN surface was 365 nm and the silver film thickness was 390 nm, light extraction efficiency reached a maximum of 55%.

  15. A novel enzyme-assisted ultrasonic approach for highly efficient extraction of resveratrol from Polygonum cuspidatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jer-An; Kuo, Chia-Hung; Chen, Bao-Yuan; Li, Ying; Liu, Yung-Chuan; Chen, Jiann-Hwa; Shieh, Chwen-Jen

    2016-09-01

    Resveratrol is a promising multi-biofunctional phytochemical, which is abundant in Polygonum cuspidatum. Several methods for resveratrol extraction have been reported, while they often take a long extraction time accompanying with poor extraction yield. In this study, a novel enzyme-assisted ultrasonic approach for highly efficient extraction of resveratrol from P. cuspidatum was developed. According to results, the resveratrol yield significantly increased after glycosidases (Pectinex® or Viscozyme®) were applied in the process of extraction, and better extraction efficacy was found in the Pectinex®-assisted extraction compared to Viscozyme®-assisted extraction. Following, a 5-level-4-factor central composite rotatable design with response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) was selected to model and optimize the Pectinex®-assisted ultrasonic extraction. Based on the coefficient of determination (R(2)) calculated from the design data, ANN model displayed much more accurate in data fitting as compared to RSM model. The optimum conditions for the extraction determined by ANN model were substrate concentration of 5%, acoustic power of 150W, pH of 5.4, temperature of 55°C, the ratio of enzyme to substrate of 3950 polygalacturonase units (PGNU)/g of P. cuspidatum, and reaction time of 5h, which can lead to a significantly high resveratrol yield of 11.88mg/g.

  16. Effect of Cydonia oblonga Mill. leaf extracts or captopril on blood pressure and related biomarkers in renal hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-ting; Abdurahman, Adil; Abdusalam, Elzira; Yiming, Wuliya; Abliz, Parida; Aji, Qimangul; Issak, Mehray; Iskandar, Guldiyar; Moore, Nicholas; Umar, Anwar

    2014-05-14

    Cydonia oblonga Mill. (COM) is used in traditional Uyghur medicine to treat or prevent cardiovascular disease. In a previous study COM leaf extracts were found to be active in renal hypertensive rats (RHR). The present study tests the dose-dependence of the effect of ethanol leaf extracts on hypertension and on biomarkers associated with blood pressure control, such as angiotensin-II (AII), plasma renin activity (PRA), apelin-12 (A), endothelin (ET) and nitric oxide (NO), compared to captopril. Two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt model rats were divided randomly into six groups: sham, model, captopril 25 mg/kg, COM leaf extract 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg (n=10 each). Drugs were administered orally daily for eight weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured before treatment and every 2 weeks. Blood and kidney samples were collected after the last treatment to measure AII, PRA, A, ET and NO. RHR had increased blood pressure, AII, A, PRA, ET and decreased NO. Treatment with captopril reduced blood pressure, AII, A, PRA, and ET, though not quite to normal values. COM leaf extracts significantly and dose-dependently reduced blood pressure, AII, A, RA and ET, whereas NO was increased. The highest dose of COM had the same effects as captopril. The effects of COM extracts on blood pressure and biomarkers were dose-dependent and at the highest dose similar to those of captopril. This suggests an action of COM on the renin-angiotensin system, which could explain its antihypertensive effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Extraction Yield Efficiency And Loss Of The Traditional Hot Water Floatation HWF Method Of Oil Extraction From The Seeds Of Allanblackia Floribunda

    OpenAIRE

    Alenyorege E. A.; Hussein Y. A.; Adongo T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The research was conducted to determine the Extraction Yield Extraction Efficiency and Extraction Loss associated with the traditional Hot Water Floatation method of oil extraction. Matured dry seeds of Allanblackia floribunda 50 Kg were used. Allanblackia floribunda a tree species of the Guttiferae family grows naturally in tropical rainforests zones. In Ghana Allanblackia floribunda is quite unknown hence little production of oil is carried out. However the oil extracted can have d...

  18. Renal Replacement Therapy: Purifying Efficiency of Automated Peritoneal Dialysis in Diabetic versus Non-Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Vega-Diaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to reduce the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality of peritoneal dialysis (PD, a minimal level of small-solute clearances as well as a sodium and water balance are needed. The peritoneal dialysis solutions used in combination have reduced the complications and allow for a long-time function of the peritoneal membrane, and the preservation of residual renal function (RRF in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD is crucial for the maintenance of life quality and long-term survival. This retrospective cohort study reviews our experience in automatic peritoneal dialysis (APD patients, with end-stage renal disease (ESRD secondary to diabetic nephropathy (DN in comparison to non-diabetic nephropathy (NDN, using different PD solutions in combination. Design: Fifty-two patients, 29 diabetic and 23 non-diabetic, were included. The follow-up period was 24 months, thus serving as their own control. Results: The fraction of renal urea clearance (Kt relative to distribution volume (V (or total body water (Kt/V, or creatinine clearance relative to the total Kt/V or creatinine clearance (CrCl decreases according to loss of RRF. The loss of the slope of RRF is more pronounced in DN than in NDN patients, especially at baseline time interval to 12 months (loss of 0.29 mL/month vs. 0.13 mL/month, respectively, and is attenuated in the range from 12 to 24 months (loss of 0.13 mL/month vs. 0.09 mL/month, respectively. Diabetic patients also experienced a greater decrease in urine output compared to non-diabetic, starting from a higher baseline urine output. The net water balance was adequate in both groups during the follow up period. Regarding the balance sodium, no inter-group differences in sodium excretion over follow up period was observed. In addition, the removal of sodium in the urine output decreases with loss of renal function. The average concentration of glucose increase in the cycler in both groups (DN: baseline 1.44 ± 0

  19. Effect of solvent addition sequence on lycopene extraction efficiency from membrane neutralized caustic peeled tomato waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, David M; Frelka, John C; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Schwartz, Steven J; Heldman, Dennis R

    2017-01-15

    Lycopene is a high value nutraceutical and its isolation from waste streams is often desirable to maximize profits. This research investigated solvent addition order and composition on lycopene extraction efficiency from a commercial tomato waste stream (pH 12.5, solids ∼5%) that was neutralized using membrane filtration. Constant volume dilution (CVD) was used to desalinate the caustic salt to neutralize the waste. Acetone, ethanol and hexane were used as direct or blended additions. Extraction efficiency was defined as the amount of lycopene extracted divided by the total lycopene in the sample. The CVD operation reduced the active alkali of the waste from 0.66 to lycopene efficiently from tomato processing byproducts.

  20. Differential efficiency among DNA extraction methods influences detection of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletz, M C; Rebollar, E A; Harris, R N

    2015-02-10

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is responsible for massive declines and extinctions of amphibians worldwide. The most common method for detecting Bd is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR is a highly sensitive detection technique, but its ability to determine the presence and accurately quantify the amount of Bd is also contingent on the efficiency of the DNA extraction method used prior to PCR. Using qPCR, we compared the extraction efficiency of 3 different extraction methods commonly used for Bd detection across a range of zoospore quantities: PrepMan Ultra Reagent, Qiagen DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit, and Mobio PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit. We show that not all extraction methods led to successful detection of Bd for the low zoospore quantities and that there was variation in the estimated zoospore equivalents among the methods, which demonstrates that these methods have different extraction efficiencies. These results highlight the importance of considering the extraction method when comparing across studies. The Qiagen DNeasy kit had the highest efficiency. We also show that replicated estimates of less than 1 zoospore can result from known zoospore concentrations; therefore, such results should be considered when obtained from field data. Additionally, we discuss the implications of our findings for interpreting previous studies and for conducting future Bd surveys. It is imperative to use the most efficient DNA extraction method in tandem with the highly sensitive qPCR technique in order to accurately diagnose the presence of Bd as well as other pathogens.

  1. Protective effect of Ferula gummosa hydroalcoholic extract against nitric oxide deficiency-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rats renal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Seyed Jafar; Habibian, Masoumeh; Peeri, Maghsoud; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Sureda, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition increases hypertension and causes renal injury. Ferula gummosa is used in Iranian traditional medicine for treatment of several diseases and has been reported to exert a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the renoprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Ferula gummosa (HEG) on Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and explore the mechanisms that link NO deficiency with altered renal heat shock protein (HSP70). Rats were injected intraperitoneally with L-NAME (10 mg/kg) to induce renal injury. Simultaneously, HEG (90 mg/kg) was administered by gastric gavage to L-NAME-treated rats for 6 days/week during an 8-week period. Renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), HSP70, plasma NO and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were evaluated. The administration of L-NAME significantly increased renal TBARS, TNF-α, IL-6, HSP70 levels and decreased renal SOD activity, that these changes were accompanied by the reduced plasma NO and TAC levels. HEG administration decreased TBARS, HSP70, TNF-α and IL-6 levels and increased SOD activity in the kidney tissues of L-NAME treated rats (p<0.05). Also, plasma TAC level and NO bioavailability have been elevated after administration of HEG (p<0.05). These findings support that NO deficiency induces renal stress oxidative and inflammation, which markedly increased renal HSP70 and HEG could protect kidney against these damaging effects via its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory action and modulate renal HSP70.

  2. High Efficiency DNA Extraction by Graphite Oxide/Cellulose/Magnetite Composites Under Na+ Free System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akceoglu, Garbis Atam; Li, Oi Lun; Saito, Nagahiro

    2016-04-01

    DNA extraction is the key step at various research areas like biotechnology, diagnostic development, paternity determination, and forensic science . Solid support extraction is the most common method for DNA purification. In this method, Na+ ions have often been applied as binding buffers in order to obtain high extraction efficiency and high quality of DNA; however, the presence of Na+ ions might be interfering with the downstream DNA applications. In this study, we proposed graphite oxide (GO)/magnetite composite/cellulose as an innovative material for Na+-free DNA extraction. The total wt.% of GO was fixed at 4.15% in the GO/cellulose/magnetite composite . The concentration of magnetite within the composites were controlled at 0-3.98 wt.%. The extraction yield of DNA increased with increasing weight percentage of magnetite. The highest yield was achieved at 3.98 wt.% magnetite, where the extraction efficiency was reported to be 338.5 ng/µl. The absorbance ratios between 260 nm and 280 nm (A260/A280) of the DNA elution volume was demonstrated as 1.81, indicating the extracted DNA consisted of high purity. The mechanism of adsorption of DNA was provided by (1) π-π interaction between the aromatic ring in GO and nucleobases of DNA molecule, and (2) surface charge interaction between the positive charge magnetite and anions such as phosphates within the DNA molecules. The results proved that the GO/cellulose/magnetite composite provides a Na+-free method for selective DNA extraction with high extraction efficiency of pure DNA.

  3. Efficient extraction of olive pulp and stone proteins by using an enzyme-assisted method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Barberán, María; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco

    2014-07-01

    An efficient protein extraction protocol for proteins from olive pulp and stone by using enzymes was developed. For this purpose, different parameters that affect the extraction process, such as enzyme type and content, pH, and extraction temperature and time, were tested. The influence of these factors on protein recovery was examined using the standard Bradford assay, while the extracted proteins were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The best extraction conditions were achieved at pH 7.0 and 5% (v/v) Palatase® 20000 L (lipase) for pulp and Lecitase® Ultra (phospholipase) for stone proteins. The optimal extraction temperature and time were 30 and 40 °C for 15 min for pulp and stone tissues, respectively. Under these conditions, several protein extracts coming from olive fruits of different genetic variety were analyzed, their profiles being compared by SDS-PAGE. The developed enzyme-assisted extraction method showed faster extraction, higher recovery, and reduced solvent usage than the nonenzymatic methods previously described in the literature. In the case of stone proteins, different electrophoretic profiles and band intensities were obtained that could be helpful to distinguish samples according to their genetic variety.

  4. Optical anisotropy and light extraction efficiency of MBE grown GaN nanowires epilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneghien, Anne-Line; Tourbot, Gabriel; Daudin, Bruno; Lartigue, Olivier; Désières, Yohan; Gérard, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-17

    The use of nanowires as active medium seems very promising for the development of high brightness LEDs. With a lower effective refractive index than bulk, semiconductor nanowire layers may lead to a high light extraction efficiency. We hereafter discuss the anisotropic properties of dense arrays of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires and the consequences on the optical design of nanowire based LEDs. In particular we show numerically that light extraction efficiency as high as 72% can be expected for GaN nanowires layer grown on a low cost Si substrate.

  5. Improvement of extraction efficiency for GaN-based light emitting diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; YanKuin; CHEN; JianJhong; KAO; ChienChih; TSAI; ChunFu

    2010-01-01

    A simple, low cost method for mass production to enhance the light extraction efficiency of GaN-related LEDs was proposed. With appropriate process parameters, the nature lithography of nanosphere can be used to fabricate two-dimensional nanostructures, including the nanomesh ZnO layer, photonic crystal (PhC) patterned p-GaN, and patterned sapphire substrates. Based on preliminary results, the extraction efficiencies of LEDs with these nanostructures can thus be improved and the nature lithography is demonstrated to be a promising method to be widely exploited in the manufacture of all kinds of LED devices.

  6. Enhanced extraction efficiency of fluorescent SiC by surface nanostructuring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicius, Valdas; Yakimova, Rositza

    2012-01-01

    Antireflective structures were fabricated on fluorescent 6H-SiC for white LEDs to enhance the extraction efficiency. Average surface reflectance decreased from 22.1% to 5.1% over a broad range, and luminescence intensity was enhanced by 41%.......Antireflective structures were fabricated on fluorescent 6H-SiC for white LEDs to enhance the extraction efficiency. Average surface reflectance decreased from 22.1% to 5.1% over a broad range, and luminescence intensity was enhanced by 41%....

  7. Effects of milling on the extraction efficiency of incurred pesticides in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Andersen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of particle size and milling temperature on the extraction efficiencies of pesticide residues from cereal flour. Samples of cereal grains (barley, oat, rye and wheat) were milled using a centrifugal mill with four different sieves (0.2, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mm...... shaker. Based on the pesticide levels recovered from each of the different millings and the corresponding particle size distributions, it was confirmed that smaller average particle sizes increase the extraction efficiency up to 31%, with all other factors equal. The cereals milled at room temperature...

  8. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone, 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio and extraction temperatures.

  9. Current Physical and SDS Extraction Methods Do Not Efficiently Remove Exosporium Proteins from Bacillus anthracis spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brian M.; Binkley, Jana M.; Stewart, George C.

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical studies of the outermost spore layers of the Bacillus cereus family are hindered by difficulties in efficient dispersal of the external spore layers and difficulties in dissociating protein complexes that comprise the exosporium layer. Detergent and physical methods have been utilized to disrupt the exosporium layer. Herein we compare commonly used SDS extraction buffers used to extract spore proteins and demonstrate the incomplete extractability of the exosporium layer by these methods. Sonication and bead beating methods for exosporium layer removal were also examined. A combination of genetic and physical methods is the most effective for isolating proteins found in the spore exosporium. PMID:21338631

  10. Current physical and SDS extraction methods do not efficiently remove exosporium proteins from Bacillus anthracis spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brian M; Binkley, Jana M; Stewart, George C

    2011-05-01

    Biochemical studies of the outermost spore layers of the Bacillus cereus family are hindered by difficulties in efficient dispersal of the external spore layers and difficulties in dissociating protein complexes that comprise the exosporium layer. Detergent and physical methods have been utilized to disrupt the exosporium layer. Herein we compare commonly used SDS extraction buffers used to extract spore proteins and demonstrate the incomplete extractability of the exosporium layer by these methods. Sonication and bead beating methods for exosporium layer removal were also examined. A combination of genetic and physical methods is the most effective for isolating proteins found in the spore exosporium.

  11. A comparison of the efficiency of five different commercial DNA extraction kits for extraction of DNA from faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Shantelle; du Toit, Elloise; Kaba, Mamadou; Moodley, Clinton; Zar, Heather J; Nicol, Mark P

    2013-08-01

    Differences in the composition of the gut microbiota have been associated with a range of diseases using culture-independent methods. Reliable extraction of nucleic acid is a key step in identifying the composition of the faecal microbiota. Five widely used commercial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction kits (QIAsymphony® Virus/Bacteria Midi Kit (kit QS), ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep™ (kit Z), QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit (kit QA), Ultraclean® Fecal DNA Isolation Kit (kit U) and PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit (kit P)) were evaluated, using human faecal samples. Yield, purity and integrity of total genomic DNA were compared spectrophotometrically and using gel electrophoresis. Three bacteria, commonly found in human faeces were quantified using real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and total bacterial diversity was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) as well as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). The measurements of DNA yield and purity exhibited variations between the five kits tested in this study. Automated kit QS exhibited the best quality and highest quantity of DNA. All kits were shown to be reproducible with CV values≤0.46 for DNA extraction. qPCR results showed that all kits were uniformly efficient for extracting DNA from the selected target bacteria. DGGE and T-RFLP produced the highest diversity scores for DNA extracted using kit Z (H'=2.30 and 1.27) and kit QS (H'=2.16 and 0.94), which also extracted the highest DNA yields compared to the other kits assessed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ameliorative effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica on renal histologic alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole Busayo, Akinola; Laura, Zatta; Olufunke Olubusola, Dosumu; Oluwafunmike Sharon, Akinola; Luciana, Dini; Ezekiel Ademola, Caxton-Martins

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (AIE) on the microanatomy of the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (161-190 g) were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups of six animals each: control, diabetic, diabetic + AIE, diabetic + metformin, AIE only. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose of streptozotocin (70 mg/kg body weight). AIE and metformin were administered orally for 50 days (50 d) at 500 mg/kg bw/d and 350 mg/kg bw/d, respectively. Blood glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method; plasma urea and creatinine were assayed; and paraffin sections of the kidney were stained by periodic acid-Schiff technique. Untreated diabetic rats exhibited marked hyperglycemia. Renal histopathology of these animals showed features of diabetic nephropathy, with nodular glomerulosclerosis and vacuolation of proximal tubule cells (Armanni-Ebstein phenomenon). These feature were absent in the diabetic rats treated with AIE. Besides, plasma urea and creatinine were not significantly different from the control in this group (p > 0.05), in contrast to the untreated diabetic rats, where significant increases in these markers (p < 0.05). These findings showed that the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica ameliorates hyperglycemia and diabetic nephropathy in rats.

  13. A comparison between heavy metals released from soil and its efficient speciation extracted by sequential extraction procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui

    2008-01-01

    A simulating experiment was carried out on the interaction between natural precipitation and soil. The results demonstrated that the contents of heavy metals (V, Co, Cr, and Ni) released from soil into the solution under Earth's surface conditions are higher than the contents of those metals bonded to exchangeable species, which were extracted by sequential extraction procedure recommended by Tessier and others in 1979. It is demonstrated that the metals bonded to other 3 species (carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, and organic matter) except those bonded to the exchangeable species in efficient speciation can be released under the Earth's surface conditions, when pH=4 in the reaction system, and the higher correlation coefficient indicated that the concentrations of heavy metals released from soil into the solution vary approximately with reaction time in terms of index regulations.

  14. Renal Tumor Cryoablation Planning. The Efficiency of Simulation on Reconstructed 3D CT Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Valerian LUCAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nephron-sparing surgical techniques risks are related to tumor relationships with adjacent anatomic structures. Complexity of the renal anatomy drives the interest to develop tools for 3D reconstruction and surgery simulation. The aim of the article was to assess the simulation on reconstructed 3D CT scan used for planning the cryoablation. Material & Method: A prospective randomized study was performed between Jan. 2007 and July 2009 on 27 patients who underwent retroperitoneoscopic T1a renal tumors cryoablation (RC. All patients were assessed preoperatively by CT scan, also used for 3D volume rendering. In the Gr.A, the patients underwent surgery planning by simulation on 3D CT scan. In the Gr.B., patients underwent standard RC. The two groups were compared in terms of surgical time, bleeding, postoperative drainage, analgesics requirement, hospital stay, time to socio-professional reintegration. Results: Fourteen patients underwent preoperative cryoablation planning (Gr.A and 13 patients underwent standard CR (Gr.B. All parameters analyzed were shorter in the Gr.A. On multivariate logistic regression, only shortens of the surgical time (138.79±5.51 min. in Gr.A. vs. 140.92±5.54 min in Gr.B. and bleeding (164.29±60.22 mL in Gr.A. vs. 215.38±100.80 mL in Gr.B. achieved statistical significance (p<0.05. The number of cryoneedles assessed by simulation had a 92.52% accuracy when compared with those effectively used. Conclusions: Simulation of the cryoablation using reconstructed 3D CT scan improves the surgical results. The application used for simulation was able to accurately assess the number of cryoneedles required for tumor ablation, their direction and approach.

  15. Evaluation of an automated protocol for efficient and reliable DNA extraction of dietary samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinger, Corinna; Staudacher, Karin; Sint, Daniela; Thalinger, Bettina; Oehm, Johannes; Juen, Anita; Traugott, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Molecular techniques have become an important tool to empirically assess feeding interactions. The increased usage of next-generation sequencing approaches has stressed the need of fast DNA extraction that does not compromise DNA quality. Dietary samples here pose a particular challenge, as these demand high-quality DNA extraction procedures for obtaining the minute quantities of short-fragmented food DNA. Automatic high-throughput procedures significantly decrease time and costs and allow for standardization of extracting total DNA. However, these approaches have not yet been evaluated for dietary samples. We tested the efficiency of an automatic DNA extraction platform and a traditional CTAB protocol, employing a variety of dietary samples including invertebrate whole-body extracts as well as invertebrate and vertebrate gut content samples and feces. Extraction efficacy was quantified using the proportions of successful PCR amplifications of both total and prey DNA, and cost was estimated in terms of time and material expense. For extraction of total DNA, the automated platform performed better for both invertebrate and vertebrate samples. This was also true for prey detection in vertebrate samples. For the dietary analysis in invertebrates, there is still room for improvement when using the high-throughput system for optimal DNA yields. Overall, the automated DNA extraction system turned out as a promising alternative to labor-intensive, low-throughput manual extraction methods such as CTAB. It is opening up the opportunity for an extensive use of this cost-efficient and innovative methodology at low contamination risk also in trophic ecology.

  16. Efficiency comparison of three methods for extracting genomic DNA of the pathogenic oomycete Pythium insidiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnoo, Tassanee; Jongruja, Nujarin; Rujirawat, Thidarat; Yingyon, Wanta; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; Nampoon, Umporn; Kumsang, Yothin; Onpaew, Pornpit; Chongtrakool, Piriyaporn; Keeratijarut, Angsana; Brandhorst, Tristan T; Krajaejun, Theerapong

    2014-03-01

    The fungus-like organism Pythium insidiosum is the causative agent of a life-threatening tropical infectious disease, pythiosis, which has high rates of morbidity and mortality. A lack of reliable diagnostic tools and effective treatments for pythiosis presents a major challenge to healthcare professionals. Unfortunately, surgical removal of infected organs remains the default treatment for pythiosis. P. insidiosum is an understudied organism. In-depth study of the pathogen at the molecular level could lead to better means of infection control High quality genomic DNA (gDNA) is needed for molecular biology-based research and application development, such as: PCR-assisted diagnosis, population studies, phylogenetic analysis, and molecular genetics assays. To evaluate quality and quantity of the P. insidiosum gDNA extracted by three separate protocols intended for fungal gDNA preparation. Seven P. insidiosum isolates were subjected to gDNA extraction by using conventional-extraction, rapid-extraction, and salt-extraction protocols. The conventional protocol offered the best gDNA in terms of quality and quantity, and could be scaled up. The rapid-extraction protocol had a short turnaround time, but the quality and quantity of the gDNA obtained were limited. The salt-extraction protocol was simple, rapid, and efficient, making it appealing for high throughput preparation of small-scale gDNA samples. Compared to rapid-extraction protocol, both conventional-extraction and salt-extraction protocols provided a better quality and quantity of gDNA, suitable for molecular studies of P. insidiosum. In contrast to the other two methods, the salt-extraction protocol does not require the use of hazardous and expensive materials such as phenol, chloroform, or liquid nitrogen.

  17. Definition, theory, methods, and applications of the safe and efficient simultaneous extraction of coal and gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanping Cheng; Liang Wang; Hongyong Liu; Shengli Kong; Quanlin Yang; Jintuo Zhu; Qingyi Tu

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous extraction of the coal and gas is an effective method of eliminating coal mine gas disasters while safely exploiting the coal and achieving efficient gas drainage in China, which is widely accepted by the main coal-producing countries around the world. However, the concrete definition of simultaneous extraction is vague and there is little accurate theoretical support for the simultaneous extraction of coal and gas, which makes it difficult to determine an efficient gas drainage method appropriate to the features of coal seams. Based on theoretical analysis, laboratory tests and field observations, a specific definition of simultaneous extraction of coal and gas is proposed after analyzing the characteristics of coal seam occurrences in China, and we developed the mechanism of mining-enhanced permeability and established the corresponding theoretical model. This comprises a process of fracture network formation, in which the original fractures are opened and new fractures are produced by unloading damage. According to the theoretical model, the engineering approaches and their quantitative parameters of‘unloading by borehole drilling’ for single coal seams and‘unloading by protective seam mining’ for groups of coal seams are proposed, and the construction principles for coal exploitation and gas-drainage systems for different conditions are given. These methods were applied successfully in the Tunlan Coal Mine in Shanxi Province and the Panyi Coal Mine in Anhui Province and could assure safe and efficient simultaneous extraction of coal and gas in these outburst coal mines.

  18. RAPID AND EFFICIENT METHOD FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DNA EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hamedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Large proportion of microbial population in the world is unculturable. Extraction of total DNA from soil is usually a crucial step considering to the difficulties of study the uncultivable microorganisms. Humic acid is considered as the main inhibitory agent in the environmental DNA studies. Here, we introduced a rapid and efficient method for DNA extraction and purification from soil. Yield of DNA extraction by the presented method was 130 ng/µl. Three conventional methods of DNA extraction including liquid nitrogen incursion, bead beating and sonication were performed as control methods. Yield of DNA extraction by these methods were 110, 90 and 50 ng/µl, respectively. A rapid and efficient one step DNA purification method was introduced instead of hazardous conventional phenol-chloroform methods. Humic acid removal percentage by the introduced method was 95.8 % that is comparable with 97 % gained by the conventional gel extraction method and yield of DNA after purification was 84 % and 73 %, respectively. This study could be useful in molecular ecology and metagenomics study as a fast and reliable method.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF TIME AND TYPE OF SOLVENT ON EFFICIENCY OF THE EXTRACTION OF POLYPHENOLS FROM GREEN TEA AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OBTAINED EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Drużyńska; Agnieszka Stępniewska; Rafał Wołosiak

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of the type of solvent and time on efficiency of the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant properties extracts obtained from green tea. Extraction was conducted at room temperature using four solvents: water and 80% ethanol, 80% methanol and 80% acetone (water solutions, v/v) at 15, 30 and 60 minutes. Extracts were analysed for contents of polyphenols and catechins. The antioxidant properties have been determined by two methods: scaven...

  20. Enhancing extraction efficiency of mid-infrared fluorescence in chalcogenide glass via photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Peiqing; Ma, Beijiao; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Qiuhua

    2016-04-01

    The use of rare earth-doped chalcogenide glass is an attractive method to develop mid-infrared sources. In this work, Er3+-doped chalcogenide glass is prepared, and photonic crystal (PC) pattern is designed to improve the extraction efficiency of light emission from the sample surface. The finite difference time domain simulation shows that the light extraction efficiency from the sample surface can be 1.62 times stronger than that from the sample without PC structure by introducing a simple two-dimensional (2D) PC structure into glass samples. This improvement was the result of the efficient light diffraction on the surface because of the integrated 2D PC. Results in this work offer a potential in developing midinfrared light sources.

  1. An Efficient Extraction Method for Fragrant Volatiles from Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qiuping; Jin, Xinyi; Zhu, Xinliang; Lin, Tongxiang; Hao, Zhilong; Yang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The sweet smell of aroma of Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. is releasing while the flowers are blooming. Although components of volatile oil have been extensively studied, there are problematic issues, such as low efficiency of yield, flavour distortion. Here, the subcritical fluid extraction (SFE) was performed to extract fragrant volatiles from activated carbon that had absorbed the aroma of jasmine flowers. This novel method could effectively obtain main aromatic compounds with quality significantly better than solvent extraction (SE). Based on the analysis data with response surface methodology (RSM), we optimized the extraction conditions which consisted of a temperature of 44°C, a solvent-to-material ratio of 3.5:1, and an extraction time of 53 min. Under these conditions, the extraction yield was 4.91%. Furthermore, the key jasmine essence oil components, benzyl acetate and linalool, increase 7 fold and 2 fold respectively which lead to strong typical smell of the jasmine oil. The new method can reduce spicy components which lead to the essential oils smelling sweeter. Thus, the quality of the jasmine essence oil was dramatically improved and yields based on the key component increased dramatically. Our results provide a new effective technique for extracting fragrant volatiles from jasmine flowers.

  2. Korean red ginseng extract alleviates advanced glycation end product-mediated renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Hai Yan; Kim, Do Yeon; Chung, Sung Hyun

    2013-04-01

    The effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on diabetic renal damage was investigated using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The diabetic rats showed loss of body weight gain, and increases in kidney weight and urine volume, whereas the oral administration of KRG at a dose of 100 or 250 mg/kg of body weight per day for 28 d prevented these diabetes-induced physiological abnormalities. Among the kidney function parameters, elevated plasma levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine in diabetic control rats tended to be lowered in KRG-treated rats. In addition, administration of KRG at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight in the diabetic rats showed significant decreases in serum glucose and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), implying that KRG might prevent the pathogenesis of diabetic complications caused by impaired glucose metabolism and oxidative stress. KRG also significantly reduced advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation and secretion from kidney of diabetic rats. Furthermore, KRG decreased the levels of N-(carboxymethyl) lysine and expression of AGE receptor. KRG also reduced the overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the kidney via deactivation of nuclear factor-kappa B. We also found that KRG prevented STZ-induced destruction of glomerular structure and significantly suppressed high glucose-induced fibronectin production. Taken together, KRG ameliorates abnormalities associated with diabetic nephropathy through suppression of inflammatory pathways activated by TNF-α and AGEs. These findings indicate that KRG has a beneficial effect on pathological conditions associated with diabetic nephropathy.

  3. Facile Preparation of Molybdenum Bronzes as an Efficient Hole Extraction Layer in Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiantai; Zhang, Jun; Meng, Bin; Zhang, Baohua; Xie, Zhiyuan; Wang, Lixiang

    2015-06-24

    We proposed a facile and green one-pot strategy to synthesize Mo bronzes nanoparticles to serve as an efficient hole extraction layer in polymer solar cells. Mo bronzes were obtained through reducing the fractional self-aggregated ammonium heptamolybdate with appropriate reducing agent ascorbic acid, and its optoelectronic properties were fully characterized. The synthesized Mo bronzes displayed strong n-type semiconductor characteristics with a work function of 5.2-5.4 eV, matched well with the energy levels of current donor polymers. The presented gap states of the Mo bronzes near the Fermi level were beneficial for facilitating charge extraction. The as-synthesized Mo bronzes were used as hole extraction layer in polymer solar cells and significantly enhanced the photovoltaic performance and stability. The power conversion efficiency was increased by more than 18% compared with the polyethylene dioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonate-based reference cell. The excellent performance and facile preparation render the as-synthesized solution-processed Mo bronzes nanoparticles a promising candidate for hole extraction layer in low-cost and efficient polymer solar cells.

  4. Reevaluation of microplastics extraction efficiency with the aim of Munich Plastic Sediment Separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobkov, Mikhail; Esiukova, Elena; Grave, Aleksei; Khatmullina, Liliya

    2017-04-01

    Invading of microplastics into marine environment is known as a global ecological threat. Specific density of microplastics can vary significantly depending on a polymer type, technological processes of its production, additives, weathering, and biofouling. Plastic particles can sink or float on the sea surface, but with time, most of drifting plastics become negatively buoyant and sink to the sea floor due to biofouling or adherence of denser particles. As a result, the seabed becomes the ultimate repository for microplastic particles and fibres. A study of microplastics content in aquatic sediments is an important source of information about ways of their migration, sink and accumulation zones. The Munich Plastic Sediment Separator (MPSS), proposed by Imhoff et al. (2012), is considered as the most effective tool for microplastic extraction. However, we observed that the numbers of marine microplastics extracted with this tool from different kinds of bottom sediments were significantly underestimated. We examined the extraction efficiency of the MPSS by adding artificial reference particles (ARPs) to marine sediment sample before the extraction procedure. Extraction was performed by two different methods: the modified NOAA method and using the MPSS. The separation solution with specific density 1.5 g/ml was used. Subsequent cleaning, drying and microscope detection procedures were identical. The microplastics content was determined in supernatant fraction, in the bulk of the extraction solution, in spoil dump fraction of MPSS and in instrument wash-out. While the extraction efficiency from natural sediments of ARPs by the MPSS was really high (100% in most cases), the extraction efficiency of marine microplastics was up to 10 times lower than that obtained with modified NOAA method for the same samples. Less than 40% of the total marine microplastics content has been successfully extracted with the MPSS. Large amounts of marine microplastics were found in the

  5. Efficient DNA extraction from nail clippings using the protease solution from Cucumis melo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida-Yamamoto, Shumi; Nishimura, Sayaka; Okuno, Teruko; Rakuman, Miki; Takii, Yukio

    2010-09-01

    Owing to the increasing importance of genomic information, obtaining genomic DNA easily from biological specimens has become more and more important. This article proposes an efficient method for obtaining genomic DNA from nail clippings. Nail clippings can be easily obtained, are thermostable and easy to transport, and have low infectivity. The drawback of their use, however, has been the difficulty of extracting genomic material from them. We have overcome this obstacle using the protease solution obtained from Cucumis melo. The keratinolytic activity of the protease solution was 1.78-fold higher than that of proteinase K, which is commonly used to degrade keratin. With the protease solution, three times more DNA was extracted than when proteinase K was used. In order to verify the integrity of the extracted DNA, genotype analysis on 170 subjects was performed by both PCR-RFLP and Real Time PCR. The results of the genotyping showed that the extracted DNA was suitable for genotyping analysis. In conclusion, we have developed an efficient extraction method for using nail clippings as a genome source and a research tool in molecular epidemiology, medical diagnostics, and forensic science.

  6. CMOS circuits for piezoelectric energy harvesters efficient power extraction, interface modeling and loss analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hehn, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the challenge of exploiting ambient vibrational energy which can be used to power small and low-power electronic devices, e.g. wireless sensor nodes. Generally, particularly for low voltage amplitudes, low-loss rectification is required to achieve high conversion efficiency. In the special case of piezoelectric energy harvesting, pulsed charge extraction has the potential to extract more power compared to a single rectifier. For this purpose, a fully autonomous CMOS integrated interface circuit for piezoelectric generators which fulfills these requirements is presented.Due

  7. A microfluidic approach for high efficiency extraction of low molecular weight RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulto, Paul; Dame, Gregory; Maier, Urban; Makohliso, Solomzi; Podszun, Susann; Zahn, Peter; Urban, Gerald A

    2010-03-01

    The lack of sample pre-treatment concepts that are easily automatable, miniaturized and highly efficient for both small volumes and low target concentrations, is one of the key issues that block the road towards effective miniaturized diagnostic instruments. This paper presents a novel, highly efficient and simple method for low-molecular weight RNA extraction using electricity only. Cells are lysed by thermo-electric lysis and RNA is purified using a gel-electrophoretic purification step. The combination of the two steps in one integrated cartridge reduces the time frame between the two steps, thus protecting RNA from enzymatic degradation. A disposable chip solution is proposed using a novel dry film resist laminate technology that allows cheap, large-scale fabrication. The chip contains crucial microfluidic innovations that allow for a simple user interface, reproducible functioning and precise quantification. Phaseguides are invented that allow controlled spatial injection of gel, injection of sample and recovery of extracted RNA. A precise sample volume can be defined by integrating electrophoretic actuation electrodes in the microfluidic chamber. Electrolytic gas bubbles that are the result of constant-current actuation are driven out from the chip by the novel introduction of capillary bubble-expulsion techniques. The extraction approach and the functionality of the chip are demonstrated for Escherichia coli and Streptococcus thermophilus bacteria. Linear extraction behavior is obtained for transfer-messenger RNA down to one colony-forming unit per microlitre, or five colony-forming units per chip. The latter is an increase in extraction efficiency of a factor of 1000 with respect to the commercial extraction kit Ambion Ribopure. The chip shows particularly good performance for extraction of low-molecular weight RNA, thereby eliminating the need for large ribosomal RNA and DNA removal. RNA can be extracted in less than 11 min, being a speed-up of more than a

  8. A simple and efficient total genomic DNA extraction method for individual zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazhan, Hanafiah; Waiho, Khor; Shahreza, Md Sheriff

    2016-01-01

    Molecular approaches are widely applied in species identification and taxonomic studies of minute zooplankton. One of the most focused zooplankton nowadays is from Subclass Copepoda. Accurate species identification of all life stages of the generally small sized copepods through molecular analysis is important, especially in taxonomic and systematic assessment of harpacticoid copepod populations and to understand their dynamics within the marine community. However, total genomic DNA (TGDNA) extraction from individual harpacticoid copepods can be problematic due to their small size and epibenthic behavior. In this research, six TGDNA extraction methods done on individual harpacticoid copepods were compared. The first new simple, feasible, efficient and consistent TGDNA extraction method was designed and compared with the commercial kit and modified available TGDNA extraction methods. The newly described TGDNA extraction method, "Incubation in PCR buffer" method, yielded good and consistent results based on the high success rate of PCR amplification (82%) compared to other methods. Coupled with its relatively consistent and economical method the "Incubation in PCR buffer" method is highly recommended in the TGDNA extraction of other minute zooplankton species.

  9. An Aqueous-Ethanol Extract of Liriope spicata var. prolifera Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy through Suppression of Renal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Jen Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tuberous root of Liriope spicata var. prolifera (TRLS; Liliaceae family is valued for the ability to promote glucose homeostasis, and it may therefore be utilized as an adjuvant therapy in the control of diabetic complications. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an aqueous ethanol extract from TRLS (TRLS-ext (100 or 200 mg kg−1 per day for eight weeks on rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN. Renal dysfunction in diabetic rats was ameliorated by TRLS-ext as evidenced by reduced creatinine clearance, as well as increased blood urea nitrogen and proteinuria. Treatment with TRLS-ext was found to markedly improve histological architecture in the diabetic kidney. Hyperglycemia induced degradation of inhibitory kappa B and reduced nuclear factor kappa B activation, leading to increased infiltration of macrophages and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α. All of the above abnormalities were reversed by TRLS-ext treatment, which also decreased the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and fibronectin in the diabetic kidneys. These findings provide a perspective on the renoprotective effects of TRLS-ext in DN.

  10. Light extraction efficiency enhancement for fluorescent SiC based white light-emitting diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Ou, Yiyu; Argyraki, Aikaterini

    fluorescent Boron-Nitrogen co-doped 6H SiC is optimized in terms of source material, growth condition, dopant concentration, and carrier lifetime by using photoluminescence, pump-probe spectroscopy etc. The internal quantum efficiency is measured and the methods to increase the efficiency have been explored......Fluorescent SiC based white light-emitting diodes(LEDs) light source, as an innovative energy-efficient light source, would even have longer lifetime, better light quality and eliminated blue-tone effect, compared to the current phosphor based white LED light source. In this paper, the yellow....... At a device level, the focus is on improving the light extraction efficiency due to the rather high refractive index of SiC by nanostructuring the surface of SiC. Both periodic nanostructures made by e-beam lithography and nanosphere lithography and random nanostructures made by self-assembled Au nanosphere...

  11. Efficient Boundary Extraction from Orthogonal Pseudo-Polytopes: An Approach Based on the D-EVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pérez-Aguila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to contribute with two algorithms for performing, in an efficient way, connected components labeling and boundary extraction from orthogonal pseudo-polytopes. The proposals are specified in terms of the extreme vertices model in the -dimensional space (D-EVM. An overview of the model is presented, considering aspects such as its fundamentals and basic algorithms. The temporal efficiency of the two proposed algorithms is sustained in empirical way and by taking into account both lower dimensional cases (2D and 3D and higher-dimensional cases (4D and 5D.

  12. Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of vertical LED with patterned graphene as current spreading layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sumitra; Sai Nandini, Annam Deepthi; Pal, Suchandan; Dhanavantri, Chenna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report an optimised pattern of surface textured graphene current spreading layer (CSL) for the enhancement of light extraction efficiency (LEE) in InGaN/GaN vertical light emitting diodes (V-LEDs). It is found that by texturing graphene surface LEE improves drastically. This improvement is attributed to better current spreading of graphene and increased random and multiple scattering of light through textured surfaces. Simulation results illustrate that V-LEDs with surface textured (hexagonal pattern) ITO as CSL shows threefold improvement in light extraction efficiency compared to V-LEDs with no surface texturing on ITO CSL. Further, LEE of V-LEDs having patterned graphene CSL is compared with that for indium tin oxide (ITO) CSL. V-LEDs with optimised hexagonal patterning on graphene CSL shows 13.42% enhancement of LEE compared to that of LED with hexagonal patterning on ITO surface.

  13. Application of enzymes for efficient extraction, modification, and development of functional properties of lime pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominiak, Malgorzata Maria; Marie Søndergaard, Karen; Wichmann, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    pectin. The most efficient enzyme preparation was Laminex C2K derived from Penicillium funiculosum which, during 4 h treatment at pH 3.5, 50 °C, released pectin with similar yield (23% w/w), molecular weight (69 kDa), and functional properties e.g. gelling, stabilization of acidified milk drinks...... and viscosity as the classically acid-extracted pectins (8 h treatment at 70 °C, pH ... at higher temperatures. The Laminex CK2 extracted pectin polymers were not sensitive to the presence of Ca2+ ions, they formed a gel at low pH in the presence of sugar and were able to stabilize acidified milk drinks. Further modification by enzymatic de-esterification of the pectin extracted with Laminex C...

  14. Efficient Extraction of Astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma with Polar and Non-polar Solvents after Acid Washing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Chunhua; YANG Shuzhen; LIU Xiaolu; YAN Hai

    2013-01-01

    method of extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma with various solvents after acid washing was investigated.The extraction efficiency was distinctly increased after acid washing of P.rhodozyma cells.When the concentration of HCl was 0.4 mol·L-,the highest extraction efficiency of astaxanthin was achieved which was about three times higher than the control.Acetone or benzene as single polar or non-polar solvent was the most effective solvent in our research.With a combination of isopropanol and n-hexane (volume ratio of 2 ∶ 1),the maximal extraction efficiency was achieved,approximately 60% higher than that obtained with a single solvent.The liquid-solid ratio and the extracting time were also optimized.Under the optimum extraction conditions,the extraction yield of astaxanthin exceeded 98%.

  15. High Efficient Extraction of Phthalates in Aquatic Products by a Modified QuEChERS Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-wen; GAO Fu-kai; LI Gui-zhi; LIU Zhen-bo; LIU Yong-ming

    2013-01-01

    A simple,environmentally friendly and high efficient extraction method was proposed for the determination of five phthalates in aquatic products by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS).When this method was adopted,samples were pretreated by modified QuEChERS(quick,easy,cheap,effective,rugged and safe) method.An environmentally friendly extractant(ethanol aqueous solution) replaced toxic acetonitrile for extracting phthalates in the protein-matrix samples.Fluorescence quenching spectra of bovine serum albumin(BSA) with phthalates show that there was a high-affinity interaction between phthalate and protein,decreasing the extraction efficiency of phthalates from fish samples.However,in the 80%(volume fraction,(ψ)) ethanol aqueous solution,a slow but full protein denaturation takes place,which would cause the unfolding of protein and the release of phthalates.Meanwhile,the fat-soluble impurities are extracted less in (ψ)(ethanol) 80% aqueous solution than in either (ψ)(ethanol) 100% or hydrophobic solvents in the liquid-liquid extraction procedure.Therefore the purification steps were greatly simplified.Overall recoveries were 81.77%-90.5% with limits of detection between 2.53 and 9.61 μg/L,and relative standard deviation values at 1.15%-4.85%.The proposed approach was satisfactorily applied to the determination of phthalates in real aquatic products,such as fish,shrimp and oyster.

  16. An optimal control method for maximizing the efficiency of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability.

  17. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF Moringa oleifera ON SOME RENAL FUNCTION INDICES OF RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okwari O. O

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:The study was designed to investigate the effect of aqueous leaf extract of M.oleifera on bile secretion and serum electrolytes in rats. Methodology: Eighteen (18 Albino Wistar rats weighing between 180- 220g body weights were assigned into three groups (i, ii and iii of six rats each after acclimatization for seven (7 days. Group 1 (control received standard feed and water while Groups 11 and 111 (low and high dose groups respectively received 300mg/kg body weight and 600mg/kg body respectively in addition to food and water daily for 28days.The rats were sacrificed 24hours after an overnight fast using chloroform-ether anesthesia in ratio 1;1. The blood as well as biliary samples was collected for determination of electrolytes. Result: The result showed that bile secretion was significantly (P<0.001 increased in the high dose group but was significantly (P<0.001 decreased in the low dose group when compared with the control. The biliary bicarbonate level were significantly (P<0.001 decreased in test groups while there was significant (P<0.001 increased in serum bicarbonate levels compared with control. Serum and biliary phosphate levels were significantly (P<0.001 decreased in test groups compared with control. Sodium levels in serum and bile were significantly (P<0.001 decreased, while serum potassium levels were significantly (P<0.001 decreased in test groups but were significantly (P<0.001 increased test group compared with control. Serum bilirubin levels were significantly lowered in low dose but increased in high dose group compared with control. Uric acid levels in bile and serum were significantly (P<0.001 decreased in test groups. Creatinine was significantly reduced in low dose compared with control following the administration of the extract. Urea and T. cholesterol were significantly (P<0.001 reduced in serum but significantly increased in bile respectively.Conclusion: It appears that M.oleifera may reduce blood pressure

  18. Efficient point cloud data processing in shipbuilding: Reformative component extraction method and registration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Sun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To survive in the current shipbuilding industry, it is of vital importance for shipyards to have the ship components’ accuracy evaluated efficiently during most of the manufacturing steps. Evaluating components’ accuracy by comparing each component’s point cloud data scanned by laser scanners and the ship’s design data formatted in CAD cannot be processed efficiently when (1 extract components from point cloud data include irregular obstacles endogenously, or when (2 registration of the two data sets have no clear direction setting. This paper presents reformative point cloud data processing methods to solve these problems. K-d tree construction of the point cloud data fastens a neighbor searching of each point. Region growing method performed on the neighbor points of the seed point extracts the continuous part of the component, while curved surface fitting and B-spline curved line fitting at the edge of the continuous part recognize the neighbor domains of the same component divided by obstacles’ shadows. The ICP (Iterative Closest Point algorithm conducts a registration of the two sets of data after the proper registration’s direction is decided by principal component analysis. By experiments conducted at the shipyard, 200 curved shell plates are extracted from the scanned point cloud data, and registrations are conducted between them and the designed CAD data using the proposed methods for an accuracy evaluation. Results show that the methods proposed in this paper support the accuracy evaluation targeted point cloud data processing efficiently in practice.

