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  1. High Performance Calcium Titanate Nanoparticle ER Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuezhao; Shen, Rong; Wen, Weijia; Lu, Kunquan

    A type of calcium titanate (CTO) nanoparticles was synthesized by means of wet chemical method [1] without coating on the particles. The CTO/silicone oil ER fluid exhibits excellent electrorheological properties: high shear stress (~50-100 kPa) under dc electric field, a low current density (less than 2μA/cm2 at 5kV/mm), and long term stability against sedimentation. Although there are not special additives in the ER fluids, it is found from the chemical analysis that a trace of alkyl group, hydroxyl group, carbonyl group and some ions is remained in the particles which may dominate the ER response.

  2. The ER mitochondria calcium cycle and ER stress response as therapeutic targets in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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    Vedrana eTadic

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Although the etiology remains unclear, disturbances in calcium homoeostasis and protein folding are essential features of neurodegeneration in this disorder. Here, we review recent research findings on the interaction between endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria, and its effect on calcium signaling and oxidative stress. We further provide insights into studies, providing evidence that structures of the ER mitochondria calcium cycle (ERMCC serve as a promising targets for therapeutic approaches for treatment of ALS.

  3. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Calcium Nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Orson W.; Fuster, Daniel G.; Xie, Xiao-Song

    2008-09-01

    Calcium stones are commonly encountered in patients with congenital distal renal tubular acidosis, a disease of renal acidification caused by mutations in either the vacuolar H+-ATPase (B1 or a4 subunit), anion exchanger-1, or carbonic anhydrase II. Based on the existing database, we present two hypotheses. First, heterozygotes with mutations in B1 subunit of H+-ATPase are not normal but may harbor biochemical abnormalities such as renal acidification defects, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia which can predispose them to kidney stone formation. Second, we propose at least two mechanisms by which mutant B1 subunit can impair H+-ATPase: defective pump assembly and defective pump activity.

  4. Renal vascular effects of calcium channel blockers in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benstein, J A; Dworkin, L D

    1990-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that calcium channel blockers have specific effects on renal hemodynamics in patients with hypertension and may also slow the progression of chronic renal failure. When these agents are studied in vitro, their predominant effect is to reverse afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction induced by catecholamines or angiotensin II. Because efferent resistance may remain high, glomerular filtration rate rises while renal blood flow remains low. The effects in vivo are less consistent. In human hypertension, calcium channel blockers lower renal resistance and may raise both renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. In experimental models of chronic renal disease, calcium channel blockers slow the progression of renal damage; however, variable effects on renal hemodynamics have been found. Other factors implicated in the progression of renal damage, including compensatory renal hypertrophy, platelet aggregation, and calcium deposition, may also be favorably influenced by these agents. Recent studies suggest that calcium channel blockers may have similar protective effects in patients with hypertension and chronic renal disease.

  5. [Intra-cystic renal calcium milk].

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    Meunier, B; Médart, L; Massart, J P; Collignon, L

    2015-02-01

    Intra-cystic renal calcium milk is a rare entity. The authors report a clinical case, and describe the radiographic and tomodensitometric appearances. This 50 year old patient has been followed up for more than ten years for urinary lithiasis with recurrent pain.

  6. Role of claudins in renal calcium handling

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    Armando Luis Negri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paracellular channels occurring in tight junctions play a major role in transepithelial ionic flows. This pathway includes a high number of proteins, such as claudins. Within renal epithelium, claudins result in an ionic selectivity in tight junctions. Ascending thick limb of loop of Henle (ATLH is the most important segment for calcium reabsorption in renal tubules. Its cells create a water-proof barrier, actively transport sodium and chlorine through a transcellular pathway, and provide a paracellular pathway for selective calcium reabsorption. Several studies have led to a model of paracellular channel consisting of various claudins, particularly claudin-16 and 19. Claudin-16 mediates cationic paracellular permeability in ATLH, whereas claudin-19 increases cationic selectivity of claudin-16 by blocking anionic permeability. Recent studies have shown that claudin-14 promoting activity is only located in ATLH. When co-expressed with claudin-16, claudin-14 inhibits the permeability of claudin-16 and reduces paracellular permeability to calcium. Calcium reabsorption process in ATLH is closely regulated by calcium sensor receptor (CaSR, which monitors circulating Ca levels and adjusts renal excretion rate accordingly. Two microRNA, miR-9 and miR-374, are directly regulated by CaSR. Thus, miR-9 and miR-374 suppress mRNA translation for claudin-14 and induce claudin-14 decline.

  7. Excessive signal transduction of gain-of-function variants of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR are associated with increased ER to cytosol calcium gradient.

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    Marianna Ranieri

    Full Text Available In humans, gain-of-function mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR gene are the cause of autosomal dominant hypocalcemia or type 5 Bartter syndrome characterized by an abnormality of calcium metabolism with low parathyroid hormone levels and excessive renal calcium excretion. Functional characterization of CaSR activating variants has been so far limited at demonstrating an increased sensitivity to external calcium leading to lower Ca-EC50. Here we combine high resolution fluorescence based techniques and provide evidence that for the efficiency of calcium signaling system, cells expressing gain-of-function variants of CaSR monitor cytosolic and ER calcium levels increasing the expression of the Sarco-Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-ATPase (SERCA and reducing expression of Plasma Membrane Calcium-ATPase (PMCA. Wild-type CaSR (hCaSR-wt and its gain-of-function (hCaSR-R990G; hCaSR-N124K variants were transiently transfected in HEK-293 cells. Basal intracellular calcium concentration was significantly lower in cells expressing hCaSR-wt and its gain of function variants compared to mock. In line, FRET studies using the D1ER probe, which detects [Ca2+]ER directly, demonstrated significantly higher calcium accumulation in cells expressing the gain of function CaSR variants compared to hCaSR-wt. Consistently, cells expressing activating CaSR variants showed a significant increase in SERCA activity and expression and a reduced PMCA expression. This combined parallel regulation in protein expression increases the ER to cytosol calcium gradient explaining the higher sensitivity of CaSR gain-of-function variants to external calcium. This control principle provides a general explanation of how cells reliably connect (and exacerbate receptor inputs to cell function.

  8. Excessive signal transduction of gain-of-function variants of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) are associated with increased ER to cytosol calcium gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Marianna; Tamma, Grazia; Di Mise, Annarita; Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Soldati, Laura; Svelto, Maria; Valenti, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    In humans, gain-of-function mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene are the cause of autosomal dominant hypocalcemia or type 5 Bartter syndrome characterized by an abnormality of calcium metabolism with low parathyroid hormone levels and excessive renal calcium excretion. Functional characterization of CaSR activating variants has been so far limited at demonstrating an increased sensitivity to external calcium leading to lower Ca-EC50. Here we combine high resolution fluorescence based techniques and provide evidence that for the efficiency of calcium signaling system, cells expressing gain-of-function variants of CaSR monitor cytosolic and ER calcium levels increasing the expression of the Sarco-Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-ATPase (SERCA) and reducing expression of Plasma Membrane Calcium-ATPase (PMCA). Wild-type CaSR (hCaSR-wt) and its gain-of-function (hCaSR-R990G; hCaSR-N124K) variants were transiently transfected in HEK-293 cells. Basal intracellular calcium concentration was significantly lower in cells expressing hCaSR-wt and its gain of function variants compared to mock. In line, FRET studies using the D1ER probe, which detects [Ca2+]ER directly, demonstrated significantly higher calcium accumulation in cells expressing the gain of function CaSR variants compared to hCaSR-wt. Consistently, cells expressing activating CaSR variants showed a significant increase in SERCA activity and expression and a reduced PMCA expression. This combined parallel regulation in protein expression increases the ER to cytosol calcium gradient explaining the higher sensitivity of CaSR gain-of-function variants to external calcium. This control principle provides a general explanation of how cells reliably connect (and exacerbate) receptor inputs to cell function.

  9. Testosterone increases urinary calcium excretion and inhibits expression of renal calcium transport proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Y.J.; Dimke, H.; Schoeber, J.P.H.; Hsu, S.C.; Lin, S.H.; Chu, P.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although gender differences in the renal handling of calcium have been reported, the overall contribution of androgens to these differences remains uncertain. We determined here whether testosterone affects active renal calcium reabsorption by regulating calcium transport proteins. Male mice had hig

  10. Milk of calcium renal stone: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    守屋, 賢治; 西尾, 正一; 前川, 正信; 小早川, 等; 安本, 亮二

    1989-01-01

    A case of milk of calcium renal stone is reported. The patient was a 24-year-old woman who complained of dull flank pain on the right side. A plain film of the abdomen revealed a right renal stone, which showed peculiar radiopacity of a half-moon shape in the upright position. The operation was performed on July 6, 1984. Postoperative chemical analysis of sand granules showed calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate.

  11. Intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption of calcium throughout postnatal development.

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    Beggs, Megan R; Alexander, R Todd

    2017-04-01

    Calcium is vital for many physiological functions including bone mineralization. Postnatal deposition of calcium into bone is greatest in infancy and continues through childhood and adolescence until peek mineral density is reached in early adulthood. Thereafter, bone mineral density remains static until it eventually declines in later life. A positive calcium balance, i.e. more calcium absorbed than excreted, is crucial to bone deposition during growth and thus to peek bone mineral density. Dietary calcium is absorbed from the intestine into the blood. It is then filtered by the renal glomerulus and either reabsorbed by the tubule or excreted in the urine. Calcium can be (re)absorbed across intestinal and renal epithelia via both transcellular and paracellular pathways. Current evidence suggests that significant intestinal and renal calcium transport changes occur throughout development. However, the molecular details of these alterations are incompletely delineated. Here we first briefly review the current model of calcium transport in the intestine and renal tubule in the adult. Then, we describe what is known with regard to calcium handling through postnatal development, and how alterations may aid in mediating a positive calcium balance. The role of transcellular and paracellular calcium transport pathways and the contribution of specific intestinal and tubular segments vary with age. However, the current literature highlights knowledge gaps in how specifically intestinal and renal calcium (re)absorption occurs early in postnatal development. Future research should clarify the specific changes in calcium transport throughout early postnatal development including mediators of these alterations enabling appropriate bone mineralization. Impact statement This mini review outlines the current state of knowledge pertaining to the molecules and mechanisms maintaining a positive calcium balance throughout postnatal development. This process is essential to achieving

  12. Calcium renal lithiasis: metabolic diagnosis and medical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Angel Arrabal-Polo; Miguel Arrabal-Martin; Juan Garrido-Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Calcium renal lithiasis is a frequent condition that affects the worldwide population and has a high recurrence rate. Different metabolic changes may trigger the onset of calcium stone disorders, such as hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hypocitraturia and others. There are also other very prevalent disorders that are associated with calcium calculi, such as arterial hypertension, obesity and loss of bone mineral density. A correct diagnosis needs to be obtained through examinin...

  13. Renal control of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium homeostasis.

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    Blaine, Judith; Chonchol, Michel; Levi, Moshe

    2015-07-01

    Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels. Renal regulation of these ions occurs through glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and/or secretion and is therefore an important determinant of plasma ion concentration. Under physiologic conditions, the whole body balance of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium is maintained by fine adjustments of urinary excretion to equal the net intake. This review discusses how calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are handled by the kidneys.

  14. Direct imaging of ER calcium with targeted-esterase induced dye loading (TED).

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    Samtleben, Samira; Jaepel, Juliane; Fecher, Caroline; Andreska, Thomas; Rehberg, Markus; Blum, Robert

    2013-05-07

    Visualization of calcium dynamics is important to understand the role of calcium in cell physiology. To examine calcium dynamics, synthetic fluorescent Ca(2+) indictors have become popular. Here we demonstrate TED (= targeted-esterase induced dye loading), a method to improve the release of Ca(2+) indicator dyes in the ER lumen of different cell types. To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro. TED bases on efficient, recombinant targeting of a high carboxylesterase activity to the ER lumen using vector-constructs that express Carboxylesterases (CES). The latest TED vectors contain a core element of CES2 fused to a red fluorescent protein, thus enabling simultaneous two-color imaging. The dynamics of free calcium in the ER are imaged in one color, while the corresponding ER structure appears in red. At the beginning of the procedure, cells are transduced with a lentivirus. Subsequently, the infected cells are seeded on coverslips to finally enable live cell imaging. Then, living cells are incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM-ester) form of low-affinity Ca(2+) indicators, for instance Fluo5N-AM, Mag-Fluo4-AM, or Mag-Fura2-AM. The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca(2+) indicator and a hydrophilic fluorescent dye/Ca(2+) complex is formed and trapped in the ER lumen. After dye loading, the cells are analyzed at an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Cells are continuously perfused with Ringer-like solutions and the ER calcium dynamics are directly visualized by time-lapse imaging. Calcium release from the ER is identified by a decrease in fluorescence intensity in regions of interest, whereas the refilling of the ER calcium store produces an increase in fluorescence intensity. Finally, the change in fluorescent intensity over time is determined by calculation of ΔF/F0.

  15. MicroRNAs meet calcium: joint venture in ER proteostasis.

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    Finger, Fabian; Hoppe, Thorsten

    2014-11-04

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular compartment that has a key function in protein translation and folding. Maintaining its integrity is of fundamental importance for organism's physiology and viability. The dynamic regulation of intraluminal ER Ca(2+) concentration directly influences the activity of ER-resident chaperones and stress response pathways that balance protein load and folding capacity. We review the emerging evidence that microRNAs play important roles in adjusting these processes to frequently changing intracellular and environmental conditions to modify ER Ca(2+) handling and storage and maintain ER homeostasis.

  16. Kinetic versus thermodynamic factors in calcium renal lithiasis.

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    Grases, F; Costa-Bauzá, A; Königsberger, E; Königsberger, L C

    2000-01-01

    Calcium renal lithiasis formation depends on the balance between thermodynamic (supersaturation) and kinetic (inhibitors, nucleants) factors. In this paper, the importance of both groups was evaluated using (a) the complete urine analysis data obtained from 32 healthy volunteers and 141 active stone-formers, and (b) a comprehensive computer model to calculate the supersaturation values of calcium oxalate monohydrate, hydroxyapatite and brushite in each urine sample. The results of this evaluation were used to assess the possible effectiveness of a given pharmacological treatment.

  17. Calcium renal lithiasis: metabolic diagnosis and medical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Arrabal-Polo

    Full Text Available Calcium renal lithiasis is a frequent condition that affects the worldwide population and has a high recurrence rate. Different metabolic changes may trigger the onset of calcium stone disorders, such as hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hypocitraturia and others. There are also other very prevalent disorders that are associated with calcium calculi, such as arterial hypertension, obesity and loss of bone mineral density. A correct diagnosis needs to be obtained through examining the serum and urinary parameters of mineral metabolism in order to carry out adequate prevention and treatment of this condition. Once the metabolic diagnosis is known, it is possible to establish dietary and pharmacological treatment that may enable monitoring of the disease and prevent recurrence of stone formation. Some advances in treating this pathological condition have been made, and these include use of sodium alendronate in patients with calcium renal lithiasis and osteopenia/osteoporosis, or use of a combination of a thiazide with a bisphosphonate. In summary, calcium renal lithiasis often requires multidrug treatment with strict control and follow-up of patients.

  18. Calcium renal lithiasis: metabolic diagnosis and medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel; Garrido-Gomez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Calcium renal lithiasis is a frequent condition that affects the worldwide population and has a high recurrence rate. Different metabolic changes may trigger the onset of calcium stone disorders, such as hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hypocitraturia and others. There are also other very prevalent disorders that are associated with calcium calculi, such as arterial hypertension, obesity and loss of bone mineral density. A correct diagnosis needs to be obtained through examining the serum and urinary parameters of mineral metabolism in order to carry out adequate prevention and treatment of this condition. Once the metabolic diagnosis is known, it is possible to establish dietary and pharmacological treatment that may enable monitoring of the disease and prevent recurrence of stone formation. Some advances in treating this pathological condition have been made, and these include use of sodium alendronate in patients with calcium renal lithiasis and osteopenia/osteoporosis, or use of a combination of a thiazide with a bisphosphonate. In summary, calcium renal lithiasis often requires multidrug treatment with strict control and follow-up of patients.

  19. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits ER stress and renal fibrosis.

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    Kim, Hyosang; Moon, Soo Young; Kim, Joon-Seok; Baek, Chung Hee; Kim, Miyeon; Min, Ji Yeon; Lee, Sang Koo

    2015-02-01

    It has been suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress facilitates fibrotic remodeling. Therefore, modulation of ER stress may serve as one of the possible therapeutic approaches to renal fibrosis. We examined whether and how activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suppressed ER stress induced by chemical ER stress inducers [tunicamycin (TM) and thapsigargin (TG)] and also nonchemical inducers in tubular HK-2 cells. We further investigated the in vivo effects of AMPK on ER stress and renal fibrosis. Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence, small interfering (si)RNA experiments, and immunohistochemical staining were performed. Metformin (the best known clinical activator of AMPK) suppressed TM- or TG-induced ER stress, as shown by the inhibition of TM- or TG-induced upregulation of glucose-related protein (GRP)78 and phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor-2α through induction of heme oxygenase-1. Metformin inhibited TM- or TG-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transitions as well. Compound C (AMPK inhibitor) blocked the effect of metformin, and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1β riboside (another AMPK activator) exerted the same effects as metformin. Transfection with siRNA targeting AMPK blocked the effect of metformin. Consistent with the results of cell culture experiments, metformin reduced renal cortical GRP78 expression and increased heme oxygenase-1 expression in a mouse model of ER stress-induced acute kidney injury by TM. Activation of AMPK also suppressed ER stress by transforming growth factor-β, ANG II, aldosterone, and high glucose. Furthermore, metformin reduced GRP78 expression and renal fibrosis in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. In conclusion, AMPK may serve as a promising therapeutic target through reducing ER stress and renal fibrosis.

  20. Recent advances in renal tubular calcium reabsorption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensenkamp, A.R.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Knowledge of renal Ca2+ reabsorption has evolved greatly in recent years. This review focuses on two recent discoveries concerning passive and active Ca2+ reabsorption. RECENT FINDINGS: The thiazide diuretics are known for their hypocalciuric effect. Recently, it has been demonstr

  1. Radiological aspects of renal milk of calcium. Aspectos radiologicos de la lechada calcica renal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Albelo, T.; Valles Gonzalez, H.; Torres Diaz, M.; Bonilla Arjona, A.; Baares Baudet, F. (Hospital Universitario de Canarias. La Laguna. Sta. Cruz de Tenerife (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    Renal milk of calcium is an uncommon condition consisting of the supension of innumerable microcalculi that occurs in the genitourinary tract in pyelogenic cysts, calyceal diverticuli and dilated collecting systems. Five cases, studied by means of radiography, ultrasonography and CT, are presented; the semiology of each of these explorations, all of which result in urine calcium levels that vary according to the position of the patients, is analyzed. All the cases reported here were associated with calyceal diverticuli. (Author)

  2. The acute neurotoxicity of mefloquine may be mediated through a disruption of calcium homeostasis and ER function in vitro

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    Vahey Maryanne

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no established biochemical basis for the neurotoxicity of mefloquine. We investigated the possibility that the acute in vitro neurotoxicity of mefloquine might be mediated through a disruptive effect of the drug on endoplasmic reticulum (ER calcium homeostasis. Methods Laser scanning confocal microscopy was employed to monitor real-time changes in basal intracellular calcium concentrations in embryonic rat neurons in response to mefloquine and thapsigargin (a known inhibitor of the ER calcium pump in the presence and absence of external calcium. Changes in the transcriptional regulation of known ER stress response genes in neurons by mefloquine were investigated using Affymetrix arrays. The MTT assay was employed to measure the acute neurotoxicity of mefloquine and its antagonisation by thapsigargin. Results At physiologically relevant concentrations mefloquine was found to mobilize neuronal ER calcium stores and antagonize the pharmacological action of thapsigargin, a specific inhibitor of the ER calcium pump. Mefloquine also induced a sustained influx of extra-neuronal calcium via an unknown mechanism. The transcription of key ER proteins including GADD153, PERK, GRP78, PDI, GRP94 and calreticulin were up-regulated by mefloquine, suggesting that the drug induced an ER stress response. These effects appear to be related, in terms of dose effect and kinetics of action, to the acute neurotoxicity of the drug in vitro. Conclusions Mefloquine was found to disrupt neuronal calcium homeostasis and induce an ER stress response at physiologically relevant concentrations, effects that may contribute, at least in part, to the neurotoxicity of the drug in vitro.

  3. MCTP is an ER-resident calcium sensor that stabilizes synaptic transmission and homeostatic plasticity

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    Genç, Özgür; Dickman, Dion K; Ma, Wenpei; Tong, Amy; Fetter, Richard D; Davis, Graeme W

    2017-01-01

    Presynaptic homeostatic plasticity (PHP) controls synaptic transmission in organisms from Drosophila to human and is hypothesized to be relevant to the cause of human disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of PHP are just emerging and direct disease associations remain obscure. In a forward genetic screen for mutations that block PHP we identified mctp (Multiple C2 Domain Proteins with Two Transmembrane Regions). Here we show that MCTP localizes to the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that elaborate throughout the soma, dendrites, axon and presynaptic terminal. Then, we demonstrate that MCTP functions downstream of presynaptic calcium influx with separable activities to stabilize baseline transmission, short-term release dynamics and PHP. Notably, PHP specifically requires the calcium coordinating residues in each of the three C2 domains of MCTP. Thus, we propose MCTP as a novel, ER-localized calcium sensor and a source of calcium-dependent feedback for the homeostatic stabilization of neurotransmission. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22904.001 PMID:28485711

  4. Clinical observation of calcium dobesilate in the treatment of chronic renal allograft dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xue-yang; Han Shu; Zhou Mei-sheng; Fu Shang-xi; Wang Li-ming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Calcium dobesilate (calcium dihydroxy-2, 5-benzenesulfonate) has been widely used to treat chronic venous insufficiency and diabetic retinopathy, especialy many clinical studies showed that calcium dobesilate as vasoprotective compound ameliorates renal lesions in diabetic nephropathy. However, there are few literatures reported calcium dobesilate in the treatment of chronic renal alograft dysfunction after renal transplantation. OBJECTIVE:To observe the efficacy and safety of calcium dobesilate on chronic renal dysfunction after renal transplantation. METHODS:A total of 152 patients with chronic renal alograft dysfunction after renal transplantation were enroled from the Military Institute of Organ Transplantation, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA. They were randomly divided into the treatment group (n=78) and the control group (n=74). Patients in the treatment group received 500 mg of calcium dobesilate three times daily for eight weeks. Al patients were treated with calcineurin inhibitor-based triple immunosuppressive protocols and comprehensive therapies. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: For patients receiving calcium dobesilate, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid decreased significantly at two weeks after treatment and maintained a stable level (P 0.05). Administration of calcium dobesilate did not change the general condition of patients with renal insufficiency, nor did it affect blood concentrations of the immunosuppressive agents. Calcium dobesilate may help to delay the progress of graft injury in patients with chronic renal graft dysfunction by conjugating with creatinine, ameliorating the impaired microcirculation and its antioxidant property. The decline in serum creatinine aleviates patients’ anxiety and concern arising from the elevation of creatinine. However, the negative interference with serum creatinine caused by calcium dobesilate should be cautious in order to avoid

  5. Origin and types of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary renal calculi.

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    Grases, Fèlix; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Gomila, Isabel; Conte, Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Subepithelial hydroxyapatite calcification of renal papilla is thought to be involved in the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) papillary calculi. To assess the mechanism of formation, we sought to correlate the fine structure of papillary renal calculi with specific pathophysiologic conditions and urinary alterations. The study included 831 COM papillary renal calculi with established fine inner structures. A total of 24 patients with chronic stone formation were randomly selected, and their urine was collected and analyzed. The case history and lifestyle habits of these patients were obtained. The 831 papillary calculi could be classified into 1 of 4 main groups. Type I included small calculi in which COM columnar crystals begin to develop in the concave zone in close contact with papillary tissue. Type II calculi contained a hydroxyapatite core located in or near the concave zone. Type III consisted of calculi that developed on the tip of the papillae and in the concave zone, containing hydroxyapatite, calcified tissue, and calcified tubules. Type IV consisted of papillary calculi in which the core, which is situated near, but not in, the concave zone, is formed by intergrown COM crystals and organic matter. Many factors, including urinary alterations (eg, hyperoxaluria), associated diseases (eg, hypertension, diabetes), and consumption or exposure to cytotoxic substances (eg, analgesic abuse) were associated with these types of calculi. Our findings have indicated that injury is the first cause of papillary COM calculus formation, with the location of the injury determining the morphology of the resulting calculus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Decreased renal vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase activity in calcium oxalate calculi patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊汇; 刘继红; 章咏裳; 叶章群; 王少刚

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the activity of vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase in patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis compared with healthy individuals and to assess its relationship to the renal calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Methods Renal parenchymas were harvested from urolithic patients and renal tumor patients undergoing nephrectomy. The renal carboxylase activity was evaluated as the radioactivity of [14C] labeled sodium bicarbonate in carboxylic reactions in vitro using β-liquid scintillation counting. Results Significantly reduced activity of renal vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase was observed in the urolithic group as compared with normal controls (P<0.01). Conclusion It suggests that the reduced carboxylase activity observed in the urolithic patients may play an important role in the course of renal calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

  7. Aggregation of Calcium Phosphate and Oxalate Phases in the Formation of Renal Stones

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The majority of human kidney stones are comprised of multiple calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals encasing a calcium phosphate nucleus. The physiochemical mechanism of nephrolithiasis has not been well determined on the molecular level; this is crucial to the control and prevention of renal stone formation. This work investigates the role of phosphate ions on the formation of calcium oxalate stones; recent work has identified amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) as a rapidly forming initi...

  8. FAM20A mutations can cause enamel-renal syndrome (ERS.

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    Shih-Kai Wang

    Full Text Available Enamel-renal syndrome (ERS is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe enamel hypoplasia, failed tooth eruption, intrapulpal calcifications, enlarged gingiva, and nephrocalcinosis. Recently, mutations in FAM20A were reported to cause amelogenesis imperfecta and gingival fibromatosis syndrome (AIGFS, which closely resembles ERS except for the renal calcifications. We characterized three families with AIGFS and identified, in each case, recessive FAM20A mutations: family 1 (c.992G>A; g.63853G>A; p.Gly331Asp, family 2 (c.720-2A>G; g.62232A>G; p.Gln241_Arg271del, and family 3 (c.406C>T; g.50213C>T; p.Arg136* and c.1432C>T; g.68284C>T; p.Arg478*. Significantly, a kidney ultrasound of the family 2 proband revealed nephrocalcinosis, revising the diagnosis from AIGFS to ERS. By characterizing teeth extracted from the family 3 proband, we demonstrated that FAM20A(-/- molars lacked true enamel, showed extensive crown and root resorption, hypercementosis, and partial replacement of resorbed mineral with bone or coalesced mineral spheres. Supported by the observation of severe ectopic calcifications in the kidneys of Fam20a null mice, we conclude that FAM20A, which has a kinase homology domain and localizes to the Golgi, is a putative Golgi kinase that plays a significant role in the regulation of biomineralization processes, and that mutations in FAM20A cause both AIGFS and ERS.

  9. Calcium solubility of dental enamel following Er, Cr:YSGG laser irradiation

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    Apel, Christian; Graeber, Hans-Georg; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2000-03-01

    Ever since the laser was introduced in dental medicine, there has been a constant discussion about its use in caries prevention. Various studies have already illustrated the possible uses of CO2 and argon lasers in this field of dentistry. The aim of the present study was to examine the Er,Cr:YSGG laser with regard to potential in reducing the acid solubility of dental enamel. Thirty freshly extracted bovine incisor teeth were prepared for this purpose. The crowns of the teeth were covered with hard wax, leaving a standardized test area free. The test specimens were then divided into three groups. The test area was uniformly irradiated with 2.7 J/cm2 in the first test group and 6.5 J/cm2 in the second test group. The third test group was left untreated (control group). Demineralization of the teeth was performed over a period of 24 hours in acetate buffer solution (0.1 mol/l) with a pH value of 4.5 and a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius. The calcium content of the solution was subsequently determined by flame photometry. The results confirm a significantly lower calcium content in the test group exposed to radiation of 6.5 J/cm2 (p less than 0.025). Dental enamel seems to have increased acid resistance following irradiation with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser.

  10. A Comparative Study on Several Models of Experimental Renal Calcium Oxalate Stones Formation in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jihong; CAO Zhenggno; ZHANG Zhaohui; ZHOU Siwei; YE Zhangqun

    2007-01-01

    In order to compare the effects of several experimental renal calcium oxalate stones formation models in rats and to find a simple and convenient model with significant effect of calcium oxalate crystals deposition in the kidney, several rat models of renal calcium oxalate stones formation were induced by some crystal-inducing drugs (CID) including ethylene glycol (EG), ammonium chloride (AC), vitamin D3 [1α(OH)VitD3, alfacalcidol], calcium gluconate, ammonium oxalate, gentamicin sulfate, L-hydroxyproline. The rats were fed with drugs given singly or unitedly. At the end of experiment, 24-h urines were collected and the serum creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), the extents of calcium oxalate crystal deposition in the renal tissue, urinary calcium and oxalate excretion were measured. The serum Cr levels in the stone-forming groups were significantly higher than those in the control group except for the group EG+L-hydroxyproline, group calcium gluconate and group oxalate. Blood BUN concentration was significantly higher in rats fed with CID than that in control group except for group EG+L-hydroxyproline and group ammonium oxalate plus calcium gluconate. In the group of rats administered with EG plus Vitamin D3, the deposition of calcium oxalate crystal in the renal tissue and urinary calcium excretion were significantly greater than other model groups. The effect of the model induced by EG plus AC was similar to that in the group induced by EG plus Vitamin D3. EG plus Vitamin D3 or EG plus AC could stably and significantly induced the rat model of renal calcium oxalate stones formation.

  11. Potential etiologic role of brushite in the formation of calcium (renal) stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Charles Y. C.

    1981-05-01

    Brushite may play an important regulatory role in the formation of calcium -containing renal stones. The urinary environment from patients with hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis is typically supersaturated and shows an increased propensity for the spontaneous nucleation of brushite. Brushite has been identified in "stone-forming" urine and in stones. This crystalline phase may undergo phase transformation to hydroxyapatite or cause heterogeneous nucleation or epitaxial growth of calcium oxalate. Thus, brushite may also participate in the formation of stones of hydroxypatite or calcium oxalate.

  12. Technological testing of calcium carbonate tablets for use in the treatment of renal osteodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Zotto, M; Ragazzi, E; Realdon, N; Dalla Fini, G

    1993-07-01

    Samples of calcium carbonate tablets produced by different manufacturers were subjected to various tests in order to evaluate tablet quality parameters, mostly indicative for calcium availability. Indications about tablet suitability for treatment of renal osteodystrophy in uremic patients were also tested. The disintegration test turned out to be the most useful in evaluating calcium carbonate availability from tablets. Samples from several manufacturers varied in their behaviour to disaggregation. The availability of calcium dissolved in gastric fluid and the extent of phosphorus binding appeared to depend on disintegration behaviour.

  13. Development and implementation of a high-throughput compound screening assay for targeting disrupted ER calcium homeostasis in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Honarnejad

    Full Text Available Disrupted intracellular calcium homeostasis is believed to occur early in the cascade of events leading to Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology. Particularly familial AD mutations linked to Presenilins result in exaggerated agonist-evoked calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Here we report the development of a fully automated high-throughput calcium imaging assay utilizing a genetically-encoded FRET-based calcium indicator at single cell resolution for compound screening. The established high-throughput screening assay offers several advantages over conventional high-throughput calcium imaging technologies. We employed this assay for drug discovery in AD by screening compound libraries consisting of over 20,000 small molecules followed by structure-activity-relationship analysis. This led to the identification of Bepridil, a calcium channel antagonist drug in addition to four further lead structures capable of normalizing the potentiated FAD-PS1-induced calcium release from ER. Interestingly, it has recently been reported that Bepridil can reduce Aβ production by lowering BACE1 activity. Indeed, we also detected lowered Aβ, increased sAPPα and decreased sAPPβ fragment levels upon Bepridil treatment. The latter findings suggest that Bepridil may provide a multifactorial therapeutic modality for AD by simultaneously addressing multiple aspects of the disease.

  14. Disruption of calcium transfer from ER to mitochondria links alterations of mitochondria-associated ER membrane integrity to hepatic insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieusset, Jennifer; Fauconnier, Jeremy; Paillard, Melanie; Belaidi, Elise; Tubbs, Emily; Chauvin, Marie-Agnès; Durand, Annie; Bravard, Amélie; Teixeira, Geoffrey; Bartosch, Birke; Michelet, Maud; Theurey, Pierre; Vial, Guillaume; Demion, Marie; Blond, Emilie; Zoulim, Fabien; Gomez, Ludovic; Vidal, Hubert; Lacampagne, Alain; Ovize, Michel

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs) are regions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tethered to mitochondria and controlling calcium (Ca(2+)) transfer between both organelles through the complex formed between the voltage-dependent anion channel, glucose-regulated protein 75 and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R). We recently identified cyclophilin D (CYPD) as a new partner of this complex and demonstrated a new role for MAMs in the control of insulin's action in the liver. Here, we report on the mechanisms by which disruption of MAM integrity induces hepatic insulin resistance in CypD (also known as Ppif)-knockout (KO) mice. We used either in vitro pharmacological and genetic inhibition of CYPD in HuH7 cells or in vivo loss of CYPD in mice to investigate ER-mitochondria interactions, inter-organelle Ca(2+) exchange, organelle homeostasis and insulin action. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of CYPD concomitantly reduced ER-mitochondria interactions, inhibited inter-organelle Ca(2+) exchange, induced ER stress and altered insulin signalling in HuH7 cells. In addition, histamine-stimulated Ca(2+) transfer from ER to mitochondria was blunted in isolated hepatocytes of CypD-KO mice and this was associated with an increase in ER calcium store. Interestingly, disruption of inter-organelle Ca(2+) transfer was associated with ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid accumulation, activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and protein kinase C (PKC)ε and insulin resistance in liver of CypD-KO mice. Finally, CYPD-related alterations of insulin signalling were mediated by activation of PKCε rather than JNK in HuH7 cells. Disruption of IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) signalling in the liver of CypD-KO mice leads to hepatic insulin resistance through disruption of organelle interaction and function, increase in lipid accumulation and activation of PKCε. Modulation of ER-mitochondria Ca(2+) exchange may thus provide an exciting new avenue for

  15. Hypercalcaemia of malignancy: evidence for a nonparathyroid humoral agent with an effect on renal tubular handling of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, S H; Fogelman, I; Gardner, M D; Dryburgh, F J; Cowan, R A; Boyle, I T

    1984-02-01

    The renal handling of calcium was examined in 31 patients with hypercalcaemia of malignancy. Results were compared with those from patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, and normal controls rendered hypercalcaemic by calcium infusion. On relating the urinary calcium excretion indices to serum calcium values, inappropriately low rates of urinary calcium excretion were generally found in patients with malignancy associated hypercalcaemia. Further, the pattern of urinary calcium excretion in these subjects was similar to that found in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. These observations suggest that, in many solid tumours, the development of hypercalcaemia may be attributable to a humoral mediator with a parathyroid hormone-like effect on renal tubular calcium reabsorption. The relatively frequent occurrence of hypercalcaemia in malignant disease thus may be partially explained by the presence of this humoral agent, which may impair the renal excretion of an increase in filtered calcium load, whether due to bone metastases, or humorally mediated osteolysis.

  16. Switch from ER-mitochondrial to SR-mitochondrial calcium coupling during muscle differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Muqing; Weaver, David; Eisner, Verónica; Várnai, Péter; Hunyady, László; Ma, Jianjie; Csordás, György; Hajnóczky, György

    2012-11-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondria are locally coupled to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ release in myoblasts and to sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release in differentiated muscle fibers in order to regulate cytoplasmic calcium dynamics and match metabolism with cell activity. However, the mechanism of the developmental transition from ER to SR coupling remains unclear. We have studied mitochondrial sensing of IP3 receptor (IP3R)- and ryanodine receptor (RyR)-mediated Ca2+ signals in H9c2 myoblasts and differentiating myotubes, as well as the attendant changes in mitochondrial morphology. Mitochondria in myoblasts were largely elongated, luminally connected and relatively few in number, whereas the myotubes were densely packed with globular mitochondria that displayed limited luminal continuity. Vasopressin, an IP3-linked agonist, evoked a large cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) increase in myoblasts, whereas it elicited a smaller response in myotubes. Conversely, RyR-mediated Ca2+ release induced by caffeine, was not observed in myoblasts, but triggered a large [Ca2+]c signal in myotubes. Both the IP3R and the RyR-mediated [Ca2+]c rise was closely associated with a mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ ([Ca2+]m) signal. Every myotube that showed a [Ca2+]c spike also displayed a [Ca2+]m response. Addition of IP3 to permeabilized myoblasts and caffeine to permeabilized myotubes also resulted in a rapid [Ca2+]m rise, indicating that Ca2+ was delivered via local coupling of the ER/SR and mitochondria. Thus, as RyRs are expressed during muscle differentiation, the local connection between RyR and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake sites also appears. When RyR1 was exogenously introduced to myoblasts by overexpression, the [Ca2+]m signal appeared together with the [Ca2+]c signal, however the mitochondrial morphology remained unchanged. Thus, RyR expression alone is sufficient to induce the steps essential for their alignment with mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake sites, whereas the

  17. Pathophysiology of incomplete renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers: evidence of disturbed calcium, bone and citrate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Bollerslev, Jens; Hansen, A B

    1993-01-01

    Urinary acidification, bone metabolism and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 recurrent stone formers with incomplete renal tubular acidosis (iRTA), 10 recurrent stone formers with normal urinary acidification (NUA) and 10 normal controls (NC). Patients with iRTA had......-carbonic acidosis during fasting may be a pathophysilogical factor of both nephrolithiasis and disturbed bone metabolism in stone formers with iRTA....

  18. Deregulated Renal Calcium and Phosphate Transport during Experimental Kidney Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulskens, Wilco P; Verkaik, Melissa; Sheedfar, Fareeba; van Loon, Ellen P; van de Sluis, Bart; Vervloet, Mark G; Hoenderop, Joost G; Bindels, René J

    2015-01-01

    Impaired mineral homeostasis and inflammation are hallmarks of chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet the underlying mechanisms of electrolyte regulation during CKD are still unclear. Here, we applied two different murine models, partial nephrectomy and adenine-enriched dietary intervention, to induce kidney failure and to investigate the subsequent impact on systemic and local renal factors involved in Ca(2+) and Pi regulation. Our results demonstrated that both experimental models induce features of CKD, as reflected by uremia, and elevated renal neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) expression. In our model kidney failure was associated with polyuria, hypercalcemia and elevated urinary Ca(2+) excretion. In accordance, CKD augmented systemic PTH and affected the FGF23-αklotho-vitamin-D axis by elevating circulatory FGF23 levels and reducing renal αklotho expression. Interestingly, renal FGF23 expression was also induced by inflammatory stimuli directly. Renal expression of Cyp27b1, but not Cyp24a1, and blood levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 were significantly elevated in both models. Furthermore, kidney failure was characterized by enhanced renal expression of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 5 (TRPV5), calbindin-D28k, and sodium-dependent Pi transporter type 2b (NaPi2b), whereas the renal expression of sodium-dependent Pi transporter type 2a (NaPi2a) and type 3 (PIT2) were reduced. Together, our data indicates two different models of experimental kidney failure comparably associate with disturbed FGF23-αklotho-vitamin-D signalling and a deregulated electrolyte homeostasis. Moreover, this study identifies local tubular, possibly inflammation- or PTH- and/or FGF23-associated, adaptive mechanisms, impacting on Ca(2+)/Pi homeostasis, hence enabling new opportunities to target electrolyte disturbances that emerge as a consequence of CKD development.

  19. Deregulated Renal Calcium and Phosphate Transport during Experimental Kidney Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilco P Pulskens

    Full Text Available Impaired mineral homeostasis and inflammation are hallmarks of chronic kidney disease (CKD, yet the underlying mechanisms of electrolyte regulation during CKD are still unclear. Here, we applied two different murine models, partial nephrectomy and adenine-enriched dietary intervention, to induce kidney failure and to investigate the subsequent impact on systemic and local renal factors involved in Ca(2+ and Pi regulation. Our results demonstrated that both experimental models induce features of CKD, as reflected by uremia, and elevated renal neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL expression. In our model kidney failure was associated with polyuria, hypercalcemia and elevated urinary Ca(2+ excretion. In accordance, CKD augmented systemic PTH and affected the FGF23-αklotho-vitamin-D axis by elevating circulatory FGF23 levels and reducing renal αklotho expression. Interestingly, renal FGF23 expression was also induced by inflammatory stimuli directly. Renal expression of Cyp27b1, but not Cyp24a1, and blood levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 were significantly elevated in both models. Furthermore, kidney failure was characterized by enhanced renal expression of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 5 (TRPV5, calbindin-D28k, and sodium-dependent Pi transporter type 2b (NaPi2b, whereas the renal expression of sodium-dependent Pi transporter type 2a (NaPi2a and type 3 (PIT2 were reduced. Together, our data indicates two different models of experimental kidney failure comparably associate with disturbed FGF23-αklotho-vitamin-D signalling and a deregulated electrolyte homeostasis. Moreover, this study identifies local tubular, possibly inflammation- or PTH- and/or FGF23-associated, adaptive mechanisms, impacting on Ca(2+/Pi homeostasis, hence enabling new opportunities to target electrolyte disturbances that emerge as a consequence of CKD development.

  20. Relationship of intracellular calcium and oxygen radicals to Cisplatin-related renal cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yoshiko; Nakao, Takafumi; Kunimura, Naoshi; Kohda, Yuka; Gemba, Munekazu

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular calcium in nephrotoxicity related to an antitumor agent, cisplatin. In this study, we employed cultured renal epithelial cells (LLC-PK1). Cisplatin at 500 microM significantly increased the production of ROS 5 h and caused cell injury. This agent significantly increased the intracellular calcium level ([Ca2+]i) in a dose-dependent manner 1 h or more after exposure. DPPD (N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine), an antioxidant, inhibited a cisplatin-related increase in active oxygen production and cell injury but did not inhibit an early increase in the [Ca2+]i level. An intracellular calcium-chelating compound BAPTA-AM (1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra(acetoxymethyl) ester) inhibited an increase in ROS production and cell injury induced by cisplatin. Furthermore, BAPTA-AM suppressed the rise of [Ca2+]i level in 1 h after exposure; however, an extracellular calcium chelator EGTA and a calcium antagonist nicardipine did not inhibit the rise in [Ca2+]i level in the early phase. An NADPH oxidase inhibitor inhibited a cisplatin-related increase in ROS production and cell disorder. These results suggest that cisplatin-related calcium release from the site of intracellular calcium storage in the early phase causes oxidative stress in renal tubular epithelial cells. Cisplatin may increase the intracellular production of ROS via NADPH oxidase.

  1. Effect of potential renal acid load of foods on urinary citrate excretion in calcium renal stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Lizzano, Renata; Marchesotti, Federica; Zanetti, Giampaolo

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet on the urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. The present series comprises 187 consecutive renal calcium stone patients (114 males, 73 females) who were studied in our stone clinic. Each patient was subjected to an investigation including a 24-h dietary record and 24-h urine sample taken over the same period. Nutrients and calories were calculated by means of food composition tables using a computerized procedure. Daily PRAL was calculated considering the mineral and protein composition of foods, the mean intestinal absorption rate for each nutrient and the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphate, oxalate, urate, citrate, and creatinine levels were measured in the urine. The mean daily PRAL was higher in male than in female patients (24.1+/-24.0 vs 16.1+/-20.1 mEq/day, P=0.000). A significantly (P=0.01) negative correlation (R=-0.18) was found between daily PRAL and daily urinary citrate, but no correlation between PRAL and urinary calcium, oxalate, and urate was shown. Daily urinary calcium (R=0.186, P=0.011) and uric acid (R=0.157, P=0.033) were significantly related to the dietary intake of protein. Daily urinary citrate was significantly related to the intakes of copper (R=0.178, P=0.015), riboflavin (R=0.20, P=0.006), piridoxine (R=0.169, P=0.021) and biotin (R=0.196, P=0.007). The regression analysis by stepwise selection confirmed the significant negative correlation between PRAL and urinary citrate (P=0.002) and the significant positive correlation between riboflavin and urinary citrate (P=0.000). Urinary citrate excretion of renal stone formers (RSFs) is highly dependent from dietary acid load. The computation of the renal acid load is advisable to investigate the role of diet in the pathogenesis of calcium stone disease and it is also a useful tool to evaluate the lithogenic potential of

  2. Paracellular calcium transport across renal and intestinal epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Rievaj, Juraj; Dimke, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a key constituent in a myriad of physiological processes from intracellular signalling to the mineralization of bone. As a consequence, Ca(2+) is maintained within narrow limits when circulating in plasma. This is accomplished via regulated interplay between intestinal absorpt...

  3. Renal hemodynamics in hypertensive renal allograft recipients: effects of calcium antagonists and ACE inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekas, D; Dioudis, C; Kalevrosoglou, I; Alivanis, P; Derveniotis, V; Tourkantonis, A

    1996-06-01

    Hypertension present in more than 50% of successfully renal transplanted patients and its prevalence has slightly increased since the introduction of cyclosporine A. Twenty patients, 9 women and 11 men aged from 30 to 58 years, with stable cadaveric renal allograft function and moderate to severe hypertension, were included in the study. Renal artery graft stenosis causing hypertension were excluded. All patients were given triple drug immunosuppressive treatment with methylprednisolone, azathioprine and cyclosporine A (CsA) and their hypertension was treated with a nifedipine dose of 20 mg twice daily. To evaluate the effect of ACE inhibitors on renal hemodynamics and hypertension, a 4 mg/daily dose of perindopril was added to the above regimen for two months. Effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) decreased from 208 +/- 54 to 168 +/- 61 ml/min and renal vascular resistance (RVR) increased from 75 +/- 12 to 88 +/- 17 mm Hg/ml/min (P nifedipine. It is suggested that the combination of both antihypertensive agents was more effective than monotherapy with nifedipine in controlling blood pressure, but less favorable on the renal hemodynamic response in hypertensive renal transplant patients who were maintained on CsA.

  4. Growth hormone therapy in calcium-loaded rats with renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Cheryl P; He, Yu-Zhu

    2004-07-01

    GH increases linear growth in children with chronic renal failure, but the response remains suboptimal in some patients. Some of the factors that may explain the poor response to GH include high doses of calcitriol and exogenous calcium loading to prevent hyperphosphatemia. High doses of exogenous calcium adversely affect chondrocyte proliferation and delay mineralization in the growth plate of rats with renal failure; bone histomorphometric changes in these animals are comparable to adynamic bone. To evaluate GH effects on adynamic bone in renal failure, 48 weanling rats underwent sham nephrectomy (Intact-Control) or 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). Nx animals were fed a high-calcium diet (Nx-Ca(2+)) to induce adynamic bone. After 4 wk, the Nx-Ca(2+) animals were treated with GH (Nx-Ca(2+) + GH), calcitriol (Nx-Ca(2+) + D), or a combination of GH and calcitriol (Nx-Ca(2+)GH + D) for 2 wk. Serum intact PTH and IGF-I levels did not differ among all nephrectomized groups given high calcium. GH did not increase body length or tibial length at the end of study period. In the proximal tibia, the width of the growth plate and the growth plate architecture did not improve with GH. There was a decline in histone-4 expression, IGF-I protein, IGF binding protein-3, and bone morphogenetic protein-7 staining and a mild increase in IGF-I receptor, GH receptor, and gelatinase B expression in the Nx-Ca(2+) + GH group when compared with the Intact-Control group. Calcitriol blunted some of the mitogenic effects of GH in the growth plate. Thus, there was a poor response to GH therapy in calcium-loaded animals with renal failure.

  5. Renal histopathology and crystal deposits in patients with small bowel resection and calcium oxalate stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P; Lingeman, James E; Worcester, Elaine M; Bledsoe, Sharon B; Sommer, Andre J; Williams, James C; Krambeck, Amy E; Philips, Carrie L; Coe, Fredric L

    2010-08-01

    We present here the anatomy and histopathology of kidneys from 11 patients with renal stones following small bowel resection, including 10 with Crohn's disease and 1 resection in infancy for unknown cause. They presented predominantly with calcium oxalate stones. Risks of formation included hyperoxaluria (urine oxalate excretion greater than 45 mg per day) in half of the cases, and acidic urine of reduced volume. As was found with ileostomy and obesity bypass, inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs) contained crystal deposits associated with cell injury, interstitial inflammation, and papillary deformity. Cortical changes included modest glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Randall's plaque (interstitial papillary apatite) was abundant, with calcium oxalate stone overgrowth similar to that seen in ileostomy, idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, and primary hyperparathyroidism. Abundant plaque was compatible with the low urine volume and pH. The IMCD deposits all contained apatite, with calcium oxalate present in three cases, similar to findings in patients with obesity bypass but not an ileostomy. The mechanisms for calcium oxalate stone formation in IMCDs include elevated urine and presumably tubule fluid calcium oxalate supersaturation, but a low calcium to oxalate ratio. However, the mechanisms for the presence of IMCD apatite remain unknown.

  6. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Irene T

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in adult renal-transplant recipients attending at a large teaching hospital in Ireland for follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient renal-transplant follow-up clinic. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine adult renal transplant recipients (58% male) with a mean age of 46 years, a median transplant duration of 6 years, and a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 50 mL\\/min per 1.73 m2. Fifty-three percent were at National Kidney Foundation stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and 14% had stage 4 chronic kidney disease. INTERVENTION: This cross-sectional, observational study used a tailored food frequency questionnaire specific for calcium and vitamin D intake in Irish adults, which was completed during a face-to-face interview with each subject. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the average daily dietary and supplemented calcium and vitamin D intake. RESULTS: The median interquartile range (IQR) dietary calcium intake was 820 mg\\/day (range, 576-1,177 mg\\/day), and was similar in men and women (recommended intake > or = 1,000 mg\\/day in adult men and nonmenopausal adult women, > or = 1,500 mg\\/day in menopausal women). Five participants received calcium supplementation. Overall, 59% of men and 64% of women had total calcium intakes below the recommended amounts. The median IQR estimated dietary vitamin D intake was 5.2 microg\\/day (range, 2.4-6.4 microg\\/day) in women, and 4.6 microg\\/day (range, 2.2-6.6 microg\\/day) in men (recommended intake, > or = 10 microg\\/day). Six subjects received vitamin D supplementation. Total vitamin D intakes were suboptimal in 91% of men and 87% of women. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly related to eGFR category, and was similarly low in both presumed menopausal women and in the initial year posttransplantation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary and total calcium and

  7. Effect of biomolecules from human renal matrix of calcium oxalate monohydrate (CaOx stones on in vitro calcium phosphate crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarshini Pathak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Investigate the activity of high and low molecular weight biomolecules present in the matrix of human calcium oxalate (CaOx stones not only on the initial mineral phase formation of calcium and phosphate (CaP but also on its growth and demineralization of the preformed mineral phase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surgically removed renal stones were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR spectroscopy and only CaOx stones were extracted with 0.05M EGTA, 1 mM PMSF and 1% ß-mercaptoethanol. Renal CaOx stone extract was separated into > 10 kDa and 10 kDa and 10 kDa fraction lane. CONCLUSION: Both high and low molecular weight biomolecules extracted from human renal matrix of calcium oxalate (CaOx stones have a significant influence on calcium and phosphate (CaP crystallization.

  8. Functional Importance of L- and P/Q-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Human Renal Vasculature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B; Poulsen, Christian B; Walter, Steen

    2011-01-01

    in kidney function. It was hypothesized that human renal vascular excitation-contraction coupling involves different subtypes of channels. In human renal artery and dissected intrarenal blood vessels from nephrectomies, PCR analysis showed expression of L-type (Ca(v) 1.2), P/Q-type (Ca(v) 2.1), and T-type......, and L- and P/Q-type channels are of functional importance for the depolarization-induced vasoconstriction. The contribution of P/Q-type channels to contraction in the human vasculature is a novel mechanism for the regulation of renal blood flow and suggests that clinical treatment with calcium blockers......Calcium channel blockers are widely used for treatment of hypertension, because they decrease peripheral vascular resistance through inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels. Animal studies of renal vasculature have shown expression of several types of calcium channels that are involved...

  9. Renal- and calcium-dependent vascular effects of Polybia paulista wasp venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JFC Vinhote

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of Polybia paulista venom (PPV on renal and vascular tissues were investigated. Isolated kidneys perfused with PPV (1 and 3 μg/mL had increased perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, urinary flow, and glomerular filtration rate; and reduced sodium tubular transport. Histological evaluation demonstrated deposits of proteins in Bowman's space and tubular lumen, and focal areas of necrosis. The venom promoted a cytotoxic effect on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells. A significant increase in lactic dehydrogenase levels was observed in response to venom exposure. In isolated mesenteric vascular beds, pressure and vascular resistance augmented in a dose-dependent manner. PPV increased the contractility of aortic rings maintained under basal tension. This contractile response was inhibited when preparations were maintained in Ca2+-free medium. Likewise, verapamil, a voltage-gated calcium channel blocker, also inhibited the contractile response. In this study, phentolamine, a blocker of α-adrenergic receptor blocker, significantly reduced the contractile effect of PPV in the aortic ring. In conclusion, PPV produced nephrotoxicity, which suggests a direct effect on necrotic cellular death in renal tubule cells. The vascular contractile effect of PPV appears to involve calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels via adrenergic regulation.

  10. Papillary and Nonpapillary Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Renal Calculi: Comparative Study of Etiologic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pieras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM renal calculi can be classified into two groups: papillary and nonpapillary. In this paper, a comparative study between etiologic factors of COM papillary and nonpapillary calculi is performed. The study included 40 patients with COM renal calculi. The urine of these individuals was analyzed. Case history, lifestyle, and dietetic habits were obtained.No significant differences between urinary biochemical data of both groups were observed; 50% of COM papillary stone formers and 40% of COM nonpapillary stone formers had urolithiasis family history. A low consumption of phytate-rich products was observed for both groups. A relationship between profession with occupational exposure to cytotoxic products and COM papillary renal lithiasis was detected.The results suggest that COM papillary calculi would be associated to papillary epithelium alterations together with a crystallization inhibitors deficit, whereas COM nonpapillary calculi would be associated to the presence of heterogeneous nucleants and a crystallization inhibitors deficit.

  11. Acute effect of calcium blocker on renal hemodynamics in diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizu, K; Ling, Q Y; Uriu, K; Ikeda, M; Eto, S

    1995-01-01

    This study was done to examine the acute effect of a calcium channel blocker on renal hemodynamics in the diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes, and barnidipine (B) was used as a calcium blocker. Renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were measured by a clearance method with paraaminohypurate (PAH) and inulin, respectively. Rats were divided into two groups: nondiabetic SHR, N-SHR; diabetic SHR, DM-SHR. B increased RBF in N-SHR (7.44 +/- 1.99 versus 8.50 +/- 1.97 mL/min/g.kw) while there was no change in DM-SHR. B reduced renovascular resistance (RVR) in DM-SHR and N-SHR. B increased GFR in N-SHR (1.15 +/- 0.24 versus 1.34 +/- 0.25 mL/min/g.kw), in spite of no changes in DM-SHR. B did not modify filtration fraction (FF) in both groups. These results indicate (1) in SHR, B exerts beneficial effects on hypertensive renal damage by reducing mean arterial pressure (MAP), RVR, RBF, and GFR; (2) in diabetic SHR, B is less effective in restoring renal hyperfiltration in spite of reducing RVR.

  12. Calcium Oxalate Stone Agglomeration Inhibition [tm] Reflects Renal Stone-Forming Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, J S; Cole, F E; Romani, W; Husserl, F E; Fuselier, H A; Kok, D J; Erwin, D T

    2000-04-01

    Louisiana and other Gulf South states comprise a "Stone Belt" where calcium oxalate stone formers (CaOx SFs) are found at a high rate of approximately 5%. In these patients, the agglomeration of small stone crystals, which are visible in nearly all morning urine collections, forms stones that can become trapped in the renal parenchyma and the renal pelvis. Without therapy, about half of CaOx SFs repeatedly form kidney stones, which can cause excruciating pain that can be relieved by passage, fragmentation (lithotripsy), or surgical removal. The absence of stones in "normal" patients suggests that there are stone inhibitors in "normal" urines.At the Ochsner Renal Stone Clinic, 24-hour urine samples are collected by the patient and sent to the Ochsner Renal Stone Research Program where calcium oxalate stone agglomeration inhibition [tm] measurements are performed. Urine from healthy subjects and inactive stone formers has demonstrated strongly inhibited stone growth [tm] in contrast to urine from recurrent CaOx SFs. [tm] data from 1500 visits of 700 kidney stone patients have been used to evaluate the risk of recurrence in Ochsner's CaOx SF patients. These data have also been used to demonstrate the interactive roles of certain identified urinary stone-growth inhibitors, citrate and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), which can be manipulated with medication to diminish recurrent stone formation. Our goal is to offer patients both financial and pain relief by reducing their stones with optimized medication, using medical management to avoid costly treatments.

  13. Testosterone increases urinary calcium excretion and inhibits expression of renal calcium transport proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Yu-Juei; Dimke, Henrik Anthony; Schoeber, Joost P H

    2010-01-01

    . Androgen deficiency increased the abundance of the renal mRNA and protein of both the luminal transient receptor potential vanilloid-subtype 5 (TRPV5) and intracellular calbindin-D(28K) transporters, which in turn were suppressed by testosterone treatment. There were no significant differences in serum...

  14. Dual roles of brushite crystals in calcium oxalate crystallization provide physicochemical mechanisms underlying renal stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, R; Nancollas, G H; Giocondi, J L; Hoyer, J R; Orme, C A

    2006-07-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals are the major mineral component of most kidney stones, and thus have an important role in chronic human disease. However, the physicochemical mechanisms leading to calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone disease are only partially defined. As spontaneous precipitation of CaOx is rare under renal conditions, an alternative pathway for CaOx crystallization seems necessary to resolve this central issue. We performed kinetic studies using the dual constant composition method to simultaneously analyze the crystallization of COM and brushite, the form of calcium phosphate that is most readily formed in the typical slightly acidic urinary milieu. These studies were supported by parallel analysis by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. In these studies, mineralization of a thermodynamically stable phase (COM) was induced by the presence of brushite, a more readily precipitated inorganic phase. Furthermore, once formed, the COM crystals grew at the expense of brushite crystals causing the dissolution of the brushite crystals. These studies show that brushite may play crucial roles in the formation of COM crystals. The definition of these two roles for brushite thereby provides physicochemical explanations for the initiation of COM crystallization and also for the relative paucity of calcium phosphate detected in the majority of CaOx renal stones.

  15. Crystal-growth and spectroscopy of Er3+ ions in calcium gallogermanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, J. P. R.; Gallagher, H. C.; Han, T. P. J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on the Czochralski growth of large single crystals of Er3+ doped Ca3Ga2Ge4O14 (CGGO) in radio frequency heated induction furnaces operating at 18 kHz. Crystals were successfully grown at concentrations of 0.005, 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mol% of the ErF3 dopant, and were of exceptionally go

  16. FATE1 antagonizes calcium- and drug-induced apoptosis by uncoupling ER and mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doghman-Bouguerra, Mabrouka; Granatiero, Veronica; Sbiera, Silviu; Sbiera, Iuliu; Lacas-Gervais, Sandra; Brau, Frédéric; Fassnacht, Martin; Rizzuto, Rosario; Lalli, Enzo

    2016-09-01

    Several stimuli induce programmed cell death by increasing Ca(2+) transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria. Perturbation of this process has a special relevance in pathologies as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake mainly takes place in correspondence of mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM), specialized contact sites between the two organelles. Here, we show the important role of FATE1, a cancer-testis antigen, in the regulation of ER-mitochondria distance and Ca(2+) uptake by mitochondria. FATE1 is localized at the interface between ER and mitochondria, fractionating into MAM FATE1 expression in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cells under the control of the transcription factor SF-1 decreases ER-mitochondria contact and mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, while its knockdown has an opposite effect. FATE1 also decreases sensitivity to mitochondrial Ca(2+)-dependent pro-apoptotic stimuli and to the chemotherapeutic drug mitotane. In patients with ACC, FATE1 expression in their tumor is inversely correlated with their overall survival. These results show that the ER-mitochondria uncoupling activity of FATE1 is harnessed by cancer cells to escape apoptotic death and resist the action of chemotherapeutic drugs. © 2016 The Authors.

  17. Are calcium oxalate crystals involved in the mechanism of acute renal failure in ethylene glycol poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    Ethylene glycol (EG) poisoning often results in acute renal failure, particularly if treatment with fomepizole or ethanol is delayed because of late presentation or diagnosis. The mechanism has not been established but is thought to result from the production of a toxic metabolite. A literature review utilizing PubMed identified papers dealing with renal toxicity and EG or oxalate. The list of papers was culled to those relevant to the mechanism and treatment of the renal toxicity associated with either compound. ROLE OF METABOLITES: Although the "aldehyde" metabolites of EG, glycolaldehyde, and glyoxalate, have been suggested as the metabolites responsible, recent studies have shown definitively that the accumulation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals in kidney tissue produces renal tubular necrosis that leads to kidney failure. In vivo studies in EG-dosed rats have correlated the severity of renal damage with the total accumulation of COM crystals in kidney tissue. Studies in cultured kidney cells, including human proximal tubule (HPT) cells, have demonstrated that only COM crystals, not the oxalate ion, glycolaldehyde, or glyoxylate, produce a necrotic cell death at toxicologically relevant concentrations. COM CRYSTAL ACCUMULATION: In EG poisoning, COM crystals accumulate to high concentrations in the kidney through a process involving adherence to tubular cell membranes, followed by internalization of the crystals. MECHANISM OF TOXICITY: COM crystals have been shown to alter membrane structure and function, to increase reactive oxygen species and to produce mitochondrial dysfunction. These processes are likely to be involved in the mechanism of cell death. Accumulation of COM crystals in the kidney is responsible for producing the renal toxicity associated with EG poisoning. The development of a pharmacological approach to reduce COM crystal adherence to tubular cells and its cellular interactions would be valuable as this would decrease the renal

  18. Realization of modulating broadband emission from Er-Tm codoped calcium boroaluminate glasses by dual-wavelength pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mingzhu; Lu, Fang [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and of Micro and Nano Photonic Structure (Ministry of Education), Advanced Materials Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xu, Fei, E-mail: drfeixu@gmail.com [SHU-SolarE R and D Lab, Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Instrumental Analysis and Research Center, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Jiang, Zuimin; Wang, Xiao; Lou, Haonan [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and of Micro and Nano Photonic Structure (Ministry of Education), Advanced Materials Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ma, Zhongquan; Zheng, Lingling [SHU-SolarE R and D Lab, Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Instrumental Analysis and Research Center, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Near-infrared photoluminescence (PL) of calcium boroaluminate (CABAL) glasses codoped with Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Tm{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been investigated by dual-wavelength pumping at 795 and 476 nm. Spectrum shape of broadband emission could be modulated by controlling the power ratio of two pumping lines (P{sub 476}/P{sub 795}). The result shows that the full width at half maximum can reach {approx}500 nm in the wavelength range from 1.3 to 2.0 {mu}m by controlling P{sub 476}/P{sub 795} = 12. The PL spectra show four characteristic peaks located at 1.46, 1.53, 1.58 and 1.80 {mu}m, corresponding to Tm{sup 3+}: {sup 3}H{sub 4} {yields} {sup 3}F{sub 4}, Er{sup 3+}: {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, Tm{sup 3+}: {sup 1}G{sub 4} {yields} {sup 3}F{sub 2} and Tm{sup 3+}: {sup 3}F{sub 4} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 6} emissions, respectively. The energy transfer (ET) (ET1: Er{sup 3+}: {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, Tm{sup 3+}: {sup 3}F{sub 4} {yields} Er{sup 3+}: {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, Tm{sup 3+}: {sup 3}H{sub 4} and ET2: Er{sup 3+}: {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, Tm{sup 3+}: {sup 3}H{sub 6} {yields} Er{sup 3+}: {sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, Tm{sup 3+}: {sup 3}F{sub 4}) between Er{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} ions play important roles in the luminescence mechanisms. In addition, a new ET process (ET: Tm{sup 3+}: {sup 1}G{sub 4}, Er{sup 3+}: {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} {yields} Tm{sup 3+}: {sup 3}F{sub 2}, Er{sup 3+}: {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}) was identified. The flat broadband emission with the bandwidth of {approx}500 nm could be realized by changing P{sub 476}/P{sub 795} as a result of the radiative transitions, Tm-Tm cross-relaxation (Tm{sup 3+}: {sup 3}H{sub 4}, {sup 3}H{sub 6} {yields} Tm{sup 3+}: {sup 3}F{sub 4}, {sup 3}F{sub 4}) and Er-Tm ET processes. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dual-wavelength pumping has been applied to modulate broadband emission in rare-earth-doped materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is easier to control the pumping source than the concentration of sample for modulating

  19. Effects of Sevelamer Hydrochloride and Calcium Carbonate on Renal Osteodystrophy in Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Aníbal; Frazão, João Miguel; Monier-Faugere, Marie-Claude; Gil, Célia; Galvao, José; Oliveira, Carlos; Baldaia, Jorge; Rodrigues, Ilidio; Santos, Carla; Ribeiro, Silvia; Hoenger, Regula Mueller; Duggal, Ajay; Malluche, Hartmut H.

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in mineral metabolism play a central role in the development of renal bone disease. In a 54-wk, randomized, open-label study, 119 hemodialysis patients were enrolled to compare the effects of sevelamer hydrochloride and calcium carbonate on bone. Biopsy-proven adynamic bone disease was the most frequent bone abnormality at baseline (59%). Serum phosphorus, calcium, and intact parathyroid hormone were well controlled in both groups, although calcium was consistently lower and intact parathyroid hormone higher among patients who were randomly assigned to sevelamer. Compared with baseline values, there were no changes in mineralization lag time or measures of bone turnover (e.g., activation frequency) after 1 yr in either group. Osteoid thickness significantly increased in both groups, but there was no significant difference between them. Bone formation rate per bone surface, however, significantly increased from baseline only in the sevelamer group (P = 0.019). In addition, of those with abnormal microarchitecture at baseline (i.e., trabecular separation), seven of 10 in the sevelamer group normalized after 1 yr compared with zero of three in the calcium group. In summary, sevelamer resulted in no statistically significant changes in bone turnover or mineralization compared with calcium carbonate, but bone formation increased and trabecular architecture improved with sevelamer. Further studies are required to assess whether these changes affect clinical outcomes, such as rates of fracture. PMID:18199805

  20. MINERALIZATION STUDY OF RENAL RATS FOLLOWING OVARYOHYSTERECTOMY AND ADMINISTRATION HIGH DOSE CALCIUM CARBONATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high dose calcium carbonate in rat (Rattus norvegicus following ovaryohysterectomy. A total of twenty female rats at 13 week-old were used in this study. Following ovaryohitectomy, the animals were randomized in four treatment groups. Group P0 were :fed with standard food only P1, P2 and P2 groups treated with standard food but supplemented calcium carbonate respectively at the dose of 75 mg per animal per day, 225 mg per animal per day , and 450 mg per animal per day. The calcium carbonate supplement were given daily in the morning for 42 days. The experimental animals were sacrificed at 21 week-old. Calcium and phosphor level in sinister kidneys were determined by spectrofotometric method. The data obtained from this study were analysed using one way analysis of variance. No significant difference was observed in calcium level among four treatment groups, with the lowest level were found in P3 group. However, the phosphor level of P1 was significantly lower than those of P2 and P3 groups. The highest phosphor level was observed in P3 group, indicating a phosphorous retension and the signs of renal failure.

  1. NIR fluorescence spectroscopic investigations of Er{sup 3+}-ions doped borate based tellurium calcium zinc niobium oxide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, O. [Department of Instrumentation, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Dhoble, S.J. [Department of Physics, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India); Ramesh, B.; Devarajulu, G. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Reddy, C. Madhukar [Department of Physics, AP Model School, Yerravaripalem 517194 (India); Linganna, K. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Reddy, G. Rajasekhar [Department of Instrumentation, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Raju, B. Deva Prasad, E-mail: drdevaprasadraju@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Department of Future Studies, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India)

    2015-08-15

    A series of Er{sup 3+} ions doped tellurium calcium zinc niobium borate glasses were prepared by the melt quenching technique. The prepared samples were investigated by optical absorption and near infrared fluorescence spectroscopic studies. The obtained Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters Ω{sub λ} (λ=2, 4 and 6) were determined through experimental and calculated oscillator strengths obtained from absorption spectra and their results are studied and compared with reported literature. The stark-level energies of {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} excited and {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} ground states were evaluated by using both the absorption and emission measurements. The effect of Er{sup 3+} ion concentration on the emission intensity of {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition was discussed. Intense and broad 1.53 µm infrared fluorescence is observed at 980 nm diode laser excitation. Photoluminescence (PL) and its decay behavior studies were carried out for the transition {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} at 1.53 µm emission. The broad emission together with higher values of the bandwidth (81 nm), stimulated emission cross-section (32.25×10{sup −22} cm{sup 2}) and lifetime (530 µs for 1.0 mol% of Er{sup 3+}) of level {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} make these glasses attractive for broadband amplifiers. From the analysis of spectroscopic data, the present glass is a prospective photonic material for practical applications in the visible and NIR region. - Highlights: • In this study we prepared TCZNB glasses doped with Er{sup 3+} ions. • Glasses are characterized with absorption, emission and lifetime analysis. • Judd–Ofelt theory is used to calculate radiative properties. • TCZNB glasses could be used as NIR lasers.

  2. Red blood cell calcium homeostasis in patients with end-stage renal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gafter, U.; Malachi, T.; Barak, H.; Djaldetti, M.; Levi, J. (Hasharon Hospital, Petah-Tiqva (Israel))

    1989-09-01

    Low cell calcium level is essential for preservation of red blood cell (RBC) membrane deformability and survival. RBCs from patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) demonstrate reduction in membrane deformability, possibly as a result of increased RBC cellular calcium level. To evaluate calcium homeostasis in RBCs from patients with ESRD, we measured cell calcium level, basal and calmodulin-stimulated calcium-stimulated Mg-dependent ATPase (CaATPase) activity, and calcium 45 efflux were measured before and after hemodialysis. The in vitro effect of uremic plasma and of urea on CaATPase activity of normal RBCs was tested, and 45Ca influx into RBCs of patients undergoing hemodialysis also was determined. A morphologic evaluation of red cells from patients with ESRD was performed with a scanning electron microscope. RBC calcium level in patients (mean +/- SEM 21.2 +/- 2.8 mumol/L of cells; n = 28) was higher than in controls (4.9 +/- 0.3 mumol/L of cells; n = 24; p less than 0.001). Hemodialysis had no effect on cell calcium level. Both basal and calmodulin-stimulated RBC CaATPase activities in patients with ESRD (n = 9) were reduced by approximately 50% (p less than 0.01), but after hemodialysis, enzyme activity returned to normal. 45Ca efflux from calcium-loaded cells, which was 2574.0 +/- 217.0 mumol/L of cells per 0.5 hours before hemodialysis, increased to 3140.7 +/- 206.8 mumol/L of cells per 0.5 hours after hemodialysis (p less than 0.005). In vitro incubation of normal RBCs with uremic plasma depressed CaATPase activity, but incubation with urea had no effect. RBCs of patients with ESRD revealed increased 45Ca influx, 7.63 +/- 1.15 mumol/L of cells per hour versus 4.61 +/- 0.39 mumol/L of cells per hour (p less than 0.025). RBCs of patients revealed a high incidence of spherocytosis and echynocytosis, which correlated with a high cell calcium level (r = 0.894, p less than 0.01).

  3. Calcium Homeostasis and ER Stress in Control of Autophagy in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Kania

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a basic catabolic process, serving as an internal engine during responses to various cellular stresses. As regards cancer, autophagy may play a tumor suppressive role by preserving cellular integrity during tumor development and by possible contribution to cell death. However, autophagy may also exert oncogenic effects by promoting tumor cell survival and preventing cell death, for example, upon anticancer treatment. The major factors influencing autophagy are Ca2+ homeostasis perturbation and starvation. Several Ca2+ channels like voltage-gated T- and L-type channels, IP3 receptors, or CRAC are involved in autophagy regulation. Glucose transporters, mainly from GLUT family, which are often upregulated in cancer, are also prominent targets for autophagy induction. Signals from both Ca2+ perturbations and glucose transport blockage might be integrated at UPR and ER stress activation. Molecular pathways such as IRE 1-JNK-Bcl-2, PERK-eIF2α-ATF4, or ATF6-XBP 1-ATG are related to autophagy induced through ER stress. Moreover ER molecular chaperones such as GRP78/BiP and transcription factors like CHOP participate in regulation of ER stress-mediated autophagy. Autophagy modulation might be promising in anticancer therapies; however, it is a context-dependent matter whether inhibition or activation of autophagy leads to tumor cell death.

  4. Coronary Artery Calcium Distribution and Interscan Measurement Variability in End-Stage Renal and Coronary Heart Disease Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafin, Z.; Laskowska, K.; Marzec, M.; Lasek, W. (Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz (Poland)); Sinjab, T.A.; Wlodarczyk, Z. (Dept. of Transplantology, Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz (Poland))

    2009-04-15

    Background: Coronary heart disease patients and end-stage renal disease patients have been documented to have an increased amount of coronary artery calcifications (CAC). Purpose: To evaluate the distribution of CAC and its influence on interscan variability of measurement in end-stage renal disease and coronary heart disease patients, proven to have calcifications. Material and Methods: 69 patients having CAC, including 34 with coronary heart disease and 35 with end-stage renal disease, were scanned twice with multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Amount of CAC was determined as the number of calcified lesions (CN), total calcium score (CS), calcium volume (CV), and calcium mass (CM). Distribution of CAC was evaluated on a per-patient basis as the median CS and CM of a single lesion. Density of the calcifications was calculated as the patient's CM divided by CV. Results: The overall median CS was 457.2, and the median CM was 75.6 mg. There were no significant differences in the number of calcified lesions, CS, or CM between the two groups. Both CS and CM of a single lesion, as well as the mean calcium density were lower in renal disease patients (P<0.05) than in coronary heart disease subjects. The relative interscan variability of coronary calcium measurement was higher in the renal disease group (P<0.05). There was a negative correlation between the calcium concentration and the relative interscan variability. Conclusion: The results indicate that the coronary calcium distribution influences the measurement interscan reproducibility, and the distribution may differ between end-stage renal disease patients and coronary heart disease patients, reflecting the dissimilar nature of coronary calcifications in those groups.

  5. Release of intracellular Calcium increase production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in renal distal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Henning F.

    Release of intracellular Calcium increase production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in renal distal epithelial cells. Henning F. Bjerregaard, Roskilde University, Department of Science, Systems and Models , 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. HFB@ RUC.DK Reactive oxygen species (ROS) like, hydrogen...... to G-protein stimulation of phospholipase C and release of inositol -3 phosphate. Cd (0.4 mM) treatment of A6 cells enhanced the ROS production after one minutes incubation. The production rate was constant for at least 10 to 20 min. Experiments showed that the Cd induced increase in ROS production...

  6. Calcium Oxalate Stone Agglomeration Inhibition [tm] Reflects Renal Stone-Forming Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Jill S.; Cole, Francis E.; Romani, William; Husserl, Fred E.; Fuselier, Harold A.; Kok, Dirk J.; Erwin, Donald T.

    2000-01-01

    Louisiana and other Gulf South states comprise a “Stone Belt” where calcium oxalate stone formers (CaOx SFs) are found at a high rate of approximately 5%. In these patients, the agglomeration of small stone crystals, which are visible in nearly all morning urine collections, forms stones that can become trapped in the renal parenchyma and the renal pelvis. Without therapy, about half of CaOx SFs repeatedly form kidney stones, which can cause excruciating pain that can be relieved by passage, fragmentation (lithotripsy), or surgical removal. The absence of stones in “normal” patients suggests that there are stone inhibitors in “normal” urines. At the Ochsner Renal Stone Clinic, 24-hour urine samples are collected by the patient and sent to the Ochsner Renal Stone Research Program where calcium oxalate stone agglomeration inhibition [tm] measurements are performed. Urine from healthy subjects and inactive stone formers has demonstrated strongly inhibited stone growth [tm] in contrast to urine from recurrent CaOx SFs. [tm] data from 1500 visits of 700 kidney stone patients have been used to evaluate the risk of recurrence in Ochsner's CaOx SF patients. These data have also been used to demonstrate the interactive roles of certain identified urinary stone-growth inhibitors, citrate and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), which can be manipulated with medication to diminish recurrent stone formation. Our goal is to offer patients both financial and pain relief by reducing their stones with optimized medication, using medical management to avoid costly treatments. PMID:21811395

  7. Evidence for increased renal tubule and parathyroid gland sensitivity to serum calcium in human idiopathic hypercalciuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Elaine M; Bergsland, Kristin J; Gillen, Daniel L; Coe, Fredric L

    2013-09-15

    Patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) have decreased renal calcium reabsorption, most marked in the postprandial state, but the mechanisms are unknown. We compared 29 subjects with IH and 17 normal subjects (N) each fed meals providing identical amounts of calcium. Urine and blood samples were collected fasting and after meals. Levels of three candidate signalers, serum calcium (SCa), insulin (I), and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH), did not differ between IH and N either fasting or fed, but all changed with feeding, and the change in SCa was greater in IH than in N. Regression analysis of fractional excretion of calcium (FECa) was significant for PTH and SCa in IH but not N. With the use of multivariable analysis, Sca entered the model while PTH and I did not. To avoid internal correlation we decomposed FECa into its independent terms: adjusted urine calcium (UCa) and UFCa molarity. Analyses using adjusted Uca and unadjusted Uca parallel those using FECa, showing a dominant effect of SCa with no effect of PTH or I. The effect of SCa may be mediated via vitamin D receptor-stimulated increased abundance of basolateral Ca receptor, which is supported by the fact PTH levels also seem more responsive to serum Ca in IH than in N. Although our data support an effect of SCa on FECa and UCa, which is more marked in IH than in N, it can account for only a modest fraction of the meal effect, perhaps 10-20%, suggesting additional mediators are also responsible for the exaggerated postprandial hypercalciuria seen in IH.

  8. Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals internalized into renal tubular cells are degraded and dissolved by endolysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyarit, Sakdithep; Singhto, Nilubon; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-02-25

    Interaction between calcium oxalate crystals and renal tubular cells has been recognized as one of the key mechanisms for kidney stone formation. While crystal adhesion and internalization have been extensively investigated, subsequent phenomena (i.e. crystal degradation and dissolution) remained poorly understood. To explore these mechanisms, we used fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals (1000 μg/ml of crystals/culture medium) to confirm crystal internalization into MDCK (Type II) renal tubular cells after exposure to the crystals for 1 h and to trace the internalized crystals. Crystal size, intracellular and extracellular fluorescence levels were measured using a spectrofluorometer for up to 48 h after crystal internalization. Moreover, markers for early endosome (Rab5), late endosome (Rab7) and lysosome (LAMP-2) were examined by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry confirmed that FITC-labelled COM crystals were internalized into MDCK cells (14.83 ± 0.85%). The data also revealed a reduction of crystal size in a time-dependent manner. In concordance, intracellular and extracellular fluorescence levels were decreased and increased, respectively, indicating crystal degradation/dissolution inside the cells and the degraded products were eliminated extracellularly. Moreover, Rab5 and Rab7 were both up-regulated and were also associated with the up-regulated LAMP-2 to form large endolysosomes in the COM-treated cells at 16-h after crystal internalization. We demonstrate herein, for the first time, that COM crystals could be degraded/dissolved by endolysosomes inside renal tubular cells. These findings will be helpful to better understand the crystal fate and protective mechanism against kidney stone formation.

  9. Calcium antagonists and converting enzyme inhibitors reduce renal injury by different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, L D; Benstein, J A; Parker, M; Tolbert, E; Feiner, H D

    1993-04-01

    Both glomerular hypertension and hypertrophy have been associated with the development of glomerular injury in models of hypertension and reduced renal mass. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of antihypertensive therapy on these parameters in the remnant kidney model of progressive glomerular sclerosis. Rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy and were randomly assigned to receive either no therapy, the calcium entry blocker (CEB), nifedipine, or the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI), enalapril. Administration of either drug was associated with a reduction in systemic blood pressure and in the severity of glomerular injury assessed eight weeks after renal ablation. Micropuncture studies four weeks after ablation revealed that systemic and glomerular capillary pressure were high in untreated remnant kidney rats and reduced by enalapril. Administration of nifedipine was associated with a decline in systemic pressure, however, plasma renin levels increased, causing efferent arteriolar vasoconstriction and persistence of glomerular hypertension. Morphometric analysis showed that kidney weight, glomerular volume and glomerular capillary radius were lower in nifedipine treated rats than in the other two groups, indicating that the CEB, but not enalapril, inhibited the hypertrophic response to ablation of renal mass. Therefore, both CEIs and CEBs reduce glomerular injury in rats with remnant kidneys but they may act by different mechanisms. CEI reduce glomerular capillary pressure while CEBs inhibit compensatory kidney growth.

  10. Distinct intracellular sAC-cAMP domains regulate ER calcium signaling and OXPHOS function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, Federica; Konrad, Csaba; D'Aurelio, Marilena; Ramos-Espiritu, Lavoisier S; Stepanova, Anna; Burstein, Suzanne R; Galkin, Alexander; Magranè, Jordi; Starkov, Anatoly; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    cAMP regulates a wide variety of physiological functions in mammals. This single second messenger can regulate multiple, seemingly disparate functions within independently regulated cell compartments. We previously identified one such compartment inside the matrix of the mitochondria, where soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) regulates oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We now show that sAC KO fibroblasts have a defect in OXPHOS activity and attempt to compensate for this defect by increasing OXPHOS proteins. Importantly, sAC KO cells also exhibit decreased probability of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) release associated with diminished phosphorylation of the inositol 3-phosphate receptor. Restoring sAC expression exclusively in the mitochondrial matrix rescues OXPHOS activity and reduces its biogenesis, indicating that these phenotypes are regulated by intramitochondrial sAC. In contrast, ER Ca(2+) release is only rescued when sAC expression is restored throughout the cell. Thus, we show that functionally distinct, sAC-defined, intracellular cAMP signaling domains regulate metabolism and Ca(2+) signaling. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Gingival hyperplasia in renal allograft recipients receiving cyclosporin-A and calcium antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, G N; Fullinfaw, R; Higgins, T J; Walker, R G; Francis, D M; Wiesenfeld, D

    1993-04-01

    Although it is established that the immunosuppressant cyclosporin-A (CsA) and calcium antagonists [Nifedipine (Nif) and Diltiazem (Dz)] can independently induce gingival enlargement, little has been documented on the significance of the salivary CsA levels and the combined effect of CsA and a calcium antagonist upon gingival tissues. In the present cross-sectional investigation, clinical periodontal parameters and the pharmacologic profiles of CsA, Nif, and Dz were determined for 66 renal transplant recipients. Subjects were divided into the following groups: Group (Gp) 1: CsA [n = 18]; Gp 2: CsA + Nif [n = 15]; Gp 3: CsA + Dz [n = 12] and a negative Control Gp 4: azathioprine [n = 21]. A gingival enlargement score was assessed for each patient from study models using a hyperplastic index (HI). Pharmacologic profiles included CsA whole blood and whole saliva levels as measured by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The HI scores between Gp 1, 2 and 3 were not significantly different. However, when compared with controls (Gp 4), there was a significant difference in HI and all individual groups (Gp 1, 2, 3) (p < 0.05). Gingival hyperplasia was only weakly related to plaque and calculus but was unrelated to CsA dose (mg/kg/day), duration of CsA therapy (months), CsA blood or saliva levels (ng/ml), or the concurrent administration of a Nif or Dz. Gingival enlargement was found to occur in 49% of subjects who were either on CsA or CsA and a calcium antagonist. It is concluded that CsA alone or in combination with a calcium antagonist caused a significant increase in gingival enlargement compared with controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Relation of Aortic Valve and Coronary Artery Calcium in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease to the Stage and Etiology of the Renal Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piers, Lieuwe H.; Touw, Hugo R. W.; Gansevoort, Ron; Franssen, Casper F. M.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Zijlstra, Felix; Tio, Rene A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure have increased cardiac calcium loads. Previous studies have investigated the prevalence and quantitative extent of aortic valve calcium (AVC) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in patients with various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the impact of

  13. Functional and pharmacological consequences of the distribution of voltage-gated calcium channels in the renal blood vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B L

    2013-01-01

    -type is usually associated with vascular contractility. However, the L-, T- and P-/Q-types of calcium channels are present in the renal vasculature and are differentially involved in controlling vascular contractility, thereby contributing to regulation of kidney function and blood pressure. In the preglomerular...

  14. Anoctamin 1 induces calcium-activated chloride secretion and proliferation of renal cyst-forming epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Bjoern; Faria, Diana; Schley, Gunnar; Schreiber, Rainer; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2014-05-01

    Polycystic kidney diseases are characterized by multiple bilateral renal cysts that gradually enlarge and lead to a decline in renal function. Cyst enlargement is driven by transepithelial chloride secretion, stimulated by enhanced levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, which activates apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channels. However, chloride secretion by calcium-dependent chloride channels, activated through stimulation of purinergic receptors, also has a major impact. To identify the molecular basis of calcium-dependent chloride secretion in cyst expansion, we determined the role of anoctamin 1 and 6, two recently discovered calcium-activated chloride channels both of which are expressed in epithelial cells. We found that anoctamin 1, which plays a role in epithelial fluid secretion and proliferation, is strongly expressed in principal-like MDCK cells (PLCs) forming cysts within a collagen matrix, in an embryonic kidney cyst model, and in human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease tissue. Knockdown of anoctamin 1 but not anoctamin 6 strongly diminished the calcium-dependent chloride secretion of PLCs. Moreover, two inhibitors of anoctamin ion channels, tannic acid and a more selective inhibitor of anoctamin 1, significantly inhibited PLC cyst growth and cyst enlargement in an embryonic kidney cyst model. Knockdown of ANO1 by morpholino analogs also attenuated embryonic cyst growth. Thus, calcium-activated chloride secretion by anoctamin 1 appears to be a crucial component of renal cyst growth.

  15. Absence of the ER Cation Channel TMEM38B/TRIC-B Disrupts Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis and Dysregulates Collagen Synthesis in Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne A Cabral

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recessive osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is caused by defects in proteins involved in post-translational interactions with type I collagen. Recently, a novel form of moderately severe OI caused by null mutations in TMEM38B was identified. TMEM38B encodes the ER membrane monovalent cation channel, TRIC-B, proposed to counterbalance IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. The molecular mechanisms by which TMEM38B mutations cause OI are unknown. We identified 3 probands with recessive defects in TMEM38B. TRIC-B protein is undetectable in proband fibroblasts and osteoblasts, although reduced TMEM38B transcripts are present. TRIC-B deficiency causes impaired release of ER luminal Ca2+, associated with deficient store-operated calcium entry, although SERCA and IP3R have normal stability. Notably, steady state ER Ca2+ is unchanged in TRIC-B deficiency, supporting a role for TRIC-B in the kinetics of ER calcium depletion and recovery. The disturbed Ca2+ flux causes ER stress and increased BiP, and dysregulates synthesis of proband type I collagen at multiple steps. Collagen helical lysine hydroxylation is reduced, while telopeptide hydroxylation is increased, despite increased LH1 and decreased Ca2+-dependent FKBP65, respectively. Although PDI levels are maintained, procollagen chain assembly is delayed in proband cells. The resulting misfolded collagen is substantially retained in TRIC-B null cells, consistent with a 50-70% reduction in secreted collagen. Lower-stability forms of collagen that elude proteasomal degradation are not incorporated into extracellular matrix, which contains only normal stability collagen, resulting in matrix insufficiency. These data support a role for TRIC-B in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and demonstrate that absence of TMEM38B causes OI by dysregulation of calcium flux kinetics in the ER, impacting multiple collagen-specific chaperones and modifying enzymes.

  16. Absence of the ER Cation Channel TMEM38B/TRIC-B Disrupts Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis and Dysregulates Collagen Synthesis in Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Wayne A.; Ishikawa, Masaki; Garten, Matthias; Makareeva, Elena N.; Sargent, Brandi M.; Weis, MaryAnn; Barnes, Aileen M.; Webb, Emma A.; Shaw, Nicholas J.; Ala-Kokko, Leena; Lacbawan, Felicitas L.; Högler, Wolfgang; Leikin, Sergey; Blank, Paul S.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Eyre, David R.; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Marini, Joan C.

    2016-01-01

    Recessive osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is caused by defects in proteins involved in post-translational interactions with type I collagen. Recently, a novel form of moderately severe OI caused by null mutations in TMEM38B was identified. TMEM38B encodes the ER membrane monovalent cation channel, TRIC-B, proposed to counterbalance IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. The molecular mechanisms by which TMEM38B mutations cause OI are unknown. We identified 3 probands with recessive defects in TMEM38B. TRIC-B protein is undetectable in proband fibroblasts and osteoblasts, although reduced TMEM38B transcripts are present. TRIC-B deficiency causes impaired release of ER luminal Ca2+, associated with deficient store-operated calcium entry, although SERCA and IP3R have normal stability. Notably, steady state ER Ca2+ is unchanged in TRIC-B deficiency, supporting a role for TRIC-B in the kinetics of ER calcium depletion and recovery. The disturbed Ca2+ flux causes ER stress and increased BiP, and dysregulates synthesis of proband type I collagen at multiple steps. Collagen helical lysine hydroxylation is reduced, while telopeptide hydroxylation is increased, despite increased LH1 and decreased Ca2+-dependent FKBP65, respectively. Although PDI levels are maintained, procollagen chain assembly is delayed in proband cells. The resulting misfolded collagen is substantially retained in TRIC-B null cells, consistent with a 50–70% reduction in secreted collagen. Lower-stability forms of collagen that elude proteasomal degradation are not incorporated into extracellular matrix, which contains only normal stability collagen, resulting in matrix insufficiency. These data support a role for TRIC-B in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and demonstrate that absence of TMEM38B causes OI by dysregulation of calcium flux kinetics in the ER, impacting multiple collagen-specific chaperones and modifying enzymes. PMID:27441836

  17. Renal tubular injury induced by ischemia promotes the formation of calcium oxalate crystals in rats with hyperoxaluria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanwei; Liu, Wanpeng; Hui, Limei; Zhao, Jianjun; Yang, Xuecheng; Wang, Yonghua; Niu, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    Hyperoxaluria and cell injury are key factors in urolithiasis. Oxalate metabolism may be altered by renal dysfunction and therefore, impact the deposition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. We investigated the relationship of renal function, oxalate metabolism and CaOx crystal deposition in renal ischemia. One hundred male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Hyperoxaluria model (Group A and B) was established by feeding rats with 0.75 % ethylene glycol (EG). The left renal pedicle was clamped for 30 min to establish renal ischemia Groups (B and C), while Groups A and D underwent sham operation. Then, serum and urine oxalate (Ox), creatinine (Cr) and urea nitrogen (UN) levels were evaluated by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) and ion mass spectrum (IMS) at days 0, 2, 4, 7, and 14. CaOx crystallization was assessed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). A temporal and significant increase of serum Cr and UN levels was observed in Groups B and C compared to values obtained for Groups A and D (P renal tissue. Our results indicated that renal tubular injury induced by renal ischemia might not affect Ox levels but could promote CaOx crystal retention under hyperoxaluria.

  18. Does hypercalcaemia or calcium antagonism affect human melatonin secretion or renal excretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikner, J; Wetterberg, L; Röjdmark, S

    1997-05-01

    Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism have higher serum melatonin concentrations during active disease than after surgical cure. Whether this is caused by hypercalcaemia per se, increased parathyroid hormone secretion or other mechanisms is unknown. We decided to elucidate whether exogenous hypercalcaemia influences melatonin secretion. For this purpose, eight healthy volunteers were infused with calcium and saline on separate days and in random order (experiment A). Hypercalcaemia inhibited nocturnal melatonin secretion by 20% but left urinary melatonin excretion unaffected. If exogenous hypercalcaemia inhibits melatonin secretion, it is reasonable to assume that calcium channel blockers such as verapamil might have the opposite effect. This was investigated in experiment B, in which eight healthy subjects were treated on separate occasions with oral verapamil and placebo. Verapamil did not affect nocturnal melatonin secretion but increased melatonin excretion by 145%. As 6-sulphatoxy-melatonin is the main melatonin metabolite excreted by the kidneys, it was considered important to find out whether verapamil would also influence the excretion of 6-sulphatoxy-melatonin. This was investigated in experiment C, in which eight healthy volunteers were treated, on separate occasions, with oral verapamil and placebo. In this experiment also, verapamil increased urinary melatonin excretion significantly (by 67%), but left excretion of 6-sulphatoxy-melatonin unaffected. These findings imply that verapamil influences the renal and/or hepatic handling of melatonin.

  19. Calcium-channel blockers and other factors influencing delayed function in renal allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, C J; Hillis, A N; Williams, J D; Griffin, P J; Salaman, J R

    1990-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken to examine the influence of calcium-channel blocking drugs on early renal allograft function. Delayed function was defined as the need for dialysis or a reduction in serum creatinine of less than 15% within 4 days of transplantation. The drug histories of 172 patients were examined. After exclusions, the data from 138 patients were analysed. No patient was taking any calcium-channel blocking drug other than nifedipine. Thirty-one patients were taking nifedipine at the time of transplantation and these had a delayed function rate of 16% compared with 40% for 107 patients not taking nifedipine (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Delayed function occurred in 61% of cases when the donor age was over 50 years compared with 29% with younger donors (chi 2, P less than 0.05). A total ischaemic time of longer than 24 h and administration of inotropic support to the donor were associated with delayed function (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Administration to the donor of mannitol, steroids, phenoxybenzamine and heparin had no effect on the rate of delayed function. Recipients treated with low-dose dopamine in the perioperative period had no advantage. Elevated trough whole blood concentrations of cyclosporin in the first week after transplant were associated with delayed function (Mann-Whitney U, P less than 0.05).

  20. Myocardial infarction worsens glomerular injury and microalbuminuria in rats with pre-existing renal impairment accompanied by the activation of ER stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhifeng; Wu, Penglong; Li, Yongguang; Shen, Yuan; Xin, Ping; Li, Shuai; Wang, Zhihua; Dai, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Wei; Wei, Meng

    2014-12-01

    Deterioration of renal function occurs after chronic heart failure in approximately one-third of patients, particularly in those with pre-existing renal impairment such as diabetic nephropathy. Impaired renal function in these patients is always associated with a worse prognosis. However, the mechanisms underlying such deterioration of renal function are still largely unknown. In three separate protocols, we compared 1) sham operation (Ctr, n = 10) with surgically induced myocardial infarction (MI, n = 10); 2) unilateral nephrectomy (UNX, n = 10) with UNX + MI (n = 10); and 3) STZ-induced type 1 diabetes (DB, n = 10) with DB + MI (n = 10). The differences between combined injury models (UNX + MI, DB + MI) and simple MI were also examined. Renal remodeling, function, ER stress (CHOP and GRP78) and inflammation (infiltration of inflammatory cells, NF-κB p65) were evaluated 12 weeks after MI. In common SD rats, MI activated less glomerular ER stress and inflammation, resulting in a minor change of glomerular remodeling and microalbuminuria. However, MI significantly increased the glomerular expression of GRP78 and CHOP in UNX and DB rats. In addition, it also promoted the infiltration of CD4+ T cells, particularly inflammatory cytokine (IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-4)-producing CD4+ T cells, and the expression of NF-κB p65 in the glomeruli. By contrast, significant glomerular fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis, podocyte injury and microalbuminuria were found in rats with UNX + MI and DB + MI. MI significantly increased chronic glomerular injury and microalbuminuria at 12 weeks in rats with pre-existing renal impairment, i.e., UNX and DB, but not common SD rats. These changes were accompanied by increased glomerular ER stress and immune-associated inflammation.

  1. Calcium, zinc and vitamin E ameliorate cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in albino Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepkiran Jangampalli Adi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the protective effects of supplementation with calcium + zinc (Ca + Zn or vitamin E (Vit-E on Cd-induced renal oxidative damage. Young albino Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g (n = 6 control rats, Cd, Cd + Ca + Zn, and Cd + Vit-E experimental groups and the experimental period was 30 days. Rats were exposed to Cd (20 mg/kg body weight alone treated as Cd treated group and the absence or presence of Ca + Zn (2 mg/kg each or Vit-E (20 mg/kg body weight supplementation treated as two separate groups. The activities of the stress marker enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and lipid peroxidase (LPx were determined in renal mitochondrial fractions of experimental rats. We observed quantitative changes in SOD isoenzymatic patterns by non-denaturing PAGE analysis, and quantified band densities. These results showed that Cd exposure leads to decreases in SOD, CAT, GR, and GPx activities and a concomitant increase in LPx and GST activities. Ca + Zn and Vit-E administration with Cd significantly reversed Cd-induced perturbations in oxidative stress marker enzymes. However, Vit-E showed more inhibitory activity against Cd than did Ca + Zn, and it protected against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity.

  2. Calcium, zinc and vitamin E ameliorate cadmium-induced renal oxidative damage in albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi, Pradeepkiran Jangampalli; Burra, Siva Prasad; Vataparti, Amardev Rajesh; Matcha, Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the protective effects of supplementation with calcium + zinc (Ca + Zn) or vitamin E (Vit-E) on Cd-induced renal oxidative damage. Young albino Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) (n = 6) control rats, Cd, Cd + Ca + Zn, and Cd + Vit-E experimental groups and the experimental period was 30 days. Rats were exposed to Cd (20 mg/kg body weight) alone treated as Cd treated group and the absence or presence of Ca + Zn (2 mg/kg each) or Vit-E (20 mg/kg body weight) supplementation treated as two separate groups. The activities of the stress marker enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidase (LPx) were determined in renal mitochondrial fractions of experimental rats. We observed quantitative changes in SOD isoenzymatic patterns by non-denaturing PAGE analysis, and quantified band densities. These results showed that Cd exposure leads to decreases in SOD, CAT, GR, and GPx activities and a concomitant increase in LPx and GST activities. Ca + Zn and Vit-E administration with Cd significantly reversed Cd-induced perturbations in oxidative stress marker enzymes. However, Vit-E showed more inhibitory activity against Cd than did Ca + Zn, and it protected against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity.

  3. Novel effect of the inhibitor of mitochondrial cyclophilin D activation, N-methyl-4-isoleucine cyclosporin, on renal calcium crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Kazuhiro; Yasui, Takahiro; Okada, Atsushi; Hirose, Yasuhiko; Kubota, Yasue; Umemoto, Yukihiro; Kawai, Noriyasu; Tozawa, Keiichi; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2014-07-01

    To experimentally evaluate the clinical application of N-methyl-4-isoleucine cyclosporin, a novel selective inhibitor of cyclophilin D activation. In vitro, cultured renal tubular cells were exposed to calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and treated with N-methyl-4-isoleucine cyclosporin. The mitochondrial membrane was stained with tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester perchlorate and observed. In vivo, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: a control group, an ethylene glycol group (administration of ethylene glycol to induce renal calcium crystallization), a N-methyl-4-isoleucine cyclosporin group (administration of N-methyl-4-isoleucine cyclosporin) and an ethylene glycol + N-methyl-4-isoleucine cyclosporin group (administration of ethylene glycol and N-methyl-4-isoleucine cyclosporin). Renal calcium crystallization was evaluated using Pizzolato staining. Oxidative stress was evaluated using superoxide dismutase and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine. Mitochondria within renal tubular cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using cleaved caspase-3. In vitro, calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals induced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, which was remarkably prevented by N-methyl-4-isoleucine cyclosporin. In vivo, ethylene glycol administration induced renal calcium crystallization, oxidative stress, mitochondrial collapse and cell apoptosis in rats, which were significantly prevented by N-methyl-4-isoleucine cyclosporin. Herein we first report a new treatment agent determining renal calcium crystallization through cyclophilin D activation. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  4. Brief report: Does PTH increase with age, independent of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, phosphate, renal function, and ionized calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrivick, Simon J; Walsh, John P; Brown, Suzanne J; Wardrop, Robert; Hadlow, Narelle C

    2015-05-01

    Circulating PTH concentrations increase with age. It is uncertain whether an age-related PTH increase occurs independent of changes in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D, phosphate, renal function, and ionized calcium. The purpose of this article was to analyze the relationship between PTH and age, controlling for 25-hydroxyvitamin D, phosphate, renal function, and ionized calcium. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study analyzing the relationship between PTH and age in 2 independent datasets (laboratory 1, n = 17 275 and laboratory 2, n = 4878). We further analyzed subgroups after excluding participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate of increase in age was associated with a 5.0% increase in PTH (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4%-5.6%; P increase in laboratory 2 (95% CI, 3.0%-5.4%; P increase in age was associated with a 6.1% increase in PTH (95% CI, 5.5%-6.8%; P increase (95% CI 3.5%-6.2%; P increase with age, independent of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ionized calcium, phosphate, and renal function. Further research is required to explore the underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance and to determine whether the use of age-related PTH reference ranges improves diagnostic accuracy, particularly in elderly individuals.

  5. Reinjury risk of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals on injured renal epithelial cells: aggravation of crystal adhesion and aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Sun, Xin-Yuan; Bhadja, Poonam; Yao, Xiu-Qiong; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal epithelial cell injury facilitates crystal adhesion to cell surface and serves as a key step in renal stone formation. However, the effects of cell injury on the adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate crystals and the nano-crystal-induced reinjury risk of injured cells remain unclear. Methods African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells were injured with H2O2 to establish a cell injury model. Cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malonaldehyde (MDA) content, propidium iodide staining, hematoxylin–eosin staining, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were determined to examine cell injury during adhesion. Changes in the surface structure of H2O2-injured cells were assessed through atomic force microscopy. The altered expression of hyaluronan during adhesion was examined through laser scanning confocal microscopy. The adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals to Vero cells was observed through scanning electron microscopy. Nano-COM and COD binding was quantitatively determined through inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. Results The expression of hyaluronan on the cell surface was increased during wound healing because of Vero cell injury. The structure and function of the cell membrane were also altered by cell injury; thus, nano-crystal adhesion occurred. The ability of nano-COM to adhere to the injured Vero cells was higher than that of nano-COD crystals. The cell viability, SOD activity, and Δψm decreased when nano-crystals attached to the cell surface. By contrast, the MDA content, reactive oxygen species production, and cell death rate increased. Conclusion Cell injury contributes to crystal adhesion to Vero cell surface. The attached nano-COM and COD crystals can aggravate Vero cell injury. As a consequence, crystal adhesion and aggregation are enhanced. These findings provide further insights into kidney stone

  6. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in luck if you like sardines and canned salmon with bones. Almond milk. previous continue Working Calcium ... drinks, and cereals. Other Considerations for Building Bones Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption, so it's ...

  7. Effect of BSA-induced ER stress on SGLT protein expression levels and alpha-MG uptake in renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Jin; Suh, Han Na; Han, Ho Jae

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress regulates glucose homeostasis and that ER stress preconditioning which induces an adaptive, protective unfolded protein response (UPR) offers cytoprotection against nephrotoxins. Thus the aim of the present study was to use renal proximal tubule cells (PTCs) to further elucidate the link between the BSA-induced ER stress and alpha-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (alpha-MG) uptake and to identify related signaling pathways. Among ER stress inducers such as high glucose, BSA, H2O2, or tumicamycin, BSA pretreatment ameliorated the reduction of Na(+)-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) expression and alpha-MG uptake by gentamicin or cyclosporine A. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that BSA (10 mg/ml) stimulated the expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), an ER stress biomarker. In addition, BSA increased levels of GRP78 protein expression and eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, transfection with a GRP78-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited BSA-stimulated SGLT expression and alpha-MG uptake. In experiments designed to unravel the mechanisms underlying BSA-induced ER stress, BSA stimulated the production of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidants such as ascorbic acid or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) blocked BSA-induced increases in GRP78 activation, eIF2alpha phosphorylation, SGLT expression, and alpha-MG uptake. Moreover, the cells upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) mRNA levels in response to BSA or troglitazone (a PPARgamma agonist), but BSA was ineffective in the presence of GW9662 (a PPARgamma antagonist). In addition, both BSA and troglitazone stimulated GRP78 and eIF2alpha activation, SGLT expression, and alpha-MG uptake, whereas GW9662 inhibited the effects of BSA. BSA also stimulated phosphorylation of JNK and NF-kappaB, and GW9662 or GRP78 siRNA attenuated this

  8. Renal protection in diabetes--an emerging role for calcium antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Tarnow, L; Rossing, P

    1997-01-01

    The combination of diabetes and hypertension increases the changes of progressive renal disorder and ultimately renal failure. Roughly 40% of all diabetics, whether insulin dependent or not, develop diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is the single most important cause of end-stage renal d...

  9. Reinjury risk of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals on injured renal epithelial cells: aggravation of crystal adhesion and aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan QZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Qiong-Zhi Gan,1,2 Xin-Yuan Sun,1,2 Poonam Bhadja,1,2 Xiu-Qiong Yao,1,2 Jian-Ming Ouyang1,2 1Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Renal epithelial cell injury facilitates crystal adhesion to cell surface and serves as a key step in renal stone formation. However, the effects of cell injury on the adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate crystals and the nano-crystal-induced reinjury risk of injured cells remain unclear.Methods: African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero cells were injured with H2O2 to establish a cell injury model. Cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, malonaldehyde (MDA content, propidium iodide staining, hematoxylin–eosin staining, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm were determined to examine cell injury during adhesion. Changes in the surface structure of H2O2-injured cells were assessed through atomic force microscopy. The altered expression of hyaluronan during adhesion was examined through laser scanning confocal microscopy. The adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD crystals to Vero cells was observed through scanning electron microscopy. Nano-COM and COD binding was quantitatively determined through inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry.Results: The expression of hyaluronan on the cell surface was increased during wound healing because of Vero cell injury. The structure and function of the cell membrane were also altered by cell injury; thus, nano-crystal adhesion occurred. The ability of nano-COM to adhere to the injured Vero cells was higher than that of nano-COD crystals. The cell viability, SOD activity, and ΔΨm decreased when nano-crystals attached to the cell surface. By contrast, the MDA content, reactive oxygen species production

  10. Effects of thyroparathyroidectomy, exogenous calcium, and short-term calcitriol therapy on the growth plate in renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Cheryl P; He, Yu-Zhu

    2003-01-01

    Several factors have been implicated in the development of adynamic bone, including the use of calcium-containing phosphate binding agents, aggressive calcitriol therapy, and parathyroidectomy. To evaluate the effects of these interventions on the growth plate, weanling rats underwent sham nephrectomy (Control, n = 10) and 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). In the nephrectomized group, animals underwent (a) thyroparathyroidectomy (Nx-TPTX, n = 7), (b) received exogenous calcium (Nx-Calcium, n = 10), (c) received short-term calcitriol therapy (Nx-D, n = 10), or (d) nephrectomized control (Nx-Control, n = 10). Higher serum calcium and lower PTH levels were demonstrated in Nx-Calcium and Nx-D animals. A decline in growth was demonstrated in Nx-Calcium and Nx-TPTX accompanied by shorter tibial lengths. The width of the growth plate was wider in Nx-Calcium animals due to an increase in the width of the hypertrophic zone and a decrease in the proliferative zone; these changes were accompanied by an impairment of chondroclastic resorption, lower gelatinase B/MMP-9 activity, decline in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor, and lower histone-4 mRNA expression. Such findings in the growth plate, may partially contribute to the diminution of growth in these animals. Although growth was impaired in the Nx-TPTX animals, there were no significant changes demonstrated in the growth plate cartilage. Histone-4 transcripts, IGF-I receptor expression, and histochemical staining for chondroclasts were decreased in Nx-D animals. Thus, treatments used in the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism in renal failure have diverse effects on the growth plate of the young skeleton, and concurrent use of these interventions needs further evaluation.

  11. [Prevalence of anemia, calcium-phosphorus abnormalities and metabolic acidosis in different stages of chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzecki, Miłosz; Chudek, Jerzy; Kukla, Małgorzata; Kopeć, Paulina; Mamcarz, Ewelina; Wnuk, Zuzanna; Kokot, Franciszek; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2004-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with the reduction of haemoglobin concentration and a variety of biochemical abnormalities including changes in serum concentration of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, bicarbonate, and hydrogen ions. However, data concerning epidemiology of these abnormalities are rare and incomplete, especially among subjects with mild to moderate CKD. Patients with a serum creatinine concentration > 110 micromol/l hospitalized in the Department of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases Medical University of Silesia from 1998 to 2002 were analyzed. Patients with acute renal failure or chronic renal failure treated with renal replacement therapy were excluded from this study. A total of 653 patients (262F and 391M) were divided into 9 subgroups differing from each other by progressive decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A statistically significant decrease in haemoglobin concentration and increase in the prevalence of anaemia were found in patients with GFR 50 ml/min, Hb concentration 4.44 mmol2/12) was noticed almost exclusively in patients with GFR< 30 ml/min. A decompensated metabolic acidosis was observed in 29.8% of patients with GFR <30 ml/min. Anaemia is an early symptom of chronic kidney disease preceding disturbances of calcium, phosphate and hydrogen ions metabolism. These abnormalities seem to be of therapeutic relevance.

  12. [Phosphorus and calcium metabolism and the cardiovascular system status in patients with early-stage chronic renal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A V; Volkov, M M; Dobronravov, V A; Rafrafi, H

    2010-01-01

    To define the impact of phosphorus and calcium metabolic disturbances in patients with early-stage chronic renal disease (CRD) on the cardiovascular system. The levels of phosphate (P), calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25(OH) vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D, serum lipidogram, carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), and X-ray degree of abdominal artery calcification (AAC) were determined and echocardiography, electrocardiography and blood pressure monitoring were made in 465 patients with Stages I-V CRD who did not receive renal replacement therapy (of them, 73.5% of the patients had early (I to III) stages). Blood 1,25(OH)2D was related inversely to left ventricular (LV) posterior wall thickness, blood pressure (BP), triglycerides, and the degree of AAC and correlated directly to the severity of LV diastolic dysfunction and inversely to IMT, the presence of coronary heart disease and heart failure (HF). ACC, LV hypertrophy, and arterial hypertension (AH) were more significant in patients with higher serum levels PTH and P. In patients with early-stage CRD, phosphorus and calcium metabolic disturbances promote the development of AH, vascular and cardiac valvular calcification, myocardial hypertrophy, and HF.

  13. Urotensin II Induces ER Stress and EMT and Increase Extracellular Matrix Production in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cell in Early Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Xin Pang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Urotensin II (UII and its receptor are highly expressed in the kidney tissue of patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN. The aim of this study is to examine the roles of UII in the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress and Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in DN in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Kidney tissues were collected from patients with DN. C57BL/6 mice and mice with UII receptor knock out were injected with two consecutive doses of streptozotocin to induce diabetes and were sacrificed at 3th week for in vivo study. HK-2 cells in vitro were cultured and treated with UII. Markers of ER stress and EMT, fibronectin and type IV collagen were detected by immunohistochemistry, real time PCR and western blot. Results: We found that the expressions of protein of UII, GRP78, CHOP, ALPHA-SMA, fibronectin and type IV collagen were upregulated while E-cadherin protein was downregulated as shown by immunohistochemistry or western blot analysis in kidney of diabetic mice in comparison to normal control; moreover expressions of GRP78, CHOP, ALPHA-SMA, fibronectin and type IV collagen were inhibited while E-caherin expression was enhanced in kidney in diabetic mice with UII receptor knock out in comparison to C57BL/6 diabetic mice. In HK-2 cells, UII induced upregulation of GRP78, CHOP, ALPHA-SMA, fibroblast-specifc protein 1(FSP-1, fibronectin and type collagen and downregulation of E-cadherin. UII receptor antagonist can block UII-induced ER stress and EMT; moreover, 4-PBA can inhibit the mRNA expression of ALPHA-SMA and FSP1 induced by UII in HK-2 cells. Conclusions: We are the first to verify UII induces ER stress and EMT and increase extracellular matrix production in renal tubular epithelial cell in early diabetic mice. Moreover, UII may induce renal tubular epithelial EMT via triggering ER stress pathway in vitro, which might be the new pathogenic pathway for the development of renal fibrosis in DN.