  19. Efficient photon extraction from a quantum dot in a broad-band planar cavity antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yong, E-mail: y.ma@hw.ac.uk; Kremer, Peter E.; Gerardot, Brian D., E-mail: B.D.Gerardot@hw.ac.uk [Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, SUPA, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-14

    We analyse the extraction of photons emitted from single InAs quantum dots embedded in planar microcavities. The structures are designed to achieve broad-band operation and high-collection efficiency from a device requiring straightforward fabrication, even with electrical contacts. The designs consist of a quantum dot in a GaAs membrane with asymmetric top and bottom mirrors and a top-side solid immersion lens (SIL). Four separate cases are considered in our design: a GaAs membrane only (case 1), GaAs membrane with a glass SIL on top (case 2), a GaAs membrane with a glass SIL on top and a back mirror consisting of Au (case 3), a GaAs membrane with a glass SIL on top of a distribute Bragg reflector mirror and Au back mirror (case 4). Both finite difference time domain and analytical simulations are used to calculate the electric field, power density, and far-field radiation pattern. For optimized structures (case 4), we obtain significant extraction efficiencies (>50%) with modest Purcell enhancements (∼20%) and a large spectral full-width-half-maximum (>100 nm). The high-extraction efficiency, broad-band operation, and facile fabrication make the proposed structures promising for realistic quantum dot devices.

  20. Phytochemical screening, and assessment of ameliorating effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Gmelina arborea on drug induced hepatic and renal insufficiency in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Ogbonnaya Enyinnaya; Mbuh, Awah Francis; Emmanuel, Mounmbegna Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Phytochemical screening of stem bark and leaves of Gmelina arborea; and effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Gmelina arborea stembark on hepatic and renal insufficiency in rats was assessed in this study. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the air-dried leaf, oven-dried leaf, air-dried stembark and oven-dried stembark samples. Sixty five (65) wister albino rats, (50.7-117.5 g) were divided into thirteen groups of five animals each. Three groups serve as Controls and were administered Cisplatin (5mg/kg b.w; i.p), Paracetamol (200mg/kg b.w; i.p) and Normal saline (0.002 ml/kg b.w; oral). Other groups were administered, either, cisplatin and extracts (1g/kg b.w; oral); Paracetamol and extracts (1g/kg b.w; oral); extracts alone; or drugs and combination of extracts. Animals were starved, 24 hours prior to sacrifice and sacrificed on the 9th day after commencement of treatment. Phytochemical screening results show the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin, saponin, cyanogenic glycoside, phytate, and carbohydrate. Saponin and carbohydrate were shown to be much higher in concentration than other phytochemicals. The percentage composition of cyanogenic glycoside and phytate were highest in air-dried stembark and oven-dried leaf samples, respectively. All the Gmelina arborea extracts and extract mixture administered to both paracetamol and cisplatin treated animals, significantly, lowers both the activities of the SGOT and SGPT, and the levels of serum creatinine and urea. When administered alone, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts show little or no sign of toxicity. Thus Gmelina arborea extracts may have ameliorating effect on hepatic and renal insufficiency caused by paracetamol and cisplatin respectively, and any inherent toxicity may be reduced or eliminated through adequate heat treatment.

  1. Safety of Desmodium adscendens extract on hepatocytes and renal cells. Protective effect against oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Francois

    2015-03-01

    RESULTS: A viability test (MTS, a cytotoxicity assay (LDH release and a study of the cell morphology revealed that pretreatment with 1 mg/ml or 10 mg/ml DA did not alter viability or LDH release in HEPG2 or LLCPK1 cells. However, DA at the dose of 100 mg/ml significantly decreased cell viability, by about 40% (P <0.05. Further, MTS studies revealed that DA 1 mg/ml or 10 mg/ml protected LLC-PK1 cells against a glucose-induced oxidative stress of 24 hours (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Hence, the lowest concentrations of DA (1mg/ml and 10mg/ml were safe for HEPG2 and LLCPK1 and protective against an oxidative stress in LLC-PK1 cells. These data suggest that DA extracts used as a traditional herbal as food health supplements should be used at the lowest dosage. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 1-5

  2. Heat and Bleach: A Cost-Efficient Method for Extracting Microplastics from Return Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujathan, Surya; Kniggendorf, Ann-Kathrin; Kumar, Arun; Roth, Bernhard; Rosenwinkel, Karl-Heinz; Nogueira, Regina

    2017-05-26

    The extraction of plastic microparticles, so-called microplastics, from sludge is a challenging task due to the complex, highly organic material often interspersed with other benign microparticles. The current procedures for microplastic extraction from sludge are time consuming and require expensive reagents for density separation as well as large volumes of oxidizing agents for organic removal, often resulting in tiny sample sizes and thus a disproportional risk of sample bias. In this work, we present an improved extraction method tested on return activated sludge (RAS). The treatment of 100 ml of RAS requires only 6% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for bleaching at 70 °C, followed by density separation with sodium nitrate/sodium thiosulfate (SNT) solution, and is completed within 24 h. Extracted particles of all sizes were chemically analyzed with confocal Raman microscopy. An extraction efficiency of 78 ± 8% for plastic particle sizes 20 µm and up was confirmed in a recovery experiment. However, glass shards with a diameter of less than 20 µm remained in the sample despite the density of glass exceeding the density of the separating SNT solution by 1.1 g/cm(3). This indicates that density separation may be unreliable for particle sizes in the lower micrometer range.

  3. An efficient RNA extraction method for estimating gut microbial diversity by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seungha; Denman, Stuart E; Morrison, Mark; Yu, Zhongtang; McSweeney, Chris S

    2009-05-01

    An extraction method was developed to recover high-quality RNA from rumen digesta and mouse feces for phylogenetic analysis of metabolically active members of the gut microbial community. Four extraction methods were tested on different amounts of the same samples and compared for efficiency of recovery and purity of RNA. Trizol extraction after bead beating produced a higher quantity and quality of RNA than a similar method using phenol/chloroform. Dissociation solution produced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in RNA recovery compared with phosphate-buffered saline during the dissociation of microorganisms from rumen digesta or fecal particles. The identity of metabolically active bacteria in the samples was analyzed by sequencing 87 amplicons produced using bacteria-specific 16S rDNA primers, with cDNA synthesized from the extracted RNA as the template. Amplicons representing the major phyla encountered in the rumen (Firmicutes, 43.7%; Proteobacteria, 28.7%; Bacteroidetes, 25.3%; Spirochea, 1.1%, and Synergistes, 1.1%) were recovered, showing that development of the RNA extraction method enables RNA-based analysis of metabolically active bacterial groups from the rumen and other environments. Interestingly, in rumen samples, about 30% of the sequenced random 16S rRNA amplicons were related to the Proteobacteria, providing the first evidence that this group may have greater importance in rumen metabolism than previously attributed by DNA-based analysis.

  4. New efficient DNA extraction method to access the microbiome of Ricinus communis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C D; Dias, A C C; Amaral, I M R; Bonetti, A M; Campos, T A

    2013-02-28

    Ricinus communis (castor bean) seeds are used to produce an alcohol-soluble oil that is used in more than 400 industrial processes. Despite its economic importance, there has been little research on the endophytic microbiota of castor bean seeds. This microbiota is important for plant metabolic processes and may have considerable biotechnological potential, such as production of lipases and plant growth promoter agents. We evaluated several DNA extraction methodologies in order to access the microbial diversity of castor bean through a metagenomic approach. Based on our observations, we developed a new methodology that takes advantage of the low solubility of calcium phosphates and the high affinity of these phosphates for proteins and polysaccharides. The extracted DNA quality was evaluated by PCR, using a selective primer pair for bacterial and mitochondrial 16S rDNA genes (799F and 1492R). We found this methodology quantitatively and qualitatively more efficient than the other approaches. In evaluating this new extraction methodology, we found that the difficulties of DNA extraction from castor bean seeds, such as abundant oil, polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and plant enzymes, could be overcome. The resulting extracts had high concentration and purity, and they were obtained faster than with previous methods. The samples contained virtually all of the DNA, including the microbial DNA; this was validated by PCR analysis.

  5. [Quality of life in patients with chronic renal failure under high-efficiency hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Maria Aparecida Fadil; Romão Junior, João Egidio; Belasco, Angélica Gonçalves Silva; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida

    2006-12-01

    This study aimed at assessing the quality of life (QL) of patients with chronic kidney failure under high efficiency hemodialysis. The Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form Health Survey (SF36) was applied, and the results were correlated with social-demographic profile, clinical and laboratorial data, Karnofsky's Scale and Depression Cognitive Index (DCI). The sample consisted of 50 patients with an average age of 37 and mean treatment duration of 50.6 months. LQ changes were evidenced by correlations of SF36 scores with social-demographic aspects, clinical data, Karnofsky's Scale, and DCI. It was concluded that the individual use of SF36 may aid the assessment of therapeutic conduct.

  6. Extraction Yield Efficiency And Loss Of The Traditional Hot Water Floatation HWF Method Of Oil Extraction From The Seeds Of Allanblackia Floribunda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenyorege E. A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research was conducted to determine the Extraction Yield Extraction Efficiency and Extraction Loss associated with the traditional Hot Water Floatation method of oil extraction. Matured dry seeds of Allanblackia floribunda 50 Kg were used. Allanblackia floribunda a tree species of the Guttiferae family grows naturally in tropical rainforests zones. In Ghana Allanblackia floribunda is quite unknown hence little production of oil is carried out. However the oil extracted can have diverse domestic commercial and industrial uses. The oil production is important not only among small-to-medium scale industrialists but also to rural populace as it employs a substantial workforce and serves as a source of income to many communities engaged in the exercise. The method employed is the oldest cheapest and most practiced in the study location. The extraction process basically comprises of five fundamental steps thermal conditioning of the seeds milling extraction by boiling oil recovery and drying. The method yielded 21.1 kg of oil a residual cake of 26.2 Kg and a process loss of 2.7 Kg at a moisture content of 13.1 representing 42.2 Extraction yield 58.6 Extraction efficiency and 5.4 Extraction loss. The yield exceeded the minimum oil yield for commercial domestic and industrial consideration.

  7. Energy metabolic state in hypothermically stored boar spermatozoa using a revised protocol for efficient ATP extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh Thu Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian spermatozoa utilize ATP as the energy source for key functions on the route to fertilization. ATP and its precursor nucleotides ADP and AMP are regularly investigated in sperm physiology studies, mostly by bioluminescence assays. Assay results vary widely, mainly due to different efficiencies in nucleotide extraction and prevention of their enzymatic degradation. Here, we describe a revised, validated protocol for efficient phosphatase inhibition and adenine nucleotide extraction resulting in consistently high ATP concentrations exceeding previously reported values for boar spermatozoa up to 20-fold. The revised assay is applicable for determining ATP concentrations and adenylate energy charge in extracts from fresh and frozen samples, thereby allowing simultaneous assessment of semen samples from long-term storage experiments. After validation, the assay was applied to liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa stored at 17°C and 5°C for 24 and 72 h. Cooling to 5°C, but not storage duration, reduced ATP concentration in spermatozoa (P<0.05, which was accompanied by the appearance of AMP and ADP in the preservation medium. ATP and energy charge were highly correlated to the proportion of membrane-intact spermatozoa, supporting the idea of nucleotides leaking through disrupted membranes in cold-shocked cells. The present assay allows highly standardized studies of energy metabolism in spermatozoa.

  8. Energy metabolic state in hypothermically stored boar spermatozoa using a revised protocol for efficient ATP extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh Thu; Wallner, Ulrike; Schmicke, Marion; Waberski, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian spermatozoa utilize ATP as the energy source for key functions on the route to fertilization. ATP and its precursor nucleotides ADP and AMP are regularly investigated in sperm physiology studies, mostly by bioluminescence assays. Assay results vary widely, mainly due to different efficiencies in nucleotide extraction and prevention of their enzymatic degradation. Here, we describe a revised, validated protocol for efficient phosphatase inhibition and adenine nucleotide extraction resulting in consistently high ATP concentrations exceeding previously reported values for boar spermatozoa up to 20-fold. The revised assay is applicable for determining ATP concentrations and adenylate energy charge in extracts from fresh and frozen samples, thereby allowing simultaneous assessment of semen samples from long-term storage experiments. After validation, the assay was applied to liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa stored at 17°C and 5°C for 24 and 72 h. Cooling to 5°C, but not storage duration, reduced ATP concentration in spermatozoa (P<0.05), which was accompanied by the appearance of AMP and ADP in the preservation medium. ATP and energy charge were highly correlated to the proportion of membrane-intact spermatozoa, supporting the idea of nucleotides leaking through disrupted membranes in cold-shocked cells. The present assay allows highly standardized studies of energy metabolism in spermatozoa. PMID:27612509

  9. Microalgae based biorefinery: evaluation of oil extraction methods in terms of efficiency, costs, toxicity and energy in lab-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Darío González-Delgado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Several alternatives of microalgal metabolites extraction and transformation are being studied for achieving the total utilization of this energy crop of great interest worldwide. Microalgae oil extraction is a key stage in microalgal biodiesel production chains and their efficiency affects significantly the global process efficiency. In this study, a comparison of five oil extraction methods in lab-scale was made taking as additional parameters, besides extraction efficiency, the costs of method performing, energy requirements, and toxicity of solvents used, in order to elucidate the convenience of their incorporation to a microalgae-based topology of biorefinery. Methods analyzed were Solvent extraction assisted with high speed homogenization (SHE, Continuous reflux solvent extraction (CSE, Hexane based extraction (HBE, Cyclohexane based extraction (CBE and Ethanol-hexane extraction (EHE, for this evaluation were used the microalgae strains Nannochloropsis sp., Guinardia sp., Closterium sp., Amphiprora sp. and Navicula sp., obtained from a Colombian microalgae bioprospecting. In addition, morphological response of strains to oil extraction methods was also evaluated by optic microscopy. Results shows that although there is not a unique oil extraction method which excels in all parameters evaluated, CSE, SHE and HBE appears as promising alternatives, while HBE method is shown as the more convenient for using in lab-scale and potentially scalable for implementation in a microalgae based biorefinery

  10. Polarized backlight with constrained angular divergence for enhancement of light extraction efficiency from wire grid polarizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Po-Hung; Chung, Chi-Jui; Wu, Chien-Li; Chen, Cheng-Huan

    2012-02-27

    Efficiency of liquid crystal displays highly depends on the amount of polarized light emerging from the backlight module. In this paper, a backlight architecture using a nanoimprint wire grid polarizer for polarization recycling is proposed and studied, in which the extraction efficiency of polarized light is the major concern. The backlight module is composed of the stack of a wire grid polarizer, a lenticular array and a light guide plate. The light guide plate features interleaving v-groove and trapezoidal ridge coated with aluminum on the top surface, and scattering dot array on the bottom. The angular divergence of emerging light from the light guide plate can be well constrained so as to exploit the angular range with the best transmission of polarized light for the wire grid polarizer. The prototype of a 2.5-inch module has demonstrated an angular divergence of 48°. The overall extraction efficiency of polarized light enhanced by 21% and uniformity of 76% have been achieved.

  11. Efficient Execution Methods of Pivoting for Bulk Extraction of Entity-Attribute-Value-Modeled Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Frey, Lewis J

    2016-03-01

    Entity-attribute-value (EAV) tables are widely used to store data in electronic medical records and clinical study data management systems. Before they can be used by various analytical (e.g., data mining and machine learning) programs, EAV-modeled data usually must be transformed into conventional relational table format through pivot operations. This time-consuming and resource-intensive process is often performed repeatedly on a regular basis, e.g., to provide a daily refresh of the content in a clinical data warehouse. Thus, it would be beneficial to make pivot operations as efficient as possible. In this paper, we present three techniques for improving the efficiency of pivot operations: 1) filtering out EAV tuples related to unneeded clinical parameters early on; 2) supporting pivoting across multiple EAV tables; and 3) conducting multi-query optimization. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques through implementation. We show that our optimized execution method of pivoting using these techniques significantly outperforms the current basic execution method of pivoting. Our techniques can be used to build a data extraction tool to simplify the specification of and improve the efficiency of extracting data from the EAV tables in electronic medical records and clinical study data management systems.

  12. Rapid and efficient method to extract metagenomic DNA from estuarine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Kashif; Sharma, Jaya; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Metagenomic DNA from sediments of selective estuaries of Goa, India was extracted using a simple, fast, efficient and environment friendly method. The recovery of pure metagenomic DNA from our method was significantly high as compared to other well-known methods since the concentration of recovered metagenomic DNA ranged from 1185.1 to 4579.7 µg/g of sediment. The purity of metagenomic DNA was also considerably high as the ratio of absorbance at 260 and 280 nm ranged from 1.88 to 1.94. Therefore, the recovered metagenomic DNA was directly used to perform various molecular biology experiments viz. restriction digestion, PCR amplification, cloning and metagenomic library construction. This clearly proved that our protocol for metagenomic DNA extraction using silica gel efficiently removed the contaminants and prevented shearing of the metagenomic DNA. Thus, this modified method can be used to recover pure metagenomic DNA from various estuarine sediments in a rapid, efficient and eco-friendly manner.

  13. Efficient microplastics extraction from sand. A cost effective methodology based on sodium iodide recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, Mikaël; Le Tilly, Véronique; César, Guy; Sire, Olivier; Bruzaud, Stéphane

    2017-02-15

    Evaluating the microplastics pollution on the shores requires overcoming the technological and economical challenge of efficient plastic extraction from sand. The recovery of dense microplastics requires the use of NaI solutions, a costly process. The aim of this study is to decrease this cost by recycling the NaI solutions and to determine the impact of NaI storage. For studying the NaI recyclability, the solution density and the salt mass have been monitored during ten life cycles. Density, pH and salt mass have been measured for 40days to assess the storage effect. The results show that NaI solutions are recyclable without any density alterations with a total loss of 35.9% after the 10cycles of use. During storage, chemical reactions may appear but are reversible. Consequently, the use of recycling methods allows for a significant cost reduction. How far the plastic extraction by dense solutions is representative is discussed.

  14. Circumbinary disk, an efficient medium extracting orbital angular momentum in close binaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN WenCong; ZENG QingGuo

    2009-01-01

    The loss of orbital angular momentum plays an important role in the mass transfer and orbital evolution of close binaries. The traditional mechanisms of orbital angular momentum loss consist of gravitational wave radiation, mass loss and magnetic braking. However, a small fraction of the mass outflow may form a thin circumbinary disk (CB disk) located in the orbital plane of the binary during mass exchange. The tide torques caused by the gravitational interaction between a CB disk and a binary system brake binary effectively, and extract the orbital angular momentum from the binary system. In this study, numerical calculations for the evolution of the white dwarf binary show that a CB disk is an efficient medium extracting orbital angular momentum even if the mass loss is very small. Finally, some theo-retical research and observational progress on CB disks are presented.

  15. Effect of Hydrothermal Extraction Condition on The Content of Phenolic Compound Extracted from Rind of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana and Its Antioxidant Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifni Yasa Ash Shiddiqi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthone is an antioxidant compound contained in the rind of mangosteen. There are some methods to extract Xanthone from rind of mangosteen, and one of them is hydrothermal extraction. Hydrothermal extraction is a method to obtain xanthone from rind of mangosteen using water at teIn this work, the effect of extraction temperature, pressure, and mode (batch and continuous, and particle size of starting material on the yield and recovery of extracted xanthone and phenolic compounds was investigated. Extraction was carried out at various temperatures (120, 150, and 180oC and pressures (1, 3, and 5 MPa and constant flow rate of 1 mL/min. The xanthone content and antioxidant efficiency of extract was examined by using spectrophotometer, while the concentration of total phenolic compounds in the extract was determined with folin ciocalteu reagent and examined using spectrophotometer In order to confirm the extracted phenolic compounds, the extract residue was analyzed by using FTIR. The experimental result showed that the increase in pressure and temperature caused an increase in total phenolic compound concentration and yield of xanthone. In addition, the result also showed that antioxidant activities were observed in the extract of mangosteen rind.

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF PROGNOSTIC FACTORS OF THE EFFICIENCY OF BEVACIZUMAB THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH METASTATIC RENAL-CELL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ya. Alekseyev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The design and introduction of novel medicaments into clinical practice has confirmed that it is necessary to search for new prognostic factors to re-evaluate the clinical and biological properties of a tumor and to identify a subgroup of patients who will benefit from drug treatment. An individual approach and personalization of performed therapy will be able to substantially enhance its efficiency.Subjects and methods. Thirty-four oncology and urology research and health care institutions from 8 federal districts of the Russian Federation took part in the investigation. It enrolled 145 metastatic renal-cell cancer patients who had received targeted therapy with a combination of bevacizumab and interferon-α (IFN-α, in whom an objective response (complete or partial regression or stabilization of tumor foci was recorded during at least 3-month treatment. The main task of the investigation was to estimate the clinical importance of chosen criteria (an interval from the diagnosis to start of treatment; physical activity according to the Karnofsky scale; a history of nephrectomy; the site and number of metastatic foci; the levels of hemoglobin, neutrophils, platelets, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase as predictors for the efficiency of bevacizumab therapy.Results. The median follow-up was 9 months (interquartile range (IQR 6–13 months. The duration of treatment varied between 3 to 22 months; the median was 9 months (IQR 6–13 months. Patients with 3-month progression were excluded from the investigation. A complete and partial responses were recorded in 5 (3.4 % and 19 (13.1 % patients, respectively; the tumor process was stabilized in 118 (81.4 % patients. The median duration of response to therapy with a combination of bevacizumab and IFN-α was 7 months (IQR 5–10 months. The progression-free survival was significantly influenced by prognostic factors, such as hemoglobin and neutrophil levels, age, and time from the diagnosis

  17. Determination of the Surface Plasmons Polaritons extraction efficiency from a self-assembled plasmonic crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Frederich, Hugo; Laverdant, Julien; de Marcillac, Willy Daney; Schwob, Catherine; Coolen, Laurent; Maître, Agnès

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally measure and analytically describe the fluorescence enhancement obtained by depositing CdSe/CdS nanocrystals onto a gold plasmonic crystal, a two-dimensional grating of macroscopic size obtained by gold deposition on a self-assembled opal. We show evidences of nanocrystals near-field coupling to the gold Surface Plasmons Polaritons (SPP) followed by grating-induced SPP re-emission to far-field. We develop a theoretical framework and an original method in order to evaluate, from photoluminescence experiments, the SPP extraction efficiency of a grating.

  18. High efficiency energy extraction from a relativistic electron beam in a strongly tapered undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Sudar, Nicholas; Duris, Joe; Gadjev, Ivan; Polyaniy, Mikhail; Pogorelsky, Igor; Fedurin, Mikhail; Swinson, Christina; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Gover, Avi

    2016-01-01

    We present results of an experiment where, using a 200 GW CO2 laser seed, a 65 MeV electron beam was decelerated down to 35 MeV in a 54 cm long strongly tapered helical magnetic undulator, extracting over 30$\\%$ of the initial electron beam energy to coherent radiation. These results demonstrate unparalleled electro-optical conversion efficiencies for a relativistic beam in an undulator field and represent an important step in the development of high peak and average power coherent radiation sources.

  19. High Efficiency Energy Extraction from a Relativistic Electron Beam in a Strongly Tapered Undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudar, N.; Musumeci, P.; Duris, J.; Gadjev, I.; Polyanskiy, M.; Pogorelsky, I.; Fedurin, M.; Swinson, C.; Kusche, K.; Babzien, M.; Gover, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present results of an experiment where, using a 200 GW CO2 laser seed, a 65 MeV electron beam was decelerated down to 35 MeV in a 54-cm-long strongly tapered helical magnetic undulator, extracting over 30% of the initial electron beam energy to coherent radiation. These results, supported by simulations of the radiation field evolution, demonstrate unparalleled electro-optical conversion efficiencies for a relativistic beam in an undulator field and represent an important step in the development of high peak and average power coherent radiation sources.

  20. Hepatic and renal extraction of circulating type I procollagen aminopropeptide in patients with normal liver function and in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytte, S; Hansen, M; Møller, S;

    1999-01-01

    The circulating level and splanchnic and renal extraction of serum type I procollagen aminoterminal propeptide (PINP) was studied in 20 patients with normal liver function and in 15 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. In patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, the concentration of PINP...... in the femoral artery blood was significantly higher than in the group of patients with normal liver function (median 145 microg/l, 95% CI 98-195 versus 57 microg/l, 95% CI 42-92, p...-92) and the hepatic vein (median 45 microg/l, 95% CI 40-70, pliver function. In this group we also observed a significantly higher concentration of PINP in femoral artery blood (median 60 microg/l, 95% CI 45-87) as compared with that in renal vein (median 50 microg/l, 95% CI...

  1. Design of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction for the efficient extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xueqin; Li, Li; Wang, Yuzhi; Chen, Jing; Huang, Yanhua; Xu, Kaijia

    2014-12-01

    A series of novel tetramethylguanidinium ionic liquids and hexaalkylguanidinium ionic liquids have been synthesized based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine. The structures of the ionic liquids were confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. A green guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction method has been developed with these guanidinium ionic liquids for the effective extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani. After extraction, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was employed for the analysis of Praeruptorin A. Several significant operating parameters were systematically optimized by single-factor and L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array experiments. The amount of Praeruptorin A extracted by [1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine]CH2CH(OH)COOH is the highest, reaching 11.05 ± 0.13 mg/g. Guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction presents unique advantages in Praeruptorin A extraction compared with guanidinium ionic liquid based maceration extraction, guanidinium ionic liquid based heat reflux extraction and guanidinium ionic liquid based ultrasound-assisted extraction. The precision, stability, and repeatability of the process were investigated. The mechanisms of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction were researched by scanning electron microscopy and IR spectroscopy. All the results show that guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction has a huge potential in the extraction of bioactive compounds from complex samples.

  2. Efficiency of boiling and four other methods for genomic DNA extraction of deteriorating spore-forming bacteria from milk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jose Carlos Ribeiro Junior; Ronaldo Tamanini; Bruna Fritegoto Soares; Aline Marangon de Oliveira; Fernando de Godoi Silva; Francine Fernandes da Silva; Nayara Assis Augusto; Vanerli Beloti

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of boiling in conjunction with four other methods for the genomic DNA extraction of sporulated bacteria with proteolytic and lipolytic potential...

  3. Efficiency and selectivity of triterpene acid extraction from decoctions and tinctures prepared from apple peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Siani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study assessed the extraction efficiency of ursolic (UA and oleanolic acids (OA, as well as the total phenols in aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of dry apple peels at room temperature. Materials and Methods: After running preliminary assays on decoctions and tinctures (ethanol: water 7:3 v/v, the extracts from dried apple (cv. Fuji peels were obtained by static maceration over varied intervals (2 to 180 days. The UA and OA content in the extracts was quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD with a reversed phase column and isocratic elution (CH 3 CN/H 2 O/H 3 PO 4 against calibration curves (R 2 > 0.9995. The total phenol content in the extracts was evaluated spectrophotometrically at 760 nm using the Folin-Ciocalteau method referencing gallic acid. Results: UA and OA in the hydroethanolic extracts ranged from 3.63-6.12 mg/g and 2.12-3.30 mg/g, corresponding to 1.72-3.07 and 1.00-1.66 mg/g in the raw material, respectively. Higher values of triterpene acid content corresponded to maceration periods of 10 or 30 days. The residual phenol and polyphenol content ranged from 6.97 to 11.6 mg/g. The UA and OA yields, as well as the total phenol content, versus the maceration time were plotted in Control Charts within confidence intervals (95% and were unaffected during the assayed period. Conclusion: Apple peel tinctures from 10% solids obtained at room temperature exhibited the highest content of triterpene acids when employing a maceration period of 10 to 30 days. Extracts prepared using this procedure contained an average of 7.33 mg/g of total triterpene acids and 10.6 mg/g phenolic compounds. These results establish supporting data for apple peel tinctures and their derived phytopharmaceuticals that are standardized on the ursolic-oleanolic acid content.

  4. Development and validation of an inexpensive and efficient method for the extraction of Theileria orientalis DNA from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogema, D R; Fell, S A; O'Rourke, B A; Collins, D; Eamens, G J; Jenkins, C

    2015-09-15

    Theileria orientalis is an emerging bovine pathogen in Australasia. PCR-based detection methods for this parasite are sensitive but relatively expensive, partly due to costs associated with DNA extraction. An inexpensive and efficient technique was developed for the extraction of T. orientalis DNA from blood based on hypotonic erythrocyte lysis and detergent-proteinase K treatment (DPK method). The DPK method compares favourably to a commercial extraction kit when paired with a T. orientalis multiplex qPCR.

  5. Inertial effects of the semi-passive flapping foil on its energy extraction efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Teng, Lubao; Pan, Dingyi; Shao, Xueming

    2015-05-01

    The inertia plays a significant role in the response of a system undergoing flow-induced vibrations, which has been extensively investigated by previous researchers. However, the inertial effects of an energy harvester employing the mechanism of flow-induced vibrations have attracted little attention. This paper concentrates on a semi-passive energy extraction system considering its inertial effects. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a finite-volume based numerical solver with a moving grid technique. A partitioned method is used to couple the fluid and structure motions with the sub-iteration technique and an Aitken relaxation, which guarantees a strong fluid-structure coupling. In addition, a fictitious mass is added to resolve the numerical instability aroused by low density ratios. First, at a fixed mass ratio of r = 1, we identify an optimal set of parameters, at which a maximum efficiency of η = 34% is achieved. Further studies with r ranging from 0.125 to 100 are performed around the optimal parameters. The results show that for the semi-passive flapping energy harvester, the energy harvesting efficiency decreases monotonically with increasing mass ratio. We also notice that the total power extraction stays at a high level with little variation for r physical reason of existence of the optimal phase difference.

  6. An Efficient Feature Extraction Method Based on Entropy for Power Quality Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kailasapathi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the applicability of entropy defined as thermodynamic state variable introduced by German Physicists Rudolf clausius and also presents the concepts and application of said state variable as a measure of system disorganization. Later an entropy-based feature Analysis method for power quality disturbance analysis has been proposed. Feature extraction of a disturbed power signal provides information that helps to detect the responsible fault for power quality disturbance. A precise and faster feature extraction tool helps power engineers to monitor and maintain power disturbances more efficiently. Firstly, the decomposition coefficients are obtained by applying 10-level wavelet multi resolution analysis to the signals (normal, sag, swell, outage, harmonic and sag with harmonic and swell with harmonic generated by using the parametric equations. Secondly, a combined feature vector is obtained from standard deviation of these features after distinctive features for each signal are extracted by applying the energy, the Shannon entropy and the log-energy entropy methods to decomposition coefficients. Finally the entropy methods detect the different types of power quality disturbance.

  7. An efficient method of key-frame extraction based on a cluster algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Yu, Shao-Pei; Zhou, Dong-Sheng; Wei, Xiao-Peng

    2013-12-18

    This paper proposes a novel method of key-frame extraction for use with motion capture data. This method is based on an unsupervised cluster algorithm. First, the motion sequence is clustered into two classes by the similarity distance of the adjacent frames so that the thresholds needed in the next step can be determined adaptively. Second, a dynamic cluster algorithm called ISODATA is used to cluster all the frames and the frames nearest to the center of each class are automatically extracted as key-frames of the sequence. Unlike many other clustering techniques, the present improved cluster algorithm can automatically address different motion types without any need for specified parameters from users. The proposed method is capable of summarizing motion capture data reliably and efficiently. The present work also provides a meaningful comparison between the results of the proposed key-frame extraction technique and other previous methods. These results are evaluated in terms of metrics that measure reconstructed motion and the mean absolute error value, which are derived from the reconstructed data and the original data.

  8. Technical note: Efficiency of total demineralization and ion-exchange column for DNA extraction from bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung Bum; Zhang, Aihua; Kim, Hye Yeon; Yi, Jin A; Lee, Hye Young; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Soong Deok

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether a combination of recently introduced methods, total demineralization and ion-exchange columns, would increase DNA recovery from old bone. Ten bone samples taken after a burial period of approximately 60 years were used in this study. Bone powder was digested using total or incomplete demineralization. DNA was extracted by the standard organic method. The DNA extract was purified with ion-exchange columns or QIAquick spin columns. The efficiency of different DNA extraction methods was compared in terms of DNA concentration, inhibitors generated by real-time PCR, and conventional STR typing results. The mean DNA concentration using the total demineralization method is approximately 3 times higher than that using the incomplete demineralization method. For DNA purification, the method using QIAquick spin columns appeared to yield approximately double the DNA than the method using ion-exchange columns. Furthermore, 2 out of 10 samples showed higher levels of inhibition with C(T) values of IPC > or =30 cycles when using only ion-exchange columns. In STR results, total demineralization yielded more locus profiles by 4.2 loci than incomplete demineralization, and QIAquick spin columns also yielded more locus profiles by 3.5 loci than ion-exchange columns. Total demineralization of bone powder significantly increased DNA yield and improved STR typing results. However, the use of ion-exchange columns was not efficient when compared with the method using QIAquick spin columns. It is suggested that the combination of total demineralization and QIAquick spin columns lead to greatly improved STR typing results.

  9. Efforts to Improve Efficiency of Extraction Well Operation at the Fernald Preserve, Harrison, Ohio – 16177

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassmeyer, Cathy [Navarro Research and Engineering; Hooten, Gwen [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Hertel, Bill [Navarro Research and Engineering; Broberg, Ken [Nararro Research and Engineering

    2016-03-01

    The Fernald Preserve, a former uranium processing facility that produced high-purity uranium metal products during the Cold War, is located in southwest Ohio. The facility became a US Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) site in November 2006, following completion of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act environmental remediation and site restoration (with the exception of groundwater). When the site was turned over to LM, approximately 76.5 ha of the Great Miami Aquifer remained contaminated with uranium above the final remediation level of 30 μg/L. Here, uranium contamination is being removed from groundwater in the Great Miami Aquifer through a pump-and-treat operation, which is predicted to continue until 2033. Twenty extraction wells pump about 30 million liters per day. Operation of the system is impacted by iron in the groundwater that promotes iron fouling of the well pumps, motors, and screens. The design of the well field evolved over 21 years and reflected a conservative system that could respond to a wide range of pumping conditions. For instance, some of the extraction wells were sized with pumps and motors that would allow the well to pump up to 1890 L/min (500 gpm) if warranted. The added flexibility, though, came at the cost of operational efficiency. We describe the efforts that have been taken by LM since the Fernald site was transferred to LM to mitigate the operational impacts from the iron fouling aquifer conditions and improve the efficiency of the well-field operation. Variable-frequency drives were installed at six wells to replace flow control valves. Several wells with oversized pumps and motors were changed from 24-hour per day operation to 8-hour per day operation to allow the pumps to operate closer to their design flow rates. Pumps and motors were “right-sized” at many wells to improve pumping efficiency. The process used to rehabilitate (or clean) well screens was improved, and

  10. Study on Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Stem Alkaloid Extract of Different Varieties of Holy Basil on Aluminium in HCl Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpawat, Nutan; Chaturvedi, Alok; Upadhyay, R. K. [Synthetic and Surface Science Laboratory, Ajmer (India)

    2012-08-15

    Corrosion inhibition efficiencies of holy basil on Al in HCl solution were studied by weight loss and thermometric methods in presence and in absence of stem extract of three different varieties of holy basil viz. ocimum basilicum (E{sub B}), ocimum canum (E{sub C}) and ocimum sanctum (E{sub S}). Inhibition efficiency increases with the increasing concentration of stem extract and decreases with increases in acid strength. Results show that all varieties under study are good corrosion inhibitors, among which, E{sub B} is most effective. Maximum inhibition efficiency was found 97.09% in 0.5N HCl solution with 0.6% stem extract. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm indicates that surface coverage also increases with increasing in the concentration of extract of stem in HCl solution.

  11. Improved DNA extraction efficiency from low level cell numbers using a silica monolith based micro fluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashkary, Loay; Kemp, Cordula; Shaw, Kirsty J; Greenway, Gillian M; Haswell, Stephen J

    2012-10-31

    The evaluation of a micro fluidic system with an integrated silica monolith for performing DNA extraction from limited biological samples has been carried out. Low DNA target concentrations usually require the addition of carrier RNA to ensure desired extraction efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate a micro fluidic extraction system with increasingly efficient extraction performances for biological samples containing extracted DNA showed successful amplification via the polymerase chain reaction demonstrating both the effectiveness of the proposed system at removing potential inhibitors and yielding good quality DNA. The work presented here beneficially identifies reduced sample volumes/concentrations as suitable for processing with respect to downstream analysis by enabling pre-concentration of the biological sample, particularly important when dealing with clinical or forensic specimens.

  12. Reduction of oxalate-induced renal tubular epithelial (NRK-52E cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallisation in vitro by aqueous extract of Achyranthes aspera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Anshu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable progress in medical therapy, there is no satisfactory drug to treat kidney stones. Therefore, this study is aimed to look for an alternative treatment by using Achyranthes aspera. Here, the inhibitory potency of A. aspera was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals as well as on oxalate-induced cell injury of NRK 52E renal epithelial cells in vitro. Data are expressed as mean values of three independent experiments (each in triplicate and analysed by the analysis of variance (P < 0.05 to estimate the differences between values of extracts tested. A. aspera extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of the growth of CaOx crystals but a similar pattern of inhibition was not observed with increase in the plant extract concentration for the nucleation assay. When NRK 52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 72 hours, A. aspera extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant, the cell viability increased and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. These studies indicate that A. aspera extract besides having a cytoprotective role also has a potential to inhibit both nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals and can prove to be a potent candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  13. Characterization of N-diethylnitrosamine-initiated and ferric nitrilotriacetate-promoted renal cell carcinoma experimental model and effect of a tamarind seed extract against acute nephrotoxicity and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Olvera, Chabetty Y; Sánchez-González, Dolores Javier; Solano, José D; Aguilar-Alonso, Francisco A; Montalvo-Muñoz, Fernando; Martínez-Martínez, Claudia María; Medina-Campos, Omar N; Ibarra-Rubio, María Elena

    2012-10-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the commonest malignancy in adult kidney, lacks of early signs, resulting often in metastasis at first diagnosis. N-Diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated and ferric nitrilotriacetate (FeNTA)-promoted RCC may be a useful experimental model, but it is not well characterized. In this study, histological alterations and oxidative stress markers were analyzed at different times throughout RCC development, histological subtype was re-evaluated in the light of current classification, and a tamarind seed extract (TSE) effect was examined. Male Wistar rats experimental groups were control, TSE, DEN, DEN+FeNTA, and TSE+DEN+FeNTA. TSE was given 2 weeks before DEN administration (200 mg/kg) and throughout the experiment. Fourteen days after DEN treatment, two FeNTA doses (9 mg Fe/kg) for acute nephrotoxicity study, and increasing FeNTA doses (3-9 mg Fe/kg) twice a week for 16 weeks for carcinogenesis protocol, were administered. In acute study, necrosis and renal failure were observed and TSE ameliorated them. Throughout carcinogenesis protocol, preneoplastic lesions were observed since 1 month of FeNTA treatment, which were more evident at 2 months, when also renal cysts and RCC were already detected. RCC tumors were obtained without changes in renal function, and clear cell histological subtype was identified in all cases. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal and 3-nitro-L: -tyrosine levels increased progressively throughout protocol. TSE decreased both oxidative stress markers and, although there was no statistical difference, it delayed RCC progress and decreased its incidence (21 %). This study brings an insight of the time course events in this carcinogenesis model, identifies clear cell subtype and establishes TSE renoprotective effects.

  14. Light extraction efficiency enhancement in light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide nano-craters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Huaiwen; Zhang Yiyun; Yang Hua; Xue Bin; Wu Kui; Li Jing; Wang Guohong

    2012-01-01

    A simple and low cost method is described which improves extraction efficiency.The indium tin oxide (ITO) textured film was fabricated by using the self-assembly method and dry-etching.The surface morphologies and surface roughness were observed by using an atomic force microscope.The Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics,output power and polar radiation pattern of the LEDs with and without textured ITO were measured for comparison.Cylinders and craters were formed on the ITO surface after the etching,the height of which increased with etching time.The output power of the devices is proportional to the etching time.Total internal reflection of light on the ITO-GaN interface is reduced due to the appearance of cylinders and craters,and their increasing height.Thus,the output power is improved.

  15. Efficient synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Prosopis juliflora leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity using sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, K.; Saravanakumar, A.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Prosopis juliflora was used for the synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectroscopy studies were carried out to asses silver nanoparticles formation within 5 min, scanning electron microscopic was used to characterize shape of the Ag nanoparticles, X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the nanoparticles as crystalline silver and facecentered cubic type and Fourier transform infra-red assed that shows biomolecule compounds which are responsible for reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. The anti microbial activity of silver nanoparticle was performed using sewage. The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy methods.

  16. Efficient inclusion body processing using chemical extraction and high gradient magnetic fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Choe, Woo-Seok; Middelberg, Anton P J; Thomas, Owen R T

    2003-01-01

    In this study we introduce a radical new approach for the recovery of proteins expressed in the form of inclusion bodies, involving (i) chemical extraction from the host cells, (ii) adsorptive capture of the target protein onto small magnetic adsorbents, and (iii) subsequent rapid collection of the product-loaded supports with the aid of high gradient magnetic fields. The manufacture and testing of two types of micron-sized nonporous superparamagnetic metal chelator particles derivatized with iminodiacetic acid is described. In small-scale adsorption studies conducted with a hexahistidine tagged form of the L1 coat protein of human papillomavirus type 16 dissolved in 8 M urea-phosphate buffer, the best binding performance (Q(max) = 58 mg g(-1) and K(d) approximately 0.08 microM) was exhibited by Cu(2+)-charged type II support materials. Equilibrium adsorption of L1 to these nonporous supports was achieved very rapidly (100 mM imidazole in the equilibration buffer. The influence of feedstock complexity on L1 adsorption to the Cu(2+)-charged type II magnetic chelators was studied using various dilutions of four crude chemical E. coli cell extracts containing denatured L1 protein. Undiminished L1 adsorption to these adsorbents (relative to the 8 M urea-phosphate buffer case) was observed with the least complex of these feed materials, i.e., a partially clarified (12 g dry weight L(-1)) and spermine-treated chemical cell extract (feedstock B). Efficient recovery of L1 from feed B was demonstrated at a 60-fold increased scale using the high gradient magnetic fishing (HGMF) system to collect loaded Cu(2+)-chelator particles following batch adsorption of L1. Over 70% of the initial L1 present was recovered within the HGMF rig in a highly clarified form in two batch elution cycles with an overall purification factor of approximately 10.

  17. Pomegranate extract inhibits EMT in clear cell renal cell carcinoma in a NF-κB and JNK dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabin An

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that PE may mediate inhibition growth of pVHL-deficient ccRCCs and raises the possibility of its use as a dietary adjunct to managing patients with active surveillance for small, localized, incidentally identified renal tumors so as to avoid more invasive procedures such as nephrectomy.

  18. Enhanced Coagulation Efficiency of Moringa Oleifera Seeds Through Selective Oil Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman A. Muyibi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this laboratory based study, varying quantities of oil, corresponding to 20 % w/w, 25 % w/w and 30 % w/w kernel weight extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds ( S1, S2, S3 respectively  were applied in the coagulation of model turbid water (kaolin suspension and turbid river water samples from River Batang Kali and River Selangor in Malaysia to determine the percentage oil removed which gave the best coagulation efficiency. For model turbid water (kaolin suspension coagulation of low turbidity of 35 NTU, medium turbidity of 100 NTU and high turbidity of 300 NTU, sample S2  gave the best turbidity removal corresponding to 91.7%, 95.5% and 99% respectively. Application of sample S2 to River Batang Kali with low initial turbidity of 32 NTU and high initial turbidity of 502 NTU gave a highest turbidity removal of 69% and 99% respectively. Application to River Selangor with medium initial turbidity- of 87 NTU and high initial turbidity of 466 NTU gave a highest residual turbidity' of 94% and 98.9%,  respectively.Key words: Moringa oleifera seed, selective oil extraction, coagulation, model turbid water (kaolin suspension, river water, turbidity removal.

  19. Efficient solvent extraction of antioxidant-rich extract from a tropical diatom,Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen) Takano 1968

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Chern Foo; Fatimah Md Yusoff; Maznah Ismail; Mahiran Basri; Nicholas Mun Hoe Khong; Kim Wei Chan; Sook Kun Yau

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare thein vitro antioxidant capacity of a diatom,Chaetoceros calcitrans (C. calcitrans) extracted using six types of solvents. Methods:Each extract was evaluated in terms of extraction yield, total carotenoid, fucoxanthin content, total phenolic and antioxidant capacities (DPPH• andABTS•+ scavenging activity and iron chelating activity). Results: The methanol extract exhibited the highest yield [(22.71 ± 0.96) g/100 g dry weight (DW)], total carotenoid [(4.46 ± 0.36) mg/g DW], total phenolic [(2.49 ± 0.08) mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW] and second highest fucoxanthin content [(2.08 ± 0.03) mg fucoxanthin/g DW] as compared to other solvent extracts. Methanolic extract also exhibited significantly higher (P Conclusions: Methanol was the recommended solvent for the production of antioxidant rich extract fromC. calcitrans. Both carotenoids and phenolic acids were found to be positively correlated to the antioxidant capacities ofC. calcitrans. Lead bioactives confirmed by subsequent high performance liquid chromatography studies were fucoxanthin, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid.

  20. Efficient solvent extraction of antioxidant-rich extract from a tropical diatom,Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen) Takano 1968简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Chern; Foo; Fatimah; Md.Yusoff; Maznah; Ismail; Mahiran; Basri; Nicholas; Mun; Hoe; Khong; Kim; Wei; Chan; Sook; Kun; Yau

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the in vitro antioxidant capacity of a diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans(C. calcitrans) extracted using six types of solvents.Methods: Each extract was evaluated in terms of extraction yield, total carotenoid,fucoxanthin content, total phenolic and antioxidant capacities(DPPH and ABTS +scavenging activity and iron chelating activity).Results: The methanol extract exhibited the highest yield [(22.71 ± 0.96) g/100 g dry weight(DW)], total carotenoid [(4.46 ± 0.36) mg/g DW], total phenolic [(2.49 ± 0.08) mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW] and second highest fucoxanthin content [(2.08 ± 0.03) mg fucoxanthin/g DW] as compared to other solvent extracts. Methanolic extract also exhibited significantly higher(P < 0.05) scavenging(DPPH, ABTS +) and iron chelating activities.Conclusions: Methanol was the recommended solvent for the production of antioxidant rich extract from C. calcitrans. Both carotenoids and phenolic acids were found to be positively correlated to the antioxidant capacities of C. calcitrans. Lead bioactives confirmed by subsequent high performance liquid chromatography studies were fucoxanthin, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid.