  14. Expression of Trans- and Paracellular Calcium and Magnesium Transport Proteins in Renal and Intestinal Epithelia During Lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beggs, Megan R; Appel, Ida; Svenningsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    Significant alterations in maternal calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) balance occur during lactation. Ca2+ is the primary divalent cation mobilized into breast milk by demineralization of the skeleton and alterations in intestinal and renal Ca2+ transport. Mg2+ is also concentrated in breast milk......, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. To determine the molecular alterations in Ca2+ and Mg2+ transport in the intestine and kidney during lactation, 3 groups of female mice consisting of either non-pregnant controls, lactating mice, or mice undergoing involution were examined. The fractional...... excretion of Ca2+, but not Mg2+, rose significantly during lactation. Renal 1-alpha hydroxylase and 24-OHase mRNA levels increased markedly as did plasma 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D levels. This was accompanied by significant increases in intestinal expression of Trpv6 and S100g in lactating mice. However...

  15. Influence of urinary sodium excretion on the clinical assessment of renal tubular calcium reabsorption in hypercalcaemic man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, S H; Gardner, M D; Dryburgh, F J; Cowan, R A; Boyle, I T

    1986-06-01

    The relation between urinary sodium excretion (NaE) and renal tubular calcium reabsorption (TmCa/GFR) was assessed in patients with hypercalcaemia associated with malignancy and primary hyperparathyroidism. On acute saline loading of seven normally hydrated patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and five patients with malignancy, raised values of TmCa/GFR were reduced to normal in most cases, in association with increases in NaE. The reduction in TmCa/GFR, which occurred, may have been due to a reduction in proximal tubular calcium reabsorption associated with sodium: this would have obscured the effect of humorally mediated increases in distal tubular calcium reabsorption, which are stimulated either by parathyroid hormone or by a putative humoral mediator in hypercalcaemia of malignancy. In patients who were normally hydrated NaE and TmCa/GFR were not significantly correlated. When data were included from patients who were dehydrated and from those undergoing acute saline loading, significant inverse correlations between NaE and TmCa/GFR were observed both in primary hyperparathyroidism (r = -0.49; p less than 0.02) and malignancy (r = -0.60; p less than 0.001). In clinical practice changes in TmCa/GFR associated with sodium seem to be of minor importance under normal circumstances, but they become evident at the upper and lower extremes of urinary sodium excretion. In clinical studies of renal calcium handling urinary sodium excretion must also be assessed, as interpreting TmCa/GFR data is difficult in states of excessive sodium loading or depletion.

  16. Generation of a tenascin-C-CreER2 knockin mouse line for conditional DNA recombination in renal medullary interstitial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan He

    Full Text Available Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMIC are specialized fibroblast-like cells that exert important functions in maintaining body fluid homeostasis and systemic blood pressure. Here, we generated a RMIC specific tenascin-C promoter driven inducible CreER2 knockin mouse line with an EGFP reporter. Similar as endogenous tenascin-C expression, the reporter EGFP expression in the tenascin-C-CreER2(+/- mice was observed in the inner medulla of the kidney, and co-localized with COX2 but not with AQP2 or AQP1, suggesting selective expression in RMICs. After recombination (tenascin-C-CreER2(+/-/ROSA26-lacZ(+/- mice + tamoxifen, β-gal activity was restricted to the cells in the inner medulla of the kidney, and didn't co-localize with AQP2, consistent with selective Cre recombinase activity in RMICs. Cre activity was not obvious in other major organs or without tamoxifen treatment. This inducible RMIC specific Cre mouse line should therefore provide a novel tool to manipulate genes of interest in RMICs.

  17. Vasopressin increases expression of UT-A1, UT-A3, and ER chaperone GRP78 in the renal medulla of mice with a urinary concentrating defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qi; Nelson, Sarah K; McReynolds, Matthew R; Diamond-Stanic, Maggie Keck; Elliott, David; Brooks, Heddwen L

    2010-10-01

    Activation of V2 receptors (V2R) during antidiuresis increases the permeability of the inner medullary collecting duct to urea and water. Extracellular osmolality is elevated as the concentrating capacity of the kidney increases. Osmolality is known to contribute to the regulation of collecting duct water (aquaporin-2; AQP2) and urea transporter (UT-A1, UT-A3) regulation. AQP1KO mice are a concentrating mechanism knockout, a defect attributed to the loss of high interstitial osmolality. A V2R-specific agonist, deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP), was infused into wild-type and AQP1KO mice for 7 days. UT-A1 mRNA and protein abundance were significantly increased in the medullas of wild-type and AQP1KO mice following dDAVP infusion. The mRNA and protein abundance of UT-A3, the basolateral urea transporter, was significantly increased by dDAVP in both wild-type and AQP1KO mice. Semiquantitative immunoblots revealed that dDAVP infusion induced a significant increase in the medullary expression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone GRP78. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that GRP78 expression colocalized with AQP2 in principal cells of the papillary tip of the renal medulla. Using immunohistochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy, we demonstrate that vasopressin induced a marked apical targeting of GRP78 in medullary principal cells. Urea-sensitive genes, GADD153 and ATF4 (components of the ER stress pathway), were significantly increased in AQP1KO mice by dDAVP infusion. These findings strongly support an important role of vasopressin in the activation of an ER stress response in renal collecting duct cells, in addition to its role in activating an increase in UT-A1 and UT-A3 abundance.

  18. Proteomic analysis of renal calculi indicates an important role for inflammatory processes in calcium stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Michael L; Cummins, Timothy D; Wilkey, Daniel W; Salyer, Sarah A; Powell, David W; Klein, Jon B; Lederer, Eleanor D

    2008-10-01

    Even though renal stones/calculi occur in approximately 10% of individuals, they are an enormous economic burden to the entire US health system. While the relative metabolic composition of renal calculi is generally known, there is no clear understanding of the genetics of renal stone formation, nor are there clear prognostic indicators of renal stone formation. The application of proteomics to the analysis of renal calculi axiomatically holds that insight into renal stone pathobiology can be gained by a more comprehensive understanding of renal calculus protein composition. We analyzed isolated renal stone matrix proteins with mass spectrometric and immunohistochemical methods identifying 158 proteins with high confidence, including 28 common proteins. The abundant proteins included those identified previously in stones and proteins identified here for the first time, such as myeloid lineage-specific, integral membrane and lipid regulatory proteins. Pathway analyses of all proteins identified suggested that a significant fraction of the most abundant matrix proteins participate in inflammatory processes. These proteomic results support the hypothesis that stone formation induces a cellular inflammatory response and the protein components of this response contribute to the abundant stone matrix proteome.

  19. L-Carnitine Protects Renal Tubular Cells Against Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystals Adhesion Through Preventing Cells From Dedifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujue Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The interactions between calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM crystals and renal tubular epithelial cells are important for renal stone formation but still unclear. This study aimed to investigate changes of epithelial cell phenotype after COM attachment and whether L-carnitine could protect cells against subsequent COM crystals adhesion. Methods: Cultured MDCK cells were employed and E-cadherin and Vimentin were used as markers to estimate the differentiate state. AlexaFluor-488-tagged COM crystals were used in crystals adhesion experiment to distinguish from the previous COM attachment, and adhesive crystals were counted under fluorescence microscope, which were also dissolved and the calcium concentration was assessed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: Dedifferentiated MDCK cells induced by transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 shown higher affinity to COM crystals. After exposure to COM for 48 hours, cell dedifferentiation were observed and more subsequent COM crystals could bind onto, mediated by Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling. L-carnitine attenuated this signaling, resulted in inhibition of cell dedifferentiation and reduction of subsequent COM crystals adhesion. Conclusions: COM attachment promotes subsequent COM crystals adhesion, by inducing cell dedifferentiation via Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling. L-carnitine partially abolishes cell dedifferentiation and resists COM crystals adhesion. L-carnitine, may be used as a potential therapeutic strategy against recurrence of urolithiasis.

  20. Functional importance of T-type voltage-gated calcium channels in the cardiovascular and renal system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B L

    2015-01-01

    , the lack of highly specific blockers cast doubt on the conclusions. As new T-type channel antagonists are being designed, the roles of T-type channels in cardiovascular and renal pathology need to be elucidated before T-type blockers can be clinically useful. Two types of T-type channels, Cav3.1 and Cav3...... suggested to affect constriction. The Cav3.1 channel is also involved in neointima formation following vascular damage. In the kidney, Cav3.1 regulates plasma flow and Cav3.2 plays a role setting glomerular filtration rate. In conclusion, Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 are new therapeutic targets in several......Over the years, it has been discussed whether T-type calcium channels Cav3 play a role in the cardiovascular and renal system. T-type channels have been reported to play an important role in renal hemodynamics, contractility of resistance vessels, and pacemaker activity in the heart. However...

  1. Rare calcium oxalate monohydrate calculus attached to the wall of the renal pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Costa-Bauza, Antonia; Prieto, Rafael M; Saus, Carlos; Servera, Antonio; García-Miralles, Reyes; Benejam, Joan

    2011-04-01

    Most renal calculi can be classified using well-established criteria in a manner that reflects both composition and fine structure under specific pathophysiological conditions. However, when a large patient population is considered, rare renal calculi invariably appear, some of which have never been classified; careful study is required to establish stone etiology in such cases. The patient in the present case report formed two types of calculi. One was attached on the wall of the renal pelvis near the ureter and part of the calculus was embedded inside pelvic renal tissue. The calculus developed on an ossified calcification located in the pelvis tissue. Current knowledge on the development of calcification in soft tissues suggests a pre-existing injury as an inducer of its development. A mechanism of calculus formation is proposed. The second stone was a typical jack-stone calculus.

  2. Connexin 40 and ATP-dependent intercellular calcium wave in renal glomerular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Ildikó; Bansal, Eric; Meer, Elliott J; Kang, Jung Julie; Vargas, Sarah L; Peti-Peterdi, János

    2008-06-01

    Endothelial intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) plays an important role in the function of the juxtaglomerular vasculature. The present studies aimed to identify the existence and molecular elements of an endothelial calcium wave in cultured glomerular endothelial cells (GENC). GENCs on glass coverslips were loaded with Fluo-4/Fura red, and ratiometric [Ca(2+)](i) imaging was performed using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Mechanical stimulation of a single GENC caused a nine-fold increase in [Ca(2+)](i), which propagated from cell to cell throughout the monolayer (7.9 +/- 0.3 microm/s) in a regenerative manner (without decrement of amplitude, kinetics, and speed) over distances >400 microm. Inhibition of voltage-dependent calcium channels with nifedipine had no effect on the above parameters, but the removal of extracellular calcium reduced Delta[Ca(2+)](i) by 50%. Importantly, the gap junction uncoupler alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid or knockdown of connexin 40 (Cx40) by transfecting GENCs with Cx40 short interfering RNA (siRNA) almost completely eliminated Delta[Ca(2+)](i) and the calcium wave. Breakdown of extracellular ATP using a scavenger cocktail (apyrase and hexokinase) or nonselective inhibition of purinergic P2 receptors with suramin, had similar blocking effects. Scraping cells off along a line eliminated physical contact between cells but did not effect calcium wave propagation. Using an ATP biosensor technique, we detected a significant elevation in extracellular ATP (Delta = 76 +/- 2 microM) during calcium wave propagation, which was abolished by Cx40 siRNA treatment (Delta = 6 +/- 1 microM). These studies suggest that connexin 40 hemichannels and extracellular ATP are key molecular elements of the glomerular endothelial calcium wave, which may serve important juxtaglomerular functions.

  3. Peeping into human renal calcium oxalate stone matrix: characterization of novel proteins involved in the intricate mechanism of urolithiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanu Priya Aggarwal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing number of patients suffering from urolithiasis represents one of the major challenges which nephrologists face worldwide today. For enhancing therapeutic outcomes of this disease, the pathogenic basis for the formation of renal stones is the need of hour. Proteins are found as major component in human renal stone matrix and are considered to have a potential role in crystal-membrane interaction, crystal growth and stone formation but their role in urolithiasis still remains obscure. METHODS: Proteins were isolated from the matrix of human CaOx containing kidney stones. Proteins having MW>3 kDa were subjected to anion exchange chromatography followed by molecular-sieve chromatography. The effect of these purified proteins was tested against CaOx nucleation and growth and on oxalate injured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK renal epithelial cells for their activity. Proteins were identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server. In silico molecular interaction studies with CaOx crystals were also investigated. RESULTS: Five proteins were identified from the matrix of calcium oxalate kidney stones by MALDI-TOF MS followed by database search with MASCOT server with the competence to control the stone formation process. Out of which two proteins were promoters, two were inhibitors and one protein had a dual activity of both inhibition and promotion towards CaOx nucleation and growth. Further molecular modelling calculations revealed the mode of interaction of these proteins with CaOx at the molecular level. CONCLUSIONS: We identified and characterized Ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, Ras GTPase-activating-like protein, UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 2, RIMS-binding protein 3A, Macrophage-capping protein as novel proteins from the matrix of human calcium oxalate stone which play a critical role in kidney stone

  4. The calcium-binding protein complex S100A8/A9 has a crucial role in controlling macrophage-mediated renal repair following ischemia/reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessing, M.C.; Tammaro, A.; Pulskens, W.P.C.; Teske, G.J.; Butter, L.M.; Claessen, N.; Eijk, M. van; Poll, T. van der; Vogl, T.; Roth, J.; Florquin, S.; Leemans, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Upon ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury, several damage-associated molecular patterns are expressed including the calcium-binding protein S100A8/A9 complex. S100A8/A9 can be recognized by Toll-like receptor-4 and its activation is known to deleteriously contribute to renal I/R-induced injury.

  5. Renal Calcium Oxalate Deposits Induce a Pro-Atherosclerotic and Pro-Osteoporotic Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumi, Kirsten; Barr-Beare, Evan; Saxena, Vijay; Safedi, Fayez; Schwaderer, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Urinary stone disease (USD) is increasing in adult and pediatric populations. Adult and pediatric studies have demonstrated decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture rates. USD has also been independently linked to increased rates of myocardial infarction and cerebral vascular accidents. Although USD is a multisystem disorder involving the kidneys, bone, and vasculature, the molecular mechanisms linking these three organs remain unknown. Calcium oxalate nephropathy was induced in C57BL/6J mice with intra-peritoneal (ip) injection of sodium glyoxolate. Half of each kidney underwent Pizzalato staining and half was snap frozen for RNA extraction. RT(2) Profiler Mouse Atherosclerosis, Osteoporosis, and Calcium Signaling PCR Arrays (Qiagen) were performed. Only results that passed quality checks in PCR array reproducibility and genomic DNA contamination were included. Genes had to show at least fourfold differential expression and P 10-fold increase. All 10 have P ≤ 0.003. The calcium signaling array showed significant fourfold upregulation of 10 genes, four of which were ≥10-fold. All 10 have P ≤ 0.03. We have demonstrated that calcium oxalate nephropathy can induce upregulation of atherosclerotic, metabolic bone, and calcium homeostasis genes in a murine model. This may be and initial step in identifying the molecular mechanisms linking stone, bone, and cardiovascular disease. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2744-2751, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. MINERALIZATION STUDY OF RENAL RATS FOLLOWING OVARYOHYSTERECTOMY AND ADMINISTRATION HIGH DOSE CALCIUM CARBONATE

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti; Ira Sari Yudaniayanti; Nusdianto Triakoso

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high dose calcium carbonate in rat (Rattus norvegicus) following ovaryohysterectomy. A total of twenty female rats at 13 week-old were used in this study. Following ovaryohitectomy, the animals were randomized in four treatment groups. Group P0 were :fed with standard food only P1, P2 and P2 groups treated with standard food but supplemented calcium carbonate respectively at the dose of 75 mg per animal per day, 225 mg per animal per day , ...

  7. Effect of Diuretics on Renal Tubular Transport of Calcium and Magnesium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Dimke, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    of clinical conditions, but most commonly for the management of blood pressure and fluid balance. The pharmacological targets of diuretics generally directly facilitate sodium (Na+) transport, but also indirectly affect renal Ca2+ and Mg2+ handling, i.e. by establishing a prerequisite electrochemical gradient...

  8. Alpha-enolase on apical surface of renal tubular epithelial cells serves as a calcium oxalate crystal receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong-Ngern, Kedsarin; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-10-01

    To search for a strategy to prevent kidney stone formation/recurrence, this study addressed the role of α-enolase on apical membrane of renal tubular cells in mediating calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal adhesion. Its presence on apical membrane and in COM crystal-bound fraction was confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Pretreating MDCK cells with anti-α-enolase antibody, not isotype-controlled IgG, dramatically reduced cell-crystal adhesion. Immunofluorescence staining also confirmed the direct binding of purified α-enolase to COM crystals at {121} > {100} > {010} crystal faces. Coating COM crystals with urinary proteins diminished the crystal binding capacity to cells and purified α-enolase. Moreover, α-enolase selectively bound to COM, not other crystals. Chemico-protein interactions analysis revealed that α-enolase interacted directly with Ca2+ and Mg2+. Incubating the cells with Mg2+ prior to cell-crystal adhesion assay significantly reduced crystal binding on the cell surface, whereas preincubation with EDTA, a divalent cation chelator, completely abolished Mg2+ effect, indicating that COM and Mg2+ competitively bind to α-enolase. Taken together, we successfully confirmed the role of α-enolase as a COM crystal receptor to mediate COM crystal adhesion at apical membrane of renal tubular cells. It may also serve as a target for stone prevention by blocking cell-crystal adhesion and stone nidus formation.

  9. Protective effects of boron and vitamin E on ethylene glycol-induced renal crystal calcium deposition in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, H; Naghii, M R; Mofid, M; Asadi, M H; Ahmadi, K; Sarveazad, A

    2016-10-01

    Kidney stone disease is a common form of renal disease. Antioxidants, such as vitamin E (Vit E) and boron, are substances that reduce the damage caused by oxidation. Adult male rats were divided into 5 groups (n=6). In group 1, rats received standard food and water for 28 days (control group); in group 2, standard rodent food and water with 0.75% ethylene glycol/d (dissolved in drinking water) (EG Group); in group 3, similar to group 2, with 3 mg of boron/d (dissolved in water) (EG+B Group); in group 4, similar to group 2, with 200 IU of vitamin E injected intraperitoneally on the first day and the 14th day, (EG+Vit E Group); in group 5, mix of groups 3 and 4, respectively (EG+B+Vit E Group). Kidney sections showed that crystals in the EG group increased significantly in comparison with the control group. Crystal calcium deposition score in groups of EG+B (160), EG+Vit E, and EG+B+Vit E showed a significant decrease compared to EG group. Measurement of the renal tubules area and renal tubular epithelial histological score showed the highest significant dilation in the EG group. Tubular dilation in the EG+B+Vit E group decreased compared to the EG+B and EG+Vit E groups. Efficient effect of boron and Vit E supplements, separately and in combination, has a complimentary effect in protection against the formation of kidney stones, probably by decreasing oxidative stress.

  10. Calcium Antagonists and Hypertension: Role of co-existent coronary disease, impaired renal function and diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Wagener (Gilbert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIt is generally accepted that blood pressure lowering drugs improve the prognosis of patients with elevated blood pressure. The dihydropyridine calcium antagonist nifedipine is a widely used blood pressure lowering drug. In the mid-1990ties questions were raised on the safety of the

  11. Intercellular calcium signaling and nitric oxide feedback during constriction of rabbit renal afferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Torben Rene; Schjerning, J; Vanhoutte, Paul M. G.

    2007-01-01

    Vasoconstriction and increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) of vascular smooth muscle cells may cause an increase of endothelial cell [Ca(2+)](i), which, in turn, augments nitric oxide (NO) production and inhibits smooth muscle cell contraction. This hypothesis was tested...

  12. Promotion on Nucleation and Aggregation of Calcium Oxalate Crystals by Injured African Green Monkey Renal Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燊; 彭花; 姚秀琼; 苏泽轩; 欧阳健明

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to detect the properties of African green monkey renal epithelial cells (Vero) after oxidative injury and to study the mediation of the injured Vero on aggregation and formation of calcium oxalate crystals. This injury model was induced by 0.15 mmol/L H2O2 according to the pretest evaluation. The results suggested that H2O2 could injure Vero significantly and decrease cell viability in a time-dependent manner for exposure time of 0.5--2 h. After cell injury, the indexes connected with oxidative injury changed. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content and osteopontin (OPN) expression increased, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) level decreased. It resulted in the increase of both the amount of CaOxa crystals and the degree of crystal aggregation on the injured cells. This work indicated that injured cells promoted the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, thus increased the risk of formation of urinary stone.

  13. Delay in onset of metabolic alkalosis during regional citrate anti-coagulation in continous renal replacement therapy with calcium-free replacement solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    See Kay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional citrate anti-coagulation for continuous renal replacement therapy chelates calcium to produce the anti- coagulation effect. We hypothesise that a calcium-free replacement solution will require less citrate and produce fewer metabolic side effects. Fifty patients, in a Medical Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary teaching hospital (25 in each group, received continuous venovenous hemofiltration using either calcium-containing or calcium-free replacement solutions. Both groups had no significant differences in filter life, metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypercalcemia. However, patients using calcium-containing solution developed metabolic alkalosis earlier, compared to patients using calcium-free solution (mean 24.6 hours,CI 0.8-48.4 vs. 37.2 hours, CI 9.4-65, P = 0.020. When calcium-containing replacement solution was used, more citrate was required (mean 280ml/h, CI 227.2-332.8 vs. 265ml/h, CI 203.4-326.6, P = 0.069, but less calcium was infused (mean 21.2 ml/h, CI 1.2-21.2 vs 51.6ml/h, CI 26.8-76.4, P ≤ 0.0001.

  14. Combined effects of Er: YAG laser and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the inhibition of enamel demineralization: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogra Yassaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of white spot lesions on enamel is a significant and common problem during the fixed orthodontic treatment. Various preventive methods have been suggested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preventive potential of MI Paste Plus, Er: YAG Laser and combined under similar in vitro conditions against demineralization. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted premolars were randomly allocated to four groups (n = 15 of control, MI Paste Plus, Laser and MI + Laser (MIL. Enamel surface of each group was treated with one of above materials before and during the pH cycling for 12 days through a daily procedure of demineralization and remineralization for 3 h and 20 h, respectively. Teeth were sectioned and evaluated quantitatively by cross-sectional microhardness testing at 20 μm intervals from the outer enamel surface toward dentinoenamel junction up to 160 μm and data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: MIL group had the least amount of demineralization (P < 0.001. Control group (C group had the greatest relative mineral loss and the laser group (L group had 45% less mineral loss than the C group and there was no significant difference between the MI Paste Plus and L group (P = 0.154 Conclusion: Based on these results, Er: YAG laser was able to decrease demineralization and was a potential alternative to preventive dentistry and was more effective when combined with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate products.

  15. Renal Osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Metin Terzibaşoğlu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency is a functional definition which is characterized by irreversible and progressive decreasing in renal functions. This impairment is in collaboration with glomeruler filtration rate and serum creatinine levels. Besides this, different grades of bone metabolism disorders develop in chronic renal insufficiency. Pathologic changes in bone tissue due to loss of renal paranchyme is interrelated with calcium, phosphorus vitamine-D and parathyroid hormone. Clinically we can see high turnover bone disease, low turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis and osteoporosis in renal osteodystropy. In this article we aimed to review pathology of bone metabolism disorders due to chronic renal insufficiency, clinic aspects and treatment approaches briefly.

  16. Dietary Deficiency of Calcium and/or Iron, an Age-Related Risk Factor for Renal Accumulation of Cadmium in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyong-Son; Sano, Erika; Ueda, Hidenori; Sakazaki, Fumitoshi; Yamada, Keita; Takano, Masaoki; Tanaka, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    The major route of cadmium (Cd) intake by non-smokers is through food ingestion. Cd is a non-essential metal absorbed through one or more transporters of essential metal ions. Expression of these transporters is affected by nutritional status. To investigate the risk factors for Cd toxicity, the effects of deficiency of essential metals on hepatic and renal accumulation of Cd were studied in mice of different ages. Mice were administered a control diet or one of the essential metal-deficient diets, administered Cd by gavage for 6 weeks, and killed; then, Cd accumulation was evaluated. Iron deficiency (FeDF) or calcium deficiency (CaDF) resulted in remarkable increases in hepatic and renal Cd accumulation compared with control-diet mice and other essential metal-deficient mice. Cd accumulation in hepatic and renal tissue was increased significantly at all ages tested in FeDF and CaDF mice. Renal Cd concentrations were higher in 4-week-old mice than in 8- and 25-week-old mice. Increase in intestinal mRNA expression of calcium transporter (CaT)1, divalent metal ion transporter-1, and metallothionein (MT)1 was also higher in 4-week-old mice than in other mice. Renal accumulation of Cd showed strong correlation with intestinal mRNA expression of CaT1 and MT1. These data suggest that CaDF and FeDF at younger ages can be a risk factor for Cd toxicity.

  17. Determination of urine oxalate level in rats with renal calcium oxalate calculus by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qiu-shi; Ba, Yuan-ming; Luo, Jun-hua; Dai, Qi

    2015-02-01

    To establish a method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determining the urine oxalate levle in rats with renal calcium oxalate calculus. Totally 24 SPF Wistar healthy male rats were randomly divided into control group(n=12)and ethylene glycol (EG) group (n=12). Rats in EG group were administered intragastrically with 2% ammonium chloride (AC)2 ml/rat per day+1% ethylene glycol (EG), along with free access to drinking water.The control group was fed with deionized water, along with the intragastric administration of normal saline (1 ml per day). Twenty-eight days after modelling, the 24-hour urine samples were collected, and the urine oxalic acid levels were determined using HPLC and the results were compared with those of catalytic spectrophotometry using oxidation of methyl. During the HPLC, the samples were separated on Aglient 5TC-C18 (250×4.6 mm,5 Μm), eluted with mixture of methanol (0.1 mol/L) and ammonium acetate (15:85) at 1.2 ml/min, and detected at 314 nm, with the column temperature being 20 ℃. The standard curves of high and low concentrations of oxalic acid were y=5909.1x+378730, R² =0.9984 and y=7810.5x-16635, R² =0.9967,respectively. The lowest detectable concentration in this method was 5 Μg/ml. The linear high concentration range of oxalate stood at 62.50-2000.00 Μg/ml, and the linear low concentration range of oxalate stood at 6.25-100.00 Μg/ml. Its average recovery was 95.1%, and its within-day and day-to-day precisions were 3.4%-10.8% and 3.8%-9.4%. Both HPLC and catalytic spectrophotometry showed significantly higher urinary oxalic acid concentration and 24 h urine oxalate level in EG group compared with the control group [urinary oxalic acid concentration: (736.35 ± 254.52) Μg/ml vs.(51.56 ± 36.34) Μg/ml,(687.35 ± 234.53) Μg/ml vs.(50.24 ± 42.34) Μg/ml;24 h urine oxalate level: (11.23 ± 4.12)mg vs.(0.87 ± 0.45)mg,(9.89 ± 3.55)mg vs. (0.77 ± 0.65)mg; all P0.05). HPLC is a simple, rapid, and precise method

  18. Effect of roscovitine on intracellular calcium dynamics: differential enantioselective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Grazia; Ranieri, Marianna; Di Mise, Annarita; Spirlì, Alessia; Russo, Annamaria; Svelto, Maria; Valenti, Giovanna

    2013-12-02

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) inhibitors have emerged as interesting therapeutic candidates. Of these, (S)-roscovitine has been proposed as potential neuroprotective molecule for stroke while (R)-roscovitine is currently entering phase II clinical trials against cancers and phase I clinical tests against glomerulonephritis. In addition, (R)-roscovitine has been suggested as potential antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory drug. Dysfunction of intracellular calcium balance is a common denominator of these diseases, and the two roscovitine enantiomers (S and R) are known to modulate calcium voltage channel activity differentially. Here, we provide a detailed description of short- and long-term responses of roscovitine on intracellular calcium handling in renal epithelial cells. Short-term exposure to (S)-roscovitine induced a cytosolic calcium peak, which was abolished after stores depletion with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Instead, (R)-roscovitine caused a calcium peak followed by a small calcium plateau. Cytosolic calcium response was prevented after stores depletion. Bafilomycin, a selective vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor, abolished the small calcium plateau. Long-term exposure to (R)-roscovitine significantly reduced the basal calcium level compared to control and (S)-roscovitine treated cells. However, both enantiomers increased calcium accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Consistently, cells treated with (R)-roscovitine showed a significant increase in SERCA activity, whereas (S)-roscovitine incubation resulted in a reduced PMCA expression. We also found a tonic decreased ability to release calcium from the ER, likely via IP3 signaling, under treatment with (S)- or (R)-roscovitine. Together our data revealed that (S)-roscovitine and (R)-roscovitine exert distinct enantiospecific effects on intracellular calcium signaling in renal epithelial cells. This distinct pharmacological profile can be relevant for roscovitine clinical use.

  19. Calcinosis Cutis, Renal Insufficiency and Low-Molecular-Weight Calcium Containing Heparins

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Foi solicitada observação por Dermatologia de uma doente de 35 anos de idade, de raça negra, por 2 nódulos subcutâneos localizados na região paraumbilical direita e flanco direito com 2 semanas de evolução. Da história prévia, destaque para doença renal crónica em programa de hemodiálise e infeção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (VIH-1). Ao exame objetivo observaram-se 2 nódulos bem delimitados, subcutâneos, sem alteração da coloração; à palpação, estes eram dolorosos, de consistê...

  20. Antagonistic Regulation of Parvalbumin Expression and Mitochondrial Calcium Handling Capacity in Renal Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Henzi

    Full Text Available Parvalbumin (PV is a cytosolic Ca2+-binding protein acting as a slow-onset Ca2+ buffer modulating the shape of Ca2+ transients in fast-twitch muscles and a subpopulation of neurons. PV is also expressed in non-excitable cells including distal convoluted tubule (DCT cells of the kidney, where it might act as an intracellular Ca2+ shuttle facilitating transcellular Ca2+ resorption. In excitable cells, upregulation of mitochondria in "PV-ergic" cells in PV-/- mice appears to be a general hallmark, evidenced in fast-twitch muscles and cerebellar Purkinje cells. Using Gene Chip Arrays and qRT-PCR, we identified differentially expressed genes in the DCT of PV-/- mice. With a focus on genes implicated in mitochondrial Ca2+ transport and membrane potential, uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2, mitocalcin (Efhd1, mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 (Micu1, mitochondrial calcium uniporter (Mcu, mitochondrial calcium uniporter regulator 1 (Mcur1, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1, and ATP synthase subunit β (Atp5b were found to be up-upregulated. At the protein level, COX1 was increased by 31 ± 7%, while ATP-synthase subunit β was unchanged. This suggested that these mitochondria were better suited to uphold the electrochemical potential across the mitochondrial membrane, necessary for mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Ectopic expression of PV in PV-negative Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells decreased COX1 and concomitantly mitochondrial volume, while ATP synthase subunit β levels remained unaffected. Suppression of PV by shRNA in PV-expressing MDCK cells led subsequently to an increase in COX1 expression. The collapsing of the mitochondrial membrane potential by the uncoupler CCCP occurred at lower concentrations in PV-expressing MDCK cells than in control cells. In support, a reduction of the relative mitochondrial mass was observed in PV-expressing MDCK cells. Deregulation of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffer PV in kidney cells was counterbalanced in vivo and in vitro

  1. Connexin mimetic peptides fail to inhibit vascular conducted calcium responses in renal arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Salomonsson, Max; Braunstein, Thomas Hartig;

    2008-01-01

    of mimetic peptides directed against one or more connexins. Preglomerular resistance vessels were microdissected from kidneys of Sprague-Dawley rats and loaded with fura 2. The vessels were stimulated locally by applying electrical current through a micropipette, and the conducted calcium response...... was measured 500 mum from the site of stimulation. Application of connexin mimetic peptides directed against Cx40, 37/43, 45, or a cocktail with equimolar amounts of each, did not inhibit the propagated response, whereas the nonselective gap junction uncoupler carbenoxolone completely abolished the propagated...... mimetic peptides directed against Cx40, 37/43, or 45. Further studies are needed to determine whether conducted vasoconstriction is mediated via previously undescribed pathways....

  2. Amino Acid Medical Foods Provide a High Dietary Acid Load and Increase Urinary Excretion of Renal Net Acid, Calcium, and Magnesium Compared with Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods in Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M. Stroup

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skeletal fragility is a complication of phenylketonuria (PKU. A diet containing amino acids compared with glycomacropeptide reduces bone size and strength in mice. Objective. We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF. Design. In a crossover design, 8 participants with PKU (16–35 y provided food records and 24-hr urine samples after consuming a low-Phe diet in combination with AA-MF and GMP-MF for 1–3 wks. We calculated potential renal acid load (PRAL of AA-MF and GMP-MF and determined bone mineral density (BMD measurements using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results. AA-MF provided 1.5–2.5-fold higher PRAL and resulted in 3-fold greater renal net acid excretion compared to GMP-MF (p=0.002. Dietary protein, calcium, and magnesium intake were similar. GMP-MF significantly reduced urinary excretion of calcium by 40% (p=0.012 and magnesium by 30% (p=0.029. Two participants had low BMD-for-age and trabecular bone scores, indicating microarchitectural degradation. Urinary calcium with AA-MF negatively correlated with L1–L4 BMD. Conclusion. Compared to GMP-MF, AA-MF increase dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary calcium and magnesium excretion, and likely contributing to skeletal fragility in PKU. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01428258.

  3. Lead, calcium uptake, and related genetic variants in association with renal cell carcinoma risk in a cohort of male Finnish smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Emily B; Roff, Alanna; Fortugno, Tracey; Richie, John P; Kaag, Matthew; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Weinstein, Stephanie; Wilson, Robin Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Lead is classified as a probable human carcinogen. However, its role in renal cell cancer (RCC) has not been established. Calcium and vitamin D may off-set toxicity in vivo. In this nested case-control study, whole blood lead, total serum calcium, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured in blood drawn prior to diagnosis among male smokers participating in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in five genes (CALB1, TRPV5, TRPV6, VDR, and ALAD) related to lead toxicity or calcium transport were genotyped. Logistic and linear regressions were used to determine RCC risk and time to diagnosis (respectively), adjusting for other risk factors. Among 154 newly diagnosed cases and 308 matched controls, RCC was associated with higher whole blood lead [OR = 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-3.9; quartile 4 (Q4) vs. Q1, P(trend) = 0.022] and CALB1 rs1800645 (P(trend) = 0.025, minor 'T' allele frequency = 0.34). Higher total serum calcium (P(trend) ≤ 0.001) was associated with reduced RCC risk. Total serum calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels did not alter the association observed with lead. Time from enrollment to RCC diagnosis was positively associated with serum calcium (P(trend) = 0.002) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (P(trend) = 0.054) among cases. Higher blood lead concentrations, below the 10 μg/dL level of concern, were associated with RCC, independent from serum calcium and CALB1 promoter polymorphism. Increased risk of RCC is associated with lower serum calcium and higher whole blood lead in smokers. The clinical prognostic value of serum calcium and vitamin D in RCC should be further investigated.

  4. The influence of serum uric acid on renal function in patients with calcium or uric acid stone: A population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshimi; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Tanaka, Toshikazu; Yamamoto, Hayato; Narita, Takuma; Hamano, Itsuto; Matsumoto, Teppei; Soma, Osamu; Okamoto, Teppei; Tobisawa, Yuki; Yoneyama, Tohru; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Koie, Takuya; Takahashi, Ippei; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Terayama, Yuriko; Funyu, Tomihisa; Ohyama, Chikara

    2017-01-01

    To determine the influence of serum uric acid (UA) levels on renal impairment in patients with UA stone. We retrospectively analyzed 463 patients with calcium oxalate and/or calcium phosphate stones (CaOx/CaP), and 139 patients with UA stones. The subjects were divided into the serum UA-high (UA ≥ 7.0 mg/dL) or the UA-low group (UA analysis 1), and between patients with CaOx/CaP and with UA stone (analysis 2). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the impact of the hyperuricemia on the development of stage 3 and 3B chronic kidney disease (CKD) (analysis 3). The renal function was significantly associated with serum UA levels in the controls and patients with CaOx/CaP and UA stones. In pair-matched subgroups, patients with UA stone had significantly lower renal function than the control subjects (analysis 1) and patients with CaOx/CaP stones (analysis 2) regardless of hyperuricemia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with UA stone, CaOx/CaP, hyperuricemia, presence of cardiovascular disease, higher body mass index, older age and lower hemoglobin had significantly higher risk of stage 3 and 3B CKD (analysis 3). Patients with UA stones had significantly worse renal function than controls and CaOx/CaP patients regardless of hyperuricemia. Urolithiasis (CaOx/CaP and UA stone) and hyperuricemia had an association with impaired renal function. Our findings encourage clinicians to initiate intensive treatment and education approaches in patients with urolithiasis and/or hyperuricemia in order to prevent the progression of renal impairment.

  5. Infusum Daun Alpukat Sebagai Inhibitor Kristalisasi Kalsium Oksalat pada Ginjal (THE AVOCADO LEAVES INFUSUM AS INHIBITOR ON RENAL CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Madyastuti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine crystal is a crystal nucleus which tend to form urine stone. The case of urine stone seems to beincreased every year. Crystallization could induce acute tubular necrosis which impact on renal dysfunction.The signs of this condition are high level of urea, creatinine and decrease glomerulus filtration rate. Theobjective of this research was to evaluate the effects of infusum Persea americana Mill as an inhibitorcrystallization which induced by ethylene glycol on white male rats. 20 male rats were divided into 4groups; K1 as negative group received only distilled water ad libitum, K2 as positive group receiveddistilled water containing ethylene glycol, K3 (dose 5% and K4 (dose 10% as treatment groups receivedwater containing ethylene glycol and avocado leaves infusion. Phytochemsitry screening of infusion avocadoleaves consisted of flavonoid, saponin, tanine and quinone. Result of analysis showed that the level ofureum and creatinine on K2 was higher than K3 and K4 group. The increased level could be inhibited byinfusion avocado leaves. The measurement of glomerular filtration rate in treatment groups wassignificantly different (p<0.05. Descriptive histopathology observation showed that renal lesio in grouptreatment (K3 and K4 were declined. Large crystal calcium oxalate on K2 group was observed by usingpolarized microscope, whereas small crystal calcium oxalate were seen in the infusion of avocado leavesgroups. These result showed the ability of infusion of avocado leaves as an inhibitor on the growth ofcrystallization calcium oxalate

  6. Infusum Daun Alpukat Sebagai Inhibitor Kristalisasi Kalsium Oksalat pada Ginjal (THE AVOCADO LEAVES INFUSUM AS INHIBITOR ON RENAL CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Madyastuti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine crystal is a crystal nucleus which tend to form urine stone. The case of urine stone seems to beincreased every year. Crystallization could induce acute tubular necrosis which impact on renal dysfunction.The signs of this condition are high level of urea, creatinine and decrease glomerulus filtration rate. Theobjective of this research was to evaluate the effects of infusum Persea americana Mill as an inhibitorcrystallization which induced by ethylene glycol on white male rats. 20 male rats were divided into 4groups; K1 as negative group received only distilled water ad libitum, K2 as positive group receiveddistilled water containing ethylene glycol, K3 (dose 5% and K4 (dose 10% as treatment groups receivedwater containing ethylene glycol and avocado leaves infusion. Phytochemsitry screening of infusion avocadoleaves consisted of flavonoid, saponin, tanine and quinone. Result of analysis showed that the level ofureum and creatinine on K2 was higher than K3 and K4 group. The increased level could be inhibited byinfusion avocado leaves. The measurement of glomerular filtration rate in treatment groups wassignificantly different (p<0.05. Descriptive histopathology observation showed that renal lesio in grouptreatment (K3 and K4 were declined. Large crystal calcium oxalate on K2 group was observed by usingpolarized microscope, whereas small crystal calcium oxalate were seen in the infusion of avocado leavesgroups. These result showed the ability of infusion of avocado leaves as an inhibitor on the growth ofcrystallization calcium oxalate

  7. Calcium channel blocker enhances beneficial effects of an angiotensin II AT1 receptor blocker against cerebrovascular-renal injury in type 2 diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Rafiq

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that combination therapy with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors plus calcium channel blockers (CCBs elicits beneficial effects on cardiovascular and renal events in hypertensive patients with high cardiovascular risks. In the present study, we hypothesized that CCB enhances the protective effects of an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB against diabetic cerebrovascular-renal injury. Saline-drinking type 2 diabetic KK-A(y mice developed hypertension and exhibited impaired cognitive function, blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption, albuminuria, glomerular sclerosis and podocyte injury. These brain and renal injuries were associated with increased gene expression of NADPH oxidase components, NADPH oxidase activity and oxidative stress in brain and kidney tissues as well as systemic oxidative stress. Treatment with the ARB, olmesartan (10 mg/kg/day reduced blood pressure in saline-drinking KK-A(y mice and attenuated cognitive decline, BBB disruption, glomerular injury and albuminuria, which were associated with a reduction of NADPH oxidase activity and oxidative stress in brain and kidney tissues as well as systemic oxidative stress. Furthermore, a suppressive dose of azelnidipine (3 mg/kg/day exaggerated these beneficial effects of olmesartan. These data support the hypothesis that a CCB enhances ARB-associated cerebrovascular-renal protective effects through suppression of NADPH oxidase-dependent oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes.

  8. Induction of renal senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) expression by testosterone and its contribution to urinary calcium absorption in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Han; Jian, Cai-Yun; Chou, Jou-Chun; Chen, Chien-Wei; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Soong, Christina; Hu, Sindy; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Wang, Paulus S.; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of androgen, mainly testosterone, in the expression of renal senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) in male rats. We found that the renal SMP30 expression was up-regulated by endogenous testosterone stimulation during puberty. Interestingly, androgen-deficient orchidectomized (ORX) rats exhibited lower SMP30 mRNA and protein expression in the kidney, and that was restored by testosterone propionate (TP) replacement. Abrogation of androgen receptor (AR) activity by co-treatment with flutamide abolished testosterone-induced SMP30 expression in the kidney as well as in the NRK52E cells. However, SMP30 expression was unaltered in the liver of ORX rats. We also showed a positive correlation between renal SMP30 expression and plasma testosterone level during the aging process. TP-induced SMP30 expression in ovariectomized (OVX) rats was observed and was an evidence to explain the gender difference of SMP30 levels. Immunofluorescence assay showed that renal SMP30 was specifically expressed in the proximal tubular segments of the kidney. The urinary Ca2+ level was increased in both ORX and male aging rats. Taken together, our results indicate a novel role of testosterone in regulating SMP30 expression specifically in the kidney to contribute to urinary calcium absorption. PMID:27553527

  9. Towards evidence-based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 4: Alpha blockers v calcium blockers to increase spontaneous passage of renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alexander; Ferguson, Craig

    2013-02-01

    A short cut review was carried out to establish the administration of an alpha-1 receptor antagonist or a calcium channel blocker would facilitate the most rapid and successful expulsion of a stone from a patient with uncomplicated renal colic. 597 articles were found using the reported search, of which five trials were selected as providing the best evidence to answer this question. The authors, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. It is concluded that in a patient with an uncomplicated ureteric calculus tamsulosin is more effective than nifedipine in promoting speedy and successful expulsion of the stone.

  10. Calcium-sensing receptor and aquaporin 2 interplay in hypercalciuria-associated renal concentrating defect in humans. An in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procino, Giuseppe; Mastrofrancesco, Lisa; Tamma, Grazia; Lasorsa, Domenica Rita; Ranieri, Marianna; Stringini, Gilda; Emma, Francesco; Svelto, Maria; Valenti, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    One mechanism proposed for reducing the risk of calcium renal stones is activation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) on the apical membranes of collecting duct principal cells by high luminal calcium. This would reduce the abundance of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and in turn the rate of water reabsorption. While evidence in cells and in hypercalciuric animal models supports this hypothesis, the relevance of the interplay between the CaR and AQP2 in humans is not clear. This paper reports for the first time a detailed correlation between urinary AQP2 excretion under acute vasopressin action (DDAVP treatment) in hypercalciuric subjects and in parallel analyzes AQP2-CaR crosstalk in a mouse collecting duct cell line (MCD4) expressing endogenous and functional CaR. In normocalciurics, DDAVP administration resulted in a significant increase in AQP2 excretion paralleled by an increase in urinary osmolality indicating a physiological response to DDAVP. In contrast, in hypercalciurics, baseline AQP2 excretion was high and did not significantly increase after DDAVP. Moreover DDAVP treatment was accompanied by a less pronounced increase in urinary osmolality. These data indicate reduced urinary concentrating ability in response to vasopressin in hypercalciurics. Consistent with these results, biotinylation experiments in MCD4 cells revealed that membrane AQP2 expression in unstimulated cells exposed to CaR agonists was higher than in control cells and did not increase significantly in response to short term exposure to forskolin (FK). Interestingly, we found that CaR activation by specific agonists reduced the increase in cAMP and prevented any reduction in Rho activity in response to FK, two crucial pathways for AQP2 translocation. These data support the hypothesis that CaR-AQP2 interplay represents an internal renal defense to mitigate the effects of hypercalciuria on the risk of calcium precipitation during antidiuresis. This mechanism and possibly reduced medulla tonicity may

  11. Calcium-sensing receptor and aquaporin 2 interplay in hypercalciuria-associated renal concentrating defect in humans. An in vivo and in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Procino

    Full Text Available One mechanism proposed for reducing the risk of calcium renal stones is activation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR on the apical membranes of collecting duct principal cells by high luminal calcium. This would reduce the abundance of aquaporin-2 (AQP2 and in turn the rate of water reabsorption. While evidence in cells and in hypercalciuric animal models supports this hypothesis, the relevance of the interplay between the CaR and AQP2 in humans is not clear. This paper reports for the first time a detailed correlation between urinary AQP2 excretion under acute vasopressin action (DDAVP treatment in hypercalciuric subjects and in parallel analyzes AQP2-CaR crosstalk in a mouse collecting duct cell line (MCD4 expressing endogenous and functional CaR. In normocalciurics, DDAVP administration resulted in a significant increase in AQP2 excretion paralleled by an increase in urinary osmolality indicating a physiological response to DDAVP. In contrast, in hypercalciurics, baseline AQP2 excretion was high and did not significantly increase after DDAVP. Moreover DDAVP treatment was accompanied by a less pronounced increase in urinary osmolality. These data indicate reduced urinary concentrating ability in response to vasopressin in hypercalciurics. Consistent with these results, biotinylation experiments in MCD4 cells revealed that membrane AQP2 expression in unstimulated cells exposed to CaR agonists was higher than in control cells and did not increase significantly in response to short term exposure to forskolin (FK. Interestingly, we found that CaR activation by specific agonists reduced the increase in cAMP and prevented any reduction in Rho activity in response to FK, two crucial pathways for AQP2 translocation. These data support the hypothesis that CaR-AQP2 interplay represents an internal renal defense to mitigate the effects of hypercalciuria on the risk of calcium precipitation during antidiuresis. This mechanism and possibly reduced

  12. Targeted siRNA Screens Identify ER-to-Mitochondrial Calcium Exchange in Autophagy and Mitophagy Responses in RPE1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVicar, Thomas D B; Mannack, Lilith V J C; Lees, Robert M; Lane, Jon D

    2015-06-11

    Autophagy is an important stress response pathway responsible for the removal and recycling of damaged or redundant cytosolic constituents. Mitochondrial damage triggers selective mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), mediated by a variety of response factors including the Pink1/Parkin system. Using human retinal pigment epithelial cells stably expressing autophagy and mitophagy reporters, we have conducted parallel screens of regulators of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial morphology and function contributing to starvation-induced autophagy and damage-induced mitophagy. These screens identified the ER chaperone and Ca2+ flux modulator, sigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1 (SIGMAR1), as a regulator of autophagosome expansion during starvation. Screens also identified phosphatidyl ethanolamine methyl transferase (PEMT) and the IP3-receptors (IP3Rs) as mediators of Parkin-induced mitophagy. Further experiments suggested that IP3R-mediated transfer of Ca2+ from the ER lumen to the mitochondrial matrix via the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) primes mitochondria for mitophagy. Importantly, recruitment of Parkin to damaged mitochondria did not require IP3R-mediated ER-to-mitochondrial Ca2+ transfer, but mitochondrial clustering downstream of Parkin recruitment was impaired, suggesting involvement of regulators of mitochondrial dynamics and/or transport. Our data suggest that Ca2+ flux between ER and mitochondria at presumed ER/mitochondrial contact sites is needed both for starvation-induced autophagy and for Parkin-mediated mitophagy, further highlighting the importance of inter-organellar communication for effective cellular homeostasis.

  13. Targeted siRNA Screens Identify ER-to-Mitochondrial Calcium Exchange in Autophagy and Mitophagy Responses in RPE1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. B. MacVicar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an important stress response pathway responsible for the removal and recycling of damaged or redundant cytosolic constituents. Mitochondrial damage triggers selective mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy, mediated by a variety of response factors including the Pink1/Parkin system. Using human retinal pigment epithelial cells stably expressing autophagy and mitophagy reporters, we have conducted parallel screens of regulators of endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondrial morphology and function contributing to starvation-induced autophagy and damage-induced mitophagy. These screens identified the ER chaperone and Ca2+ flux modulator, sigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1 (SIGMAR1, as a regulator of autophagosome expansion during starvation. Screens also identified phosphatidyl ethanolamine methyl transferase (PEMT and the IP3-receptors (IP3Rs as mediators of Parkin-induced mitophagy. Further experiments suggested that IP3R-mediated transfer of Ca2+ from the ER lumen to the mitochondrial matrix via the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU primes mitochondria for mitophagy. Importantly, recruitment of Parkin to damaged mitochondria did not require IP3R-mediated ER-to-mitochondrial Ca2+ transfer, but mitochondrial clustering downstream of Parkin recruitment was impaired, suggesting involvement of regulators of mitochondrial dynamics and/or transport. Our data suggest that Ca2+ flux between ER and mitochondria at presumed ER/mitochondrial contact sites is needed both for starvation-induced autophagy and for Parkin-mediated mitophagy, further highlighting the importance of inter-organellar communication for effective cellular homeostasis.

  14. Cellular adaptive response of distal renal tubular cells to high-oxalate environment highlights surface alpha-enolase as the enhancer of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Fong-Ngern, Kedsarin; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2013-03-27

    Hyperoxaluria is one of etiologic factors of calcium oxalate kidney stone disease. However, response of renal tubular cells to high-oxalate environment remained largely unknown. We applied a gel-based proteomics approach to characterize changes in cellular proteome of MDCK cells induced by 10mM sodium oxalate. A total of 14 proteins were detected as differentially expressed proteins. The oxalate-induced up-regulation of alpha-enolase in whole cell lysate was confirmed by 2-D Western blot analysis. Interaction network analysis revealed that cellular adaptive response under high-oxalate condition involved stress response, energy production, metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Down-regulation of RhoA, which was predicted to be associated with the identified proteins, was confirmed by immunoblotting. In addition, the up-regulation of alpha-enolase on apical surface of renal tubular epithelial cells was also confirmed by immunoblotting of the isolated apical membranes and immunofluorescence study. Interestingly, blockage of alpha-enolase expressed on the cell surface by antibody neutralization significantly reduced the number of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals adhered on the cells. These results strongly suggest that surface alpha-enolase plays an important role as the enhancer of COM crystal binding. The increase of alpha-enolase expressed on the cell surface may aggravate kidney stone formation in patients with hyperoxaluria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Renal lithiasis and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Costa-Bauza, Antonia; Prieto, Rafel M

    2006-09-06

    Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified through diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins) and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine) is discussed.

  16. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Rafel M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine is discussed.

  17. The role of calbindin-D28k on renal calcium and magnesium handling during treatment with loop and thiazide diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Te; Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Lee, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Li-Wen; Lien, Yeong-Hau H

    2016-02-01

    Calbindin-D28k (CBD-28k) is a calcium binding protein located in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and plays an important role in active calcium transport in the kidney. Loop and thiazide diuretics affect renal Ca and Mg handling: both cause Mg wasting, but have opposite effects on Ca excretion as loop diuretics increase, but thiazides decrease, Ca excretion. To understand the role of CBD-28k in renal Ca and Mg handling in response to diuretics treatment, we investigated renal Ca and Mg excretion and gene expression of DCT Ca and Mg transport molecules in wild-type (WT) and CBD-28k knockout (KO) mice. Mice were treated with chlorothiazide (CTZ; 50 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1)) or furosemide (FSM; 30 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1)) for 3 days. To avoid volume depletion, salt was supplemented in the drinking water. Urine Ca excretion was reduced in WT, but not in KO mice, by CTZ. FSM induced similar hypercalciuria in both groups. DCT Ca transport molecules, including transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5), TRPV6, and CBD-9k, were upregulated by CTZ and FSM in WT, but not in KO mice. Urine Mg excretion was increased and transient receptor potential subfamily M, member 6 (TRPM6) was upregulated by both CTZ and FSM in WT and KO mice. In conclusion, CBD-28k plays an important role in gene expression of DCT Ca, but not Mg, transport molecules, which may be related to its being a Ca, but not a Mg, intracellular sensor. The lack of upregulation of DCT Ca transport molecules by thiazides in the KO mice indicates that the DCT Ca transport system is critical for Ca conservation by thiazides.

  18. Effects of felodipine, a newly developed calcium antagonist, on blood pressure, and cerebral and renal blood flow in patients with essential hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Konno, Yoshio; Shibuya, Hiroshi [Fujita Municipal General Hospital, Fukushima (Japan); Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Kenji

    1997-11-01

    Felodipine, a recently developed calcium channel antagonist, was administered twice daily (10 mg/day) for 1 month to 5 patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Its antihypertensive effect, as well as its effect on cerebral and renal blood flow, was investigated. After 1 month of therapy, sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased. The antihypertensive effect was well tolerated and sustained during the administration period. Total cerebral blood flow, as assessed by {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime, increased to 46.8{+-}6.4 ml/100 g/min from a pretreatment level of 43.6{+-}6.4 ml/100 g/min (P<0.05); the left lobe blood flow increased to 46.8{+-}6.3 ml/100 g/min from a baseline value of 43.9{+-}6.2 ml/100 g/min (P<0.05). On the other hand, the renal blood flow, as determined by {sup 99m}Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, unchanged: 70.2{+-}19.9 ml/ min before and 71.8{+-}13.6 ml/min after. Blood viscosity and the number of blood platelet tended to decrease during treatment. There were essentially no significant changes in biochemical parameters, and no severe side effects were encountered during the administration. These results not only confirmed the safety and usefulness of felodipine as an antihypertensive agent for the treatment of essential hypertension, but also suggested that this new calcium channel antagonist may exert beneficial effects on central as well as renal hemodynamics in essential hypertensives. (author)

  19. Influence of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Induced by Low Dietary Calcium, Vitamin D Deficiency, and Renal Failure on Circulating Rat PTH Molecular Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Pierre; Rousseau, Louise; Hornyak, Stephen; Yang, Zan; Cantor, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Rats(r) with secondary hyperparathyroidism were studied to define the relationship between vitamin D metabolites and rPTH levels measured by 3 different rat ELISAs. Controls and renal failure (RF) rats were on a normal diet, while 2 groups on a low-calcium (-Ca) or a vitamin D-deficient (-D) diet. RF was induced surgically. Mild RF rats had normal calcium and 25(OH)D but reduced 1,25(OH)(2)D levels (P < .001) with a 2.5-fold increased in rPTH (P < .001). Severe RF rats and those on a -Ca or -D diet had reduced calcium (P < .01) and 25(OH)D levels (P < .05), with rPTH increased by 2 (-Ca diet; P < .05), 4 (-D diet; P < .001), and 20-folds (RF; P < .001) while 1,25(OH)(2)D was high (-Ca diet: P < .001) or low (-D diet, RF: P < .001). 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D were positively and negatively related on the -Ca and -D diets, respectively. rPTH molecular forms behaved as expected in RF and on -Ca diet, but not on -D diet with more C-rPTH fragments when less were expected. This may be related to the short-time course of this study compared to prior studies.

  20. Sulfate but not thiosulfate reduces calculated and measured urinary ionized calcium and supersaturation: implications for the treatment of calcium renal stones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Rodgers

    Full Text Available Urinary sulfate (SO4(2- and thiosulfate (S2O3(2- can potentially bind with calcium and decrease kidney stone risk. We modeled the effects of these species on the concentration of ionized calcium (iCa and on supersaturation (SS of calcium oxalate (CaOx and calcium phosphate (CaP, and measured their in vitro effects on iCa and the upper limit of stability (ULM of these salts.Urine data from 4 different types of stone patients were obtained from the Mayo Nephrology Clinic (Model 1. A second data set was obtained from healthy controls and hypercalciuric stone formers in the literature who had been treated with sodium thiosulfate (STS (Model 2. The Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS was used to calculate iCa and SS. In Model 1, these parameters were calculated as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations. In Model 2, data from pre- and post STS urines were analyzed. ULM and iCa were determined in human urine as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations.Calculated iCa and SS values for all calcium salts decreased with increasing sulfate concentration. Thiosulfate had no effect on these parameters. In Model 2, calculated iCa and CaOx SS increased after STS treatment, but CaP SS decreased, perhaps due to a decrease in pH after STS treatment. In confirmatory in vitro experiments supplemental sulfate, but not thiosulfate, significantly increased the calcium needed to achieve the ULM of CaP and tended to increase the oxalate needed to reach the ULM of CaOx. Sulfate also significantly decreased iCa in human urine, while thiosulfate had no effect.Increasing urinary sulfate could theoretically reduce CaOx and CaP stone risk. Although STS may reduce CaP stone risk by decreasing urinary pH, it might also paradoxically increase iCa and CaOx SS. As such, STS may not be a viable treatment option for stone disease.

  1. Sulfate but Not Thiosulfate Reduces Calculated and Measured Urinary Ionized Calcium and Supersaturation: Implications for the Treatment of Calcium Renal Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Allen; Gauvin, Daniel; Edeh, Samuel; Allie-Hamdulay, Shameez; Jackson, Graham; Lieske, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary sulfate (SO42−) and thiosulfate (S2O32−) can potentially bind with calcium and decrease kidney stone risk. We modeled the effects of these species on the concentration of ionized calcium (iCa) and on supersaturation (SS) of calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaP), and measured their in vitro effects on iCa and the upper limit of stability (ULM) of these salts. Methods Urine data from 4 different types of stone patients were obtained from the Mayo Nephrology Clinic (Model 1). A second data set was obtained from healthy controls and hypercalciuric stone formers in the literature who had been treated with sodium thiosulfate (STS) (Model 2). The Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS) was used to calculate iCa and SS. In Model 1, these parameters were calculated as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations. In Model 2, data from pre- and post STS urines were analyzed. ULM and iCa were determined in human urine as a function of sulfate and thiosulfate concentrations. Results Calculated iCa and SS values for all calcium salts decreased with increasing sulfate concentration. Thiosulfate had no effect on these parameters. In Model 2, calculated iCa and CaOx SS increased after STS treatment, but CaP SS decreased, perhaps due to a decrease in pH after STS treatment. In confirmatory in vitro experiments supplemental sulfate, but not thiosulfate, significantly increased the calcium needed to achieve the ULM of CaP and tended to increase the oxalate needed to reach the ULM of CaOx. Sulfate also significantly decreased iCa in human urine, while thiosulfate had no effect. Conclusion Increasing urinary sulfate could theoretically reduce CaOx and CaP stone risk. Although STS may reduce CaP stone risk by decreasing urinary pH, it might also paradoxically increase iCa and CaOx SS. As such, STS may not be a viable treatment option for stone disease. PMID:25061988

  2. The hemodynamic effect of calcium ion concentration in the infusate during predilution hemofiltration in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamperis, N.; Sloth, E.; Jensen, Jens Dam

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is the prevailing view that convective dialysis techniques stabilize blood pressure. Calcium concentration in the substitution fluid may be important in this respect. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of calcium ion concentration in the substitution fluid...... on hemodynamic stability during predilution hemofiltration (HF). METHODS: We conducted a randomized, crossover, blinded, controlled trial with 12 stable long-term hemodialysis patients without diabetes. Each patient was randomly assigned to substitution fluid with a calcium ion (iCa) concentration of 2.5 m...

  3. Renal intratubular crystals and hyaluronan staining occur in stone formers with bypass surgery but not with idiopathic calcium oxalate stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P; Coe, Fredric L; Gillen, Daniel; Lingeman, James E; Bledsoe, Sharon; Worcester, Elaine M

    2008-03-01

    Whether idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formers form inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) crystal deposits bears on pathogenetic mechanisms of stone formation. In prior work, using light and transmission electron microscopy, we have found no IMCD crystal deposits. Here, we searched serial sections of papillary biopsies from a prior study of 15 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, 4 intestinal bypass patients with CaOx stones, and 4 non-stone-forming subjects, and biopsies from an additional hitherto unreported 15 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers and 1 bypass patient using polarized light oil immersion optics, for deposits overlooked in our original study. We found no IMCD deposits in any of 1,500 serial sections from the 30 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, nor in 87 additional sections from a frozen idiopathic calcium oxalate stone former biopsy sample processed without exposure to aqueous solutions. Among 4 of the 5 bypass patients but in none of the 30 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers or 4 normal stone formers, we found tiny birefringent thin crystalline overlays on scattered IMCD cell membranes. We also found IMCD lumen deposits in two bypass patients that contained mixed birefringent and nonbirefringent crystals, presumably CaOx and apatite. In the bypass patients, we observed focal apical IMCD cell hyaluronan staining, which was absent in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. The absence of any IMCD deposits in 1,500 serial sections of biopsies from 30 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers allows us to place the upper limit on the probability of their occurrence at approximately 0.002 and place the lower limit of their size at the resolution of the optics (crystal lesion.

  4. PDMP blocks brefeldin A-induced retrograde membrane transport from Golgi to ER : Evidence for involvement of calcium homeostasis and dissociation from sphingolipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, JW; Babia, T; Filipeanu, CM; Nelemans, A; Egea, G; Hoekstra, D

    1998-01-01

    In this study, we show that an inhibitor of sphingolipid biosynthesis, D,L-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PDMP), inhibits brefeldin A (BFA)-induced retrograde membrane transport from Golgi to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). If BFA treatment was combined with or preceded by PDMP

  5. Differential expression of T- and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in renal resistance vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard; Jensen, Boye L.; Andreasen, D;

    2001-01-01

    .2 protein was demonstrated by immunochemical labeling of rat preglomerular vasculature and juxtamedullary efferent arterioles and vasa recta. Cortical efferent arterioles were not immunopositive. Recordings of intracellular calcium concentration with digital fluorescence imaging microscopy showed......The distribution of voltage-dependent calcium channels in kidney pre- and postglomerular resistance vessels was determined at the molecular and functional levels. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of microdissected rat preglomerular vessels and cultured smooth muscle cells...... showed coexpression of mRNAs for T-type subunits (Ca(V)3.1, Ca(V)3.2) and for an L-type subunit (Ca(V)1.2). The same expression pattern was observed in juxtamedullary efferent arterioles and outer medullary vasa recta. No calcium channel messages were detected in cortical efferent arterioles. Ca(V)1...

  6. Differential expression of T- and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in renal resistance vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard; Jensen, Boye L.; Andreasen, D

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of voltage-dependent calcium channels in kidney pre- and postglomerular resistance vessels was determined at the molecular and functional levels. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of microdissected rat preglomerular vessels and cultured smooth muscle cells...... showed coexpression of mRNAs for T-type subunits (Ca(V)3.1, Ca(V)3.2) and for an L-type subunit (Ca(V)1.2). The same expression pattern was observed in juxtamedullary efferent arterioles and outer medullary vasa recta. No calcium channel messages were detected in cortical efferent arterioles. Ca(V)1.......2 protein was demonstrated by immunochemical labeling of rat preglomerular vasculature and juxtamedullary efferent arterioles and vasa recta. Cortical efferent arterioles were not immunopositive. Recordings of intracellular calcium concentration with digital fluorescence imaging microscopy showed...

  7. Functional importance of T-type voltage-gated calcium channels in the cardiovascular and renal system: news from the world of knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pernille B L

    2015-02-15

    Over the years, it has been discussed whether T-type calcium channels Cav3 play a role in the cardiovascular and renal system. T-type channels have been reported to play an important role in renal hemodynamics, contractility of resistance vessels, and pacemaker activity in the heart. However, the lack of highly specific blockers cast doubt on the conclusions. As new T-type channel antagonists are being designed, the roles of T-type channels in cardiovascular and renal pathology need to be elucidated before T-type blockers can be clinically useful. Two types of T-type channels, Cav3.1 and Cav3.2, are expressed in blood vessels, the kidney, and the heart. Studies with gene-deficient mice have provided a way to investigate the Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 channels and their role in the cardiovascular system. This review discusses the results from these knockout mice. Evaluation of the literature leads to the conclusion that Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 channels have important, but different, functions in mice. T-type Cav3.1 channels affect heart rate, whereas Cav3.2 channels are involved in cardiac hypertrophy. In the vascular system, Cav3.2 activation leads to dilation of blood vessels, whereas Cav3.1 channels are mainly suggested to affect constriction. The Cav3.1 channel is also involved in neointima formation following vascular damage. In the kidney, Cav3.1 regulates plasma flow and Cav3.2 plays a role setting glomerular filtration rate. In conclusion, Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 are new therapeutic targets in several cardiovascular pathologies, but the use of T-type blockers should be specifically directed to the disease and to the channel subtype.

  8. The Intron 4 Polymorphism in the Calcium-Sensing Receptor Gene in Diabetes Mellitus and its Chronic Complications, Diabetic Nephropathy and Non-Diabetic Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Železníková

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR significantly affects calcium-phosphate metabolism in kidneys, and it is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM due to its expression in pancreatic F-cells. The role of CaSR as one of the players in pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD has been speculated. Methods: 158 Type 2 diabetic patients divided into three groups according to occurrence and type of kidney complications, 66 nondiabetic patients CKD, and 93 healthy subjects were enrolled into the study to analyze the role of two CaSR polymorphisms (in the codon 990 and in the intron 4 in ethiopathogenesis of DM and CKD. The Type 2 diabetic groups consisted of 48 patients without any kidney abnormalities, 58 patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN, and 52 patients with nondiabetic renal disease (NDRD. The distribution of genotype and allele frequencies was studied using PCR with the TaqMan Discrimination Assay or followed by the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism method, respectively. Results: We have found that the intron 4 polymorphism is a risk factor for the development of DM and CKD, except DN, while the codon 990 does not show any disease association. Conclusion: We conclude that CaSR is a general factor in pancreas and kidney pathologies. i 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Lipoxin A4 induces apoptosis of renal interstitial fibroblasts via calcium-dependent up-regulation of calpain 10 and Smac expressions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenghua Wu; Chao Lu; Ling Dong; Guoping Zhou; Ziqing Chen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether lipoxin A4 (LXA4) induces apoptosis of renal interstitial fibroblasts and explore the mechanisms of signal pathway of LXA4. Methods: Rat renal interstitial fibroblasts (NRK-49F cells) were exposed to LXA4 at different concentrations. Prior to the experiment, the cells were transfected with Smac or calpain 10 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), or treated with calcium channel inhibitor SK&F96365. Apoptosis of cells was recognized by double staining using acridine orange and ethidium bromide, observed in laser scanning confocal microscope, and counted by a flow cytometer. Caspase-3 activities were measured by colorimetric assay. The levels of free cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+ ]i) were analyzed in fura-2-loaded cells by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Expression of calpain 10 mRNA was determined by RT-PCR. Expressions of Smac protein and threonine phosphorylated Akt1 proteins at 308 site were determined by a Western blotting analysis. Activity of signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3) was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Results: LXA4 at the concentrations of 0.1 and 1μmol/L induced 9.83% and 33.82% apoptosis of NRK-49F cells respectively, reduced at S and G2-M phase and increased the cells at G0-G1 phase in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of the cells with LXA4 increased the expressions of calpain 10 and Smac, the levels of [Ca2+ ]i and activity of caspase-3. It also down-regulated the DNA-binding activity of STAT3 and expression of threonine phosphorylated Akt1. Transfection of the cells with calpain 10 antisense ODN inhibited the LXA4-induced apoptosis, activity of caspase-3 and expression of calpain 10, and ameliorated the decreased activity of STAT3. Transfection of the cells with Smac antisense ODN inhibited the LXA4-induced apoptosis, activity of caspase-3 and expression of Smac. Pretreatment of the cells with SK & F96365 inhibited the LXA4-induced apoptosis, levels of [Ca2+ ]i

  10. 肾钙乳症并尿脓毒血症1例报告并文献复习%Renal milk of calcium with urinary sepsis:report of one case and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 于德新; 谢栋栋; 王毅; 张涛; 丁德茂; 陈磊; 闵捷; 邹慈

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of renal milk of calcium disorders. Methods: A retrospective analysis of cases of renal milk of calcium with the clinical data of patients with urinary sepsis and review of the literature, summarize the diagnosis and treatment. Results:Percutaneous renal puncture nephrostomy drainage and excision of the lesion, the patient recovered. Conclusions: preoperative diagnosis of this disease rely mainly on X-ray, Super B, CT to check for symptoms, lesions>25 mm patients can be surgical removal of renal milk of calcium lesions, and effective.%目的:探讨肾钙乳症的临床特点、诊断及治疗方法.方法:回顾性分析1例肾钙乳症并尿脓毒血症患者的临床资料,并复习有关文献,总结其诊治经验.结果:经皮肾穿刺造瘘引流及切除病灶后,患者痊愈.结论:该症术前诊断主要依靠X线、B超及CT等检查,对于症状明显、病灶>25 mm的患者,可采用手术切除肾钙乳病灶,疗效确切.

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Tomás; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER–mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

  12. Differential modulation of intracellular Ca2+ responses associated with calcium-sensing receptor activation in renal collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Giovanna; Mira, Annalisa; Mastrofrancesco, Lisa; Lasorsa, Domenica Rita; Ranieri, Marianna; Svelto, Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we studied G protein-coupled Extracellular Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaR) signaling in mouse cortical collecting duct cells (MCD4) expressing endogenous CaR. Intracellular [Ca(2+)] measurements performed with real time video imaging revealed that CaR stimulation with 5 mM Ca(2+), 300 μM Gd(3+) and with 10 μM of specific allosteric modulator NPS-R 568, all resulted in an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) although displaying different features. Specifically, Ca(2+) as well as stimulation with NPS-R 568 induced a rapid peak of [Ca(2+)](i) while stimulation with Gd(3+) induced transient intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations. PLC inhibition completely abolished any [Ca(2+)](i) increase after stimulation with CaR agonists. Inhibition of Rho or Rho kinase (ROK) abolished [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations induced by Gd(3+), while the peak induced by high Ca(2+) was similar to control. Conversely, emptying the intracellular calcium stores abolished the response to Gd(3+). On the other hand, the inhibition of calcium influx did not alter calcium changes. We conclude that in our cell model, CaR stimulation with distinct agonists activates two distinct transduction pathways, both PLC-dependent. The transient cytosolic Ca(2+) oscillations produced by Gd(3+) are modulated by Rho-Rho kinase signaling, whereas the rapid peak of intracellular Ca(2+) in response to 5 mM [Ca(2+)](o) is mainly due to PLC/IP3 pathway activation. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Effects of Renal Failure Formula and Calcium Dobesilate on the Chronic Kidney Disease%肾衰方联合羟苯磺酸钙对慢性肾脏病疗效的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志明; 何学红; 赵钢

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of Renal Failure Formula and calcium dobesilate on the chronic kidney disease. Methods: Choose 120 patients with chronic renal insufficiacy and eG-FR lower than 60mL/ ( min · 1.73m ), and put them int6 three groups including 31 patients taking calcium dobesilate, 59 patients taking Renal Failure Formula and calcium dohesilate and 30 patients taking Renal Failure Formula. The patients took 500mg of calcium dobesilate three times a day, 50mL of Renal Failure Formula three times a day. Then observe the levels of serum creatinine ( Scr ), urea nitrogen ( BUN ) and creatinine clearance rate ( Ccr ) before treatment and after two weeks of treatment. Results: (1) In Renal Failure Formula and calcium dobesilate group, BUN level ( P<0.01 )and Scr level decreased ( P<0.001 ), and Ccr went up obviously ( P<0.001 )(2)In calcium dobesilate group in the third and fourth stages, BUN level and Scr level decreased, and Ccr went up ( P<0.05 ) . (3) In Renal Failure Formula group in the third and fourth stages, BUN level and Scr level decreased, and Ccr went up ( P<0.05 ) . (4) Compared with calcium dobesilate group and Renal Failure Formula group, the curative effects in Renal Failure Formula and calcium dohesilate group were better than that in calcium dobesilate group( P<0.01 ). Conclusions: CDThe curative effect in Renal Failure Formula and calcium dobesilate group was better than that in Renal Failure Formula group and calcium dobesilate group.(2)Renal Failure Formula or calcium dobesilate could not obviously improve the patients in the fifth stage of chronic kidney disease. (3)Separate use of calcium dobesilate group or renal failure has no obvious improvement in patients with renal chronic kidney disease in stage V .%目的:观察肾衰方联合羟苯磺酸钙对各期慢性肾脏疾病(CKD)的影响.方法:肾小球滤过率(eGFR)低于每分钟60mL/1.73m2且未行透析治疗的慢性肾功能不全患者120例,分为羟苯磺酸钙组(31

  14. Arginine vasopressin increases cellular free calcium concentration and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate production in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, S.; Okada, K.; Saito, T.

    1988-09-01

    The role of calcium (Ca) in the cellular action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture. AVP increased both the cellular free Ca concentration ((Ca2+)i) using fura-2, and cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. AVP-induced cellular Ca mobilization was totally blocked by the antagonist to the antidiuretic action of AVP, and somewhat weakened by the antagonist to the vascular action of AVP. 1-Deamino-8-D-AVP (dDAVP). an antidiuretic analog of AVP, also increased (Ca2+) significantly. Cellular Ca mobilization was not obtained with cAMP, forskolin (a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase), or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. The early phase of (Ca2+)i depended on the intracellular Ca pool, since an AVP-induced rise in (Ca2+)i was obtained in cells pretreated with Ca-free medium containing 1 mM EGTA, verapamil, or cobalt, which blocked cellular Ca uptake. Also, AVP increased /sup 45/Ca2+ influx during the initial 10 min, which initiated the sustained phase of cellular Ca mobilization. However, cellular cAMP production induced by AVP during the 10-min observation period was diminished in the cells pretreated with Ca-free medium, verapamil, or cobalt, but was still significantly higher than the basal level. This was also diminished by a high Ca concentration in medium. These results indicate that 1) AVP concomitantly regulates cellular free Ca as well as its second messenger cAMP production; 2) AVP-induced elevation of cellular free Ca is dependent on both the cellular Ca pool and extracellular Ca; and 3) there is an optimal level of extracellular Ca to modulate the AVP action in renal papillary collecting tubule cells.

  15. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Background Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. Scope A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent...

  16. A comparison of the long-term effects of lanthanum carbonate and calcium carbonate on the course of chronic renal failure in rats with adriamycin-induced nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Takashima

    Full Text Available Lanthanum carbonate (LA is an effective phosphate binder. Previous study showed the phosphate-binding potency of LA was twice that of calcium carbonate (CA. No study in which LA and CA were given at an equivalent phosphate-binding potency to rats or humans with chronic renal failure for a long period has been reported to date. The objective of this study was to compare the phosphate level in serum and urine and suppression of renal deterioration during long-term LA and CA treatment when they were given at an equivalent phosphate-binding potency in rats with adriamycin (ADR-induced nephropathy. Rats were divided into three groups: an untreated group (ADR group, a CA-treated (ADR-CA group and a LA-treated (ADR-LA group. The daily oral dose of LA was 1.0 g/kg/day and CA was 2.0 g/kg/day for 24 weeks. The serum phosphate was lower in the ADR-CA or ADR-LA group than in the ADR group and significantly lower in the ADR-CA group than in the ADR group at each point, but there were no significant differences between the ADR and ADR-LA groups. The serum phosphate was also lower in the ADR-CA group than in the ADR-LA group, and there was significant difference at week 8. The urinary phosphate was significantly lower in the ADR-CA group than in the ADR or ADR-LA group at each point. The urinary phosphate was also lower in the ADR-LA group than in the ADR group at each point, and significant difference at week 8. There were no significant differences in the serum creatinine or blood urea nitrogen among the three groups. In conclusion, this study indicated the phosphate-binding potency of LA isn't twice as strong as CA, and neither LA nor CA suppressed the progression of chronic renal failure in the serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, compared to the untreated group.

  17. Diminution of oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aggarwal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using phytotherapy is being sought. The present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of Tribulus terrestris commonly called as “gokhru” which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The activity of Tribulus terrestris was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals as well as on oxalate induced cell injury of NRK 52E renal epithelial cells. RESULTS: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and the growth of CaOx crystals. When NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 72 h, Tribulus terrestris extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant, the cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release decreased in a concentration dependent manner. CONCLUSION: The current data suggests that Tribulus terrestris extract not only has a potential to inhibit nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals but also has a cytoprotective role. Our results indicate that it could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  18. Reduction of oxalate-induced renal tubular epithelial (NRK-52E cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallisation in vitro by aqueous extract of Achyranthes aspera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Anshu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable progress in medical therapy, there is no satisfactory drug to treat kidney stones. Therefore, this study is aimed to look for an alternative treatment by using Achyranthes aspera. Here, the inhibitory potency of A. aspera was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals as well as on oxalate-induced cell injury of NRK 52E renal epithelial cells in vitro. Data are expressed as mean values of three independent experiments (each in triplicate and analysed by the analysis of variance (P < 0.05 to estimate the differences between values of extracts tested. A. aspera extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of the growth of CaOx crystals but a similar pattern of inhibition was not observed with increase in the plant extract concentration for the nucleation assay. When NRK 52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 72 hours, A. aspera extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant, the cell viability increased and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. These studies indicate that A. aspera extract besides having a cytoprotective role also has a potential to inhibit both nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals and can prove to be a potent candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  19. Escore de cálcio coronariano prediz estenose e eventos na insuficiência renal crônica pré-transplante Score de calcio coronario predice estenosis y eventos en la insuficiencia renal crónica pre trasplante Coronary calcium score as predictor of stenosis and events in pretransplant renal chronic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Abraão Rosário

    2010-02-01

    este grupo. La evaluación del score de calcio coronario (SCC por tomografía computarizada ha estado comprobando valor pronóstico en la población sin enfermedad renal. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la exactitud del SCC para detectar EAC obstructiva y prever eventos cardiovasculares en candidatos a trasplante renal comparada a la angiografía coronaria invasiva (ACI cuantitativa. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron a 97 pacientes con IRC y edad > 35 años. Se consideró como EAC obstructiva la presencia de estenosis > 50% o > 70% por la ACI. Datos descriptivos, concordancia, pruebas diagnósticas, Kaplan-Meier y análisis multivariado se utilizaron. RESULTADOS: El score de Agatston promedio fue de 580,6 ± 1.102,2; los valores mínimos y máximos fueron 0 y 7.994, y mediana de 176. Solamente 14 pacientes tenían score de calcio de cero. No hubo diferencias entre las etnias y la mayor presencia de calcio regional se asoció a la mayor probabilidad de estenosis coronaria en el mismo segmento. El score de calcio de Agatston presentó buena exactitud para el diagnóstico de estenosis, > 50% y > 70% con área bajo la curva ROC de 0,75 y 0,70, respectivamente. En el umbral de 400, el score de calcio identificó el subgrupo con mayor tasa de eventos cardiovasculares en tiempo promedio de seguimiento de 29,1 ± 11,0 meses. CONCLUSIÓN: El SCC en la evaluación de EAC presentó una buena performance diagnóstica y pronostica para eventos cardiovasculares en pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC.BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD is the major cause of death among chronic renal failure (CRF patients. Traditional, non-invasive exams to detect CAD and to predict events have shown insufficient results in this group. CT Scan evaluation of Coronary Calcium Score (CCS has proven to be of prognostic value for the population reporting no renal condition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate CCS accuracy in detecting obstructive CAD and in predicting cardiovascular events in candidates to renal transplant

  20. Salvianolic acid A attenuates TNF-α- and D-GalN-induced ER stress-mediated and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis by modulating Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and calcium release in hepatocyte LO2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaojing; Jiang, Zequn; Bi, Lei; Yang, Ye; Chen, Weiping

    2015-08-01

    Salvianolic acid (Sal A) is a water-soluble compound extracted from Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen), which has been widely used to treat acute hepatitis and hepatic damage in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of the present study was to delineate the antiapoptotic signaling pathways involved in Sal A's hepato-protective action in hepatocyte LO2 cells and to further elucidate the mechanism by which Sal A elicits the antiapoptotic effects on hepatocytes. Here, the study showed that Sal A had antiapoptotic effects on the TNF-α/D-GalN-treated LO2 cells. Moreover, Western blotting demonstrated that the levels of p-eIF2α, ATF4, GRP78, CHOP and caspase-4 were markedly decreased in Sal A group. Additionally, the decrease of the cell mitochondrial membrane permeability and increase of ΔΨm were detected in Sal A-treated cells by high-content screening (HCS) analysis. And the levels of cleaved-caspase-9, cleaved-caspase-3, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), Apaf-1, and Cytc (cyto) were downregulated, while Cytc (mito) was upregulated by Sal A via Western blotting. Furthermore, the decreased levels of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and calcium release were measured in Sal A-treated cells. In summary, Sal A attenuates TNF-α- and D-GalN-induced both ER stress and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis by suppression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and prevention of calcium release, which support the notion that Sal A could be developed into a novel hepatic protectant.

  1. Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrostomy for treatment of renal milk of calcium (a report of 7 cases)%经皮肾微造瘘治疗肾钙乳(附7例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩兴涛; 霍庆祥; 张寒; 魏澎涛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of minimally invasive surgery on renal milk of calcium.Methods The clinical data of 7 patients diagnosed with renal calcium milk in Luoyang central hospital during 2005 to 2013 were retrospective analyzed,with cysts in 3 cases,stagnant water in 4 cases,who all received minimally invasive surgery treatment,patients with cysts received sclerotherapy after surgery.Results Seven operation patients recovered well after operation,1 patient with postoperative bleeding and 2 patients with low back pain recovered well after symptomatic treatment.One patient with cystic renal milk of calcium renal cyst recurrence after 2 years followed-up,and cured after given the color Doppler ultrasound guided puncture and therapy again.One patient with UPJO combined with hydronephrosis had good short-term effect,but the long-term effect remains to be seen.Conclusions Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrostomy technology is a viable treatment for renal milk of calcium,the method is efficient with little surgical trauma,less effect on renal function and significantly better than the traditional open surgery.%目的 探讨肾钙乳症微创手术治疗的疗效.方法 回顾性分析洛阳市中心医院2005年至2013年收治的7例确诊肾钙乳症患者,其中囊肿型3例,积水型4例,均行经皮肾微造瘘治疗,囊肿型患者术后注入硬化剂.结果 7例手术患者术后近期均恢复良好,其中1例术后出血及2例腰痛患者经对症治疗后均恢复良好.1例囊肿型肾钙乳患者随访2年肾囊肿复发,经再次行彩超引导穿刺治疗后治愈,1例合并肾盂输尿管连接部狭窄(UP-JO)积水患者近期效果良好,远期效果尚待观察.结论 经皮肾微造瘘技术是治疗肾钙乳症的一种可行的微创治疗方法,该手术创伤小,疗效确切,对肾功能影响小,明显优于传统的开放手术.

  2. Idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis (IRCU: variation of fasting urinary protein is a window to pathophysiology or simple consequence of renal stones in situ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwille PO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In IRCU it is uncertain whether variation of urinary protein, especially non-albumin protein (NAlb-P, is due to the presence of stones or reflects alteration of oxidative metabolism. Aims To validate in a tripartite cross-sectional study of 187 ambulatory male patients, undergoing a standardized laboratory programme, whether stones impact on N-Alb-P or the state of oxidative metabolism interferes with IRCU pathophysiology. Methods In part 1 the strata low and high of fasting urinary excretion rate per 2 h of N-Alb-P, malonedialdehyde, hypoxanthine, xanthine, pH and other urine components were compared, and association with renal stones in situ evaluated; in part 2 the co-variation of oxidatively modulated environment, fasting urinary pH, calcium (Ca salt crystallization risk and the number of patients with stones in situ was examined; in part 3, the nucleation of Ca oxalate and Ca phosphate was tested in undiluted postprandial urine of patients and related to the state of oxidative metabolism. Results In part 1, N-Alb-P excretion > 4.3 mg was associated with increase of blood pressure, excretion of total protein, hypoxanthine (a marker of tissue hypoxia, malonedialdehyde (a marker of lipid peroxidation, sodium, magnesium, citrate, uric acid, volume, pH, and increase of renal fractional excretion of both NAlb-P and uric acid; when stones were present, urinary pH was elevated but other parameters were unaffected. Significant predictors of N-Alb-P excretion were malonedialdehyde, fractional N-Alb-P and hypoxanthine. In part 2, urine pH > 6.14 was associated with unchanged blood pressure and plasma vasopressin, increase of blood pH, urinary volume, malonedialde hyde, fractional excretion of N-Alb-P, uric acid, Ca phosphate, but not Ca oxalate, supersaturation; this spectrum was accompanied by decrease of concentration of urinary total and free magnesium, total and complexed citrate, plasma uric acid (in humans the major

  3. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and calcium sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrgan, Monija; Nielsen, Sanne; Brixen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a lifelong, benign autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypercalcemia, normal to increased parathyroid hormone level, and a relatively low renal calcium excretion. Inactivation of the calcium-sensing receptor in heterozygous patients results in...

  4. Mammary-Specific Ablation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor During Lactation Alters Maternal Calcium Metabolism, Milk Calcium Transport, and Neonatal Calcium Accrual

    OpenAIRE

    Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; VanHouten, Joshua; Dann, Pamela; Bikle, Daniel; Chang, Wenhan; Brown, Edward; Wysolmerski, John

    2013-01-01

    To meet the demands for milk calcium, the lactating mother adjusts systemic calcium and bone metabolism by increasing dietary calcium intake, increasing bone resorption, and reducing renal calcium excretion. As part of this adaptation, the lactating mammary gland secretes PTHrP into the maternal circulation to increase bone turnover and mobilize skeletal calcium stores. Previous data have suggested that, during lactation, the breast relies on the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to coordinate ...

  5. Three calcium-sensitive genes, fus, brd3 and wdr5, are highly expressed in neural and renal territories during amphibian development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibonne, A; Néant, I; Batut, J; Leclerc, C; Moreau, M; Gilbert, T

    2013-07-01

    Numerous Ca(2+) signaling events have been associated with early development of vertebrate embryo, from fertilization to organogenesis. In Xenopus laevis, Ca(2+) signals are key regulators in the earliest steps of the nervous system development. If neural determination is one of the best-characterized examples of the role of Ca(2+) during embryogenesis, increasing literature supports a determining role of organogenesis and differentiation. In blastula the cells of the presumptive ectoderm (animal caps) are pluripotent and can be induced toward neural fate with an intracellular increase of free Ca(2+) triggered by caffeine. To identify genes that are transcribed early upon Ca(2+) stimuli and involved in neural determination, we have constructed a subtractive cDNA library between neuralized and non-neuralized animal caps. Here we present the expression pattern of three new Ca(2+)-sensitive genes: fus (fused in sarcoma), brd3 (bromodomain containing 3) and wdr5 (WD repeat domain 5) as they all represent potential regulators of the transcriptional machinery. Using in situ hybridization we illustrated the spatial expression pattern of fus, brd3 and wdr5 during early developmental stages of Xenopus embryos. Strikingly, their domains of expression are not restricted to neural territories. They all share a specific expression throughout renal organogenesis which has been found to rely also on Ca(2+) signaling. This therefore highlights the key function of Ca(2+) target genes in specific territories during early development. We propose that Ca(2+) signaling through modulation of fus, brd3 and wdr5 expressions can control the transcription machinery to achieve proper embryogenesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 12th European Symposium on Calcium.

  6. Calcium oxalate crystals induces tight junction disruption in distal renal tubular epithelial cells by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Gan, Xiuguo; Liu, Xukun; An, Ruihua

    2017-11-01

    Tight junction plays important roles in regulating paracellular transports and maintaining cell polarity. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, the major crystalline composition of kidney stones, have been demonstrated to be able to cause tight junction disruption to accelerate renal cell injury. However, the cellular signaling involved in COM crystal-induced tight junction disruption remains largely to be investigated. In the present study, we proved that COM crystals induced tight junction disruption by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK pathway. Treating Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells with COM crystals induced a substantial increasing of ROS generation and activation of Akt that triggered subsequential activation of ASK1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Western blot revealed a significantly decreased expression of ZO-1 and occludin, two important structural proteins of tight junction. Besides, redistribution and dissociation of ZO-1 were observed by COM crystals treatment. Inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) attenuated the activation of Akt, ASK1, p38 MAPK, and down-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin. The redistribution and dissociation of ZO-1 were also alleviated by NAC treatment. These results indicated that ROS were involved in the regulation of tight junction disruption induced by COM crystals. In addition, the down-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin, the phosphorylation of ASK1 and p38 MAPK were also attenuated by MK-2206, an inhibitor of Akt kinase, implying Akt was involved in the disruption of tight junction upstream of p38 MAPK. Thus, these results suggested that ROS-Akt-p38 MAPK signaling pathway was activated in COM crystal-induced disruption of tight junction in MDCK cells.

  7. An open-label, randomized, controlled, 4-week comparative clinical trial of barnidipine hydrochloride, a calcium-channel blocker, and benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in Chinese patients with renal parenchymal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Zheng, F; Chen, P; Tang, L; Wei, R; Yu, Y; Su, Y; Kikkawa, T; Yamamoto, M

    2006-01-01

    This study compared barnidipine, a calcium-channel blocker, and benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in 85 Chinese patients with renal parenchymal hypertension (diastolic blood pressure range 95 - 110 mmHg). Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 10 mg barnidipine or 10 mg benazepril orally daily for 4 weeks. In patients with diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg after 2 weeks of treatment, the dose of barnidipine or benazepril was increased by 5 or 10 mg, respectively. Both the barnidipine-treated group (n = 43) and the benazepril-treated group (n = 42) showed significant mean reductions from baseline in sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The decrease in diastolic blood pressure with benazepril was significantly greater than with barnidipine treatment. Sitting heart rate was not changed by either drug. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups. Barnidipine is similar to benazepril for the treatment of renal parenchymal hypertension.

  8. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevtic, V. E-mail: vladimir.jevtic@mf.uni-lj.si

    2003-05-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination.

  9. Long-term oral calcium supplementation reduces diastolic blood pressure in end stage renal disease. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L J; Rudnicki, M; Højsted, J

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that oral calcium supply reduces blood pressure in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral calcium supply reduces blood pressure in patients undergoing haemodialysis. The study was randomized, double-blind, and placebo controlled. Eleven patients received two grams of calcium per day and 12 patients received placebo. Three patients (one from the calcium group and two from the placebo group) dropped out within the first month. The groups were comparable at inclusion regarding blood pressure, weight, and serum values. Blood pressure measurements were auscultatory with a mercury manometer and diastolic blood pressure was measured as Korotkoff phase V. At inclusion a significant positive correlation between serum phosphate and blood pressure was found. After a study period of six months a significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure was found between the two groups (p < 0.05), but no difference was found in systolic blood pressure. The reduction in diastolic blood pressure was 6.9 mmHg of the pretreatment level in the calcium group. In conclusion, the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism with oral calcium gives good benefits in the regulation of diastolic blood pressure. A well controlled phosphate homeostasis may also be of importance for the control of blood pressure in haemodialysis patients.

  10. THROMBOTIC MICROANGIOPATHY ASSOCIATED WITH OPANA ER INTRAVENOUS ABUSE A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabr, Fadi I; Yu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathy is characterized by endothelial changes and microvascular stenosis. Several entities such as pregnancy, infection, connective tissue diseases, and drugs are associated with secondary thrombotic microangiopathy. Recently, new reformulation of Opana ER had been associated with thrombotic microangiopathy when injected intravenously. Here, we report the case of a 37-year-old man who developed renal failure and hemolytic anemia secondary to Opana ER intravenous abuse. Renal biopsy pathology was consistent with thrombotic microangiopathy likely caused by Opana ER intravenous abuse.

  11. Effect Modifying Role of Serum Calcium on Mortality-Predictability of PTH and Alkaline Phosphatase in Hemodialysis Patients: An Investigation Using Data from the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System from 2005 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chung Lin

    Full Text Available Predicting mortality in dialysis patients based on low intact parathyroid hormone levels is difficult, because aluminum intoxication, malnutrition, older age, race, diabetes, or peritoneal dialysis may influence these levels. We investigated the clinical implications of low parathyroid hormone levels in relation to the mortality of dialysis patients using sensitive, stratified, and adjusted models and a nationwide dialysis database. We analyzed data from 2005 to 2012 that were held on the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System, and 94,983 hemodialysis patients with valid data regarding their intact parathyroid levels were included in this study. The patient cohort was subdivided based on the intact parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase levels. The mean hemodialysis duration within this cohort was 3.5 years. The mean (standard deviation age was 62 (14 years. After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, the hemodialysis duration, serum albumin levels, hematocrit levels, calcium levels, phosphate levels, and the hemodialysis treatment adequacy score, the single-pool Kt/V, the crude and adjusted all-cause mortality rates increased when alkaline phosphatase levels were higher or intact parathyroid hormone levels were lower. In general, at any given level of serum calcium or phosphate, patients with low intact parathyroid hormone levels had higher mortality rates than those with normal or high iPTH levels. At a given alkaline phosphatase level, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 1.33 (p 9.5 mg/dL, but in the group with intact parathyroid hormone levels > 300 pg/mL and serum calcium levels > 9.5 mg/dL, the hazard ratio was 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.85-1.01. Hence, maintaining albumin-corrected high serum calcium levels at > 9.5 mg/dL may correlate with poor prognoses for patients with low intact parathyroid hormone levels.

  12. Renal rickets-practical approach

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    Manisha Sahay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickets/osteomalacia is an important problem in a tropical country. Many cases are due to poor vitamin D intake or calcium deficient diets and can be corrected by administration of calcium and vitamin D. However, some cases are refractory to vitamin D therapy and are related to renal defects. These include rickets of renal tubular acidosis (RTA, hypophosphatemic rickets, and vitamin D dependent rickets (VDDR. The latter is due to impaired action of 1α-hydroxylase in renal tubule. These varieties need proper diagnosis and specific treatment.

  13. Characterization of the ER-Targeted Low Affinity Ca2+ Probe D4ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Greotti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Calcium ion (Ca2+ is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger and changes in its concentration impact on nearly every aspect of cell life. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER represents the major intracellular Ca2+ store and the free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+] within its lumen ([Ca2+]ER can reach levels higher than 1 mM. Several genetically-encoded ER-targeted Ca2+ sensors have been developed over the last years. However, most of them are non-ratiometric and, thus, their signal is difficult to calibrate in live cells and is affected by shifts in the focal plane and artifactual movements of the sample. On the other hand, existing ratiometric Ca2+ probes are plagued by different drawbacks, such as a double dissociation constant (Kd for Ca2+, low dynamic range, and an affinity for the cation that is too high for the levels of [Ca2+] in the ER lumen. Here, we report the characterization of a recently generated ER-targeted, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET-based, Cameleon probe, named D4ER, characterized by suitable Ca2+ affinity and dynamic range for monitoring [Ca2+] variations within the ER. As an example, resting [Ca2+]ER have been evaluated in a known paradigm of altered ER Ca2+ homeostasis, i.e., in cells expressing a mutated form of the familial Alzheimer’s Disease-linked protein Presenilin 2 (PS2. The lower Ca2+ affinity of the D4ER probe, compared to that of the previously generated D1ER, allowed the detection of a conspicuous, more clear-cut, reduction in ER Ca2+ content in cells expressing mutated PS2, compared to controls.

  14. Hvem er vi? Hvem er de?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Kommentaren tager afsæt i initiativer i de pædagogiske faglige foreninger i Europa EERA) og i Norden (NERA) og argumenterer for at det er forpligtelse for os som nordiske og europæiske pædagogiske forskere at gå op imod de stadigt mere ekskluderende vi-konstruktioner, som er blevet formuleret i f...

  15. Differential effect of T-type voltage-gated calcium channel disruption on renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne D; Andersen, Henrik; Cardel, Majken

    2014-01-01

    of two T-type Cav knock-out mice strains. Continuous recordings of blood pressure and heart rate, and para-aminohippurate clearance (renal plasma flow) and inulin clearance (GFR) were performed in conscious, chronically catheterized, wild type and Cav 3.1-/- and Cav 3.2-/- mice. Contractility of afferent...

  16. A Diet High in Meat Protein and Potential Renal Acid Load Increases Absorption and Urinary Excretion of Calcium, As Well As Serum IGF-I in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objective was to determine the effect of increasing protein and potential renal acid load (PRAL) on Ca retention and markers of bone metabolism. Methods: In a randomized crossover design, twenty postmenopausal women consumed two diets: one low protein, low PRAL (LPLP) and one high pr...

  17. Renal papillary necrosis and pyelonephritis accompanying fenoprofen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, F E; Lange, R K; Kantrow, C M

    1979-10-26

    Renal papillary necrosis occurred after fenoprofen calcium administration in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and urinary tract infection. Possible mechanisms of renal damage may be hypersensitivity, decreased blood flow, and decreased production of a prostaglandin E-like substance.

  18. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion: Insights from Genetic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine; Dimke, Henrik; Eladari, Dominique

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibition of calcium transport processes within the renal tubule. The mechanisms whereby acid alters the integrity and stability of bone have been examined extensively in the published literature. Here, after briefly reviewing this literature, we consider the effects of acid on calcium transport in the renal tubule and then discuss why not all gene defects that cause renal tubular acidosis are associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. Variable efficacy of calcium carbonate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrin, S M; Goldstein, S J; Shangraw, R F; Raja, R M

    1989-12-01

    Orally administered calcium carbonate tablets are commonly prescribed as a calcium supplement and for their phosphate-binding effects in renal failure patients. Two cases are reported in which a commercially available brand of calcium carbonate tablets appeared to be ineffective. Formal investigation of the bioavailability of this product revealed it to have impaired disintegration and dissolution and a lack of clinical efficacy. Recommendations that will enable physicians to avoid prescribing and pharmacists to avoid dispensing ineffective calcium carbonate tablets are proposed.

  20. ADVANTAGES OF COMBINATION THERAPY OF HYPERTENSION WITH CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKER AND ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITOR IN PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED RENAL FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Dzhaiani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Up-to-date data on combination therapy of arterial hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease are presented. Special attention is paid to the fixed combination of calcium antagonist lercanidipine and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril.

  1. Politik er ikke lykken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenbuch, Johannes Aakjær

    2011-01-01

    Der er ikke længere nogen højere sandhed i livet end den, flertallet bestemmer sig for – og dermed ingen del af livet, der ikke er politisk. Højre- og venstrefløjen er i bund og grund enige - enige om, at det er politikernes opgave at forære os det gode liv. Dermed bliver demokratiet totalitært. ...

  2. Ideologi er noget bras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin; Bjerre, Henrik Jøker

    medieområdet kan dette skifte betragtes som den endelige sejr for den post-ideologiske konsensus, der går ud fra, at der ikke mere er behov for politisk diskussion, og at vi aldrig mere skal indlade os på farlige politiske eksperimenter. Ideologi er noget bras, sagde jo allerede Poul Schlüter. Med inspiration......, ideologiske ramme for vore liv. Ideologi er noget bras, men bras er også ideologi....

  3. Forbrugernes veje er mangfoldige

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    2005-01-01

    Fremtidens forbrugere vil have sunde fødevarer, der smager godt. Det lyder umiddelbart som et krav, der skulle være til at opfylde, men så enkelt er det nu ikke. De fødevarer, der smager godt, er ikke altid sunde, og en forbruger er ikke bare en forbruger. Nogle vil udfordres og overraskes. Andre...

  4. Fattigdom er blevet hverdag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Stefan Bastholm; Ditlevsen, Kia

    2014-01-01

    Det er sæson for julehjælp til fattige familier og donationer til hjemløse. Problemerne er ikke sæsonafhængige, men resten af året er indignationen sværere at spore. Fattigdom opfattes nemlig i stigende grad som et permanent individuelt vilkår og ikke som udtryk for samfundskrise...

  5. Hvad er talesprog?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensig, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Hvad er talesprog lingvistisk set? Hvad er kendetegnende for det i forhold til skriftsproget, og hvordan kan man arbejde med at udvikle en forståelse og værdsættelse af talesproget hos eleverne? Vores traditionelle sprogvidenskabelige beskrivelses¬apparat er udviklet til at beskrive skriftsproget...

  6. Excessive fructose intake causes 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)-dependent inhibition of intestinal and renal calcium transport in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douard, Veronique; Sabbagh, Yves; Lee, Jacklyn; Patel, Chirag; Kemp, Francis W; Bogden, John D; Lin, Sheldon; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2013-06-15

    We recently discovered that chronic high fructose intake by lactating rats prevented adaptive increases in rates of active intestinal Ca(2+) transport and in levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3, the active form of vitamin D. Since sufficient Ca(2+) absorption is essential for skeletal growth, our discovery may explain findings that excessive consumption of sweeteners compromises bone integrity in children. We tested the hypothesis that 1,25-(OH)2D3 mediates the inhibitory effect of excessive fructose intake on active Ca(2+) transport. First, compared with those fed glucose or starch, growing rats fed fructose for 4 wk had a marked reduction in intestinal Ca(2+) transport rate as well as in expression of intestinal and renal Ca(2+) transporters that was tightly associated with decreases in circulating levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3, bone length, and total bone ash weight but not with serum parathyroid hormone (PTH). Dietary fructose increased the expression of 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and decreased that of 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), suggesting that fructose might enhance the renal catabolism and impair the synthesis, respectively, of 1,25-(OH)2D3. Serum FGF23, which is secreted by osteocytes and inhibits CYP27B1 expression, was upregulated, suggesting a potential role of bone in mediating the fructose effects on 1,25-(OH)2D3 synthesis. Second, 1,25-(OH)2D3 treatment rescued the fructose effect and normalized intestinal and renal Ca(2+) transporter expression. The mechanism underlying the deleterious effect of excessive fructose intake on intestinal and renal Ca(2+) transporters is a reduction in serum levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3. This finding is significant because of the large amounts of fructose now consumed by Americans increasingly vulnerable to Ca(2+) and vitamin D deficiency.

  7. Excessive fructose intake causes 1,25-(OH)2D3-dependent inhibition of intestinal and renal calcium transport in growing rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douard, Veronique; Sabbagh, Yves; Lee, Jacklyn; Patel, Chirag; Kemp, Francis W.; Bogden, John D.; Lin, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    We recently discovered that chronic high fructose intake by lactating rats prevented adaptive increases in rates of active intestinal Ca2+ transport and in levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3, the active form of vitamin D. Since sufficient Ca2+ absorption is essential for skeletal growth, our discovery may explain findings that excessive consumption of sweeteners compromises bone integrity in children. We tested the hypothesis that 1,25-(OH)2D3 mediates the inhibitory effect of excessive fructose intake on active Ca2+ transport. First, compared with those fed glucose or starch, growing rats fed fructose for 4 wk had a marked reduction in intestinal Ca2+ transport rate as well as in expression of intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporters that was tightly associated with decreases in circulating levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3, bone length, and total bone ash weight but not with serum parathyroid hormone (PTH). Dietary fructose increased the expression of 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and decreased that of 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), suggesting that fructose might enhance the renal catabolism and impair the synthesis, respectively, of 1,25-(OH)2D3. Serum FGF23, which is secreted by osteocytes and inhibits CYP27B1 expression, was upregulated, suggesting a potential role of bone in mediating the fructose effects on 1,25-(OH)2D3 synthesis. Second, 1,25-(OH)2D3 treatment rescued the fructose effect and normalized intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter expression. The mechanism underlying the deleterious effect of excessive fructose intake on intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporters is a reduction in serum levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3. This finding is significant because of the large amounts of fructose now consumed by Americans increasingly vulnerable to Ca2+ and vitamin D deficiency. PMID:23571713

  8. Renal protection in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Tarnow, L; Rossing, P

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The combination of diabetes and hypertension increases the chances of progressive renal disorder and, ultimately, renal failure. Roughly 40% of all diabetics, whether insulin-dependent or not, develop diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is the single most important cause of end......-stage renal disease in the Western world and accounts for more than a quarter of all end-stage renal diseases. Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Increased arterial blood pressure is an early and common phenomenon in incipient and overt diabetic...... nephropathy. The relationship between arterial blood pressure and diabetic nephropathy is a complex one, with diabetic nephropathy increasing blood pressure and blood pressure accelerating the course of nephropathy. OVERVIEW: Calcium antagonists antagonize preglomerular vasoconstriction. Additional putative...

  9. Use of genetically-encoded calcium indicators for live cell calcium imaging and localization in virus-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jacob L; Ramachandran, Nina K; Utama, Budi; Hyser, Joseph M

    2015-11-15

    Calcium signaling is a ubiquitous and versatile process involved in nearly every cellular process, and exploitation of host calcium signals is a common strategy used by viruses to facilitate replication and cause disease. Small molecule fluorescent calcium dyes have been used by many to examine changes in host cell calcium signaling and calcium channel activation during virus infections, but disadvantages of these dyes, including poor loading and poor long-term retention, complicate analysis of calcium imaging in virus-infected cells due to changes in cell physiology and membrane integrity. The recent expansion of genetically-encoded calcium indicators (GECIs), including blue and red-shifted color variants and variants with calcium affinities appropriate for calcium storage organelles like the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), make the use of GECIs an attractive alternative for calcium imaging in the context of virus infections. Here we describe the development and testing of cell lines stably expressing both green cytoplasmic (GCaMP5G and GCaMP6s) and red ER-targeted (RCEPIAer) GECIs. Using three viruses (rotavirus, poliovirus and respiratory syncytial virus) previously shown to disrupt host calcium homeostasis, we show the GECI cell lines can be used to detect simultaneous cytoplasmic and ER calcium signals. Further, we demonstrate the GECI expression has sufficient stability to enable long-term confocal imaging of both cytoplasmic and ER calcium during the course of virus infections.

  10. Effects of Adding Chymosin to Milk on Calcium Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ulla Kristine; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Mosekilde, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Calcium intake and absorption is important for bone health. In a randomized double-blind cross-over trial, we investigated effects of adding chymosin to milk on the intestinal calcium absorption as measured by renal calcium excretion and indices of calcium homeostasis. The primary outcome...... of the study was 24-h renal calcium excretion that is considered a proxy measure of the amount of calcium absorbed from the intestine. We studied 125 healthy men and women, aged 34 (25-45) years on two separate days. On each day, a light breakfast was served together with 500 ml of semi-skimmed milk to which...

  11. Store-Operated Calcium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakriya, Murali; Lewis, Richard S

    2015-10-01

    Store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) are a major pathway for calcium signaling in virtually all metozoan cells and serve a wide variety of functions ranging from gene expression, motility, and secretion to tissue and organ development and the immune response. SOCs are activated by the depletion of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), triggered physiologically through stimulation of a diverse set of surface receptors. Over 15 years after the first characterization of SOCs through electrophysiology, the identification of the STIM proteins as ER Ca(2+) sensors and the Orai proteins as store-operated channels has enabled rapid progress in understanding the unique mechanism of store-operate calcium entry (SOCE). Depletion of Ca(2+) from the ER causes STIM to accumulate at ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions where it traps and activates Orai channels diffusing in the closely apposed PM. Mutagenesis studies combined with recent structural insights about STIM and Orai proteins are now beginning to reveal the molecular underpinnings of these choreographic events. This review describes the major experimental advances underlying our current understanding of how ER Ca(2+) depletion is coupled to the activation of SOCs. Particular emphasis is placed on the molecular mechanisms of STIM and Orai activation, Orai channel properties, modulation of STIM and Orai function, pharmacological inhibitors of SOCE, and the functions of STIM and Orai in physiology and disease.

  12. Trauma renal Renal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Alves Pereira Júnior

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos uma revisão sobre trauma renal, com ênfase na avaliação radiológica, particularmente com o uso da tomografia computadorizada, que tem se tornado o exame de eleição, ao invés da urografia excretora e arteriografia. O sucesso no tratamento conservador dos pacientes com trauma renal depende de um acurado estadiamento da extensão da lesão, classificado de acordo com a Organ Injury Scaling do Colégio Americano de Cirurgiões. O tratamento conservador não-operatório é seguro e consiste de observação contínua, repouso no leito, hidratação endovenosa adequada e antibioti- coterapia profilática, evitando-se uma exploração cirúrgica desnecessária e possível perda renal. As indicações para exploração cirúrgica imediata são abdome agudo, rápida queda do hematócrito ou lesões associadas determinadas na avaliação radiológica. Quando indicada, a exploração renal após controle vascular prévio é segura, permitindo cuidadosa inspeção do rim e sua reconstrução com sucesso, reduzindo a probabilidade de nefrectomia.We present a revision of the renal trauma with emphasis in the radiographic evaluation, particularly CT scan that it has largely replaced the excretory urogram and arteriogram in the diagnostic worh-up and management of the patient with renal trauma. The successful management of renal injuries depends upon the accurate assessment of their extent in agreement with Organ Injury Scaling classification. The conservative therapy managed by careful continuous observation, bed rest, appropriate fluid ressuscitation and prophylactic antibiotic coverage after radiographic staging for severely injured kidneys can yield favorable results and save patients from unnecessary exploration and possible renal loss. The indications for immediate exploratory laparotomy were acute abdomen, rapidly dropping hematocrit or associated injuries as determinated from radiologic evaluation. When indicated, renal exploration

  13. Renal secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillion, Jenefer R; Ritt, Michelle G

    2009-06-01

    The parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is important for maintaining calcium homeostasis. Parathyroid gland hyperplasia and subsequent hyperparathyroidism can occur secondary to chronic renal failure in dogs, resulting in significant alterations in calcium metabolism. Renal secondary hyperparathyroidism is a complex, multifactorial syndrome that involves changes in circulating levels of calcium, PTH, phosphorus, and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol). An increased PTH level can have deleterious effects, including soft tissue mineralization, fibrous osteodystrophy, bone marrow suppression, urolithiasis, and neuropathy. Dietary phosphorus restriction, intestinal phosphate binders, and calcitriol supplementation may slow the progression of renal disease and decrease PTH concentrations in animals with secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, the prognosis for these animals is guarded to poor.

  14. Renal arteriography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read More Acute arterial occlusion - kidney Acute kidney failure Aneurysm Atheroembolic renal disease Blood clots Renal cell carcinoma Renal venogram X-ray Review Date 1/5/2016 Updated by: Jason Levy, ...