  1. Introduction of agarose gel as a green membrane in electromembrane extraction: An efficient procedure for the extraction of basic drugs with a wide range of polarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabani, Hadi; Asadi, Sakine; Nojavan, Saeed; Parsa, Mitra

    2017-05-12

    Developing green methods for analyte extraction is one of the most important topics in the field of sample preparation. In this study, for the first time, agarose gel was used as membrane in electromembrane extraction (EME) without using any organic solvent, for the extraction of four model basic drugs (rivastigmine (RIV), verapamil (VER), amlodipine (AML), and morphine (MOR)) with a wide polarity window (log P from 0.43 to 3.7). Different variables playing vital roles in the proposed method were evaluated and optimized. As a driving force, a 25V electrical field was applied to make the analyte migrate from sample solution with pH 7.0, through the agarose gel 3% (w/v) with 5mm thickness, into an acceptor phase (AP) with pH 2.0. The best extraction efficiency was obtained with an extraction duration of 25min. With this new methodology, MOR with high polarity (log P=0.43) was efficiently extracted without using any carrier or ion pair reagents. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were in the ranges of 1.5-1.8ngmL(-1) and 5.0-6.0ngmL(-1), respectively. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine concentrations of the model drugs in the wastewater sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nephroprotective effects of Feijoa Sellowiana leaves extract on renal injury induced by acute dose of ecstasy (MDMA in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2014-01-01

    : Both extracts at 40 mg/kg resulted in a significant reversal in the raised serum creatinine levels (P 0.05. A decrease in urea/ creatinine ratio was observed following aqueous extract treatment. Methanolic extract showed higher activity in increasing kidney glutathione (P

  3. Electrochemical extraction of chlorides from reinforced concrete: variables affecting treatment efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Climent, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of applying electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE to a series of chloride-contaminated concrete specimens. Experimental conditions were varied to study the efficiency of this technique under different circumstances. The survey covered the possible relationship between efficiency and the location of the sampling point, current density, type of concrete and treatment intermittence. Experiments were also conducted with different reinforcement configurations used in standard structural members such as columns and beams to ascertain the impact of rebar geometry.Este documento aporta los resultados de investigaciones realizadas en diferentes estudios en los que se aplicó la técnica de Extracción Electroquímica de Cloruros (EEC a diferentes estructuras de hormigón contaminado con cloruros. Se cambiaron las condiciones experimentales con el fin de estudiar la eficiencia de la misma en cada una de ellas. Se estudió la dependencia con la posición del punto de toma de las muestras, con la densidad de corriente aplicada, con el tipo de hormigón utilizado y con las paradas realizadas en etapas intermedias del tratamiento. Para ver la influencia de la disposición geométrica de las armaduras,se realizó una experiencia con tipos diferentes de disposiciones de las armaduras, correspondiente a componentes estructurales típicos como los pilares y las vigas.

  4. Efficient Extracting Method of Minim DNA%微量DNA高效提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付少彬; 王海英; 孟庆峰; 孙迪安

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] A simple, efficient method for extraction of DNA for lichens and their mycobionts was studied. [ Method ] Based on CTAB method, the composition, the proportion of the solution and the application of the absorption column with silica substrate were optimized.[ Result] The method was successfully applied for the species from different genus, including the foliose, fruficose and crustose efficiently.[ Conclusion] The method was simple, convenient, inexpensive and not restricted to fresh material.%[目的]探究一种高效的提取微量地衣体及地衣共生菌DNA的方法.[方法]在CTAB法的基础上,对溶液成分、比例及应用硅基质吸附柱对微量DNA提取进行优化.[结果]对于叶状、枝状和壳状地衣,采用该方法可得到质量较高的DNA.[结论]所用方法既节约样品,简便易行,费用低,稳定性好,效率高,而且不局限于新鲜材料.

  5. Case study: purification efficiency of a treatment wetland used at a peat extraction area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Riku; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Marttila, Hannu; Kløve, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    The inflow and outflow of a treatment wetland was intensively monitored between March 2012 and October 2012. Sampling was done with automated sampling equipment bidaily during the snowmelt period and daily for the rest of the study period. The treatment wetland is located downstream of a peat extraction area with a surface area of 208 ha. Drainage network at the peat extraction area has been fitted with peak flow control structures and a sedimentation basin from which the water is pumped to the treatment wetland. The treatment wetland has a surface area of 11 ha of peatland soil and is covered by grassy vegetation during the summer season. After flowing through the wetland water is discharging to a small stream through a v-notch weir. All samples were analysed for electric conductivity (EC), suspended solids (SS), Colour, Turbidity and pH. Additional analyses for various elements and nutrients were done for samples selected on the basis of hydrology. Results of the additional analyses represent the dissolved fraction of analysed elements as the samples were first filtrated with 0.45 µm filter for SS. Our results show that the purification efficiency varies during the measurement period. For example, to SS the overall purification efficiency was 62 %. However during the spring flood the purification efficiency is negative which can be caused by snowmelt water flushing previous year's dead vegetation or particulate matter accumulated during the winter period. After midsummer we can observe drastic increase in the retention of SS. Similar pattern can be seen in the retention of phosphorous with overall retention of 11 % of the total phosphorous. In the case of nitrogen the overall performance for the wetland is poor. Some of this can be explained by poor retention of NO2-3-N due to cold weather during spring melt season. However during the summer time denitrification process seems to be working as the retention of N improves. Retention of dissolved organic carbon

  6. Comparison of Conventional Microwave and Focused Microwave-assisted Extraction to Enhance the Efficiency of the Extraction of Antioxidant Flavonols from Jocote Pomace (Spondias purpurea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Letícia C B; Carneiro, Larissa M; Branco, Carla R C; Branco, Alexsandro

    2015-06-01

    Jocote (Spondias purpurea L.) is rich in phenolic compounds which have antioxidant properties. The focused microwave-assisted extraction (FMAE) was compared with the conventional microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) to obtain flavonols from jocote pomace. The effects of parameters such as the extraction time, the temperature and the composition of the solvent mixture (i.e., the ethanol to water ration) were evaluated and optimized using a statistical experimental design approach. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the important effects and interactions of these independent variables on the extractive yield and quantification of some flavonoids. In addition, the antioxidant activity was analyzed. The total phenolic and flavonoid content was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was evaluated according to the DPPH assay. The results showed that the optimum extracting parameters used FMAE with extraction time of 20 min, temperature of 68 °C and ethanol composition of 80% in water. Under these conditions, a yield of 3.42% was obtained. Rutin and quercetin were quantified (0.19 mg/mL and 0.024 mg/mL, respectively) through HPLC-DAD. The total phenol and flavonoid contents were found to be 0.897 g GAE/g and 1.271 g QE/g, respectively. In the DPPH scavenging assay, the IC50 value of the extract occurred at 43.10 μg/mL. This study shows that FMAE is suitable as an efficient extraction procedure for the extraction of flavonols from jocote pomace.

  7. Multiwell CO2 injectivity: impact of boundary conditions and brine extraction on geologic CO2 storage efficiency and pressure buildup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Jason E; McKenna, Sean A; Dewers, Thomas A; Roach, Jesse D; Kobos, Peter H

    2014-01-21

    CO2 storage efficiency is a metric that expresses the portion of the pore space of a subsurface geologic formation that is available to store CO2. Estimates of storage efficiency for large-scale geologic CO2 storage depend on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational design. These factors govern estimates on CO2 storage resources, the longevity of storage sites, and potential pressure buildup in storage reservoirs. This study employs numerical modeling to quantify CO2 injection well numbers, well spacing, and storage efficiency as a function of geologic formation properties, open-versus-closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without brine extraction. The set of modeling runs is important as it allows the comparison of controlling factors on CO2 storage efficiency. Brine extraction in closed domains can result in storage efficiencies that are similar to those of injection in open-boundary domains. Geomechanical constraints on downhole pressure at both injection and extraction wells lower CO2 storage efficiency as compared to the idealized scenario in which the same volumes of CO2 and brine are injected and extracted, respectively. Geomechanical constraints should be taken into account to avoid potential damage to the storage site.

  8. Using nanoimprint lithography to improve the light extraction efficiency and color rendering of dichromatic white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang-Chun; Chen, Hsuen-Li; Lu, Chih-Yu; Wu, Hung-Sen; Chou, Yung-Fang; Chen, Szu-Huang

    2015-10-01

    Despite the efficiency of gallium nitride (GaN)-based blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the light extraction arising from the packaging of the phosphor remains an important issue when enhancing the performance of dichromatic white LEDs. In this study, we employed a simple, inexpensive nanoimprinting process to increase both the light extraction efficiency and color rendering of dichromatic white LEDs. We employed the rigorous coupled wave approach (RCWA) to optimize the light extraction efficiency of yellow and blue light. We found that the presence of the light extracting structures could also improve the color rendering of the dichromatic white LEDs, due to the different light extraction efficiencies of the textured structures at different wavelengths. After fabricating inverted pyramid structures on the surface of the encapsulation layer, the intensity of the blue light at 455 nm increased by 20%. When we further considered the color rendering and correlated color temperature (CCT), the enhancement of blue light was 15% and that of yellow light was 4%. Meanwhile, the light extraction of the intensity dip near 490 nm was enhanced significantly (by 25%), resulting in an increased dip-intensity of light at 490 nm relative to the intensities of the blue and yellow light. Accordingly, the color rendering index (CRI) of this dichromatic white LED increased from 69 to 73. Because it improved both the light extraction efficiency and color rendering of dichromatic white LEDs, this simple method should be very helpful for enhancing their applications in solid state illumination.Despite the efficiency of gallium nitride (GaN)-based blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the light extraction arising from the packaging of the phosphor remains an important issue when enhancing the performance of dichromatic white LEDs. In this study, we employed a simple, inexpensive nanoimprinting process to increase both the light extraction efficiency and color rendering of dichromatic white

  9. Characterization of bioactive compounds and ameliorative effects of Ceratonia siliqua leaf extract against CCl₄ induced hepatic oxidative damage and renal failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsouna, Anis Ben; Saoudi, Mongi; Trigui, Mohamed; Jamoussi, Kamel; Boudawara, Tahia; Jaoua, Samir; Feki, Abdelfattah El

    2011-12-01

    Ceratonia siliqua is a typical Mediterranean plant, mainly used in food and Tunisian traditional folk medicine. Among the tested extracts, the ethyl acetate fraction (EACs) exhibited the highest total phenolic and flavonoids content. The antioxidant activity in vitro systems showed a more significant potent free radical scavenging activity of this extract than other analysis fractions. The HPLC finger print of EACs active extract showed the presence of six phenolic compounds. The in vivo results showed that oral administration of CCl(4) enhanced levels of hepatic and renal markers (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, γ-GT, urea and creatinine) in the serum of experimental animals. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in increased levels of the lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) in both liver and kidney. The pre-treatment of experimental rats with 250 mg/kg (BW) of the EACs, by intraperitoneal injection for 8 days, prevented CCl(4) induced disorders in the levels of hepatic and kidney markers. The biochemical changes were in accordance with histopathological observations suggesting a marked hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effect of the EACs extract.

  10. Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic effect of aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam. leaves using ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apexa Bhanuprasad Shukla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the anti-urolithiatic effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (B. pinnatum on ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six Wistar male rats were randomly divided into six equal groups. group A animals received distilled water for 28 days. Group B to group F animals received 1% v/v ethylene glycol in distilled water for 28 days and group B served as ethylene glycol control. Groups C and D (preventive groups received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively for 28 days. Groups E and F (treatment groups received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively from 15th to 28th day. On days 0 and 28, 24 hrs urine samples were collected for urinary volume and urinary oxalate measurement. On day 28, blood was collected for serum creatinine and blood urea level monitoring. All animals were sacrificed and kidneys were removed, weighed, and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate crystals deposition. Results: Administration of aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum reduced urine oxalate level significantly, as compared with Group B (p

  11. Enhancement of near-UV GaN LED light extraction efficiency by GaN/sapphire template patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M.; Svensk, O.; Riuttanen, L.; Kruse, M.; Suihkonen, S.; Romanov, A. E.; Törmä, P. T.; Sopanen, M.; Lipsanen, H.; Odnoblyudov, M. A.; Bougrov, V. E.

    2012-08-01

    We present near-UV GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on patterned GaN/sapphire templates with improved material quality and light extraction efficiency. Enhancement of light extraction efficiency is attributed to voids generated at the GaN/sapphire interface. The sidewall inclination angle of the voids can be controlled from nearly vertical (˜ 85°) to fully inclined (˜ 60°) by changing the initial patterning dimensions. Light extraction efficiency and material quality improve with a decreasing void sidewall angle. A 20% increase in the light output is observed at 20 mA of input current for LED structures with ˜60° inclined sidewall voids.

  12. Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djavid, Mehrdad; Mi, Zetian, E-mail: zetian.mi@mcgill.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McGill University, 3480 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 0E9 (Canada)

    2016-02-01

    The performance of conventional AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes has been limited by the extremely low light extraction efficiency (<10%), due to the unique transverse magnetic (TM) polarized light emission. Here, we show that, by exploiting the lateral side emission, the extraction efficiency of TM polarized light can be significantly enhanced in AlGaN nanowire structures. Using the three-dimensional finite-difference time domain simulation, we demonstrate that the nanowire structures can be designed to inhibit the emission of guided modes and redirect trapped light into radiated modes. A light extraction efficiency of more than 70% can, in principle, be achieved by carefully optimizing the nanowire size, nanowire spacing, and p-GaN thickness.

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Four Tanshinones by UPLC-TQ/MS and Their Pharmacokinetic Application after Administration of Single Ethanol Extract of Danshen Combined with Water Extract in Normal and Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Die Cai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza, one of the major traditional Chinese medicines, is commonly used and the main active ingredients—tanshinones—possess the ability to improve renal function. In this paper, the UPLC-TQ/MS method of simultaneously determining four tanshinones—tanshinone IIA, dihydrotanshinone I, tanshinone I, and cryptotanshinone—was established and applied to assess the pharmacokinetics in normal and chronic renal failure (CRF rat plasma. The pharmacokinetics of tanshinones in rats were studied after separately intragastric administration of Salvia miltiorrhiza ethanol extract (SMEE (0.65 g/kg, SMEE (0.65 g/kg combined with Salvia miltiorrhiza water extract (SMWE (1.55 g/kg. The results showed Cmax and AUC0–t of tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I, cryptotanshinone reduced by 50%~80% and CLz/F increased by 2~4 times (p < 0.05 in model group after administrated with SMEE. Nevertheless, after intragastric administration of a combination of SMWE and SMEE, the Cmax and AUC0–t of four tanshinones were upregulated and CLz/F was downregulated, which undulated similarity from the model group to the normal group with compatibility of SMEE and SMWE. These results hinted that SMWE could improve the bioavailability of tanshinones in CRF rats, which provides scientific information for further exploration the mechanism of the combination of SMWE and SMEE and offers a reference for clinical administration of Salvia miltiorrhiza.

  14. Efficient analysis and extraction of MS/MS result data from Mascot™ result files

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    Sickmann Albert

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mascot™ is a commonly used protein identification program for MS as well as for tandem MS data. When analyzing huge shotgun proteomics datasets with Mascot™'s native tools, limits of computing resources are easily reached. Up to now no application has been available as open source that is capable of converting the full content of Mascot™ result files from the original MIME format into a database-compatible tabular format, allowing direct import into database management systems and efficient handling of huge datasets analyzed by Mascot™. Results A program called mres2x is presented, which reads Mascot™ result files, analyzes them and extracts either selected or all information in order to store it in a single file or multiple files in formats which are easier to handle downstream of Mascot™. It generates different output formats. The output of mres2x in tab format is especially designed for direct high-performance import into relational database management systems using native tools of these systems. Having the data available in database management systems allows complex queries and extensive analysis. In addition, the original peak lists can be extracted in DTA format suitable for protein identification using the Sequest™ program, and the Mascot™ files can be split, preserving the original data format. During conversion, several consistency checks are performed. mres2x is designed to provide high throughput processing combined with the possibility to be driven by other computer programs. The source code including supplement material and precompiled binaries is available via http://www.protein-ms.de and http://sourceforge.net/projects/protms/. Conclusion The database upload allows regrouping of the MS/MS results using a database management system and complex analyzing queries using SQL without the need to run new Mascot™ searches when changing grouping parameters.

  15. The Control Efficiency of Plant Alcohol Extracts on the Laboratory Populations of Myzus persicae (Sulzer)and Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qiong; LIANG Guang-wen; ZENG Ling; SHEN Shu-ping

    2002-01-01

    The effects of semiochemicals extracted from 63 species of plants, on peach aphid (Myzus persicae) and mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi), were studied in laboratory. The deterrent rate, reproduction deterrent index and the interferential index of population control (ⅡPC) was used to evaluate the efficiency of semiochemicals on population control of the two target aphids. The results showed that the extracts of 34 species of common plants have noticeable effect on both aphid populations, especially, Xanthium sibiricum Petr.Et Widd. and Syngonium podophyllum Schott. These plant extracts could be used to construct the plant protectant to protect crops.

  16. Extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters by supercritical carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using unmodified carbon dioxide has been explored as an alternative method for the extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters provide the final stage of containment on many exhaust systems in US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities by preventing the escape of chemical and radioactive materials entrained in the exhausted air. The efficiency of the filters is tested by the manufacturer and DOE using dioctylphthalate (DOP), a substance regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Therefore, the filters must be analyzed for semivolatile organics before disposal. Ninety-eight acid, base, and neutral semivolatile organics were spiked onto blank HEPA material and extracted using SFE, Soxhlet, automated Soxhlet, and sonication techniques. The SFE conditions were optimized using a Dionex SFE-703 instrument. Average recoveries for the 98 semivolatile compounds are 82.7% for Soxhlet, 74.0% for sonication, 70.2% for SFE, and 62.9% for Soxtec. Supercritical fluid extraction reduces the extraction solvent volume to 10--15 mL, a factor of 20--30 less than Soxhlet and more than 5 times less than Soxtec and sonication. Extraction times of 30--45 min are used compared to 16--18 h for Soxhlet extraction.

  17. An efficient extraction method for quantitation of adenosine triphosphate in mammalian tissues and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Junji; Yamane, Kazuhiko; Takei, Tunetomo; Kido, Hiroshi

    2012-05-21

    Firefly bioluminescence is widely used in the measurement of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) levels in biological materials. For such assays in tissues and cells, ATP must be extracted away from protein in the initial step and extraction efficacy is the main determinant of the assay accuracy. Extraction reagents recommended in the commercially available ATP assay kits are chaotropic reagents, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), perchloric acid (PCA), and ethylene glycol (EG), which extract nucleotides through protein precipitation and/or nucleotidase inactivation. We found that these reagents are particularly useful for measuring ATP levels in materials with relatively low protein concentrations such as blood cells, cultured cells, and bacteria. However, these methods are not suitable for ATP extraction from tissues with high protein concentrations, because some ATP may be co-precipitated with the insolubilized protein during homogenization and extraction, and it could also be precipitated by neutralization in the acid extracts. Here we found that a phenol-based extraction method markedly increased the ATP and other nucleotides extracted from tissues. In addition, phenol extraction does not require neutralization before the luciferin-luciferase assay step. ATP levels analyzed by luciferase assay in various tissues extracted by Tris-EDTA-saturated phenol (phenol-TE) were over 17.8-fold higher than those extracted by TCA and over 550-fold higher than those in EG extracts. Here we report a simple, rapid, and reliable phenol-TE extraction procedure for ATP measurement in tissues and cells by luciferase assay.

  18. Highly efficient extraction of phenolic compounds by use of magnetic room temperature ionic liquids for environmental remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ning; Li, Min; Zhao, Lijie; Lu, Chengfei; de Rooy, Sergio L; Warner, Isiah M

    2011-09-15

    A hydrophobic magnetic room temperature ionic liquid (MRTIL), trihexyltetradecylphosphonium tetrachloroferrate(III) ([3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)]), was synthesized from trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride and FeCl(3) · 6H(2)O. This MRTIL was investigated as a possible separation agent for solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from aqueous solution. Due to its strong paramagnetism, [3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)] responds to an external neodymium magnet, which was employed in the design of a novel magnetic extraction technique. The conditions for extraction, including extraction time, volume ratio between MRTIL and aqueous phase, pH of aqueous solution, and structures of phenolic compounds were investigated and optimized. The magnetic extraction of phenols achieved equilibrium in 20 min and the phenolic compounds were found to have higher distribution ratios under acidic conditions. In addition, it was observed that phenols containing a greater number of chlorine or nitro substituents exhibited higher distribution ratios. For example, the distribution ratio of phenol (D(Ph)) was 107. In contrast, 3,5-dichlorophenol distribution ratio (D(3,5-DCP)) had a much higher value of 6372 under identical extraction conditions. When compared with four selected traditional non-magnetic room temperature ionic liquids, our [3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)] exhibited significantly higher extraction efficiency under the same experimental conditions used in this work. Pentachlorophenol, a major component in the contaminated soil sample obtained from a superfund site, was successfully extracted and removed by use of [3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)] with high extraction efficiency. Pentachlorophenol concentration was dramatically reduced from 7.8 μg mL(-1) to 0.2 μg mL(-1) after the magnetic extraction by use of [3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)].

  19. Efficient solvent extraction of antioxidant-rich extract from a tropical diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen Takano 1968

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Chern Foo

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Methanol was the recommended solvent for the production of antioxidant rich extract from C. calcitrans. Both carotenoids and phenolic acids were found to be positively correlated to the antioxidant capacities of C. calcitrans. Lead bioactives confirmed by subsequent high performance liquid chromatography studies were fucoxanthin, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid.

  20. Slow cooling and highly efficient extraction of hot carriers in colloidal perovskite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjie; Bhaumik, Saikat; Goh, Teck Wee; Kumar, Muduli Subas; Yantara, Natalia; Grätzel, Michael; Mhaisalkar, Subodh; Mathews, Nripan; Sum, Tze Chien

    2017-02-01

    Hot-carrier solar cells can overcome the Schottky-Queisser limit by harvesting excess energy from hot carriers. Inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals are considered prime candidates. However, hot-carrier harvesting is compromised by competitive relaxation pathways (for example, intraband Auger process and defects) that overwhelm their phonon bottlenecks. Here we show colloidal halide perovskite nanocrystals transcend these limitations and exhibit around two orders slower hot-carrier cooling times and around four times larger hot-carrier temperatures than their bulk-film counterparts. Under low pump excitation, hot-carrier cooling mediated by a phonon bottleneck is surprisingly slower in smaller nanocrystals (contrasting with conventional nanocrystals). At high pump fluence, Auger heating dominates hot-carrier cooling, which is slower in larger nanocrystals (hitherto unobserved in conventional nanocrystals). Importantly, we demonstrate efficient room temperature hot-electrons extraction (up to ~83%) by an energy-selective electron acceptor layer within 1 ps from surface-treated perovskite NCs thin films. These insights enable fresh approaches for extremely thin absorber and concentrator-type hot-carrier solar cells.

  1. [Remediation efficiency of lead-contaminated soil at an industrial site by ultrasonic-assisted chemical extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-jie; Huang, Jin-lou; Liu, Zhi-qiang; Yue, Xi

    2013-09-01

    This research chose five lead-contaminated sites of a lead-acid battery factory to analyze the speciation distribution and concentration of lead. Under the same conditions (0.1 mol x L(-1) EDTA,30 min, 25 degrees C), the removal effect of heavy metal was compared between ultrasonic-assisted chemical extraction (UCE) and conventional chemical extraction ( CCE), and the variation of lead speciation was further explored. The results showed that the lead removal efficiency of UCE was significantly better than CCE. The lead removal efficiency of WS, A, B, C and BZ was 10.06%, 48.29%, 48.69%, 53.28% and 36.26% under CCE. While the removal efficiency of the UCE was 22.42%, 69.31%, 71.00%, 74.49% and 71.58%, with the average efficiency higher by 22%. By comparing the speciation distribution of the two washing methods, it was found that the acid extractable content maintained or decreased after UCE, whereas it showed an increasing trend after CCE. The reduction effect of the reducible was as high as 98% by UCE. UCE also showed a more efficient reduction effect of the organic matter-sulfite bounded form and the residual form. Hence, it is feasible to improve the washing efficiency of heavy metal contained in soil by conducting the cleaning process with the help of ultrasonic wave, which is a simple and fast mean to remove lead from contaminated sites.

  2. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the cytotoxicity induced by tentacle extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata in rat renal tubular epithelial NRK-52E cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; He, Qian; Xiao, Liang; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Beilei; Liu, Guoyan; Zheng, Jiemin; Yu, Bentong; Zhang, Liming

    2013-11-01

    Our previous studies have shown that tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata could induce a delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome with severe multiple organ dysfunctions, among which renal injury with tubular necrosis seemed to be most serious. So, in this study, we aimed to explore the toxic effect of TE on rat renal tubular epithelial NRK-52E cells. Based on the previous findings that TE could cause oxidative damage in erythrocytes, the effects of TE on cell oxidative stress conditions, including ROS production and lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial dysfunction associated with cell death were investigated in NRK-52E cells. The results showed that TE caused cell morphological change and decreased cell viability through induction of apoptosis and necrosis in NRK-52E cells. Meanwhile, ROS overproduction and mitochondrial membrane potential decrease were found before the cell death occurred. It was concluded that TE could induce cytotoxicity, especially apoptosis and necrosis, in NRK-52E cells, and mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS overproduction might play important roles in the process of cell injury and death.

  3. Effect of Hydrophilic Extract of Allium Jesdianum on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Renal Stone in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vahdani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Considering the evidence which show the effect of herbal medicine on renal stone treatment, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Allium Jesdianum on prevention and treatment of calcium oxalate stone in rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, forty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (each group 11 rats and then studied for 30 days. The Healthy control group only received normal water and a regular diet. The negative control group received 1% ethylene glycol in water during the study. The low dose and high dose preventive groups received 750 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg of Allium Jesdianum with 1% ethylene glycol every day. The 24-hour urine samples of rats were collected on days 1, 15 and 30 of the study. Then, under anesthesia, blood samples were taken directly from the heart. All rats were then killed and pathology of kidneys was checked for crystals of calcium oxalates in renal tubules. Data analysis was done by the SPSS software using One-way ANOVA. Results: The number of calcium oxalate crystals in the negative control group (18.7 ±26.1, the low dose preventive group (5.3±8.2 and high dose preventive group (80.6±82.8 in comparison to the healthy control group were increased and this difference in the high dose preventive group and healthy control group was significant (p <0.05 . Urinary oxalate in the 30th day was more in both preventive groups and negative control group in comparison to healthy control group and this diference was statistically significant (p <0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that Allium Jesdianum doesn't have a preventive effect on the formation of renal stones, and it also increases calcium oxalate crystals in kidney of male wistar rats that need more studies.

  4. Diminution of oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aggarwal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using phytotherapy is being sought. The present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of Tribulus terrestris commonly called as “gokhru” which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The activity of Tribulus terrestris was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals as well as on oxalate induced cell injury of NRK 52E renal epithelial cells. RESULTS: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and the growth of CaOx crystals. When NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 72 h, Tribulus terrestris extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant, the cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release decreased in a concentration dependent manner. CONCLUSION: The current data suggests that Tribulus terrestris extract not only has a potential to inhibit nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals but also has a cytoprotective role. Our results indicate that it could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  5. Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid and efficient extraction of superficial and total mineral oil contamination from dry foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Sander, Maren; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2014-08-15

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) represents a powerful technique which can be conveniently used for rapid extraction of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) from dry foods with a low fat content, such as semolina pasta, rice, and other cereals. Two different PLE methods, one for rapid determination of superficial contamination mainly from the packaging, the other for efficient extraction of total contamination from different sources, have been developed and optimised. The two methods presented good performance characteristics in terms of repeatability (relative standard deviation lower than 5%) and recoveries (higher than 95%). To show their potentiality, the two methods have been applied in combination on semolina pasta and rice packaged in direct contact with recycled cardboard. In the case of semolina pasta it was possible to discriminate between superficial contamination coming from the packaging, and pre-existing contamination (firmly enclosed into the matrix).

  6. Efficient Charge Extraction and Slow Recombination in Organic-Inorganic Perovskites Capped with Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihly, Rachelle; Dowgiallo, Anne-Marie; Yang, Mengjin; Schulz, Philip; Stanton, Noah J.; Reid, Obadiah G.; Ferguson, Andrew J.; Zhu, Kai; Berry, Joseph J.; Blackburn, Jeffrey L.

    2016-04-01

    Metal-halide based perovskite solar cells have rapidly emerged as a promising alternative to traditional inorganic and thin-film photovoltaics. Although charge transport layers are used on either side of perovskite absorber layers to extract photogenerated electrons and holes, the time scales for charge extraction and recombination are poorly understood. Ideal charge transport layers should facilitate large discrepancies between charge extraction and recombination rates. Here, we demonstrate that highly enriched semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films enable rapid (sub-picosecond) hole extraction from a prototypical perovskite absorber layer and extremely slow back-transfer and recombination (hundreds of microseconds). The energetically narrow and distinct spectroscopic signatures for charges within these SWCNT thin films enables the unambiguous temporal tracking of each charge carrier with time-resolved spectroscopies covering many decades of time. The efficient hole extraction by the SWCNT layer also improves electron extraction by the compact titanium dioxide electron transport layer, which should reduce charge accumulation at each critical interface. Finally, we demonstrate that the use of thin interface layers of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes between the perovskite absorber layer and a prototypical hole transport layer improves device efficiency and stability, and reduces hysteresis.

  7. Increasing the extraction efficiency of blue light emitting diodes via laser patterned Ga-polar p-GaN surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Zhiyuan; Liu, Duo; Zhang, Baitao; He, Jingliang; Liu, Hong; Xu, Xiangang [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China)

    2011-09-15

    We report here the laser patterned Ga-polar p-GaN surface to improve the light extraction efficiency of GaN based blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) by using a pulsed UV laser in combination with a mirror scanner. The patterns created on p-GaN are confirmed to be suitable for light extraction and a 34.9% enhancement of the electroluminescent (EL) emission intensity has been obtained. Detailed discussions on the effects of laser on LEDs and the angular dependence of the emission profile are also provided. This method could be extended to other III-V LEDs and LEDs on SiC for fabricating highly efficient LEDs. The schematic of laser fabrication equipment, SEM image of patterned p-GaN surface and guided-modes extraction photograph of patterned GaN epilayer. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis - An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonmode, Wasudeo Namdeo; Balsaraf, Omkar D; Tambe, Varsha H; Saujanya, K P; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Kakde, Deepak D

    2013-12-01

    , Patil AK, Kakde DD. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis - An in vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):61-6 .

  9. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonmode, Wasudeo Namdeo; Balsaraf, Omkar D; Tambe, Varsha H; Saujanya, K P; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Kakde, Deepak D

    2013-01-01

    article: Ghonmode WN, Balsaraf OD, Tambe VH, Saujanya KP, Patil AK, Kakde DD. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):61-6 . PMID:24453446

  10. An aqueous extract of Ammi visnaga fruits and its constituents khellin and visnagin prevent cell damage caused by oxalate in renal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanachayangkul, P; Byer, K; Khan, S; Butterweck, V

    2010-07-01

    Teas prepared from the fruits of Ammi visnaga L. (syn. "Khella") have been traditionally used in Egypt as a remedy to treat kidney stones. It was the aim of our study to evaluate the effect of a Khella extract (KE) as well as the two major constituents khellin and visnagin on renal epithelial injury using LLC-PK1 and Madin-Darby-canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Both cell lines provide suitable model systems to study cellular processes that are possibly involved in the development of a renal stone. LLC-PK1 and MDCK cell lines were exposed to 300 microM oxalate (Ox) or 133 microg/cm(2) calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) in presence or absence of 10, 50, 100 or 200 microg/mL KE. To evaluate cell damage, cell viability was assessed by determining the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). KE (e.g. 100 microg/ml) significantly decreased LDH release from LLC-PK1 (Ox: 8.46+0.76%; Ox + 100 microg/ml KE: 5.41+0.94%, p<0.001) as well as MDCK cells (Ox: 30.9+6.58%; Ox+100 microg/ml KE: 17.5+2.50%, p<0.001), which indicated a prevention of cell damage. Similar effects for KE were observed in both cell lines when COM crystals were added. In LLC-PK1 cells khellin and visnagin both decreased the % LDH release significantly in cells that were pretreated with Ox or COM crystals. However, khellin and visnagin exhibited different responses in MDCK cells. Whereas khellin slightly reduced the % LDH release after exposure of the cells to Ox and COM crystals, visnagin significantly decreased % LDH release only after COM crystal exposure. Overall both compounds were more active in LLC-PK1 than in MDCK cells. In summary, exposure of renal epithelial cells to Ox or COM crystals was associated with a significant release of LDH indicating cell injury. Our data demonstrate that KE as well as khellin and visnagin could prevent renal epithelial cell damage caused by Ox and COM and could therefore play a potential role in the prevention of stone formation associated with hyperoxaluria.

  11. Observation on the Efficiency of the Mongolian Gerbil Kidney Tissue Culture Inactivated Bivalent Vaccine for Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董关木; 朱智勇; 安祺; 朱凤才; 刘文雪; 孔艳; 杨立宏; 俞永新

    2004-01-01

    The Z10 and Z37 strains of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) virus and the Mongolian gerbil (Merions unguiculatus ) kidney cells were used to prepare the inactivated bivalent vaccine. A phase Ⅱ clinical trial use of this vaccine was made in 750 Chinese volunteers. The results showed that the side reaction rate was 2.5% and the sero-conversion rate of neutralizing antibodies against Hantaan and Seoul viruses in the inoculated volunteers were 87.6% and 96.3% respectively.

  12. INTERACTION’S EFFECT OF ORGANIC MATERIAL AND AGGREGATION ON EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY OF TPHS FROM PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS WITH MAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ganjidoust and Gh. Naghizadeh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE is a type of low-temperature thermal desorption process that its numerous advantages have caused a wide spread use of it. Microwave heating is a potentially attractive technique as it provides volumetric heating process to improve heating efficiencies as compared with conventional techniques. The ability to rapidly heat the sample solvent mixture is inherent to MAE and the main advantage of this technique. Presently MAE has been shown to be one of the best technologies for removing environmental pollutants specially PAHs, phenols and PCBs from soils and sediments. Five different mixtures and types of aggregation (Sand, Top soil, Kaolinite besides three concentrations of crude oil as a contaminant (1000, 5000 and 10000 mg/L were considered. The results indicated that regardless of aggregation, the presence of humus component in soil reduces the efficiency. Minimum and maximum efficiencies were for sandy soil (containing organic components and kaolinite (without any organic content, respectively. According to the results of this research when some amount of humus and organic materials are available in the matrix, it causes the extraction efficiency to perform as a function of just humus materials but not aggregation. Increasing the concentration of crude oil reduced the efficiency with a sharp steep for higher concentration (5000-10000 mg/L and less steeper for lower concentration (1000-5000 mg/L. The concentration of the contaminant, works just as an independent function with extraction time and aggregation factors. The extraction period of 10 min. can be suggested as an optimum extraction time in FMAE for PAHs contaminated soils.

  13. Evaluation of the efficiency of combination palliative treatment in patients with metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Borisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Experience with combination treatment, i.e. systemic therapy in combination with palliative surgery, in the treatment of metastatic kidney cancer is very rarely described in world literature.Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of combination treatment in combination with palliative cytoreductive surgery and targeted therapy and to define optimal indications for combination treatment.Subjects and methods. Data on 47 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC who received systemic (targeted therapy in combination or after incomplete cytoreduction (iCR were analyzed in this retrospective study. The proportion of men and women was 72.3 % and 27.7 %, respectively; their ratio was 2.6:1. All the patients (100% underwent surgical treatment as nephrectomy or kidney resection for primary tumor. In the patients who had received radical treatment in different periods, the median relapse-free survival was 25.3 (0-187 months; the mean follow-up duration in the study was 33.2 (27.4–39.0 months. Out of the histological characteristics of a primary tumor, its Fuhrman grade was studied. Prior to initiation of mRCC therapy, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC prognosis groups were assessed; the patients were divided into good (n = 9 (19.1 %, interim (n = 28 (59.6 %, and bad (n = 10 (21.3 % prognosis groups. Their total somatic status was separately rated using the ECOG scale: 0, (n = 10 (21.3%, 1 (n = 24 (51.1 %, and 2, (n = 13 (27.6 %. The sites of metastases were as follows: the lung (n = 29, bones (n = 18, adrenals (n = 11, recurrence in the removed kidney bed (n = 10, and liver (n = 10. Multiple organ involvements were detected in 22 (46.8 % patients. There were more than 5 metastases in one organ in 18 (40.0 % patients and only 15 (33.3 % were found to have a single focus in one organ. Whether iCR might be used as a separate line treatment was studied. A comparative analysis was made between 2 groups of

  14. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevtic, V. E-mail: vladimir.jevtic@mf.uni-lj.si

    2003-05-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination.

  15. Ionic liquids as a key medium for efficient extraction of copper complexes from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszek, Justyna; Popowski, Dominik; Ruzik, Lena

    2016-05-15

    Due to insufficient information, the aim of study was to concern on the optimization of extraction procedure of selected metal complexes with flavonoids from chia seeds. Evaluation of the amount of elements in compound, not only their total concentration content, is highly important due to the fact, that only a part from total content of metal is absorbed by human body. At the beginning the total amount of elements in chia seeds was established as 14.51±0.42 µg g(-1) for copper, 57.44±1.23 µg g(-1) for manganese, 81.12±1.89 µg g(-1) for zinc and 0.35±0.13 µg g(-1) for cobalt. After the most suitable solvent was established, effects of several parameters on the efficiency of metal extraction were studied. Solvent concentration, solid-solvent ratio, extraction method, extraction time and temperature have been investigated as independent variables. The optimal extraction conditions included vortexing during 20 min in 50°C, using an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide) as an extractant, with solid-solvent ratio of 1:20. The determination of total and extractable amount of metals in chia seeds was carried out by standalone ICP MS. In addition, a complementary analysis of extracted metal complexes was performed using SEC-ICP MS method. It was confirmed that the ionic liquid is able to extract different copper complexes in comparison with commonly used solvents. The study indicated that extraction by using an ionic liquid has been successfully applied for determination of metals and metal complexes in chia seeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficient perovskite/fullerene planar heterojunction solar cells with enhanced charge extraction and suppressed charge recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Wang, Fuzhi; Xu, Jia; Yao, Jianxi; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Chunfeng; Xiao, Min; Dai, Songyuan; Li, Yongfang; Tan, Zhan'ao

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol soluble titanium chelate TIPD (titanium (diisopropoxide) bis(2,4-pentanedionate)) was used as an electron transporting layer to form an ohmic contact with the negative electrode, aiming to enhance the charge extraction and suppress the charge recombination for high performance CH3NH3PbI3/PCBM-based PHJ perovskite solar cells. The TIPD layer shows excellent suitability to CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite synthesized by different methods. For one-step synthesized CH3NH3PbI3, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device with the TIPD buffer reaches 8.75%, with a nearly 33% increase in comparison with the device without the buffer layer (6.58%). For two-step synthesized CH3NH3PbI3, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.89 V, a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 22.57 mA cm-2, and a fill factor (FF) of 64.5%, corresponding to a PCE of 12.95% for the device with a TIPD buffer layer were achieved, which is among the best performances reported in the literature for CH3NH3PbI3/PCBM-based PHJ perovskite solar cells.Alcohol soluble titanium chelate TIPD (titanium (diisopropoxide) bis(2,4-pentanedionate)) was used as an electron transporting layer to form an ohmic contact with the negative electrode, aiming to enhance the charge extraction and suppress the charge recombination for high performance CH3NH3PbI3/PCBM-based PHJ perovskite solar cells. The TIPD layer shows excellent suitability to CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite synthesized by different methods. For one-step synthesized CH3NH3PbI3, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device with the TIPD buffer reaches 8.75%, with a nearly 33% increase in comparison with the device without the buffer layer (6.58%). For two-step synthesized CH3NH3PbI3, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.89 V, a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 22.57 mA cm-2, and a fill factor (FF) of 64.5%, corresponding to a PCE of 12.95% for the device with a TIPD buffer layer were achieved, which is among the best performances reported in the literature

  17. An efficient approach for the extraction of orientin and vitexin from Trollius chinensis flowers using ultrasonic circulating technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengli; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Junling; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasonic circulating extraction (UCE) approach was developed for effective extraction of orientin and vitexin from the flowers of Trollius chinensis successfully. In this study, some parameters potentially influencing the yields of orientin and vitexin were systematically investigated and optimized by Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken design, and the optimum operational conditions obtained were 60% ethanol volume fraction, 1000r/min stirring speed, 30°C temperature, 28min ultrasonic irradiation time, 10mL/g liquid-solid ratio and 738W ultrasonic irradiation power. Satisfactory yields of orientin (6.05±0.19mg/g) and vitexin (0.96±0.03mg/g) were obtained in a relatively shorter extraction time under the derived optimum conditions, compared to other ultrasonic extraction methods and heat extraction methods. The mechanism of UCE procedure was discussed in detail, to illustrate the advantage of UCE in the extraction process. In addition, no degradation of orientin and vitexin and high reproducibility of the developed UCE method were observed under the optimum conditions. The proposed UCE technique with high-capacity and circulation function is a rapid and efficient sample extraction technique, and performs promising in large-scale sample preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Kinin B1 receptor antagonism is equally efficient as angiotensin receptor 1 antagonism in reducing renal fibrosis in experimental obstructive nephropathy, but is not additive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eHuart

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the pathological hallmark of chronic kidney disease. Currently, inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system (RAS remain the sole therapy in human displaying antifibrotic properties. Further antifibrotic molecules are needed. We have recently reported that the delayed blockade of the bradykinin B1 receptor (B1R reduced the development of fibrosis in two animal models of renal fibrosis. The usefulness of new drugs also resides in outperforming the gold standards and eventually being additive or complementary to existing therapies. Methods: In this study we compared the efficacy of a B1R antagonist (B1Ra with that of an angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1a in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO model of renal fibrosis and determined whether bi-therapy presented higher efficacy than any of the drugs alone. Results: B1R antagonism was as efficient as the gold-standard AT1a treatment. However bitherapy did not improve the antifibrotic effects at the protein level. We sought for the reason of the absence of this additive effect by studying the expression of a panel of genes involved in the fibrotic process. Interestingly, at the molecular level the different drugs targeted different players of fibrosis that, however, in this severe model did not result in improved reduction of fibrosis at the protein level. Conclusions: As the B1R is induced specifically in the diseased organ and thus potentially displays low side effects it might be an interesting alternative in cases of poor tolerability to RAS inhibitors.

  19. Influence of surface modification and static pressure on microdialysis protein extraction efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jiangtao; Undin, Torgny; Lind, Sara Bergström; Hjort, Klas; Dahlin, Andreas P

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in using microdialysis (MD) for monitoring larger and more complex molecules such as neuropeptides and proteins. This promotes the use of MD membranes with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 100 kDa or above. The hydrodynamic property of the membrane goes to ultrafiltration or beyond, making the MD catheters more sensitive to pressure. In the meantime, despite the large pore size, studies have shown that membrane biofouling still lead to unstable catheter performance. The objective is to study in vitro how 500 kDa dextran and Poloxamer 407 surface modification affect the fluid recovery (FR) and extraction efficiency (EE) of 100 kDa MWCO MD catheters. A pressure chamber was designed to facilitate the tests, using as MD sample a protein standard with similar concentrations as in human cerebral spinal fluid, comparing native and Poloxamer 407 modified MD catheters. The collected dialysate fractions were examined for FR and protein EE, employing Dot-it Spot-it Protein Assay for total protein EE and targeted mass spectrometry (MS) for EE of individual proteins and peptides. The FR results suggested that the surface modified catheters were less sensitive to the pressure and provide higher precision, and provided a FR closer to 100%. The surface modification did not show a significant effect on the protein EE. The average total protein EE of surface modified catheters was slightly higher than that of the native ones. The MS EE data of individual proteins showed a clear trend of complex response in EE with pressure.

  20. Improvement of efficiency of oil extraction from wild apricot kernels by using enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Tejpal Singh; Sharma, Satish Kumar; Sati, Ramesh Chandra; Rao, Virendra Kumar; Yadav, Vijay Kumar; Dixit, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Chopra, Chandra Shekhar

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate and standardize the protocol for enhancing recovery of oil and quality from cold pressed wild apricot kernels by using various enzymes. Wild apricot kernels were ground into powder in a grinder. Different lots of 3 kg powdered kernel were prepared and treated with different concentrations of enzyme solutions viz. Pectazyme (Pectinase), Mashzyme (Cellulase) and Pectazyme + Mashzyme. Kernel powder mixed with enzyme solutions were kept for 2 h at 50(±2) °C temperature for enzymatic treatment before its use for oil extraction through oil expeller. Results indicate that use of enzymes resulted in enhancement of oil recovery by 9.00-14.22 %. Maximum oil recovery was observed at 0.3-0.4 % enzyme concentration for both the enzymes individually, as well as in combination. All the three enzymatic treatments resulted in increasing oil yield. However, with 0.3 % (Pectazyme + Mashzyme) combination, maximum oil recovery of 47.33 % could be observed against were 33.11 % in control. The oil content left (wasted) in the cake and residue were reduced from 11.67 and 11.60 % to 7.31 and 2.72 % respectively, thus showing a high increase in efficiency of oil recovery from wild apricot kernels. Quality characteristics indicate that the oil quality was not adversely affected by enzymatic treatment. It was concluded treatment of powdered wild apricot kernels with 0.3 % (Pectazyme + Mashzyme) combination was highly effective in increasing oil recovery by 14.22 % without adversely affecting the quality and thus may be commercially used by the industry for reducing wastage of highly precious oil in the cake.