  15. Research on the Protection and Mechanism of Pu′er Tea on the Renal Inflammation Injury Resulted by Chronic Lead Treatment%普洱茶对慢性铅暴露致肾炎症损伤的保护作用及机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪娟; 吕翠; 刘晓丽; 左茹; 盛军; 张文生

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most important inorganic contaminants in the environment, which can cause multiple systems and multiple organs damage. Kidney is the main target organ for lead toxicity. Lead can cause renal glomerular damage, leading to renal interstitial fibrosis, and causing renal inflammation injury. Renal inflammation injury is current research focus, whose main mechanism is oxidative stress and cell apoptosis, etc. Preliminary study found that chronic lead exposure can cause the renal inflammation injury though increasing Methylglyoxal(MG). MG is a dicarbonyl compounds distributed widely, with a high activity in reacting with nucleobase of DNA, RNA and residue of protein. Accumulation of MG can promote inflammatory injury through AGES-RAGE-NFκB pathway. Pu′er tea is Characteristic, it can remove MG producing by high glucose. In this study, Different doses of Pu′er tea were used to treat the lead exposure model, then detecting the whole blood lead level, inflammatory factor TNF-α, 1L-1β, RGAE protein expression and carbonyl compounds MG levels of kidney tissues of mouse. The results showed that a certain concentration of Pu′er tea can not only play pro-excretion effect, but also directly chelate the MG in organ, reduces the excessive accumulation of MG, and the formation of AGEs, down-regulate the expression of RAGE, and reduce the generation of TNF-α, 1L-1β, finally slowing subsequent inflammatory injury.%铅(Pb)是环境中重要的无机污染物之一,可造成多系统多器官的损伤,肾脏是铅毒性的主要靶器官。铅能造成肾小管、肾小球的炎症损伤,导致肾间质纤维化,其主要机制为氧化应激、细胞凋亡等,本试验前期研究发现,慢性铅暴露可导致甲基乙二醛(Methylglyoxal,MG)在肾组织中累积。MG 是广泛分布的邻二羰基化合物,具有两个高活性的羰基亲电中心,可与DNA、RNA中的核碱基和蛋白质中的碱性残

  16. Fluxus-øer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meijden, Peter Alexander

    2008-01-01

    "Fluxus-øer" er en introduktion til Fluxus med udgangspunkt i den tyske galleri-ejer René Blocks samling, som udstillingen "Food for Thought" i Sukkerfabrikken i Stege (Møn) præsenterede et udvalg af. Artiklen beskriver Fluxus som et heterotopi som beskrevet af Michel Foucault i "Of Other Spaces"...

  17. Vreden er over os

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2006-01-01

    Urolige elever, cyklister - der giver fuck-finger, aggressive demonstranter. Samtiden er på vej ind i en æra domineret af vrede, siger rektor Lars-Henrik Schmidt, der er aktuel med bogen 'Om vreden'. Udgivelsesdato: Juni...

  18. Tale er guld

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Henrichsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mange danske kommuner er parate til at indfase automatisk talegenkendelse, men er samtidig nervøse efter en lang række dårlige businesscases i den nærmere fortid. Der klages over høje licenspriser og lavt serviceniveau, den typiske virkning af et de facto monopol på leverandørsiden. Denne artikel...

  19. MIT HJEM ER HVOR MIT HJERTE ER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2014-01-01

    Ideen om at arbejde med det man kalder de stedbundne ressourcer på en ny måde, er relevant på Bornholm hvor events som blandt andet festivalen ’Wonderfestiwall’, strandfesten ’Vang Pier Beach Party’, karnevallet ’Svaneke Beach Party, kokkekonkurrencen ’Sol over Gudhjem’ og filmfestivalen ’Bornsho...

  20. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Rafel M; Costa-Bauza Antonia; Grases Felix

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins) and each type of...

  1. The effect of variable calcium and very low calcium diets on human calcium metabolism. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of a very low calcium diet, with variable high and low protein intake, on the dynamics of calcium metabolism and the mechanism of calciuretics, are examined. The experiment, using male subjects, was designed to study the role of intestinal calcium absorption on urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of production of endogeneously secreted calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The study showed an average of 70% fractional absorption rate during very low calcium intake, and that a decrease in renal tubular reabsorption of calcium is responsible for calciuretic effects of high protein intake. The study also indicates that there is a tendency to develop osteoporosis after long periods of low calcium intake, especially with a concurrent high protein intake.

  2. Participação da excreção renal de cálcio, fósforo, sódio e potássio na homeostase em cães sadios e cães com doença renal crônica Participation of renal excretion of calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium on the homeostasis in healthy dogs and in dogs with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P Martínez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Na doença renal crônica (DRC a manutenção da homeostase de água e sódio é o primeiro problema a ser contornado pelo organismo e com o agravamento das lesões renais surgem outros problemas graves relacionados à homeostase de cálcio e fósforo. O presente estudo tem por escopo avaliar a excreção renal de cálcio, fósforo, sódio e potássio, e o perfil sérico destes eletrólitos em cães normais e em cães com DRC naturalmente adquirida. Foram avaliados três grupos de cães adultos, machos ou fêmeas, de raças variadas. Animais normais compuseram o grupo controle (G1 e os cães com DRC foram distribuídos em dois grupos de acordo com os estágios de comprometimento da função renal (G2 e G3, respectivamente, estágios 1-2 e estágios 3-4, descritos pela IRIS 2006 staging CKD. Os cães do G3 apresentaram aumento das concentrações séricas de cálcio ionizado e fósforo, além de diminuição da concentração sérica de sódio. Quanto à excreção renal dos eletrólitos analisados, os animais dos grupos G1 e G2 apresentaram diminuição de carga filtrada e aumento de excreção fracionada, mas as excreções urinárias não variaram significativamente. Os resultados são indicativos de que os rins de cães com DRC podem manter a excreção urinária dos eletrólitos em valores se melhantes aos dos normais. O mecanismo envolve aumento da excreção fracionada na medida em que haja diminuição da filtração glomerular. Esse processo de compensação, entretanto, pode perder a eficiência nos estágios mais avançados da enfermidade no que se refere à manutenção das concentrações séricas de fósforo e sódio.In chronic kidney disease (CKD, the first problem to be solved by the organism is to maintain water and sodium homeostasis and, with the worsening of the renal injuries, other severe problems related to the calcium and phosphorus homeostasis emerge. The present study has the purpose to evaluate the renal excretion and

  3. ER-mediated stress induces mitochondrial-dependent caspases activation in NT2 neuron-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Daniela M; Esteves, A Raquel; Domingues, A Filipa; Pereira, Claudia M F; Cardoso, Sandra M; Oliveira, Catarina R

    2009-11-30

    Recent studies have revealed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) disturbance is involved in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders, contributing to the activation of the ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway. Therefore, we investigated here the molecular mechanisms underlying the ER-mitochondria axis, focusing on calcium as a potential mediator of cell death signals. Using NT2 cells treated with brefeldin A or tunicamycin, we observed that ER stress induces changes in the mitochondrial function, impairing mitochondrial membrane potential and distressing mitochondrial respiratory chain complex Moreover, stress stimuli at ER level evoked calcium fluxes between ER and mitochondria. Under these conditions, ER stress activated the unfolded protein response by an overexpression of GRP78, and also caspase-4 and-2, both involved upstream of caspase-9. Our findings show that ER and mitochondria interconnection plays a prominent role in the induction of neuronal cell death under particular stress circumstances.

  4. Nordslesvigeren er nr. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steffen Lind

    2015-01-01

    Historien om de nordslesvigske krigsdeltagere under 1. Verdenskrig er traditionelt blevet behandlet i et nationalt perspektiv. Her benævnes soldaterne oftest som ’danske’. Denne artikel undersøger, hvordan nordslesvigske soldater på Østfronten selv udtrykte deres identitet i krigssituationen....... Udgangspunktet er krigsdeltagernes beskrivelser af og syn på dels de fællesskaber, de var en del af ved fronten, og dels de grupperinger, de anså for deres modsætninger. Hovedpointen er, at det mest italesatte tilhørsforhold blandt disse soldater var det regionale bånd til Nordslesvig....

  5. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  6. Estudio exploratorio-ecológico sobre las concentraciones de sales de calcio en el agua para consumo humano y la litiasis renal en Costa Rica Exploratory-ecological study on the relationship between the concentration of calcium salts in water for human consumption and the incidence of renal stones in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darner A Mora Alvarado

    2007-12-01

    approximately 6000 cases per year of kidney stones in Costa Rica which implies an average rate of 1.7 cases per 1000 inhabitants; this pathology involves the formation of hard concretions resembling rock in any part of the urinary system. Etiology is multifactorial and involves anatomic, genetic, infectious as well as environmental factors such as the frequent intake of water with excess calcium salts also known as hard water. We carried out a county-based exploratory study of the ecologic type for the years 2001 to 2003 whereby a relationship was sought between the ingestion of calcium carbonate content in water for human consumption (which we abbreviate as (ACH and the incidence of renal calculi. With this objective in mind, we used on the one hand, data on county-based, average water-hardness from the National Water Laboratory (LNA from 4,000 water sources and, on the other, hospital discharges with the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis from 29 hospitals in the Costa Rican Social Security System. Statistical analysis was based on the Standardized Morbidity Index (which we abbreviate as IME adjusted by the indirect method as well as the Pearson correlation coefficient taken to a 95% degree of confidence. To present the data, county maps of water hardness and IME of renal calculi were used. The results indicate an ecological association between the two variables; in other words, when there is greater consumption of hard water, there exists a greater risk of renal calculi in the population with an excess risk of 27% in those places having high levels of water hardness and a Pearson coefficient for the ecological correlation of r=0,25. On the other hand, in the areas where the water predominantly is not hard, the risk is inferior to the national average. The results obtained open up new questions regarding the relationship between water hardness as well as its consumption and the incidence of kidney stones which should be answered by future studies.

  7. Store-operated calcium signaling in neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Regina A; Lowell, Clifford A

    2015-10-01

    Calcium signals in neutrophils are initiated by a variety of cell-surface receptors, including formyl peptide and other GPCRs, FcRs, and integrins. The predominant pathway by which calcium enters immune cells is termed SOCE, whereby plasma membrane CRAC channels allow influx of extracellular calcium into the cytoplasm when intracellular ER stores are depleted. The identification of 2 key families of SOCE regulators, STIM calcium "sensors" and ORAI calcium channels, has allowed for genetic manipulation of SOCE pathways and provided valuable insight into the molecular mechanism of calcium signaling in immune cells, including neutrophils. This review focuses on our current knowledge of the molecules involved in neutrophil SOCE and how study of these molecules has further informed our understanding of the role of calcium signaling in neutrophil activation.

  8. Comparison of renal calcium concentration in obese, lean, diabetic, and non-diabetic Zucker rats fed a magnesium-deficient fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, E T; Min, K W; Scholfield, D J; Sarkarcadeh, A

    1991-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of hypoinsulinaemia or hyperinsulinaemia on nephrocalcinosis induced by the interaction between fructose and magnesium (Mg) deficiency, we compared kidney calcification in obese versus lean, and non-diabetic versus diabetic female Zucker rats fed a magnesium-deficient fructose diet. One half of the obese and lean animals, respectively, was injected with streptozotocin to produce diabetes, and the other half was injected with citrate buffer alone. Diabetic, non-diabetic, obese, and lean animals were divided into two dietary groups, consisting of high starch or high fructose without added Mg. After a four week period, 24 hour urine was collected for urinary output, protein, oxalate, citrate, MG, and calcium (Ca) measurements. The animals were then decapitated, and blood was collected for glucose, Mg, and Ca determinations, and kidneys were removed to determine their Mg and Ca contents. All fructose-fed animals exhibited significantly more kidney Ca then the starch-fed animals. Lean non-diabetic rats fed fructose showed the greatest kidney Ca along with the greatest urinary protein excretion among all experimental groups. The significant finding in the present study is that diabetes or obesity reduced nephrocalcinosis regardless of the insulin status of the rats. Diuresis and hypercitraturia in diabetic and/or obese animals may cause a reduction in nephrocalcinosis induced by the interaction between fructose and magnesium deficiency. Hyperproteinuria (uromucoid) in combination with hypercalciuria and hypomagnesuria may be responsible for greater nephrocalcinosis in the fructose than the starch group. The possible mechanisms for this interaction on nephrocalcinosis have been discussed.

  9. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Background Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. Scope A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent-to-treat population (N=2520), 752 patients with recorded dose data for calcium acetate (n=551)/calcium carbonate (n=201) at baseline and lanthanum carbonate at week 16 were studied. Elemental calcium intake, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were analyzed. Findings Of the 551 patients with calcium acetate dose data, 271 (49.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day at baseline, and 142 (25.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum phosphate levels were 6.1 (5.89, 6.21) mg/dL at baseline and 6.2 (6.04, 6.38) mg/dL at 16 weeks; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.3 (9.16, 9.44) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Of the 201 patients with calcium carbonate dose data, 117 (58.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day, and 76 (37.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% CI) serum phosphate levels were 5.8 (5.52, 6.06) mg/dL at baseline and 5.8 (5.53, 6.05) mg/dL at week 16; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.7 (9.15, 10.25) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Conclusion Calcium acetate/calcium carbonate phosphate binders, taken to control serum phosphate levels, may result in high levels of elemental calcium intake. This may lead to complications related to calcium balance. PMID:28182142

  10. Acute pyelonephritis in ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Volpicelli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms and signs of acute pyelonephritis sometimes are subtle and emergency physicians attending overcrowded and busy institutions could easily miss the right diagnosis. The presence of a renal damage is decisive in the therapeutic choice. Aims of our study are: 1 to assess prevalence of renal damage in patients presenting to our ED with symptoms and signs of primary urinary tract infection (UTI; 2 to evaluate the reliability of such symptoms and signs in predicting a renal damage; 3 to assess accuracy of the contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS in the ED diagnosis of renal damage due to acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis. We studied 54 patients with suspected UTI. Each patient underwent clinical examination, routine blood and urine sampling and conventional renal ultrasound (US. 23 patients had confirmation of acute primary UTI, and performed renal magnetic resonance (MR to rule out renal parenchymal involvement. In 16 patients (69,6% one or more parenchymal lesions were visualized at MR, and diagnosis of acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis was confirmed (group A. The other 7 patients had a diagnosis of UTI without renal involvement (group B. Some of 23 patients presented with few atypical symptoms. Lumbar pain was the most frequent symptom (n = 21, without a statistically significant difference between group A and B (P 0,958; p = 0,328. No other symptom or sign has demonstrated statistically valid in predicting the renal involvement. Renal US was positive in only 3 patients of group A (18,7%. During this first part of our study, CEUS was performed in a limited number of patients (n = 8, and in 7 examinations data were concordant with MR. In conclusion, analysis of our preliminary data confirms that a distinction between patients with different extension of the UTI is not possible through the simple clinical examination and routine tests. CEUS is very promising and its routine employment in the ED could simplify the diagnostic practice in

  11. Skrot er godt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Skrot er en god forretning for miljøet. Når vi genvinder metal - det vil sige indsamler, sorterer og smelter det om - udleder vi langt mindre CO2, end når vi bruger nye metaller udvundet fra undergrunden. Miljøgevinsten gælder alle metaller og høstes hver gang, vi genvinder dem. Det er et positiv...

  12. Metabolomics er fremtiden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersern, Birger

    2010-01-01

    Forskningen i fødevarer har fået et potent redskab i hånden. Metabolomics er vejen frem, mener professor Søren Balling Engelsen fra Københavns Universitet......Forskningen i fødevarer har fået et potent redskab i hånden. Metabolomics er vejen frem, mener professor Søren Balling Engelsen fra Københavns Universitet...

  13. er 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J. P.; Søndergaard, M.; Jeppesen, E.;

    små cladoceer og hjuldyr, og især er maksimumsforekom-sterne af calanoide vandlopper og de små og store cladoceer og daf-nier gået tilbage. Den gennemsnitlige biomasse af dafnier er derimod øget især p.g.a. stigning i de 25 % af søerne med størst forekomster. Dyreplanktons græsning Betragtet under et...

  14. Bik reduces hyperplastic cells by increasing Bak and activating DAPk1 to juxtapose ER and mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebratu, Yohannes A; Leyva-Baca, Ivan; Wathelet, Marc G; Lacey, Neal; Chand, Hitendra S; Choi, Augustine M K; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2017-10-06

    Bik reduces hyperplastic epithelial cells by releasing calcium from endoplasmic reticulum stores and causing apoptosis, but the detailed mechanisms are not known. Here we report that Bik dissociates the Bak/Bcl-2 complex to enrich for ER-associated Bak and interacts with the kinase domain of DAPk1 to form Bik-DAPk1-ERK1/2-Bak complex. Bik also disrupts the Bcl2-IP3R interaction to cause ER Ca(2+) release. The ER-associated Bak interacts with the kinase and calmodulin domains of DAPk1 to increase the contact sites of ER and mitochondria, and facilitate ER Ca(2+) uptake by mitochondria. Although the Bik BH3 helix was sufficient to enrich for ER-Bak and elicit ER Ca(2+) release, Bik-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is blocked with reduced Bak levels. Further, the Bik-derived peptide reduces allergen- and cigarette smoke-induced mucous cell hyperplasia in mice and in differentiated primary human airway epithelial cultures. Therefore, Bik peptides may have therapeutic potential in airway diseases associated with chronic mucous hypersecretion.Bcl-2 interacting killer (Bik) decreases airway epithelial hyperplasia via apoptosis mediated by calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but the mechanism is unclear. Here the authors show that Bik promotes Bak enrichment at the ER to tether mitochondria for efficient calcium transfer.

  15. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D

    1996-01-01

    The aim of study was to introduce and evaluate a method for quantifying the parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion during hemodialysis in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure. We developed a method suitable for inducing sequential hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia during....../ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared to the normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal failure. By the use...... of a standardized method we show that the calcium set-point is normal or slightly elevated, indicating normal parathyroid reactivity to calcium in chronic renal failure....

  16. Pseudoporfyri er et symptomkompleks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velander, Marie Juul; Þorsteinsdóttir, Sunna; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoporphyria is a photosensitive bullous disease, which resembles porphyria cutanea tarda. Normal porphyrin levels in urine, stool and blood define pseudoporphyria. Pseudoporphyria is associated with chronic renal failure, haemodialysis, a variety of drugs (e.g. naproxen, nabumetone, furosemide...

  17. Jeg Er blevet FRANKofil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    afhængig af Frank Underwood fra serien House of Cards på den fremadstormende TV-streamingstjenesten Netflix. Jeg har opdaget et nyt internetbaseret datingforhold. Et surrealt, fedt miks af det kyniske og joviale personificeret i karakteren Frank Underwood, som er helt igennem ubehagelig, men fantastisk...... spillet af Kevin Spacey. Og tak til Spacey der for en tid har forladt teateret ’The Old Vic’ i London for at begejstre mig. Der er generelt to årsager til mine FRANKofile tilbøjeligheder. For det første er Netflix’s remake af den tyve år gamle BBC serie House of Cards efter min menig et stykke tv...... anden grund, til at jeg er blevet Frankofil, er, at jeg ikke skal sidde og vente på næste søndag efter søndag efter søndag for at få lov at se næste afsnit. Netflix lagde alle tretten timer af sæson 2 ud på nettet. Jeg afgør selv, hvornår jeg skal have mere Frank! Men på trods af mit narkomanlignende...

  18. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal perfusion scintigraphy; Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion ... supply the kidneys. This is a condition called renal artery stenosis. Significant renal artery stenosis may be ...

  19. Hvad er verdenskunst?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globaliseringen stiller kunsten over for hidtil usete udfordringer. Den verden kunstnerne udfolder sig i er på afgørende punkter forskellig fra den verden tidligere tiders kunst har placeret sig i: den er mindre, den forandrer sig hurtigere og den trænger sig mere på, end man kunne have tænkt sig...... indre og ydre komposition hos eksempelvis danske Odin Teatret, den guatemalanske forfatter Miguel Ángel Asturias, den britiske billedkunstner Chris Ofili, den tyske dramatiker Bertolt Brecht og den mexicanske filminstruktør Alejandro González Iñárritu....

  20. Ondskaben er fortryllende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Indlæg om tv-serien Once Upon a Time (2011-), der hører til genren fairytale fantasy, der blander eventyr og fantasy. Her bliver alle eventyr brugt i en fortælling om alle beboere i en lille by, der ikke ved, at de i virkeligheden er eventyr-karakterer.......Indlæg om tv-serien Once Upon a Time (2011-), der hører til genren fairytale fantasy, der blander eventyr og fantasy. Her bliver alle eventyr brugt i en fortælling om alle beboere i en lille by, der ikke ved, at de i virkeligheden er eventyr-karakterer....

  1. Ondskaben er fortryllende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Indlæg om tv-serien Once Upon a Time (2011-), der hører til genren fairytale fantasy, der blander eventyr og fantasy. Her bliver alle eventyr brugt i en fortælling om alle beboere i en lille by, der ikke ved, at de i virkeligheden er eventyr-karakterer.......Indlæg om tv-serien Once Upon a Time (2011-), der hører til genren fairytale fantasy, der blander eventyr og fantasy. Her bliver alle eventyr brugt i en fortælling om alle beboere i en lille by, der ikke ved, at de i virkeligheden er eventyr-karakterer....

  2. ER Stress and Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binet, François; Sapieha, Przemyslaw

    2015-10-01

    Proper tissue vascularization is vital for cellular function as it delivers oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and immune cells and helps to clear cellular debris and metabolic waste products. Tissue angiogenesis occurs to satisfy energy requirements and cellular sensors of metabolic imbalance coordinate vessel growth. In this regard, the classical pathways of the unfolded protein response activated under conditions of ER stress have recently been described to generate angiomodulatory or angiostatic signals. This review elaborates on the link between angiogenesis and ER stress and discusses the implications for diseases characterized by altered vascular homeostasis, such as cancer, retinopathies, and atherosclerosis.

  3. Er danskerne racister

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Henning; Necef, Mehmet Ümit

    Igennem de seneste årtier er det blevet almindeligt at tale om, at der er en udbredt racisme i Danmark. Påstande om danskernes racisme, fremmedhad og diskrimination optræder dagligt i offentligheden og i medierne, og der henvises ofte til, hvad ’forskerne’ og de ’videnskabelige undersøgelser’ siger...... om emnet. Der kan da næppe heller være tvivl om, at der forekommer racistiske holdninger hos nogle danskere. Men er problemet så stort, som det gøres til i den offentlige debat? Bogen ønsker at afklare, hvorvidt der er videnskabelig dokumentation for påstandene om danskernes racisme. Den går i dybden...... med en række forskeres og eksperters udtalelser på området og præsenterer en grundig analyse af deres fremstilling af dansk racisme i forhold til emner som kultur, seksualitet, kriminalitet og arbejdsmarked....

  4. Er talesprog en medieteknologi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    motiver og viden, må give mening til hvad, der meddeles og selektere en forståelse (Luhmann 2000a). Formålet med og berettigelsen for medieteori er ud fra Marshall McLuhans (1967) devise, om at the medium is the message, at sammenligne, hvad det betyder for menneske og samfund, at der kommunikeres i ét...

  5. It er godt - basta!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    Der er offentlig konsensus om at it i undervisningen fører til øget faglighed. Men it kan lige så godt resultere i ringere undervisning som i bedre - og ofte anvendes it helt traditionelt og fantasiløst....

  6. Er praksis prima?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Tiltroen til praktisk sans er i vækst, mens den teoretiske fornuft møder skepsis. Paradoksalt nok rammer den antiteoretiske bevægelse også universiteterne. To forskere advarer mod, at samfundet forlader sig på praksis....

  7. Patienten - hvor er patienten?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gitte; Dau, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    på, hvad der historisk og nutidigt karakteriserer teori og praksis, samt forholdet herimellem. I den empiriske del er der, med udgangspunkt i Gadamers hermeneutiske tilgang, foretaget tre kvalitative forkusgruppeinterview. Ét af sygeplejestuderende, ét af kliniske vejledere og ét af undervisere...

  8. Hvad er tidligt sprog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver Jensen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Forfatteren argumenterer for at "early literacy" kan oversættes til "tidligt sprog"; særligt når der er tale om en helhedsorienteret tilgang med vægt på sprog som et alsidigt medie for kommunikation- og betydningsskabelse. Med inspiration fra Jerome Bruners kulturpsykologi diskuteres mulige...

  9. Al verden er en scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Waade, Anne Marit

    2006-01-01

    Rollespil er blevet hot, og opmærksomheden omkring rollespil er eksploderet de seneste år: Virksomheder, politikere, medier og forskere har fået øjnene op for de kulturelle og økonomiske muligheder...

  10. Hvid er et usynligt ideal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Salget af hudblegecremer er eksploderet. Hvorfor drømmer så mange om at få lys hud? Hvorfor vil børn hellere lege med hvide dukker end brune? Svaret er, at hvid er et globalt ideal. Interview med Dorthe Staunæs og Les Back....

  11. Er HR ude i tovene?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulfelt, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    HR: Er der behov for nytænkning i HR-land? Artikler i Harvard Business Review - bakket op af en dansk undersøgelse - konkluderer, at HR stadig mangler gennemslagskraft i virksomhederne. Er HR ude i tovene? ... For i undersøgelsen "Ny Dansk Ledelse" (maj 2015), som er baseret på danske lederes...

  12. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  13. Renal angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1988-01-01

    lesion. Three cases of renal angiomyolipoma, 2 of which underwent perfusion-fixation, were studied by electron microscopy to clarify the cellular composition of this lesion. In the smooth muscle cells abundant accumulation of glycogen was found, whereas the lipocytes disclosed normal ultrastructural......-specific vesicular structures. These findings suggest a secondary vascular damage, i.e. the thickened vessels may not be a primary, integral part of renal angiomyolipoma. Evidence of a common precursor cell of renal angiomyolipoma was not disclosed. It is concluded that renal angiomyolipoma is a hamartoma composed...

  14. The calcium-alkali syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Mariangeli; Fenves, Andrew Z.; Emmett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The milk-alkali syndrome was a common cause of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal failure in the early 20th century. It was caused by the ingestion of large quantities of milk and absorbable alkali to treat peptic ulcer disease. The syndrome virtually vanished after introduction of histamine-2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors. More recently, a similar condition called the calcium-alkali syndrome has emerged as a common cause of hypercalcemia and alkalosis. It is usually caused b...

  15. The Effect of Calcium on Early Fiber Elongation in Cotton Ovule Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fibers are single-cell trichomes that initiate on the ovule epidermis. Fiber initials accumulate calcium and membranes, including ER. Multiple calcium sensors, and small GTPase proteins that may act in calcium signaling pathways and/or primary cell wall biosynthesis were present in fiber init...

  16. Respiratory metabolism and calorie restriction relieve persistent endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by calcium shortage in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busti, Stefano; Mapelli, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida

    2016-01-01

    Calcium homeostasis is crucial to eukaryotic cell survival. By acting as an enzyme cofactor and a second messenger in several signal transduction pathways, the calcium ion controls many essential biological processes. Inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentration is carefully regula...

  17. Normaludvikling er institutionsbestemt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2009-01-01

      Artiklen handler om de konsekvenser, den udbredte institutionalisering af småbørn har for opfattelser af børn, barndom og normaludvikling. Udgangspunktet er, at det at gå i daginstitution er så udbredt, at det betragtes som det normale. Ikke at gå i institution vækker bekymring, for dermed står...... forstås ved udvikling og sætte standarder for børn og normalitet. Artiklen skal vise, hvordan den institutionelle praksis med fastlagte rytmer, rutiner og aktiviteter præger opfattelser af, hvad børn skal kunne, og hvad der falder indenfor og udenfor den normale udvikling....

  18. Er talesprog en medieteknologi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    motiver og viden, må give mening til hvad, der meddeles og selektere en forståelse (Luhmann 2000a). Formålet med og berettigelsen for medieteori er ud fra Marshall McLuhans (1967) devise, om at the medium is the message, at sammenligne, hvad det betyder for menneske og samfund, at der kommunikeres i ét...... herunder forklares funktionelt i et evolutionært perspektiv på den sociale udvikling for at opklare, (1) hvordan sproget er udviklet, og (2a) hvordan det virker i bevidsthed og (2b) i kommunikation. Via denne øvelse tegnes et billede af sprogteknologiens kommunikative rum, af det scope, talesproget giver...

  19. Facebook er internettet nu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Den store vision for world wide web var, at alle kunne få ubegrænset adgang til alverdens information. www var mangfoldigt og anarkistisk. I dag er der rigtig mange, der kun bruger nettet til at være på Facebook. Hvad bruger Facebook det til? Og hvad gør det ved vores udsyn?......Den store vision for world wide web var, at alle kunne få ubegrænset adgang til alverdens information. www var mangfoldigt og anarkistisk. I dag er der rigtig mange, der kun bruger nettet til at være på Facebook. Hvad bruger Facebook det til? Og hvad gør det ved vores udsyn?...

  20. Hvis er lovene?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Isak Winkel

    2015-01-01

    Hvem konstituerer det politiske fællesskab, som laver lovene? Hvad sker der, når folket ikke kender lovene, eller ikke findes værdige til dem? Hvis folket udfordrede adelens love før i tiden, er det måske migranterne, der udfordrer europæernes love og konventioner i dag. Man kan med fordel gå til...... Franz Kafka for at forstå hvordan....

  1. Hvis er Himmeriget?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Udtrykket "de fattige i ånden", som kendes fra Bjergprædikenen i Matthæusevangeliet, forekommer også i to af Dødehavsrullerne. Artiklen undersøger disse tekster og argumenterer for, at udtrykket ikke betegner en særligt "åndelig" fattigdom, men derimod de konkret økonomisk fattige, som er "af ånd...

  2. Han er her endnu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    Interview med den kinesiske aktivist og billedkunstner Ai Weiwei, der sad fængslet i 81 dage i 2011. Hans pas er stadig (i februar 2014) inddraget af myndighederne, så han kan ikke forlade landet, selv om han har betalt en bøde på 13 mio. kr. for ”skatteunddragelse”. Både i sin kunst og i sine...

  3. Hvad er meningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbæk, Anders Klitgaard

    2014-01-01

    Dette projekt er det afsluttende projekt i Masteruddannelsen IKT og læring og handler om, hvad der giver mening for studerende i fagområdet produktkendskab, og hvordan vi kan redesigne et undervisningsforløb, hvor vi inddrager IKT- støttende læringselementer. Projektet tager udgangspunkt i et...... om et fag i høj grad konstrueres gennem social interaktion mellem studerende. Vi konkluderer, at det er vigtig at medtænke skabelsen af mening i design af læringsaktiviteter. Vi konkluderer ligeledes at brugen af metaforer og fortællinger er væsentlige sproglige elementer, der med fordel kan...... inddrages i design af digitale læremidler og læringsaktiviteter. I anden del af projektet opstiller vi et koncept for redesign af fagområdet med fokus på en foretagsomheds didaktik samt en model for design af læringsaktiviteter, som illustreres med tre konkrete eksempler, inspireret af et koncept af Gilly...

  4. Hvad er meningen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, Bente Kjærgaard; Mølbæk, Anders Klitgaard; Bayer, Inge Marie

    2014-01-01

    Dette projekt er det afsluttende projekt i Masteruddannelsen IKT og læring og handler om, hvad der giver mening for studerende i fagområdet produktkendskab, og hvordan vi kan redesigne et undervisningsforløb, hvor vi inddrager IKT- støttende læringselementer. Projektet tager udgangspunkt i et...... om et fag i høj grad konstrueres gennem social interaktion mellem studerende. Vi konkluderer, at det er vigtig at medtænke skabelsen af mening i design af læringsaktiviteter. Vi konkluderer ligeledes at brugen af metaforer og fortællinger er væsentlige sproglige elementer, der med fordel kan...... inddrages i design af digitale læremidler og læringsaktiviteter. I anden del af projektet opstiller vi et koncept for redesign af fagområdet med fokus på en foretagsomheds didaktik samt en model for design af læringsaktiviteter, som illustreres med tre konkrete eksempler, inspireret af et koncept af Gilly...

  5. Calcium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D is needed to help your body use calcium. Milk is fortified with vitamin D for this reason. ... of calcium dietary supplements include calcium citrate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate is the more expensive form of ...

  6. Calcium affects on vascular endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vaishali B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is one of the most abundant minerals in the body and its metabolism is one of the basic biologic processes in humans. Although historically linked primarily to bone structural development and maintenance, calcium is now recognized as a key component of many physiologic pathways necessary for optimum health including cardiovascular, neurological, endocrine, renal, and gastrointestinal systems. A recent meta-analysis published in August 2011 showed a potential increase in cardiovascular events related to calcium supplementation. The possible mechanism of action of this correlation has not been well elucidated. This topic has generated intense interest due to the widespread use of calcium supplements, particularly among the middle aged and elderly who are at the most risk from cardiac events. Prior studies did not control for potential confounding factors such as the use of statins, aspirin or other medications. These controversial results warrant additional well-designed studies to investigate the relationship between calcium supplementation and cardiovascular outcomes. The purpose of this review is to highlight the current literature in regards to calcium supplementation and cardiovascular health; and to identify areas of future research.

  7. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all acknowle

  8. Renal fallure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920705 Endothelin and acute renal failure:study on their relationship and possiblemechanisms. LIN Shanyan(林善锬), et al.Renal Res Lab, Huashan Hosp, Shanghai MedUniv, Shanghai, 200040. Natl Med J China 1992;72(4): 201-205. In order to investigate the role of endothelin

  9. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  10. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  11. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center. Calcium and vitamin D: Important at every age. NIAMS.NIH.gov website. www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/Bone_Health/Nutrition . Updated May 2015. Accessed March ...

  12. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  13. Renal Aspects of Peptic Ulcer Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Muruve

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Medications to treat peptic ulcer disease are used widely and may have adverse effects on renal function. Similarly, renal dysfunction may alter the pharmacokinetics of this diverse group of medications resulting in dosage adjustments. The older agents, antacids and sucralfate, allow absorption of cations (calcium, magnesium and aluminum which may result in toxicity. Newer medications (H2 blockers and omeprazole appear to have fewer side effects and be better tolerated with appropriate dosage adjustments.

  14. Pseudoporfyri er et symptomkompleks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velander, Marie Juul; Thorsteinsdóttir, Sunna; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoporphyria is a photosensitive bullous disease, which resembles porphyria cutanea tarda. Normal porphyrin levels in urine, stool and blood define pseudoporphyria. Pseudoporphyria is associated with chronic renal failure, haemodialysis, a variety of drugs (e.g. naproxen, nabumetone, furosemid......, ciprofloxacin, voriconazole, acitretin), tanning beds and UVA exposure. Treatment consists of UV protection and cessation of suspected agents. Patients in haemodialysis can benefit from treatment with N-acetylcysteine or glutathione....

  15. Entangled research(ers)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Katja; Staunæs, Dorthe

    into the world and being situated and attuned to it in specific ways through interest, fear, boredom or something else. Combing concepts from philosophy as well as psychology, the material and the affective turn allow us to rethink and elaborate on well-known discussions on qualitative research, representation......This paper takes up the challenges of analyzing how empirical knowledge is created when the research(ers) are always already “thrown into the world” (Heidegger) and thereby affectively “intra-act” (Barad) with and ‘perform’ the empirical knowledge. ‘ ‘Thrownness’ is Heidegger’s way of expressing...

  16. Osteoblasts detect pericellular calcium concentration increase via neomycin-sensitive voltage gated calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuanhao; Kishore, Vipuil; Fites, Kateri; Akkus, Ozan

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying the detection of critically loaded or micro-damaged regions of bone by bone cells are still a matter of debate. Our previous studies showed that calcium efflux originates from pre-failure regions of bone matrix and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts respond to such efflux by an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration. The mechanisms by which the intracellular calcium concentration increases in response to an increase in the pericellular calcium concentration are unknown. Elevation of the intracellular calcium may occur via release from the internal calcium stores of the cell and/or via the membrane bound channels. The current study applied a wide range of pharmaceutical inhibitors to identify the calcium entry pathways involved in the process: internal calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER, inhibited by thapsigargin and TMB-8), calcium receptor (CaSR, inhibited by calhex), stretch-activated calcium channel (SACC, inhibited by gadolinium), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC, inhibited by nifedipine, verapamil, neomycin, and ω-conotoxin), and calcium-induced-calcium-release channel (CICRC, inhibited by ryanodine and dantrolene). These inhibitors were screened for their effectiveness to block intracellular calcium increase by using a concentration gradient induced calcium efflux model which mimics calcium diffusion from the basal aspect of cells. The inhibitor(s) which reduced the intracellular calcium response was further tested on osteoblasts seeded on mechanically loaded notched cortical bone wafers undergoing damage. The results showed that only neomycin reduced the intracellular calcium response in osteoblasts, by 27%, upon extracellular calcium stimulus induced by concentration gradient. The inhibitory effect of neomycin was more pronounced (75% reduction in maximum fluorescence) for osteoblasts seeded on notched cortical bone wafers loaded mechanically to damaging load levels. These results imply that the increase in

  17. Nutrition and renal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris de Castaño

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Kidney plays an important roll in body homeostasis through excretory, metabolic and endocrine functions. Kidneys filter fluids and solutes and reabsorbed water , electrolytes an minerals. Urine volume and solute excretion are adjusted to keep composition of the extracellular space, serum osmolarity and intravascular volume in constant balance. Kidneys also regulate acid base equilibrium, hormone metabolism and excretion and amino acid concentration. Vitamin D hydroxylation takes place in the kidney, this is the active form of this vitamin, which inhibits PTH. In addition they produce erythropoietin which control hemoglobin concentration in erythrocytes. When renal insufficiency develops, and glormerular filtration rate is between 50 to 75% of normal, this functions are decreased .When renal function is less than 10%, this functions ceased. In children small changes in water, solute, acid base, calcium and phosphorus can alter normal growth and development. If kidneys can not maintain internal equilibrium, specific nutrients should be used. Compensation should be done according to age, type or renal disease and level of glomerular filtration rate.

  18. Renal teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas M; Jones, Deborah P; Cooper, William O

    2014-09-01

    In utero exposure to certain drugs early in pregnancy may adversely affect nephrogenesis. Exposure to drugs later in pregnancy may affect the renin-angiotensin system, which could have an impact on fetal or neonatal renal function. Reduction in nephron number and renal function could have adverse consequences for the child several years later. Data are limited on the information needed to guide decisions for patients and providers regarding the use of certain drugs in pregnancy. The study of drug nephroteratogenicity has not been systematized, a large, standardized, global approach is needed to evaluate the renal risks of in utero drug exposures.

  19. STIM1 Is a Novel Component of ER-Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Membrane Contact Sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Agaisse

    Full Text Available Productive developmental cycle of the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis depends on the interaction of the replicative vacuole, named the inclusion, with cellular organelles. We have recently reported the formation of ER-Inclusion membrane contact sites (MCSs, where the endoplasmic reticulum (ER is in apposition to the inclusion membrane. These platforms contain the C. trachomatis inclusion membrane protein IncD, the mammalian ceramide transfer protein CERT and the ER resident proteins VAPA/B and were proposed to play a role in the non-vesicular trafficking of lipids to the inclusion. Here, we identify STIM1 as a novel component of ER-Inclusion MCSs. STIM1, an ER calcium (Ca2+ sensor that relocate to ER-Plasma Membrane (PM MCSs upon Ca2+ store depletion, associated with C. trachomatis inclusion. STIM1, but not the general ER markers Rtn3C and Sec61ß, was enriched at the inclusion membrane. Ultra-structural studies demonstrated that STIM1 localized to ER-Inclusion MCSs. Time-course experiments showed that STIM1, CERT and VAPB co-localized throughout the developmental cycle. By contrast, Orai1, the PM Ca2+ channel that interacts with STIM1 at ER-PM MCSs, did not associate with C. trachomatis inclusion. Upon ER Ca2+ store depletion, a pool of STIM1 relocated to ER-PM MCSs, while the existing ER-Inclusion MCSs remained enriched in STIM1. Finally, we have identified the CAD domain, which mediates STIM1-Orai1 interaction, as the minimal domain required for STIM1 enrichment at ER-Inclusion MCSs. Altogether this study identifies STIM1 as a novel component of ER-C. trachomatis inclusion MCSs. We discuss the potential role(s of STIM1 during the infection process.

  20. The effect of nifedipine on renal function in normotensive cyclosporin-A-treated renal allograft recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, P G; Walls, J; Feehally, J

    1990-01-01

    Intrarenal vasoconstriction is a characteristic feature of CsA nephrotoxicity. The influence of nifedipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker and potent renal vasodilator, on renal haemodynamics was investigated in 11 cyclosporin A (CsA)- and 9 azathioprine (Aza)-treated normotensive long-term renal allograft recipients. Baseline Cr51-EDTA clearance and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were similar in both groups. Nifedipine 20 mg twice daily for 28 days significantly increased Cr51-EDTA clearance (+14.8%) in the CsA group; however, ERPF, renal vascular resistance (RVR), and filtration fraction did not change. Nifedipine did not influence renal haemodynamics in the azathioprine group. The increase in Cr51-EDTA clearance in the CsA group did not correlate with baseline renal function, CsA dose or whole blood levels, donor age, duration of graft, or renal functional reserve capacity. This study suggests that nifedipine confers a beneficial effect on renal haemodynamics in long-term CsA-treated renal allograft recipients and appears to improve renal function by a non-haemodynamic mechanism.

  1. The mechanism of hetero-synaptic interaction based on spatiotemporal intracellular calcium dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Futagi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent physiological experiments focusing on synaptic plasticity, it is shown that synaptic modifications induced at one synapse are accompanied by hetero-synaptic changes at neighbor sites (Bi, 2002. These evidences imply that the hetero-synaptic interaction plays an important role in reconfiguration of synaptic connections to form and maintain functional neural circuits (Takahashi et al., 2012. Although the mechanism of the interaction is still unclear, some physiological studies suggest that the hetero-synaptic interaction could be caused by propagation of intracellular calcium signals (Nishiyama et al., 2000. Concretely, a spike-triggered calcium increase initiates calcium ion propagation along a dendrite through activation of molecular processes at neighboring sites. Here we hypothesized that the mechanism of the hetero-synaptic interaction was based on the intracellular calcium signaling, which is regulated by interactions between NMDA receptors (NMDARs, voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs and Ryanodine receptors (RyRs on endoplasmic reticulum (ER. To assess realizability of the hypothesized interaction mechanism, we simulated intracellular calcium dynamics at a cellular level, using the computational model that integrated the model of intracellular calcium dynamics (Keizer and Levine, 1996 and the multi-compartment neuron model (Poirazi et al., 2003. Using the proposed computational model, we induced calcium influxes at a local site in postsynaptic dendrite by controlling the spike timings of pre- and postsynaptic neurons. As a result, synchronized calcium influxes through NMDARs and VDCCs caused calcium release from ER. According to the phase plane analysis, RyR-mediated calcium release occurred when the calcium concentration in cytoplasm sufficiently increased under the condition of a high calcium concentration in ER. An NMDAR-mediated calcium influx was slow and persistent, consequently responsible for maintaining a high

  2. Sarcoidose renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AQUINO MARIA ENEDINA CLAUDINO DE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Em uma mulher de 62 anos, branca, em avaliação pré-operatória de facectomia, foram detectadas alterações urinárias, tendo sido firmados os diagnósticos de calculose renal esquerda e exclusão renal homolateral. No pré-operatório da nefrectomia foram evidenciados processo pulmonar intersticial bilateral e adenopatia torácica, cuja investigação foi adiada para após a cirurgia. No rim retirado foram detectados granulomas epitelióides não necrotizantes, o mesmo ocorrendo posteriormente em biópsia transbrônquica. A paciente foi tratada com metilprednisolona, com discreta melhora pulmonar, o que não ocorreu com a função renal. O diagnóstico final foi de sarcoidose com envolvimento pulmonar, ganglionar torácico e renal.

  3. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930150 Epidermal growth factor and its recep-tor in the renal tissue of patients with acute re-nal failure and normal persons.LIU Zhihong(刘志红),et al.Jinling Hosp,Nanjing,210002.Natl Med J China 1992;72(10):593-595.Epidermal growth factor(EGF)and its receptor(EGF-R)were identified by immunohis-tochemical method(4 layer PAP)in the renaltissue specimens obtained from 11 normal kid-neys and 17 cases of acute renal failure(ARF).The quantitative EGF and EGF-R in the tissuewere expressed as positive tubules per mm~2.The amount of EGF and EGF-R in renal tissue

  4. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005234 Association between serum fetuin-A and clinical outcome in end-stage renal disease patients. WANG Kai(王开), Dept Renal Dis, Renji Hosp Shanghai, 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200001. Chin J Nephrol, 2005;21(2):72-75. Objective: To investigate the change of serum fetuin-A level before and after dialysis, and the association of serum fetuin-A level with clinical parameters

  5. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950351 Serum erythropoietin levels in chronic renalinsufficiency.ZHAI Depei(翟德佩),et al.DeptNephrol.General Hosp,Tianjin Med Univ,Tianjin,300000.Tianjin Med J 1995;23(1):19-21.Patients with chronic renal insufficiency(CRI) areoften associated with anemia.The deficiency of EPOproduction in the kidney is thought to be a key factorin the pathogenesis of renal anemia.Serum erythropoi-

  6. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008463 Protective effect of recombination rat augmenter of liver regeneration on kidney in acute renal failure rats. TANG Xiaopeng(唐晓鹏), et al. Dept Nephrol, 2nd Affili Hosp Chongqing Med Univ, Chongqing 400010.Chin J Nephrol 2008;24(6):417-421. Objective To investigate the protective effects of recombination rat augmenter of liver regeneration (rrALR) on tubular cell injury and renal dysfunction

  7. Renal Hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil Bozkurt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon perivascular tumor originating from pericytes in the pelvis, head and tneck, and the meninges; extremely rarely in the urinary system. We report a case of incidentally detected renal mass in which radiologic evaluation was suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. First, we performed partial nephrectomy, and then, radical nephrectomy because of positive surgical margins and the pathological examination of the surgical specimen that revealed a hemangiopericytoma. No additional treatment was administered.

  8. Rouw mag er zijn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlieke Moors

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGrieving is allowedGrief is a human experience. Every form of loss shapes you into the human being you are today. Contrary to what earlier, unproven grief models postulate, grief does not have an end point. That is, bereavement does not have to be completely processed, but it should be integrated into someone’s life. The outdated grief models were often interpreted and used in a normative way, which led to a normative standard model. This portraits the belief that every mourner would experience similar symptoms and would go through a fixed pattern of phases. However, the updated vision emphasizes the individual and unique process of coping with loss: norms concerning grief should be banned. By means of literature research, interviews with professionals and personal experiences, it became clear that finding an equilibrium between restoration-orientated and loss-orientated coping styles is most beneficial. An important aspect in finding this balance is meaningfulness. Furthermore, the ability to bear a loss and to adapt accordingly are important components. Lastly, attaching significance to a loss is a constructive way of integrating the loss into one’s life. The death of a loved one should therefore not be forgotten or tucked away. After all, grief is the price we pay for love. SAMENVATTINGRouw mag er zijnRouw is een menselijke ervaring en elk verlies vormt je als mens. Rouw heeft, in tegenstelling tot wat de verouderde, niet bewezen rouwmodellen beweren, geen eindpunt. Verlies hoeft namelijk niet verwerkt te worden, maar moet juist geïntegreerd worden in iemands leven. De verouderde rouwmodellen zijn vaak normatief opgevat en toegepast, waaruit een normatief standaardmodel is ontstaan. Daarbij werd gedacht dat elke rouwende dezelfde symptomen zou vertonen en het rouwproces volgens vaste fasen zou verlopen. Binnen de vernieuwde visie wordt er juist van uitgegaan dat elk individu een unieke manier van reageren op rouw heeft. Er zou

  9. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  10. [Calcium metabolism characteristics in microgravity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, A I; Larina, I M; Morukov, B V

    1999-06-01

    The results of research of calcium exchange parameters at cosmonauts taken part in long space flights (SF) onboard of orbital stations "SALUT" and "MIR" within 1978-1998 were generalized. The analysis of data received during observation of 44 cosmonauts (18 of them have taken part in long SF twice) was done. The observation was carried out before and after SF by duration 30-438 days. The content of a total calcium in blood serum was increased basically by the increase of its ionized fraction after flights of moderate (3-6 months) and large duration (6-14 months) along with the significant increase of PTH and decrease of calcitonin levels. The content of osteocalcin after SF was increased. Three cosmonauts participated in research of calcium kinetics using stable isotopes before, in time and after a 115-day SF. Reduction of intestinal absorption, excretion through a gastrointestinal tract, and increase of calcium excretion with urine were marked in time of SF. In early postflight period a level of intestinal absorption, on the average, was much lower than in SF, and the calcium removal through intestine was increased. Both renal and intestinal excretion of calcium were not normalized in 3.5-4.5 months after end of SF. Increase of resorbtive processes in bone tissues which induced negative bone balance during flight was observed in all test subjects, proceeding from estimations of speed of the basic calcium flows made on the basis of mathematical modeling. The conclusion about decrease in speed of bone tissue remodeling and strengthening of its resorption proves to be true by data of research of biochemical and endocrine markers.

  11. Calcium signaling and endoplasmic reticulum dynamics during fertilization in marine protostome worms belonging to the phylum Nemertea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Stephen A

    2014-08-01

    Metaphase-I-arrested eggs of marine protostome worms in the phylum Nemertea generate a series of point-source calcium waves during fertilization. Such calcium oscillations depend on inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores that undergo structural reorganizations prior to and after fertilization. This article reviews fertilization-induced calcium transients and ER dynamics in nemertean eggs and compares these topics to what has been reported for other animals in order to identify unifying characteristics and distinguishing features of calcium responses during fertilization across the animal kingdom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease or stomach conditions.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking calcium carbonate, call your doctor.

  13. Calcium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if a person has symptoms of a parathyroid disorder , malabsorption , or an overactive thyroid. A total calcium level is often measured as part of a routine health screening. It is included in the comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) and the basic metabolic panel (BMP) , ...

  14. Common cytotoxic chemotherapeutics induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) downstream of ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parag P; Dupre, Tess V; Siskind, Leah J; Beverly, Levi J

    2017-04-04

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in eukaryotes is a main organelle involved in a wide variety of functions including calcium storage, lipid biosynthesis, protein folding and protein transport. Disruption of ER homeostasis leads to ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We and others have previously found that ER stress induces EMT in different cellular systems. Induction of ER stress with chemical modulators of ER homeostasis was sufficient to activate an EMT-like state in all cellular systems tested. Here, we provide evidence for the first time demonstrating that ER stress induces EMT that is neither cancer cell specific nor cell-type specific. In addition, we observed that chemotherapeutic drugs commonly used to treat patients also activate ER stress that is concomitant with activation of an EMT-like state. Interestingly, we find that following removal of ER stress, partial EMT characteristics still persist indicating that ER stress induced EMT is a long-term effect. Induction of mesenchymal characteristics, following chemotherapeutics treatment may be involved in providing cancer stemness and invasiveness in the cellular system. Interestingly, we find that mice treated with cisplatin have elevated level of ER stress and EMT markers in multiple tissues including lung, liver and kidneys. Furthermore, increased ER stress, as demonstrated by increased Bip, Chop, PDI, Ero1α and IRE1, and EMT, as demonstrated by increased Vimentin and Snail, is a hallmark of primary lung adenocarcinoma samples from patients. These observations have potential clinical relevance because overexpression of ER stress and EMT markers might contribute to chemoresistance and poor survival of lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  15. Humor er en alvorlig sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft, Pia

    2016-01-01

    I modsætning til ironi er humor for Kierkegaard fællesskabsgivende – ironikeren hævder sig selv, men humoristen har sympati med den, man ler med. Humor er hos Kierkegaard udtryk for, at humoristen forliger sig med tilværelsen og dens luner, og dermed grænser humoren hos Kierkegaard op til det...

  16. Vores vidensgrundlag er i fare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mia; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Olsen, Jørn;

    2013-01-01

    Databrug: Forskningsfrihed er lige så vigtig for demokratiet som pressefrihed, og det er bekymrende, at lovgivningen fra EU lægger langt større begrænsninger på brug af data for forskere end for politikere. Der har i den seneste tid været en omfattede debat i medierne om nytten af vores dataregis...

  17. Kollegaerne er den nye chef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Den tid, hvor chefen var den, der delte skideballer ud, er slut. Rollen som 'bad cop' er overtaget af kollegateamet, der med hård hånd sørger for, at den enkelte yder sin del. Udgivelsesdato: November...

  18. RNA er jo bare matematik!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaavand, Jakob Lindblad

    2011-01-01

    Hvordan kan man kurere sygdomme med matematiske geometriske strukturer? Det kan man i princippet, hvis de geometriske figurer er RNA-molekyler, og sygdommen skyldes syge gener.......Hvordan kan man kurere sygdomme med matematiske geometriske strukturer? Det kan man i princippet, hvis de geometriske figurer er RNA-molekyler, og sygdommen skyldes syge gener....

  19. Post-renal acute renal failure due to a huge bladder stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Orcun; Suelozgen, Tufan; Budak, Salih; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2014-06-30

    A 63-year old male was referred to our emergency unit due to acute renal failure. The level of serum renal function tests levels, blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine, were 63 mmol/L/848 μmol/L. CT (Computarised Tomography) scan showed a huge bladder stone (5 cm x 6 cm x 5 cm) with increased bladder wall thickness. Post-renal acute renal failure due to bilateral ureterohydronephrosis was diagnosed. The huge bladder stone was considered to be the cause of ureterohydronephrosis and renal failure. The patient was catheterised and received haemodialysis immediately. He received haemodialysis four times during ten days of hospitalization and the level of serum renal function tests levels (BUN/ creatinine) decreased 18 mmol/L/123 μmol/L. After improvement of renal function, we performed cystoscopy that demonstrated normal prostatic urethra and bladder neck and bilaterally normal ureteral orifices. Bladder wall was roughly trabeculated and Bladder outlet was completely obstructed by a huge bladder stone. After cystoscopy open, cystolithotomy was performed to remove calcium phosphate and magnesium ammonium phosphate stone weighing 200 g removed. Four days after operation the patient was discharged uneventfully and urethral catheter was removed on the seventh day. Post-renal acute renal failure due to large bladder stones is rare in literature. According to the our knowledge; early diagnosis of the stone avoid growth to large size and prevent renal failure.

  20. Emerging Roles of ER Stress and Unfolded Protein Response Pathways in Skeletal Muscle Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Kyle R; McMillan, Joseph D; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-02-08

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the human body and can adapt its mass as a consequence of physical activity, metabolism, growth factors, and disease conditions. Skeletal muscle contains an extensive network of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), called sarcoplasmic reticulum, which plays an important role in the regulation of proteostasis and calcium homeostasis. In many cell types, environmental and genetic factors that disrupt ER function cause an accumulation of misfolded and unfolded proteins in the ER lumen that ultimately leads to ER stress. To alleviate the stress and restore homeostasis, the ER activates a signaling network called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR has three arms, which regulate protein synthesis and expression of many ER chaperone and regulatory proteins. However, the role of individual UPR pathways in skeletal muscle has just begun to be investigated. Recent studies suggest that UPR pathways play pivotal roles in muscle stem cell homeostasis, myogenic differentiation, and regeneration of injured skeletal muscle. Moreover, markers of ER stress and the UPR are activated in skeletal muscle in diverse conditions such as exercise, denervation, starvation, high fat diet, cancer cachexia, and aging. Accumulating evidence also suggests that ER stress may have important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies and genetic muscle disorders. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the role and potential mechanisms by which ER stress and the individual arms of the UPR regulate skeletal muscle formation, plasticity, and function in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Hyperparathyroidism of Renal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Noah K; Ananthakrishnan, Shubha; Campbell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Renal hyperparathyroidism (rHPT) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease characterized by elevated parathyroid hormone levels secondary to derangements in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D. Patients with rHPT experience increased rates of cardiovascular problems and bone disease. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend that screening and management of rHPT be initiated for all patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 (estimated glomerular filtration rate, < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Since the 1990s, improving medical management with vitamin D analogs, phosphate binders, and calcimimetic drugs has expanded the treatment options for patients with rHPT, but some patients still require a parathyroidectomy to mitigate the sequelae of this challenging disease. PMID:27479950

  2. [Study on inhibitory effect of EGCG on Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats and its related mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Wang, Shuo; Tang, Chun-bo

    2015-04-01

    In the study, the inhibitory effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and its possible mechanism were investigated. The rat Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis model was induced through the combined oral administration of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, which was intervened with EGCG. Rat blood samples were collected to detect blood creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and blood calcium. Rat urine samples were collected to observe and compare 24-hour urine volume, oxalic acid (Ox) and calcium in urine. Renal samples were collected to prepare tissue slices and observe the pathological changes in Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The expression of osteopontin (OPN) in renal tissues was evaluated by Real-time PCR and Western blot. According to the results, compared with normal rats, rats in the nephrolithiasis model showed significant increases in Cr, BUN, urine Calcium, urine Ox and renal OPN expression (P nephrolithiasis, those processed with EGCG revealed remarkable declines in Cr, BUN, urine Calcium and urine Ox (P nephrolithiasis rats showed significant pathological changes in Calcium oxalate calculus. After ECCG treatment, the renal pathological changes and OPN expression attenuated significantly in a concentration-dependent manner. The results showed that EGCG inhibits the formation of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats and shows a notable protective effect on renal functions.

  3. Superoxide enhances Ca2+ entry through L-type channels in the renal afferent arteriole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Paul A; Yang, Xi; Moss, Nicholas G; Arendshorst, William J

    2015-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species regulate cardiovascular and renal function in health and disease. Superoxide participates in acute calcium signaling in afferent arterioles and renal vasoconstriction produced by angiotensin II, endothelin, thromboxane, and pressure-induced myogenic tone. Known mechanisms by which superoxide acts include quenching of nitric oxide and increased ADP ribosyl cyclase/ryanodine-mediated calcium mobilization. The effect(s) of superoxide on other calcium signaling pathways in the renal microcirculation is poorly understood. The present experiments examined the acute effect of superoxide generated by paraquat on calcium entry pathways in isolated rat afferent arterioles. The peak increase in cytosolic calcium concentration caused by KCl (40 mmol/L) was 99±14 nmol/L. The response to this membrane depolarization was mediated exclusively by L-type channels because it was abolished by nifedipine but was unaffected by the T-type channel blocker mibefradil. Paraquat increased superoxide production (dihydroethidium fluorescence), tripled the peak response to KCl to 314±68 nmol/L (Psuperoxide and not of hydrogen peroxide. Unaffected by paraquat and superoxide was calcium entry through store-operated calcium channels activated by thapsigargin-induced calcium depletion of sarcoplasmic reticular stores. Also unresponsive to paraquat was ryanodine receptor-mediated calcium-induced calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Our results provide new evidence that superoxide enhances calcium entry through L-type channels activated by membrane depolarization in rat cortical afferent arterioles, without affecting calcium entry through store-operated entry or ryanodine receptor-mediated calcium mobilization.

  4. Respiratory metabolism and calorie restriction relieve persistent endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by calcium shortage in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busti, Stefano; Mapelli, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida; Sanvito, Rossella; Magni, Fulvio; Coccetti, Paola; Rocchetti, Marcella; Nielsen, Jens; Alberghina, Lilia; Vanoni, Marco

    2016-06-16

    Calcium homeostasis is crucial to eukaryotic cell survival. By acting as an enzyme cofactor and a second messenger in several signal transduction pathways, the calcium ion controls many essential biological processes. Inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentration is carefully regulated to safeguard the correct folding and processing of secretory proteins. By using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae we show that calcium shortage leads to a slowdown of cell growth and metabolism. Accumulation of unfolded proteins within the calcium-depleted lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) and generates a state of oxidative stress that decreases cell viability. These effects are severe during growth on rapidly fermentable carbon sources and can be mitigated by decreasing the protein synthesis rate or by inducing cellular respiration. Calcium homeostasis, protein biosynthesis and the unfolded protein response are tightly intertwined and the consequences of facing calcium starvation are determined by whether cellular energy production is balanced with demands for anabolic functions. Our findings confirm that the connections linking disturbance of ER calcium equilibrium to ER stress and UPR signaling are evolutionary conserved and highlight the crucial role of metabolism in modulating the effects induced by calcium shortage.

  5. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture, exhausti

  6. Homocysteine as a predictive biomarker in early diagnosis of renal failure susceptibility and prognostic diagnosis for end stages renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hatem K; El-Sayed, Mohamed-I Kotb; Leheta, Ola F

    2016-09-01

    Glomerular filtration rate and/or creatinine are not accurate methods for renal failure prediction. This study tested homocysteine (Hcy) as a predictive and prognostic marker for end stage renal disease (ESRD). In total, 176 subjects were recruited and divided into: healthy normal group (108 subjects); mild-to-moderate impaired renal function group (21 patients); severe impaired renal function group (7 patients); and chronic renal failure group (40 patients) who were on regular hemodialysis. Blood samples were collected, and serum was separated for analysis of total Hcy, creatinine, high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), serum albumin, and calcium. Data showed that Hcy level was significantly increased from normal-to-mild impairment then significantly decreases from mild impairment until the patient reaches severe impairment while showing significant elevation in the last stage of chronic renal disease. Creatinine level was increased in all stages of kidney impairment in comparison with control. CRP level was showing significant elevation in the last stage. A significant decrease in both albumin and calcium was occurred in all stages of renal impairment. We conclude Hcy in combination with CRP, creatinine, albumin, and calcium can be used as a prognostic marker for ESRD and an early diagnostic marker for the risk of renal failure.

  7. Renal Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as “simple” cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and contain water-like fluid. Renal cysts are fairly common in ... simple kidney cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and only water-like fluid inside. They are fairly common in ...

  8. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970363 Effect on serum PTH and 1, 25(OH)2 D3levels of rapid correction of metabolic acidosis in CRFpatients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. YUANQunsheng(袁群生), et al. Renal Div, PUMC Hosp,Beijing, 100730. Chin J Nephrol 1996; 12(6): 328-331.

  9. Drug-induced renal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drugs can cause acute renal failure by causing pre-renal, intrinsic or post-renal toxicity. Pre-renal ... incidence of drug dose adjustment in renal impairment in the SAMJ. ... Fever, haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, renal impairment and.

  10. 慢性肾脏病患者血清成纤维细胞生长因子23与肾功能及钙磷代谢的关系%Association of fibroblast growth factor 23 with renal function and calcium-phosphorus metabolism in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱颖辉; 李国刚

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解慢性肾脏病(CKD)患者不同分期血中成纤维细胞生长因子23(FGF-23)的变化,探讨 FGF-23与 CKD 患者肾功能及钙磷代谢的关系。方法选择 CKD 患者124例,健康对照组32例,测定患者的血清 FGF-23、血钙、血磷、甲状旁腺激素(iPTH)、血清尿素氮(BUN)和肌酐(SCr),按照 CKD-EPI 公式计算肾小球滤过率(eGFR),分析 FGF-23与肾功能及钙磷代谢的关系。结果 CKD 患者血 FGF-23水平较对照组显著升高(P <0.01)。随着肾功能减退,CKD 患者血 FGF-23和 iPTH 水平逐渐增高,在 CKD3~4期与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(均 P <0.01),在 CKD5期明显高于对照组、CKD1~2期、CKD3~4期。随着肾功能减退血钙水平逐渐降低、血磷水平逐渐增高,CKD 患者在 CKD5期与对照组、CKD1~2期、CKD3~4期比较差异有显著统计学意义(均 P <0.01)。相关分析显示,LogFGF-23与血磷、LogiPTH、BUN、SCr 呈正相关,与 eGFR 呈负相关。多元线性回归表明,FGF-23与 CKD 患者 BUN、SCr 呈正相关。结论 CKD 患者血清 FGF-23在 CKD3~4期就显著增高,变化早于血磷的增高。肾功能状态、血磷、iPTH 与 FGF-23相关。肾功能状态可能是 CKD 患者血 FGF-23升高的主要影响因素。%ABSTRACT:Objective To investigate the change of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23 )in patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease(CKD);To analyze the association of FGF-23 with renal function and calcium-phosphorus metabolism.Methods A total of 124 CKD patients were selected,and 32 healthy people were studied as control group.The levels of FGF-23,serum calcium,serum phosphorus,intact parathyroid hormone(iPTH),blood urea nitrogen(BUN)and serum creatinine(SCr)were measured in all subjects.The glomerular filtration rate(eGFR) was estimated according to CKD-EPI formula.The association of FGF-23 with renal function and calcium-phosphorus metabolism were analyzed.Results The serum FGF-23 in CKD patients increased

  11. Klotho Ameliorates Chemically Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER Stress Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijita Banerjee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, a fundamental cell response associated with stress-initiated unfolded protein response (UPR, and loss of Klotho, an anti-aging hormone linked to NF-κB-induced inflammation, occur in chronic metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. We investigated if the loss of Klotho is causally linked to increased ER stress. Methods: We treated human renal epithelial HK-2, alveolar epithelial A549, HEK293, and SH-SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with ER stress-inducing agents, thapsigargin and/or tunicamycin. Effects of overexpression or siRNA-mediated knockdown of Klotho on UPR signaling was investigated by immunoblotting and Real-time PCR. Results: Elevated Klotho levels in HK-2 cells decreased expression of ER stress markers phospho-IRE1, XBP-1s, BiP, CHOP, pJNK, and phospho-p38, all of which were elevated in response to tunicamycin and/or thapsigargin. Similar results were observed using A549 cells for XBP-1s, BiP, and CHOP in response to thapsigargin. Conversely, knockdown of Klotho in HEK 293 cells using siRNA caused further thapsigargin-induced increases in pIRE-1, XBP-1s, and BiP. Klotho overexpression in A549 cells blocked thapsigargin-induced caspase and PARP cleavage and improved cell viability. Conclusion: Our data indicate that Klotho has an important role in regulating ER stress and that loss of Klotho is causally linked to ER stress-induced apoptosis.

  12. The molecular choreography of a store-operated calcium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard S

    2007-03-15

    Store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) serve essential functions from secretion and motility to gene expression and cell growth. A fundamental mystery is how the depletion of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates Ca2+ entry through SOCs in the plasma membrane. Recent studies using genetic approaches have identified genes encoding the ER Ca2+ sensor and a prototypic SOC, the Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel. New findings reveal a unique mechanism for channel activation, in which the CRAC channel and its sensor migrate independently to closely apposed sites of interaction in the ER and the plasma membrane.

  13. Renal metabolism of calcitonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, R.E.; Hjelle, J.T.; Mahoney, C.; Deftos, L.J.; Lisker, W.; Kato, P.; Rabkin, R.

    1988-04-01

    The kidneys account for approximately two-thirds of the metabolism of calcitonin, but relatively little is known regarding the details thereof. To further characterize this process, we examined the renal handling and metabolism of human calcitonin (hCT) by the isolated perfused rat kidney. We also studied the degradation of radiolabeled salmon calcitonin (sCT) by subcellular fractions prepared from isolated rabbit proximal tubules. The total renal (organ) clearance of immunoreactive hCT by the isolated kidney was 1.96 +/- 0.18 ml/min. This was independent of the perfusate total calcium concentration from 5.5 to 10.2 mg/dl. Total renal clearance exceeded the glomerular filtration rate (GFR, 0.68 +/- 0.05 ml/min), indicating filtration-independent removal. Urinary calcitonin clearance as a fraction of GFR averaged 2.6%. Gel filtration chromatography of medium from isolated kidneys perfused with /sup 125/I-labeled sCT showed the principal degradation products to be low molecular weight forms eluting with monoiodotyrosine. Intermediate size products were not detected. In the subcellular fractionation experiments, when carried out at pH 5.0, calcitonin hydrolysis exclusively followed the activities of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase. Typically, at pH 7.5, 42% of total degradation occurred in the region of the brush-border enzyme alanyl aminopeptidase and 29% occurred in the region of the cytosolic enzyme phosphoglucomutase. Although 9% of the calcitonin-degrading activity was associated with basolateral membrane fractions, most of this activity could be accounted for by the presence of brush-border membranes.

  14. Min mentor er min voksenven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Birte

    2009-01-01

    En artikel i bogen: 6 belysninger af vejledning, brydninger, forståelser & praksis. Artiklen er et sammendrag af en diskursanalyse fra 2008 fra projetrapporten: Ind under huden, www.vejledning.net...

  15. Multiple Modes of Calcium-Induced Calcium Release in Sympathetic Neurons II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongpaisan, Jarin; Pivovarova, Natalia B.; Colegrove, Stephen L.; Leapman, Richard D.; Friel, David D.; Andrews, S. Brian

    2001-01-01

    CICR from an intracellular store, here directly characterized as the ER, usually refers to net Ca2+ release that amplifies evoked elevations in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i). However, the companion paper (Albrecht, M.A., S.L. Colegrove, J. Hongpaisan, N.B. Pivovarova, S.B. Andrews, and D.D. Friel. 2001. J. Gen. Physiol. 118:83–100) shows that in sympathetic neurons, small [Ca2+]i elevations evoked by weak depolarization stimulate ER Ca accumulation, but at a rate attenuated by activation of a ryanodine-sensitive CICR pathway. Here, we have measured depolarization-evoked changes in total ER Ca concentration ([Ca]ER) as a function of [Ca2+]i, and found that progressively larger [Ca2+]i elevations cause a graded transition from ER Ca accumulation to net release, consistent with the expression of multiple modes of CICR. [Ca]ER is relatively high at rest (12.8 ± 0.9 mmol/kg dry weight, mean ± SEM) and is reduced by thapsigargin or ryanodine (5.5 ± 0.7 and 4.7 ± 1.1 mmol/kg, respectively). [Ca]ER rises during weak depolarization (to 17.0 ± 1.6 mmol/kg over 120s, [Ca2+]i less than ∼350 nM), changes little in response to stronger depolarization (12.1 ± 1.1 mmol/kg, [Ca2+]i ∼700 nM), and declines (to 6.5 ± 1.0 mmol/kg) with larger [Ca2+]i elevations (>1 μM) evoked by the same depolarization when mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is inhibited (FCCP). Thus, net ER Ca2+ transport exhibits a biphasic dependence on [Ca2+]i. With mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake enabled, [Ca]ER rises after repolarization (to 16.6 ± 1.8 mmol/kg at 15 min) as [Ca2+]i falls within the permissive range for ER Ca accumulation over a period lengthened by mitochondrial Ca2+ release. Finally, although spatially averaged [Ca]ER is unchanged during strong depolarization, net ER Ca2+ release still occurs, but only in the outermost ∼5-μm cytoplasmic shell where [Ca2+]i should reach its highest levels. Since mitochondrial Ca accumulation occurs preferentially in peripheral cytoplasm, as demonstrated

  16. Forenklingens fire F'er

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Tina Øllgaard

    2017-01-01

    At fjerne styring er det, man ofte forbinder med afbureaukratisering, men det er ikke tilstrækkeligt, når man vil gå fra flotte ambitioner til en styring, som reelt opleves enklere. For at forenkle må man også forandre, forankre og fastholde styring, og det må ske i et samspil mellem de aktører, ...

  17. Renal failure (chronic)

    OpenAIRE

    Clase, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is characterised by a gradual and sustained decline in renal clearance or glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Continued progression of renal failure will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Diabetes, glomerulonephritis, hypertension, pyelone...

  18. Protein transport into the human ER and related diseases, Sec61-channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haßdenteufel, Sarah; Klein, Marie-Christine; Melnyk, Armin; Zimmermann, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Protein transport into the human endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is relevant to the biogenesis of most soluble and membrane proteins of organelles, which are involved in endo- or exo-cytsosis. It involves amino-terminal signal peptides in the precursor polypeptides and various transport components in the cytosol plus the ER, and can occur co- or post-translationally. The two mechanisms merge at the level of the ER membrane, specifically at the level of the heterotrimeric Sec61 complex, which forms a dynamic polypeptide-conducting channel in the ER membrane. Since the mammalian ER is also the main intracellular calcium storage organelle, and the Sec61 complex is calcium permeable, the Sec61 complex is tightly regulated in its equilibrium between the closed and open conformations, or "gated", by ligands, such as signal peptides of the transport substrates and the ER lumenal Hsp70-type molecular chaperone BiP. Furthermore, BiP binding to the incoming polypeptide contributes to the efficiency and unidirectionality of transport. Recent insights into the structure and dynamic equilibrium of the Sec61 complex have various mechanistic as well as medical implications.

  19. The Effectiveness of Core ER Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun-Young; Day, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    This discussion piece continues the discussion forum on extensive reading (ER) from the April 2015 issue of "Reading in a Foreign Language." In that forum, a number of the discussions were concerned with the principles of ER (Day & Bamford, 2002) in implementing ER. Our discussion also concerns the principles; we examine ER programs…

  20. Hvad er normen for isoleucin til grise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2011-01-01

    Efter introduktionen af aminosyren L-valin er isoleucin kommet i fokus, når der optimeres foder til svin. Men der er usikkerhed omkring normen for isoleucin.......Efter introduktionen af aminosyren L-valin er isoleucin kommet i fokus, når der optimeres foder til svin. Men der er usikkerhed omkring normen for isoleucin....

  1. Evidence Report: Risk of Renal Stone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Pietrzyk, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The formation of renal stones poses an in-flight health risk of high severity, not only because of the impact of renal colic on human performance but also because of complications that could potentially lead to crew evacuation, such as hematuria, infection, hydronephrosis, and sepsis. Evidence for risk factors comes from urine analyses of crewmembers, documenting changes to the urinary environment that are conducive to increased saturation of stone-forming salts, which are the driving force for nucleation and growth of a stone nidus. Further, renal stones have been documented in astronauts after return to Earth and in one cosmonaut during flight. Biochemical analysis of urine specimens has provided indication of hypercalciuria and hyperuricemia, reduced urine volumes, and increased urine saturation of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. A major contributor to the risk for renal stone formation is bone atrophy with increased turnover of the bone minerals. Dietary and fluid intakes also play major roles in the risk because of the influence on urine pH (more acidic) and on volume (decreased). Historically, specific assessments on urine samples from some Skylab crewmembers indicated that calcium excretion increased early in flight, notable by day 10 of flight, and almost exceeded the upper threshold for normal excretion (300mg/day in males). Other crewmember data documented reduced intake of fluid and reduced intake of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and citrate (an inhibitor of calcium stone formation) in the diet. Hence, data from both short-duration and long-duration missions indicate that space travel induces risk factors for renal stone formation that continue to persist after flight; this risk has been documented by reported kidney stones in crewmembers.

  2. Renale Osteopathie

    OpenAIRE

    Horn S

    2001-01-01

    Die renale Osteopathie umfaßt Erkrankungen des Knochens, die bei Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen auftreten, wie den sekundären bzw. tertiären Hyperparathyreoidismus, die adynamische Knochenerkrankung und die Osteopathie nach Nierentransplantation. Durch die Identifikation des Kalzium-Sensing-Rezeptors bzw. des Vitamin D-Rezeptors hat sich unser Verständnis der Zusammenhänge in den letzten Jahren erheblich verbessert. Neue Medikamente versprechen effizientere Prophylaxe- und Thera...

  3. Renale Knochenerkrankungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Störungen des Mineral- und Knochenstoffwechsels sind bei fast allen Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen anzutreffen. Pathogenetisch spielt eine Neigung zur Phosphatretention bei einer Reduktion der glomerulären Filtrationsrate die zentrale Rolle. Neben typischen, aber sehr variablen Veränderungen der Knochenstruktur (renale Osteopathie besteht auch eine sehr enge Assoziation zwischen diesen Störungen und dem massiv erhöhten kardiovaskulären Risiko der Patienten.

  4. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Autophagy Provides Cytoprotection from Chemical Hypoxia and Oxidant Injury and Ameliorates Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrika, Bhavya B; Yang, Cheng; Ou, Yang; Feng, Xiaoke; Muhoza, Djamali; Holmes, Alexandrea F; Theus, Sue; Deshmukh, Sarika; Haun, Randy S; Kaushal, Gur P

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced autophagy provides cytoprotection from renal tubular epithelial cell injury due to oxidants and chemical hypoxia in vitro, as well as from ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in vivo. We demonstrate that the ER stress inducer tunicamycin triggers an unfolded protein response, upregulates ER chaperone Grp78, and activates the autophagy pathway in renal tubular epithelial cells in culture. Inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy accelerated caspase-3 activation and cell death suggesting a pro-survival role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Compared to wild-type cells, autophagy-deficient MEFs subjected to ER stress had enhanced caspase-3 activation and cell death, a finding that further supports the cytoprotective role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Induction of autophagy by ER stress markedly afforded cytoprotection from oxidants H2O2 and tert-Butyl hydroperoxide and from chemical hypoxia induced by antimycin A. In contrast, inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy or autophagy-deficient cells markedly enhanced cell death in response to oxidant injury and chemical hypoxia. In mouse kidney, similarly to renal epithelial cells in culture, tunicamycin triggered ER stress, markedly upregulated Grp78, and activated autophagy without impairing the autophagic flux. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy markedly ameliorated renal IR injury as evident from significant improvement in renal function and histology. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine markedly increased renal IR injury. These studies highlight beneficial impact of ER stress-induced autophagy in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury both in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Autophagy Provides Cytoprotection from Chemical Hypoxia and Oxidant Injury and Ameliorates Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavya B Chandrika

    Full Text Available We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-induced autophagy provides cytoprotection from renal tubular epithelial cell injury due to oxidants and chemical hypoxia in vitro, as well as from ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury in vivo. We demonstrate that the ER stress inducer tunicamycin triggers an unfolded protein response, upregulates ER chaperone Grp78, and activates the autophagy pathway in renal tubular epithelial cells in culture. Inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy accelerated caspase-3 activation and cell death suggesting a pro-survival role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Compared to wild-type cells, autophagy-deficient MEFs subjected to ER stress had enhanced caspase-3 activation and cell death, a finding that further supports the cytoprotective role of ER stress-induced autophagy. Induction of autophagy by ER stress markedly afforded cytoprotection from oxidants H2O2 and tert-Butyl hydroperoxide and from chemical hypoxia induced by antimycin A. In contrast, inhibition of ER stress-induced autophagy or autophagy-deficient cells markedly enhanced cell death in response to oxidant injury and chemical hypoxia. In mouse kidney, similarly to renal epithelial cells in culture, tunicamycin triggered ER stress, markedly upregulated Grp78, and activated autophagy without impairing the autophagic flux. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy markedly ameliorated renal IR injury as evident from significant improvement in renal function and histology. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine markedly increased renal IR injury. These studies highlight beneficial impact of ER stress-induced autophagy in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury both in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  7. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile inde

  8. Penta-EF-Hand Protein Peflin Is a Negative Regulator of ER-To-Golgi Transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariah Rayl

    Full Text Available Luminal calcium regulates vesicle transport early in the secretory pathway. In ER-to-Golgi transport, depletion of luminal calcium leads to significantly reduced transport and a buildup of budding and newly budded COPII vesicles and vesicle proteins. Effects of luminal calcium on transport may be mediated by cytoplasmic calcium sensors near ER exits sites (ERES. The penta-EF-hand (PEF protein apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2 stabilizes sec31A at ER exit sites (ERES and promotes the assembly of inner and outer shell COPII components. However, in vitro and intact cell approaches have not determined whether ALG-2 is a negative or positive regulator, or a regulator at all, under basal physiological conditions. ALG-2 interacts with another PEF protein, peflin, to form cytosolic heterodimers that dissociate in response to calcium. However, a biological function for peflin has not been demonstrated and whether peflin and the ALG-2/peflin interaction modulates transport has not been investigated. Using an intact, single cell, morphological assay for ER-to-Golgi transport in normal rat kidney (NRK cells, we found that depletion of peflin using siRNA resulted in significantly faster transport of the membrane cargo VSV-G. Double depletion of peflin and ALG-2 blocked the increased transport resulting from peflin depletion, demonstrating a role for ALG-2 in the increased transport. Furthermore, peflin depletion caused increased targeting of ALG-2 to ERES and increased ALG-2/sec31A interactions, suggesting that peflin may normally inhibit transport by preventing ALG-2/sec31A interactions. This work identifies for the first time a clear steady state role for a PEF protein in ER-to-Golgi transport-peflin is a negative regulator of transport.

  9. Effect of Shenkang injection combined with hemodialysis treatment on renal function, renal anemia and cytokine levels in patients with chronic renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of Shenkang injection combined with hemodialysis treatment on renal function, renal anemia and cytokine levels in patients with chronic renal failure. Methods: A total of 68 patients with chronic renal failure who received hemodialysis treatment in our hospital during between October 2013 and February 2016 were selected and randomly divided into two groups, the observation group received Shenkang injection treatment in the process of dialysis, and the control group only received conventional symptomatic and supportive treatment. 8 weeks after treatment, serum was collected to determine the levels of renal function indexes, nutritional status indexes, anemia indexes and cytokines, and urine was collected to determine renal function indexes.Results:β2-MG, UA, Cr, phosphorus, IL-17, IL-23, CTGF, TGF-β1, FGF-2 and FGF-23 levels in serum as well as NGAL, KIM-1 and RBP levels in urine of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group, and TP, Alb, PA, calcium, Hb, EPO, Fe, TRF and FER levels in serum were significantly higher than those of control group.Conclusion:Shenkang injection combined with hemodialysis treatment helps to improve renal function, nutritional status and renal anemia, and reduce the synthesis of inflammation and renal interstitial fibrosis-related cytokines in patients with chronic renal failure.

  10. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d......-saccharate becomes spontaneously supersaturated with both d-gluconate and d-saccharate calcium salts, from which only calcium d-saccharate slowly precipitates. Calcium d-saccharate is suggested to act as a stabilizer of supersaturated solutions of other calcium hydroxycarboxylates with endothermic complex formation...

  11. Bilateral Renal Mass-Renal Disorder: Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Tiryaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old woman has presented complaining of weakness and fatigue to her primary care physician. The renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When the renal masses have been discovered by sonography in this setting, the functional imaging may be critical. We reported a case about bilateral renal masses in a young female patient with tuberculosis and renal insufficiency. Magnetic resonance (MR has revealed the bilateral renal masses in patient, and this patient has been referred to our hospital for further management. The patient’s past medical and surgical history was unremarkable.

  12. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA ... excreting it into the urine. Distal renal tubular acidosis (Type I RTA) is caused by a defect ...

  13. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  14. Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Klemmer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concern has recently arisen about the potential adverse effects of excessive calcium intakes, i.e., calcium loading from supplements, on arterial calcification and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in older adults. Published reports that high calcium intakes in free-living adults have relatively little or no beneficial impact on bone mineral density (BMD and fracture rates suggest that current recommendations of calcium for adults may be set too high. Because even healthy kidneys have limited capability of eliminating excessive calcium in the diet, the likelihood of soft-tissue calcification may increase in older adults who take calcium supplements, particularly in those with age or disease-related reduction in renal function. The maintenance of BMD and bone health continues to be an important goal of adequate dietary calcium consumption, but eliminating potential risks of CVDs from excessive calcium intakes needs to be factored into policy recommendations for calcium by adults.

  15. 慢性肾功衰患者骨密度与钙调节激素和胱抑素C的变化和关系%The relationship among bone mineral density, calcium regulation hormones, and cystatin C in patients with chronic renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛达勇; 赵娟; 喻飞; 李文兵; 张吉才

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性肾功能衰竭患者的骨密度(bone mineral density,BMD)与钙调节激素和胱抑素C的变化和关系。方法 用双能X线吸收测量法(DEXA)检测75例慢性肾功衰患者(简称为CRF组)和50例正常对照组的骨密度(BMD),并测定各自的生化指标:血钙(Ca)、血磷(P)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、胱抑素C(Cys C)和钙调节激素指标:甲状旁腺素(PTH)、降钙素(CT)、骨钙素(BGP),做统计分析。结果 CRF组BMD较对照组显著降低(P<0.01);P、ALP、PTH、BGP和CT显著升高(P<0.01),Ca降低(P<0.01)。BMD与Cys C、PTH和BGP呈负相关,r分别是-0.39、-0.43、-0.32,与血Ca、P、CT和ALP无相关性。Cys C与PTH和BGP呈正相关(r分别是0.38、0.25)。结论 CRF患者BMD显著下降,可能与肾脏损伤程度和钙调节激素紊乱有关。%Objective To investigate the relationship among bone mineral density (BMD), calcium regulation hormones, and cystatin C in patients with chronic renal failure. Methods Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to measure BMD of 75 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and SO normal control people. Individual biochemical parameters, including serum calcium ( Ca) , phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cystatin C (Cys C) and calcium regulation hormones, including parathyroid hormone ( PTH) , calcitonin ( CT) , bone gal protein ( BCP) , were measured and analyzed statistically. Results BMD of the patients in CRF group were significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0. 01). P, ALP, PTH, BGP, and CT increased significantly (P < 0. 01). Ca decreased significantly (P<0. 01). BMD was negatively associated with Cys C, PTH, and BGP (r= - 0. 39, -0. 43, and -0. 32, respectively). No correlation was found among BMD and Ca, P, CT, and ALP. Cys C was positively correlated with PTH and BGP ( r = 0. 38 and 0. 25, respectively). Conclusion BMD decreased significantly in CRF patients, which was probably associated with the

  16. 应用小分子肝素钙对过敏性紫癜并发远期肾损害干预效果的Meta分析%Effect of appling small molecule heparin calcium on long-term renal damage of patients with allergic purpura by Meta analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫平; 殷站茹

    2015-01-01

    目的:应用Meta分析方法,评价小分子肝素钙对过敏性紫癜并发远期肾损害干预效果的。方法检索CNKI、万方、维普、CBM数据库及Cochrane图书馆,手工检索作为辅助,对纳入文献采取质量分析,采用Stata12.1软件行Meta分析。结果4篇文献纳入随机对照临床试验(randomized controlled trials,RCT),样本共670例,其中333例小分子肝素钙治疗组(37例肾损害),337例对照组(44例肾损害),2组无明显差异(RR=0.89,95%CI:0.59-1.34,P=0.578)。结论早期应用小分子肝素钙可预防肾损害发生,但其远期干预效果并不明显,仍需通过多中心、大规模RCT做深入研究。%Objective To evaluate small molecule heparin allergic purpura complicated by long-term kidney damage intervention by Meta analysis.Methods Databases of CNKI,Wanfang,VIP,CBM and Cochrane Library were searched,hand searching as an auxiliary, included studies were assessed by quality of analysis, Meta-analysis was conducted by Stata12.1 software line.Results 4 articles were included in randomized controlled clinical trials (randomized controlled trials, RCT), a sample of 670 cases, 333 cases of small molecule heparin calcium treatment group (37 cases of renal damage has occurred), 337 cases of control group (44 cases of renal damage has occurred), no difference between the 2 groups (RR=0.89, 95% CI:0.59-1.34, P=0.578).Conclusion The early application of small molecular weight heparin calcium can not prevent kidney damage, it needs to do in-depth research by multi-center, large-scale RCT.

  17. New concepts in calcium-sensing receptor pharmacology and signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Donald T.; Riccardi, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is the key controller of extracellular calcium (Ca2+o) homeostasis via its regulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and renal Ca2+ reabsorption. The CaR-selective calcimimetic drug Cinacalcet stimulates the CaR to suppress PTH secretion in chronic kidney disease and represents the world's first clinically available receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM). Negative CaR allosteric modulators (NAMs), known as calcilytics, can increase PTH secretio...

  18. Impaired basolateral sorting of pro-EGF causes isolated recessive renal hypomagnesemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestege, W.M.; Thebault, S.C.; Wijst, J.A.J. van der; Berg, D. Van den; Janssen, R.; Tejpar, S.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Cutsem, E. van; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Primary hypomagnesemia constitutes a rare heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by renal or intestinal magnesium (Mg(2+)) wasting resulting in generally shared symptoms of Mg(2+) depletion, such as tetany and generalized convulsions, and often including associated disturbances in calcium

  19. Cardiotoxicity of verapamil in renal failure: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Jadhav, Praveen P; Bohra, Suresh

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of a 76-year-old diabetic patient on verapamil with undiagnosed renal failure presenting with collapse and severe life threatening bradyarrhythmias. She responded well to inotropic support and calcium supplementation.

  20. Renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  1. Renale Osteopathie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Die renale Osteopathie umfaßt Erkrankungen des Knochens, die bei Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen auftreten, wie den sekundären bzw. tertiären Hyperparathyreoidismus, die adynamische Knochenerkrankung und die Osteopathie nach Nierentransplantation. Durch die Identifikation des Kalzium-Sensing-Rezeptors bzw. des Vitamin D-Rezeptors hat sich unser Verständnis der Zusammenhänge in den letzten Jahren erheblich verbessert. Neue Medikamente versprechen effizientere Prophylaxe- und Therapiemöglichkeiten. Wir beeinflussen dadurch nicht nur die Morbidität und Lebensqualität, sondern auch die Mortalität unserer Patienten.

  2. Renal disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Martha S; Poole, Judith H

    2002-03-01

    Anatomic and physiologic adaptations within the renal system during pregnancy are significant. Alterations are seen in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, resulting in changes in normal renal laboratory values. When these normal renal adaptations are coupled with pregnancy-induced complications or preexisting renal dysfunction, the woman may demonstrate a reduction of renal function leading to an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This article will review normal pregnancy adaptations of the renal system and discuss common pregnancy-related renal complications.

  3. Renal calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrah, Leslie N

    1979-01-01

    Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long an...

  4. Diagnosis of calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorder in chronic renal failure and treatment with integrative traditional Chinese and western medicine%慢性肾衰竭钙磷代谢紊乱的诊断及中西医结合治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 周乐

    2013-01-01

    钙磷代谢紊乱及其骨病是慢性肾衰竭特别是透析患者的重要并发症之一。长期骨矿物质代谢异常会引起全身血管钙化,与心血管事件的发生及死亡密切相关。2009年改善全球肾脏病预后组织(KDIGO)发布了慢性肾脏病矿物质及骨代谢紊乱(CKD-MBD)的诊断、评估、预防和治疗的临床实践指南,2013年KDIGO新发布的《CKD评估与管理临床实践指南》又针对CKD骨代谢疾病提出了新的观点。治疗的重点是降低高血磷和维持血钙,控制甲状旁腺激素在目标范围。中医治疗慢性肾衰竭钙磷代谢紊乱有独到之处,通过辩证施治,同时结合必要的西药治疗,可显著改善患者的临床生化指标及自觉症状,改善预后。%Calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorder and bone disease are important complications in patients with chronic renal failure especially undergoing dialysis.Long-term metabolism disorder of bone mineral content can cause systemic vascular calcification,which is closely associated with cardiovascular events and mortality.In 2009,Kidney Disease:Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) published the mineral and bone disorder of chronic kidney disease (CKD)guidelines.In 201 3,KDIGO proposed some new perspectives about CKD metabolic bone diseases in “Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease”.The treatment for these complications mainly aims to decrease the high blood phosphate,maintain the level of blood calcium,and keep parathyroid hormone (PTH)within defined levels.It is unique for traditional Chinese medicine to treat the calcium and phosphorus metabolism disorder through dialectical therapy and integration with western medicine necessary, which can significantly improve the clinical symptoms,biochemical indices,and the prognosis.

  5. Calcium sensing in exocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wu, Bingbing; Han, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Besides the triggering role, calcium signaling modulates the precise amount and kinetics of vesicle release. Thus, it is a central question to understand the molecular machineries responsible for calcium sensing in exocytosis. Here we provide an overview of our...... current understanding of calcium sensing in neurotransmitter release and hormone secretion....

  6. Altsaa det er det nationale!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøndborg, Britta

    2005-01-01

    Det er ikke alle kunstkanoner, der opstår eller tager form som et resultat af en langsom proces i lighed med darwinistisk evolution; en evolution, som sker over tid, og hvor de stærkeste kunstværker gradvist skiller sig ud fra de mindre betydelige. En kanon udgør ikke altid en retrospektiv opgøre...

  7. Viden er vigtigere end mavefornemmelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Vi lever i et vidensamfund og i et demokratisk samfund, men det er ikke godt nok. Ifølge lektor Anne-Marie Eggert Olsen ville livet være mindre bekymrende, hvis deltagerdemokratiet fyldte mindre og fornuftsbaseret politik mere....

  8. Krumme tæer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Mons Bissenbakker

    2013-01-01

    skamforskningen og forskellige postkoloniale og crip-teoretiske kritikker af samme. Hensigten er at pege på et analytisk udgangspunkt, som gør det muligt at gribe de subversive muligheder i skam uden samtidig at miste blikket for skammens ekskluderende funktioner: Nogle subjekter kan øjensynligt ikke undslippe...

  9. Imaging calcium in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienberger, Christine; Konnerth, Arthur

    2012-03-08

    Calcium ions generate versatile intracellular signals that control key functions in all types of neurons. Imaging calcium in neurons is particularly important because calcium signals exert their highly specific functions in well-defined cellular subcompartments. In this Primer, we briefly review the general mechanisms of neuronal calcium signaling. We then introduce the calcium imaging devices, including confocal and two-photon microscopy as well as miniaturized devices that are used in freely moving animals. We provide an overview of the classical chemical fluorescent calcium indicators and of the protein-based genetically encoded calcium indicators. Using application examples, we introduce new developments in the field, such as calcium imaging in awake, behaving animals and the use of calcium imaging for mapping single spine sensory inputs in cortical neurons in vivo. We conclude by providing an outlook on the prospects of calcium imaging for the analysis of neuronal signaling and plasticity in various animal models.

  10. The influence of lithium on calcium homeostasis in older patients in daily clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melick, Els Jacoba Maria; Wilting, Ingeborg; Ziere, Gijsbertus; Kok, Robert Martin; Egberts, Toine Cornelis Gerardus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lithium can influence calcium homeostasis resulting in changes in parathormone set point and renal calcium handling. The clinical significance of these changes in older patients is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible association between duration of lithiu

  11. Idiopathic Calcium Nephrolithiasis And Hypercalciuria: The Role Of Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaro, Giovanni; Abaterusso, Cataldo

    2007-04-01

    Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis and hypercalciuria are multifactorial disease conditions, the pathogenesis of which involves the interaction of environmental and individual factors. Data support a strong role of genes in the pathogenesis of these two conditions. Findings obtained in monogenic disorders characterized by renal calcium stones, and/or hypercalciuria, and/or nephrocalcinosis have proposed a number of genes as candidate genes in the pathogenesis of the common idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis and hypercalciuria. The physiological role of these genes, and findings in monogenic disorders and idiopathic, multifactorial disorders will be presented.

  12. Candida albicans autophagy, no longer a bystander: Its role in tolerance to ER stress-related antifungal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qilin; Jia, Chang; Dong, Yijie; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Chenpeng; Chen, Yulu; Wang, Yuzhou; Li, Xiaoling; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Biao; Li, Mingchun

    2015-08-01

    Autophagy is a degradation process involved in pathogenicity of many pathogenic fungi. However, its roles in Candida albicans, the leading fungal pathogen in human beings, remain to be detailed. Most recently, we found that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducing conditions led to transcriptional up-regulation of C. albicans autophagy-related (ATG) genes, implying a possible link between autophagy and ER stress response in this pathogen. Using a series of C. albicans ATG mutants and autophagy reporting systems, we found that both treatment of ER stress-related drugs and loss of the ER calcium pump Spf1 promoted autophagic flux of Atg8 and Lap41 (a homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ape1), indicating that these conditions induce autophagy. Moreover, deletion of ATG genes in the spf1Δ/Δ mutant rendered cells hypersensitive to these drugs and caused activation of UPR, revealing a role of autophagy in alleviating ER stress. In addition, only treatment of tunicamycin and loss of Spf1 in combination increased autophagic flux of the ER component Sec63, suggesting that most of the ER stress-related conditions cause non-selective autophagy rather than selective ER phagy. This study uncovers the important role of C. albicans autophagy in ER stress response and tolerance to antifungal drugs.

  13. Renal actinomycosis with concomitant renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong-Suk; Jang, Won Ik; Jung, Ji Yoon; Chung, Sarah; Choi, Dae Eun; Na, Ki-Ryang; Lee, Kang Wook; Shin, Yong-Tai

    2012-02-01

    Renal actinomycosis is a rare infection caused by fungi of the genus Actinomyces. A 74-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of gross hematuria with urinary symptoms and intermittent chills. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed thrombosis in the left renal vein and diffuse, heterogeneous enlargement of the left kidney. After nephrectomy, sulfur granules with chronic suppurative inflammation were seen microscopically, and the histopathological diagnosis was renal actinomycosis. Our case is the first report of renal actinomycosis with renal vein thrombosis.

  14. 终末期肾病患者心脏瓣膜钙化与冠状动脉钙化进展的关系研究%The correction of cardiac valve calcification and the progression of coronary artery calcium in end stage re-nal disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓春; 王泓; 戴云; 孙晖; 李娟; 杨斌

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between cardiac valve calcification and the progression of coronary ar-tery calcium scores( CACS) in end stage renal disease patients.Methods We collected 127 end stage renal disease patients.Statisti-cal methods were used to analyze the relation between cardiac valve calcification and the progression of coronary calcium.Results In-cidence of the CACS progression in no valve calcification, aortic valve or mitral valve calcification and both valve calcification were 43.1%, 71.4%and 76.5%(P<0.05).Cardiac valve calcification was independent risk factor for CAC progression.Patients with aortic valve or mitral valve calcification and both valve calcification had a significantly greater likelihood of increase of CACS ( relative ratios were 1.30,1.35;P<0.01).Conclusion The cardiac valve calcification in end stage renal disease patients was strongly asso-ciated with the progression of CACS.CACS progressed rapidly in patients with cardiac valve calcification.%目的:探讨终末期肾病患者心脏瓣膜钙化与冠状动脉钙化进展之间的关系。方法选取127例终末期肾病患者,分析心脏瓣膜钙化与冠状动脉钙化进展的关系。结果终末期肾病患者冠脉钙化在无瓣膜钙化组、主动脉瓣或二尖瓣钙化组、主动脉瓣和二尖瓣同时钙化组中进展的发生率分别为43.1%、71.4%、76.5%(P<0.05)。心脏瓣膜钙化是冠脉钙化进展的独立危险因子。与无瓣膜钙化患者相比,主动脉瓣或二尖瓣钙化患者与主动脉瓣和二尖瓣钙化的终末期肾病患者冠脉钙化积分进展的危险比分别为1.30、1.35( P<0.01)。结论终末期肾病患者心脏瓣膜钙化与冠状动脉的钙化进程密切相关,瓣膜钙化患者冠状动脉钙化的进展更快。

  15. TRANSPLANTE RENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Geraldo Rozza Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprender el significado de espera del trasplante renal para las mujeres en hemodiálisis. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo-interpretativo, realizado con 12 mujeres en hemodiálisis en Florianópolis. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas en profundidad en el domicilio. Fue utilizado el software Etnografh 6.0 para la pre-codificación y posterior al análisis interpretativo emergieron dos categorías: “las sombras del momento actual”, que mostró que las dificultades iniciales de la enfermedad están presentes, pero las mujeres pueden hacer frente mejor a la enfermedad y el tratamiento. La segunda categoría, “la luz del trasplante renal”, muestra la esperanza impulsada por la entrada en la lista de espera para un trasplante.

  16. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930564 Dwell times affect the local host de-fence mechanism of peritoneal dialysis patients.WANG Tao(汪涛),et al.Renal Instit,SunYatsen Med Univ,Guangzhou,510080.Chin JNephrol 1993;9(2):75—77.The effect of different intraperitoneal awelltimes on the local host defence in 6 peritonealdialysis patients was studied.A significant de-crease in the number of peritoneal cells,IgG con-centration and the phagoeytosis and bactericidalactivity of macrophages was determined when thedwell time decreased from 12 to 4 hs or form 4 to0.5hs,but the peroxidase activity in macrophagesincreased significantly.All variables,except theperoxidase activity in macrophages,showed nosignificant difference between patients of high or

  17. Traumatismo renal

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Sofia Rosa Moura Gomes da

    2009-01-01

    Introdução: A realização deste trabalho visa a elaboração de uma revisão sistematizada subordinada à temática da traumatologia renal. Objectivos: Os principais objectivos deste trabalho são: apurar a etiologia, definir a classificação, analisar o diagnóstico e expôr o tratamento e as complicações. Desenvolvimento: Os traumatismos são a principal causa de morte antes dos 40 anos. O rim é o órgão do aparelho génito-urinário mais frequentemente atingido. Os traumatismos renais são mais fre...

  18. Nephrolithiasis Anotaciones sobre litiasis renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzálo Mejía

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Nephrolithiasis is a relatively common disease in medical practice. There are no recent, updated reviews on this topic in Colombian literature and to fill this need the present one was written. The different aspects of calcium lithiasis are analyzed in a practical and simplified although comprehensive way, emphasizing pathophysiology, patient evaluation, management of lithiasis (fluids, diet and drug therapy and new methods for stone removal. Other types of calculi are briefly discussed. Management of the renal colic is not included.

    La litiasis renal es un trastorno relativamente frecuente en la práctica médica. No existe en la literatura colombiana una revisión reciente y actualizada acerca de este tema por lo cual se escribió la presente. En una forma práctica y simplificada, pero completa, se analizan los diferentes aspectos relacionados con la litiasis por calcio y, brevemente, se mencionan otros tipos de cálculos. Se hace énfasis en fisiopatología, evaluación del paciente, manejo de la litiasis (líquidos, dieta y drogas y nuevos métodos de extracción del cálculo. No se incluye el manejo del cólico renal.

  19. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article. PMID:28208663

  20. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-02-11

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the "unfolded protein response" (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article.

  1. ER stress and hepatic lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiping eZhou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is an important player in regulating protein synthesis and lipid metabolism. Perturbation of ER homeostasis, referred as ER stress, has been linked to numerous pathological conditions, such as inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. The liver plays a central role in regulating nutrient and lipid metabolism. Accumulating evidence implicates that ER stress disrupts lipid metabolism and induces hepatic lipotoxicity. Here, we review the major ER stress signaling pathways, how ER stress contributes to the dysregulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, and the potential causative mechanisms of ER stress in hepatic lipotoxicity. Understanding the role of ER stress in hepatic metabolism may lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for metabolic diseases.

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ariyasu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR, which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI, Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2 are discussed in this article.

  3. A Low Affinity GCaMP3 Variant (GCaMPer) for Imaging the Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Mark J; Baldwin, Heather A; Werley, Christopher A; Boccardo, Stefano; Whitaker, Leslie R; Yan, Xiaokang; Holt, Graham T; Schreiter, Eric R; Looger, Loren L; Cohen, Adam E; Kim, Douglas S; Harvey, Brandon K

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis is critical for cellular functions and is disrupted in diverse pathologies including neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease. Owing to the high concentration of calcium within the ER, studying this subcellular compartment requires tools that are optimized for these conditions. To develop a single-fluorophore genetically encoded calcium indicator for this organelle, we targeted a low affinity variant of GCaMP3 to the ER lumen (GCaMPer (10.19)). A set of viral vectors was constructed to express GCaMPer in human neuroblastoma cells, rat primary cortical neurons, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We observed dynamic changes in GCaMPer (10.19) fluorescence in response to pharmacologic manipulations of the ER calcium store. Additionally, periodic calcium efflux from the ER was observed during spontaneous beating of cardiomyocytes. GCaMPer (10.19) has utility in imaging ER calcium in living cells and providing insight into luminal calcium dynamics under physiologic and pathologic states.

  4. A Low Affinity GCaMP3 Variant (GCaMPer for Imaging the Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Store.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Henderson

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis is critical for cellular functions and is disrupted in diverse pathologies including neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease. Owing to the high concentration of calcium within the ER, studying this subcellular compartment requires tools that are optimized for these conditions. To develop a single-fluorophore genetically encoded calcium indicator for this organelle, we targeted a low affinity variant of GCaMP3 to the ER lumen (GCaMPer (10.19. A set of viral vectors was constructed to express GCaMPer in human neuroblastoma cells, rat primary cortical neurons, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We observed dynamic changes in GCaMPer (10.19 fluorescence in response to pharmacologic manipulations of the ER calcium store. Additionally, periodic calcium efflux from the ER was observed during spontaneous beating of cardiomyocytes. GCaMPer (10.19 has utility in imaging ER calcium in living cells and providing insight into luminal calcium dynamics under physiologic and pathologic states.

  5. Nordisk Fjer-sagen er fortsat aktuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo

    2004-01-01

    I sidste uge satte Højesteret definitivt punktum efter 14 år. Men sagens setup er klassisk for økonomisk kriminalitet, og derfor er den god at tage ved lære af.......I sidste uge satte Højesteret definitivt punktum efter 14 år. Men sagens setup er klassisk for økonomisk kriminalitet, og derfor er den god at tage ved lære af....

  6. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  7. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The cloning of a G protein-coupled extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(o)(2+))-sensing receptor (CaR) has elucidated the molecular basis for many of the previously recognized effects of Ca(o)(2+) on tissues that maintain systemic Ca(o)(2+) homeostasis, especially parathyroid chief cells and several cells in the kidney. The availability of the cloned CaR enabled the development of DNA and antibody probes for identifying the CaR's mRNA and protein, respectively, within these and other tissues. It also permitted the identification of human diseases resulting from inactivating or activating mutations of the CaR gene and the subsequent generation of mice with targeted disruption of the CaR gene. The characteristic alterations in parathyroid and renal function in these patients and in the mice with "knockout" of the CaR gene have provided valuable information on the CaR's physiological roles in these tissues participating in mineral ion homeostasis. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about how the CaR regulates other tissues involved in systemic Ca(o)(2+) homeostasis, particularly bone and intestine. Moreover, there is evidence that additional Ca(o)(2+) sensors may exist in bone cells that mediate some or even all of the known effects of Ca(o)(2+) on these cells. Even more remains to be learned about the CaR's function in the rapidly growing list of cells that express it but are uninvolved in systemic Ca(o)(2+) metabolism. Available data suggest that the receptor serves numerous roles outside of systemic mineral ion homeostasis, ranging from the regulation of hormonal secretion and the activities of various ion channels to the longer term control of gene expression, programmed cell death (apoptosis), and cellular proliferation. In some cases, the CaR on these "nonhomeostatic" cells responds to local changes in Ca(o)(2+) taking place within compartments of the extracellular fluid (ECF) that communicate with the outside environment (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract). In others

  8. Role of presenilins in neuronal calcium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Sun, Suya; Herreman, An; De Strooper, Bart; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2010-06-23

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder. Familial AD (FAD) mutations in presenilins have been linked to calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling abnormalities. To explain these results, we previously proposed that presenilins function as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) passive Ca(2+) leak channels. To directly investigate the role of presenilins in neuronal ER Ca(2+) homeostasis, we here performed a series of Ca(2+) imaging experiments with primary neuronal cultures from conditional presenilin double-knock-out mice (PS1(dTAG/dTAG), PS2(-/-)) and from triple-transgenic AD mice (KI-PS1(M146V), Thy1-APP(KM670/671NL), Thy1-tau(P301L)). Obtained results provided additional support to the hypothesis that presenilins function as ER Ca(2+) leak channels in neurons. Interestingly, we discovered that presenilins play a major role in ER Ca(2+) leak function in hippocampal but not in striatal neurons. We further discovered that, in hippocampal neurons, loss of presenilin-mediated ER Ca(2+) leak function was compensated by an increase in expression and function of ryanodine receptors (RyanRs). Long-term feeding of the RyanR inhibitor dantrolene to amyloid precursor protein-presenilin-1 mice (Thy1-APP(KM670/671NL), Thy1-PS1(L166P)) resulted in an increased amyloid load, loss of synaptic markers, and neuronal atrophy in hippocampal and cortical regions. These results indicate that disruption of ER Ca(2+) leak function of presenilins may play an important role in AD pathogenesis.

  9. Galacto-oligosaccharides attenuate renal injury with microbiota modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Satoshi U; Ohse, Takamoto; Jo-Watanabe, Airi; Shigehisa, Akira; Kawakami, Koji; Matsuki, Takahiro; Chonan, Osamu; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2014-07-01

    Tubulointerstitial injury is central to the progression of end-stage renal disease. Recent studies have revealed that one of the most investigated uremic toxins, indoxyl sulfate (IS), caused tubulointerstitial injury through oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Because indole, the precursor of IS, is synthesized from dietary tryptophan by the gut microbiota, we hypothesized that the intervention targeting the gut microbiota in kidney disease with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) would attenuate renal injury. After 2 weeks of GOS administration for 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) or sham-operated (Sham) rats, cecal indole and serum IS were measured, renal injury was evaluated, and the effects of GOS on the gut microbiota were examined using pyrosequencing methods. Cecal indole and serum IS were significantly decreased and renal injury was improved with decreased infiltrating macrophages in GOS-treated Nx rats. The expression levels of ER stress markers and apoptosis were significantly increased in the Nx rats and decreased with GOS. The microbiota analysis indicated that GOS significantly increased three bacterial families and decreased five families in the Nx rats. In addition, the analysis also revealed that the bacterial family Clostridiaceae was significantly increased in the Nx rats compared with the Sham rats and decreased with GOS. Taken altogether, our data show that GOS decreased cecal indole and serum IS, attenuated renal injury, and modified the gut microbiota in the Nx rats, and that the gut microbiota were altered in kidney disease. GOS could be a novel therapeutic agent to protect against renal injury.

  10. Sport er hverken sundt eller social

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    2013-01-01

    Jeg deler ikke Lasch og Kayser Nielsens konklusioner, selvom jeg er meget enig i, at sport er dirty business. Min analyse peger i den retning, at sporten i sin organiserede form ikke er eller kan fungere som leverandør af nogen ”pakkeløsning”. Men sport kan sagtens bidrage med brudstykker til nog...

  11. Hvorfor er sygeplejersker usynlige i offentlige medier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Annemi Lund; Hall, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Når der er sygeplejerelevante emner til debat i de offentlige medier på Færøerne, bærer debatten præg af sygeplejerskers manglende deltagelse. Sygeplejerskerne er usynlige. Et eksempel på dette er en debat om besparelser inden for ældreomsorgen. Til trods for at besparelsen fik omfattende konsekv...

  12. Den sproglige leg er super fly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm

    2013-01-01

    Man kan rappe om alt. I hvert fald hvis man er Marvelous Mosell. I spændingsfeltet mellem fiktion og virkelighed skaber Mosell sin persona i et forjættende 80' er-univers der på en og samme tid er vildt overdrevet og helt autentisk....

  13. Energy-transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+,Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golding, P.S.; Jackson, S.D.; King, T.A.; Pollnau, Markus

    2000-01-01

    We present a detailed characterization of energy transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+,Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN bulk glasses. For several Er3+ (0.25–8.75 mol%) and Pr3+ (0.25–1.55 mol%) concentrations, we investigate energy transfer upconversion (ETU) and cross relaxation in Er3+ as well as energy

  14. Jordkvalitetskriterier for PAH'er

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    For to år siden forhøjede Miljøstyrelsen den administrativt fastsatte grænseværdi for polycycliske hydrocarboner (PAH’er) i jord med en faktor 3, hvilket i praksis betød at en række grunde, der tidligere var klassifi ceret som forurenede, nu ikke klassifi ceres sådan. Den hidtidige og den nye...

  15. Jordkvalitetskriterier for PAH'er

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    For to år siden forhøjede Miljøstyrelsen den administrativt fastsatte grænseværdi for polycycliske hydrocarboner (PAH’er) i jord med en faktor 3, hvilket i praksis betød at en række grunde, der tidligere var klassifi ceret som forurenede, nu ikke klassifi ceres sådan. Den hidtidige og den nye met...

  16. Hvad er en god skolestart?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoop, Hans Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Skolestarten er et vendepunkt i børns liv. For et par generationer siden var det at komme i 1. klasse det helt væsentlige skift. I de senere år har stort set alle børn imidlertid gået i børnehaveklasse og inden da i børnehave. Når aktiviteterne i børnehaveklassen og senere i 1. klasse slutter...

  17. Foregribende sorg er ikke forebyggende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Kjærgaard; Thomsen, Kia Toft; Jensen, Anders Bonde

    2017-01-01

    Baggrund: Betydningen af pårørendes sorgsymptomer før tid, tidligere kaldet foregribende sorg, er uklar. Materiale og metode: En landsdækkende spørgeskemaundersøgelse af 3635 pårørende til patienter med terminaltilskud i 2012. Resultater: Mange symptomer på sorg før død havde sammenhæng med kompl...

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum calcium regulates the retrotranslocation of Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin to the cytosol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Labriola

    Full Text Available For most secretory pathway proteins, crossing the endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane is an irreversible process. However, in some cases this flow can be reversed. For instance, misfolded proteins retained in the ER are retrotranslocated to the cytosol to be degraded by the proteasome. This mechanism, known as ER associated degradation (ERAD, is exploited by several bacterial toxins to gain access to the cytosol. Interestingly, some ER resident proteins can also be detected in the cytosol or nucleus, calreticulin (CRT being the most studied. Here we show that in Trypanosoma cruzi a minor fraction of CRT localized to the cytosol. ER calcium depletion, but not increasing cytosolic calcium, triggered the retrotranslocation of CRT in a relatively short period of time. Cytosolic CRT was subsequently degraded by the proteasome. Interestingly, the single disulfide bridge of CRT is reduced when the protein is located in the cytosol. The effect exerted by ER calcium was strictly dependent on the C-terminal domain (CRT-C, since a CRT lacking it was totally retained in the ER, whereas the localization of an unrelated protein fused to CRT-C mirrored that of endogenous CRT. This finding expands the regulatory mechanisms of protein sorting and may represent a new crossroad between diverse physiological processes.