  1. Trauma renal Renal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Alves Pereira Júnior

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos uma revisão sobre trauma renal, com ênfase na avaliação radiológica, particularmente com o uso da tomografia computadorizada, que tem se tornado o exame de eleição, ao invés da urografia excretora e arteriografia. O sucesso no tratamento conservador dos pacientes com trauma renal depende de um acurado estadiamento da extensão da lesão, classificado de acordo com a Organ Injury Scaling do Colégio Americano de Cirurgiões. O tratamento conservador não-operatório é seguro e consiste de observação contínua, repouso no leito, hidratação endovenosa adequada e antibioti- coterapia profilática, evitando-se uma exploração cirúrgica desnecessária e possível perda renal. As indicações para exploração cirúrgica imediata são abdome agudo, rápida queda do hematócrito ou lesões associadas determinadas na avaliação radiológica. Quando indicada, a exploração renal após controle vascular prévio é segura, permitindo cuidadosa inspeção do rim e sua reconstrução com sucesso, reduzindo a probabilidade de nefrectomia.We present a revision of the renal trauma with emphasis in the radiographic evaluation, particularly CT scan that it has largely replaced the excretory urogram and arteriogram in the diagnostic worh-up and management of the patient with renal trauma. The successful management of renal injuries depends upon the accurate assessment of their extent in agreement with Organ Injury Scaling classification. The conservative therapy managed by careful continuous observation, bed rest, appropriate fluid ressuscitation and prophylactic antibiotic coverage after radiographic staging for severely injured kidneys can yield favorable results and save patients from unnecessary exploration and possible renal loss. The indications for immediate exploratory laparotomy were acute abdomen, rapidly dropping hematocrit or associated injuries as determinated from radiologic evaluation. When indicated, renal exploration

  2. WholeLeea macrophyllaethanolic extract normalizes kidney deposits and recovers renal impairments in an ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis model of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abu Nasim Nizami; Md Atiar Rahman; Nazim Uddin Ahmed; Md Shahidul Islam

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the antilithiatic effect of the wholeLeea macrophylla(L. macrophylla) Roxb(Leeaceae) ethanol extract in ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis model of rats.Methods:Forty two seven weeks old male wistar albino rats were randomly divided into two major groups namely: preventive(n=18) and therapeutic(n=24).Preventive group was further subdivided into3 groups of6 rats namely: preventive control(PC), preventive lithiatic control(PLC) and preventive lithiaticL. macrophylla(PLLM).Similarly, therapeutic group was also subdivided into4 groups of6 rats namely: therapeutic control(TC), therapeutic lithiatic control(TLC), therapeutic lithitatic L. macrophylla(TLLM) and therapeutic lithiatic cystone(TLCYS).The lithiasis was induced by 0.75%(v/v) ethylene glycol in the drinking water of all groups except thePC andTC groups.The urinary ionic parameters such as calcium, inorganic phosphate, oxalate, magnesium & creatinine and renal morphology were altered by ethylene glycol, which were partially recovered by14 d preventive and almost fully recovered by28 d therapeutic intervention trials withL. macrophylla extract(500 mg/kgBW daily).Results:Significant difference on recovery was observed between preventive and therapeutic interventionaltrials.Anti-urolithiatic effect of cystone was significantly(P<0.001) higher than extracts.L. macrophyllaextract was found nontoxic in the acute toxicity test.Conclusions:The results of this study demonstrated very promising anti-urolithiatic effect ofL. macrophylla extract with preventive and therapeutic treatments in this experimental condition.

  3. Renal arteriography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read More Acute arterial occlusion - kidney Acute kidney failure Aneurysm Atheroembolic renal disease Blood clots Renal cell carcinoma Renal venogram X-ray Review Date 1/5/2016 Updated by: Jason Levy, ...

  4. Efficient extraction of virus DNA by NucliSens Extractor allows sensitive detection of hepatitis B virus by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbers, E; Oosterlaken, T A; van Bussel, M J; Melsert, R; Kroes, A C; Claas, E C

    2001-12-01

    The NucliSens Extractor is an automated nucleic acid isolation system based on guanidinium thiocyanate (GuSCN)-silica extraction technology. The system has been validated for the isolation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNAs from human samples in combination with nucleic acid sequence-based amplification- and reverse transcription-PCR-based methods. We evaluated the extractor for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA extraction from human samples using a noncommercial HBV DNA PCR. Several sample pretreatment procedures in combination with the extractor were compared with the Qiagen extraction method, and the impact of the sample volume used in the extraction on the sensitivity was investigated. Heating of the lysed sample prior to extractor isolation and the use of a large sample volume resulted in highly sensitive detection of HBV DNA. Incubation of a 1-ml sample in GuSCN at 80 degrees C (10 min) and at 37 degrees C (30 min) allowed detection of 4 and 40 HBV genome equivalents/ml, respectively, in standard dilution panels. Sample lysis in GuSCN at room temperature and proteinase K treatment prior to use of the extractor were less efficient procedures. All clinical samples that were PCR positive after Qiagen extraction and/or that were HBsAg positive were also PCR positive after extractor isolation. HBV DNA, HCV RNA, and HIV type 1 RNA were efficiently coextracted from a single sample, allowing reliable detection of viral genomes.

  5. Combined cell surface carbonic anhydrase 9 and CD147 antigens enable high-efficiency capture of circulating tumor cells in clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie; Tian, Zuhong; Zhang, Lei; Hou, Shuang; Hu, Sijun; Wu, Junshen; Jing, Yuming; Sun, Huimin; Yu, Fei; Zhao, Libo; Wang, Ruoxiang; Tseng, Hsian-Rong; Zhau, Haiyen E; Chung, Leland W K; Wu, Kaichun; Wang, Hao; Wu, Jason Boyang; Nie, Yongzhan; Shao, Chen

    2016-09-13

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have emerged as promising tools for noninvasive cancer detection and prognosis. Most conventional approaches for capturing CTCs use an EpCAM-based enrichment strategy, which does not work well in cancers that show low or no expression of EpCAM, such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this study, we developed a new set of cell surface markers including CA9 and CD147 as alternative CTC-capture antigens specifically designed for RCC patients. We showed that the expression of both CA9 and CD147 was prevalent in a RCC patient cohort (n=70) by immunohistochemical analysis, with both molecules in combination covering 97.1% of cases. The NanoVelcro platform combined with CA9-/CD147-capture antibodies demonstrated significantly higher efficiency for capturing both CTC-mimicking renal cancer cells and RCC CTCs in peripheral blood, compared to the conventional EpCAM-based method. Using immunofluorescence cytological validation at the single-cell level, we were able to identify bona fide CTCs in RCC patient blood following the well-accepted criteria in our CTC-capture system. We further demonstrated a significant association of CTC numbers as well as the CTC expression status of Vimentin, a mesenchymal marker, with disease progression, including pathologic features and clinical staging. These results provide new insights into developing novel, effective targets/approaches for capturing CTCs, making CTCs a valuable tool for improved cancer detection, prognosis and treatment in RCC.

  6. Highly Efficient Flexible Quantum Dot Solar Cells with Improved Electron Extraction Using MgZnO Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Santra, Pralay Kanti; Tian, Lei; Johansson, Malin B; Rensmo, Håkan; Johansson, Erik M J

    2017-08-22

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have high potential for realizing an efficient and lightweight energy supply for flexible or wearable electronic devices. To achieve highly efficient and flexible CQD solar cells, the electron transport layer (ETL), extracting electrons from the CQD solid layer, needs to be processed at a low-temperature and should also suppress interfacial recombination. Herein, a highly stable MgZnO nanocrystal (MZO-NC) layer is reported for efficient flexible PbS CQD solar cells. Solar cells fabricated with MZO-NC ETL give a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.4% and 9.4%, on glass and flexible plastic substrates, respectively. The reported flexible CQD solar cell has the record efficiency to date of flexible CQD solar cells. Detailed theoretical simulations and extensive characterizations reveal that the MZO-NCs significantly enhance charge extraction from CQD solids and diminish the charge accumulation at the ETL/CQD interface, suppressing charge interfacial recombination. These important results suggest that the low-temperature processed MZO-NCs are very promising for use in efficient flexible solar cells or other flexible optoelectronic devices.

  7. Carcinoembryonic antigen: assay following heat compared with perchloric acid extraction in patients with colon cancer, non-neoplastic gastrointestinal diseases, or chronic renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, L.R.; Shuler, S.E.; Alyea, K.; Husserl, F.E.

    1983-10-01

    Heat inactivation has been proposed as an alternative to perchloric acid (PCA) precipitation for the extraction of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) from human plasma. A commercial RIA kit using heat inactivation was examined and results compared with those obtained with PCA precipitation. Adequate sensitivity (1.5 ..mu..g CEA/I plasma), satisfactory analytical recovery of CEA added to plasma, and dilutional linearity of samples found to have elevated CEA concentrations, were demonstrated for the heat-inactivation assay. Between-assay precision was better with the heat inactivation than with the PCA assay. Although the absolute concentration of CEA estimated after heat inactivation was consistently lower than that estimated after PCA extraction of plasma specimens, there was excellent correlation between results obtained with the two methods in colon cancer patients free of disease, colon cancer patients with residual or recurrent disease, patients with benign gastrointestinal disease, and in patients with chronic renal failure. The heat-inactivation assay is an excellent alternative to the PCA assay.

  8. Carcinoembryonic antigen: assay following heat compared with perchloric acid extraction in patients with colon cancer, non-neoplastic gastrointestinal diseases, or chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, L R; Shuler, S E; Alyea, K; Husserl, F E

    1983-10-01

    Heat inactivation has been proposed as an alternative to perchloric acid (PCA) precipitation for the extraction of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) from human plasma. We examined a commercial RIA kit using heat inactivation, and compared results with those obtained with PCA precipitation. Adequate sensitivity (1.5 micrograms CEA/l plasma), satisfactory analytical recovery of CEA added to plasma, and dilutional linearity of samples found to have elevated CEA concentrations, were demonstrated for the heat-inactivation assay. Between-assay precision was better with the heat inactivation than with the PCA assay. Although the absolute concentration of CEA estimated after heat inactivation was consistently lower than that estimated after PCA extraction of plasma specimens, there was excellent correlation between results obtained with the two methods in colon cancer patients free of disease, colon cancer patients with residual or recurrent disease, patients with benign gastrointestinal disease, and in patients with chronic renal failure. We conclude that the heat-inactivation assay is an excellent alternative to the PCA assay.

  9. Efficient and cost-effective extraction of genomic DNA from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A Th A; Delcour, N M; Meyer, A; Klopfleisch, R

    2011-07-01

    Diagnostic and investigative molecular pathology frequently has to resort to extraction of DNA from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Although many different protocols are reported for this type of material, extraction of sufficient amounts of intact DNA is still challenging. Here, the authors report a reproducible, simple, cost-effective, and efficient protocol that yields up to 140 μg of DNA from approximately 10 to 15 mg of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples and compare it to available protocols. The protocol allows stable amplification of DNA fragments up to 600 bp in length in a wide variety of tissues. © The Authors 2011

  10. Synergistic Effect on Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Ginger Affinale Extract in Controlling Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acid Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Ananth Kumar; Arumugam, Sankar [Kandaswami Kandar' s College, Namakkal (India); Mallaiya, Kumaravel; Subramaniam, Rameshkumar [PSG College of Technology Peelamedu, Coimbatore (India)

    2013-12-15

    The corrosion inhibition nature of Ginger affinale extract for the corrosion of mild steel in 0.5N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was investigated using weight loss, electrochemical impedance and potentiodynamic polarization methods. The results revealed that Ginger affinale extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor in 0.5N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} medium. The inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in inhibitor concentration. The inhibition could be attributed to the adsorption of the inhibitor on the steel surface.

  11. Efficient discrimination and removal of phospholipids during electromembrane extraction from human plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vårdal, Linda; Gjelstad, Astrid; Huang, Chuixiu

    2017-01-01

    AIM: For the first time, extracts obtained from human plasma samples by electromembrane extraction (EME) were investigated comprehensively with particular respect to phospholipids using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Thhe purpose was to invest...

  12. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  13. Efficient feature extraction from wide-area motion imagery by MapReduce in Hadoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Erkang; Ma, Liya; Blaisse, Adam; Blasch, Erik; Sheaff, Carolyn; Chen, Genshe; Wu, Jie; Ling, Haibin

    2014-06-01

    Wide-Area Motion Imagery (WAMI) feature extraction is important for applications such as target tracking, traffic management and accident discovery. With the increasing amount of WAMI collections and feature extraction from the data, a scalable framework is needed to handle the large amount of information. Cloud computing is one of the approaches recently applied in large scale or big data. In this paper, MapReduce in Hadoop is investigated for large scale feature extraction tasks for WAMI. Specifically, a large dataset of WAMI images is divided into several splits. Each split has a small subset of WAMI images. The feature extractions of WAMI images in each split are distributed to slave nodes in the Hadoop system. Feature extraction of each image is performed individually in the assigned slave node. Finally, the feature extraction results are sent to the Hadoop File System (HDFS) to aggregate the feature information over the collected imagery. Experiments of feature extraction with and without MapReduce are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed Cloud-Enabled WAMI Exploitation (CAWE) approach.

  14. Optimal Extraction of Gallic Acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. Leaves and Enhanced Efficiency by Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE was initially applied to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. using 70% ethanol as extraction solvent. Temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM, obtaining maximum levels of gallic acid (6.30 mg·g−1 at 51°C, 19.52 mL·g−1, and 42.68 min, respectively. The obtained model was statistically significant (p<0.0001. The verification experiments at the optimum conditions yielded gallic acid for 6.21 mg·g−1. Subsequently, under optimal conditions, four ionic liquids were used to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. The results indicated that the presence of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride allowed increasing the EE of gallic acid up to 8.90 mg·g−1. This might be interpreted in terms of the molecular interaction between ionic liquid and gallic acid. The use of ionic liquids involves a stronger gallic acid extraction capacity than conventional organic volatile solvents. A promising alternative process is proposed for the extraction of gallic acid of Suaeda glauca Bge.

  15. Flat-relative optimal extraction. A quick and efficient algorithm for stabilised spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Zechmeister, M; Reiners, A

    2013-01-01

    Optimal extraction is a key step in processing the raw images of spectra as registered by two-dimensional detector arrays to a one-dimensional format. Previously reported algorithms reconstruct models for a mean one-dimensional spatial profile to assist a properly weighted extraction. We outline a simple optimal extraction algorithm including error propagation, which is very suitable for stabilised, fibre-fed spectrographs and does not model the spatial profile shape. A high signal-to-noise, master-flat image serves as reference image and is directly used as an extraction profile mask. Each extracted spectral value is the scaling factor relative to the cross-section of the unnormalised master-flat which contains all information about the spatial profile as well as pixel-to-pixel variations, fringing, and blaze. The extracted spectrum is measured relative to the flat spectrum. Using echelle spectra of the HARPS spectrograph we demonstrate a competitive extraction performance in terms of signal-to-noise and sho...

  16. Taraxacum officinale dandelion extract efficiently inhibited the breast cancer stem cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngu Van Trinh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs play an important role in breast cancer initiation, metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance. Therefore, targeting BCSCs is an essential strategy to suppress cancer growth. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dandelion Taraxacum officinale extracts on BCSC proliferation in vitro in 2D and 3D cell culture platforms. Materials and Methods: The BCSCs were maintained under standard conditions, verified for expression of CD44 and CD24 surface markers, and transfected with GFP before use in experiments. In the 2D model, the BCSCs were cultured as adherent cells in standard culture plates; in the 3D model, the BCSCs were cultured on low-adherent plates to form spheroids. The effect of Dandelion extracts on proliferation of BCSC was assessed by evaluating induction of cell death, expression of genes of death receptor signaling pathways, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by BCSCs. Results: BCSCs formed spheroids as microtumors in vitro and exhibited some in vivo characteristics of tumors, such as increased expression of N-cadherin and Slug, decreased expression of E-cadherin, capacity to invade into the extracellular matrix (ECM, and presence of a hypoxic environment at the core of tumor spheroids. The dandelion extracts significantly inhibited BCSC proliferation in both two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D models of BCSCs. However, the IC50 value of dandelion extracts in BCSCs in the 3D model was much higher than that in the 2D model. The results also demonstrated that BCSCs treated with Dandelion extracts showed increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL and TRAIL receptor 2 (TRAILR2; i.e. death receptor 5; DR5. Moreover, treatment induced expression of DR4. Treatment with methanol dandelion extract enhanced production of ROS in BCSCs. Conclusion: Dandelion extracts are promising extracts for the treatment of breast tumors. The

  17. Improved rapid and efficient method for Staphylococcus aureus DNA extraction from milk for identification of mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Hirotaka; Inada, Mika; Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Hashimoto, Michie; Ito, Keiko; Hashimoto, Koji; Nikaido, Masaru; Hayashi, Tomohito; Hata, Eiji; Katsuda, Ken; Kiku, Yoshio; Tagawa, Yuichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2015-08-01

    A rapid and efficient DNA extraction method was developed for detecting mastitis pathogens in milk. The first critical step involved cell wall disruption by bead-beating, as physical disruption using beads was more effective for DNA extraction from Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, than enzymatic disruption using proteinase K. The second critical step involves the use of acetic acid and ammonium sulfate in the purification process, as these reagents effectively and efficiently remove the lipids and proteins in milk. Using these methods, DNA suitable for loop-mediated isothermal amplification was obtained within 30 min. Also, the rapid and sensitive detection of S. aureus in milk was possible at levels as low as 200 cfu/ml.

  18. An efficient method for the extraction of DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue by sonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, M J; Burgart, L J; TenEyck, C J; Anderson, M E; Greiner, T C; Robinson, R A

    1991-09-01

    A method was developed for fast and efficient isolation of DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections for subsequent use in PCRs and DNA hybridization assays. The method relies on the use of a sonicating water bath to disrupt tissue samples to which a small amount of micro-sized glass beads have been added. The sonicating glass beads provide fast and efficient physical shearing of fixed tissue sections, allowing for quick release and solubilization of the DNA. The extraction process from paraffin section to amplifiable target DNA takes 30 minutes. The method eliminates the need for repetitive solvent extractions and exhaustive proteinase K digestion. PCR amplification of human genomic and viral target sequences was successfully carried out on DNA isolated from a number of different types of normal and infected tissues.

  19. Improvement of photon extraction efficiency of GaN-based LED using micro and nano complex polymer structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyeong-Seok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A micro- and nanoscale complex structure made of a high refractive index polymer (n = 2.08 was formed on the ITO electrode layer of an edge-emitting type GaN blue light-emitting diode (LED, in order to improve the photon extraction efficiency by suppressing total internal reflection of photons. The nanoimprint lithography process was used to form the micro- and nanoscale complex structures, using a polymer resin with dispersed TiO2 nano-particles as an imprint resin. Plasma processing, such as reactive ion etching, was used to form the micro- and nano-scale complex structure; thus, plasma-induced damage to the LED device can be avoided. Due to the high refractive index polymeric micro- and nanostructure on the ITO layer, the electroluminescence emission was increased up to 20%, compared to an identical LED that was grown on a patterned sapphire substrate to improve photon extraction efficiency.

  20. Highly efficient extraction and lipase-catalyzed transesterification of triglycerides from Chlorella sp. KR-1 for production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok Kyung; Kim, Young Hyun; Na, Jeong-Geol; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2013-11-01

    We developed a method for the highly efficient lipid extraction and lipase-catalyzed transesterification of triglyceride from Chlorella sp. KR-1 using dimethyl carbonate (DMC). Almost all of the total lipids, approximately 38.9% (w/w) of microalgae dry weight, were extracted from the dried microalgae biomass using a DMC and methanol mixture (7:3 (v/v)). The extracted triglycerides were transesterified into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) using Novozyme 435 as the biocatalyst in DMC. Herein, DMC was used as the reaction medium and acyl acceptor. The reaction conditions were optimized and the FAMEs yield was 293.82 mg FAMEs/g biomass in 6 h of reaction time at 60 °C in the presence of 0.2% (v/v) water. Novozyme 435 was reused more than ten times while maintaining relative FAMEs conversion that was greater than 90% of the initial FAMEs conversion.

  1. Efficient Method to Extract Coupling Ratio and Round-trip Loss Parameters of Optical Waveguide Ring Resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xiu-you; PANG Fu-fei; FANG Zu-jie; ZHAO Ming-shan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the measurement of the contrast ratios of the transmission spectra from the throughput and drop ports of ring resonator, an efficient method is proposed to extract the coupling ratio and round-trip loss of the integrated optical waveguide ring resonator. The parameters of a racetrack resonator prepared by ion-exchange technique in K9 optical glass substrate are examined, which demonstrates the validity of this method. The accuracy and applicable range of this method are also discussed.

  2. Efficient light extraction from GaN LEDs using gold-coated ZnO nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Alhadidi, A.

    2015-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the effect of depositing gold-coated ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of GaN multi-quantum well LED structures. We show that this method can significantly increase the amount of extracted light.

  3. Survey of Region-Based Text Extraction Techniques for Efficient Indexing of Image/Video Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samabia Tehsin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the dramatic increase in multimedia data, escalating trend of internet, and amplifying use of image/video capturing devices; content based indexing and text extraction is gaining more and more importance in research community. In the last decade, many techniques for text extraction are reported in the literature. Methodologies of text extraction from images/videos is generally comprises of text detection and localization, text tracking, text segmentation and optical character recognition (OCR. This paper intends to highlight the contributions and limitations of text detection, localization and tracking phases. The problem is exigent due to variations in the font styles, size and color, text orientations, animations and backgrounds. The paper can serve as the beacon-house for the novice researchers of the text extraction community.

  4. Utilizing ion-pairing hydrophilic interaction chromatography solid phase extraction for efficient glycopeptide enrichment in glycoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysling, Simon; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Højrup, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    Glycopeptide enrichment is a prerequisite to enable structural characterization of protein glycosylation in glycoproteomics. Here we present an improved method for glycopeptide enrichment based on zwitter-ionic hydrophilic interaction chromatography solid phase extraction (ZIC-HILIC SPE...

  5. An Efficient Method for Extracting Features from Blurred Fingerprints Using Modified Gabor Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Vinothkanna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data. In information technology, biometrics refers to technologies that measure and analyze human body characteristics, such as DNA, fingerprints, eye retinas and irises, voice patterns, facial patterns and hand measurements for authentication purposes. Fingerprint is one of the most developed biometrics, with more history, research and design. Fingerprint recognition identifies people by using the impressions made by the minute ridge formations or patterns found on the fingertips. The extraction of features from blurred or unclear fingerprints becomes difficult. So instead of ridges we tried to extract valleys from same images, because fingerprints consist of both ridges and valleys as its features. We found some good results for valley extraction with different filters including Gabor filter. So in this paper we modified the Gabor filter to reduce the time consumption and also for extraction of more valleys than Gabor filter.

  6. Sulfonated nanocellulose for the efficient dispersive micro solid-phase extraction and determination of silver nanoparticles in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Palomero, Celia; Soriano, M Laura; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-08

    This paper reports a simple approach to Analytical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (AN&N) that integrates the nanotool, sulfonated nanocellulose (s-NC), and nanoanalyte, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), in the same analytical process by using an efficient, environmentally friendly dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (D-μSPE) capillary electrophoresis (CE) method with s-NC as sorbent material. Introducing negatively charged sulfate groups onto the surface of cellulose enhances its surface chemistry and enables the extraction and preconcentration of AgNPs of variable diameter (10, 20 and 60nm) and shell composition (citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone coatings) from complex matrices into a cationic surfactant. In this way, AgNPs of diverse nature were successfully extracted onto the s-NC sorbent and then desorbed into an aqueous solution containing thiotic acid (TA) prior to CE without the need for any labor-intensive cleanup. The ensuing eco-friendly D-μSPE method exhibited a linear response to AgNPs with a limit of detection (LOD) of 20μg/L. Its ability to specifically recognize AgNPs of different sizes was checked in orange juice and mussels, which afforded recoveries of 70.9-108.4%. The repeatability of the method at the limit of quantitation (LOQ) level was 5.6%. Based on the results, sulfonated nanocellulose provides an efficient, cost-effective analytical nanotool for the extraction of AgNPs from food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficiency of vegetable extracts for the control of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Roberto de Mello Garcia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vulgarly known as “vaquinha”, Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 spread itself to the majority of Brazilian states, and it became distinguished as one of the most serious pests affecting beans and maize. The aim of this study was to evaluate the insecticidal activity of the crude watery extracts of nine vegetable species on “vaquinha” adults. The laboratory experiment was carried out in completely randomized delineation, with ten treatments and four repetitions. For such, a bottle was used, containing five insect specimens and a common bean leaf (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus previously immersed in the extract, covered with a clipping of porous cloth and fixed by a rubber band. The evaluated variable was the number of surviving D. speciosa specimens. The treatments consisted of salvia (Salvia officinalis Linnaeus, cravo (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb, moscada nut (Myristica fragans Houtt, cinamomo (Melia azedarach Linnaeus, timbo (Ateleia glazioveana Baill, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, figueira (Ficus microcarpa Linnaeus f., rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus and control (distilled water alone. The evaluations of survival were carried out every 24 hours over a period of 10 days. For the live specimen number, two-way analysis of variance (10 extracts x 11 times after application was used. The averages were grouped by the Duncan test on the level of 5% of probability. The most efficient extracts were timbo, moscada nut and cinamomo, with efficiency percentages varying between 80.4% and 100%.

  8. A new mechanism for efficient hydrocarbon electro-extraction from Botryococcus braunii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guionet, Alexis; Hosseini, Bahareh; Teissié, Justin; Akiyama, Hidenori; Hosseini, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Recent understanding that specific algae have high hydrocarbon production potential has attracted considerable attention. Botryococcus braunii is a microalga with an extracellular hydrocarbon matrix, which makes it an appropriate green energy source. This study focuses on extracting oil from the microalgae matrix rather than the cells, eliminating the need for an excessive electric field to create electro-permeabilization. In such a way, technical limitations due to high extraction energy and cost can be overcome. Here, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) with 80 ns duration and 20-65 kV/cm electric fields were applied. To understand the extraction mechanism, the structure of the algae was accurately studied under fluorescence microscope; extraction was quantified using image analysis; quality of extraction was examined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC); and the cell/matrix separation was observed real-time under a microscope during nsPEF application. Furthermore, optimization was carried out by screening values of electric fields, pulse repetition frequencies, and energy spent. The results offer a novel method applicable for fast and continues hydrocarbon extraction process at low energy cost.

  9. Efficiency of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract and histopathological effects on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Monairy, Olfat M

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of Colocasia esculenta leaves extract on 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens. Bioassays showed that the 3rd instar larvae was the most susceptible to the different concentrations of extract, where the LC50 after 48 hr. post-exposure was 79.41, 109.65 & 141.25 for the 3rd, 4th instars larvae and pupal stage respectively. The histo-pathological effects of C. esculenta leaves extract on midgut regions and gastric caeca of the 3rd instar larvae were studied. When larvae were treated with 100 ppm of C. esculenta extract, all larvae developed dramatic pathological lesions especially Malpighian tubules were extensively affected. The midgut cells showed morphological deviation from normal ones, through slightly apical degenerated (lysis) of epithelial cells. The epithelial cells with extensive cellular microvilli were shrinkage, the nuclei showed pyknotic characteristic and the peritrophic membrane was appeared discontinuation in compared to control. When the 3rd larval instar was exposed to extract 400 ppm, the epithelial cells, adipose fabric and muscles were extensively affected. Also, the gastric caeca was affected obviously. These observation and alterations in cells of Cx. pipiens larvae are related to the dangerous effect of C. esculent leaves extract.

  10. A novel approach for the efficient extraction of silybin from milk thistle fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caihong Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk Thistle fruit is an important herb popularly consumed worldwide for a very long time. Silybin is the main bioactive constituent of the herb, and it has been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA as a medicine to treat liver diseases. Presently, using conventional technology, the meal of Milk Thistle fruit is used as the raw material to extract silybin. Objective: To investigate the necessity of detaching husk from kernel of the herb and also to propose a novel approach to enhance the extraction technology in pharmaceutical practices. Materials and Methods: The husk of Milk Thistle fruit was detached from the kernel of the herb using an automatic huller specially designed for this application. The husk and the meal of Milk Thistle fruit was subsequently refluxed, separately, with production rate of silybin as index for comparison of their extraction effect. Results: The highest production rate was achieved under optimized condition. The husk was extracted 2 times (3 hrs each using ethyl acetate, and the ratio of solvent to raw material was 8:1. The extract was allowed to be crystallized out. Conclusion: The separation of kernel from the husk of Milk Thistle fruit and using only the husk as raw material can largely enhance the extraction of silybin.

  11. Efficient anaerobic digestion of whole microalgae and lipid-extracted microalgae residues for methane energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baisuo; Ma, Jingwei; Zhao, Quanbao; Laurens, Lieve; Jarvis, Eric; Chen, Shulin; Frear, Craig

    2014-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to completely investigate extensive biological methane potential (BMP) on both whole microalgae and its lipid-extracted biomass residues with various degrees of biomass pretreatment. Specific methane productivities (SMP) under batch conditions for non-lipid extracted biomass were better than lipid-extracted biomass residues and exhibited no signs of ammonia or carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio inhibition when digested at high I/S ratio (I/S ratio⩾1.0). SMP for suitably extracted biomass ranged from 0.30 to 0.38LCH4/gVS (volatile solids). For both whole and lipid-extracted biomass, overall organic conversion ranged from 59.33 to 78.50 as a measure of %VS reduction with greater percentage biodegradability in general found within the lipid-extracted biomass. Higher production levels correlated to lipid content with a linear relationship between SMP and ash-free lipid content being developed at a R(2) of 0.814.

  12. Efficiency of gaseous ozone in reducing the development of dry socket following surgical third molar extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedi, Jehona; Ahmedi, Enis; Sejfija, Osman; Agani, Zana; Hamiti, Vjosa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of ozone gas (O3) on the reduction of dry socket (DS) occurrence following surgical extraction of lower jaw third molars, influence of the indication for the extraction, and the difficulty of extraction on the incidence of DS. Materials and Methods: This study included thirty patients with bilaterally impacted third molars of mandible requiring surgical procedure for extraction. Following extraction, in the control group, saline solution was used for irrigation of extraction sockets and in the experimental group, intra-alveolar O3 was applied for 12 s (Prozone, W and H, UK, Ltd.). The surgeries were performed by the same oral surgeon. The follow-up visits were performed at 48 h and on day seven, postsurgery where the symptoms of DS were evaluated and intensity of pain has been recorded using visual analog scale 0–100. Results: In this pilot study, DS was present in 16.67% and 3.33% of cases in the control and experimental groups, respectively (P = 0.20). Conclusion: The application of O3 may reduce the incidence of DS and accelerates the recovery period after the surgery. Prophylactic use of O3 may be suggested in all patients, especially in the patients at a risk of development of DS. PMID:27403058

  13. Evaluation of two spike-and-recovery controls for assessment of extraction efficiency in microbial source tracking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, D.M.; Stelzer, E.A.; Dick, L.K.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR), applied to complex environmental samples such as water, wastewater, and feces, is susceptible to methodological and sample related biases. In this study, we evaluated two exogenous DNA spike-and-recovery controls as proxies for recovery efficiency of Bacteroidales 16S rDNA gene sequences (AllBac and qHF183) that are used for microbial source tracking (MST) in river water. Two controls-(1) the plant pathogen Pantoea stewartii, carrying the chromosomal target gene cpsD, and (2) Escherichia coli, carrying the plasmid-borne target gene DsRed2-were added to raw water samples immediately prior to concentration and DNA extraction for qPCR. When applied to samples processed in replicate, recovery of each control was positively correlated with the observed concentration of each MST marker. Adjustment of MST marker concentrations according to recovery efficiency reduced variability in replicate analyses when consistent processing and extraction methodologies were applied. Although the effects of this procedure on accuracy could not be tested due to uncertainties in control DNA concentrations, the observed reduction in variability should improve the strength of statistical comparisons. These findings suggest that either of the tested spike-and-recovery controls can be useful to measure efficiency of extraction and recovery in routine laboratory processing. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. [Rapid and efficient extraction of soluble proteins from gram-negative microorganisms without disruption of cell walls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilevich, V N; Petrovskaia, L E; Grishin, E V

    2006-01-01

    The ability of buffer solutions containing low concentrations of nonionic detergents (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Brij 58, and Lubrol PX) and the anionic detergent sodium deoxycholate, as well as mixtures of these detergents with chaeotropes (urea and guanidine hydrochloride), to extract intracellular proteins of Gram-negative microorganisms (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was studied. It was established that the solutions containing Triton X-100 and sodium deoxycholate and the mixtures of these detergents with urea are the most effective. It was shown that the extraction of proteins from bacterial cells under the studied conditions is not accompanied by a release of DNA into solution but is associated with extraction of low-molecular RNAs. The level of protein extraction reaches 80%. No disruption of the bacterial cell wall occurs during the extraction, and proteins probably permeate through meshes of the murein network. The efficiencies of our buffer mixtures are close to or higher than that of the commercial reagent CelLytic B (Sigma, United States). The practical uses of the chaeotropic mixtures developed are discussed.

  15. Liquid-Liquid-Liquid Three Phase Extraction Apparatus: Operation Strategy and Influences on Mass Transfer Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何秀琼; 黄昆; 于品华; 张超; 谢铿; 李鹏飞; 王娟; 安震涛; 刘会洲

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new mixer-settler-mixer three chamber integrated extractor is proposed in this work for liquid-liquid- liquid three phase countercurrent and continuous extraction. Experiments revealed the influences of the structural design of the three-liquid-phase extractor and some key operational parameters on three-phase partition of two phenolic isomers, p-nitrophenol (p-NP) and o-nitrophenol (o-NP). The model three-liquid-phase extraction system used here is nonane (organic top-plaase)-polyethylene glycol (PEG 20UU) (polymer mlddle-phase)-(NH4)2SO4 aqueous solution (aqueous bottom-phase). It is indicated that agitating speed and retention time in three-phase mixer are key parameters to extraction fraction of nitrophenol. Dispersion band behavior is related to agitating intensity, and its occurrence does not affect the extraction fraction of target compounds. The present work highlights the possibility of a feasible approach of scaling up of the proposed three-phase extraction apparatus for future in- dustrial-aimed applications.

  16. An Efficient Method for Automatic Road Extraction Based on Multiple Features from LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Hu, X.; Guan, H.; Liu, P.

    2016-06-01

    The road extraction in urban areas is difficult task due to the complicated patterns and many contextual objects. LiDAR data directly provides three dimensional (3D) points with less occlusions and smaller shadows. The elevation information and surface roughness are distinguishing features to separate roads. However, LiDAR data has some disadvantages are not beneficial to object extraction, such as the irregular distribution of point clouds and lack of clear edges of roads. For these problems, this paper proposes an automatic road centerlines extraction method which has three major steps: (1) road center point detection based on multiple feature spatial clustering for separating road points from ground points, (2) local principal component analysis with least squares fitting for extracting the primitives of road centerlines, and (3) hierarchical grouping for connecting primitives into complete roads network. Compared with MTH (consist of Mean shift algorithm, Tensor voting, and Hough transform) proposed in our previous article, this method greatly reduced the computational cost. To evaluate the proposed method, the Vaihingen data set, a benchmark testing data provided by ISPRS for "Urban Classification and 3D Building Reconstruction" project, was selected. The experimental results show that our method achieve the same performance by less time in road extraction using LiDAR data.

  17. CTSS: A Tool for Efficient Information Extraction with Soft Matching Rules for Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Christy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of information available digitally in modern world had made a demand for structured information. The problem of text mining which dealt with discovering useful information from unstructured text had attracted the attention of researchers. The role of Information Extraction (IE software was to identify relevant information from texts, extracting information from a variety of sources and aggregating it to create a single view. Information extraction systems depended on particular corpora and were poor in recall values. Therefore, developing the system as domain-independent as well as improving the recall was an important challenge for IE. In this research, the authors proposed a domain-independent algorithm for information extraction, called SOFTRULEMINING for extracting the aim, methodology and conclusion from technical abstracts. The algorithm was implemented by combining trigram model with softmatching rules. A tool CTSS was constructed using SOFTRULEMINING and was tested with technical abstracts of www.computer.org and www.ansinet.org and found that the tool had improved its recall value and therefore the precision value in comparison with other search engines.

  18. Highly efficient automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanič Pajnič, Irena; Debska, Magdalena; Gornjak Pogorelc, Barbara; Vodopivec Mohorčič, Katja; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž; Štefanič, Borut; Geršak, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    We optimised the automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains using the AutoMate Express system and the PrepFiler BTA kit. 24 Contemporary and 25 old skeletal remains from WWII were analysed. For each skeleton, extraction using only 0.05 g of powder was performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations (no demineralisation - ND method). Since only 32% of full profiles were obtained from aged and 58% from contemporary casework skeletons, the extraction protocol was modified to acquire higher quality DNA and genomic DNA was obtained after full demineralisation (FD method). The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using the Investigator Quantiplex kit and STR typing was performed using the NGM kit to evaluate the performance of tested extraction methods. In the aged DNA samples, 64% of full profiles were obtained using the FD method. For the contemporary skeletal remains the performance of the ND method was closer to the FD method compared to the old skeletons, giving 58% of full profiles with the ND method and 71% of full profiles using the FD method. The extraction of DNA from only 0.05 g of bone or tooth powder using the AutoMate Express has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA from old and contemporary skeletons, especially with the modified FD method. We believe that the results obtained will contribute to the possibilities of using automated devices for extracting DNA from skeletal remains, which would shorten the procedures for obtaining high-quality DNA from skeletons in forensic laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficient uptake of blood-borne BK and JC polyomavirus-like particles in endothelial cells of liver sinusoids and renal vasa recta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaione Simon-Santamaria

    Full Text Available Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs are specialized scavenger cells that mediate high-capacity clearance of soluble waste macromolecules and colloid material, including blood-borne adenovirus. To explore if LSECs function as a sink for other viruses in blood, we studied the fate of virus-like particles (VLPs of two ubiquitous human DNA viruses, BK and JC polyomavirus, in mice. Like complete virions, VLPs specifically bind to receptors and enter cells, but unlike complete virions, they cannot replicate. 125I-labeled VLPs were used to assess blood decay, organ-, and hepatocellular distribution of ligand, and non-labeled VLPs to examine cellular uptake by immunohisto- and -cytochemistry. BK- and JC-VLPs rapidly distributed to liver, with lesser uptake in kidney and spleen. Liver uptake was predominantly in LSECs. Blood half-life (∼1 min, and tissue distribution of JC-VLPs and two JC-VLP-mutants (L55F and S269F that lack sialic acid binding affinity, were similar, indicating involvement of non-sialic acid receptors in cellular uptake. Liver uptake was not mediated by scavenger receptors. In spleen, the VLPs localized to the red pulp marginal zone reticuloendothelium, and in kidney to the endothelial lining of vasa recta segments, and the transitional epithelium of renal pelvis. Most VLP-positive vessels in renal medulla did not express PV-1/Meca 32, suggesting location to the non-fenestrated part of vasa recta. The endothelial cells of these vessels also efficiently endocytosed a scavenger receptor ligand, formaldehyde-denatured albumin, suggesting high endocytic activity compared to other renal endothelia. We conclude that LSECs very effectively cleared a large fraction of blood-borne BK- and JC-VLPs, indicating a central role of these cells in early removal of polyomavirus from the circulation. In addition, we report the novel finding that a subpopulation of endothelial cells in kidney, the main organ of polyomavirus persistence, showed

  20. [Mouthwash solutions with microencapsuled natural extracts: Efficiency for dental plaque and gingivitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervelle, A; Mouhyi, J; Del Corso, M; Hippolyte, M-P; Sammartino, G; Dohan Ehrenfest, D M

    2010-06-01

    Mouthwash solutions are mainly used for their antiseptic properties. They currently include synthetic agents (chlorhexidine, triclosan, etc.) or essential oils (especially Listerine). Many natural extracts may also be used. These associate both antiseptic effects and direct action on host response, due to their antioxidant, immunoregulatory, analgesic, buffering, or healing properties. The best known are avocado oil, manuka oil, propolis oil, grapefruit seed extract, pycnogenol, aloe vera, Q10 coenzyme, green tea, and megamin. The development of new technologies, such as microencapsulation (GingiNat concept), may allow an in situ slow release of active ingredients during several hours, and open new perspectives for mouthwash solutions.

  1. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction as an efficient tool for removal of phospholipids from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask, Kristine Skoglund; Bardakci, Turgay; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2016-01-01

    Generic Parallel Artificial Liquid Membrane Extraction (PALME) methods for non-polar basic and non-polar acidic drugs from human plasma were investigated with respect to phospholipid removal. In both cases, extractions in 96-well format were performed from plasma (125μL), through 4μL organic solv...... matrix effects were investigated with fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and quetiapine as model analytes. No signs of matrix effects were observed. Finally, PALME was evaluated for the aforementioned drug substances, and data were in accordance with European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines....

  2. A simple method for efficient extraction and purification of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Geitler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, S Uday; Gopalaswamy, G; Raghu, R

    2005-03-01

    Phycocyanin is a major light harvesting accessory pigment of red algae and cyanobacteria. In the light of its many commercial applications in food and pharmaceutical industry, purity of the pigment plays a major role. Pharmaceutical industry demands a highly pure phycocyanin with A620/280 ratio of 4 and food industry a ratio of 2. In the present study phycocyanin was extracted in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7) after macerating in liquid nitrogen. The crude phycocyanin thus extracted was precipitated with 50% ammonium sulphate, purified by dialysis and finally by gel filtration chromatography. Pure phycocyanin was finally obtained with an A620/A280 value of 4.98.

  3. Eyeglasses lens contour extraction from facial images using an efficient shape description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borza, Diana; Darabant, Adrian Sergiu; Danescu, Radu

    2013-10-10

    This paper presents a system that automatically extracts the position of the eyeglasses and the accurate shape and size of the frame lenses in facial images. The novelty brought by this paper consists in three key contributions. The first one is an original model for representing the shape of the eyeglasses lens, using Fourier descriptors. The second one is a method for generating the search space starting from a finite, relatively small number of representative lens shapes based on Fourier morphing. Finally, we propose an accurate lens contour extraction algorithm using a multi-stage Monte Carlo sampling technique. Multiple experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  4. Eyeglasses Lens Contour Extraction from Facial Images Using an Efficient Shape Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Borza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system that automatically extracts the position of the eyeglasses and the accurate shape and size of the frame lenses in facial images. The novelty brought by this paper consists in three key contributions. The first one is an original model for representing the shape of the eyeglasses lens, using Fourier descriptors. The second one is a method for generating the search space starting from a finite, relatively small number of representative lens shapes based on Fourier morphing. Finally, we propose an accurate lens contour extraction algorithm using a multi-stage Monte Carlo sampling technique. Multiple experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  5. Towards standardisation of cell-free DNA measurement in plasma: controls for extraction efficiency, fragment size bias and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonshire, Alison S; Whale, Alexandra S; Gutteridge, Alice; Jones, Gerwyn; Cowen, Simon; Foy, Carole A; Huggett, Jim F

    2014-10-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is becoming an important clinical analyte for prenatal testing, cancer diagnosis and cancer monitoring. The extraction stage is critical in ensuring clinical sensitivity of analytical methods measuring minority nucleic acid fractions, such as foetal-derived sequences in predominantly maternal cfDNA. Consequently, quality controls are required for measurement of extraction efficiency, fragment size bias and yield for validation of cfDNA methods. We evaluated the utility of an external DNA spike for monitoring these parameters in a study comparing three specific cfDNA extraction methods [QIAamp circulating nucleic acid (CNA) kit, NucleoSpin Plasma XS (NS) kit and FitAmp plasma/serum DNA isolation (FA) kit] with the commonly used QIAamp DNA blood mini (DBM) kit. We found that the extraction efficiencies of the kits ranked in the order CNA kit > DBM kit > NS kit > FA kit, and the CNA and NS kits gave a better representation of smaller DNA fragments in the extract than the DBM kit. We investigated means of improved reporting of cfDNA yield by comparing quantitative PCR measurements of seven different reference gene assays in plasma samples and validating these with digital PCR. We noted that the cfDNA quantities based on measurement of some target genes (e.g. TERT) were, on average, more than twofold higher than those of other assays (e.g. ERV3). We conclude that analysis and averaging of multiple reference genes using a GeNorm approach gives a more reliable estimate of total cfDNA quantity.

  6. Enumerating Nephroprotective Potency of Ethanolic root extract of Operculina turpethum against N-Nitrosodimethylamine incited renal Carcinogenesis in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Veena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA is an important carcinogen frequently present in human environment and food chain. Nitrosamines such as NDMA produce oxidative stress due to generation of reactive oxygen species and alter the antioxidant defense system in the tissues. Chronic kidney disease due to a number of factors is a common and serious problem that adversely affects human health, limits longevity and increases costs to health-care systems worldwide. Oxidative stress is prevalent in kidney diseases and is considered to be an important causative mechanism. It develops from an imbalance between free radical production often increased through dysfunctional mitochondria formed with increasing age, inflammation, and reduced anti-oxidant defenses. The present study investigates the influence of ethanolic extract of Operculina turpethum roots on the kidney of NDMA intoxicated mice. The nephrotoxicity and therapeutic effect of the plant was assessed by the analysis of kidney marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and kidney histopathological studies. NDMA exposure produced detrimental effects on the redox status of the kidney indicated by a significant decline in the levels of protein and antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione and increased cholesterol, AST, ALT, ALP and lipid peroxidation. Operculina turpethum manifested chemopreventive effects by significantly restoring the enzymatic levels and reducing the nephrotoxicity in mice. Histological examination of kidney revealed patho-physiological changes in NDMA treated mice and improved plant treated renal histopathology.

  7. Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe dominant economic theory, neoclassical economics, employs a single economic evaluative criterion: efficiency. Moreover, it assigns this criterion a very specific meaning. Other – heterodox – schools of thought in economics tend to use more open concepts of efficiency, related to comm

  8. Efficient and scalable serial extraction of DNA and RNA from frozen tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathot, Lucy; Lindman, Monica; Sjöblom, Tobias

    2011-01-07

    Advances in cancer genomics have created a demand for scalable sample processing. We here present a process for serial extraction of nucleic acids from the same frozen tissue sample based on magnetic silica particles. The process is automation friendly with high recoveries of pure DNA and RNA suitable for analysis.

  9. Efficient recovery of environmental DNA for expression cloning by indirect extraction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabor, Esther; de Vries, Erik; Janssen, DB

    2003-01-01

    Using direct and cell extraction-based (indirect) isolation methods, DNA was obtained from environmental samples with largely differing characteristics (loam soil, sand soil, sediment, activated sludge, and compost) and evaluated with respect to the comprised bacterial diversity and its suitability

  10. Efficient recovery of environmental DNA for expression cloning by indirect extraction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabor, Esther; de Vries, Erik; Janssen, DB

    2003-01-01

    Using direct and cell extraction-based (indirect) isolation methods, DNA was obtained from environmental samples with largely differing characteristics (loam soil, sand soil, sediment, activated sludge, and compost) and evaluated with respect to the comprised bacterial diversity and its suitability

  11. An Efficient DNA Extraction Method for Lactobacillus casei, a Difficult-to-Lyse Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimolaei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background There are several protocols to extract DNA from Lactobacillus spp. In the case of L. casei it is harder because of its especial and thick cell wall. Objectives In this study, nine DNA extraction protocols (by lysozyme treatment were evaluated and compared in two categories (traditional and kit-based protocols and an improved method was presented. Materials and Methods DNA quantity and quality was determined by spectrophotometry, agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results The results revealed that the yield of extracted DNA differed by each protocol (5.8 - 17.1 μg/100 μL, but provided appropriate DNA for PCR amplification. The modified protocol offered the best total DNA extraction method when both quality (DNA purity; 1.54 μg and quantity (DNA yield; 17.1 μg were considered. Conclusions We suggest this protocol for effective and inexpensive DNA isolation from L. casei for downstream biological processes such as PCR.

  12. Efficiency of EGFR mutation analysis for small microdissected cytological specimens using multitech DNA extraction solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seo Young; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2015-07-01

    The microdissection method has greatly facilitated the isolation of pure cell populations for accurate analysis of mutations. However, the absence of coverslips in these preparations leads to poor resolution of cellular morphological features. In the current study, the authors developed the MultiTech DNA extraction solution to improve the visualization of cell morphology for microdissection and tested it for the preservation of morphological properties of cells, quality of DNA, and ability to detect mutations. A total of 121 cytological samples, including fine-needle aspirates, sputum, pleural fluid, and bronchial washings, were selected from hospital archives. DNA extracted from microdissected cells was evaluated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation analysis using pyrosequencing, Sanger sequencing, and peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated real-time polymerase chain reaction clamping. Morphological features of cells as well as DNA quality and quantity were analyzed in several cytological samples to assess the performance of the MultiTech DNA extraction solution. The results were compared with previous EGFR mutation tests. The MultiTech DNA extraction solution improved the morphology of archived stained cells before microdissection and provided a higher DNA yield than the commercial QIAamp DNA Mini Kit in samples containing a minimal number of cells (25-50 cells). The authors were able to detect identical EGFR mutations by using different analysis platforms and consistently identified these mutations in samples comprising as few as 25 microdissected cells. The MultiTech DNA extraction solution is a reliable medium that improves the resolution of cell morphology during microdissection. It was particularly useful in EGFR mutations of samples containing a small number of cells. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  13. Efficient analysis of selected estrogens using fabric phase sorptive extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Gaurav; Heena; Malik, Ashok Kumar; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2014-09-12

    A simple, fast and sensitive analytical method using fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) has been developed for efficient quantification of biologically important molecules e.g., 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), β-estradiol (E2) and bisphenol A (BPA). FPSE is a new sorptive extraction technique that integrates the advantages of permeable sol-gel derived hybrid organic-inorganic sorbents with flexible and permeable fabric substrates, resulting in a highly efficient and sensitive extraction media that can be introduced directly into any kind of fluidic matrix. Various factors affecting the performance of FPSE technique were optimized. The chromatographic separation was carried using mobile phase acetonitrile/methanol/water (30:15:55; v/v) at a flow rate 1.0mL/min on C18 column with fluorescence detection (λex=280nm and λem=310nm). The calibration curves of the target analytes were prepared with good correlation coefficient values (R(2)>0.992). Limit of detection (LOD) values range from 20 to 42pg/mL. The developed method was applied successfully for the analysis of estrogen molecules in urine and various kinds of aqueous samples.

  14. Feature extraction using first and second derivative extrema (FSDE) for real-time and hardware-efficient spike sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevopoulou, Sivylla E; Barsakcioglu, Deren Y; Saberi, Mohammed R; Eftekhar, Amir; Constandinou, Timothy G

    2013-04-30

    Next generation neural interfaces aspire to achieve real-time multi-channel systems by integrating spike sorting on chip to overcome limitations in communication channel capacity. The feasibility of this approach relies on developing highly efficient algorithms for feature extraction and clustering with the potential of low-power hardware implementation. We are proposing a feature extraction method, not requiring any calibration, based on first and second derivative features of the spike waveform. The accuracy and computational complexity of the proposed method are quantified and compared against commonly used feature extraction methods, through simulation across four datasets (with different single units) at multiple noise levels (ranging from 5 to 20% of the signal amplitude). The average classification error is shown to be below 7% with a computational complexity of 2N-3, where N is the number of sample points of each spike. Overall, this method presents a good trade-off between accuracy and computational complexity and is thus particularly well-suited for hardware-efficient implementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficient method of protein extraction from Theobroma cacao L. roots for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolde, F Z; Almeida, A-A F; Silva, F A C; Oliveira, T M; Pirovani, C P

    2014-07-04

    Theobroma cacao is a woody and recalcitrant plant with a very high level of interfering compounds. Standard protocols for protein extraction were proposed for various types of samples, but the presence of interfering compounds in many samples prevented the isolation of proteins suitable for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). An efficient method to extract root proteins for 2-DE was established to overcome these problems. The main features of this protocol are: i) precipitation with trichloroacetic acid/acetone overnight to prepare the acetone dry powder (ADP), ii) several additional steps of sonication in the ADP preparation and extractions with dense sodium dodecyl sulfate and phenol, and iii) adding two stages of phenol extractions. Proteins were extracted from roots using this new protocol (Method B) and a protocol described in the literature for T. cacao leaves and meristems (Method A). Using these methods, we obtained a protein yield of about 0.7 and 2.5 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root, and a total of 60 and 400 spots could be separated, respectively. Through Method B, it was possible to isolate high-quality protein and a high yield of roots from T. cacao for high-quality 2-DE gels. To demonstrate the quality of the extracted proteins from roots of T. cacao using Method B, several protein spots were cut from the 2-DE gels, analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, and identified. Method B was further tested on Citrus roots, with a protein yield of about 2.7 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root and 800 detected spots.

  16. Renal Osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Metin Terzibaşoğlu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency is a functional definition which is characterized by irreversible and progressive decreasing in renal functions. This impairment is in collaboration with glomeruler filtration rate and serum creatinine levels. Besides this, different grades of bone metabolism disorders develop in chronic renal insufficiency. Pathologic changes in bone tissue due to loss of renal paranchyme is interrelated with calcium, phosphorus vitamine-D and parathyroid hormone. Clinically we can see high turnover bone disease, low turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis and osteoporosis in renal osteodystropy. In this article we aimed to review pathology of bone metabolism disorders due to chronic renal insufficiency, clinic aspects and treatment approaches briefly.

  17. Evaluation of protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of saffron petals in prevention of acetaminophen-induced renal damages in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Omidi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years more attention has been given to herbal drugs in the treatment and prevention of drug toxicity because of the harmful effects of chemical drugs. In this study, directed for this purpose, research was conducted on the protective effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of saffron petals (SPE against acetaminophen (APAP induced acute nephrotoxicity. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups of six each. Group I, as a control group, received normal saline (0.09% orally (PO. Group II, as an intoxicated group was treated with APAP, PO (600 mg/kg. In the groups III and IV, SPE in a dose of 10 and 20 mg/kg along with APAP (600 mg/kg was administered, respectively. At the end of the trial (8th day, blood was taken from the heart of rats for assessment of biochemical parameters and the right kidney was placed in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological evaluations. In the APAP treatment group, higher serum creatinine and uric acid were observed. SPE in a dose of 20 mg/kg significantly reduced serum creatinine and uric acid. In pathologic evaluation, a dose of 20 mg/kg of SPE prevented the kidney injuries induced by APAP. Tissues changes were in accordance with biochemical findings. It is likely that the SPE contributed to the prevention of acute nephrotoxicity induced by APAP.

  18. Efficient inverted polymer solar cells integrated with a compound electron extraction layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhong-Sheng; Wang, Qian-Kun; Li, Chi; Li, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Pengfei; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2015-12-01

    We constructed an effective electron extraction layer (EEL) used for polymer solar cells by integrating one new kind of organic material of 4,4‧-(1,4-phenylene) bis(2-phenyl-6-p-tolylnicotinonitrile) (p-PPtNT) and cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) used as a compound EEL (CEEL). The CEEL based device exhibits an ideal PCE of 4.15%, corresponding to an enhancement 220% in contrast to that of control device without EEL, which is also comparable to that of ZnO based device. Our analyses indicated that the remarkably improved PCE for CEEL based device is mainly ascribed to the Ohmic contact and the negligible electron extraction barrier at cathode/active layer by inserting CEEL.

  19. Thiacalix[4]arene derivatives containing multiple aromatic groups: High efficient extractants for organic dyes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chuang Yang; Zusheng Wang; Hongyu Guo; Ziyu Jiao; Fafu Yang

    2015-08-01

    Click reaction of alkynylthiacalix[4]arene with ethyl 2-azidoacetate, followed by ammonolysis with hydrazine hydrate and Schiff-base condensation with benzaldehyde or salicyic aldehyde, afforded two novel thiacalix[4]arene derivatives containing multiple aromatic groups in yields of 86% and 90%. Their complexation properties for four organic dyes were investigated by liquid-liquid extraction experiments, complexation UV-Vis spectra and mass spectrum. The highest extraction percentage was 97% for Neutral red. The UV- Vis spectra and ESI-MS spectrum indicated the 1:1 complexes in DMSO solution. The association constants were as high as 1∼ 8 × 104 M−1. These complexation experiments showed that thiacalix[4]arene receptors possess excellent complexation capabilities for dyes.

  20. Efficient Light Extraction from Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Plasmonic Scattering Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothberg, Lewis

    2012-11-30

    Our project addressed the DOE MYPP 2020 goal to improve light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to 75% (Core task 6.3). As noted in the 2010 MYPP, “the greatest opportunity for improvement is in the extraction of light from [OLED] panels”. There are many approaches to avoiding waveguiding limitations intrinsic to the planar OLED structure including use of textured substrates, microcavity designs and incorporating scattering layers into the device structure. We have chosen to pursue scattering layers since it addresses the largest source of loss which is waveguiding in the OLED itself. Scattering layers also have the potential to be relatively robust to color, polarization and angular distributions. We note that this can be combined with textured or microlens decorated substrates to achieve additional enhancement.

  1. Enhanced light extraction efficiency of plastic scintillator by photonic crystal prepared with a self-assembly method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinliang [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Radiation Detection Research Center, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi’an, 710024 (China); Zhu, Zhichao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen, Liang; Ouyang, Xiaoping [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Radiation Detection Research Center, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi’an, 710024 (China); Liu, Bo, E-mail: lbo@tongji.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Cheng, Chuanwei [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Hu, Jing; He, Shiyi [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Radiation Detection Research Center, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi’an, 710024 (China); Wang, Zewei [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Radiation Detection Research Center, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi’an, 710024 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Gu, Mu; Chen, Hong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-09-21

    Plastic scintillators are extensively used in various radiation measurement systems. However the total internal reflection decreases the scintillation light output, leading to a low detection efficiency especially in these weak signal detection situations. In the present investigation, we have designed a light extraction scheme based on the photonic crystal formed with a monolayer periodic array of polystyrene nanospheres by a self-assembly method. The photonic crystal coated on the surface of plastic scintillator can significantly enhance the light extraction by 120% compared with the plain reference sample under X-ray excitation, which is achieved by the principle of the coupling of evanescent field near the scintillator-air interface with the photonic crystal.

  2. Two-color light-emitting diodes with polarization-sensitive high extraction efficiency based on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    H, Sattarian; S, Shojaei; E, Darabi

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, graphene photonic crystals are employed to enhance the light extraction efficiency (LEE) of two-color, red and blue, light-emitting diode (LED). The transmission characteristics of one-dimensional (1D) Fibonacci graphene photonic crystal LED (FGPC-LED) are investigated by using the transfer matrix method and the scaling study is presented. We analyzed the influence of period, thickness, and permittivity in the structure to enhance the LEE. The transmission spectrum of 1D FGPC has been optimized in detail. In addition, the effects of the angle of incidence and the state of polarization are investigated. As the main result, we found the optimum values of relevant parameters to enhance the extraction of red and blue light from an LED as well as provide perfect omnidirectional and high peak transmission filters for the TE and TM modes.

  3. Enhanced light extraction efficiency of micro-ring array AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele Fayisa, Gabisa; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Jungsub; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Youngsoo; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2017-09-01

    An effective approach to overcome inherently poor light extraction efficiency of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is presented. We demonstrated the 5 × 5 array micro-ring DUV LED having an inclined sidewall at the outer perimeter and a p-GaN-removed inner circle of the micro-ring, together with MgF2/Al omnidirectional reflectors. The micro-ring array DUV LED shows remarkably higher light output power by 70% than the reference, consistent with the calculated result, as well as comparable turn-on and operational voltages, which are attributed to the effective extraction of strong transverse-magnetic polarized anisotropic emission and the reduction of the absorption loss by the p-GaN contact layer, simultaneously.

  4. Effect of coffee reduction on constituent concentration in an energy-efficient process of ultrasonic extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cheng-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is one of the popular beverage; its constituents include caffeine, oxidation resistant aromatic constituents, protein, tannin, and fat. It is indicated in literatures that a proper amount of coffee stimulates the brain and enhances memory, but excessive coffee causes negative results, such as coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, heart disease and kidney disease. This study used high-performance ultrasonic process to discuss the effect of pulverized coffee reduction on the constituent concentration. It further compared the constituent concentrations obtained in different extraction periods. The experimental results show that the coffee aroma constituents can be extracted effectively by ultrasonic process without any organic solvent, and the constituent concentration does not decrease with the addition of pulverized coffee. Therefore, the consumption of pulverized coffee can be reduced greatly by using the proposed. The time of extraction process can be shortened, so as to save energy. The most important point is to reduce the enterprises manufacturing cost and to increase the profit.

  5. Efficient DNA extraction for HPV genotyping in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinau, Martin; Patel, Sonya S; Unger, Elizabeth R

    2011-07-01

    DNA from archived FFPE can be used for papillomavirus genotyping, but potential problems include paraffin as a physical barrier, DNA cross-linking, and PCR inhibitors. To address these complications, we combined a commercially available DNA isolation kit (Qiagen DNeasy) with a heat treatment and evaluated the resulting DNA with regards to HPV typing. DNA was extracted from 10-μm sections from 150 FFPE cancer samples. One protocol followed the manufacturer's recommendation, including paraffin removal by xylene and tissue lysis at 56°C. A second section was directly incubated at 120°C and subsequently lysed at 65°C. After spin-column purification, both extracts were tested with a linear array HPV genotyping assay. Additionally, cellular DNA yield, HPV16 DNA copies, and PCR inhibitors were assessed by real-time qPCR assays. Inadequate linear array HPV genotyping assay results were significantly more frequent (P = 0.0003) in xylene-treated (29/150, 19.3%) than in heat-treated extracts (8/150, 5.3%). HPV detection also differed, with 94/150 (62.7%) and 110/150 (73.3%) positive results, respectively (P = 0.0026). The heat method also yielded more PCR-amplifiable cellular DNA (8.2-fold; P protocols, resulting in higher DNA yields and increased sensitivity for HPV testing.

  6. AN EFFICIENT APPROACH TO IMPROVE ARABIC DOCUMENTS CLUSTERING BASED ON A NEW KEYPHRASES EXTRACTION ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane FROUD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Document Clustering algorithms goal is to create clusters that are coherent internally, but clearly different from each other. The useful expressions in the documents is often accompanied by a large amount of noise that is caused by the use of unnecessary words, so it is indispensable to eliminate it and keeping just the useful information. Keyphrases extraction systems in Arabic are new phenomena. A number of Text Mining applications can use it to improve her results. The Keyphrases are defined as phrases that capture the main topics discussed in document; they offer a brief and precise summary of document content. Therefore, it can be a good solution to get rid of the existent noise from documents. In this paper, we propose a new method to solve the problem cited above especially for Arabic language documents, which is one of the most complex languages, by using a new Keyphrases extraction algorithm based on the Suffix Tree data structure (KpST. To evaluate our approach, we conduct an experimental study on Arabic Documents Clustering using the most popular approach of Hierarchical algorithms: Agglomerative Hierarchical algorithm with seven linkage techniques and a variety of distance functions and similarity measures to perform Arabic Document Clustering task. The obtained results show that our approach for extracting Keyphrases improves the clustering results.

  7. Short Communication An efficient method for simultaneous extraction of high-quality RNA and DNA from various plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R R; Viana, A J C; Reátegui, A C E; Vincentz, M G A

    2015-12-29

    Determination of gene expression is an important tool to study biological processes and relies on the quality of the extracted RNA. Changes in gene expression profiles may be directly related to mutations in regulatory DNA sequences or alterations in DNA cytosine methylation, which is an epigenetic mark. Correlation of gene expression with DNA sequence or epigenetic mark polymorphism is often desirable; for this, a robust protocol to isolate high-quality RNA and DNA simultaneously from the same sample is required. Although commercial kits and protocols are available, they are mainly optimized for animal tissues and, in general, restricted to RNA or DNA extraction, not both. In the present study, we describe an efficient and accessible method to extract both RNA and DNA simultaneously from the same sample of various plant tissues, using small amounts of starting material. The protocol was efficient in the extraction of high-quality nucleic acids from several Arabidopsis thaliana tissues (e.g., leaf, inflorescence stem, flower, fruit, cotyledon, seedlings, root, and embryo) and from other tissues of non-model plants, such as Avicennia schaueriana (Acanthaceae), Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae), Paspalum notatum (Poaceae), and Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae). The obtained nucleic acids were used as templates for downstream analyses, such as mRNA sequencing, quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, bisulfite treatment, and others; the results were comparable to those obtained with commercial kits. We believe that this protocol could be applied to a broad range of plant species, help avoid technical and sampling biases, and facilitate several RNA- and DNA-dependent analyses.

  8. Extraction efficiency, phytochemical profiles and antioxidative properties of different parts of Saptarangi (Salacia chinensis L.) - An important underutilized plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadage, Dhanaji M; Kshirsagar, Parthraj R; Pai, Sandeep R; Chavan, Jaykumar J

    2017-12-01

    The study aimed to evaluate extraction efficiency, detection and quantification of phytochemicals, minerals and antioxidative capacity of different parts of Salacia chinensis L. Continuous shaking extraction, steam bath assisted extraction, ultrasonic extraction and microwave assisted extraction with varied time intervals were employed for extraction of phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidants. Preliminary screening revealed the presence of wide array of metabolites along with carbohydrates and starch. Steam bath assisted extraction for 10 min exposure was found most suitable for extraction phenolics (46.02 ± 2.30 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight and 48.57 ± 2.42 mg of tannic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight) and flavonoids (35.26 ± 1.61 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight and 51.60 ± 2.58 mg of ellagic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight). In support, reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography- diode array detector confirmed the presence of seven pharmaceutically important phenolic acids. Antioxidant capacity was measured by 1, 1- diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) scavenging (ABTS) and N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD) assays and represented as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC). Antioxidant capacity ranged from 121.02 ± 6.05 to 1567.28 ± 78.36 µM trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and 56.62 ± 2.83 to 972.48 ± 48.62 µM ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity. Roots showed higher yields of illustrated biochemical parameters, however fresh fruit pulp was found a chief source of minerals. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of a vast array of phytoconstituents associated with different plant parts. The present study revealed the amounts of minerals and diverse phytoconstituents in

  9. Beneficial Role of Reduced Graphene Oxide for Electron Extraction in Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Taek; Grancini, Giulia; Lee, Yonghui; Konios, Dimitrios; Paek, Sanghyun; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-11-09

    In this work we systematically investigated the role of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs). By mixing rGO within the mesoporous TiO2 (m-TiO2 ) matrix, highly efficient solar cells with power conversion efficiency values up to 19.54 % were realized. In addition, the boosted beneficial role of rGO with and without Li-treated m-TiO2 is highlighted, improving transport and injection of photoexcited electrons. This combined system may pave the way for further development and optimization of electron transport and collection in high efficiency PSCs. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Low temperature aqueous electrodeposited TiO(x) thin films as electron extraction layer for efficient inverted organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kim Hai; Mason, Chad William; Devaraj, Sappani; Ouyang, Jianyong; Balaya, Palani

    2014-02-26

    Organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester were fabricated with electrodeposited TiOx electron extraction layers 5-180 nm thick. Electrodeposition under ambient conditions is an attractive, facile and viable approach to prepare metal oxide interfacial layers. The TiOx films obtained displayed a linear relationship between thickness and deposition time when fabricated under ambient conditions using an aqueous air stable peroxotitanium precursor. The precursor solution was prepared from titanium isopropoxide using a chelate process, which allowed water to be used as solvent due to considerably decreased sensitivity of the precursor solution towards hydrolysis. Highly conformal TiOx films, typically observed with vacuum deposition techniques, were obtained on the indium tin oxide substrate upon electrogeneration of OH(-) ions using H2O2 additive. Conversely, significantly rougher films with spherical growths were obtained using NO3(-) additives. Low temperature annealing at 200 °C in air was found to greatly improve purity and O stoichiometry of the TiOx films, enabling efficient devices incorporating the electrodeposited TiOx to be made. Using MoOx as the hole extraction layer, the maximum power conversion efficiency obtained was 3.8% (Voc = 610 mV; Jsc = 10.6 mA/cm(2); FF = 59%) under simulated 100 mW/cm(2) (AM1.5G) solar irradiation, whereas an efficiency of 3.4% was achieved with fully solution processed interfacial layers comprising the electrodeposited TiOx films and a surfactant-modified PEDOT:PSS hole extraction layer.

  11. Influence of the microstructure geometry of patterned sapphire substrates on the light extraction efficiency of GaN LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chien-Ting; Hsu, Lung-Hsing; Huang, Bo-Hsin; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Lin, Chien-Chung; Cheng, Yuh-Jen

    2016-09-10

    The influence of the microstructure geometry of patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) on the light extraction efficiency (LEE) of GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is numerically analyzed. Cone structures of various dimensions are studied, along with dome and mixed microstructures. LEE is found to mainly depend on the microstructure surface slope. LEE rises quickly with slope and flattens out when the slope exceeds 0.6. Scaling down the microstructure has little effect on LEE. Light rays are found to travel longer distances in PSS LEDs, as compared with LEDs grown on a flat substrate. Keeping GaN absorption loss low is important for LEE optimization.

  12. Efficient extraction and preparative separation of four main isoflavonoids from Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen leaves by deep eutectic solvents-based negative pressure cavitation extraction followed by macroporous resin column chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Liu, Ju-Zhao; Luo, Meng; Wang, Wei; Huang, Yu-Yan; Efferth, Thomas; Wang, Hui-Mei; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2016-10-15

    In this study, green and efficient deep eutectic solvent-based negative pressure cavitation-assisted extraction (DES-NPCE) followed by macroporous resin column chromatography was developed to extract and separate four main isoflavonoids, i.e. prunetin, tectorigenin, genistein and biochanin A from Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen leaves. The extraction procedure was optimized systematically by single-factor experiments and a Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface methodology. The maximum extraction yields of prunetin, tectorigenin, genistein and biochanin A reached 1.204, 1.057, 0.911 and 2.448mg/g dry weight, respectively. Moreover, the direct enrichment and separation of four isoflavonoids in DES extraction solution was successfully achieved by macroporous resin AB-8 with recovery yields of more than 80%. The present study provides a convenient and efficient method for the green extraction and preparative separation of active compounds from plants.

  13. Efficiency of boiling and four other methods for genomic DNA extraction of deteriorating spore-forming bacteria from milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Ribeiro Junior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The spore-forming microbiota is mainly responsible for the deterioration of pasteurized milk with long shelf life in the United States. The identification of these microorganisms, using molecular tools, is of particular importance for the maintenance of the quality of milk. However, these molecular techniques are not only costly but also labor-intensive and time-consuming. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of boiling in conjunction with four other methods for the genomic DNA extraction of sporulated bacteria with proteolytic and lipolytic potential isolated from raw milk in the states of Paraná and Maranhão, Brazil. Protocols based on cellular lysis by enzymatic digestion, phenolic extraction, microwave-heating, as well as the use of guanidine isothiocyanate were used. This study proposes a method involving simple boiling for the extraction of genomic DNA from these microorganisms. Variations in the quality and yield of the extracted DNA among these methods were observed. However, both the cell lysis protocol by enzymatic digestion (commercial kit and the simple boiling method proposed in this study yielded sufficient DNA for successfully carrying out the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR of the rpoB and 16S rRNA genes for all 11 strains of microorganisms tested. Other protocols failed to yield sufficient quantity and quality of DNA from all microorganisms tested, since only a few strains have showed positive results by PCR, thereby hindering the search for new microorganisms. Thus, the simple boiling method for DNA extraction from sporulated bacteria in spoiled milk showed the same efficacy as that of the commercial kit. Moreover, the method is inexpensive, easy to perform, and much less time-consuming.

  14. Energy metabolic state in hypothermically stored boar spermatozoa using a revised protocol for efficient ATP extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Quynh Thu; Wallner, Ulrike; Schmicke, Marion; Waberski, Dagmar; Henning, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa utilize ATP as the energy source for key functions on the route to fertilization. ATP and its precursor nucleotides ADP and AMP are determined in many sperm physiology studies, mostly by bioluminescence assays. Assay results vary widely, mainly due to different efficiency in nu

  15. An efficient approach of EEG feature extraction and classification for brain computer interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Ting; Yan Guozheng; Yang Banghua

    2009-01-01

    In the study of brain-computer interfaces, a method of feature extraction and classification used for two kinds of imaginations is proposed. It considers Euclidean distance between mean traces recorded from the channels with two kinds of imaginations as a feature, and determines imagination classes using threshold value. It analyzed the background of experiment and theoretical foundation referring to the data sets of BCI 2003, and compared the classification precision with the best result of the competition. The result shows that the method has a high precision and is advantageous for being applied to practical systems.

  16. Plasma extraction rate and collection efficiency during therapeutic plasma exchange with Spectra Optia in comparison with Haemonetics MCS+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Catherine; Gericke, Marion; Smith, Richard; Hermans, Cedric

    2011-01-01

    For therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), continuous and intermittent flow separators are known to be efficient. This study was undertaken to compare the performances of the Spectra Optia, a continuous flow centrifugal apheresis system recently developed by CaridianBCT, with the Haemonetics Multicomponents System (MCS)+ apheresis system based on intermittent flow centrifugation. The primary objective of the study was to compare the time required to exchange one total plasma volume with both separators. The secondary objectives were to determine the plasma exchange efficiency, the plasma extraction rate, the percentage of target exchange volume achieved, and the loss of cellular components. The study involved prospectively paired comparison of 16 TPE on each device performed in patients with chronic diseases treated with TPE. The time required to exchange 1 total plasma volume was 182 ± 36 minutes for MCS+ procedures and 100 ± 20 minutes for the Spectra Optia procedures (P rate was achieved (30.2 ± 4.3 vs 16.8 ± 3.4 mL/min, respectively, P exchange efficiency was slightly better with the Spectra Optia compared with the MCS+ procedures (83.4 ± 7.0 vs 80.0 ± 8.5%, P compared with the MCS+ procedures (1.6 ± 2.3 vs 7.5 ± 4.2%, respectively, P comparable. In conclusion, the Spectra Optia has significantly higher extraction rate and exchange efficiency than the MCS+ allowing to remove the same amount of plasma in less time, by processing less blood. It also removes significantly less platelets than the MCS+ separator.

  17. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant (Electrical fabrication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper prepared plans of the electrical equipment in the detailed design of a pilot plant in the joint research project on the environmental protection technology for highly efficient mineral resource extraction and treatment. (NEDO)

  18. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant (Purchased equipment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper prepared plans of the purchased equipment in the detailed design of a pilot plant in the joint research project on the environmental protection technology for highly efficient mineral resource extraction and treatment. (NEDO)

  19. Changes in the quality of life of patients with end-stage renal disease treated with high-efficiency bicarbonate hemodialysis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Icaza, E; Arredondo, A; Calderon, C; Hernandez, G

    1997-01-01

    In accordance with the epidemiological changes in Mexico, the results of this study are intended to contribute to the evaluation of the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) program of the health services in Mexico. We measured the quality of life of 21 ESRD patients before and after 6 months of exposure to treatment with high-efficiency hemodialysis with bicarbonate (HEHD/bicarbonate). We cross-sectionally assessed the Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) index and the biochemical status of the subject pool. The QALY score for patients undergoing HEHD/bicarbonate after 6 months was significantly higher than with the previous dialysis modality (0.95 and 0.74, respectively, p = 0.02). The marked similarities of the biochemical status variables indicated there was little or no effect in the improvement of the quality of life of patients. Dialysis modality likely exerts an important influence on the quality of life of chronic dialysis patients; thus we believe HEHD/bicarbonate does offer greater benefits than hemodialysis alone. Longitudinal studies are needed to better ascertain the effect of the case mix, the treatment approach, and the characteristics of the dialysis in relation to the improvement of the quality of life of ESRD patients.

  20. Application of Cloud Point Extraction for Cadmium in Biological Samples of Occupationally Exposed Workers: Relation Between Cadmium Exposure and Renal Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortada, Wael I; Hassanien, Mohamed M; Donia, Ahmed F; Shokeir, Ahmed A

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) level in blood and urine of soldering iron workers (n=49) and 41 matched healthy controls has been assessed. Cloud point extraction was employed for preconcentration of Cd. The Cd ions formed hydrophobic complex with 9,10-phenanthraquinone monoethyl thiosemicarbazone that was extracted by surfactant-rich phases in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114. The surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 1 M HNO3 in methanol prior to its analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method, such as solution pH, amount of complexing agent, surfactant concentration, temperature, and incubation time, were optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the detection limit and the enrichment factor were 0.04 μg L(-1) and 61, respectively. Relative standard deviation of 10 μg L(-1) Cd was less than 3.0%. The accuracy of the method was examined by analysis of certified reference materials. It was observed that soldering iron workers are liable to Cd overload as indicated by higher levels of Cd in blood and urine when compared with the controls. This exposure may lead to kidney damage indicated by elevation of urinary excretion of both N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and β2-microglobulin.

  1. An Improved DNA Extraction Method for Efficient and Quantitative Recovery of Phytoplankton Diversity in Natural Assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yuan

    Full Text Available Marine phytoplankton are highly diverse with different species possessing different cell coverings, posing challenges for thoroughly breaking the cells in DNA extraction yet preserving DNA integrity. While quantitative molecular techniques have been increasingly used in phytoplankton research, an effective and simple method broadly applicable to different lineages and natural assemblages is still lacking. In this study, we developed a bead-beating protocol based on our previous experience and tested it against 9 species of phytoplankton representing different lineages and different cell covering rigidities. We found the bead-beating method enhanced the final yield of DNA (highest as 2 folds in comparison with the non-bead-beating method, while also preserving the DNA integrity. When our method was applied to a field sample collected at a subtropical bay located in Xiamen, China, the resultant ITS clone library revealed a highly diverse assemblage of phytoplankton and other micro-eukaryotes, including Archaea, Amoebozoa, Chlorophyta, Ciliphora, Bacillariophyta, Dinophyta, Fungi, Metazoa, etc. The appearance of thecate dinoflagellates, thin-walled phytoplankton and "naked" unicellular organisms indicates that our method could obtain the intact DNA of organisms with different cell coverings. All the results demonstrate that our method is useful for DNA extraction of phytoplankton and environmental surveys of their diversity and abundance.

  2. An Improved DNA Extraction Method for Efficient and Quantitative Recovery of Phytoplankton Diversity in Natural Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian; Li, Meizhen; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are highly diverse with different species possessing different cell coverings, posing challenges for thoroughly breaking the cells in DNA extraction yet preserving DNA integrity. While quantitative molecular techniques have been increasingly used in phytoplankton research, an effective and simple method broadly applicable to different lineages and natural assemblages is still lacking. In this study, we developed a bead-beating protocol based on our previous experience and tested it against 9 species of phytoplankton representing different lineages and different cell covering rigidities. We found the bead-beating method enhanced the final yield of DNA (highest as 2 folds) in comparison with the non-bead-beating method, while also preserving the DNA integrity. When our method was applied to a field sample collected at a subtropical bay located in Xiamen, China, the resultant ITS clone library revealed a highly diverse assemblage of phytoplankton and other micro-eukaryotes, including Archaea, Amoebozoa, Chlorophyta, Ciliphora, Bacillariophyta, Dinophyta, Fungi, Metazoa, etc. The appearance of thecate dinoflagellates, thin-walled phytoplankton and “naked” unicellular organisms indicates that our method could obtain the intact DNA of organisms with different cell coverings. All the results demonstrate that our method is useful for DNA extraction of phytoplankton and environmental surveys of their diversity and abundance. PMID:26218575

  3. AUTOMATIC ROAD EXTRACTION FROM SATELLITE IMAGES USING EXTENDED KALMAN FILTERING AND EFFICIENT PARTICLE FILTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenita Subash

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Users of geospatial data in government, military, industry, research, and other sectors have need foraccurate display of roads and other terrain information in areas where there are ongoing operations orlocations of interest. Hence, road extraction that is significantly more automated than the employment ofcostly and scarce human resources has become a challenging technical issue for the geospatialcommunity. An automatic road extraction based on Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF and variablestructured multiple model particle filter (VS-MMPF from satellite images is addressed. EKF traces themedian axis of a single road segment while VS-MMPF traces all road branches initializing at theintersection. In case of Local Linearization Particle filter (LLPF, a large number of particles are usedand therefore high computational expense is usually required in order to attain certain accuracy androbustness. The basic idea is to reduce the whole sampling space of the multiple model system to the modesubspace by marginalization over the target subspace and choose better importance function for modestate sampling. The core of the system is based on profile matching. During the estimation, new referenceprofiles were generated and stored in the road template memory for future correlation analysis, thuscovering the space of road profiles. .

  4. Cherenkov radiation and dielectric based accelerating structures: Wakefield generation, power extraction and energy transfer efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanareykin, Alexei

    2010-06-01

    We present here our recent results of the Euclid Techlabs LLC/Argonne National Laboratory/St.Petersburg Electrotechnical University "LETI" collaboration on wakefield high energy acceleration of electron bunches in dielectric based accelerating structures. This program concentrates primarily on Cherenkov radiation studies providing efficient high energy generation aimed at a future 1 TeV collider. We report here on recent experiments in high power Cherenkov radiation and corresponding dielectric material developments and characterizations. Progress in diamond, quartz and microwave low-loss ceramic structure development in GHz and THz frequency ranges is presented. Beam Breakup effects and transverse bunch stability are discussed as well. We e report on recent progress on tunable dielectric based structure development. A special subject of our paper is transformer ratio enhancement schemes providing energy transfer efficiency for the dielectric based wakefield acceleration.

  5. Cordyceps militaris fruit body extract ameliorates membranous glomerulonephritis by attenuating oxidative stress and renal inflammation via the NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingjing; Wang, Yingwu; Liu, Chungang; Huang, Yan; He, Liying; Cai, Xueying; Lu, Jiahui; Liu, Yan; Wang, Di

    2016-04-01

    Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is a common pathogenesis of nephritic syndrome in adult patients. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) serves as the main transcription factor for the inflammatory response mediated nephropathy. Cordyceps militaris, containing various pharmacological components, has been used as a kind of crude drug and folk tonic food for improving immunity and reducing inflammation. The current study aims to investigate the renoprotective activity of Cordyceps militaris aqueous extract (CM) in the cationic bovine serum albumin (C-BSA)-induced rat model of membranous glomerulonephritis. Significant renal dysfunction was observed in MGN rats; comparatively, 4-week CM administration strongly decreased the levels of 24 h urine protein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, and increased the levels of serum albumin and total serum protein. Strikingly, recovery of the kidney histological architecture was noted in CM-treated MGN rats. A significant improvement in the glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels, and a reduced malondialdehyde concentration were observed in the serum and kidney of CM-treated rats. Altered levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukins, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular adhesion molecule 1, tumor necrosis factor-α, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α, and nuclear transcriptional factor subunit NF-κB p65 reverted to normal levels upon treatment with CM. The present data suggest that CM protects rats against membranous glomerulonephritis via the normalization of NF-κB activity, thereby inhibiting oxidative damage and reducing inflammatory cytokine levels, which further provide experimental evidence in support of the clinical use of CM as an effective renoprotective agent.

  6. Elevated global cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and unchanged metabolic rate of oxygen in young adults with end-stage renal disease: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Gang; Lou, Yaxian; Pan, Zhiying; Liu, Ya [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, College of Aivil Aviation, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wen, Jiqiu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhe [Medical School of Nanjing University, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Lu, Hanzhang [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Advanced Imaging Research Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Liu, Wei [Siemens Shenzhen Magnetic Resonance Ltd., Shenzhen, Guangdong (China); Liu, Hui [Siemens MR NEA Collaboration, Siemens Ltd., Shanghai (China); Chen, Huijuan; Kong, Xiang; Luo, Song; Jiang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-06-15

    To noninvasively assess global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-six patients and 38 healthy volunteers were included and took part in MR examinations, blood and neuropsychological tests. CBF and OEF were measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI techniques, respectively. CMRO{sub 2} was computed from CBF, OEF and hematocrit according to Fick's principle. Correlations were performed between MR measurements, blood biochemistry measurements and neuropsychological test scores. Compared with controls, ESRD patients had elevated CBF (72.9 ± 12.5 vs. 63.8 ± 8.5 ml min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}, P < 0.001), elevated OEF (47.2 ± 10.2 vs. 35.8 ± 5.4 %, P < 0.001), but unaffected CMRO{sub 2} (199.5 ± 36.4 vs. 193.8 ± 28.6 μmol O{sub 2} min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}, P = 0.879). Hematocrit negatively correlated with CBF (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) and OEF (r = -0.701, P < 0.001), but not with CMRO{sub 2}. Altered neuropsychological test scores of ESRD patients were associated with OEF and CBF, but not with CMRO{sub 2}. There were weak relationships between eGFR and hematocrit (r = 0.308, P = 0.068) or CBF (r = 0.318, P = 0.059). Our findings suggested that anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF to maintain a normal CMRO{sub 2}. Despite this compensatory process, however, cognitive function was still impaired and its severity was correlated with their CBF and OEF abnormality. (orig.)

  7. An Efficient Feature Extraction Method with Pseudo-Zernike Moment in RBF Neural Network-Based Human Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Majid

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel method for the recognition of human faces in digital images using a new feature extraction method that combines the global and local information in frontal view of facial images. Radial basis function (RBF neural network with a hybrid learning algorithm (HLA has been used as a classifier. The proposed feature extraction method includes human face localization derived from the shape information. An efficient distance measure as facial candidate threshold (FCT is defined to distinguish between face and nonface images. Pseudo-Zernike moment invariant (PZMI with an efficient method for selecting moment order has been used. A newly defined parameter named axis correction ratio (ACR of images for disregarding irrelevant information of face images is introduced. In this paper, the effect of these parameters in disregarding irrelevant information in recognition rate improvement is studied. Also we evaluate the effect of orders of PZMI in recognition rate of the proposed technique as well as RBF neural network learning speed. Simulation results on the face database of Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL indicate that the proposed method for human face recognition yielded a recognition rate of 99.3%.

  8. Efficient preparation of catechin thio conjugates by one step extraction/depolymerization of pine (Pinus pinaster) bark procyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selga, Ariadna; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2005-10-05

    The skin penetrating antioxidant cysteamine derivative of (-)-epicatechin as well as other thio conjugates were efficiently obtained with high yields from pine (Pinus pinaster) bark by simultaneous one pot extraction and depolymerization using water and cysteamine hydrochloride. The influence of the concentration of bark, acid, and cysteamine, as well as the reaction time on the total conversion, was studied. The total conversion into the epicatechin and catechin conjugates was as high as 47 g/kg pine bark with 1666 g cysteamine/kg bark and 28 g/kg with 166 g cysteamine/kg bark. A fast cleanup step by absorption/desorption on XAD-16 greatly facilitated further purification of the active major component. At a pilot scale, 4beta-(2-aminoethylthio)epicatechin (1) (conversion 263 g, purity 35% by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography/weight) was obtained from 17 kg of pine bark after simultaneous extraction/depolymerization followed by cleanup with the polymeric resin in approximately 10 h. The results show that pine (P. pinaster) bark is a suitable source of flavanols for the preparation of active thio derivatives. Conditions are given for the fast and efficient preparation of the conjugates.

  9. Enhanced light extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emittng diodes by nitrogen implanted current blocking layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Deok; Oh, Seung Kyu; Park, Min Joo; Kwak, Joon Seop, E-mail: jskwak@sunchon.ac.kr

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A nitrogen implanted current-blocking layer was successfully demonstrated. • Light-extraction efficiency and radiant intensity was increased by more than 20%. • Ion implantation was successfully implemented in GaN based light-emitting diodes. - Abstract: GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) with a nitrogen implanted current-blocking layer (CBL) were successfully demonstrated for improving the light extraction efficiency (LEE) and radiant intensity. The LEE and radiant intensity of the LEDs with a shallow implanted CBL with nitrogen was greatly increased by more than 20% compared to that of a conventional LED without the CBL due to an increase in the effective current path, which reduces light absorption at the thick p-pad electrode. Meanwhile, deep implanted CBL with a nitrogen resulted in deterioration of the LEE and radiant intensity because of formation of crystal damage, followed by absorption of the light generated at the multi-quantum well(MQW). These results clearly suggest that ion implantation method, which is widely applied in the fabrication of Si based devices, can be successfully implemented in the fabrication of GaN based LEDs by optimization of implanted depth.

  10. Influence of a Third Set of Knives on the Efficiency of the Sucrose Extraction from Sugar Cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrales-Suárez Jorge Michel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The index of cane preparation is one of the variables that influence on efficiency the sucrose extraction process from sugar cane mills in tandem. This influence can be measured by the % sucrose (% Pol and % humidity in the final bagasse and power demand tandem, these three variables are the dependent variables on this research. The index of cane preparation was the independent variable. The objective of this research is to show the impact of an increased rate of cane preparation, achieved with addition of a third set of knives in tandem, on the efficiency of the extraction process and the tandem power demand. This research was carried out in two stages. A first stage where the tandem was operated with two sets of existing knives and a second stage where it was operated with the addition of a set of knives (that to say with three sets of knives, the third set of knives mounted to increase the rate of cane preparation. A statistical analysis concludes that with increasing the rate of cane preparation both in the final bagasse the % Pol and % Humidity decrease significantly and tandem power demand decreases by 2.87%.

  11. {open_quotes}Optical guiding{close_quotes} limits on extraction efficiencies of single-pass, tapered wiggler amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawley, W.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Single-pass, tapered wiggler amplifiers have an attractive feature of being able, in theory at least, of extracting a large portion of the electron beam energy into light. In circumstances where an optical FEL`s wiggler length is significantly longer than the Rayleigh length Z{sub R} corresponding to the electron beam radius, diffraction losses must be controlled via the phenomenon of {open_quotes}optical guiding{close_quotes}. Since the strength of the guiding depends upon the effective refractive index {eta}{sub r} exceeding one, and since ({eta}{sub r}-1) is inversely proportional to the optical electric field, there is a natural {open_quotes}limiting{close_quotes} mechanism to the on-axis field strength and thus the rate at which energy may be extracted from the electron beam. In particular, the extraction efficiency for a prebunched beam asymptotically grows linearly with z rather than quadratically. We present analytical and numerical simulation results concerning this behavior and discuss its applicability to various FEL designs including oscillator/amplifier-radiator configurations.

  12. Cow dung extract: a medium for the growth of pseudomonads enhancing their efficiency as biofertilizer and biocontrol agent in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rashmi; Aragno, Michel; Sharma, A K

    2010-09-01

    Some pseudomands are being utilized as biofertilizers and biopesticides because of their role in plant growth promotion and plant protection against root parasites, respectively. Two strains of Pseudomonas, P. jessenii LHRE62 and P. synxantha HHRE81, recovered from wheat rhizosphere, have shown their potential in field bioinoculation tests under rice-wheat and pulse-wheat rotation systems. Normally, pseudomonads are cultivated on synthetic media-like King's B and used for inoculation on seeds/soil drench with talcum or charcoal as carrier material. Cow dung is being used for different purposes from the ancient time and has a significant role in crop growth because of the content in humic compounds and fertilizing bioelements available in it. Here, cow dung extract was tested as a growth medium for strains LHRE62 and HHRE81, in comparison with growth in King's B medium. The log phase was delayed by 2 h as compared to growth in King's B medium. The bacterial growth yield, lower in plain cow dung extract as compared to King's B medium, was improved upon addition of different carbon substrates. Growth of rice var. Pant Dhan 4 in pot cultures was increased using liquid formulation of cow dung extract and bacteria as foliar spray, compared to their respective controls. Biocontrol efficacy of the bioagents was assessed by challenging rice crop with Rhizoctonia solani, a sheath blight pathogen. The growth promotion and biocontrol efficiencies were more pronounced in the case of mixed inocula of strains LHRE62 and HHRE81.

  13. AN EFFICIENT APPROACH FOR EXTRACTION OF LINEAR FEATURES FROM HIGH RESOLUTION INDIAN SATELLITE IMAGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DK Bhattacharyya

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an Object oriented feature extraction approach in order to classify the linear features like drainage, roads etc. from high resolution Indian satellite imageries. It starts with the multiresolution segmentations of image objects for optimal separation and representation of image regions or objects. Fuzzy membership functions were defined for a selected set of image object parameters such as mean, ratio, shape index, area etc. for representation of required image objects. Experiment was carried out for both panchromatic (CARTOSAT-I and multispectral (IRSP6 LISS IV Indiansatellite imageries. Experimental results show that the extractionof linear features can be achieved in a satisfactory level throughproper segmentation and appropriate definition & representationof key parameters of image objects.

  14. Efficient inclusion body processing using chemical extraction and high gradient magnetic fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Choe, W.S.; Middelberg, A.P.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this study we introduce a radical new approach for the recovery of proteins expressed in the form of inclusion bodies, involving W chemical extraction from the host cells, (ii) adsorptive capture of the target protein onto small magnetic adsorbents, and (iii) subsequent rapid collection...... form of the L1 coat protein of human papillomavirus type 16 dissolved in 8 M urea-phosphate buffer, the best binding performance (Q(max) = 58 mg g(-1) and K-d similar to 0.08 muM) was exhibited by Cu2+-charged type II support materials. Equilibrium adsorption of Ll to these nonporous supports...... at a 60-fold increased scale using the high gradient magnetic fishing (HGMF) system to collect loaded Cu2+-chelator particles following batch adsorption of L1. Over 70% of the initial Ll present was recovered within the HGMF rig in a highly clarified form in two batch elution cycles with an overall...

  15. An efficient protocol for genomic DNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Sá, Daniela; Bastos, Estela; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Gut, Ivo; Gärtner, Fátima; Chaves, Raquel

    2009-06-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (FFPET) represent the largest source of archival biological material available for genomic studies. In this work we present an advanced protocol for extraction of high quality DNA from FFPET that can be applied in several molecular studies. Although cat mammary tumours (CMT) are the third most frequent tumour in cats the recovery of significant number of samples for molecular studies are in some way restricted to FFPET samples. We were able to obtain high quality DNA from FFPET of thirty six CMT that were subjected to pre-fixation and fixation processes routinely used in the veterinary hospitals. The quality of DNA obtained was tested by PCR amplification using six sets of primers that amplify single-copy fragments. The DNA fragments obtained were further sequenced. This protocol was able to provide FFPET gDNA that can be amplified and sequenced for larger fragments up to 1182bp.

  16. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal perfusion scintigraphy; Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion ... supply the kidneys. This is a condition called renal artery stenosis. Significant renal artery stenosis may be ...

  17. Matrix molecularly imprinted mesoporous sol-gel sorbent for efficient solid-phase extraction of chloramphenicol from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Kehagia, Maria; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2016-03-31

    Highly selective and efficient chloramphenicol imprinted sol-gel silica based inorganic polymeric sorbent (sol-gel MIP) was synthesized via matrix imprinting approach for the extraction of chloramphenicol in milk. Chloramphenicol was used as the template molecule, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) and triethoxyphenylsilane (TEPS) as the functional precursors, tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) as the cross-linker, isopropanol as the solvent/porogen, and HCl as the sol-gel catalyst. Non-imprinted sol-gel polymer (sol-gel NIP) was synthesized under identical conditions in absence of template molecules for comparison purpose. Both synthesized materials were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry, which unambiguously confirmed their significant structural and morphological differences. The synthesized MIP and NIP materials were evaluated as sorbents for molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) of chloramphenicol in milk. The effect of critical extraction parameters (flow rate, elution solvent, sample and eluent volume, selectivity coefficient, retention capacity) was studied in terms of retention and desorption of chloramphenicol. Competition and cross reactivity tests have proved that sol-gel MIP sorbent possesses significantly higher specific retention and enrichment capacity for chloramphenicol compared to its non-imprinted analogue. The maximum imprinting factor (IF) was found as 9.7, whereas the highest adsorption capacity of chloramphenicol by sol-gel MIP was 23 mg/g. The sol-gel MIP was found to be adequately selective towards chloramphenicol to provide the necessary minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of 0.3 μg/kg set forth by European Commission after analysis by LC-MS even without requiring time consuming solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution step, often considered as an integral part in solid phase extraction work-flow. Intra and

  18. Polytetrafluoroethylene-jacketed stirrer modified with graphene oxide and polydopamine for the efficient extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zinxin; Mwadini, Mwadini Ahmada; Chen, Zilin

    2016-10-01

    Steel stirrers jacketed with polytetrafluoroethylene can be regarded as an ideal substrate for stirrer bar sorptive extraction. However, it is still a great challenge to immobilize graphene onto a polytetrafluoroethylene stirrer due to the high chemical resistance of the surface of a polytetrafluoroethylene stirrer. We describe here a method to modify the surface of polytetrafluoroethylene stirrers with graphene. In this work, graphene was used as the sorbent due to its excellent adsorption capability for aromatic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic compounds. Graphene was successfully immobilized onto polytetrafluoroethylene-stirrer by a bio-inspired polydopamine functionalization method. The graphene-modified polytetrafluoroethylene-stirrer shows good stability and tolerance to stirring, ultrasonication, strong acidic and basic solutions, and to organic solvents. The multilayer coating was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. After the optimization of some experimental conditions, the graphene-modified polytetrafluoroethylene stirrer was used for the stirrer bar sorptive extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in which the binding between the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the graphene layer was mainly based on π-π stacking and hydrophobic interactions. The graphene-modified polytetrafluoroethylene-stirrer-based stirrer bar sorptive extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with great extraction efficiency, with enrichment factors from 18 to 62. The method has low limits of detection of 1-5 pg/mL, wide linear range (5-100 and 10-200 pg/mL), good linearity (R ≥ 0.9957) and good reproducibility (RSD ≤ 6.45%). The proposed method has been applied to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in real dust samples. Good recoveries were obtained, ranging from 88.53 to 109.43%.

  19. Efficient Foreground Extraction Based on Optical Flow and SMED for Road Traffic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K SuganyaDevi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Foreground detection is a key procedure in video analysis such as object detection and tracking. Several foreground detection techniques and edge detectors have been developed until now but the problem is, usually it is difficult to obtain an optimal foreground due to weather, light, shadow and clutter interference. Background subtract is a common method in foreground detection. In background subtract noise appears at fixed place, when it is used to deal with long image sequence there may be much accumulate error in the foreground. In OF (Optical Flow noise appears randomly and this covers long distance over long period of time. Optical flow cannot get rid of the light influences which result in background noises. To overcome this SMED (Separable Morphological Edge Detector is used. SMED has robustness to light changing and even slight movement in the video sequence. This paper proposes a new foreground detection approach called OF and SMED which is more accurate in foreground detection and elimination of noises is very high. This approach is useful for efficient crowd and traffic monitoring, user friendly, highly automatic intelligent, computationally efficient system.

  20. Pretreatment of Sialic Acid Efficiently Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Renal Failure and Suppresses TLR4/gp91-Mediated Apoptotic Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Hsu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS binding to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 activate NADPH oxidase gp91 subunit-mediated inflammation and oxidative damage. Recognizing the high binding affinity of sialic acid (SA with LPS, we further explored the preventive potential of SA pretreatment on LPS-evoked acute renal failure (ARF. Methods: We determined the effect of intravenous SA 30 min before LPS-induced injury in urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rats by evaluating kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS responses, renal and systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and molecular mechanisms. Results: LPS time-dependently reduced arterial blood pressure, renal microcirculation, and increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in the rats. LPS enhanced monocyte/macrophage infiltration and ROS production, and subsequently impaired kidneys with the enhancement of TLR4/NADPH oxidase gp91/Caspase 3/poly-(ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP-mediated apoptosis in the kidneys. SA pretreatment effectively alleviated LPS-induced ARF. The levels of LPS-increased ED-1 infiltration and ROS production in the kidney were significantly depressed by SA pretreatment. Furthermore, SA pretreatment significantly depressed TLR4 activation, gp91 expression, and Caspase 3/PARP induced apoptosis in the kidneys. Conclusion: We suggest that pretreatment of SA significantly and preventively attenuated LPS-induced detrimental effects on systemic and renal hemodynamics, renal ROS production and renal function, as well as, LPS-activated TLR4/gp91/Caspase3 mediated apoptosis signaling.

  1. Efficient Functionalization of Polyethylene Fibers for the Uranium Extraction from Seawater through Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neti, Venkata S.; Das, Sadananda; Brown, Suree; Janke, Christopher J.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary A.; Dai, Sheng; Mayes, Richard T.

    2017-08-29

    Brush-on-brush structures are proposed as one method to overcome support effects in grafted polymers. Utilizing glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) grafted on polyethylene (PE) fibers using radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP) provides a hydrophilic surface on the hydrophobic PE. When integrated with atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), the grafting of acrylonitrile (AN) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) can be controlled and manipulated more easily than with RIGP. Poly(acrylonitrile)-co-poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) chains were grown via ATRP on PE-GMA fibers to generate an adsorbent for the extraction of uranium from seawater. The prepared adsorbents in this study demonstrated promise (159.9 g- U/kg of adsorbent) in laboratory screening tests using a high uranium concentration brine and 1.24 g-U/Kg of adsorbent in the filtered natural seawater in 21-days. The modest capacity in 21- days exceeds previous efforts to generate brush-on-brush adsorbents by ATRP while manipulating the apparent surface hydrophilicity of the trunk material (PE).

  2. Efficient Term Extraction and Indexing Approach in Small-Scale Web Search of Uyghur Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turdi Tohti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid the frequently read-write of hard disk and to speed up the search, the index should be saving in the memory in the small-scale web search. But, to express the original information by fewer memory spaces, also needs for index compression, and this would increases the computation expenses or brings certain harm to the original information in a way. In this research of Uyghur small-scale web search, in order to speed up the retrieval and query speed, inverted index has established uses Hash table data structure and entirely stay resident in memory. In the aspect of index compression, have not uses any compression technique, but proposed a word grouping approach based on simplified N-gram statistical model ,and extracting semantic words that structurally stable, semantically complete and independent ,and greatly reduces the scale of indexing item list. Thereby, not only served the purpose of index compression, but also solved the ambiguity problem certain extent and improved the search precision obviously. The experimental result indicated that, our method is feasible and effective

  3. Wavelet analysis of molecular dynamics: Efficient extraction of time-frequency information in ultrafast optical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, Javier; Castro, Enrique [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Cartagena 30202 (Spain); Chin, Alex W. [Theory of Condensed Matter Group, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Almeida, Javier; Huelga, Susana F.; Plenio, Martin B. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Universität Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2013-12-14

    New experimental techniques based on nonlinear ultrafast spectroscopies have been developed over the last few years, and have been demonstrated to provide powerful probes of quantum dynamics in different types of molecular aggregates, including both natural and artificial light harvesting complexes. Fourier transform-based spectroscopies have been particularly successful, yet “complete” spectral information normally necessitates the loss of all information on the temporal sequence of events in a signal. This information though is particularly important in transient or multi-stage processes, in which the spectral decomposition of the data evolves in time. By going through several examples of ultrafast quantum dynamics, we demonstrate that the use of wavelets provide an efficient and accurate way to simultaneously acquire both temporal and frequency information about a signal, and argue that this greatly aids the elucidation and interpretation of physical process responsible for non-stationary spectroscopic features, such as those encountered in coherent excitonic energy transport.

  4. Wavelet analysis of molecular dynamics: efficient extraction of time-frequency information in ultrafast optical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Javier; Castro, Enrique; Chin, Alex W; Almeida, Javier; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B

    2013-12-14

    New experimental techniques based on nonlinear ultrafast spectroscopies have been developed over the last few years, and have been demonstrated to provide powerful probes of quantum dynamics in different types of molecular aggregates, including both natural and artificial light harvesting complexes. Fourier transform-based spectroscopies have been particularly successful, yet "complete" spectral information normally necessitates the loss of all information on the temporal sequence of events in a signal. This information though is particularly important in transient or multi-stage processes, in which the spectral decomposition of the data evolves in time. By going through several examples of ultrafast quantum dynamics, we demonstrate that the use of wavelets provide an efficient and accurate way to simultaneously acquire both temporal and frequency information about a signal, and argue that this greatly aids the elucidation and interpretation of physical process responsible for non-stationary spectroscopic features, such as those encountered in coherent excitonic energy transport.

  5. Effect of aqueous extract of green tea on sexual efficiency in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Jasem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to study the effects of treatment with green tea (10 g /750ml deionized boiled water for 30 days on some physiological and histological changes of male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight. The study showed that treatment with alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight, caused a significant decrease in body weights, epididymal body and seminal vesicles weight. total number of epididymal sperm, percentage of live sperms, with significant increase in epididymal head,tail and prostate gland weight, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities, but there is no significant changes in the weight of the testes in the rats treated with alloxan.Treatment of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight with green tea (10 g/750ml deionized boiled water for 30 days in drinking water caused a significant increase in body weights, epididymal body & seminal vesicles, percentage of live sperms, with decrease in epididymal head, tail and prostate gland weights, percentage of dead sperms and sperm abnormalities as compared with alloxan treated group. With decrease in the total number of epididymal sperm count as compared with control. Histopathological changes observed in the testes of rats treated with alloxan (100 mg/kg included presence of abnormal spermatids with decrease in the number of sperms in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in addition to irregular division of germ cells.Treatment with green tea caused improvement in the histology of the testes. It was concluded that aqueous extract of green tea exerted an antioxidant effect on the histopathological aspects of the male reproductive system of rats exposed to oxidative stress induced by alloxan.

  6. Renal I-131-hippurate clearance overestimates true renal blood flow in the instrumented conscious dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, CA; DeZeeuw, D; Navis, G; VanZanten, AK; DeJong, PE; Huisman, RM

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated renal I-131-hippurate clearance (ERPF(hip)) as a measure of renal blood flow (RBF) in chronically instrumented conscious dogs. When adjusted for renal hippurate extraction (E(hip), 0.77 +/- 0.01) and hematocrit (Hct, 39.7 +/- 1%), calculated RBF(hip) (656 +/- 37 ml/min) markedly exceede

  7. Unusually efficient photocurrent extraction in monolayer van der Waals heterostructure by tunnelling through discretized barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Woo Jong; Vu, Quoc An; Oh, Hyemin; Nam, Hong Gi; Zhou, Hailong; Cha, Soonyoung; Kim, Joo-Youn; Carvalho, Alexandra; Jeong, Munseok; Choi, Hyunyong; Castro Neto, A. H.; Lee, Young Hee; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional layered transition-metal dichalcogenides have attracted considerable interest for their unique layer-number-dependent properties. In particular, vertical integration of these two-dimensional crystals to form van der Waals heterostructures can open up a new dimension for the design of functional electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here we report the layer-number-dependent photocurrent generation in graphene/MoS2/graphene heterostructures by creating a device with two distinct regions containing one-layer and seven-layer MoS2 to exclude other extrinsic factors. Photoresponse studies reveal that photoresponsivity in one-layer MoS2 is surprisingly higher than that in seven-layer MoS2 by seven times. Spectral-dependent studies further show that the internal quantum efficiency in one-layer MoS2 can reach a maximum of 65%, far higher than the 7% in seven-layer MoS2. Our theoretical modelling shows that asymmetric potential barriers in the top and bottom interfaces of the graphene/one-layer MoS2/graphene heterojunction enable asymmetric carrier tunnelling, to generate usually high photoresponsivity in one-layer MoS2 device.

  8. THE EFFICIENCY OF IMPURITIES EXTRACTION DURING THE PROCESS OF ETHANOL EPURATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Nikitina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The static model of the hydroselection column that describes the concentration variation of the main components was proposed. The purpose of this work is an optimization of the shared mixture input-position and evaluation of efficiency of the digestion and the impurity compound concentration during the epuration process. To this end, the author developed a static model of epuration columns, which allows to reveal the dependence of the degree of digestion and the degree of concentration of the main impurities in the column of the number of plates in each of these parts. It’s proved that with the increasing of theoretical plates number in the concentration part of the column the concentration effect tends to the limit value. The effects of the head impurities digestion increase indefinitely with the growth of exhausting part. The proportion of the output from the condenser impurities depends more from the digestion effect than from the condensation effect. The effect of alcohol cleaning from the fusel oil components depends strongly from the ratio of the number of plates in the digestion and concentration parts (the optimal ratio for isopropanol, isoamyl, butanol is 1.5, for the propanol, isobutanol is 0.45.

  9. Improvement of in vitro embryo maturation, plantlet regeneration and transformation efficiency from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) somatic embryos using Cuscuta campestris extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Massoume; Deljou, Ali; Nabiabad, Haidar Saify

    2016-07-01

    Developmental deficiency of somatic embryos and regeneration to plantlets, especially in the case of transformation, are major problems of somatic embryo regeneration in alfalfa. One of the ways to overcome these problems is the use of natural plant regulators and nutrients in the culture medium of somatic embryos. For investigating the influence of Cuscuta campestris extract on the efficiency of plant regeneration and transformation, chimeric tissue type plasminogen activator was transferred to explants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and transgenic plants were recovered using medium supplemented with different concentration of the extract. Transgenic plants were analyzed by PCR and RT-PCR. Somatic embryos of Medicago sativa L. developed into plantlets at high frequency level (52 %) in the maturation medium supplemented with 50 mg 1(-1)C. campestris extract as compared to the medium without extract (26 %). Transformation efficiency was 29.3 and 15.2 % for medium supplemented with dodder extract and without the extract, respectively. HPLC and GC/MS analysis of the extract indicated high level of ABA and some compounds such as Phytol, which can affect the somatic embryo maturation. The antibacterial assay showed that the extract was effective against some strains of A. tumefaciens. These results have provided a scientific basis for using of C. campestris extract as a good natural source of antimicrobial agents and plant growth regulator as well, that can be used in tissue culture of transgenic plants.

  10. Visualization and Analysis of Geology Word Vectors for Efficient Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    allow one to extract information from hundreds of papers or more and find relationships in less time than it would take to read all of the papers. As machine learning tools become more commonly available, more and more scientists will be able to use and refine these tools for their individual needs.

  11. Effects of ventriculoarterial coupling changes on renal function, echocardiographic indices and energy efficiency in patients with acute decompensated systolic heart failure under furosemide and dopamine treatment: a comparison of three therapeutic protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Christos-Konstantinos; Chrysohoou, Christina; Lerakis, Stamatios; Manolakou, Panagiota; Pitsavos, Christos; Tsioufis, Konstantinos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Tousoulis, Dimitrios

    2015-11-15

    Ventriculoarterial coupling (VAC) status relates to tissue perfusion and its optimization may improve organ function and energy efficiency (EE) of the cardiovascular system. The effects of non-invasively calculated VAC improvement on echocardiographic parameters, renal function indices and EE improvement in patients with acute decompensated systolic heart failure were studied. Furthermore, effects of different treatment modalities on VAC, renal function and echocardiographic parameters were compared. Systolic heart failure patients with ejection fraction dopamine (5μg/kg/min) combined with furosemide (5mg/h). Echocardiographic assessments were performed at 0 and 24h. Renal function was evaluated using serum creatinine and creatinine clearance. VAC and EE were assessed noninvasively, by echocardiography. Significant correlations were noted between VAC improvement and improvements in EE and serum creatinine (rho=0.96, pDopamine-furosemide combination had a borderline effect on creatinine (p=0.08) and led to significant improvements in e', E/e' ratio (p=0.015 and p=0.009 respectively) and VAC (value closer to 1). VAC improvement correlated with EE and creatinine improvement, regardless of treatment, supporting a potential role for VAC status assessment and improvement in acute decompensated systolic heart failure. Dopamine and furosemide combination seemed to improve VAC and diastolic function but only had a borderline effect on renal function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Light extraction efficiency of GaN-based LED with pyramid texture by using ray path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jui-Wen; Wang, Chia-Shen

    2012-09-10

    We study three different gallium-nitride (GaN) based light emitting diode (LED) cases based on the different locations of the pyramid textures. In case 1, the pyramid texture is located on the sapphire top surface, in case 2, the pyramid texture is locate on the P-GaN top surface, while in case 3, the pyramid texture is located on both the sapphire and P-GaN top surfaces. We study the relationship between the light extraction efficiency (LEE) and angle of slant of the pyramid texture. The optimization of total LEE was highest for case 3 among the three cases. Moreover, the seven escape paths along which most of the escaped photon flux propagated were selected in a simulation of the LEDs. The seven escape paths were used to estimate the slant angle for the optimization of LEE and to precisely analyze the photon escape path.

  13. Efficient charge-carrier extraction from Ag2S quantum dots prepared by the SILAR method for utilization of multiple exciton generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Jianhua; Johansson, Erik M. J.

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of electron-hole pairs (EHPs) generated from multiple excitons in quantum dots (QDs) is of great interest toward efficient photovoltaic devices and other optoelectronic devices; however, extraction of charge carriers remains difficult. Herein, we extract photocharges from Ag2S QDs and investigate the dependence of the electric field on the extraction of charges from multiple exciton generation (MEG). Low toxic Ag2S QDs are directly grown on TiO2 mesoporous substrates by employing the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The contact between QDs is important for the initial charge separation after MEG and for the carrier transport, and the space between neighbor QDs decreases with more SILAR cycles, resulting in better charge extraction. At the optimal electric field for extraction of photocharges, the results suggest that the threshold energy (hνth) for MEG is 2.41Eg. The results reveal that Ag2S QD is a promising material for efficient extraction of charges from MEG and that QDs prepared by SILAR have an advantageous electrical contact facilitating charge separation and extraction.The utilization of electron-hole pairs (EHPs) generated from multiple excitons in quantum dots (QDs) is of great interest toward efficient photovoltaic devices and other optoelectronic devices; however, extraction of charge carriers remains difficult. Herein, we extract photocharges from Ag2S QDs and investigate the dependence of the electric field on the extraction of charges from multiple exciton generation (MEG). Low toxic Ag2S QDs are directly grown on TiO2 mesoporous substrates by employing the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The contact between QDs is important for the initial charge separation after MEG and for the carrier transport, and the space between neighbor QDs decreases with more SILAR cycles, resulting in better charge extraction. At the optimal electric field for extraction of photocharges, the

  14. Efficient induction of extrinsic cell death by dandelion root extract in human chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Ovadje

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML is a heterogeneous disease that is not only hard to diagnose and classify, but is also highly resistant to treatment. Available forms of therapy for this disease have not shown significant effects and patients rapidly develop resistance early on in therapy. These factors lead to the very poor prognosis observed with CMML patients, with median survival duration between 12 and 24 months after diagnosis. This study is therefore centered around evaluating the selective efficacy of a natural extract from dandelion roots, in inducing programmed cell death in aggressive and resistant CMML cell lines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To confirm the induction of programmed cell death in three human CMML cell lines, nuclear condensation and externalization of the phosphatidylserine, two main characteristics of apoptosis, were detected using Hoechst staining and annexin-V binding assay. The induction of another mode of cell death, autophagy, was determined using a monodansylcadaverine (MDC stain, to detect the formation of autophagy vacuoles. The results from this study indicate that Dandelion Root Extract (DRE is able to efficiently and selectively induce apoptosis and autophagy in these cell lines in a dose and time dependent manner, with no significant toxicity on non-cancerous peripheral blood mononuclear cells. More importantly, we observed early activation of initiator caspase-8, which led to mitochondrial destabilization and the induction of autophagy, suggesting that DRE acts through the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. The inability of DRE to induce apoptosis in dominant-negative FADD cells, confirms the mechanism of action of DRE in in vitro models of CMML. CONCLUSION: The results from this study indicate that natural products, in particular Dandelion Root Extract, have great potential, as non-toxic and effective alternatives to conventional modes of chemotherapy available today.

  15. Field-flow fractionation: An efficient approach for matrix removal of soil extract for inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsawong, Supharart; Waiyawat, Weerawan; Shiowatana, Juwadee; Siripinyanond, Atitaya

    2011-06-01

    An on-line coupling between a continuous-flow sequential extraction (CFSE) unit and flow field-flow fractionation with cross flow matrix removal (FlFFF/CFM) with ICP-OES detection was developed for determination of metal leachability from soil. The use of high concentration of Mg(NO 3) 2 in exchangeable phase can cause undesirable matrix effects by shifting ionization equilibrium in the plasma, etc., resulting in a clear need for matrix removal. Therefore, the capability of FlFFF/CFM to remove Mg matrix ion from soil extract was evaluated. Poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) having molecular weight of 25,000 Da was added to form complexes with analyte elements (Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) but not the matrix element (Mg). The free Mg matrix ions were then removed by filtering off through the ultrafiltration membrane, having a 1000-Da molecular weight cut-off, inside the FlFFF channel. With the use of FlFFF/CFM, matrix removal efficiency was approximately 83.5%, which was equivalent to approximately 6-fold dilution of the matrix ion. The proposed hyphenated system of CFSE and FlFFF/CFM with ICP-OES detection was examined for its reliability by checking with SRM 2710 (a highly contaminated soil from Montana). The metal contents determined by the proposed method were not significantly different (at 95% confidence) from the certified values.

  16. Slow cooling and efficient extraction of C-exciton hot carriers in MoS2 monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Hai-Yu; Grinblat, Gustavo; Huang, Yu-Li; Wang, Dan; Ye, Xiao-Hui; Li, Xian-Bin; Bao, Qiaoliang; Wee, Andrewthye-Shen; Maier, Stefan A.; Chen, Qi-Dai; Zhong, Min-Lin; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2017-01-01

    In emerging optoelectronic applications, such as water photolysis, exciton fission and novel photovoltaics involving low-dimensional nanomaterials, hot-carrier relaxation and extraction mechanisms play an indispensable and intriguing role in their photo-electron conversion processes. Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted much attention in above fields recently; however, insight into the relaxation mechanism of hot electron-hole pairs in the band nesting region denoted as C-excitons, remains elusive. Using MoS2 monolayers as a model two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide system, here we report a slower hot-carrier cooling for C-excitons, in comparison with band-edge excitons. We deduce that this effect arises from the favourable band alignment and transient excited-state Coulomb environment, rather than solely on quantum confinement in two-dimension systems. We identify the screening-sensitive bandgap renormalization for MoS2 monolayer/graphene heterostructures, and confirm the initial hot-carrier extraction for the C-exciton state with an unprecedented efficiency of 80%, accompanied by a twofold reduction in the exciton binding energy.

  17. Design of an LED chip structure with an integrated two-dimensional photonic crystal to enhance the light-extraction efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Won-Sik; Park, Si-Hyun [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    We numerically simulated the light-extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an integrated two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) structure on the top surface in order to enhance light extraction. We considered InGaN-based LED chips with a typical emission wavelength of λ{sub o} = 460 nm and an emission wavelength inside the LED chip of λ = λ{sub 0}/n{sub GaN} , where n{sub GaN} is the refractive index of GaN. We used positive (relief) and negative (intaglio) patterns for the PC structures with square arrangements. The pattern period (Λ), width (d), and height (h) of the PC structure were varied systematically in the PC-LEDs; then the light-extraction efficiency of each PC-LED was simulated numerically using a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method to optimize the PC structure in terms of light extraction. The PC LED with a square pillar pattern with Λ ∼ 1.4λ, d ∼ 0.75Λ, and h ∼ 0.75Λ had the maximum light-extraction efficiency for positive patterns while the cylindrical hole pattern with Λ ∼ 1.2λ, d ∼ 0.5Λ, and h ∼ 0.5Λ had the maximum light-extraction efficiency for negative patterns.

  18. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  19. Renal angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1988-01-01

    lesion. Three cases of renal angiomyolipoma, 2 of which underwent perfusion-fixation, were studied by electron microscopy to clarify the cellular composition of this lesion. In the smooth muscle cells abundant accumulation of glycogen was found, whereas the lipocytes disclosed normal ultrastructural......-specific vesicular structures. These findings suggest a secondary vascular damage, i.e. the thickened vessels may not be a primary, integral part of renal angiomyolipoma. Evidence of a common precursor cell of renal angiomyolipoma was not disclosed. It is concluded that renal angiomyolipoma is a hamartoma composed...

  20. Matrix molecularly imprinted mesoporous sol–gel sorbent for efficient solid-phase extraction of chloramphenicol from milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanidou, Victoria, E-mail: samanidu@chem.auth.gr [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Kehagia, Maria [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Kabir, Abuzar, E-mail: akabir@fiu.edu [International Forensic Research Institute, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States); Furton, Kenneth G. [International Forensic Research Institute, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Highly selective and efficient chloramphenicol imprinted sol–gel silica based inorganic polymeric sorbent (sol–gel MIP) was synthesized via matrix imprinting approach for the extraction of chloramphenicol in milk. Chloramphenicol was used as the template molecule, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTES) and triethoxyphenylsilane (TEPS) as the functional precursors, tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) as the cross-linker, isopropanol as the solvent/porogen, and HCl as the sol–gel catalyst. Non-imprinted sol–gel polymer (sol–gel NIP) was synthesized under identical conditions in absence of template molecules for comparison purpose. Both synthesized materials were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry, which unambiguously confirmed their significant structural and morphological differences. The synthesized MIP and NIP materials were evaluated as sorbents for molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) of chloramphenicol in milk. The effect of critical extraction parameters (flow rate, elution solvent, sample and eluent volume, selectivity coefficient, retention capacity) was studied in terms of retention and desorption of chloramphenicol. Competition and cross reactivity tests have proved that sol–gel MIP sorbent possesses significantly higher specific retention and enrichment capacity for chloramphenicol compared to its non-imprinted analogue. The maximum imprinting factor (IF) was found as 9.7, whereas the highest adsorption capacity of chloramphenicol by sol–gel MIP was 23 mg/g. The sol–gel MIP was found to be adequately selective towards chloramphenicol to provide the necessary minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of 0.3 μg/kg set forth by European Commission after analysis by LC-MS even without requiring time consuming solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution step, often considered as an integral part in solid phase extraction work

  1. Chemical analysis and biorefinery of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii for efficient production of glucose from residue of carrageenan extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarin, Fernando; Cedeno, Fernando Roberto Paz; Chavez, Eddyn Gabriel Solorzano; de Oliveira, Levi Ezequiel; Gelli, Valéria Cress; Monti, Rubens

    2016-01-01

    Biorefineries serve to efficiently utilize biomass and their by-products. Algal biorefineries are designed to generate bioproducts for commercial use. Due to the high carbohydrate content of algal biomass, biorefinery to generate biofuels, such as bioethanol, is of great interest. Carrageenan is a predominant polysaccharide hydrocolloid found in red macroalgae and is widely used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. In this study, we report the biorefinery of carrageenan derived from processing of experimental strains of the red macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii. Specifically, the chemical composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of the residue produced from carrageenan extraction were evaluated to determine the conditions for efficient generation of carbohydrate bioproducts. The productivity and growth rates of K. alvarezii strains were assessed along with the chemical composition (total carbohydrates, ash, sulfate groups, proteins, insoluble aromatics, galacturonic acid, and lipids) of each strain. Two strains, brown and red, were selected based on their high growth rates and productivity and were treated with 6 % KOH for extraction of carrageenan. The yields of biomass from treatment with 6 % KOH solution of the brown and red strains were 89.3 and 89.5 %, respectively. The yields of carrageenan and its residue were 63.5 and 23 %, respectively, for the brown strain and 60 and 27.8 %, respectively, for the red strain. The residues from the brown and red strains were assessed to detect any potential bioproducts. The galactan, ash, protein, insoluble aromatics, and sulfate groups of the residue were reduced to comparable extents for the two strains. However, KOH treatment did not reduce the content of glucan in the residue from either strain. Glucose was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis for 72 h using both strains. The glucan conversion was 100 % for both strains, and the concentrations of glucose from the brown and red strains were 13.7 and 11.5 g L(-1

  2. A study of Semen Strychni-induced renal injury and herb-herb interaction of Radix Glycyrrhizae extract and/or Rhizoma Ligustici extract on the comparative toxicokinetics of strychnine and brucine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liqiang; Wang, Xiaofan; Liu, Zhenzhen; Ju, Ping; Zhang, Lunhui; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Bingjie; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2014-06-01

    Recently, the renal injury caused by Semen strychni and its major toxic constituents, strychnine and brucine, was reported in many clinical cases. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the renal injury induced by Semen Strychni and the protective effects of Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici. The protective mechanisms were related to the comparative toxicokinetics of strychnine and brucine. Serum and urine uric acid and creatinine were used as renal function markers to evaluate the condition of kidney, and renal injury was directly reflected by histopathological changes. Compared with rats in blank group and protective herb groups, rats in Semen Strychni high-dose group showed significant differences in the results of renal function markers, and various glomerular and tubular degenerations were found in the histopathological study. The decreased AUC (only strychnine) and Cmax, the increased Tmax by Radix Glycyrrhizae and the decreased T1/2 by Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici were found in model groups. Results indicated that high dose of Semen Strychni might induce renal injury. Radix Glycyrrhizae and Rhizoma Ligustici might work together and have effects on the elimination of strychnine and brucine. The protective effects of Radix Glycyrrhizae might also be explained by the slow absorption of the alkaloids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Base excision repair efficiency and mechanism in nuclear extracts are influenced by the ratio between volume of nuclear extraction buffer and nuclei-Implications for comparative studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, Mansour; Krokan, Hans E

    2012-01-01

    using purified proteins essentially mirror properties of the proteins used, and does not necessarily reflect the mechanism as it occurs in the cell. Nuclear extracts from cultured cells have the capacity to carry out complete BER and can give important information on the mechanism. Furthermore......, candidate proteins in extracts can be inhibited or depleted in a controlled way, making defined extracts an important source for mechanistic studies. The major drawback is that there is no standardized method of preparing nuclear extract for BER studies, and it does not appear to be a topic given much...... attention. Here we have examined BER activity of nuclear cell extracts from HeLa cells, using as substrate a circular DNA molecule with either uracil or an AP-site in a defined position. We show that BER activity of nuclear extracts from the same batch of cells varies inversely with the volume of nuclear...

  4. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all acknowle

  5. Renal fallure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920705 Endothelin and acute renal failure:study on their relationship and possiblemechanisms. LIN Shanyan(林善锬), et al.Renal Res Lab, Huashan Hosp, Shanghai MedUniv, Shanghai, 200040. Natl Med J China 1992;72(4): 201-205. In order to investigate the role of endothelin

  6. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  7. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  8. Efficiency of Polyphenol Extraction from Artificial Honey Using C18 Cartridges and Amberlite® XAD-2 Resin: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chua Yung An; Md. Murad Hossain; Fahmida Alam; Md. Asiful Islam; Md. Ibrahim Khalil; Nadia Alam; Siew Hua Gan,

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study of the extraction efficiency of nine known polyphenols [phenolic acids (benzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, and vanillic acid) and flavonoids (naringenin, naringin, quercetin, and rutin)] was conducted by deliberately adding the polyphenols to an artificial honey solution and performing solid phase extraction (SPE). Two SPE methods were compared: one using Amberlite XAD-2 resin and another one using a C18 cartridge. A gradient high perfor...

  9. Development of a new porous gold SPME fiber for selective and efficient extraction of dodecanethiol followed by GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Aly M; Wenclawiak, Bernd W

    2013-02-01

    The efficiency of a porous gold fiber used for solid-phase microextraction (PG-SPME) was investigated for the extraction of dodecanethiol out of ethanolic solution. A commercially available standard SPME (polydimethylsiloxane, carboxen, divinylbenzene-PDMS-Carb-DVB) was used as a reference to compare the extraction efficiency and selectivity of dodecanethiol with the PG-SPME fiber. The porous gold SPME fiber allowed the analysis of self-assembled monolayers on gold by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The PG-SPME fiber showed a five times higher peak area for dodecanethiol in GC-MS compared to the standard PDMS-Carb-DVB fiber.

  10. Efficient charge-carrier extraction from Ag₂S quantum dots prepared by the SILAR method for utilization of multiple exciton generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Jianhua; Johansson, Erik M J

    2015-01-28

    The utilization of electron-hole pairs (EHPs) generated from multiple excitons in quantum dots (QDs) is of great interest toward efficient photovoltaic devices and other optoelectronic devices; however, extraction of charge carriers remains difficult. Herein, we extract photocharges from Ag2S QDs and investigate the dependence of the electric field on the extraction of charges from multiple exciton generation (MEG). Low toxic Ag2S QDs are directly grown on TiO2 mesoporous substrates by employing the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The contact between QDs is important for the initial charge separation after MEG and for the carrier transport, and the space between neighbor QDs decreases with more SILAR cycles, resulting in better charge extraction. At the optimal electric field for extraction of photocharges, the results suggest that the threshold energy (hνth) for MEG is 2.41Eg. The results reveal that Ag2S QD is a promising material for efficient extraction of charges from MEG and that QDs prepared by SILAR have an advantageous electrical contact facilitating charge separation and extraction.

  11. Development and assessment of an efficient numerical solution of the richard's equation including root extraction by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varado, N.; Braud, I.; Ross, P. J.

    2003-04-01

    5; but was generally less than 10%. The study also showed that the Lai and Katul (2000) model formulation was not adapted for sandy soils. Twice less water than the Li model could be extracted on sandy soils. The comparison of the two root modules with the initial version of SiSPAT shows that the Lai model was unable to extract as water as the initial SiSPAT or the Li model, even when changing the sensitive parameters. As a conclusion the new numerical method coupled with the Li et al. (2001) model provides an efficient and accurate solution for inclusion of a physically-based infiltration-evapotranspiration module into larger scale watershed models.

  12. EVALUATION OF THE FLOCCULATION EFFICIENCY OF Chlorella vulgaris MEDIATED BY Moringa oleifera SEED UNDER DIFFERENT FORMS: FLOUR, SEED CAKE AND EXTRACTS OF FLOUR AND CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. L. Lapa Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Flocculation as a pre-separation method can help make production of biodiesel from microalgae economically feasible. In a previous study, Moringa oleifera seed flour (1 g.L-1 was shown to be a very efficient flocculant for Chlorella vulgaris, a microalga with high potential for biodiesel production. In this study, several aspects of C vulgaris flocculation mediated by Moringa were investigated in order to optimize the separation of this biomass. Flocculation efficiency was the same with seeds from different origins and lots. The stationary growth stage was best for harvesting C vulgaris cells to carry out flocculation efficiently (93%. The use of flour extracts and cake extracts generated the best cost-benefit ratio (flocculation efficiency from 78 to 97% with a saving in mass of seed of 75%. The highest efficiency was reached with extracts prepared with seawater and NaCl solutions which have high salt concentration. Reasonable stability of the extract allows its use for up to two weeks, provided it is kept at low temperature (4 ºC.

  13. Exploring light extraction efficiency of InGaN LED by creating structured voids in substrate with a femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-jeh; Tseng, Chun-Lung; Lu, Tsung-Sheng; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Tseng, Pei-Hsiang

    2017-02-01

    The applications of laser in processing of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have become popular and inevitable. In this paper, we reported a complete fabrication process of InGaN LED involving a small modification of substrate by ultrafast laser. We created structured voids within the pattern sapphire substrate (PSS) with distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) on the backside by a tightly focused femtosecond laser. One or two passes of voids were aligned in rectangular grid shape and a study of different grid spacing was conducted. The wafers were stealth-diced by the same laser and mechanically cleaved after the on-wafer light output powers (LOP) are measured at 120 mA nominal current. The splitted chips are then undergone complete packaging process and LOP is measured again along with the electrical and irradiation properties. A raise of 1.35% of average on-wafer LOP is achieved at the optimal condition: 0.2 W total laser power for two passes of voids (grid spacing 40 μm) at focal depths set at 32 μm and 64 μm respectively from the backside. Also, the illumination efficiency is further improved by 4.59% after epoxy molding compound (EMC) packaging. The voids serve successfully as scattering or diffractive sources to reverse the stray photons in useful directions. Apart from the enhancement from both PSS and DBR there is still room for light extraction efficiency (LEE) improvement. The L-I-V relationship and diffusion angle are also presented.

  14. Nanocrystalline rutile electron extraction layer enables low-temperature solution processed perovskite photovoltaics with 13.7% efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yella, Aswani; Heiniger, Leo-Philipp; Gao, Peng; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-05-14

    We demonstrate low-temperature (70 °C) solution processing of TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells, resulting in impressive power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.7%. Along with the high efficiency, a strikingly high open circuit potential (VOC) of 1110 mV was realized using this low-temperature chemical bath deposition approach. To the best of our knowledge, this is so far the highest VOC value for solution-processed TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells. We deposited a nanocrystalline TiO2 (rutile) hole-blocking layer on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrate via hydrolysis of TiCl4 at 70 °C, forming the electron selective contact with the photoactive CH3NH3PbI3 film. We find that the nanocrystalline rutile TiO2 achieves a much better performance than a planar TiO2 (anatase) film prepared by high-temperature spin coating of TiCl4, which produces a much lower PCE of 3.7%. We attribute this to the formation of an intimate junction of large interfacial area between the nanocrystalline rutile TiO2 and the CH3NH3PbI3 layer, which is much more effective in extracting photogenerated electrons than the planar anatase film. Since the complete fabrication of the solar cell is carried out below 100 °C, this method can be easily extended to plastic substrates.

  15. In-tube electro-membrane extraction with a sub-microliter organic solvent consumption as an efficient technique for synthetic food dyes determination in foodstuff samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asghari, Alireza; Abdossalami asl, Yousef

    2015-09-04

    A simple and efficient extraction technique with a sub-microliter organic solvent consumption termed as in-tube electro-membrane extraction (IEME) is introduced. This method is based upon the electro-kinetic migration of ionized compounds by the application of an electrical potential difference. For this purpose, a thin polypropylene (PP) sheet placed inside a tube acts as a support for the membrane solvent, and 30μL of an aqueous acceptor solution is separated by this solvent from 1.2mL of an aqueous donor solution. This method yielded high extraction recoveries (63-81%), and the consumption of the organic solvent used was only 0.5μL. By performing this method, the purification is high, and the utilization of the organic solvent, used as a mediator, is very simple and repeatable. The proposed method was evaluated by extraction of four synthetic food dyes (Amaranth, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red, and Carmoisine) as the model analytes. Optimization of variables affecting the method was carried out in order to achieve the best extraction efficiency. These variables were the type of membrane solvent, applied extraction voltage, extraction time, pH range, and concentration of salt added. Under the optimized conditions, IEME-HPLC-UV provided a good linearity in the range of 1.00-800ngmL(-1), low limits of detection (0.3-1ngmL(-1)), and good extraction repeatabilities (RSDs below 5.2%, n=5). It seems that this design is a proper one for the automation of the method. Also the consumption of the organic solvent in a sub-microliter scale, and its simplicity, high efficiency, and high purification can help one getting closer to the objectives of the green chemistry.

  16. Renal teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas M; Jones, Deborah P; Cooper, William O

    2014-09-01

    In utero exposure to certain drugs early in pregnancy may adversely affect nephrogenesis. Exposure to drugs later in pregnancy may affect the renin-angiotensin system, which could have an impact on fetal or neonatal renal function. Reduction in nephron number and renal function could have adverse consequences for the child several years later. Data are limited on the information needed to guide decisions for patients and providers regarding the use of certain drugs in pregnancy. The study of drug nephroteratogenicity has not been systematized, a large, standardized, global approach is needed to evaluate the renal risks of in utero drug exposures.

  17. SILAR-Based Application of Various Nanopillars on GaN-Based LED to Enhance Light-Extraction Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Shei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported the various nanopillars on GaN-based LED to enhance light-extraction efficiency prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method (SILAR. Indium tin oxide (ITO with thickness of 1 μm as transparent contact layer was grown to improve the electrical characteristics of the LEDs, including series resistance and operating voltage. SILAR-deposition ZnO nanoparticles on SiO2 were used as etching nanomasks. Multiple nanopillars were simultaneously formed on overall surfaces of ITO p- and n-GaN by ICP etching. The proposed GaN-based LEDs with nanopillars increase light output power by 7%–20.3% (at 20 mA over that of regular GaN-based LEDs. The difference in light output power can be attributed to differences in materials and shapes of nanopillars, resulting in a reduction in Fresnel reflection by the roughened surface of GaN-based LEDs.

  18. Organic Carbonates: Efficient Extraction Solvents for the Synthesis of HMF in Aqueous Media with Cerium Phosphates as Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibenedetto, Angela; Aresta, Michele; di Bitonto, Luigi; Pastore, Carlo

    2016-01-08

    We describe a process for the selective conversion of C6 -polyols into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in biphasic systems of organic carbonate/water (OC/W), with cerium(IV) phosphates as catalysts. Different reaction parameters such as the OC/W ratio, catalyst loading, reaction time, and temperature, were investigated for the dehydration of fructose. Under the best reaction conditions, a yield of 67.7 % with a selectivity of 93.2 % was achieved at 423 K after 6 h of reaction using [(Ce(PO4)1.5 (H2 O)(H3 O)0.5 (H2 O)0.5)] as the catalyst. A maximum yield of 70 % with the same selectivity was achieved after 12 h. At the end of the reaction, the catalyst was removed by centrifugation, the organic phase was separated from water and evaporated in vacuo (with solvent recovery), and solid 5-HMF was isolated (purity >99 %). The recovery and reuse of the catalyst and the relationship between the structure of the OC and the efficiency of the extraction are discussed. The OC/W system influences the lifetime of the catalysts positively compared to only water.

  19. Efficiency of Polyphenol Extraction from Artificial Honey Using C18 Cartridges and Amberlite® XAD-2 Resin: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Yung An

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the extraction efficiency of nine known polyphenols [phenolic acids (benzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, and vanillic acid and flavonoids (naringenin, naringin, quercetin, and rutin] was conducted by deliberately adding the polyphenols to an artificial honey solution and performing solid phase extraction (SPE. Two SPE methods were compared: one using Amberlite XAD-2 resin and another one using a C18 cartridge. A gradient high performance liquid chromatography system with an RP18 column and photodiode array detector was utilized to analyze the extracted polyphenols. The mean percent of recovery from the C18 cartridges was 74.2%, while that from the Amberlite XAD-2 resin was 43.7%. The recoveries of vanillic acid, naringin, and rutin were excellent (>90%; however, gallic acid was not obtained when C18 cartridges were used. Additionally, the reusability of Amberlite XAD-2 resin was investigated, revealing that the mean recovery of polyphenols decreased from 43.7% (1st extraction to 29.3% (3rd extraction. It was concluded that although Amberlite XAD-2 resin yielded a higher number of compounds, C18 cartridges gave a better extraction recovery. The lower recovery seen for the Amberlite XAD-2 resin also cannot be compensated by repeated extractions due to the gradual decrease of extraction recovery when reused.

  20. Role of phosphate and Fe-oxides on the acid-aided extraction efficiency and readsorption of As in field-aged soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Moon, Seheum; Kim, Young-Jin; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-12-30

    This study was conducted to investigate arsenic (As) readsorption phenomenon in acid-treated soil using phosphate as a competing ion. Three field-aged soils (i.e., S1, paddy soil; S2, field soil; S3, forest soil) originally contaminated with As ranging from 30 to 59 mg/kg-soil were collected from a former smelter site. When 0.2M hydrochloric acid (HCl) alone was used as an extraction solution, As bound to iron (Fe) oxides was removed but significant amount of the released As was readsorbed onto residual Fe-oxides, yielding low As extraction efficiency of 11-27%. Readsorption of the released As seemed to occur preferentially on amorphous Fe-oxides. In contrast, As extraction efficiency was greatly increased by 0.2M HCl solution supplemented with monopotassium phosphate (KH2PO4), which was greatly influenced by the molar ratio of acid to phosphate. In addition, by the extraction solution with an optimal ratio of 0.2M HCl/0.1M KH2PO4, As extraction efficiency differed with soil types, showing 79.6, 44.1, and 61.0% in S1, S2, and S3, respectively. The reason can be ascribed to the blocking of the available As readsorption sites by phosphate ions, the sites seemed to mainly reside on the residual amorphous Fe-oxides in soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid, highly efficient extraction and purification of membrane proteins using a microfluidic continuous-flow based aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Feng, Xiaojun; Chen, Pu; Fu, Meng; Chen, Hong; Guo, Lin; Liu, Bi-Feng

    2011-01-07

    Membrane proteins play essential roles in regulating various fundamental cellular functions. To investigate membrane proteins, extraction and purification are usually prerequisite steps. Here, we demonstrated a microfluidic aqueous PEG/detergent two-phase system for the purification of membrane proteins from crude cell extract, which replaced the conventional discontinuous agitation method with continuous extraction in laminar flows, resulting in significantly increased extraction speed and efficiency. To evaluate this system, different separation and detection methods were used to identify the purified proteins, such as capillary electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and nano-HPLC-MS/MS. Swiss-Prot database with Mascot search engine was used to search for membrane proteins from random selected bands of SDS-PAGE. Results indicated that efficient purification of membrane proteins can be achieved within 5-7s and approximately 90% of the purified proteins were membrane proteins (the highest extraction efficiency reported up to date), including membrane-associated proteins and integral membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane domains. Compared to conventional approaches, this new method had advantages of greater specific surface area, minimal emulsification, reduced sample consumption and analysis time. We expect the developed method to be potentially useful in membrane protein purifications, facilitating the investigation of membrane proteomics.

  2. Sarcoidose renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AQUINO MARIA ENEDINA CLAUDINO DE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Em uma mulher de 62 anos, branca, em avaliação pré-operatória de facectomia, foram detectadas alterações urinárias, tendo sido firmados os diagnósticos de calculose renal esquerda e exclusão renal homolateral. No pré-operatório da nefrectomia foram evidenciados processo pulmonar intersticial bilateral e adenopatia torácica, cuja investigação foi adiada para após a cirurgia. No rim retirado foram detectados granulomas epitelióides não necrotizantes, o mesmo ocorrendo posteriormente em biópsia transbrônquica. A paciente foi tratada com metilprednisolona, com discreta melhora pulmonar, o que não ocorreu com a função renal. O diagnóstico final foi de sarcoidose com envolvimento pulmonar, ganglionar torácico e renal.

  3. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930150 Epidermal growth factor and its recep-tor in the renal tissue of patients with acute re-nal failure and normal persons.LIU Zhihong(刘志红),et al.Jinling Hosp,Nanjing,210002.Natl Med J China 1992;72(10):593-595.Epidermal growth factor(EGF)and its receptor(EGF-R)were identified by immunohis-tochemical method(4 layer PAP)in the renaltissue specimens obtained from 11 normal kid-neys and 17 cases of acute renal failure(ARF).The quantitative EGF and EGF-R in the tissuewere expressed as positive tubules per mm~2.The amount of EGF and EGF-R in renal tissue

  4. A Novel Method for Efficient Text Extraction from Real Time Images with Diversified Background using Haar Discrete Wavelet Transform and K-Means Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimha Murthy K N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The proposed system highlights a novel approach of extracting a text from image using two dimensional Haar Discrete Wavelet Transformation and K-Means Clustering. As the commercial usage of digital contents are on rise, the requirement of an efficient and error free indexing text along with text localization and extraction is of high importance. Majority of the previous research work on text extraction has focused on scene text, uniform background, and extensive use of wavelet domain and frequent usage of only grey-scale image as input. The extensive in-depth testing of such approach will lead no not-so-satisfactory results if the image type, non-uniform background, different text orientation, different languages are introduced. The proposed system has broader scale of consideration of input image with much complicated backgrounds along with consideration of sliding windows. For much accuracy, morphological operation is included to accurately distinguish the text and non-text area for better text localization and extraction. The experimental result was compared with all the prior significant work in text extraction where the results show a much robust, efficient, and much accurate text extraction technique.

  5. Determination of the extraction efficiency for $^{233}$U source $\\alpha$-recoil ions from the MLL buffer-gas stopping cell

    CERN Document Server

    von der Wense, Lars; Laatiaoui, Mustapha; Thirolf, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    Following the $\\alpha$ decay of $^{233}$U, $^{229}$Th recoil ions are shown to be extracted in a significant amount from the MLL buffer-gas stopping cell. The produced recoil ions and subsequent daughter nuclei are mass purified with the help of a customized quadrupole mass spectrometer. The combined extraction and mass-purification efficiency for $^{229}$Th$^{3+}$ is determined via MCP-based measurements and via the direct detection of the $^{229}$Th $\\alpha$ decay. A large value of $(10\\pm2)$\\% for the combined extraction and mass-purification efficiency of $^{229}$Th$^{3+}$ is obtained at a mass resolution of about 1 u/e. In addition to $^{229}$Th, also other $\\alpha$-recoil ions of the $^{233,232}$U decay chains are addressed.

  6. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005234 Association between serum fetuin-A and clinical outcome in end-stage renal disease patients. WANG Kai(王开), Dept Renal Dis, Renji Hosp Shanghai, 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200001. Chin J Nephrol, 2005;21(2):72-75. Objective: To investigate the change of serum fetuin-A level before and after dialysis, and the association of serum fetuin-A level with clinical parameters

  7. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950351 Serum erythropoietin levels in chronic renalinsufficiency.ZHAI Depei(翟德佩),et al.DeptNephrol.General Hosp,Tianjin Med Univ,Tianjin,300000.Tianjin Med J 1995;23(1):19-21.Patients with chronic renal insufficiency(CRI) areoften associated with anemia.The deficiency of EPOproduction in the kidney is thought to be a key factorin the pathogenesis of renal anemia.Serum erythropoi-

  8. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008463 Protective effect of recombination rat augmenter of liver regeneration on kidney in acute renal failure rats. TANG Xiaopeng(唐晓鹏), et al. Dept Nephrol, 2nd Affili Hosp Chongqing Med Univ, Chongqing 400010.Chin J Nephrol 2008;24(6):417-421. Objective To investigate the protective effects of recombination rat augmenter of liver regeneration (rrALR) on tubular cell injury and renal dysfunction

  9. Renal Hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil Bozkurt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon perivascular tumor originating from pericytes in the pelvis, head and tneck, and the meninges; extremely rarely in the urinary system. We report a case of incidentally detected renal mass in which radiologic evaluation was suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. First, we performed partial nephrectomy, and then, radical nephrectomy because of positive surgical margins and the pathological examination of the surgical specimen that revealed a hemangiopericytoma. No additional treatment was administered.

  10. Comoarison of Efficiency of Three Nucleic Acid Extraction Kits for Extracting Blood Virus%三种核酸共提取试剂盒对血液病毒提取效能的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王聪; 陈之遥; 武海萍; 周国华

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较不同核酸共提取试剂盒对血液病毒的提取效能差异.方法 选择国内外广泛使用的3种血液病毒核酸共提取试剂盒,分别为OMEGA试剂盒、QIAGEN试剂盒和WATSON试剂盒,HBV阳性、HBV阴性、HCV阳性和HCV阴性血清样本均取自南京军区南京总医院.样本核酸提取按照各试剂盒说明书进行操作,定量方法采用实时荧光定量PCR.结果 OMEGA试剂盒对DNA的提取效率最高,对RNA的提取效率最低,耗时最短,成本居中;QIAGEN试剂盒DNA和RNA提取效率均较高,耗时居中,成本最高;国产WATSON试剂盒对DNA或RNA提取效率居中,耗时最长,成本最低.结论 不同试剂盒对血液病毒的提取效能各不相同.对于已知病毒载量和病毒种类的样本,根据提取液DNA浓度和RNA浓度选择试剂盒;而对于未知病毒载量和病毒种类的样本,首选QIAGEN试剂盒,其次可选WATSON试剂盒.如只考虑成本,则首选WATSON试剂盒.%Objective To compare the efficiency of different nucleic acid extraction kits for extracting blood virus.Methods 3 commonly used kits for extraction of blood viral nucleic acid were chosen from domestic and international markets, including OMEGA kit, QIAGEN kit and WATSON kit, and serum samples with or without Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and serum samples with or without hepatitis C virus (HCV) were selected from General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command. The nucleic acid extraction procedures were carried out according to the instructions of the 3 kits and the real-time quantitative PCR was performed for quantitative analysis. Results OMEGA kit had the best extraction efficiency of DNA but had the worst extraction efficiency for RNA extraction within a short time and at medium cost. QIAGEN kit had good efficiency for both DNA and RNA extraction with medium term, but at the highest cost; WATSON kit had medium efficiency rate for both DNA and RNA extraction with long term extraction and at the lowest cost

  11. Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Keong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta ® at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions.

  12. Variation in the extraction efficiency of estradiol and progesterone in moist and lyiphilized feces of the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra: alternative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianey Del Rocio Torres

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available several fecal steroid extraction techniques have been developed to measure the ovary function in different species of mammals. However, regardless of the method of extraction and the sample type chosen, is has been observed that they can yield results with different percentages of recuperation. The objective of this study was to determine whether the type of substratum, solvent and extraction method used have any influence on the extraction efficiency in the feces of Alouatta pigra (black howler monkey. For this purpose we used two methods: agitation and ebullition. With each method, we utilized moist and lyophilized feces. The validation of radioimmunoassay method was accurate and precise for quantify estradiol and progesterone in lyophilized feces of Alouatta pigra. To both of which ethanol and methanol, absolute and at 80%, were added, besides the hormones 125I-Estradiol and 125I-Progesterone. The extraction efficiency for 125I-Estradiol was from 87.72 ± 3.97% to 41.24 ± 2.67%, and for 125I-Progesterone from 71.15 ± 4.24% to 42.30 ± 1.19% when we used the agitation method. Whereas with the ebullition method, the extraction efficiency for 125I-Estradiol ranged from 86.89 ± 2.66% to 71.68 ± 3.02% and for 125I-Progesterone from 98.31 ± 1.26% to 85.40 ± 1.98%. Due to the differences found in these assays, which depend on the method used, the type of feces employed and the type of solvent added to them, we recommend the ebullition method and the lyophilized feces of Alouatta pigra for extracting the hormones, since in moist feces there may exist variables which might interfere in the quantification of 125I-Estradiol and 125I-Progesterone.

  13. A robust and efficient method for the extraction of plant extracellular surface lipids as applied to the analysis of silks and seedling leaves of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rashid, Amani; Nikolau, Basil J.; Lauter, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Aerial plant organs possess a diverse array of extracellular surface lipids, including both non-polar and amphipathic constituents that collectively provide a primary line of defense against environmental stressors. Extracellular surface lipids on the stigmatic silks of maize are composed primarily of saturated and unsaturated linear hydrocarbons, as well as fatty acids, and aldehydes. To efficiently extract lipids of differing polarities from maize silks, five solvent systems (hexanes; hexanes:diethyl ether (95:5); hexanes:diethyl ether (90:10); chloroform:hexanes (1:1) and chloroform) were tested by immersing fresh silks in solvent for different extraction times. Surface lipid recovery and the relative composition of individual constituents were impacted to varying degrees depending on solvent choice and duration of extraction. Analyses were performed using both silks and leaves to demonstrate the utility of the solvent- and time-optimized protocol in comparison to extraction with the commonly used chloroform solvent. Overall, the preferred solvent system was identified as hexanes:diethyl ether (90:10), based on its effectiveness in extracting surface hydrocarbons and fatty acids as well as its reduced propensity to extract presumed internal fatty acids. Metabolite profiling of wildtype and glossy1 seedlings, which are impaired in surface lipid biosynthesis, demonstrated the ability of the preferred solvent to extract extracellular surface lipids rich in amphipathic compounds (aldehydes and alcohols). In addition to the expected deficiencies in dotriacontanal and dotriacontan-1-ol for gl1 seedlings, an unexpected increase in fatty acid recovery was observed in gl1 seedlings extracted in chloroform, suggesting that chloroform extracts lipids from internal tissues of gl1 seedlings. This highlights the importance of extraction method when evaluating mutants that have altered cuticular lipid compositions. Finally, metabolite profiling of silks from maize inbreds B73

  14. Characterization of Organic Anion Transporter 2 (SLC22A7): A Highly Efficient Transporter for Creatinine and Species-Dependent Renal Tubular Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; Liu, Tongtong; Morse, Bridget L; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Yueping; Qiu, Xi; Chen, Cliff; Lewin, Anne C; Wang, Xi-Tao; Liu, Guowen; Christopher, Lisa J; Marathe, Punit; Lai, Yurong

    2015-07-01

    The contribution of organic anion transporter OAT2 (SLC22A7) to the renal tubular secretion of creatinine and its exact localization in the kidney are reportedly controversial. In the present investigation, the transport of creatinine was assessed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells that stably expressed human OAT2 (OAT2-HEK) and isolated human renal proximal tubule cells (HRPTCs). The tubular localization of OAT2 in human, monkey, and rat kidney was characterized. The overexpression of OAT2 significantly enhanced the uptake of creatinine in OAT2-HEK cells. Under physiologic conditions (creatinine concentrations of 41.2 and 123.5 µM), the initial rate of OAT2-mediated creatinine transport was approximately 11-, 80-, and 80-fold higher than OCT2, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein (MATE)1, and MATE2K, respectively, resulting in approximately 37-, 1850-, and 80-fold increase of the intrinsic transport clearance when normalized to the transporter protein concentrations. Creatinine intracellular uptake and transcellular transport in HRPTCs were decreased in the presence of 50 µM bromosulfophthalein and 100 µM indomethacin, which inhibited OAT2 more potently than other known creatinine transporters, OCT2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins MATE1 and MATE2K (IC50: 1.3 µM vs. > 100 µM and 2.1 µM vs. > 200 µM for bromosulfophthalein and indomethacin, respectively) Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that OAT2 protein was localized to both basolateral and apical membranes of human and cynomolgus monkey renal proximal tubules, but appeared only on the apical membrane of rat proximal tubules. Collectively, the findings revealed the important role of OAT2 in renal secretion and possible reabsorption of creatinine and suggested a molecular basis for potential species difference in the transporter handling of creatinine.

  15. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography MS/MS method for the determination of parabens in compost from sewage sludge: comparison of the efficiency of two extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Villalba, Julio César; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Dorival-García, Noemí; Camino-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Cantarero, Samuel; Vílchez, José Luis

    2013-08-01

    The efficiency of two extraction techniques--ultrasound-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction--are compared and evaluated in the determination of parabens in compost samples. The extraction parameters for each technique were accurately optimized. The selected compounds were detected and quantified using ultra-performance LC MS/MS, operating in negative ESI and in SRM mode. The analytes were separated in less than 5 min. Ethylparaben (ring-(13)C6 labeled) was used as an internal standard. Two selective, sensitive, and accurate analytical methods were developed and validated. The LODs of the methods ranged from 3 to 7 ng/g and the LOQs from 10 to 23 ng/g, while inter- and intraday variability was under 6% in all cases. The methods were validated separately by using matrix-matched calibration and recovery assays with spiked samples. Recovery rates ranged from 94.0 to 105.0%. Compost samples were taken from different composting plants. Although the statistical comparison demonstrated no statistically significant differences between the two extraction techniques, the method based on pressurized liquid extraction was more sensitive than the ultrasound extraction based method.

  16. Anionic Extraction for Efficient Recovery of Biobased 2,3-Butanediol-A Platform for Bulk and Fine Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabo, Peter; Tiso, Till; Heyman, Benedikt

    2017-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol (BDO) presents a promising platform molecule for the synthesis of basic and fine chemicals. Biotechnological production of BDO from renewable resources with living microbes enables high concentrations in the fermentation broth. The recovery of high-boiling BDO from an aqueous...... fermentation broth presents a subsequent challenge. A method is proposed for BDO isolation based on reversible complexation with phenylboronate in an anionic complex. BDO can be recovered by back-extraction into an acidic solution. The composition of the extracted species was determined by NMR spectroscopy, MS......, and GC-MS methods. The conditions of extraction and back-extraction were optimized by using commercial BDO and finally applied to different fermentation broths. Up to 72-93 % BDO can be extracted and up to 80-90 % can be back-extracted under the optimized conditions. Purified bio-BDO was used...

  17. Evaluation of the antioxidant and anti-glication effects of the hexane extract from Piper auritum leaves in vitro and beneficial activity on oxidative stress and advanced glycation end-product-mediated renal injury in streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Gutierrez, Rosa Martha; Flores Cotera, Luis B; Gonzalez, Adriana Maria Neira

    2012-10-09

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of hexane extracts from leaves of Piper auritum (HS). Eight complementary in vitro test methods were used, including inhibition of DPPH· radicals, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, ion-chelating, ABTS, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, β-carotene bleaching and peroxy radical scavenging. The results indicated that HS possesses high antioxidant activity. To add to these finding we tested the effect against oxidative stress in liver, pancreas and kidney in diabetic rats. Low levels of SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in diabetic rats were reverted to near normal values after treatment with HS. These results suggest that P. auritum prevents oxidative stress, acting as a suppressor of liver cell damage. Given the link between glycation and oxidation, we proposed that HS might possess significant in vitro antiglycation activity. Our data confirmed the inhibitory effect of HS on bovine serum albumin, serum glycosylated protein, glycation of LDL, and glycation hemoglobin. The effect of HS on diabetic renal damage was investigated using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of HS at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days significantly reduced advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) formation, elevated renal glucose and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels in the kidneys of diabetic rats. This implies that HS would alleviate the oxidative stress under diabetes through the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings indicate that oxidative stress is increased in the diabetic rat kidney and that HS can prevent renal damage associated with diabetes by attenuating the oxidative stress.

  18. Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Anti-glication Effects of the Hexane Extract from Piper auritum Leaves in Vitro and Beneficial Activity on Oxidative Stress and Advanced Glycation End-Product-Mediated Renal Injury in Streptozotocin-Treated Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Neira Gonzalez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of hexane extracts from leaves of Piper auritum (HS. Eight complementary in vitro test methods were used, including inhibition of DPPH· radicals, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, ion-chelating, ABTS, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, β-carotene bleaching and peroxy radical scavenging. The results indicated that HS possesses high antioxidant activity. To add to these finding we tested the effect against oxidative stress in liver, pancreas and kidney in diabetic rats. Low levels of SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in diabetic rats were reverted to near normal values after treatment with HS. These results suggest that P. auritum prevents oxidative stress, acting as a suppressor of liver cell damage. Given the link between glycation and oxidation, we proposed that HS might possess significant in vitro antiglycation activity. Our data confirmed the inhibitory effect of HS on bovine serum albumin, serum glycosylated protein, glycation of LDL, and glycation hemoglobin. The effect of HS on diabetic renal damage was investigated using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of HS at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days significantly reduced advanced glycation endproduct (AGE formation, elevated renal glucose and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels in the kidneys of diabetic rats. This implies that HS would alleviate the oxidative stress under diabetes through the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings indicate that oxidative stress is increased in the diabetic rat kidney and that HS can prevent renal damage associated with diabetes by attenuating the oxidative stress.

  19. Improvement of Light Extraction Efficiency in Flip-Chip Light Emitting Diodes on SiC Substrate via Transparent Haze Films with Morphology-Controlled Collapsed Alumina Nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seunghwa; Kang, Gumin; Shin, Dongheok; Bae, Kyuyoung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2016-01-13

    We demonstrate GaN-based flip-chip light emitting diodes (FC-LEDs) on SiC substrate achieving high extraction efficiency by simply attaching the optically transparent haze films consisting of collapsed alumina nanorods. Through controlled etching time of alumina nanorods, we obtain four types of films that have different morphologies with different optical transmittance and haze properties. We show that the light output power of the FC-LEDs with film, which has 95.6% transmittance and 62.7% haze, increases by 20.4% in comparison to the bare LEDs. The angular radiation pattern of the LEDs also follows the Lambertian emission pattern without deteriorating the electrical properties of the device. The improvement of light extraction is mainly attributed to the reduced total internal reflection (TIR) via efficient out-coupling of guided light from SiC substrate to air by collapsed alumina nanorod structures in the film. The high transparency of film and reduced Fresnel reflection via graded refractive index transition between the film and SiC substrate also contribute to the extraction enhancement of the device. We systematically investigate the influence of haze film's geometrical or optical properties on the extraction efficiency of FC-LEDs, and this study will provide a novel approach to enhance the performance of various optoelectronic devices.

  20. Bone protein “extractomics”: comparing the efficiency of bone protein extractions of Gallus gallus in tandem mass spectrometry, with an eye towards paleoproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena R. Schroeter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic studies of bone require specialized extraction protocols to demineralize and solubilize proteins from within the bone matrix. Although various protocols exist for bone protein recovery, little is known about how discrete steps in each protocol affect the subset of the bone proteome recovered by mass spectrometry (MS analyses. Characterizing these different “extractomes” will provide critical data for development of novel and more efficient protein extraction methodologies for fossils. Here, we analyze 22 unique sub-extractions of chicken bone and directly compare individual extraction components for their total protein yield and diversity and coverage of bone proteins identified by MS. We extracted proteins using different combinations and ratios of demineralizing reagents, protein-solubilizing reagents, and post-extraction buffer removal methods, then evaluated tryptic digests from 20 µg aliquots of each fraction by tandem MS/MS on a 12T FT-ICR mass spectrometer. We compared total numbers of peptide spectral matches, peptides, and proteins identified from each fraction, the redundancy of protein identifications between discrete steps of extraction methods, and the sequence coverage obtained for select, abundant proteins. Although both alpha chains of collagen I (the most abundant protein in bone were found in all fractions, other collagenous and non-collagenous proteins (e.g., apolipoprotein, osteonectin, hemoglobin were differentially identified. We found that when a standardized amount of extracted proteins was analyzed, extraction steps that yielded the most protein (by weight from bone were often not the ones that produced the greatest diversity of bone proteins, or the highest degree of protein coverage. Generally, the highest degrees of diversity and coverage were obtained from demineralization fractions, and the proteins found in the subsequent solubilization fractions were highly redundant with those in the previous

  1. Physical Pre-Treatment Improves Efficient DNA Extraction and qPCR Sensitivity from Clostridium Difficile Spores in Faecal Swine Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grześkowiak, Łukasz; Zentek, Jürgen; Vahjen, Wilfried

    2016-11-01

    A considerable fraction of the faecal microbiota is spore-forming. Molecular quantification of bacteria may be underestimated if preceded with nucleic acid extraction without special treatment to extract recalcitrant bacterial spores. The objective of this study was to improve the DNA extraction regarding the presence of Clostridium difficile spores in faecal swine specimens. Sow faeces were inoculated with spores of C. difficile (10(6) CFU), frozen at - 30 °C overnight and subjected to DNA extraction. As a preceding step to a standard DNA extraction method (QIAamp DNA stool Mini kit), different physical treatments such as microwave oven heating and repeated bead-beating techniques and a combination of both were applied and compared with each other by means of qPCR. Using a standard DNA extraction method only, C. difficile spores were quantified at 4.96 log copy number/200 mg of faeces. A repeated bead-beating at 6 m/s for 10 min followed by a standard DNA extraction resulted in 5.77 log copy number of spores in inoculated faeces. Heating in a microwave oven at 800 W for 1, 3, 5 and 10 min followed by a standard DNA extraction resulted in a gene quantification of up to 4.89 log copy number. A combination of both methods resulted in the bacterial gene quantity of 5.37 log copy number. Pre-treatment with repeated bead-beating led to the highest quantification of bacteria, and therefore it can be applied for more efficient DNA extraction from spores of C. difficile in faecal specimens.

  2. Effects of different nitrogen levels and plant density on flower, essential oils and extract production and nitrogen use efficiency of Marigold (Calendula officinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali akbar ameri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient use of nitrogen for medicinal plants production, might increase flower dry matter, essential oil and extract yield and reduce cost of yield production. A two year (2005 and 2006 field study was conducted in Torogh region(36,10° N,59.33° E and 1300 m altitude of Mashhad, Iran, to observe the effects of different nitrogen and densities on flower dry matter, essential oil and extract production and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE in a multi-harvested Marigold (Calendula officinalis. The levels of Nitrogen fertilizer (N were 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 and levels of density were 20, 40, 60 and 80 plant m-2. The combined analysis results revealed significant effects of N and density levels on flower dry matter, essential oil and extract production and NUE of Marigold. The highest dry flower production obtained by 150 kg ha-1 N and 80 plant m-2 plant population (102.86 g m-2. The higher flower dry matter production caused more essential oil and extract production in high nitrogen and density levels. Agronomic N-use efficiency (kg flower dry matter yield per kg N applied, physiological efficiency (kg flower dry matter yield per kg N absorbed and fertilizer N-recovery efficiency (kg N absorbed per kg N applied, expressed as % for marigold across treatments ranged from 6.8 to14.9, 12.3 to 33.6 and 55.5 to 77.6, respectively and all were greater for N application at 50 compared with150 kg N ha-1, and under high density than low density. The amount of essential oil and extract per 100g flower dry matter decreased during the flower harvesting period. The higher amount of essential oil and extract obtained at early flowering season. The essential oil and extract ranged from 0.22 to 0.12 (ml. per 100g flower dry matter and 2.74 to 2.13 (g per 100g flower dry matter respectively.

  3. High efficiency protocol of DNA extraction from Micromys minutus mandibles from owl pellets: a tool for molecular research of cryptic mammal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buś, Magdalena M; Zmihorski, Michał; Romanowski, Jerzy; Balčiauskienė, Laima; Cichocki, Jan; Balčiauskas, Linas

    2014-01-01

    Owl pellets have high potential as a source of DNA. However, this noninvasive method of collecting DNA is rarely used, and its methodological aspects are poorly understood. We investigated the methodology for DNA extraction and amplification from owl pellets containing the smallest European rodent-the Harvest mouse Micromys minutus-as an example. We used mandibles identified in owl pellets for mitochondrial and nuclear DNA amplification. For DNA extraction, we tested two commercial protocols and utilized a protocol being a combination of two commercial kits which ensured high efficiency of DNA extraction. Additionally, we recorded that the amount of DNA was five times higher in extracts from teeth as compared to DNA extracts from jawbones derived from the same mandible. The quantity of DNA was significantly positively correlated with biological sample weight; however, the age of the pellet remains had an impact on the level of inhibition. We recorded inhibition in 40 % of mtDNA extracts derived from pellets older than 150 months, whereas in DNA extracts from pellets younger than 80 months, we did not observe a negative impact of inhibition on PCR efficiency. The amplification success rate was 89.9 % for the mitochondrial fragment and 39.4 % in the case of the nuclear fragment. We observed partial degradation of DNA evidenced by the fact that the longest fragments that we were able to amplify in the case of mtDNA were 450 and 200 bp for nuDNA. The study shows that pellets can be considered as a source of DNA and have high potential for molecular research in the case of threatened species and species that are difficult to study using standard field techniques.

  4. Efficient extraction of proteins from recalcitrant plant tissue for subsequent analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhey, Suruchi; Chandrakar, Vibhuti; Naithani, S C; Keshavkant, S

    2015-10-01

    Protein extraction for two-dimensional electrophoresis from tissues of recalcitrant species is quite problematic and challenging due to the low protein content and high abundance of contaminants. Proteomics in Shorea robusta is scarcely conducted due to the lack of a suitable protein preparation procedure. To establish an effective protein extraction protocol suitable for two-dimensional electrophoresis in Shorea robusta, four procedures (borate buffer/trichloroacetic acid extraction, organic solvent/trichloroacetic acid precipitation, sucrose/Tris/phenol, and organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate) were evaluated. Following these, proteins were isolated from mature leaves and were analyzed for proteomics, and also for potential contaminants, widely reported to hinder proteomics. The borate buffer/trichloroacetic acid extraction had the lowest protein yield and did not result in any banding even in one-dimensional electrophoresis. In contrast, organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction allowed the highest protein yield. Moreover, during proteomics, organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate extracted protein resolved the maximum number (144) of spots. Further, when proteins were evaluated for contaminants, significant (77-95%) reductions in the nucleic acids, phenol, and sugars were discernible with refinement in extraction procedure. Accumulated data suggested that the organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction was the most effective protocol for protein isolation for proteomics of Shorea robusta and can be used for plants that have a similar set of contaminants.

  5. Development and application of an efficient gas extraction model for low-rank high-gas coal beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baiquan Lin; He Li; Desheng Yuan; Ziwen Li

    2015-01-01

    To promote gas extraction in low-rank high-gas coal beds, the pore structure characteristics of the coal and their effect on gas desorption were studied. The results show that micropores are relatively rare in low-rank coal;mesopores are usually semi-open and inkpot-shaped whereas macropores are usually slit-shaped. Gas desorption is relatively easy at high-pressure stages, whereas it is difficult at low-pressure stages because of the‘bottleneck effect’ of the semi-open inkpot-shaped mesopores. A ‘two-three-two’ gas extraction model was established following experimental analysis and engi-neering practice applied in the Binchang mining area. In this model, gas extraction is divided into three periods:a planning period, a transitional period and a production period. In each period, surface extraction and underground extraction are performed simultaneously, and pressure-relief extraction and conventional extraction are coupled to each other. After applying this model, the gas extraction rate rose to 78.8%.

  6. Partitioning of Minor Actinides from High Active Raffinates using Bis-Diglycol-amides (BisDGA) as new efficient Extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modolo, G.; Vijgen, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institute for Energy Research, Safety Research and Reactor Technology, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Espartero, A.G. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Prados, P. [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid - UAM, carretera de Colmenar Viejo km 15.3, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Mendoza, J. de [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid - UAM, carretera de Colmenar Viejo km 15.3, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Institut Catala d' Investigacio Quimica (ICIQ) Av. Paisos Catalans 16, 43007-Tarragona (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Two new polyamide extractants has been selected, namely UAM-069 and UAM-081, both synthesized at the University of Madrid (UAM), to develop a new separation process. These two ligands are bis-diglycol-amides, consisting of two diglycol-amides moieties grafted on an aromatic platform (UAM-069) or on an aliphatic linker (UAM-081), respectively. The extraction of actinides and fission products was studied from synthetic PUREX raffinate. Actinides(III) and lanthanides(III) are highly extracted from acidities > 1 mol/L HNO{sub 3}. The extraction of Zr, Mo and Pd could be suppressed with complexing agents such as oxalic acid and HEDTA. In the present paper the results of the batch extraction results are presented which serve for the development of a new continuous counter current process to be tested in centrifugal contactors. (authors)

  7. Management of Renal Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbant, Ismail; Can Sener, Nevzat; Firat, Hacer; Yeşil, Süleyman; Zengin, Kürşad; Yalcınkaya, Fatih; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Renal cysts have a high prevalence in the general population, and their estimated incidence increases with age. Renal cyst aspiration (usually with sclerotherapy) or open/laparoscopic decortication is a generally effective and safe method in the treatment of symptomatic simple renal cysts. The success rates of laparoscopic decortication and percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy were compared to assist in the decision making for the procedure. Methods: A total of 184 patients with symptomatic simple renal cysts were treated with either laparoscopic decortication in 149 cases or percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy in 35 cases. The follow-up period was approximately 35 months, and the symptomatic and radiologic success rates of the 2 techniques were compared retrospectively. Results: Laparoscopic decortication was found to have high success rates, a low recurrence rate, and minimal morbidity. Percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy is an outpatient procedure with a minimally higher recurrence rate. Conclusion: When a symptomatic cyst is encountered and treatment of the cyst is indicated, laparoscopic decortication is a more efficient method that offers better results than percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy. PMID:25848184

  8. Improved efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material Diesel Particulate Matter (SRM 2975) using accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Silvia; Ahmed, Trifa; Bergvall, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2011-12-01

    The efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with molecular masses of 252, 276, 278, 300, and 302 Da from standard reference material diesel particulate matter (SRM 2975) has been investigated using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with dichloromethane, toluene, methanol, and mixtures of toluene and methanol. Extraction of SRM 2975 using toluene/methanol (9:1, v/v) at maximum instrumental settings (200 °C, 20.7 MPa, and five extraction cycles) with 30-min extraction times resulted in the following elevations of the measured concentration when compared with the certified and reference concentrations reported by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): benzo[b]fluoranthene, 46%; benzo[k]fluoranthene, 137%; benzo[e]pyrene, 103%; benzo[a]pyrene, 1,570%; perylene, 37%; indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, 41%; benzo[ghi]perylene, 163%; and coronene, 361%. The concentrations of the following PAHs were comparable to the reference values assigned by NIST: indeno[1,2,3-cd]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, and picene. The measured concentration of dibenzo[a,e]-pyrene was lower than the information value reported by the NIST. The measured concentrations of other highly carcinogenic PAHs (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene) in SRM 2975 are also reported. Comparison of measurements using the optimized ASE method and using similar conditions to those applied by the NIST for the assignment of PAH concentrations in SRM 2975 indicated that the higher values obtained in the present study were associated with more complete extraction of PAHs from the diesel particulate material. Re-extraction of the particulate samples demonstrated that the deuterated internal standards were more readily recovered than the native PAHs, which may explain the lower values reported by the NIST. The analytical results obtained in the study demonstrated that the efficient extraction of PAHs from SRM 2975 is a critical requirement for the

  9. On-Demand Single Photons with High Extraction Efficiency and Near-Unity Indistinguishability from a Resonantly Driven Quantum Dot in a Micropillar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Xing; He, Yu; Duan, Z.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Scalable photonic quantum technologies require on-demand single-photon sources with simultaneously high levels of purity, indistinguishability, and efficiency. These key features, however, have only been demonstrated separately in previous experiments. Here, by s-shell pulsed resonant excitation...... of a Purcellenhanced quantum dot-micropillar system, we deterministically generate resonance fluorescence single photons which, at π pulse excitation, have an extraction efficiency of 66%, single-photon purity of 99.1%, and photon indistinguishability of 98.5%. Such a single-photon source for the first time combines...

  10. Boosting the power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells using self-organized polymeric hole extraction layers with high work function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyung-Geun; Kim, Hak-Beom; Jeong, Jaeki; Kim, Hobeom; Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2014-10-08

    A self-organized hole extraction layer (SOHEL) with high work function (WF) is designed for energy level alignment with the ionization potential level of CH3 NH3 PbI3 . The SOHEL increases the built-in potential, photocurrent, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite solar cells. Thus, interface engineering of the positive electrode of solution-processed planar heterojunction solar cells using a high-WF SOHEL is a very effective way to achieve high device efficiency (PCE = 11.7% on glass).

  11. Measurements of photoelectron extraction efficiency from CsI into mixtures of Ne with CH4, CF4, CO2 and N2

    CERN Document Server

    Escada, J; Dias, T H V T; Lopes, J A M; Santos, J M F dos; Breskin, A

    2009-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the extraction efficiency f of the UV-induced photoelectrons emitted from a CsI photocathode into gas mixtures of Ne with CH4, CF4, CO2 and N2 are presented; they are compared with model-simulation results. Backscattering of low- energy photoelectrons emitted into noble gas is significantly reduced by the admixture of molecular gases, with direct impact on the effective quantum efficiency. Data are provided on the dependence of f on the type and concentration of the molecular gas in the mixtures and on the electric field.

  12. Antireflective sub-wavelength structures for improvement of the extraction efficiency and color rendering index of monolithic white light-emitting diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Corell, Dennis Dan; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    simulation results show that a moth-eye structure enhances the light extraction efficiency over the entire visible light range with an extraction efficiency enhancement of up to 26 %. Also for the first time to our best knowledge, the influence of sub-wavelength structures on both the color rendering index......We have theoretically investigated the influence of antireflective sub-wavelength structures on a monolithic white light-emitting diode (LED). The simulation is based on the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) algorithm, and both cylinder and moth-eye structures have been studied in the work. Our...... (CRI) and the correlated color temperature (CCT) of the monolithic white LED have been demonstrated. The CRI of the monolithic white LED could be improved from 92.68 to around 94 by applying a cylinder structure, and the CCT could be modified in a very large range with appropriate design...

  13. Polypyrrole/magnetic nanoparticles composite as an efficient sorbent for dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction of antidepressant drugs from biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar; Karami, Sara; Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira; Shekari, Nafiseh; Jalilian, Niloofar

    2015-10-15

    In this study, polypyrrole/magnetic nanoparticles composites in the presence of two different dopants were synthesized with the aid of chemical oxidative polymerization process for dispersive-μ-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE). The synthesized magnetic sorbents were characterized by various techniques. The results exhibited that the nanocomposite modified by polypyrrole with sodium perchlorate as a dopant demonstrated higher extraction efficiency for citalopram (CIT) and sertraline (STR) as the model compounds. This nanosorbent in combination with high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection was applied for extraction, preconcentration and determination of CIT and STR in urine and plasma samples. The effect of various parameters on the extraction efficiency including: sample pH, amount of sorbent, sorption time, eluent and its volume, salt content, and elution time were investigated and optimized. The opted conditions were: sample pH, 9.0; sorbent dosage, 10mg; sorption time, 7 min; elution solvent and its volume, 0.06 mol L(-1) HCl in methanol, 120 μL; elution time, 2 min and without addition of salt to the sample. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 1-800 μg L(-1). The limits of detection (LODs) were obtained in the range of 0.2-1.0 μg L(-1) for CIT and 0.3-0.7 μg L(-1) for STR, respectively. The percent of extraction recoveries and relative standard deviations (n=5) were in the range of 93.4-99, 4.8-8.4 for CIT and 94-98.4, 4.3-9.2 for STR, respectively. Finally, the applicability of the method was successfully confirmed by the extraction and determination of CIT and STR in human urine and plasma samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dispersive micro-solid phase extraction of aromatic amines based on an efficient sorbent made from poly(1,8-diaminonaphtalen) and magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Niloofar; Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira; Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar

    2017-05-26

    In this work, the extraction of aromatic amines with an efficient magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes/Fe3O4@Poly(1,8-diaminonaphtalen) (MWCNTs/Fe3O4@PDAN) composite followed by HPLC-DAD was presented. Imprimis, the comparison among different magnetic nanosorbents including Fe3O4, MWCNTs/Fe3O4, Fe3O4@PDAN and MWCNTs/Fe3O4@PDAN was conducted. The obtained results, exhibited that the MWCNTs/Fe3O4@PDAN composite has the highest extraction efficiency for target analytes (3-nitroaniline, 4-chloroaniline, 4-bromoaniline and 3,4-dichloroaniline). This sorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray dispersive spectroscopy, thermogravimetry analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transition electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry and X-ray diffraction. Design of experiment approach was applied to find out the optimal experimental conditions. The optimal extraction conditions were: pH of the sample, 10; sorbent amount, 10mg; sorption time, 15min; salt concentration, 10% w/w; type and volume of the eluent, 0.01molL(-1) HCl in acetonitrile, 145μL; elution time; 2min. Under the optimal extraction conditions detection limits and linear dynamic ranges were achieved in the range of 0.1-0.25μgL(-1) and 0.25-500μgL(-1), respectively. The percent of extraction recovery and relative standard deviations (n=5) were in the range of 31.2-82.8% and 3.4-5.6%, respectively. Finally, the applicability of the method was successfully confirmed by the extraction and determination of target analytes in various water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficient recovery of whole cell proteins in Oenococcus oeni--a comparison of different extraction protocols for high-throughput malolactic starter applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Caterina; Bonomo, Maria Grazia; Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Salzano, Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we compared different total protein extraction protocols to achieve highly efficient isolation and purification of total proteins for the specific protein profiling of Oenococcus oeni. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns obtained for the different extraction protocols revealed not only a qualitative similar protein pattern but also quantitative variations with different intensity bands depending on the extraction method used. The selected extraction method added with sonication proved to work extremely well and efficiently and was able to obtain a high-resolution 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE) map. Prominent spots were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and corresponded to 76 different proteins involved in the main metabolic pathways. The approach allowed to achieve a protein profiling specific for O. oeni from Aglianico wine with numerous characterized protein products corresponding to many different O. oeni genes and associated with main cellular pathways. Further investigations of the 2-DE protein expression profile will provide useful and interesting information on the molecular mechanisms at the protein level responsible for growth and survival of O. oeni in wine.

  16. High extraction efficiency for polar aromatic compounds in natural water samples using multiwalled carbon nanotubes/Nafion solid-phase microextraction coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenfeng; Zeng, Jingbin; Chen, Jinmei; Huang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Yaqi; Wang, Yiru; Chen, Xi

    2009-12-25

    A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/Nafion was developed and applied for the extraction of polar aromatic compounds (PACs) in natural water samples. The characteristics and the application of this fiber were investigated. Electron microscope photographs indicated that the MWCNTs/Nafion coating with average thickness of 12.5microm was homogeneous and porous. The MWCNTs/Nafion coated fiber exhibited higher extraction efficiency towards polar aromatic compounds compared to an 85microm commercial PA fiber. SPME experimental conditions, such as fiber coating, extraction time, stirring rate, desorption temperature and desorption time, were optimized in order to improve the extraction efficiency. The calibration curves were linear from 0.01 to 10microgmL(-1) for five PACs studied except p-nitroaniline (from 0.005 to 10microgmL(-1)) and m-cresol (from 0.001 to 10microgmL(-1)), and detection limits were within the range of 0.03-0.57ngmL(-1). Single fiber and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility were less than 7.5 (n=7) and 10.0% (n=5), respectively. The recovery of the PACs spiked in natural water samples at 1microgmL(-1) ranged from 83.3 to 106.0%.

  17. Renal Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as “simple” cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and contain water-like fluid. Renal cysts are fairly common in ... simple kidney cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and only water-like fluid inside. They are fairly common in ...

  18. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970363 Effect on serum PTH and 1, 25(OH)2 D3levels of rapid correction of metabolic acidosis in CRFpatients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. YUANQunsheng(袁群生), et al. Renal Div, PUMC Hosp,Beijing, 100730. Chin J Nephrol 1996; 12(6): 328-331.

  19. Drug-induced renal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drugs can cause acute renal failure by causing pre-renal, intrinsic or post-renal toxicity. Pre-renal ... incidence of drug dose adjustment in renal impairment in the SAMJ. ... Fever, haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, renal impairment and.

  20. Deep eutectic solvents as efficient solvent system for the extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Mukesh; Mondal, Dibyendu; Prasad, Kamalesh

    2016-01-20

    Three different deep eutectic solvents (DESs) prepared by the complexation of choline chloride with urea, ethylene glycol and glycerol along with their hydrated counterparts were used for the selective extraction of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii. Upon comparison of the quality of the polysaccharide with the one obtained using water as extraction media as well as the one extracted using widely practiced conventional method, it was found that, the physicochemical as well as rheological properties of κ-carrageenan obtained using DESs as solvents was at par to the one obtained using conventional method and was superior in quality when compared to κ-carrageenan obtained using water as solvent. Considering the tedious nature of the extraction method employed in conventional extraction process, the DESs can be considered as suitable alternative solvents for the facile extraction of the polysaccharide directly from the seaweed. However, among the hydrated and non-hydrated DESs, the hydrated ones were found to be more effective in comparison to their non-hydrated counterparts.

  1. Anionic Extraction for Efficient Recovery of Biobased 2,3-Butanediol-A Platform for Bulk and Fine Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabo, Peter; Tiso, Till; Heyman, Benedikt; Sarikaya, Eda; Gaspar, Paula; Förster, Jochen; Büchs, Jochen; Blank, Lars Mathias; Delidovich, Irina

    2017-08-24

    2,3-Butanediol (BDO) presents a promising platform molecule for the synthesis of basic and fine chemicals. Biotechnological production of BDO from renewable resources with living microbes enables high concentrations in the fermentation broth. The recovery of high-boiling BDO from an aqueous fermentation broth presents a subsequent challenge. A method is proposed for BDO isolation based on reversible complexation with phenylboronate in an anionic complex. BDO can be recovered by back-extraction into an acidic solution. The composition of the extracted species was determined by NMR spectroscopy, MS, and GC-MS methods. The conditions of extraction and back-extraction were optimized by using commercial BDO and finally applied to different fermentation broths. Up to 72-93 % BDO can be extracted and up to 80-90 % can be back-extracted under the optimized conditions. Purified bio-BDO was used in the presence of sulfuric acid for the synthesis of methyl ethyl ketone, an established organic solvent and discussed tailor-made biofuel. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. An Efficient Method of Nuclei Extraction in Cotton%一种高效提取棉花细胞核的技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭仁海; 刘方; 宋国立; 王春英; 黎绍惠; 张香娣; 王玉红; 王坤波

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The experiment aimed to study an efficient method of Nuclei extraction of cotton and provided technical support for constructing large-insert genomic library and sequencing complete genome. [Method] The cotton cotyledons germinated in dark moisture chamber for one week were chopped with a sharp sterile scalpel in a Petri dish which contained ice-cold nucleus isolation buffer (10 mmol/L MgSO4, 5 mmol/L KCl, 0.5 mmol/L HEPES, 1 mg/ml DTT, 0.25% Triton X-100 and 2% PVP40), then the nuclei were collected after selected through 100, 50 and 30 μm nylon meshes and centrifugation. Meanwhile, the tender leaves and cotyledons with different germination time in dark were treated by grinding method and sharp scalpel method. [Result] The chopping with a sharp scalpel method was very simple and rapid, which did not need grind and mercaptoethanol treatment and the successful extraction rate was 100%.[Conclusion] An efficient method of nuclei extraction of cotton with simple, high efficiency, rapid reaction and poison free were established.

  3. Benefits of pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn) fruit extracts to weight changes, total protein, and uric acid in white rats (Rattus norvegicus) as an animal model of acute renal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primarizky, Hardany; Yuniarti, Wiwik Misaco; Lukiswanto, Bambang Sektiari

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The occurrence of acute renal failure (ARF) cases continues to increase every year. Some of the cases are due to nephrotoxic effect caused by overdose of antibiotic consumption or abuse of the drug, gentamicin. An antibiotic therapy that can be used to overcome in such a case is the pomegranate extracts. However, until now, studies using pomegranate for cases of ARF have not been done. This study aims to determine changes in body weight, the levels of total protein (TP), and the levels of serum uric acid (UA) as a result of the pomegranate extract consumption. Materials and Methods: A total number of 32 rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into four groups randomly. One group was assigned as the control group (P0) and given intraperitoneal (i.p.) saline and 0.3% carboxy methyl cellulose sodium (CMC) Na; P1 was provided with 80 mg/kg bw/i.p. gentamicin and 0.3% CMC Na orally, P2 was supplied with 80 mg/kg bw/i.p. gentamicin and ellagic acid in 0.3% CMC Na, and P3 was given 80 mg/kg bw/i.p. gentamicin and 150 mg/kg bw pomegranate extract in 0.3% CMC Na. The provision of treatment was carried out in 8 days and followed by making the overthrow of body weight and blood sampling for the examination of study variables. Results: The results taken by doing the analysis of variance method for the four treatment groups show that the control group (P0) has significant differences from P1, P2, and P3 (ppomegranate extracts in the treatment of nephrotoxicity toward rats is effective to maintain normal body weight, normal TP levels, and the UA blood serum of the rats. As this study is a preventive therapy, it needs further researches about the effective dose as a curative therapy, its level of effectiveness and its long-term side effects. PMID:27956780

  4. Base excision repair efficiency and mechanism in nuclear extracts are influenced by the ratio between volume of nuclear extraction buffer and nuclei-Implications for comparative studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, Mansour; Krokan, Hans E

    2012-01-01

    The base excision repair (BER) pathway corrects many different DNA base lesions and is important for genomic stability. The mechanism of BER cannot easily be investigated in intact cells and therefore in vitro methods that reflect the in vivo processes are in high demand. Reconstitution of BER...... using purified proteins essentially mirror properties of the proteins used, and does not necessarily reflect the mechanism as it occurs in the cell. Nuclear extracts from cultured cells have the capacity to carry out complete BER and can give important information on the mechanism. Furthermore...

  5. Combination of counterpropagation artificial neural networks and antioxidant activities for comprehensive evaluation of associated-extraction efficiency of various cyclodextrins in the traditional Chinese formula Xue-Zhi-Ning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lili; Yang, Jianwen; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Huijie; Liu, Yanan; Ren, Xiaoliang; Qi, Aidi

    2015-11-10

    Xue-Zhi-Ning (XZN) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine formula to treat hyperlipidemia. Recently, cyclodextrins (CDs) have been extensively used to minimize problems relative to medicine bioavailability, such as low solubility and poor stability. The objective of this study was to determine the associated-extraction efficiency of various CDs in XZN. Three various type CDs were evaluated, including native CDs (α-CD, β-CD), hydrophilic CD derivatives (HP-β-CD and Me-β-CD), and ionic CD derivatives (SBE-β-CD and CM-β-CD). An ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) fingerprint was applied to determine the components in CD extracts and original aqueous extract (OAE). A counterpropagation artificial neural network (CP-ANN) was used to analyze the components in different extracts and compare the selective extraction of various CDs. Extraction efficiencies of the various CDs in terms of extracted components follow the ranking, ionic CD derivatives>hydrophilic CD derivatives>native CDs>OAE. Besides, different types of CDs have their own selective extraction and ionic CD derivatives present the strongest associated-extraction efficiency. Antioxidant potentials of various extracts were evaluated by determining the inhibition of spontaneous, H2O2-induced, CCl4-induced and Fe(2+)/ascorbic acid-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) and analyzing the scavenging capacity for DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The order of extraction efficiencies of the various CDs relative to antioxidant activities is as follows: SBE-β-CD>CM-β-CD>HP-β-CD>Me-β-CD>β-CD>α-CD. It can be demonstrated that all of the CDs studied increase the extraction efficiency and that ionic CD derivatives (SBE-β-CD and CM-β-CD) present the highest extraction capability in terms of amount extracted and antioxidant activities of extracts.

  6. Optimization of extraction efficiency by shear emulsifying assisted enzymatic hydrolysis and functional properties of dietary fiber from deoiled cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mengmei; Mu, Taihua; Sun, Hongnan; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jingwang; Yan, Zhibin

    2015-07-15

    This study evaluated the optimal conditions for extracting dietary fiber (DF) from deoiled cumin by shear emulsifying assisted enzymatic hydrolysis (SEAEH) using the response surface methodology. Fat adsorption capacity (FAC), glucose adsorption capacity (GAC), and bile acid retardation index (BRI) were measured to evaluate the functional properties of the extracted DF. The results revealed that the optimal extraction conditions included an enzyme to substrate ratio of 4.5%, a reaction temperature of 57 °C, a pH value of 7.7, and a reaction time of 155 min. Under these conditions, DF extraction efficiency and total dietary fiber content were 95.12% and 84.18%, respectively. The major components of deoiled cumin DF were hemicellulose (37.25%) and cellulose (33.40%). FAC and GAC increased with decreasing DF particle size (51-100 μm), but decreased with DF particle sizes <26 μm; BRI increased with decreasing DF particle size. The results revealed that SEAEH is an effective method for extracting DF. DF with particle size 26-51 μm had improved functional properties.

  7. A simple and efficient method for DNA extraction from skin and paraffin-embedded tissues applicable to T-cell clonality assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Julia V; Biderman, Bella V; Nikulina, Elena E; Sudarikov, Andrey B

    2012-01-01

    PCR-based clonality assay of rearranged T-cell receptor genes gamma and beta (TCRG and TCRB) in a number of cases could be essential to discriminate between cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and reactive lymphoproliferative lesions in the skin. However, extraction of good-quality DNA from skin specimens (especially formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded) remains a challenge. Common procedures, being labour-intensive and time-consuming and requiring toxic solvents such as phenol and chloroform, still may end up with DNA sample of insufficient quality. We herewith present a simple and efficient method for DNA isolation based on ammonia extraction of tissue, followed by neutralization and simultaneous salting out of proteins with acetic acid. We have analysed 30 samples - 24 fresh (16 skin, two spleen and six lymph node) and six paraffin-embedded. Standard procedure (proteinase K digestion, followed by phenol/chloroform extraction) has been carried out simultaneously. We observed good PCR signal for TCRG rearrangements in 30 samples processed with the new protocol and only in 20 extracted with proteinase K/phenol/chloroform. For TCRB, the success rate was 29 of 30 with the new protocol, compared to 11 of 30 with conventional protocol. The proposed method of DNA extraction should improve the value of T-cell clonality assay, because insufficient DNA quality and quantity may bias analysis towards monoclonality and therefore cause false-positive results.

  8. Centrifugal partition extraction in the pH-zone-refining displacement mode: an efficient strategy for the screening and isolation of biologically active phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, Mahmoud; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Reynaud, Romain; Hubert, Jane

    2013-10-15

    Centrifugal partition extraction (CPE) was developed for the first time in the pH-zone-refining mode to fractionate a crude bark extract of the African tree Anogeissus leiocarpus Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae). The fractionation process was performed at a flow rate of 20mL/min using a biphasic solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether/acetonitrile/water (4:1:5, v/v/v) in the ascending mode. Sodium hydroxide (40mM) and trifluoroacetic acid (30mM) were used as retainer and displacer agents, respectively. In a single run of 67min, 3g of the initial crude extract were successfully separated into fractions selectively enriched in ionizable triterpenes, ellagic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The antioxidant potential of the initial crude extract, isolated compounds and fraction pools was also evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable free radical scavenging assay, providing an interesting view about the effect of the degree of substitution of ellagic acid derivatives on their radical scavenging activity. This study will demonstrate that centrifugal partition extraction used in the pH-zone-refining mode can be proposed as an efficient strategy for the rapid screening of natural phenolic compounds.

  9. Variation in the Extraction Efficiency of Estradiol and Progesterone in Moist and Lyophilized Feces of the Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta pigra): Alternative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pelayo, Vianey del R.; Rovirosa-Hernández, M. J.; García-Orduña, F.; Chavira-Ramírez, R. D.; Boeck, L.; Canales-Espinosa, D.; Rodríguez-Landa, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    Several fecal steroid extraction techniques have been developed to measure the ovary function in different species of mammals. However, regardless of the method of extraction and the sample type chosen, it has been observed that they can yield results with different percentages of recuperation. The objective of this study was to determine whether the type of substratum, solvent and extraction method used have any influence on the extraction efficiency in the feces of Alouatta pigra (black howler monkey). For this purpose we used two methods: agitation and ebullition. With each method, we utilized moist and lyophilized feces. The validation of radioimmunoassay method was accurate and precise for quantify estradiol and progesterone in lyophilized feces of A. pigra. To both of which ethanol and methanol, absolute and at 80%, were added, besides the hormones 125I-Estradiol and 125I-Progesterone. The extraction efficiency for 125I-Estradiol was from 87.72 ± 3.97 to 41.24 ± 2.67%, and for 125I-Progesterone from 71.15 ± 4.24 to 42.30 ± 1.19% when we used the agitation method. Whereas with the ebullition method, the extraction efficiency for 125I-Estradiol ranged from 86.89 ± 2.66 to 71.68 ± 3.02% and for 125I-Progesterone from 98.31 ± 1.26 to 85.40 ± 1.98%. Due to the differences found in these assays, which depend on the method used, the type of feces employed and the type of solvent added to them, we recommend the ebullition method and the lyophilized feces of A. pigra for extracting the hormones, since in moist feces there may exist variables which might interfere in the quantification of 125I-Estradiol and 125I-Progesterone. PMID:22194723

  10. Renal failure (chronic)

    OpenAIRE

    Clase, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is characterised by a gradual and sustained decline in renal clearance or glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Continued progression of renal failure will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Diabetes, glomerulonephritis, hypertension, pyelone...

  11. Evaluation of the temperature-dependent internal quantum efficiency and the light-extraction efficiency in a GaN-based blue light-emitting diode by using a rate equation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Hwan; Ryu, Guen-Hwan; Ryu, Han-Youl

    2016-10-01

    The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and the light extraction efficiency (LEE) of a GaN-based blue light-emitting diode (LED) are evaluated separately in the temperature range between 20 to 80 °C. The theoretical IQE model based on the carrier rate equation of semiconductors is applied to determine the IQE and the LEE separately from a measured external quantum efficiency (EQE) versus current relation for the LED sample. While the peak EQE of the measured sample decreases by 3.2 % as the temperature increases from 20 to 80 °C, it is found that the peak IQE decreases by 4.5 % and the LEE increases by 1.5 %.

  12. Efficient and eco-friendly extraction of corn germ oil using aqueous ethanol solution assisted by steam explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Shuangshuang; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yiqi; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Yang, Ruijin

    2016-04-01

    An improved aqueous extraction method has been established for extraction of oil from corn germs. This method primarily included steam explosion pretreatment and aqueous ethanol extraction. Process variables such as steam pressure, resident time, particle size and ethanol concentration were investigated. The highest yield of 93.74 % was obtained when ground steam-exploded corn germ (1.3 MPa, 30 s, 30-35 μm particle size) was treated with 30 % (v/v) aqueous ethanol for 2 h, at 60 °C and pH 9.0. The residual oil content in water and sediment phase decreased dramatically to 4 % and 3 %, respectively. The enhancement mechanism of the process induced by steam explosion was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The quality of extracted crude oil was also investigated. The results showed that the quality of extracted oil was superior to commercial oils.

  13. On extracting design principles from biology: II. Case study-the effect of knee direction on bipedal robot running efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, M; Kim, S

    2015-02-02

    Comparing the leg of an ostrich to that of a human suggests an important question to legged robot designers: should a robot's leg joint bend in the direction of running ('forwards') or opposite ('backwards')? Biological studies cannot answer this question for engineers due to significant differences between the biological and engineering domains. Instead, we investigated the inherent effect of joint bending direction on bipedal robot running efficiency by comparing energetically optimal gaits of a wide variety of robot designs sampled at random from a design space. We found that the great majority of robot designs have several locally optimal gaits with the knee bending backwards that are more efficient than the most efficient gait with the knee bending forwards. The most efficient backwards gaits do not exhibit lower touchdown losses than the most efficient forward gaits; rather, the improved efficiency of backwards gaits stems from lower torque and reduced motion at the hip. The reduced hip use of backwards gaits is enabled by the ability of the backwards knee, acting alone, to (1) propel the robot upwards and forwards simultaneously and (2) lift and protract the foot simultaneously. In the absence of other information, designers interested in building efficient bipedal robots with two-segment legs driven by electric motors should design the knee to bend backwards rather than forwards. Compared to common practices for choosing robot knee direction, application of this principle would have a strong tendency to improve robot efficiency and save design resources.

  14. Evaluation of light extraction efficiency for the light-emitting diodes based on the transfer matrix formalism and ray-tracing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingbo, An; Li, Wang; Hongxi, Lu; Zhiguo, Yu; Lei, Liu; Xin, Xi; Lixia, Zhao; Junxi, Wang; Jinmin, Li

    2016-06-01

    The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the light-emitting diodes can be calculated by the ratio of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and the light extraction efficiency (LEE). The EQE can be measured experimentally, but the LEE is difficult to calculate due to the complicated LED structures. In this work, a model was established to calculate the LEE by combining the transfer matrix formalism and an in-plane ray tracing method. With the calculated LEE, the IQE was determined and made a good agreement with that obtained by the ABC model and temperature-dependent photoluminescence method. The proposed method makes the determination of the IQE more practical and conventional. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos.11574306, 61334009), the China International Science and Technology Cooperation Program (No. 2014DFG62280), and the National High Technology Program of China (No. 2015AA03A101).

  15. On-Demand Single Photons with High Extraction Efficiency and Near-Unity Indistinguishability from a Resonantly Driven Quantum Dot in a Micropillar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xing; He, Yu; Duan, Z-C; Gregersen, Niels; Chen, M-C; Unsleber, S; Maier, S; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-01-15

    Scalable photonic quantum technologies require on-demand single-photon sources with simultaneously high levels of purity, indistinguishability, and efficiency. These key features, however, have only been demonstrated separately in previous experiments. Here, by s-shell pulsed resonant excitation of a Purcell-enhanced quantum dot-micropillar system, we deterministically generate resonance fluorescence single photons which, at π pulse excitation, have an extraction efficiency of 66%, single-photon purity of 99.1%, and photon indistinguishability of 98.5%. Such a single-photon source for the first time combines the features of high efficiency and near-perfect levels of purity and indistinguishabilty, and thus opens the way to multiphoton experiments with semiconductor quantum dots.

  16. Study of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. peel extract containing anthocyanins on fatty streak formation in the renal arteries in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sharifiyan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that consumption of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins (polyphenol content 1 g/kg diet despite of a significant increase in serum antioxidant capacity cannot protect the kidneys from hypercholesterolemia-induced damages during the treatment period.

  17. Selective dissolution followed by EDDS washing of an e-waste contaminated soil: Extraction efficiency, fate of residual metals, and impact on soil environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Valix, Marjorie; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Xin; Ok, Yong Sik; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-01-01

    To enhance extraction of strongly bound metals from oxide minerals and organic matter, this study examined the sequential use of reductants, oxidants, alkaline solvents and organic acids followed by a biodegradable chelating agent (EDDS, [S,S]-ethylene-diamine-disuccinic-acid) in a two-stage soil washing. The soil was contaminated by Cu, Zn, and Pb at an e-waste recycling site in Qingyuan city, China. In addition to extraction efficiency, this study also examined the fate of residual metals (e.g., leachability, bioaccessibility, and distribution) and the soil quality parameters (i.e., cytotoxicity, enzyme activities, and available nutrients). The reductants (dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride) effectively extracted metals by mineral dissolution, but elevated the leachability and bioaccessibility of metals due to the transformation from Fe/Mn oxides to labile fractions. Subsequent EDDS washing was found necessary to mitigate the residual risks. In comparison, prior washing by oxidants (persulphate, hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide) was marginally useful because of limited amount of soil organic matter. Prior washing by alkaline solvents (sodium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate) was also ineffective due to metal precipitation. In contrast, prior washing by low-molecular-weight organic acids (citrate and oxalate) improved the extraction efficiency. Compared to hydroxylamine hydrochloride, citrate and oxalate induced lower cytotoxicity (Microtox) and allowed higher enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, and urease) and soil nutrients (available nitrogen and phosphorus), which would facilitate reuse of the treated soil. Therefore, while sequential washing proved to enhance extraction efficacy, the selection of chemical agents besides EDDS should also include the consideration of effects on metal leachability/bioaccessibility and soil quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Renal lymphangiomatosis during pregnancy: management with percutaneous drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezmen, M.; Akata, D.; Akhan, O. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology; Deren, Oe.; Durukan, T. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Oezen, H. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Urology

    2001-01-01

    We report a unique case of exacerbation of renal lymphangiomatosis during pregnancy which was managed percutaneously until delivery. Renal lymphangiomatosis is a very rare benign disorder that might cause abdominal pain and rarely hypertension and hematuria. Surgical treatment options may result in nephrectomy. Percutaneous drainage of symptomatic renal lymphangiomas should be viewed as an efficient therapeutic option particularly when surgery is contraindicated. (orig.)

  19. Renale Osteopathie

    OpenAIRE

    Horn S

    2001-01-01

    Die renale Osteopathie umfaßt Erkrankungen des Knochens, die bei Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen auftreten, wie den sekundären bzw. tertiären Hyperparathyreoidismus, die adynamische Knochenerkrankung und die Osteopathie nach Nierentransplantation. Durch die Identifikation des Kalzium-Sensing-Rezeptors bzw. des Vitamin D-Rezeptors hat sich unser Verständnis der Zusammenhänge in den letzten Jahren erheblich verbessert. Neue Medikamente versprechen effizientere Prophylaxe- und Thera...

  20. Renale Knochenerkrankungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Störungen des Mineral- und Knochenstoffwechsels sind bei fast allen Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen anzutreffen. Pathogenetisch spielt eine Neigung zur Phosphatretention bei einer Reduktion der glomerulären Filtrationsrate die zentrale Rolle. Neben typischen, aber sehr variablen Veränderungen der Knochenstruktur (renale Osteopathie besteht auch eine sehr enge Assoziation zwischen diesen Störungen und dem massiv erhöhten kardiovaskulären Risiko der Patienten.

  1. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  2. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile inde

  3. Optimization of an Efficient Protein Extraction Protocol Compatible with Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry from Recalcitrant Phenolic Rich Roots of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moniya Chatterjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry are undoubtedly two essential tools popularly used in proteomic analyses. Utilization of these techniques however largely depends on efficient and optimized sample preparation, regarded as one of the most crucial steps for recovering maximum amount of reliable information. The present study highlights the optimization of an effective and efficient protocol, capable of extraction of root proteins from recalcitrant phenolic rich tissues of chickpea. The widely applicable TCA-acetone and phenol-based methods have been comparatively evaluated, amongst which the latter appeared to be better suited for the sample. The phenol extraction-based method further complemented with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS and pulsatory treatments proved to be the most suitable method represented by greatest spot number, good resolution, and spot intensities. All the randomly selected spots showed successful identification when subjected to further downstream MALDI-TOF and MS/MS analyses. Hence, the information obtained collectively proposes the present protein extraction protocol to be an effective one that could be applicable for recalcitrant leguminous root samples.

  4. Optimization of an Efficient Protein Extraction Protocol Compatible with Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry from Recalcitrant Phenolic Rich Roots of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Moniya; Gupta, Sumanti; Bhar, Anirban; Das, Sampa

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry are undoubtedly two essential tools popularly used in proteomic analyses. Utilization of these techniques however largely depends on efficient and optimized sample preparation, regarded as one of the most crucial steps for recovering maximum amount of reliable information. The present study highlights the optimization of an effective and efficient protocol, capable of extraction of root proteins from recalcitrant phenolic rich tissues of chickpea. The widely applicable TCA-acetone and phenol-based methods have been comparatively evaluated, amongst which the latter appeared to be better suited for the sample. The phenol extraction-based method further complemented with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and pulsatory treatments proved to be the most suitable method represented by greatest spot number, good resolution, and spot intensities. All the randomly selected spots showed successful identification when subjected to further downstream MALDI-TOF and MS/MS analyses. Hence, the information obtained collectively proposes the present protein extraction protocol to be an effective one that could be applicable for recalcitrant leguminous root samples.

  5. Simple and efficient method for region of interest value extraction from picture archiving and communication system viewer with optical character recognition software and macro program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Han; Park, Eun Hae; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2015-01-01

    The objectives are: 1) to introduce a simple and efficient method for extracting region of interest (ROI) values from a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) viewer using optical character recognition (OCR) software and a macro program, and 2) to evaluate the accuracy of this method with a PACS workstation. This module was designed to extract the ROI values on the images of the PACS, and created as a development tool by using open-source OCR software and an open-source macro program. The principal processes are as follows: (1) capture a region of the ROI values as a graphic file for OCR, (2) recognize the text from the captured image by OCR software, (3) perform error-correction, (4) extract the values including area, average, standard deviation, max, and min values from the text, (5) reformat the values into temporary strings with tabs, and (6) paste the temporary strings into the spreadsheet. This principal process was repeated for the number of ROIs. The accuracy of this module was evaluated on 1040 recognitions from 280 randomly selected ROIs of the magnetic resonance images. The input times of ROIs were compared between conventional manual method and this extraction module-assisted input method. The module for extracting ROI values operated successfully using the OCR and macro programs. The values of the area, average, standard deviation, maximum, and minimum could be recognized and error-corrected with AutoHotkey-coded module. The average input times using the conventional method and the proposed module-assisted method were 34.97 seconds and 7.87 seconds, respectively. A simple and efficient method for ROI value extraction was developed with open-source OCR and a macro program. Accurate inputs of various numbers from ROIs can be extracted with this module. The proposed module could be applied to the next generation of PACS or existing PACS that have not yet been upgraded. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevention of renal crystal deposition by an extract of Ammi visnaga L. and its constituents khellin and visnagin in hyperoxaluric rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanachayangkul, P; Chow, N; Khan, S R; Butterweck, Veronika

    2011-06-01

    In Egypt, teas prepared from the fruits of Ammi visnaga L. (syn. "Khella") are traditionally used by patients with urolithiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oral administration of an aqueous extract prepared from the fruits of A. visnaga as well as two major constituents khellin and visnagin could prevent crystal deposition in stone-forming rats. Hyperoxaluria was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by giving 0.75% ethylene glycol and 1% ammonium chloride via the drinking water. The Khella extract (KE; 125, 250 or 500 mg/kg) was orally administered for 14 days. The histopathological examination of the kidneys revealed that KE significantly reduced the incidence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal deposition. In addition, KE significantly increased urinary excretion of citrate along with a decrease of oxalate excretion. Comparable to the extract, khellin and visnagin significantly reduced the incidence of CaOx deposition in the kidneys. However, both compounds did not affect urinary citrate or oxalate excretion indicating a mechanism of action that differs from that of the extract. For KE, a reasonably good correlation was observed between the incidence of crystal deposition, the increase in citrate excretion and urine pH suggesting a mechanisms that may interfere with citrate reabsorption. In conclusion, our data suggest that KE and its compounds, khellin and visnagin, may be beneficial in the management of kidney stone disease caused by hyperoxaluria but that it is likely that different mechanism of action are involved in mediating these effects.

  7. Effect of lower doses of vanadate in combination with Azadirachta indica leaf extract on hepatic and renal antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Jaya; Ali, Shakir; Basir, Seemi Farhat

    2013-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate short-term (21 days) effects of oral administration of Azadirachta indica leaf extract and vanadate, separately and in combination, on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Vanadate is a remarkable antidiabetic agent and shows insulin mimetic effect. However, severe toxicity is associated with vanadate when used in high concentration while at lower concentration the hypoglycemic property of vanadate is reduced. So, we used a low dose of vanadate in combination with A. indica leaf extract and evaluated their effect on the antioxidant defense system. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were treated separately with insulin, vanadate (0.6 mg/ml), A. indica, and with combined dose of vanadate (0.2 mg/ml) and A. indica. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and serum glucose levels and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were determined in cytosolic fraction of liver and kidney. Diabetic rats showed hyperglycemic condition and alteration in antioxidant enzyme activities. Treatment with antidiabetic compounds resulted in the reduction of glucose levels and restoration of enzyme activities to normal. Results showed that combined treatment of vanadate and A. indica leaf extract was the most effective in normalizing altered antioxidant enzyme system.

  8. Efficient extraction of small and large RNAs in bacteria for excellent total RNA sequencing and comprehensive transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heera, Rajandas; Sivachandran, Parimannan; Chinni, Suresh V; Mason, Joanne; Croft, Larry; Ravichandran, Manickam; Yin, Lee Su

    2015-12-08

    Next-generation transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) has become the standard practice for studying gene splicing, mutations and changes in gene expression to obtain valuable, accurate biological conclusions. However, obtaining good sequencing coverage and depth to study these is impeded by the difficulties of obtaining high quality total RNA with minimal genomic DNA contamination. With this in mind, we evaluated the performance of Phenol-free total RNA purification kit (Amresco) in comparison with TRI Reagent (MRC) and RNeasy Mini (Qiagen) for the extraction of total RNA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which was grown in glucose-supplemented (control) and polyethylene-supplemented (growth-limiting condition) minimal medium. All three extraction methods were coupled with an in-house DNase I treatment before the yield, integrity and size distribution of the purified RNA were assessed. RNA samples extracted with the best extraction kit were then sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. TRI Reagent gave the lowest yield enriched with small RNAs (sRNAs), while RNeasy gave moderate yield of good quality RNA with trace amounts of sRNAs. The Phenol-free kit, on the other hand, gave the highest yield and the best quality RNA (RIN value of 9.85 ± 0.3) with good amounts of sRNAs. Subsequent bioinformatic analysis of the sequencing data revealed that 5435 coding genes, 452 sRNAs and 7 potential novel intergenic sRNAs were detected, indicating excellent sequencing coverage across RNA size ranges. In addition, detection of low abundance transcripts and consistency of their expression profiles across replicates from the same conditions demonstrated the reproducibility of the RNA extraction technique. Amresco's Phenol-free Total RNA purification kit coupled with DNase I treatment yielded the highest quality RNAs containing good ratios of high and low molecular weight transcripts with minimal genomic DNA. These RNA extracts gave excellent non-biased sequencing coverage useful

  9. Combining Position Weight Matrices and Document-Term Matrix for Efficient Extraction of Associations of Methylated Genes and Diseases from Free Text

    KAUST Repository

    Bin Raies, Arwa

    2013-10-16

    Background:In a number of diseases, certain genes are reported to be strongly methylated and thus can serve as diagnostic markers in many cases. Scientific literature in digital form is an important source of information about methylated genes implicated in particular diseases. The large volume of the electronic text makes it difficult and impractical to search for this information manually.Methodology:We developed a novel text mining methodology based on a new concept of position weight matrices (PWMs) for text representation and feature generation. We applied PWMs in conjunction with the document-term matrix to extract with high accuracy associations between methylated genes and diseases from free text. The performance results are based on large manually-classified data. Additionally, we developed a web-tool, DEMGD, which automates extraction of these associations from free text. DEMGD presents the extracted associations in summary tables and full reports in addition to evidence tagging of text with respect to genes, diseases and methylation words. The methodology we developed in this study can be applied to similar association extraction problems from free text.Conclusion:The new methodology developed in this study allows for efficient identification of associations between concepts. Our method applied to methylated genes in different diseases is implemented as a Web-tool, DEMGD, which is freely available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/demgd/. The data is available for online browsing and download. © 2013 Bin Raies et al.

  10. Comparison of the solid-phase extraction efficiency of a bounded and an included cyclodextrin-silica microporous composite for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri-Aucejo, Adela; Amorós, Pedro; Moragues, Alaina; Guillem, Carmen; Belenguer-Sapiña, Carolina

    2016-08-15

    Solid-phase extraction is one of the most important techniques for sample purification and concentration. A wide variety of solid phases have been used for sample preparation over time. In this work, the efficiency of a new kind of solid-phase extraction adsorbent, which is a microporous material made from modified cyclodextrin bounded to a silica network, is evaluated through an analytical method which combines solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. Several parameters that affected the analytes recovery, such as the amount of solid phase, the nature and volume of the eluent or the sample volume and concentration influence have been evaluated. The experimental results indicate that the material possesses adsorption ability to the tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Under the optimum conditions, the quantification limits of the method were in the range of 0.09-2.4μgL(-1) and fine linear correlations between peak height and concentration were found around 1.3-70μgL(-1). The method has good repeatability and reproducibility, with coefficients of variation under 8%. Due to the concentration results, this material may represent an alternative for trace analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water trough solid-phase extraction.

  11. Combining position weight matrices and document-term matrix for efficient extraction of associations of methylated genes and diseases from free text.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwa Bin Raies

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a number of diseases, certain genes are reported to be strongly methylated and thus can serve as diagnostic markers in many cases. Scientific literature in digital form is an important source of information about methylated genes implicated in particular diseases. The large volume of the electronic text makes it difficult and impractical to search for this information manually. METHODOLOGY: We developed a novel text mining methodology based on a new concept of position weight matrices (PWMs for text representation and feature generation. We applied PWMs in conjunction with the document-term matrix to extract with high accuracy associations between methylated genes and diseases from free text. The performance results are based on large manually-classified data. Additionally, we developed a web-tool, DEMGD, which automates extraction of these associations from free text. DEMGD presents the extracted associations in summary tables and full reports in addition to evidence tagging of text with respect to genes, diseases and methylation words. The methodology we developed in this study can be applied to similar association extraction problems from free text. CONCLUSION: The new methodology developed in this study allows for efficient identification of associations between concepts. Our method applied to methylated genes in different diseases is implemented as a Web-tool, DEMGD, which is freely available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/demgd/. The data is available for online browsing and download.

  12. Optimal overlayer inspired by Photuris firefly improves light-extraction efficiency of existing light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Annick; André, Nicolas; Sarrazin, Michaël; Belarouci, Ali; Aimez, Vincent; Francis, Laurent A; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2013-01-14

    In this paper the design, fabrication and characterization of a bioinspired overlayer deposited on a GaN LED is described. The purpose of this overlayer is to improve light extraction into air from the diode's high refractive-index active material. The layer design is inspired by the microstructure found in the firefly Photuris sp. The actual dimensions and material composition have been optimized to take into account the high refractive index of the GaN diode stack. This two-dimensional pattern contrasts other designs by its unusual profile, its larger dimensions and the fact that it can be tailored to an existing diode design rather than requiring a complete redesign of the diode geometry. The gain of light extraction reaches values up to 55% with respect to the reference unprocessed LED.

  13. Alkyl polyglucoside-stabilized emulsion as a prospective vehicle for Usnea barbata CO2-supercritical extract: Assessing stability, safety and efficiency of a topical formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žugić Ana R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of Usnea barbata especially against bacteria involved in pathogenesis of various skin conditions has been well documented in literature. Nevertheless, there are no papers dealing with formulation of its isolates into topical preparations for treatment of skin infections. In present study, alkyl polyglucoside (APG - based vehicle was developed as carrier of U. barbata CO2-supercritical extract (U-SE that demonstrated the best antimicrobial potential in preliminary screening. For comparison, chosen extract in the same concentration and using the same procedure was incorporated into a pharmacopoeial vehicle. Comparative evaluation of physicochemical stability, efficiency and safety proved APG-based vehicle to possess certain preferential features as carrier of U-SE compared to the reference one, composing a topical formulation with potential clinical relevance in treatment of skin infections. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45017 i br. TR34031

  14. Efficient extraction of proteins from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues requires higher concentration of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane

    OpenAIRE

    KAWASHIMA, Yusuke; Kodera, Yoshio; Singh, Anil; Matsumoto, Masaomi; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded clinical tissues have been created in the past decades and stored in pathological depositories at hospitals as well as in clinical laboratories worldwide. In addition to the archived tissues, formaldehyde-fixation is also mandatory for preparing proteomics samples from diseased patients or animal models in order to inactivate contagious agents. Protein extraction from formaldehyde-fixed tissues is hampered by the Schiff base formati...

  15. Lipid peroxidation and renal injury in renal ischemia/reperfusion: Effect of Benincasa cerifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalodia Y

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of the methanolic fruit extract of Benincasa cerifera on lipid peroxidation (LPO and renal pathology in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R.In experimental methodology, both renal pedicles were occluded for 60 min followed by 24 h of reperfusion. B. cerifera (500 mg/kg/day was administered orally for 5 days prior to induction of renal ischemia and was continued for 1 day after ischemia. At the end of the reperfusion period, rats were sacrificed. Sham-operated rats followed same procedure except renal arteries occlusion. LPO and histopathological analysis were done in renal tissue. Serum creatinine and urea levels were measured for the evaluation of renal function. In ischemia/reperfusion (I/R rats, malondialdehyde (MDA levels were increased significantly when compared with sham-control rats. Histological changes showed tubular cell swelling, interstitial oedema, tubular dilation and moderate-to-severe necrosis in epithelium of I/R rat as compared to sham control. The methanolic fruit extract of B. cerifera could attenuate the heightened MDA levels. I/R-induced renal injury was markedly diminished by administration of B. cerifera These results indicate that the methanolic fruit extract of B. cerifera attenuate renal damage after I/R injury of the kidney by potent antioxidant or free radical scavenging activity.

  16. Bilateral Renal Mass-Renal Disorder: Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Tiryaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old woman has presented complaining of weakness and fatigue to her primary care physician. The renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When the renal masses have been discovered by sonography in this setting, the functional imaging may be critical. We reported a case about bilateral renal masses in a young female patient with tuberculosis and renal insufficiency. Magnetic resonance (MR has revealed the bilateral renal masses in patient, and this patient has been referred to our hospital for further management. The patient’s past medical and surgical history was unremarkable.

  17. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA ... excreting it into the urine. Distal renal tubular acidosis (Type I RTA) is caused by a defect ...

  18. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  19. Influence of Nonpolar Substances on the Extraction Efficiency of Six Alkaloids in Zoagumhwan Investigated by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography and Photodiode Array Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijing Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array (UPLC-PDA detection method was established for the determination of six alkaloids in Zoagumhwan (ZGW, and further for investigating the influence of nonpolar substances on the extraction efficiency of these alkaloids. The method was based on a BEH C18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm column and mobile phase of aqueous phosphoric acid and acetonitrile including 0.05% buffer solution under gradient elution. ZGW samples of ZGW I, II, III and IV were obtained and prepared by pre-processing the crude materials of Coptidis rhizoma and Evodiae fructus using four technologies, namely direct water decoction, removal of nonpolar substances in Evodiae fructus by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, removal of nonpolar substances in ZGW by SFE and removal of nonpolar substances in ZGW by steam distillation. The developed and validated UPLC-PDA method was precise, accurate and sensitive enough based on the facts that the six alkaloids showed good regression (r > 0.9998, the limit of detections and quantifications for six alkaloids were less than 28.8 and 94.5 ng/mL, respectively, and the recovery was in the range of 98.56%–103.24%. The sequence of the total contents of six alkaloids in these samples was ZGW II > ZGW IV > ZGW III > ZGW I. ZGW II, in which nonpolar substances, including essential oils, were firstly removed from Evodiae fructus by SFE, had the highest content of the total alkaloids, indicating that extraction efficiency of the total alkaloids could be remarkably increased after Evodiae fructus being extracted by SFE.

  20. The Renal Protective Effects of Corn Silk and Feijoa by using in situ Rat Renal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corn silk (CS is widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. Feijoa sellowiana (FS, on the other hand, is a non-native plant widespread in the southern part of Iran. The aim of the present study was to examine the renal protective activity of CS and FS against dosage-induced ecstasy (MDMA by in situ rat renal perfusion (IRRP system. Methods: Hydro-alcoholic extracts of CS and FS (10, 20, 40 and 100 mg/ kg were studied for their renal protective activities by IRRP system. In this study, the kidneys were perfused with Kerbs-Henseleit buffer, containing different concentrations of hydro-alcoholic (HA extracts of CS and FS (10, 20, 40, 50, and 100mg/kg added to the buffer and perfused for two hours. During the perfusion, many factors, including urea, creatinine and GSH levels assessed as indicator of renal viability. Consequently, sections of renal tissue were examined for any histopathological changes. Results: The results showed that histopathological changes in renal tissue related to HA extract of CS AND FS concentrations dose-dependently. Doses of 50, 100 mg/kg caused significant histopathological changes (P<0.05. Glutathione (GSH levels of samples perfused by HA extract of CS and FS increased compared with the positive control group. Conclusion: Renal protective effects of CS and FS decrease lipid peroxidation, although other mechanisms may also be involved.

  1. Angular distribution of polarized light and its effect on light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinjuan; Ji, Cheng; Xiang, Yong; Kang, Xiangning; Shen, Bo; Yu, Tongjun

    2016-05-16

    Angular distribution of polarized light and its effect on light extraction efficiency (LEE) in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are investigated in this paper. A united picture is presented to describe polarized light's emission and propagation processes. It is found that the electron-hole recombinations in AlGaN multiple quantum wells produce three kinds of angularly distributed polarized emissions and propagation process can change their intensity distributions. By investigation the change of angular distributions in 277nm and 215nm LEDs, this work reveals that LEE can be significantly enhanced by modulating the angular distributions of polarized light of DUV LEDs.

  2. Renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  3. Renale Osteopathie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Die renale Osteopathie umfaßt Erkrankungen des Knochens, die bei Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen auftreten, wie den sekundären bzw. tertiären Hyperparathyreoidismus, die adynamische Knochenerkrankung und die Osteopathie nach Nierentransplantation. Durch die Identifikation des Kalzium-Sensing-Rezeptors bzw. des Vitamin D-Rezeptors hat sich unser Verständnis der Zusammenhänge in den letzten Jahren erheblich verbessert. Neue Medikamente versprechen effizientere Prophylaxe- und Therapiemöglichkeiten. Wir beeinflussen dadurch nicht nur die Morbidität und Lebensqualität, sondern auch die Mortalität unserer Patienten.

  4. Renal disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Martha S; Poole, Judith H

    2002-03-01

    Anatomic and physiologic adaptations within the renal system during pregnancy are significant. Alterations are seen in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, resulting in changes in normal renal laboratory values. When these normal renal adaptations are coupled with pregnancy-induced complications or preexisting renal dysfunction, the woman may demonstrate a reduction of renal function leading to an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This article will review normal pregnancy adaptations of the renal system and discuss common pregnancy-related renal complications.

  5. Design of a Closed-Loop, Bidirectional Brain Machine Interface System With Energy Efficient Neural Feature Extraction and PID Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xilin; Zhang, Milin; Richardson, Andrew G; Lucas, Timothy H; Van der Spiegel, Jan

    2016-12-16

    This paper presents a bidirectional brain machine interface (BMI) microsystem designed for closed-loop neuroscience research, especially experiments in freely behaving animals. The system-on-chip (SoC) consists of 16-channel neural recording front-ends, neural feature extraction units, 16-channel programmable neural stimulator back-ends, in-channel programmable closed-loop controllers, global analog-digital converters (ADC), and peripheral circuits. The proposed neural feature extraction units includes 1) an ultra low-power neural energy extraction unit enabling a 64-step natural logarithmic domain frequency tuning, and 2) a current-mode action potential (AP) detection unit with time-amplitude window discriminator. A programmable proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller has been integrated in each channel enabling a various of closed-loop operations. The implemented ADCs include a 10-bit voltage-mode successive approximation register (SAR) ADC for the digitization of the neural feature outputs and/or local field potential (LFP) outputs, and an 8-bit current-mode SAR ADC for the digitization of the action potential outputs. The multi-mode stimulator can be programmed to perform monopolar or bipolar, symmetrical or asymmetrical charge balanced stimulation with a maximum current of 4 mA in an arbitrary channel configuration. The chip has been fabricated in 0.18 μ m CMOS technology, occupying a silicon area of 3.7 mm (2). The chip dissipates 56 μW/ch on average. General purpose low-power microcontroller with Bluetooth module are integrated in the system to provide wireless link and SoC configuration. Methods, circuit techniques and system topology proposed in this work can be used in a wide range of relevant neurophysiology research, especially closed-loop BMI experiments.

  6. Efficient synthesis of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots for cell imaging using unripe fruit extract of Prunus mume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan, E-mail: mgsethu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural Institute-Deemed University, Gandhigram 624 302, Tamilnadu (India); Lee, Yong Rok, E-mail: yrlee@yu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-30

    Graphical abstract: The green synthesis of highly fluorescent N-CDs was achieved using the extract of unripe P. mume fruit as a carbon precursor by a one-pot simple hydrothermal-carbonization method. The resulting N-CDs were used as a staining agent for the fluorescence imaging of MDA-MB-231 cells. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The green synthesis of highly fluorescent N-CDs using the extract of unripe P. mume. • The N-CDs were synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal-carbonization method. • This method of synthesis is a simple, cost effective and eco-friendly route. • N-CDs will be a good alternative for fluorescent dyes and SQDs for bio-applications. - Abstract: Highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) were synthesized using the extract of unripe Prunus mume (P. mume) fruit by a simple one step hydrothermal-carbonization method. The N-CDs were synthesized at different pH ranges, 2.3, 5, 7, and 9. The pH of the P. mume extract was adjusted using an aqueous ammonia solution (25%). The optical properties of N-CDs were examined by UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 emitted high fluorescence intensity compared to other obtained N-CDs. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 was further characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform-infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HR-TEM showed that the average size of the synthesized N-CDs was approximately 9 nm and the interlayer distance was 0.21 nm, which was validated by XRD. The graphitic nature of the synthesized N-CDs were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. XPS and FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the doping of the nitrogen moiety over the synthesized CDs. The synthesized nitrogen doped CDs (N-CDs) were low toxicity and were used as a staining probe for fluorescence cell imaging.

  7. Enhancing the Light-Extraction Efficiency of AlGaN Nanowires Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode by using Nitride/Air Distributed Bragg Reflector Nanogratings

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2017-09-11

    The performance and efficiency of AlGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes have been limited by the extremely low light-extraction efficiency (LEE) due to the intrinsic material properties of AlGaN. Here, to enhance the LEE of the device, we demonstrate an AlGaN nanowires light-emitting diode (NWs-LED) integrated with nitride/air Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) nanogratings. Compared to a control device (only mesa), the AlGaN NWs-LED with the nitride/air DBR nanogratings exhibit enhancement in the light output power and external quantum efficiency (EQE) by a factor of ∼1.67. The higher light output power and EQE are attributed mainly to the multiple reflectances laterally for the transverse magnetic (TM)-polarized light and scattering introduced by the nanogratings. To further understand the LEE enhancement, the electrical field distribution, extraction ratio and polar pattern of the AlGaN NWs-LED with and without the nitride/air DBR nanogratings were analyzed using the finite-difference-time-domain method. It was observed that the TM-field emission was confined and scattered upward whereas the polar pattern was intensified for the AlGaN NWs-LED with the nanogratings. Our approach to enhance the LEE via the nitride/air DBR nanogratings can provide a promising route for increasing the efficiency of AlGaN-based LEDs, also, to functioning as facet mirror for AlGaN-based laser diodes.

  8. The doripenem serum concentrations in intensive care patients suffering from acute kidney injury, sepsis, and multi organ dysfunction syndrome undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy slow low-efficiency dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrzej Wieczorek, Andrzej Tokarz, Wojciech Gaszynski, Tomasz Gaszynski Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Abstract: Doripenem is a novel wide-spectrum antibiotic, and a derivate of carbapenems. It is an ideal antibiotic for treatment of serious nosocomial infections and severe sepsis for its exceptionally high efficiency and broad antibacterial spectrum of action. Doripenem is eliminated mainly by the kidneys. In cases of acute kidney injury, dosing of doripenem depends on creatinine clearance and requires adjustments. Doripenem is eliminated during hemodialysis because its molecular weight is 300–400 Da. The aim of this study was to establish the impact of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT slow low-efficiency dialysis (SLED on doripenem serum concentrations in a population of intensive-therapy patients with life-threatening infections and severe sepsis. Ten patients were enrolled in this observational study. Twelve blood samples were collected during the first administration of doripenem in a 1-hour continuous infusion while CRRT SLED was provided. Fluid chromatography was used for measurement of the concentration of doripenem in serum. In all collected samples, concentration of doripenem was above the minimum inhibition concentration of this antibiotic. Based on these results, we can draw the conclusion that doripenem concentration is above the minimum inhibition ­concentration throughout all of CRRT. The dosing pattern proposed by the manufacturer can be used in patients receiving CRRT SLED without necessary modifications. Keywords: AKI, antibiotic, antimicrobial therapy, carbapenem, CRRT, infection, MODS, SLED

  9. The doripenem serum concentrations in intensive care patients suffering from acute kidney injury, sepsis, and multi organ dysfunction syndrome undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy slow low-efficiency dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Andrzej; Tokarz, Andrzej; Gaszynski, Wojciech; Gaszynski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Doripenem is a novel wide-spectrum antibiotic, and a derivate of carbapenems. It is an ideal antibiotic for treatment of serious nosocomial infections and severe sepsis for its exceptionally high efficiency and broad antibacterial spectrum of action. Doripenem is eliminated mainly by the kidneys. In cases of acute kidney injury, dosing of doripenem depends on creatinine clearance and requires adjustments. Doripenem is eliminated during hemodialysis because its molecular weight is 300-400 Da. The aim of this study was to establish the impact of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) slow low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) on doripenem serum concentrations in a population of intensive-therapy patients with life-threatening infections and severe sepsis. Ten patients were enrolled in this observational study. Twelve blood samples were collected during the first administration of doripenem in a 1-hour continuous infusion while CRRT SLED was provided. Fluid chromatography was used for measurement of the concentration of doripenem in serum. In all collected samples, concentration of doripenem was above the minimum inhibition concentration of this antibiotic. Based on these results, we can draw the conclusion that doripenem concentration is above the minimum inhibition concentration throughout all of CRRT. The dosing pattern proposed by the manufacturer can be used in patients receiving CRRT SLED without necessary modifications.

  10. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  11. Renal calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrah, Leslie N

    1979-01-01

    Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long an...

  12. Development of an Efficient Protein Extraction Method Compatible with LC-MS/MS for Proteome Mapping in Two Australian Seagrasses Zostera muelleri and Posidonia australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Jiang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The availability of the first complete genome sequence of the marine flowering plant Zostera marina (commonly known as seagrass in early 2016, is expected to significantly raise the impact of seagrass proteomics. Seagrasses are marine ecosystem engineers that are currently declining worldwide at an alarming rate due to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Seagrasses (especially species of the genus Zostera are compromised for proteomic studies primarily due to the lack of efficient protein extraction methods because of their recalcitrant cell wall which is rich in complex polysaccharides and a high abundance of secondary metabolites in their cells. In the present study, three protein extraction methods that are commonly used in plant proteomics i.e., phenol (P; trichloroacetic acid/acetone/SDS/phenol (TASP; and borax/polyvinyl-polypyrrolidone/phenol (BPP extraction, were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively based on two dimensional isoelectric focusing (2D-IEF maps and LC-MS/MS analysis using the two most abundant Australian seagrass species, namely Zostera muelleri and Posidonia australis. All three tested methods produced high quality protein extracts with excellent 2D-IEF maps in P. australis. However, the BPP method produces better results in Z. muelleri compared to TASP and P. Therefore, we further modified the BPP method (M-BPP by homogenizing the tissue in a modified protein extraction buffer containing both ionic and non-ionic detergents (0.5% SDS; 1.5% Triton X-100, 2% PVPP and protease inhibitors. Further, the extracted proteins were solubilized in 0.5% of zwitterionic detergent (C7BzO instead of 4% CHAPS. This slight modification to the BPP method resulted in a higher protein yield, and good quality 2-DE maps with a higher number of protein spots in both the tested seagrasses. Further, the M-BPP method was successfully utilized in western-blot analysis of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC—a key enzyme for carbon

  13. Efficient synthesis of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots for cell imaging using unripe fruit extract of Prunus mume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-10-01

    Highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) were synthesized using the extract of unripe Prunus mume (P. mume) fruit by a simple one step hydrothermal-carbonization method. The N-CDs were synthesized at different pH ranges, 2.3, 5, 7, and 9. The pH of the P. mume extract was adjusted using an aqueous ammonia solution (25%). The optical properties of N-CDs were examined by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 emitted high fluorescence intensity compared to other obtained N-CDs. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 was further characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform-infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HR-TEM showed that the average size of the synthesized N-CDs was approximately 9 nm and the interlayer distance was 0.21 nm, which was validated by XRD. The graphitic nature of the synthesized N-CDs were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. XPS and FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the doping of the nitrogen moiety over the synthesized CDs. The synthesized nitrogen doped CDs (N-CDs) were low toxicity and were used as a staining probe for fluorescence cell imaging.

  14. Design and evaluation of synthetic silica-based monolithic materials in shrinkable tube for efficient protein extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Eman; Welham, Kevin

    2011-10-21

    Sample pretreatment is a required step in proteomics in order to remove interferences and preconcentrate the samples. Much research in recent years has focused on porous monolithic materials since they are highly permeable to liquid flow and show high mass transport compared with more common packed beds. These features are due to the micro-structure within the monolithic silica column which contains both macropores that reduce the back pressure, and mesopores that give good interaction with analytes. The aim of this work was to fabricate a continuous porous silica monolithic rod inside a heat shrinkable tube and to compare this with the same material whose surface has been modified with a C(18) phase, in order to use them for preconcentration/extraction of proteins. The performance of the silica-based monolithic rod was evaluated using eight proteins; insulin, cytochrome C, lysozyme, myoglobin, β-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin, hemoglobin, and bovine serum albumin at a concentration of 60 μM. The results show that recovery of the proteins was achieved by both columns with variable yields; however, the C(18) modified silica monolith gave higher recoveries (92.7 to 109.7%) than the non-modified silica monolith (25.5 to 97.9%). Both silica monoliths can be used with very low back pressure indicating a promising approach for future fabrication of the silica monolith inside a microfluidic device for the extraction of proteins from biological media.

  15. Efficiency of single extraction schemes in highlighting the impact of changes in land use of contaminated agricultural soils on their trace metal availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Lamy, Isabelle; Bermond, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Presently changes in the land use of contaminated and marginal agricultural lands from conventional annual food crops to perennial non-food bionerg