  19. Islet Oxygen Consumption and Insulin Secretion Tightly Coupled to Calcium Derived from L-type Calcium Channels but Not from the Endoplasmic Reticulum*

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Merle; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Reed, Benjamin J.; Sweet, Ian R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether the source of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) is a determinant of beta cell function. We hypothesized that elevations in cytosolic Ca2+ caused by the release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) have little physiologic impact on oxygen consumption and insulin secretion. Ca2+ release from the ER was induced in isolated rat islets by acetylcholine and response of oxygen consumption rate (OCR), NAD(P)H, cytosolic Ca2+, and ...

  20. Calmodulin modulates the delay period between release of calcium from internal stores and activation of calcium influx via endogenous TRP1 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Luis; Sampieri, Alicia

    2002-11-01

    In the present study we have explored the role of calmodulin (CaM) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) in the communication process activated after the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the activation of calcium influx via endogenous TRP1 channels from Chinese hamster ovary cells. Experiments using combined rapid confocal calcium and electrophysiology measurements uncovered a consistent delay of around 900 ms between the first detectable calcium released from the ER and the activation of the calcium current. This delay was evident with two different methods used to release calcium from the ER: either the blockade of the microsomal calcium ATPase with thapsigargin or activation of bradykinin receptors linked to the IP(3) cascade. Direct application of IP(3) or a peptide from the NH(2)-terminal region of the IP(3)R activated store operated calcium, reducing the delay period. Introduction of CaM into the cell via the patch pipette increased the delay period from 900 +/- 100 ms to 10 +/- 2.1 s (n = 18). Furthermore, the use of selective CaM antagonists W7 and trifluoperazine maleate resulted in a substantial reduction of the delay period to 200 +/- 100 ms with 5 microm trifluoperazine maleate (n = 16) and 150 +/- 50 ms with 500 nm W7 (n = 22). CaM reduced also the current density activated by thapsigargin or brandykinin to about 60% from control. The CaM antagonists did not affect significantly the current density. The results presented here are consistent with an antagonistic effect of IP(3)R and CaM for the activation of store operated calcium after depletion of the ER. The functional competition between the activating effect of IP(3)R and the inhibiting effect of CaM may modulate the delay period between the release of calcium from the ER and the activation of calcium influx observed in different cells, as well as the amount of current activated after depletion of the ER.

  1. Stress Signal Network between Hypoxia and ER Stress in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Hiroshi; Inagi, Reiko

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by an irreversible decrease in kidney function and induction of various metabolic dysfunctions. Accumulated findings reveal that chronic hypoxic stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are involved in a range of pathogenic conditions, including the progression of CKD. Because of the presence of an arteriovenous oxygen shunt, the kidney is thought to be susceptible to hypoxia. Chronic kidney hypoxia is induced by a number of pathogenic conditions, including renal ischemia, reduced peritubular capillary, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The ER is an organelle which helps maintain the quality of proteins through the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, and ER dysfunction associated with maladaptive UPR activation is named ER stress. ER stress is reported to be related to some of the effects of pathogenesis in kidney, particularly in the podocyte slit diaphragm and tubulointerstitium. Furthermore, chronic hypoxia mediates ER stress in blood vessel endothelial cells and tubulointerstitium via several mechanisms, including oxidative stress, epigenetic alteration, lipid metabolism, and the AKT pathway. In summary, a growing consensus considers that these stresses interact via complicated stress signal networks, which leads to the exacerbation of CKD (Figure 1). This stress signal network might be a target for interventions aimed at ameliorating CKD.

  2. Increased oxidative DNA damage seen in renal biopsies adjacent stones in patients with nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittikowit, Wipawee; Waiwijit, Uraiwan; Boonla, Chanchai; Ruangvejvorachai, Preecha; Pimratana, Chaowat; Predanon, Chagkrapan; Ratchanon, Supoj; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana

    2014-10-01

    Urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, is significantly higher in nephrolithiasis patients than in healthy individuals, indicating that these patients have higher degree of oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated 8-OHdG expression in renal biopsies of patients with nephrolithiasis and in renal tubular cells (HK-2 cells) exposed to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). We performed immunohistochemical staining for 8-OHdG in renal biopsies adjacent stones obtained from 28 patients with nephrolithiasis. Controls were noncancerous renal tissues from nephrectomies of patients with renal cancer. 8-OHdG was overexpressed in the nucleus of renal tubular cells in patients with nephrolithiasis compared with controls. Only one nephrolithiasis biopsy was negative for 8-OHdG, whereas in 19 cases 8-OHdG was highly expressed. The level of expression of 8-OHdG among patients with calcium oxalate (mostly mixed with calcium phosphate) and uric acid stones was not significantly different. Increased leukocyte infiltration was observed in renal tissues from patients with nephrolithiasis. Exposure of HK-2 cells to COM caused increased intracellular reactive oxygen species and nuclear expression of 8-OHdG. To our knowledge, this is the first report of increased 8-OHdG expression in renal tubular cells of patients with nephrolithiasis. In vitro, COM crystals were capable of inducing oxidative damage of DNA in the proximal renal tubular cells.

  3. Effect of Calcium Dobesilate on Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaocheng; LIU Xinming

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects and mechanisms of calcium dobesilate on renal lesions in experimental type 2 diabetic rats, dibetic rats were randomly divided into control group (group C) and experimental group (group D) treated with calcium dobesitate. The serum creatinine (Scr),protein kinase C (PKC), creatinine clearance (Ccr), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-βi),type Ⅳ collagen were compared among the groups after 24 weeks. The renal tissues were observed under light microscopy and electron microscopy. The results showed that after 24 weeks, Scr,PKC, TGF-β1 in group D were significantly lower than in group C, meanwhile, renal pathologic changes in group D were improved. Ccr had no difference between group C and group D. It was concluded that calcium dobesilate could ameliorate renal lesions in diabetic rats through inhibiting PKC and TGF-β1.

  4. Tank 241-ER-311, grab samples, ER311-98-1, ER311-98-2, ER311-98-3 analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-24

    This document is the final report for catch tank 241-ER-311 grab samples. Three grab samples ER311-98-1, ER311-98-2 and ER311-98-3 were taken from East riser of tank 241-ER-311 on August 4, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on August 4, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998)and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). No notification limits were exceeded.

  5. [Does the diuretic effect of calcium inhibitors play an important role in the hypertensive efficacy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Martin, A; Gil Extremera, B; Rubio Luengo, M A

    1995-04-08

    Calcium ions play an important role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Calcium antagonists, a group of first line drugs in the treatment of hypertension, reduce the intracellular content of calcium in vascular smooth muscle cells, and decrease the peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure. These drugs differ from other vasodilators in that they also have natriuretic effects; thus they can affect the kidney on three levels: Renal haemodynamics are affected by increased renal blood flow, and increased glomerular filtration rate. Changes in the renin-angiotensin system can decrease aldosterone secretion. Finally, they affect sodium management by acting directly on the renal tubule, increasing sodium excretion and inhibiting tubular reabsorption of this ion. The natriuretic effect of calcium antagonists is independent of the subject's sodium balance. The vasodilating action of these drugs is therefore accompanied by a natriuretic effect that makes satisfactory control of hypertension possible without placing the patient on a low-salt or salt-free diet.

  6. Anti-Fibrotic Effect of Losartan, an Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker, Is Mediated through Inhibition of ER Stress via Up-Regulation of SIRT1, Followed by Induction of HO-1 and Thioredoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyosang; Baek, Chung Hee; Lee, Raymond Bok; Chang, Jai Won; Yang, Won Seok; Lee, Sang Koo

    2017-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is increasingly identified as modulator of fibrosis. Losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, has been widely used as the first choice of treatment in chronic renal diseases. We postulated that anti-fibrotic effect of losartan is mediated through inhibition of ER stress via SIRT1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1) hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1)/thioredoxin pathway. Renal tubular cells, tunicamycin (TM)-induced ER stress, and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model were used. Expression of ER stress was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical stain. ER stress was induced by chemical ER stress inducer, tunicamycin, and non-chemical inducers such as TGF-β, angiotensin II, high glucose, and albumin. Losartan suppressed the TM-induced ER stress, as shown by inhibition of TM-induced expression of GRP78 (glucose related protein 78) and p-eIF2α (phosphospecific-eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α), through up-regulation of SIRT1 via HO-1 and thioredoxin. Losartan also suppressed the ER stress by non-chemical inducers. In both animal models, losartan reduced the tubular expression of GRP78, which were abolished by pretreatment with sirtinol (SIRT1 inhibitor). Sirtinol also blocked the inhibitory effect of losartan on the UUO-induced renal fibrosis. These findings provide new insights into renoprotective effects of losartan and suggest that SIRT1, HO-1, and thioredoxin may be potential pharmacological targets in kidney diseases under excessive ER stress condition. PMID:28146117

  7. Anti-Fibrotic Effect of Losartan, an Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker, Is Mediated through Inhibition of ER Stress via Up-Regulation of SIRT1, Followed by Induction of HO-1 and Thioredoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyosang Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is increasingly identified as modulator of fibrosis. Losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, has been widely used as the first choice of treatment in chronic renal diseases. We postulated that anti-fibrotic effect of losartan is mediated through inhibition of ER stress via SIRT1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1/thioredoxin pathway. Renal tubular cells, tunicamycin (TM-induced ER stress, and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO mouse model were used. Expression of ER stress was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical stain. ER stress was induced by chemical ER stress inducer, tunicamycin, and non-chemical inducers such as TGF-β, angiotensin II, high glucose, and albumin. Losartan suppressed the TM-induced ER stress, as shown by inhibition of TM-induced expression of GRP78 (glucose related protein 78 and p-eIF2α (phosphospecific-eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α, through up-regulation of SIRT1 via HO-1 and thioredoxin. Losartan also suppressed the ER stress by non-chemical inducers. In both animal models, losartan reduced the tubular expression of GRP78, which were abolished by pretreatment with sirtinol (SIRT1 inhibitor. Sirtinol also blocked the inhibitory effect of losartan on the UUO-induced renal fibrosis. These findings provide new insights into renoprotective effects of losartan and suggest that SIRT1, HO-1, and thioredoxin may be potential pharmacological targets in kidney diseases under excessive ER stress condition.

  8. Integumentary loss of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J Y; Margen, S; Calloway, D H; Costa, F M

    1979-08-01

    Integumentary calcium loss was studied in 16 healthy young men. The daily loss by the 16 ambulatory but relatively sedentary young men in 52 determinations of 6-day periods each was 8.7 +/- 1.9 mg/m2 per day (average 15.8 mg/man per day). The amount lost was not influenced by calcium intake (0.1 to 2.3 g/day). In contrast to urinary calcium excretion, which is directly related to protein intake, there was no significant change in integumentary calcium loss with varying protein intakes (1 to 96 g nitrogen per day). No compensatory relationship between urinary and integumentary calcium excretion was noted. During strenuous exercise calcium loss increased to an average of 25 mg in 40 min. There was no compensatory decrease in urinary excretion on the day of strenuous exercise. It was also noted that integumentary calcium loss was not affected by general calcium balance.

  9. Is the renal kallikrein-kinin system a factor that modulates hypercalciuria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Luis Negri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal tubular calcium reabsorption is one of the principal factors that determine serum calcium concentration and calcium excretion. Calcium excretion is regulated by the distal convoluted tubule and connecting tubule, where the epithelial calcium channel TRPV5 can be found, which limits the rate of transcellular calcium transport. The dynamic presence of the TRPV5 channel on the surface of the tubular cell is mediated by an endosomal recycling process. Different intrarenal factors are involved in calcium channel fixation in the apical membrane, including the anti-ageing hormone klotho and tissue kallikrein (TK. Both proteins are synthesised in the distal tubule and secreted in the tubular fluid. TK stimulates active calcium reabsorption through the bradykinin receptor B2 that compromises TRPV5 activation through the protein kinase C pathway. TK-deficient mice show hypercalciuria of renal origin comparable to that seen in TRPV5 knockout mice. There is a polymorphism with loss of function of the human TK gene R53H (allele H that causes a marked decrease in enzymatic activity. The presence of the allele H seems to be common at least in the Japanese population (24%. These individuals have a tendency to greater calcium and sodium excretion in urine that is more evident during furosemide infusion. Future studies should analyse if manipulating the renal kallikrein-kinin system can correct idiopathic hypercalciuria with drugs other than thiazide diuretics.

  10. Rational application of antihypertensive calcium channel blockers in renal diseases%钙离子拮抗剂类降压药在肾脏病中的合理应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟铭; 徐丽梨

    2014-01-01

    中国人群高血压发病率较高,其中继发性高血压第一位的病因就是慢性肾脏病(CKD)。对于CKD高血压患者首选血管紧张素转换酶抑制剂(ACEI)或血管紧张素II 受体拮抗剂(ARB)类药物,而单药治疗往往血压控制不佳,需联合其它降压药物治疗。钙离子拮抗剂(CCB)是一线降压药物,既往考虑其对肾脏副作用而较少应用于CKD患者。随着研究进展及新型制剂的研发, CCB类药物在CKD高血压治疗中亦有一定地位及优势,合理的应用可改善肾脏病预后,给患者带来益处。%The incidence of hypertension is high in the Chinese population.And the first cause of secondary hypertension is chronic kidney disease (CKD).To control the hypertension in CKD patients, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)is the first choice. However,as single drug use of ACEI or ARB does not have satisfactory effect in controlling the hypertension of CKD patients,combination of other antihypertensive drugs is usually needed.Calcium channel blockers (CCB)are first-line antihypertensive drugs,but were less used in CKD patients previously due to their adverse effects.With the research progress and the development of new preparations,CCB have their certain places and advantages in treatment of hypertension patients with CKD.Rational application of CCB can improve prognosis of the kidney so as to benefit the patients.

  11. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  12. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  13. Evaluation of Er:YAG laser radiation cavity preparation under transmitted and polarized light and by electron microanalyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Krejsa, Otakar; Rokytova, Kveta; Jelinkova, Helena; Hamal, Karel

    1993-12-01

    The results of evaluation of Er:YAG radiation cavity preparation under transmitted and polarized light and by the electron microanalyzer are presented. We examined the longitudinal sections of intact teeth, teeth with early dental caries, teeth with laser preparation in enamel and teeth with Er:YAG laser preparation in enamel and dentine class I and V. We examined intact teeth and laser prepared teeth for the variation of mineralization. Phosphorus and calcium were regularly distributed. The margins of cavities had no necrosis zones. The defects of mineralization in caries depend on demineralization of hard tissues. In the structures was irregular loss of calcium and phosphorus. Thus, Er:YAG laser irradiation with water cooling has been found to be a non-invasive preparation technique.

  14. Calcium - Function and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Jianfen; He, Yifan; Gao, Qian; Wang, Xuan; Nout, M.J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the primary food source for more than half of the world population. Levels of calcium contents and inhibitor - phytic acid are summarized in this chapter. Phytic acid has a very strong chelating ability and it is the main inhibit factor for calcium in rice products. Calcium contents in br

  15. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of cardiop

  16. Selective photothermal ablation of tissue with a fiber-delivered Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Mark C.; Dickinson, Mark R.; Devlin, Hugh

    1999-06-01

    The feasibility of using laser-induced photoemission signals to distinguish between hard and soft biological tissues during photothermal ablation with a pulsed Er:YAG laser has been investigated. Time-resolved emission spectroscopy indicated a threshold fluence of approximately 35 J/cm2 to regularly initiate photoemission from dental enamel, while no emission was detected from porcine muscle tissue with incident laser fluences of up to approximately 140 J/cm2. The delay time of an emission signal with respect to the incident, ablative Er:YAG laser pulse was found to decrease from approximately 150 microseconds near the emission threshold fluence to approximately 60 microseconds at the highest fluence level used. Optical multichannel analyzer spectroscopy of Er:YAG irradiated enamel demonstrated that photoemissions typically consisted of a broad, continuous background in the visible region, with superimposed peaks arising from the presence of elements including calcium, characteristic of plasma emission either from the sample surface or emission plume.

  17. Hvor frit er egentlig frit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierød, Lea Maria; Spang-Hanssen, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    for en fuldstændig metronomisk tilgang, og at gennemsnittet af deres selvkontrollerede rubato lå så højt som 36%. Til sidst i artiklen viser stikprøver, foretaget hos Bartók og Debussy, at dette tal sandsynligvis er realistisk eller endog lavt målt med virkelighedens verden. This article examines whether...... of their self-controlled rubato was as high as 36%. Finally the article shows, through samples made on Bartók’s and Debussy’s playing, that this number probably is realistic or even low compared to the real world....

  18. 慢性肾功能衰竭患者血清 FGF-23、血钙及血磷水平对左心功能的影响%Effect of FGF-23,serum calcium and phosphorus levels of patients with chronic renal failure on the left ventricular function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鹏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of FGF-23,serum calcium and phosphorus levels of patients with chronic renal failure on the left ventricular function. Methods From June 2012 to June 2015,148 patients with chronic renal failure were selected randomly,and divided into dialysis group with 88 cases and non-dialysis group with 60 cases. The differences of biochemical indicators and left heart function indicators between the two groups were compared. Then all patients were divided into four levels based on the serum level of FGF-23 by the quartile method,the difference of left cardiac function indicators between the four levels were compared,and the correlation between serum FGF-23 and cardiac function was investigated. Results FGF-23 of dialysis group was(199. 9 ± 60. 2)pg / ml,serum calcium was(2. 2 ± 0. 2)mmol/ L,serum phosphorus was(2. 5 ± 0. 7)mmol/ L,in comparation with non-dialysis group,the differences were significant(P < 0. 05). The difference of LVEF,MPI,LVH between 4 levels patients showed significant difference(P < 0. 05). There were significant negative correlation of serum FGF-23 with LVEF(r = - 0. 623,P < 0. 05),and positive correlation of serum FGF-23 with MPI(r =0. 503,P < 0. 05). Conclusions FGF-23,serum calcium and phosphorus levels of patients with chron-ic renal failure has remarkable effects on LVEF,MPI and LVH,and has effect on the left ventricular function.%目的:探讨慢性肾功能衰竭(CRF)患者血清成纤维细胞生长因子-23(FGF-23)、血钙及血磷水平对左心功能的影响。方法随机选择2012年6月至2015年6月慢性肾功能衰竭患者148例,分为透析组88例和非透析组60例,比较两组间各生化指标及左心功能指标的差异,按四分位数法将所有患者血清 FGF-23水平分为4个等级,比较各等级间心功能指标的差异,分析血清 FGF-23与心功能间的相关性。结果透析组 FGF-23[(199.9±60.2)pg/ ml]、血钙[(2.2±0.2)mmol/ L]、血磷[(2.5±0

  19. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain proper fluid ... marrow and strengthen the bones. The term kidney (renal) failure describes a situation in which the kidneys have ...

  20. Renal arteries (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. The test is performed ... main vessel of the pelvis, up to the renal artery that leads into the kidney. Contrast medium ...

  1. Acute ER stress regulates amyloid precursor protein processing through ubiquitin-dependent degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun Sun; Hong, HyunSeok; Kim, Chaeyoung; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2015-03-05

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ), a major pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavage by β-secretase and γ-secretase enzymes. APP is an integral membrane protein, and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of AD; however, the biological function of APP is still unclear. The present study shows that APP is rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in the CHO cell line in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, such as calcium ionophore, A23187, induced calcium influx. Increased levels of intracellular calcium by A23187 induces polyubiquitination of APP, causing its degradation. A23187-induced reduction of APP is prevented by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Furthermore, an increase in levels of the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) marker, E3 ubiquitin ligase HRD1, proteasome activity, and decreased levels of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP25 were observed during ER stress. In addition, we found that APP interacts with USP25. These findings suggest that acute ER stress induces degradation of full-length APP via the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway.

  2. Mefloquine-Induced Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis in Mammalian Cells Is Similar to That Induced by Ionomycin▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridha, D.; Yourick, D.; Cabezas, M.; Wolf, L.; Hudson, T. H.; Dow, G. S.

    2008-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that mefloquine disrupts calcium homeostasis in neurons by depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores, followed by an influx of external calcium across the plasma membrane. In this study, we explore two hypotheses concerning the mechanism(s) of action of mefloquine. First, we investigated the possibility that mefloquine activates non-N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors and the inositol phosphate 3 (IP3) signaling cascade leading to ER calcium release. Second, we compared the disruptive effects of mefloquine on calcium homeostasis to those of ionomycin in neuronal and nonneuronal cells. Ionomycin is known to discharge the ER calcium store (through an undefined mechanism), which induces capacitative calcium entry (CCE). In radioligand binding assays, mefloquine showed no affinity for the known binding sites of several glutamate receptor subtypes. The pattern of neuroprotection induced by a panel of glutamate receptor antagonists was dissimilar to that of mefloquine. Both mefloquine and ionomycin exhibited dose-related and qualitatively similar disruptions of calcium homeostasis in both neurons and macrophages. The influx of external calcium was blocked by the inhibitors of CCE in a dose-related fashion. Both mefloquine and ionomycin upregulated the IP3 pathway in a manner that we interpret to be secondary to CCE. Collectively, these data suggest that mefloquine does not activate glutamate receptors and that it disrupts calcium homeostasis in mammalian cells in a manner similar to that of ionomycin. PMID:17999964

  3. Calcium pathway machinery at fertilization in echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Isabela; Wessel, Gary M

    2013-01-01

    Calcium signaling in cells directs diverse physiological processes. The calcium waves triggered by fertilization is a highly conserved calcium signaling event essential for egg activation, and has been documented in every egg tested. This activity is one of the few highly conserved events of egg activation through the course of evolution. Echinoderm eggs, as well as many other cell types, have three main intracellular Ca(2+) mobilizing messengers - IP3, cADPR and NAADP. Both cADPR and NAADP were identified as Ca(2+) mobilizing messengers using the sea urchin egg homogenate, and this experimental system, along with the intact urchin and starfish oocyte/egg, continues to be a vital tool for investigating the mechanism of action of calcium signals. While many of the major regulatory steps of the IP3 pathway are well resolved, both cADPR and NAADP remain understudied in terms of our understanding of the fundamental process of egg activation at fertilization. Recently, NAADP has been shown to trigger Ca(2+) release from acidic vesicles, separately from the ER, and a new class of calcium channels, the two-pore channels (TPCs), was identified as the likely targets for this messenger. Moreover, it was found that both cADPR and NAADP can be synthesized by the same family of enzymes, the ADP-rybosyl cyclases (ARCs). In this context of increasing amount of information, the potential coupling and functional roles of different messengers, intracellular stores and channels in the formation of the fertilization calcium wave in echinoderms will be critically evaluated.

  4. Renal-Stone Risk Assessment During Space Shuttle Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Pak, Charles Y. C.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. 24-hr urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation ratios of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. Food and fluid consumption was recorded for a 48-hr period ending with the urine collection. Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of stone-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. The importance of the hypercalciuria was noted since renal excretion was high relative to the intake.

  5. No apparent role for T-type Ca²⁺ channels in renal autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Rasmus Hassing; Salomonsson, Max; Hansen, Pernille B L; Jensen, Lars J; Braunstein, Thomas Hartig; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Sorensen, Charlotte Mehlin

    2016-04-01

    Renal autoregulation protects glomerular capillaries against increases in renal perfusion pressure (RPP). In the mesentery, both L- and T-type calcium channels are involved in autoregulation. L-type calcium channels participate in renal autoregulation, but the role of T-type channels is not fully elucidated due to lack of selective pharmacological inhibitors. The role of T- and L-type calcium channels in the response to acute increases in RPP in T-type channel knockout mice (CaV3.1) and normo- and hypertensive rats was examined. Changes in afferent arteriolar diameter in the kidneys from wild-type and CaV3.1 knockout mice were assessed. Autoregulation of renal blood flow was examined during acute increases in RPP in normo- and hypertensive rats under pharmacological blockade of T- and L-type calcium channels using mibefradil (0.1 μM) and nifedipine (1 μM). In contrast to the results from previous pharmacological studies, genetic deletion of T-type channels CaV3.1 did not affect renal autoregulation. Pharmacological blockade of T-type channels using concentrations of mibefradil which specifically blocks T-type channels also had no effect in wild-type or knockout mice. Blockade of L-type channels significantly attenuated renal autoregulation in both strains. These findings are supported by in vivo studies where blockade of T-type channels had no effect on changes in the renal vascular resistance after acute increases in RPP in normo- and hypertensive rats. These findings show that genetic deletion of T-type channels CaV3.1 or treatment with low concentrations of mibefradil does not affect renal autoregulation. Thus, T-type calcium channels are not involved in renal autoregulation in response to acute increases in RPP.

  6. Calcium signaling and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2014-08-01

    Calcium signaling is involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Over the last decade, it has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in epileptogenesis, and it is becoming obvious that the excess synchronization of neurons that is characteristic for seizures can be linked to various calcium signaling pathways. These include immediate effects on membrane excitability by calcium influx through ion channels as well as delayed mechanisms that act through G-protein coupled pathways. Calcium signaling is able to cause hyperexcitability either by direct modulation of neuronal activity or indirectly through calcium-dependent gliotransmission. Furthermore, feedback mechanisms between mitochondrial calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species are able to cause neuronal cell death and seizures. Unravelling the complexity of calcium signaling in epileptogenesis is a daunting task, but it includes the promise to uncover formerly unknown targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

  7. ER Stress and Lipid Metabolism in Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth S. Zha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is a rapidly emerging field of interest in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Recent studies have shown that chronic activation of ER stress is closely linked to dysregulation of lipid metabolism in several metabolically important cells including hepatocytes, macrophages, β-cells, and adipocytes. Adipocytes are one of the major cell types involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Recent advances in dissecting the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism indicate that activation of ER stress plays a central role in regulating adipocyte function. In this paper, we discuss the current understanding of the potential role of ER stress in lipid metabolism in adipocytes. In addition, we touch upon the interaction of ER stress and autophagy as well as inflammation. Inhibition of ER stress has the potential of decreasing the pathology in adipose tissue that is seen with energy overbalance.

  8. Kronik: Diskussion om timetal er oldnordisk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed Hansen, Lone

    2012-01-01

    Det er ikke antallet af timer med mig, underviseren, der afgør, hvor meget en studerende lærer. Det afgørende er derimod, hvad jeg formår at anspore de studerende til at lære, mens de ikke er i samme lokale som mig, skriver kronikøren.......Det er ikke antallet af timer med mig, underviseren, der afgør, hvor meget en studerende lærer. Det afgørende er derimod, hvad jeg formår at anspore de studerende til at lære, mens de ikke er i samme lokale som mig, skriver kronikøren....

  9. En sang der er et overlevelsesudstyr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2015-01-01

    Fredmans Epistel N:o 81 er en af de Bellman-sange der oftest er blevet fortolket af sangere og grupper, og som synes at være blandt hans mest virkningsfulde. Hvad er dens virkning, og hvad beror den på? Læsningen her inddrager både ord og musik, lyd og tanke.......Fredmans Epistel N:o 81 er en af de Bellman-sange der oftest er blevet fortolket af sangere og grupper, og som synes at være blandt hans mest virkningsfulde. Hvad er dens virkning, og hvad beror den på? Læsningen her inddrager både ord og musik, lyd og tanke....

  10. [Renal leiomyoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Guessous, H; Rabii, R; Benjelloun, M; Benlemlih, A; Skali, K; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1999-01-01

    The authors report a case of renal leiomyoma observed in a 56-year-old man. This cyst presented in the from of loin pain. Computed tomography revealed a homogeneous renal tumor. Treatment consisted of radical nephrectomy. Histological examination of the specimen showed benign renal leiomyoma.

  11. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  12. Optimal fodring af goldkøer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2013-01-01

    Et forsøg har vist, at køer på lavt energiniveau i goldperioden var fysiologisk sundere og havde mindre risiko for at udvikle stofskiftesygdomme end køer på et højt energiniveau. Forsøget viste også, at køer på et normalt energiniveau i senlaktationen gav mere mælk i den efterfølgende laktation e...

  13. Fanggitter beskytter svage køer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    KvægInfo nr.: 1574  Dato: 13-02-2006  Forfatter: Peter Thomsen   Fanggitter beskytter svage køer Ny forskning dokumenterer, at foderbord med fanggitter giver færre aggressioner og beskytter de svage køer. Selvom køernes samlede ædetid er den samme i staldsystemer med henholdsvis fanggitter og...

  14. Atmosfære er kropslig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Det er hensigten i artiklen at vise, at begrebet atmosfære, som det er introduceret af den tyske filosof Gernot Böhme, kan fremstilles med udgangspunkt i en fænomenologisk teoridannelse, som understreger, at det væsentlige i dette perspektiv er at diskutere og forstå sammenhængene mellem menneske...... og omgivelser og selvfølgelig også sammenhængene mellem mennesker indbyrdes. Det er tit i disse relationer, at atmosfære opstår og udvikles....

  15. Optimal fodring af goldkøer

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2013-01-01

    Et forsøg har vist, at køer på lavt energiniveau i goldperioden var fysiologisk sundere og havde mindre risiko for at udvikle stofskiftesygdomme end køer på et højt energiniveau. Forsøget viste også, at køer på et normalt energiniveau i senlaktationen gav mere mælk i den efterfølgende laktation end køer, der fik reduceret foderets energiniveau i senlaktationen.

  16. Geometric calibration of ERS satellite SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    2001-01-01

    Geometric calibration of the European Remote Sensing (ERS) Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) slant range images is important in relation to mapping areas without ground reference points and also in relation to automated processing. The relevant SAR system parameters are discussed...... on a seven-year ERS-1 and a four-year ERS-2 time series, the long term stability is found to be sufficient to allow a single calibration covering the entire mission period. A descending and an ascending orbit tandem pair of the ESA calibration site on Flevoland, suitable for calibration of ERS SAR processors...

  17. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Jeekeeree, Wanpen [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Phopueng, Ittipol [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2015-01-15

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children.

  18. Minimising Immunohistochemical False Negative ER Classification Using a Complementary 23 Gene Expression Signature of ER Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiyuan; Eklund, Aron Charles; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul;

    2010-01-01

    subtypes as compared to IHC-based determination has not been systematically evaluated. Here we attempt to reduce the frequency of false negative ER status classification using two gene expression approaches and compare these methods to IHC based ER status in terms of predictive and prognostic concordance......BACKGROUND: Expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER) in breast cancer predicts benefit from endocrine therapy. Minimising the frequency of false negative ER status classification is essential to identify all patients with ER positive breast cancers who should be offered endocrine therapies...... in order to improve clinical outcome. In routine oncological practice ER status is determined by semi-quantitative methods such as immunohistochemistry (IHC) or other immunoassays in which the ER expression level is compared to an empirical threshold. The clinical relevance of gene expression-based ER...

  19. Postpartum renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, D; Sterns, R H; Segal, A J

    1985-01-01

    Renal vein thrombosis in adults is usually a complication of the nephrotic syndrome. Rarely, it has been reported in nonnephrotic women postpartum. The thrombosis may be a complication of the hypercoagulable state associated with both the nephrotic syndrome and pregnancy. Two postpartum patients with renal vein thrombosis and no prior history of renal disease are reported here. Neither patient had heavy proteinuria. In both cases, pyelonephritis was suspected clinically and the diagnosis of renal vein thrombosis was first suggested and confirmed by radiologic examination. Renal vein thrombosis should be considered in women presenting postpartum with flank pain.

  20. Aromatase deficiency causes altered expression of molecules critical for calcium reabsorption in the kidneys of female mice *.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oz, O.K.; Hajibeigi, A.; Howard, K.; Cummins, C.L.; Abel, M. van; Bindels, R.J.M.; Word, R.A.; Kuro-o, M.; Pak, C.Y.; Zerwekh, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Kidney stones increase after menopause, suggesting a role for estrogen deficiency. ArKO mice have hypercalciuria and lower levels of calcium transport proteins, whereas levels of the klotho protein are elevated. Thus, estrogen deficiency is sufficient to cause altered renal calcium handling. INTRODU

  1. Renal infarction resulting from traumatic renal artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Kim, Won; Jin, Gong Yong; Na, Ki Ryang; Yun, Il Yong; Park, Sung Kwang

    2008-06-01

    Renal artery dissection may be caused by iatrogenic injury, trauma, underlying arterial diseases such as fibromuscular disease, atherosclerotic disease, or connective tissue disease. Radiological imaging may be helpful in detecting renal artery pathology, such as renal artery dissection. For patients with acute, isolated renal artery dissection, surgical treatment, endovascular management, or medical treatment have been considered effective measures to preserve renal function. We report a case of renal infarction that came about as a consequence of renal artery dissection.

  2. Hva er det med Irma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Beate Reinertsen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article is about formative quality assessment in a posthuman or newmaterial perspective; embodied knowledges.  Theory and method are written together in immanence to envision complexity.  The aim and scope of the article is to follow the flow of events Irma produces opening up for affirmative poetical critique praxis. Quality is forwarded as an intensity and force in a moment only.  The moment is therefore the only structure of the text, as moving quality. The intention and inner logic of the text is therefore designed to work against fixed definitions and conceptualizations of what quality and quality assessment is.  This way I hope to show what posthuman and newmaterial approaches can contribute with to build cultures of innovation in which quality is assessed and produces again and again. They put differences to work and open up for creating moments of educational justice. Sammendrag: Artikkelen handler om kvalitetsvurdering i et nymaterielt perspektiv: Kroppslig kunnskap og viten. Teori og metode skrives sammen i immanent samtidighet for å gi et bilde på kompleksitet. Både hensikt og mål med artikkelen er å følge den flyten som Irma som hendelse eller event produserer, for å åpne opp potensialitet for en bekreftende eller affirmativ poetiserende kritikkpraksis og en ny forståelse av- og vurdering for kvalitet. Kvalitet skrives fram som en hendelse, intensitet eller kraft i et øyeblikk. Øyeblikket er derfor tekstens eneste og bærende struktur, som kvalitet i bevegelse. Tekstens indre logikk har slik til hensikt å motvirke forsøk på å skape definerte, faste eller bestemte oppfatninger av hva kvalitet er og hvordan kvalitet kan vurderes. På denne måten håper jeg å vise hva nymaterielle perspektiver kan gjøre for å bygge kulturer for innovasjon hvor kvalitet vurderes og produseres igjen og igjen. De setter forskjellighet i bevegelse og åpner opp for å skape rettferdige utdanningsøyeblikk.

  3. Dietary calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulate transcription of calcium transporter genes in calbindin-D9k knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Geun-Shik; Vo, Thuy T B; Jung, Eui-Man; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Cheung, Ki-Wha; Kim, Jae Wha; Park, Jong-Gil; Oh, Goo Taeg; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2009-04-01

    The effect(s) of oral calcium and vitamin D(3) were examined on the expression of duodenal and renal active calcium transport genes, i.e., calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) and calbindin-D28k (CaBP-28k), transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPV5 and TRPV6), Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) and plasma membrane calcium ATPase 1b (PMCA1b), in CaBP-9k KO mice. Wild-type (WT) and KO mice were provided with calcium and vitamin D(3)-deficient diets for 10 weeks. The deficient diet significantly decreased body weights compared with the normal diet groups. The serum calcium concentration of the WT mice was decreased by the deficient diet but was unchanged in the KO mice. The deficient diet significantly increased duodenal transcription of CaBP-9k and TRPV6 in the WT mice, but no alteration was observed in the KO mice. In the kidney, the deficient diet significantly increased renal transcripts of CaBP-9k, TRPV6, PMCA1b, CaBP-28k and TRPV5 in the WT mice but did not alter calcium-relating genes in the KO mice. Two potential mediators of calcium-processing genes, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR), have been suggested to be useful for elucidating these differential regulations in the calcium-related genes of the KO mice. Expression of VDR was not significantly affected by diet or the KO mutation. Renal PTHR mRNA levels were reduced by the diet, and reduced expression was also seen in the KO mice given the normal diet. Taken together, these results suggest that the active calcium transporting genes in KO mice may have resistance to the deficiency diet of calcium and vitamin D(3).

  4. Ungdomslitteratur former(er) sig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Ayoe Qvist

    2016-01-01

    Igennem en 'mediesensitiv' analyse af romanen "Akavet" af Ronnie Andersen (2014) og perspektivering til andre aktuelle romaner for og med unge undersøger artiklen, hvordan ungdomslitteratur udvikler sig i dialog med digitale og mediebaserede impulser, og hvilke konsekvenser for udsigelserne om...... ungdomsliv og ungdomslitteraturens æstetik og mulige egenart, denne udvikling har. Artiklen baserer sig på en materialitetstilgang særligt inspireret af N. Katherine Hayles, som ikke tidligere har fået opmærksomhed i læsninger af ungdomslitteratur eller i diskussioner af ungdomslitteraturens mulige egenart......, at ungdomslitteratur drejer sig om unges udviklingsproces fra barndom og til voksenhed og dermed skildrer en overgang præget af linearitet, modning og vækst. Artiklen konkluderer, at der er ungdomslitteratur, der realiseres på andre præmisser, og Akavet kan ses som eksponent for en bevægelse fra ungdomslitteratur som...

  5. Reduction of calcium flux from the extracellular region and endoplasmic reticulum by amorphous nano-silica particles owing to carboxy group addition on their surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Onodera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that amorphous nano-silica particles (nano-SPs modulate calcium flux, although the mechanism remains incompletely understood. We thus analyzed the relationship between calcium flux and particle surface properties and determined the calcium flux route. Treatment of Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts with nano-SPs with a diameter of 70 nm (nSP70 increased cytosolic calcium concentration, but that with SPs with a diameter of 300 or 1000 nm did not. Surface modification of nSP70 with a carboxy group also did not modulate calcium flux. Pretreatment with a general calcium entry blocker almost completely suppressed calcium flux by nSP70. Preconditioning by emptying the endoplasmic reticulum (ER calcium stores slightly suppressed calcium flux by nSP70. These results indicate that nSP70 mainly modulates calcium flux across plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent activation of the ER calcium pump, and that the potential of calcium flux by nano-SPs is determined by the particle surface charge.

  6. Salidroside Protects Against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Cytotoxicity by Attenuating ER Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kai; Wang, Bao; Feng, Dayun; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Fangfang; Lai, Juan; Huang, Lu; Nie, Tiejian; Yang, Qian

    2016-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a persistent decline of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Despite its frequency, effective therapeutic strategies that halt the neurodegenerative processes are lacking, reinforcing the need to better understand the molecular drivers of this disease. Importantly, increasing evidence suggests that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response is likely involved in DA neuronal death. Salidroside, a major compound isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., possesses potent anti-oxidative stress properties and protects against DA neuronal death. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that salidroside prevents 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cytotoxicity by attenuating ER stress. Furthermore, treatment of a DA neuronal cell line (SN4741) and primary cortical neurons with salidroside significantly reduced neurotoxin-induced increases in cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species and calcium, both of which cause ER stress, and cleaved caspase-12, which is responsible for ER stress-induced cell death. Together, these results suggest that salidroside protects SN4741 cells and primary cortical neurons from 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by attenuating ER stress. This provides a rationale for the investigation of salidroside as a potential therapeutic agent in animal models of PD.

  7. JNK interaction with Sab mediates ER stress induced inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, S; Than, T A; Fernandez-Checa, J C; Kaplowitz, N

    2014-01-09

    Our aim was to better understand the mechanism and importance of sustained c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and effects of ER stress on mitochondria by determining the role of mitochondrial JNK binding protein, Sab. Tunicamycin or brefeldin A induced a rapid and marked decline in basal mitochondrial respiration and reserve-capacity followed by delayed mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Knockdown of mitochondrial Sab prevented ER stress-induced sustained JNK activation, impaired respiration, and apoptosis, but did not alter the magnitude or time course of activation of ER stress pathways. P-JNK plus adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) added to isolated liver mitochondria promoted superoxide production, which was amplified by addition of calcium and inhibited by a blocking peptide corresponding to the JNK binding site on Sab (KIM1). This peptide also blocked tunicamycin-induced inhibition of cellular respiration. In conclusion, ER stress triggers an interaction of JNK with mitochondrial Sab, which leads to impaired respiration and increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, sustaining JNK activation culminating in apoptosis.

  8. Chemical Changes Associated with Increased Acid Resistance of Er:YAG Laser Irradiated Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Manuela Díaz-Monroy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. An increase in the acid resistance of dental enamel, as well as morphological and structural changes produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation, has been reported. Purpose. To evaluate the chemical changes associated with acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser. Methods. Forty-eight enamel samples were divided into 4 groups (n=12. Group I (control; Groups II, III, and IV were irradiated with Er:YAG at 100 mJ (12.7 J/cm2, 200 mJ (25.5 J/cm2, and 300 mJ (38.2 J/cm2, respectively. Results. There were significant differences in composition of irradiated groups (with the exception of chlorine and in the amount of calcium released. Conclusions. Chemical changes associated with an increase in acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser showed a clear postirradiation pattern characterized by a decrease in C at.% and an increase in O, P, and Ca at.% and no changes in Cl at.%. An increased Ca/P ratio after Er:YAG laser irradiation was associated with the use of higher laser energy densities. Chemical changes produced by acid dissolution showed a similar trend among experimental groups. Stable or increased Ca/P ratio after acid dissolution was observed in the irradiated groups, with reduction of Ca released into the acid solution.

  9. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  10. Subcutis calcinosis caused by injection of calcium-containing heparin in a chronic kidney injury patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Ben Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcutis calcinosis, characterized by abnormal calcium deposits in the skin, is a rare complication of using calcium-containing heparin occurring in patients with advanced renal failure. We report the case of an 83-year-old female, a known case of chronic kidney disease (CKD for four years with recent worsening of renal failure requiring hospitalization and hemodialysis. She developed subcutis calcinosis following injection of calcium-containing heparin. Biochemical tests showed serum parathormone level at 400 pg/dL, hypercalcemia, elevated calcium-phosphate product and monoclonal gammopathy related to multiple myeloma. She developed firm subcu-taneous nodules in the abdomen and the thighs, the injection sites of Calciparin ® (calcium nadroparin that was given as a preventive measure against deep vein thrombosis. The diagnosis of subcutis calcinosis was confirmed by the histological examination showing calcium deposit in the dermis and hypodermis. These lesions completely disappeared after discontinuing calcium nadro-parin injections. Subcutis calcinosis caused by injections of calcium-containing heparin is rare, and, to the best our knowledge, not more than 12 cases have been reported in the literature. Pathogenesis is not well established but is attributed to the calcium disorders usually seen in advanced renal failure. Diagnosis is confirmed by histological tests. Outcome is mostly favorable. The main differential diagnosis is calciphylaxis, which has a poor prognosis. Even though rarely reported, we should be aware that CKD patients with elevated calcium-phosphorus product can develop subcutis calcinosis induced by calcium-containing heparin. When it occurs, fortunately and unlike calci-phylaxis, outcome is favorable.

  11. Subcutis calcinosis caused by injection of calcium-containing heparin in a chronic kidney injury patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatma, Lilia Ben; El Ati, Zohra; Azzouz, Haifa; Rais, Lamia; Krid, Madiha; Smaoui, Wided; Maiz, Hédi Ben; Béji, Soumaya; Zouaghi, Karim; Zitouna, Moncef; Moussa, Fatma Ben

    2014-09-01

    Subcutis calcinosis, characterized by abnormal calcium deposits in the skin, is a rare complication of using calcium-containing heparin occurring in patients with advanced renal failure. We report the case of an 83-year-old female, a known case of chronic kidney disease (CKD) for four years with recent worsening of renal failure requiring hospitalization and hemodialysis. She developed subcutis calcinosis following injection of calcium-containing heparin. Biochemical tests showed serum parathormone level at 400 pg/dL, hypercalcemia, elevated calcium-phosphate product and monoclonal gammopathy related to multiple myeloma. She developed firm subcutaneous nodules in the abdomen and the thighs, the injection sites of Calciparin ® (calcium nadroparin) that was given as a preventive measure against deep vein thrombosis. The diagnosis of subcutis calcinosis was confirmed by the histological examination showing calcium deposit in the dermis and hypodermis. These lesions completely disappeared after discontinuing calcium nadroparin injections. Subcutis calcinosis caused by injections of calcium-containing heparin is rare, and, to the best our knowledge, not more than 12 cases have been reported in the literature. Pathogenesis is not well established but is attributed to the calcium disorders usually seen in advanced renal failure. Diagnosis is confirmed by histological tests. Outcome is mostly favorable. The main differential diagnosis is calciphylaxis, which has a poor prognosis. Even though rarely reported, we should be aware that CKD patients with elevated calcium-phosphorus product can develop subcutis calcinosis induced by calcium-containing heparin. When it occurs, fortunately and unlike calciphylaxis, outcome is favorable.

  12. Calcium is important forus.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高利平

    2005-01-01

    Calcium is important for our health.We must have it in our diet to stay well.A good place to get it is from dairy products like milk, cheese and ice cream.One pound of cheese has fifty times the calcium we should have every day.Other foods have less.For example,a pound of beans also has calcium.But it has only three times the amount we ought to have daily.

  13. Retrospective review of bone mineral metabolism management in end-stage renal disease patients wait-listed for renal transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavlovski A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Anna Chavlovski,1 Greg A Knoll,1–3 Timothy Ramsay,4 Swapnil Hiremath,1–3 Deborah L Zimmerman1–31University of Ottawa, 2Ottawa Hospital, 3Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 4Ottawa Methods Centre, Ottawa, ON, CanadaBackground: In patients with end-stage renal disease, use of vitamin D and calcium-based phosphate binders have been associated with progression of vascular calcification that might have an impact on renal transplant candidacy. Our objective was to examine management of mineral metabolism in patients wait-listed for renal transplant and to determine the impact on cardiac perfusion imaging.Methods: Data was collected retrospectively on patients wait-listed for a renal transplant (n = 105, being either active (n = 73 and on hold (n = 32. Demographic data, medications, serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and cardiac perfusion imaging studies were collected from the electronic health record. Chi-square and Student’s t-tests were used to compare active and on-hold patients as appropriate. Logistic regression was used to examine variables associated with worsening cardiac imaging studies.Results: The wait-listed patients were of mean age 56 ± 14 years and had been on dialysis for 1329 ± 867 days. On-hold patients had received a significantly greater total dose of calcium (2.35 ± .94 kg versus 1.49 ± 1.52 kg; P = 0.02 and were more likely to have developed worsening cardiovascular imaging studies (P = 0.03. Total doses of calcium and calcitriol were associated with worsening cardiovascular imaging studies (P = 0.05.Conclusion: Patients on hold on the renal transplant waiting list received higher total doses of calcium. A higher total dose of calcium and calcitriol was also associated with worsening cardiovascular imaging. Time on dialysis before transplant has been associated with worse post-transplant outcomes, and it is possible that the total calcium and calcitriol dose

  14. Er der en underviser til stede?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, René Boyer; Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Rosenlund, Lea Tilde

    2015-01-01

    I de senere år er MOOC (Massive Open Online Courses) blevet en faktor på uddannelsesområdet. MOOC-forskning er et forholdsvist nyt felt, men har inden for de seneste 2-3 år udviklet sig med hastige skridt (Liyanagunawardena et al. 2013, Bayne & Ross 2014). En stor del af denne forskning har haft...

  15. Et kors er ikke bare et kors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach-Nielsen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Om et kors, der er rejst uden for den danske kirke i Bruxelles; formodentlig en afledning af det såkaldte Brabanterkors.......Om et kors, der er rejst uden for den danske kirke i Bruxelles; formodentlig en afledning af det såkaldte Brabanterkors....

  16. Multikulturalisme er en ny slags Apartheid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2016-01-01

    I en ny antologi retter forfatterne et kritisk lys mod forsvarerne af multikulturalisme. Og det er der god grund til, mener en af bogens redaktører. For den store gruppe, der hylder multikulturen, glemmer i al dens godhed, at de samtidig er med til at undergrave demokratiet og styrke uheldige mag...

  17. Multikulturalisme er en ny slags Apartheid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2016-01-01

    I en ny antologi retter forfatterne et kritisk lys mod forsvarerne af multikulturalisme. Og det er der god grund til, mener en af bogens redaktører. For den store gruppe, der hylder multikulturen, glemmer i al dens godhed, at de samtidig er med til at undergrave demokratiet og styrke uheldige mag...

  18. "Det man siger er man selv..."

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben; Nørgaard, Britta; Uddholm, Mats

    forhold, der er hermeneutisk, strukturelt og relationelt bestemt. Praksisviden kan ikke være objektiv i gængs forstand, men det behøver ikke at diskvalificere denne viden. Forståelse er altid knyttet til den sag og bundet til den situation man står overfor og i som professionel og som menneske....

  19. Når det bedste er godt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Arne; Abildgaard, Lone

    En portefølje er elevens eget udvalg af repræsentative arbejder, samlet gennem en periode og med henblik på vurdering. Det beskrives, hvordan porteføljer ikke kun er en evalueringsform, men også en læringsstrategi i folkeskolens dansk- og matematikundervisning....

  20. Er Skolen virkelig en Troes–Sag?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenvad, Carsten Michael

    2004-01-01

    Om Grundtvigs artikel "Er Troen virkelige en Skole-Sag" og Christen Kolds forståelse heraf, samt hvorledes denne blev implementeret i de frie skoler.......Om Grundtvigs artikel "Er Troen virkelige en Skole-Sag" og Christen Kolds forståelse heraf, samt hvorledes denne blev implementeret i de frie skoler....

  1. Hvorfor er Ernæringsdiagnosen vigtig?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition Care Process er en cirkulær firetrinsmodel for individuel eller gruppevis diætbehandling eller kostvejledning. Efter indsamling af oplysninger om klientens spisevaner bliver oplysningerne grupperet og analyseret, og der formuleres en syntese/ernæringsdiagnose. Ernæringsdiagnosen er en...

  2. Zzp'ers in de agrarische sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijff, van der A.

    2009-01-01

    Ook in de agrarische sector doet het verschijnsel zzp (zelfstandigen zonder personeel) zich steeds vaker voor en zou daar mogelijk zelfs een grote vlucht kunnen nemen. In dit artikel wordt uitleg gegeven over wat zzp'er zijn inhoudt en de voor- en andelen die een zzp'er ondervindt

  3. Coronavirus infection, ER stress and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TO SING eFUNG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The replication of coronavirus, a family of important animal and human pathogens, is closely associated with the cellular membrane compartments, especially the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Coronavirus infection of cultured cells was previously shown to cause ER stress and induce the unfolded protein response (UPR, a process that aims to restore the ER homeostasis by global translation shutdown and increasing the ER folding capacity. However under prolonged ER stress, UPR can also induce apoptotic cell death. Accumulating evidence from recent studies has shown that induction of ER stress and UPR may constitute a major aspect of coronavirus-host interaction. Activation of the three branches of UPR modulates a wide variety of signaling pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases activation, autophagy, apoptosis and innate immune response. ER stress and UPR activation may therefore contribute significantly to the viral replication and pathogenesis during coronavirus infection. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on coronavirus-induced ER stress and UPR activation, with emphasis on their cross-talking to apoptotic signaling.

  4. Refractory anemia leading to renal hemosiderosis and renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha Siddappa; K M Mythri; Kowsalya, R.; Ashish Parekh

    2011-01-01

    Renal hemosiderosis is a rare cause of renal failure and, as a result, may not be diagnosed unless a detailed history, careful interpretation of blood parameters and renal biopsy with special staining is done. Here, we present a rare case of renal hemosiderosis presenting with renal failure.

  5. Refractory anemia leading to renal hemosiderosis and renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Siddappa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal hemosiderosis is a rare cause of renal failure and, as a result, may not be diagnosed unless a detailed history, careful interpretation of blood parameters and renal biopsy with special staining is done. Here, we present a rare case of renal hemosiderosis presenting with renal failure.

  6. Drug administration in patients with renal insufficiency. Minimising renal and extrarenal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, G R; Frye, R F

    1997-03-01

    loading and use of pharmacological interventions [e.g. furosemide (frusemide) dopomine/dobutamine, calcium antagonists and mannitol] have resulted in limited success. The mechanisms responsible for altered dynamic responses of some agents (benzodiazepines, theophylline, digoxin and loop diuretics) in renally compromised patients include enhanced receptor sensitivity secondary to the accumulation of endogenous uraemic toxins and competition for secretion to the renal tubular site of action. Application of the pharmacotherapeutic principles discussed into clinical practice will hopefully enhance the safety of these agents and optimise patient outcomes.

  7. Role of Transport and Kinetics in Growth of Renal Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Iskovitz, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    Renal stone disease is not only a concern on earth but could conceivably pose as a serious risk to the astronauts health and safety in Space. In this paper, a combined transport-kinetics model for growth of calcium oxalate crystals is presented. The model is used to parametrically investigate the growth of renal calculi in urine with a focus on the coupled effects of transport and surface reaction on the ionic concentrations at the surface of the crystal and their impact on the resulting growth rates. It is shown that under nominal conditions of low solution supersaturation and low Damkohler number that typically exist on Earth, the surface concentrations of calcium and oxalate approach their bulk solution values in the urine and the growth rate is most likely limited by the surface reaction kinetics. But for higher solution supersaturations and larger Damkohler numbers that may be prevalent in the microgravity environment of Space, the calcium and oxalate surface concentrations tend to shift more towards their equilibrium or saturation values and thus the growth process may be limited by the transport through the medium. Furthermore, parametric numerical studies suggest that changes to the renal biochemistry of astronauts due in space may promote development of renal calculi during long duration space expeditions.

  8. Renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, E; Bouchard, J; Mehta, R L

    2009-09-01

    Renal replacement therapy became a common clinical tool to treat patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) since the 1960s. During this time dialytic options have expanded considerably; biocompatible membranes, bicarbonate dialysate and dialysis machines with volumetric ultrafiltration control have improved the treatment for acute kidney injury. Along with advances in methods of intermittent hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement therapies have gained widespread acceptance in the treatment of dialysis-requiring AKI. However, many of the fundamental aspects of the renal replacement treatment such as indication, timing of dialytic intervention, and choice of dialysis modality are still controversial and may influence AKI patient's outcomes. This review outlines current concepts in the use of dialysis techniques for AKI and suggests an approach for selecting the optimal method of renal replacement therapy.

  9. Minimising immunohistochemical false negative ER classification using a complementary 23 gene expression signature of ER status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyuan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER in breast cancer predicts benefit from endocrine therapy. Minimising the frequency of false negative ER status classification is essential to identify all patients with ER positive breast cancers who should be offered endocrine therapies in order to improve clinical outcome. In routine oncological practice ER status is determined by semi-quantitative methods such as immunohistochemistry (IHC or other immunoassays in which the ER expression level is compared to an empirical threshold. The clinical relevance of gene expression-based ER subtypes as compared to IHC-based determination has not been systematically evaluated. Here we attempt to reduce the frequency of false negative ER status classification using two gene expression approaches and compare these methods to IHC based ER status in terms of predictive and prognostic concordance with clinical outcome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Firstly, ER status was discriminated by fitting the bimodal expression of ESR1 to a mixed Gaussian model. The discriminative power of ESR1 suggested bimodal expression as an efficient way to stratify breast cancer; therefore we identified a set of genes whose expression was both strongly bimodal, mimicking ESR expression status, and highly expressed in breast epithelial cell lines, to derive a 23-gene ER expression signature-based classifier. We assessed our classifiers in seven published breast cancer cohorts by comparing the gene expression-based ER status to IHC-based ER status as a predictor of clinical outcome in both untreated and tamoxifen treated cohorts. In untreated breast cancer cohorts, the 23 gene signature-based ER status provided significantly improved prognostic power compared to IHC-based ER status (P = 0.006. In tamoxifen-treated cohorts, the 23 gene ER expression signature predicted clinical outcome (HR = 2.20, P = 0.00035. These complementary ER signature-based strategies

  10. Renal function after renal artery stenting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George S. Hanzel; Mark Downes; Peter A. McCullough

    2005-01-01

    @@ Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS), a common clinical finding, is increasing in prevalence as the population ages. ARAS is seen in ~ 7% of persons over 65 years of age1 and in ~ 20% of patients at the time of coronary angiography.2 It is an important cause of chronic kidney disease and may result in 11-14% of cases of end stage renal disease.3

  11. Barnidipine, a long-acting slow onset calcium antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korstanje, C

    2000-11-01

    Barnidipine is a stereochemically pure dihydropyridine calcium antagonist with a high potency. The drug showed a slow onset and long-lasting vasorelaxating effect in vitro, and strong antihypertensive activity in hypertension models. Barnidipine was shown to have a high vasoselectivity and offered protection in cardiac and renal ischaemia models. The in vitro drug:drug interaction profile suggests a low potential for clinically relevant interactions with concomitant medication. It can be anticipated that barnidipine is an attractive calcium antagonist, offering good blood pressure control without compensatory baroreflex activity.

  12. Nephrolithiasis-induced end stage renal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounissi, M; Gargueh, T; Mahfoudhi, M; Boubaker, K; Hedri, H; Goucha, R; Abderrahim, E; Ben Hamida, F; Ben Abdallah, T; El Younsi, F; Ben Maiz, H; Kheder, A

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Nephrolithiasis still remains a too frequent and underappreciated cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods and patients: Of the entire cohort of 7128 consecutive patients who started maintenance dialysis in our nephrology department between January 1992 and December 2006, a total of 45 patients (26 women, 19 men) had renal stone disease as the cause of ESRD. The type of nephrolithiasis was determined in 45 cases and etiology in 42. The treatment and evolution of stone disease and patient’s survival were studied. Results: The overall proportion of nephrolithiasis related ESRD was 0.63%. The mean age was 48.4 years. Infection stones (struvite) accounted for 40%, calcium stones, 26.67% (primary hyperparathyroidism:15.56%; familial hypercalciuria: 4.44%, unknown etiology: 6.66%), primary hyperoxaluria type 1, 17.78% and uric acid lithiasis in 15.56% of cases. The mean delay of the evolution of the stone renal disease to chronic renal failure was 85.8 months. The feminine gender, obesity and elevated alkaline phosphatases >128 IU/L were significantly correlated with fast evolution of ESRD. The median evolution to ESRD was 12 months. The normal body mass index (BMI), medical treatment of stone and primary hyperoxaluria type 1 were correlated with fast evolution to ESRD. All patients were treated by hemodialysis during a mean evolution of 60 months. Sixteen patients died. The patient's survival rate at 1, 3 and 5 years was 97.6, 92.8 and 69% respectively. Hypocalcemia, cardiopathy and normal calcium-phosphate product were significantly correlated with lower survival rate. Conclusion: Severe forms of nephrolithiasis remain an underestimated cause of ESRD. These findings highlight the crucial importance of accurate stone analysis and metabolic evaluation to provide early diagnosis and efficient treatment for conditions leading to ESRD. PMID:21694924

  13. Er-O clustering and its influence on the lattice sites of Er in Si

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, U; Araújo, J P; Vantomme, A; Langouche, G

    1999-01-01

    We present emission channeling experiments on the lattice location of Er in CZ Si single crystals with a well-defined O concentration of 6.5-6.6 $\\times 10^{17}$ cm$^{-3}$ and 60 keV-implanted Tm+Er doses ranging from 4.3 $\\times 10^{12}$ cm$^{-2}$ to 3.6 $\\times 10^{13}$ cm$^{-2}$. The experimental results are compared to the predictions of a simulator which models the formation of Er$_{n}$O$_{m}$ clusters on the basis of simple diffusion and capture kinetics. We find that our experimental data compare favorably with a scenario where the formation of Er$_{n}$O$_{m}$ defects with one or more O atoms is responsible for removing the Er atoms from their tetrahedral interstitial (T) sites. This suggests that Er does no longer occupy the T site even in simple (ErO) pairs.

  14. CINACALCET IN TREATMENT OF HYPERPARATHYROIDISM IN RECIPIENTS OF RENAL GRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Vetchinnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Evaluate the efficacy and safety of cinacalcet in the treatment of hyperparathyroidism (HPT in renal transplant recipients. Materials and methods. During the year, three patients with satisfactory functioning kid- ney transplant (glomerular filtration rate − GFR 44–80 ml/min and HPT (parathyroid hormone − PTH 320– 348 pg/ml, resistant to treatment with active forms of vitamin D and hypercalcemia (2,6–3,1 mmol/l were treated with cinacalcet (initial dose of 30 mg/day, supporting − 60–15 mg/day with the added in 2–3 months alfacalcidol (0,25–0,75 μg/day. Investigated the serum concentrations and renal excretion of calcium and phos- phorus, PTH, renal transplant function (blood creatinine, GFR, plasma concentrations of tacrolimus, bone mine- ral density (BMD in different parts of the skeleton (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. A month later, the level of calcium in the blood to normal, PTH levels decreased by 1,2–3,2 times. A year later, in two patients, blood levels of PTH was back to normal, one − up − 142 pg/ml. Renal excretion of calcium varied differently − in two patients increased gradually, without exceeding the physiological norm, and in one − remained stable. Gene- ral pattern in the dynamics of serum concentration and urinary excretion of phosphorus was not observed. Renal graft function remained stable − GFR 46–76 ml/min. BMD of the distal forearm, femoral neck and lumbar spine in two patients remained the same, in one − increased by 14, 6 and 7%. Adverse events were absent. Conclusion. Application of cinacalcet is promising for the correction of HPT in renal transplant recipients. 

  15. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  16. Calcium signaling in neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreses-Werringloer Ute

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is a key signaling ion involved in many different intracellular and extracellular processes ranging from synaptic activity to cell-cell communication and adhesion. The exact definition at the molecular level of the versatility of this ion has made overwhelming progress in the past several years and has been extensively reviewed. In the brain, calcium is fundamental in the control of synaptic activity and memory formation, a process that leads to the activation of specific calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways and implicates key protein effectors, such as CaMKs, MAPK/ERKs, and CREB. Properly controlled homeostasis of calcium signaling not only supports normal brain physiology but also maintains neuronal integrity and long-term cell survival. Emerging knowledge indicates that calcium homeostasis is not only critical for cell physiology and health, but also, when deregulated, can lead to neurodegeneration via complex and diverse mechanisms involved in selective neuronal impairments and death. The identification of several modulators of calcium homeostasis, such as presenilins and CALHM1, as potential factors involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, provides strong support for a role of calcium in neurodegeneration. These observations represent an important step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of calcium signaling disturbances observed in different brain diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases.

  17. Changes in Renal Function and Blood Pressure in Patients with Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Elaine M.

    2007-04-01

    Stone disease is a rare cause of renal failure, but a history of kidney stones is associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease, particularly in overweight patients. Loss of renal function seems especially notable for patients with stones associated with cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, and renal tubular acidosis, in whom the renal pathology shows deposits of mineral obstructing inner medullary collecting ducts, often diffusely. However, even idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers have a mild but significant decrease in renal function, compared to age, sex and weight-matched normals, and appear to lose renal function with age at a slightly faster rate than non-stone formers. There is also an increased incidence of hypertension among stone formers, although women are more likely to be affected than men.

  18. New Role of P/Q-type Voltage-gated Calcium Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B L

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are important for the depolarization-evoked contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), with L-type channels being the classical channel involved in this mechanism. However, it has been demonstrated that the CaV2.1 subunit, which encodes a neuronal isoform...... of the voltage-gated calcium channels (P/Q-type), is also expressed and contributes functionally to contraction of renal blood vessels in both mice and humans. Furthermore, preglomerular vascular SMCs and aortic SMCs coexpress L-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels within the same cell. Calcium channel blockers...... are widely used as pharmacological treatments. However, calcium channel antagonists vary in their selectivity for the various calcium channel subtypes, and the functional contribution from P/Q-type channels as compared with L-type should be considered. Confirming the presence of P/Q-type voltage...

  19. Der er ingen stemmer i kulturpolitik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Casper Hvenegaard

    og forbedret adgang til dannelseskulturen. For det andet har begreber som habitus, kulturel kapital og distinktion været kvalitative forklaringer på de problemer, som demokratiseringen af dannelseskulturen er stødt på. For det tredje sætter Bourdieus sene og mere normative forfatterskab fokus på......Der er flere grunde til at Pierre Bourdieu er bruges flittigt i den kulturpolitiske forskning. For det første er Bourdieus studier af feltbegrebet, og særligt udviklingen af den kunstneriske felt, en hjørnesten i forståelsen af en moderne vestlig kulturpolitik, der bygger på offentlig kunststøtte......, hvordan markedstanken udfordrer kulturfeltets autonomi. Det er særligt kulturfeltets vigende autonomi i en dansk kulturpolitisk kontekst og forandringer i den kulturelle kapital, der er omdrejningspunktet for dette paper. Det er en Bourdieu-inspireret analyse af det offentligt støttede dansk kulturliv...

  20. Incidental renal neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Minne Nedergaard; Walter, Steen;

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of associations between tumor size, pathological stage, histological subtype and tumor grade in incidentally detected renal cell carcinoma vs symptomatic renal cell carcinoma, we discussed the need for a screening program of renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. We analyzed a consecutive...... series of 204 patients with renal tumors in 2011 and 2012. The tumors were classified according to detection mode: symptomatic and incidental and compared to pathological parameters. Eighty-nine patients (44%) were symptomatic, 113 (55%) were incidental. Information was not available in two patients...

  1. Insuficiencia renal aguda.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Hernán Mejía

    2009-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a clinic syndrome characterized by decline in renal function occurring over a short time period. Is a relatively common complication in hospitalized critically ill patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. ARF has often a multi-factorial etiology syndrome usually approached diagnostically as pre-renal, post-renal, or intrinsic ARF. Most intrinsic ARF is caused by ischemia or nephrotoxins and is classically associated with acute tubular necrosis...

  2. Supervision og de tre k´er

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilling, Benedicte; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Nielsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Kontrol, kontrakt og kontekst er supervisionens tre k'er. Men hvad er supervision i det hele taget for en størrelse, der spillerså central en rolle for den psykologfaglige profession?......Kontrol, kontrakt og kontekst er supervisionens tre k'er. Men hvad er supervision i det hele taget for en størrelse, der spillerså central en rolle for den psykologfaglige profession?...

  3. ER Stress Inhibits Liver Fatty Acid Oxidation while Unmitigated Stress Leads to Anorexia-Induced Lipolysis and Both Liver and Kidney Steatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeZwaan-McCabe, Diane; Sheldon, Ryan D; Gorecki, Michelle C

    2017-01-01

    advantage of enhanced hepatic and renal steatosis in mice lacking the ER stress sensor ATF6α. We found that impaired fatty acid oxidation contributed to the early development of steatosis in the liver but not the kidney, while anorexia-induced lipolysis promoted late triglyceride and free fatty acid...

  4. Regulation of BMP2-induced intracellular calcium increases in osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenfeng; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xue; Chiang, Martin Y M; Li, Bo; Xu, Zichen; Liao, Xiaoling

    2016-10-01

    Although bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) is a well-characterized regulator that stimulates osteoblast differentiation, little is known about how it regulates intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. In this study, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ) upon BMP2 application, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src activities were measured in the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cell line using fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensors. Increase in [Ca(2+) ]i , FAK, and Src activities were observed during BMP2 stimulation. The removal of extracellular calcium, the application of membrane channel inhibitors streptomycin or nifedipine, the FAK inhibitor PF-573228 (PF228), and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) siRNA all blocked the BMP2-stimulated [Ca(2+) ]i increase, while the Src inhibitor PP1 did not. In contrast, a gentle decrease of endoplasmic reticulum calcium concentration was found after BMP2 stimulation, which could be blocked by both streptomycin and PP1. Further experiments revealed that BMP2-induced FAK activation could not be inhibited by PP1, ALP siRNA or the calcium channel inhibitor nifedipine. PF228, but not PP1 or calcium channel inhibitors, suppressed ALP elevation resulting from BMP2 stimulation. Therefore, our results suggest that BMP2 can increase [Ca(2+) ]i through extracellular calcium influx regulated by FAK and ALP and can deplete ER calcium through Src signaling simultaneously. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1725-1733, 2016.

  5. Novel strategies in drug discovery of the calcium-sensing receptor based on biased signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Alex Rojas Bie; Smajilovic, Sanela; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of chronic kidney disease is hyperphosphatemia due to renal phosphate retention. Prolonged parathyroid gland exposure to hyperphosphatemia leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism characterized by hyperplasia of the glands and excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which causes...... renal osteodystrophy. PTH secretion from the parathyroid glands is controlled by the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) that senses extracellular calcium. High extracellular calcium activates the CaSR causing inhibition of PTH secretion through multiple signaling pathways. Cinacalcet is the first drug...... targeting the CaSR and can be used to effectively control and reduce PTH secretion in PTH-related diseases. Cinacalcet is a positive allosteric modulator of the CaSR and affects PTH secretion from parathyroid glands by shifting the calcium-PTH concentration-response curve to the left. One major disadvantage...

  6. Isolated Renal Hydatidosis Presenting as Renal Mass: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datteswar Hota

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation by larval form of Echinococcus granulosus. Isolated renal involvement is extremely rare. There are no specific signs and symptoms of renal hydatidosis. However it may present as palpable mass, flank pain, hematuria, malaise, fever, and hydatiduria or as a complication of it such as infection, abscess, hemorrhage, necrosis and pelviureteric junction obstruction, renal failure etc. Except hydatiduria, none are pathognomonic for renal hydatidosis. There is no literature on renal hydatidosis presenting as renal mass we report 2 cases of isolated renal hydatidosis, which mimicked a renal mass on imaging study.

  7. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    (1.1%) had complete distal renal tubular acidosis and 14 (15.5%) incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Our results confirm that distal renal tubular acidification defects are associated with a more severe form of stone disease and make distal renal tubular acidosis one of the most frequent...... metabolic disturbances in renal stone formers. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was relatively more common in female stone formers and most often found in patients with bilateral stone disease (36%). Since prophylactic treatment in renal stone formers with renal acidification defects is available...

  8. Renal pelvis or ureter cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter; Kidney cancer - renal pelvis; Ureter cancer ... Cancer can grow in the urine collection system, but it is uncommon. Renal pelvis and ureter cancers ...

  9. [Bone involvement in idiopathic calcium lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, A; Bataille, P; Solal, M C; Marié, A; Brazier, M; Sebert, J L; Prin, L; Fournier, A

    1995-01-01

    Bone involvement in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis is characterized by the following abnormalities: a) the bone density is decreased, the severity of bone loss being dependent upon the existence of hypercalciuria and upon the pathophysiology of this latter: it is inconsistent in the absence of hypercalciuria or when hypercalciuria is of the absorptive type I or II, whereas it is almost constant in fasting hypercalciuria without secondary hyperparathyroidism and constant and severe in the rare true renal hypercalciuria. b) The bone histology (which has been evaluated only in idiopathic hypercalciuric patients) mainly shows a defect in bone formation at the exception of the rare renal hypercalciuria. Osteoclastic hyperresorption is only seen in this latter type of hypercalciuria whereas in the other types of hypercalciuria only an increase of the total or inactive resorption surface is observed. This phenomenon is possibly explained only by a delayed refilling of the resorption lacunae secondary to the decreased bone formation. The osteoid thickness is either normal or decreased despite decrease in mineralization apposition rate which seems therefore to be secondary to the decreased bone formation. c) Symptomatic bone disease in hypercalciuric stone formers is exceptional and always related to a severe long term calcium restriction. d) The biochemical markers of bone resorption tend to be increased in idiopathic hypercalciuria. Hydroxyprolinuria is more often elevated than pyridinolinuria. However pyridinolinuria is negatively correlated to bone density. The contrast between the increase of these bone resorption markers and the usual normality of plasma PTH and of the osteoclastic resorptive surfaces, suggest the role of meat induced acid load which may favor inactive resorption by dissolution of bone buffers. A disturbed profile synthesis of cytokines which induce differentiation and proliferation of the osteoclasts and which modulate the osteoblastic

  10. Effects of magnesium infusion on renal calcium excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafik, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of acute I.V. infusion of Mg on Ca excretion was investigated. Mg infusion resulted in a significantly increased urinary Ca excretion compared to the control group. The hypercalciuric effect of Mg was not accompanied by diuresis or natriuresis but was associated with significantly increased urinary Ca concentration suggesting a specific effect of Mg on urinary Ca excretion. The effect of 4mM MgCl/sub 2/ infusion on plasma Ca concentrations was also investigated. A comparable calciuric effect was again observed in the Mg infused group and was found to be associated with a significantly reduced whole kidney filtered load and absolute and fractional reabsorption of Ca. Intratubular microinjection experiments were performed to investigate the direct effects of raising Mg concentration on the unidirectional reabsorptive flux of (/sup 45/Ca). The unidirectional reabsorption of Ca injected into PCT was measured during four experimental conditions; with an d without Mg in the injectate solution during either saline or Mg infusion. Raising the intraluminal Mg significantly decreased unidirectional reabsorption of (/sup 45/Ca).

  11. Deregulated Renal Calcium and Phosphate Transport during Experimental Kidney Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulskens, Wilco P.; Verkaik, Melissa; Sheedfar, Fareeba; van Loon, Ellen P.; van de Sluis, Bart; Vervloet, Mark G.; Hoenderop, Joost G.; Bindels, Rene J.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired mineral homeostasis and inflammation are hallmarks of chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet the underlying mechanisms of electrolyte regulation during CKD are still unclear. Here, we applied two different murine models, partial nephrectomy and adenine-enriched dietary intervention, to induce

  12. Branding er ikke til at komme udenom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Søren Askegaard definerer branding som "et iscenesat og afkodet symbolunivers". Det vil sige, at vi på den ene side har virksomhedens strategiske profilering, hvor den forsøger at skabe sig en særlig differentieret og positioneret profil, som adskiller den fra andre virksomheder. "Og det er denne...... strategiske kommunikation, der gør at branding er et ledelsesbegreb og ikke kun et markedsføringsbegreb. Det er ikke staffage, men værdier, som skal gennemsyre alle organisationens aktiviteter." Udgivelsesdato: maj...

  13. Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanaga, Hitomi; Frommer, Wolf B

    2010-08-01

    Although biochemical studies suggested a high permeability of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane for small molecules, proteomics identified few specialized ER transporters. To test functionality of transporters during ER passage, we tested whether glucose transporters (GLUTs, SGLTs) destined for the plasma membrane are active during ER transit. HepG2 cells were characterized by low-affinity ER transport activity, suggesting that ER uptake is protein mediated. The much-reduced capacity of HEK293T cells to take up glucose across the plasma membrane correlated with low ER transport. Ectopic expression of GLUT1, -2, -4, or -9 induced GLUT isoform-specific ER transport activity in HEK293T cells. In contrast, the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 mediated efficient plasma membrane glucose transport but no detectable ER uptake, probably because of lack of a sufficient sodium gradient across the ER membrane. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GLUTs are sufficient for mediating ER glucose transport en route to the plasma membrane. Because of the low volume of the ER, trace amounts of these uniporters contribute to ER solute import during ER transit, while uniporters and cation-coupled transporters carry out export from the ER, together potentially explaining the low selectivity of ER transport. Expression levels and residence time of transporters in the ER, as well as their coupling mechanisms, could be key determinants of ER permeability.

  14. Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Attenuates Renal Tubular Injury in a Mouse Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Renal tubular injury is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is involved in diabetic nephropathy. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA is an effective inhibitor of ER stress. Here, we investigated the role of TUDCA in the progression of tubular injury in DN. For eight weeks, being treated with TUDCA at 250 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection (i.p. twice a day, diabetic db/db mice had significantly reduced blood glucose, albuminuria and attenuated renal histopathology. These changes were associated with a significant decreased expression of ER stress markers. At the same time, diabetic db/db mice had more TUNEL-positive nuclei in the renal tubule, which were attenuated by TUDCA treatment, along with decreases in ER stress–associated apoptotic markers in the kidneys. In summary, the effect of TUDCA on tubular injury, in part, is associated with inhibition of ER stress in the kidneys of diabetic db/db mice. TUDCA shows potential as a therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of DN.

  15. Galacto‐oligosaccharides attenuate renal injury with microbiota modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Satoshi U.; Ohse, Takamoto; Jo‐Watanabe, Airi; Shigehisa, Akira; Kawakami, Koji; Matsuki, Takahiro; Chonan, Osamu; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2014-01-01

    Abstracts Tubulointerstitial injury is central to the progression of end‐stage renal disease. Recent studies have revealed that one of the most investigated uremic toxins, indoxyl sulfate (IS), caused tubulointerstitial injury through oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Because indole, the precursor of IS, is synthesized from dietary tryptophan by the gut microbiota, we hypothesized that the intervention targeting the gut microbiota in kidney disease with galacto‐oligosaccharides (GOS) would attenuate renal injury. After 2 weeks of GOS administration for 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) or sham‐operated (Sham) rats, cecal indole and serum IS were measured, renal injury was evaluated, and the effects of GOS on the gut microbiota were examined using pyrosequencing methods. Cecal indole and serum IS were significantly decreased and renal injury was improved with decreased infiltrating macrophages in GOS‐treated Nx rats. The expression levels of ER stress markers and apoptosis were significantly increased in the Nx rats and decreased with GOS. The microbiota analysis indicated that GOS significantly increased three bacterial families and decreased five families in the Nx rats. In addition, the analysis also revealed that the bacterial family Clostridiaceae was significantly increased in the Nx rats compared with the Sham rats and decreased with GOS. Taken altogether, our data show that GOS decreased cecal indole and serum IS, attenuated renal injury, and modified the gut microbiota in the Nx rats, and that the gut microbiota were altered in kidney disease. GOS could be a novel therapeutic agent to protect against renal injury. PMID:24994892

  16. Calcium and Vitamin D Metabolism in Submariners. Carbon Dioxide, Sunlight, and Absorption Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-15

    synthe- sis, and melatonin production by the pineal gland . Less obvious and explainable^are findings by several investigators of increased 30 yard...hypercapnia--’ ’ and- in the persistent renal response in the post-exposure period. Poyart ’ studied the bone CO? content in rats and found...calcium-pnosphorus metabolism in hypokinetic rats . Aviat. Space. Environ. Med. 55: 534-537. 47. Will, M.R. 1973. Intestinal absorption of calcium

  17. Environmental release summary (ERS) database CY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1998-07-01

    This report discusses the Environmental Release Summary (ERS) database. The current needs of the Effluent and Environmental database is continually modified to fulfill monitoring (EEM) program (managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Incorporated, Air and Water Services Organization). Changes are made to accurately calculate current releases, to affect how past releases are calculated. This document serves as a snap-shot of the database and software for the CY-1997 data and releases. This document contains all of the relevant data for calculating radioactive-airborne and liquid effluent. The ERS database is the official repository for the CY-1997 ERS release reports and the settings used to generate those reports. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, FDH is committed to provide a hard copy of the ERS database for Washington State Department of Ecology, upon request. This document also serves as that hard copy for the last complete calendar year.

  18. Closed Loop Controlled ER-Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, C.

    The results of the investigation regarding the suitability of ERF when applied in hydraulics have shown so far that constructing electrorheological flow resistors for the control of pressure and volume flow is possible in principle. One of the main advantages when using the ER-technology in hydraulic systems can be seen in the high reaction rate of the ER-effect. The investigations presented in this article document the dynamic qualities of ER-fluids by means of a practical exploitation for the control of a cylinder actuator. Due to the particular possibilities for design of ER-control resistors a compact cylinder has resulted which differs considerably from traditional cylinder actuators in its construction and dynamic behaviour.

  19. ER Consolidated Quarterly Report October 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective actions and related Long- Term Stewardship (LTS) activities being implemented by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) ER for the April, May, and June 2014 quarterly reporting period. Section 2.0 provides the status of ER Operations activities including closure activities for the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), project management and site closure, and hydrogeologic characterizations. Section 3.0 provides the status of LTS activities that relate to the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) and the associated Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU). Section 4.0 provides the references noted in Section I of this report.

  20. [Hemorrhagic bilateral renal angiomyolipoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjelloun, Mohamed; Rabii, Redouane; Mezzour, Mohamed Hicham; Joual, Abdenbi; Bennani, Saâd; el Mrini, Mohamed

    2003-09-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare benign tumour, often associated with congenital diseases especially de Bourneville's tuberous sclerosis. Bilateral angiomyolipoma is exceptional. The authors report a case of bilateral renal angiomyolipoma in a 33-year-old patient presenting with haemorrhagic shock. In the light of this case and a review of the literature, the authors discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this disease.

  1. FARMACOFISIOLOGÍA RENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso CG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Renal physiology plays a key role in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. Knowledge of the particularities of each nephron function (filtration, secretion, reabsorption and excretion and each of renal tubular transport mechanisms (simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, facilitated transport, active transport, endocytosis and pinocytosis is fundamental to achieve better management of drug prescriptions.

  2. Calcium Carbonate versus Sevelamer Hydrochloride as Phosphate Binders after Long-Term Disease Progression in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Törmänen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to compare the effects of calcium carbonate and sevelamer-HCl treatments on calcium-phosphate metabolism and renal function in 5/6 nephrectomized (NX rats so that long-term disease progression preceded the treatment. After 15-week progression, calcium carbonate (3.0%, sevelamer-HCl (3.0%, or control diets (0.3% calcium were given for 9 weeks. Subtotal nephrectomy reduced creatinine clearance (−40%, plasma calcidiol (−25%, and calcitriol (−70% and increased phosphate (+37%, parathyroid hormone (PTH (11-fold, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23 (4-fold. In NX rats, calcium carbonate diet increased plasma (+20% and urinary calcium (6-fold, reduced plasma phosphate (−50% and calcidiol (−30%, decreased creatinine clearance (−35% and FGF 23 (−85%, and suppressed PTH without influencing blood pH. In NX rats, sevelamer-HCl increased urinary calcium (4-fold and decreased creatinine clearance (−45%, PTH (−75%, blood pH (by 0.20 units, plasma calcidiol (−40%, and calcitriol (−65%. Plasma phosphate and FGF-23 were unchanged. In conclusion, when initiated after long-term progression of experimental renal insufficiency, calcium carbonate diet reduced plasma phosphate and FGF-23 while sevelamer-HCl did not. The former induced hypercalcemia, the latter induced acidosis, while both treatments reduced vitamin D metabolites and deteriorated renal function. Thus, delayed initiation influences the effects of these phosphate binders in remnant kidney rats.

  3. Snip snap snude - dobbelthagerne er ude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Charlotte; Kofoed, Jette

    2015-01-01

    Det handler om at være grim. Det står i skarp kontrast til det pæne og polerede på Instagram. Det er flygtigt, useriøst og ligegyldigt. Og så forsvinder det heldigvis igen, så man behøver kun at forholde sig til det i de få sekunder, det foregår. Snapchat vokser i popularitet og er nu det...

  4. Trump er godt nyt for verdensfreden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2017-01-01

    Trumps uberegnelighed øger ikke risikoen for krig. Den mindsker den ved at få de allierede til at gøre mere og modstanderne til at forhandle. Det er godt for verdensfreden......Trumps uberegnelighed øger ikke risikoen for krig. Den mindsker den ved at få de allierede til at gøre mere og modstanderne til at forhandle. Det er godt for verdensfreden...

  5. Hvad litteraturen kan, er ofte det rigtige ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Kühn, Lisbet

    2010-01-01

    Læsning i dansk handler i første omgang om at blive god til at læse, men på mellemtrinnet er det ved at være tiden til også at bruge skønlitteraturen til det, den er god til, nemlig til at få indsigt i menneskelivets kompleksitet. I dette kapitel anbefales det at gøre noget med litteraturen, fx f...

  6. Topography over South America from ERS altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Anita; Frey, Herb; DiMarzio, John; Tsaoussi, Lucia

    1997-01-01

    The results of the surface topography mapping of South America during the ERS-1 geodetic mission are presented. The altimeter waveforms, the range measurement, and the internal and Doppler range corrections were obtained. The atmospheric corrections and solid tides were calculated. Comparisons between Shuttle laser altimetry and ERS-1 altimetry grid showed good agreement. Satellite radar altimetry data can be used to improve the topographic knowledge of regions for which only poor elevation data currently exist.

  7. Hvilke Dødehavstekster er "sekteriske"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Søren

    2003-01-01

    Skønt Dødehavsrullerne antageligt tilhørte en gruppering, der boede i Qumran, tyder alt på, at mange af teksterne er forfattet andre steder. Artiklen undersøger den særlige sprogbrug, som antageligt er typisk for Qumran-samfundet, og som præger forbavsende få af tekserne. En meget stor del af tek...

  8. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan GU; Xiao-xiao SUN; Ji-ming YE; Li HE; Shou-sheng YAN; Hao-hao ZHANG; Li-hong HU; Jun-ying YUAN; Qiang YU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG),a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae),against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms.Methods:A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established.Cell viability was measured using MTT assay.PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression.Silencing of the CaMKKβ,LKB1,and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi).An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels.Results:ATG (2.5,5,and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L).ATG (1,5,and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p7OS6K signaling and eEF2 activity,which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi.ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration.Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress.Furthermore,ATG (2.5 and 5μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells.Conclusion:ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator,which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK,thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load.

  9. Håndbold er en praksis!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    2008-01-01

    Dansk håndbold er en kæmpemæssig succeshistorie. Ser man snævert på den udvikling, elitedelen af sporten har gennemlevet de seneste 15 år, viser stort set alle tænkelige parametre fremgang. De internationale resultater for lands og klubhold er med få udfald blevet stadigt bedre, omsætningen i klu...

  10. Trump er godt nyt for verdensfreden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2017-01-01

    Trumps uberegnelighed øger ikke risikoen for krig. Den mindsker den ved at få de allierede til at gøre mere og modstanderne til at forhandle. Det er godt for verdensfreden......Trumps uberegnelighed øger ikke risikoen for krig. Den mindsker den ved at få de allierede til at gøre mere og modstanderne til at forhandle. Det er godt for verdensfreden...

  11. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuan; Sun, Xiao-xiao; Ye, Ji-ming; He, Li; Yan, Shou-sheng; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Li-hong; Yuan, Jun-ying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG), a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae), against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression. Silencing of the CaMKKβ, LKB1, and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi). An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels. Results: ATG (2.5, 5 and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L). ATG (1, 5 and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p70S6K signaling and eEF2 activity, which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi. ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration. Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress. Furthermore, ATG (2.5 and 5 μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells. Conclusion: ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator, which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK, thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load. PMID:22705729

  12. Dissection of local Ca(2+) signals inside cytosol by ER-targeted Ca(2+) indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Fumihiro; Sakuragi, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Ayana; Takagi, Shin; Oda, Yoichi; Bannai, Hiroko; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2016-10-07

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a versatile intracellular second messenger that operates in various signaling pathways leading to multiple biological outputs. The diversity of spatiotemporal patterns of Ca(2+) signals, generated by the coordination of Ca(2+) influx from the extracellular space and Ca(2+) release from the intracellular Ca(2+) store the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is considered to underlie the diversity of biological outputs caused by a single signaling molecule. However, such Ca(2+) signaling diversity has not been well described because of technical limitations. Here, we describe a new method to report Ca(2+) signals at subcellular resolution. We report that OER-GCaMP6f, a genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicator (GECI) targeted to the outer ER membrane, can monitor Ca(2+) release from the ER at higher spatiotemporal resolution than conventional GCaMP6f. OER-GCaMP6f was used for in vivo Ca(2+) imaging of C. elegans. We also found that the spontaneous Ca(2+) elevation in cultured astrocytes reported by OER-GCaMP6f showed a distinct spatiotemporal pattern from that monitored by plasma membrane-targeted GCaMP6f (Lck-GCaMP6f); less frequent Ca(2+) signal was detected by OER-GCaMP6f, in spite of the fact that Ca(2+) release from the ER plays important roles in astrocytes. These findings suggest that targeting of GECIs to the ER outer membrane enables sensitive detection of Ca(2+) release from the ER at subcellular resolution, avoiding the diffusion of GECI and Ca(2+). Our results indicate that Ca(2+) imaging with OER-GCaMP6f in combination with Lck-GCaMP6f can contribute to describing the diversity of Ca(2+) signals, by enabling dissection of Ca(2+) signals at subcellular resolution.

  13. Disruption of the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) plays a central role in palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinjo, Satoko; Jiang, Shuying; Nameta, Masaaki; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Kanai, Mai; Nomura, Yuta; Goda, Nobuhito

    2017-10-01

    The mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) is a specialized subdomain of ER that physically connects with mitochondria. Although disruption of inter-organellar crosstalk via the MAM impairs cellular homeostasis, its pathological significance in insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus remains unclear. Here, we reveal the importance of reduced MAM formation in the induction of fatty acid-evoked insulin resistance in hepatocytes. Palmitic acid (PA) repressed insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in HepG2 cells within 12h. Treatment with an inhibitor of the ER stress response failed to restore PA-mediated suppression of Akt activation. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production did not increase in PA-treated cells. Even short-term exposure (3h) to PA reduced the calcium flux from ER to mitochondria, followed by a significant decrease in MAM contact area, suggesting that PA suppressed the functional interaction between ER and mitochondria. Forced expression of mitofusin-2, a critical component of the MAM, partially restored MAM contact area and ameliorated the PA-elicited suppression of insulin sensitivity with Ser473 phosphorylation of Akt selectively improved. These results suggest that loss of proximity between ER and mitochondria, but not perturbation of homeostasis in the two organelles individually, plays crucial roles in PA-evoked Akt inactivation in hepatic insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Primary renal hydatidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnsy Merla Joel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis or hydatidosis caused by the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus, has the highest prevalence in endemic regions and sheep farming areas. The most common organ involved is the liver (50–75% followed by the lungs (15–20% and other organs (10–20%. Primary involvement of the kidney without the involvement of the liver and lungs, i.e., isolated renal hydatid disease is extremely rare even in endemic areas. The incidence of renal echinococcosis is 2–4%. Renal hydatid cysts usually remain asymptomatic for many years and are multiloculated. A 63-year-old male presented with left loin pain. Computed tomography scan abdomen revealed a presumptive diagnosis of renal hydatid disease. The nephrectomy specimen received in histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. We describe a rare case of primary renal hydatidosis.

  15. Nanostructure of Er3+ doped silicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nan; Hou, Kirk; Haines, Christopher D; Etessami, Nathan; Ranganathan, Varadh; Halpern, Susan B; Kear, Bernard H; Klein, Lisa C; Sigel, George H

    2005-06-01

    We demonstrate nanostructural evolution resulting in highly increased photoluminescence in silicates doped with Er3+ ions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging, nano-energy dispersed X-ray (NEDX) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence analysis confirm the local composition and structure changes of the Er3+ ions upon thermal annealing. We studied two types of amorphous nanopowder: the first is of the composition SiO2/18Al2O3/2Er2O3 (SAE), synthesized by combustion flame-chemical vapor condensation, and the second is with a composition of SiO2/8Y2O3/2Er2O3 (SYE), synthesized by sol-gel synthesis (composition in mol%). Electron diffraction and HRTEM imaging clearly show the formation of nanocrystallites with an average diameter of approximately 8 nm in SAE samples annealed at 1000 degrees C and SYE samples annealed at 1200 degrees C. The volume fraction of the nanocrystalline phase increased with each heat treatment, eventually leading to complete devitrification at 1400 degrees C. Further XRD and NEDX analysis indicates that the nanocrystalline phase has the pyrochlore structure with the formula Er(x)Al(2-x)Si2O7 or Er(x)Y(2-x)Si2O7 and a surrounding silica matrix.

  16. Comparison of preparation speed of Er:YAG laser and conventional drilling machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinkova, Helena; Dostalova, Tatjana; Dolezalova, Libuse; Krejsa, Otakar; Hamal, Karel; Kubelka, Jiri; Prochazka, Stanislav

    1997-05-01

    Clinical tests of the caries treatment with a Er:YAG laser system have been very promising. The problem of the Er:YAG laser drilling machine is the speed of preparation. It is not possible to increase the laser energy and repetition rate because this process is directly connected with temperature elevation. Therefore attention has been paid to define the differences between the classical and the laser drilling effect with a safe but effective laser energy and repetition rate. For the experiment, an Er:YAG laser drilling machine with an articulated arm was designed. Thirty samples of extracted human teeth were cut by both this system and classical drilling machine. The circumference, area and structure of surface sections were observed and analyzed. From the comparison of the measured time of preparation significant differences followed from the time of preparation. The time of preparation related to 1 mm2 of the cut surface was 5.42 sec for the Er:YAG laser machine and 0.66 sec for the classical method. From this comparison it follows that the laser system is 8 times slower than the classical preparation technique. In both cases the roughness of the surface analyzed by SCAN was found similar. Also, there were no differences between the distribution of the elements, especially calcium and phosphorus.

  17. Renal replacement therapy after cardiac surgery; renal function recovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinthorsdottir, Kristin Julia; Kandler, Kristian; Agerlin Windeløv, Nis

    2013-01-01

    To assess renal outcome in patients discharged from hospital following cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) with need for renal replacement therapy.......To assess renal outcome in patients discharged from hospital following cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) with need for renal replacement therapy....

  18. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pizza, cheese, frozen 1 serving 115 mg Pudding, chocolate, prepared with 2% milk 4 oz 160 mg ... Treatment Medication and Treatment Adherence Calcium/Vitamin D Nutrition Overall Health Fractures/Fall Prevention Exercise/Safe Movement ...

  19. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  20. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources You may also be interested in: Calcium: Shopping list Menopause: Questions for ... A Federal Government website managed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services healthfinder.gov is ...

  1. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  2. Calcium and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for dinner. Create mini-pizzas by topping whole-wheat English muffins or bagels with pizza sauce, low- ... Minerals Do I Need to Drink Milk? Lactose Intolerance Becoming a Vegetarian Soy Foods and Health Calcium ...

  3. FRET imaging of calcium signaling in live cells in the microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tongcheng; Lu, Shaoying; Ma, Hongwei; Fang, Jing; Zhong, Wenxuan; Wang, Yingxiao

    2013-02-01

    The microenvironment has been shown to regulate cellular functions including cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, migration, cancer development and metastasis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unclear. We have integrated micro-pattern technology and molecular biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to visualize calcium responses in cells constrained to grow on a micro-patterned surface. Upon ATP stimulation, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured on different surface micro-patterns had a shorter decay time and a reduced peak of a transient intracellular calcium rise compared to control cells without constraints. The decay time is regulated by the plasma membrane and the membrane calcium channels, while the peak by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium release. Further results revealed that voltage operated channels (VOCs), coupling the plasma membrane and ER, can affect both the decay time and the peak of calcium response. The inhibition of VOCs can eliminate the effect of different micro-patterns on calcium signals. When two connected HUVECs were constrained to grow on a micro-pattern, drastically distinct calcium responses upon ATP stimulation can be observed, in contrast to the similar responses of two connected cells cultured without patterns. Interestingly, the inhibition of VOCs also blocked this difference of calcium responses between two connected cells on micro-patterns. These results indicate that a micro-patterned surface can have a profound effect on the calcium responses of HUVECs under ATP stimulation, largely mediated by VOCs. Therefore, our results shed new light on the molecular mechanism by which HUVECs perceive the microenvironment and regulate intracellular calcium signals.

  4. Down conversion luminescence behavior of Er and Yb doped Y2O3 phosphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Agrawal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We have studied downconversion luminescence behaviour of Y2O3 phosphor doped with Er 1 mol% and 1 mol% of Yb. The sample was prepared by modified solid state reaction method. Using inorganic material like (Y2O3, Flux Calcium Fluoride (CaF2 and Er2O3 as well as Yb2O3 with molar ratio 1 mol% of dopant. The prepared phosphor sample was characterized using Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD, Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEGSEM, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM, Photoluminescence (PL, Thermoluminescence (TL and CIE techniques. The obtained sample shows an intense greenish-white emission (ranging from 350 to 600 nm, centered at 565 nm under a wide range of UV light excitation (220–400 nm.

  5. Morphological Study Of Border Area Of Pulp-Capping Materials And Er:YAG Laser Prepared Hard Dental Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Vessela P; Tomov, Georgi T; Tsanova, Snezhana Ts

    2015-01-01

    Vital pulp therapy involves biologically based therapeutic activities aimed at restoring health and preserving the vitality of cariously or traumatically damaged pulp. Adaptation of pulp-capping materials to the prepared tooth surface may be the key to the success of biological tooth treatment. To investigate the area of adaptation of synthetic tricalcium silicate cement, calcium hydroxide cement and mineral trioxide-aggregate to the dentin surface, prepared with the help of Er:YAG dental laser. Four extracted human tooth cavities were prepared with the help of Er:YAG dental laser (LiteTouch, Syneron, Israel), establishing microcommunication with the pulp chamber less than 1 mm in diameter. As pulp-capping materials in the cavities we used tricalcium silicate cement (Biodentine, Septodont, France), calcium hydroxide cement (Dycal) and mineral-trioxide aggregate (ProRoot MTA), stirred and administered according to manufacturers' instructions. The first material fills the whole cavity and the other two are spread in a thin layer and sealed with glass ionomer cement. Thus prepared, the samples were left for three days at 37°C in humidified environment. The samples were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by standard methodology. The border area surfaces of the materials and the dentin were scanned using electron microscopy. The morphological changes occurring to the Er:YAG laser prepared dentin and the structural characteristics of the studied pulp-capping materials are demonstrated using scanograms. The border areas where good contact of materials and dentinal tubules is established are thoroughly studied. Good adaptation is seen in three-calcium silicate cement, followed by mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide cement. The dentin surface, prepared with Er:YAG laser demonstrates a very good adaptation of the three tested pulp-capping materials.

  6. Limbal and corneal calcification in patients with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen-Broekema, N; van Bijsterveld, O P

    1993-09-01

    In patients with chronic renal failure on regular dialysis treatment, limboconjunctival degenerations and calcifications are commonly observed. In this study three groups of patients were followed over a period of 6 years. The first group consisted of 47 patients with renal failure, the second group of 17 patients with renal failure and hyperparathyroidism not controlled by drugs, and the third group seven patients with primary hyperparathyroidism without renal failure. The aim of this study was to determine the progression of the limboconjunctival changes over time. The hypothesis that an increase in serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations, as a result of tertiary hyperparathyroidism, could possibly add a corneal component to the limbal calcification was also tested. All patients with renal failure (in as much as the degenerative limbal features were not obscured by deposits of lime salts), had a type II white limbus girdle of Vogt. This limbal degeneration was observed in only 45% of controls. In all 47 patients with renal failure conjunctival calcification was observed; 26 of them also had limbal calcification. After 6 years 41 patients had developed limbal calcification. This progression was statistically significant. In 15 out of 17 patients with tertiary hyperparathyroidism a band-shaped keratopathy developed in addition to the limboconjunctival calcification.

  7. Residual Renal Function in Children Treated with Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Roszkowska-Blaim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual renal function (RRF in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD receiving renal replacement therapy is defined as the ability of native kidneys to eliminate water and uremic toxins. Preserved RRF improves survival and quality of life in adult ESRD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis. In children, RRF was shown not only to help preserve adequacy of renal replacement therapy but also to accelerate growth rate, improve nutrition and blood pressure control, reduce the risk of adverse myocardial changes, facilitate treatment of anemia and calcium-phosphorus balance abnormalities, and result in reduced serum and dialysate fluid levels of advanced glycation end-products. Factors contributing to RRF loss in children treated with peritoneal dialysis include the underlying renal disease such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome and hereditary nephropathy, small urine volume, severe proteinuria at the initiation of renal replacement therapy, and hypertension. Several approaches can be suggested to decrease the rate of RRF loss in pediatric patients treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis: potentially nephrotoxic drugs (e.g., aminoglycosides, episodes of hypotension, and uncontrolled hypertension should be avoided, urinary tract infections should be treated promptly, and loop diuretics may be used to increase salt and water excretion.

  8. New options for the management of hyperparathyroidism after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthat, Walter Guillermo; Chiurchiu, Carlos Raul; Massari, Pablo Ulises

    2012-06-24

    The persistence and severity of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) post-renal transplantation is relatively frequent and primarily associated with the timing and its magnitude in the pre-transplant period and with the presence of parathyroid adenomas. HPT after renal transplantation is clinically manifested with hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, bone pain, fractures, and in more serious cases with cardiovascular calcifications that affect the survival. The primary clinical objective for patients with secondary HPT after renal transplantation is to obtain a level of parathyroid hormone (PTH) adequate to the renal transplanted function and to normalize levels of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. In many cases during this period, the development of hypercalcemia and/or hypophosphatemia makes it necessary to take different therapeutic measures. The use of vitamin D or its analogues has been extrapolated from the management of pre-transplant HPT obtaining variable outcomes, although its use is limited by its capacity to produce hypercalcemia. Calcimimetics are drugs that have proven be effective in reducing PTH levels in patients with HPT on dialysis and has been effective in reducing up to 50% PTH levels in moderate to severe HPT in post-renal transplantation.When HPT persists after renal transplantation and does not respond to medical treatment, invasive management by percutaneous ethanol injection therapy of parathyroid glands or parathyroidectomy should be considered. The emergence of new methods for the management of HPT expands the availability of therapeutic tools for transplant patients.

  9. Calcium and Calcium-Base Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    should be satisfactory, because the electrolytic process for •(!>: A. H. Everts and G. D. Baglev’, " Physical «nrt m<„.+„4 i «_ of Calcium«, Electrochem...Rev. Metalurgie , 3j2, (1), 129 (1935). 10 ^sm^mssss^ma^^ extension between two known loads, is preferable to the value of 3,700,000 p.B.i. obtained

  10. A Role for Macro-ER-Phagy in ER Quality Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatova, Zhanna; Segev, Nava

    2015-07-01

    The endoplasmic-reticulum quality-control (ERQC) system shuttles misfolded proteins for degradation by the proteasome through the well-defined ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. In contrast, very little is known about the role of autophagy in ERQC. Macro-autophagy, a collection of pathways that deliver proteins through autophagosomes (APs) for degradation in the lysosome (vacuole in yeast), is mediated by autophagy-specific proteins, Atgs, and regulated by Ypt/Rab GTPases. Until recently, the term ER-phagy was used to describe degradation of ER membrane and proteins in the lysosome under stress: either ER stress induced by drugs or whole-cell stress induced by starvation. These two types of stresses induce micro-ER-phagy, which does not use autophagic organelles and machinery, and non-selective autophagy. Here, we characterize the macro-ER-phagy pathway and uncover its role in ERQC. This pathway delivers 20-50% of certain ER-resident membrane proteins to the vacuole and is further induced to >90% by overexpression of a single integral-membrane protein. Even though such overexpression in cells defective in macro-ER-phagy induces the unfolded-protein response (UPR), UPR is not needed for macro-ER-phagy. We show that macro-ER-phagy is dependent on Atgs and Ypt GTPases and its cargo passes through APs. Moreover, for the first time the role of Atg9, the only integral-membrane core Atg, is uncoupled from that of other core Atgs. Finally, three sequential steps of this pathway are delineated: Atg9-dependent exit from the ER en route to autophagy, Ypt1- and core Atgs-mediated pre-autophagsomal-structure organization, and Ypt51-mediated delivery of APs to the vacuole.

  11. A Role for Macro-ER-Phagy in ER Quality Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Lipatova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic-reticulum quality-control (ERQC system shuttles misfolded proteins for degradation by the proteasome through the well-defined ER-associated degradation (ERAD pathway. In contrast, very little is known about the role of autophagy in ERQC. Macro-autophagy, a collection of pathways that deliver proteins through autophagosomes (APs for degradation in the lysosome (vacuole in yeast, is mediated by autophagy-specific proteins, Atgs, and regulated by Ypt/Rab GTPases. Until recently, the term ER-phagy was used to describe degradation of ER membrane and proteins in the lysosome under stress: either ER stress induced by drugs or whole-cell stress induced by starvation. These two types of stresses induce micro-ER-phagy, which does not use autophagic organelles and machinery, and non-selective autophagy. Here, we characterize the macro-ER-phagy pathway and uncover its role in ERQC. This pathway delivers 20-50% of certain ER-resident membrane proteins to the vacuole and is further induced to >90% by overexpression of a single integral-membrane protein. Even though such overexpression in cells defective in macro-ER-phagy induces the unfolded-protein response (UPR, UPR is not needed for macro-ER-phagy. We show that macro-ER-phagy is dependent on Atgs and Ypt GTPases and its cargo passes through APs. Moreover, for the first time the role of Atg9, the only integral-membrane core Atg, is uncoupled from that of other core Atgs. Finally, three sequential steps of this pathway are delineated: Atg9-dependent exit from the ER en route to autophagy, Ypt1- and core Atgs-mediated pre-autophagsomal-structure organization, and Ypt51-mediated delivery of APs to the vacuole.

  12. Renal neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Lane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are uncommon tumors that exhibit a wide range of neuroendocrine differentiation and biological behavior. Primary NETs of the kidney, including carcinoid tumor, small cell carcinoma (SCC, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC are exceedingly rare. Materials and Methods: The clinicopathologic features of renal NETs diagnosed at a single institution were reviewed along with all reported cases in the worldwide literature. Results: Eighty renal NETs have been described, including nine from our institution. Differentiation between renal NETs and the more common renal neoplasms (renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma can be difficult since clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features overlap. Immunohistochemical staining for neuroendocrine markers, such as synaptophysin and chromogranin, can be particularly helpful in this regard. Renal carcinoids are typically slow-growing, may secrete hormones, and pursue a variable clinical course. In contrast, SCC and LCNEC often present with locally advanced or metastatic disease and carry a poor prognosis. Nephrectomy can be curative for clinically localized NETs, but multimodality treatment is indicated for advanced disease. Conclusions: A spectrum of NETs can rarely occur in the kidney. Renal carcinoids have a variable clinical course; SCC and LCNEC are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Diagnosis of NETs, especially LCNEC, requires awareness of their rare occurrence and prudent use of immunohistochemical neuroendocrine markers.

  13. Pregnancy and renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, O; Emiroğlu, R; Seçme, S; Moray, G; Haberal, M

    2004-01-01

    Ovarian dysfunction, anovulatory vaginal bleeding, amenorrhea, high prolactin levels, and loss of libido are the causes of infertility in women with chronic renal failure. After renal transplantation, endocrine function generally improves after recovery of renal function. In this study we retrospectively evaluated the prepregnancy and postdelivery renal function, outcome of gestation, as well as maternal and fetal complications for eight pregnancies in eight renal transplant recipients between November 1975 and March 2003 of 1095 among 1425. Eight planned pregnancies occurred at a mean of 3.6 years posttransplant. Spontaneous abortion occured in the first trimester in one case. One intrauterine growth retardation was observed with a full-term pregnancy; one intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery; one preeclampsia with preterm delivery and urinary tract infection; and one preeclampsia with preterm delivery and oligohydramnios. The mean gestation period was 35.5 +/- 3.0 weeks (31.2 to 38.0). Pregnancy had no negative impact on renal function during a 2-year follow-up. No significant proteinuria or acute rejection episodes were observed. Among the seven deliveries, no congenital anomaly was documented and no postpartum problems for the child and the mother were observed. Our study suggests that successful pregnancy is possible in renal transplant recipients. In cases with good graft function and absence of severe proteinuria or hypertension, pregnancy does not affect graft function or patient survival; however, fetal problems are encountered such as intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and preeclampsia.

  14. Renal autotransplantation: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, B H; Banowsky, L H; Hewitt, C B; Straffon, R A

    1976-01-01

    Autotransplantation, with or without an extracorporeal renal operation, has been done 39 times in 37 patients. Indications for the procedure included severe ureteral injury in 4 patients, failed supravesical diversion in 2, renal carcinoma in a solitary kidney in 1, renovascular hypertension in 1 and donor arterial reconstruction before renal transplantation in 29. Success was obtained in all but 2 procedures, both of which involved previously operated kidneys with severe inflammation and adhesions involving the renal pelvis and pedicle. Based on our experience and a review of currently available literature we believe that renal autotransplantation and extracorporeal reconstruction can provide the best solution for patients with severe renovascular and ureteral disease not correctable by conventional operative techniques. The technique can be of particular value in removing centrally located tumors in solitary kidneys and in preparing donor kidneys with abnormal arteries for renal transplantation. The role of autotransplantation in the management of advanced renal trauma and calculus disease is less clear. A long-term comparison of patients treated by extracorporeal nephrolithotomy versus conventional lithotomy techniques will be necessary before a conclusion is reached in these disease categories.

  15. Perioperative acute renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahon, Padraig

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent biochemical evidence increasingly implicates inflammatory mechanisms as precipitants of acute renal failure. In this review, we detail some of these pathways together with potential new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears to be a sensitive, specific and reliable biomarker of renal injury, which may be predictive of renal outcome in the perioperative setting. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C is superior to creatinine. No drug is definitively effective at preventing postoperative renal failure. Clinical trials of fenoldopam and atrial natriuretic peptide are, at best, equivocal. As with pharmacological preconditioning of the heart, volatile anaesthetic agents appear to offer a protective effect to the subsequently ischaemic kidney. SUMMARY: Although a greatly improved understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure has offered even more therapeutic targets, the maintenance of intravascular euvolaemia and perfusion pressure is most effective at preventing new postoperative acute renal failure. In the future, strategies targeting renal regeneration after injury will use bone marrow-derived stem cells and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1.

  16. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated calcium signaling in the nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-xin SHEN; Jerrel L YAKEL

    2009-01-01

    Based on the composition of the five subunits forming functional neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), they are grouped into either heteromeric (comprising both α and β subunits) or homomeric (comprising only α subunits) recep-tors. The nAChRs are known to be differentially permeable to calcium ions, with the α7 nAChR subtype having one of the highest permeabilities to calcium. Calcium influx through nAChRs, particularly through the α-bungarotoxin-sensitive α7-containing nAChRs, is a very efficient way to raise cytoplasmic calcium levels. The activation of nAChRs can mediate three types of cytoplasmic calcium signals: (1) direct calcium influx through the nAChRs, (2) indirect calcium influx through voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) which are activated by the nAChR-mediated depolarization, and (3) calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) (triggered by the first two sources) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the ryanodine receptors and inositol (1,4,5)-triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs). Downstream signaling events mediated by nAChR-mediated calcium responses can be grouped into instantaneous effects (such as neurotransmitter release, which can occur in milliseconds after nAChR activation), short-term effects (such as the recovery of nAChR desensitization through cellular signaling cascades), and long-term effects (such as neuroprotection via gene expression). In addition, nAChR activity can be regulated by cytoplasmic calcium levels, suggesting a complex reciprocal relationship. Further advances in imaging techniques, animal models, and more potent and subtype-selective ligands for neuronal nAChRs would help in understand-ing the neuronal nAChR-mediated calcium signaling, and lead to the development of improved therapeutic treatments.

  17. Novel Role of ER Stress and Autophagy in Microcystin-LR Induced Apoptosis in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shenshen; Liu, Chuanrui; Li, Yang; Imam, Mustapha U.; Huang, Hui; Liu, Haohao; Xin, Yongjuan; Zhang, Huizhen

    2016-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a ubiquitous peptide that exhibits strong reproductive toxicity, although the mechanistic basis for such toxicity remains largely unknown. The present study was conducted to investigate the mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of exposure to MC-LR in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The results showed that MC-LR inhibited the in vitro proliferation of CHO cells significantly, with an IC50 of 10 μM. Moreover, MC-LR-treated CHO cells revealed strong induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Additionally, exposure of CHO cells to MC-LR resulted in excess reactive oxygen species production and intracellular calcium release, with resultant endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERs). There was also extensive accumulation of autophagic vacuoles with the highest concentration of MC-LR used (10 μM). Furthermore, the expression of ERs (GRP78, ATF-6, PERK, IRE1, CHOP) and autophagy (Beclin1 and LC3II) proteins was increased, with concomitantly reduced expression of LC3I suggesting that ERs and autophagy were induced in CHO cells by MC-LR treatment. Conversely, pretreatment of CHO cells with 4-Phenyl butyric acid, the ERs inhibitor reduced the MC-LR-induced apoptotic cell death and cellular autophagy as evidenced by the reduced expression of Beclin1 and LC3II. Similarly, MC-LR treatment in combination with an autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine) increased apoptotic cell death compared with MC-LR alone, and induced ERs via upregulating ERs proteins. The overall results indicated that activation of ERs and autophagy are both associated with MC-LR-induced apoptosis in CHO cells. ERs may be a trigger of autophagy in this process. PMID:27877136

  18. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  19. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  20. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate