WorldWideScience

Sample records for renal cooling observations

  1. Retrograde Renal Cooling to Minimize Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Colli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: During partial nephrectomy, renal hypothermia has been shown to decrease ischemia induced renal damage which occurs from renal hilar clamping. In this study we investigate the infusion rate required to safely cool the entire renal unit in a porcine model using retrograde irrigation of iced saline via dual-lumen ureteral catheter. Materials and Methods: Renal cortical, renal medullary, bowel and rectal temperatures during retrograde cooling in a laparoscopic porcine model were monitored in six renal units. Iced normal saline was infused at 300 cc/hour, 600 cc/hour, 1000 cc/hour and gravity (800 cc/hour for 600 seconds with and without hilar clamping. Results: Retrograde cooling with hilar clamping provided rapid medullary renal cooling and significant hypothermia of the medulla and cortex at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. With hilar clamping, cortical temperatures decreased at -0.9° C/min. reaching a threshold temperature of 26.9° C, and medullary temperatures decreased at -0.90 C/min. reaching a temperature of 26.1° C over 600 seconds on average for combined data at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. The lowest renal temperatures were achieved with gravity infusion. Without renal hilum clamping, retrograde cooling was minimal at all infusion rates. Conclusions: Significant renal cooling by gravity infusion of iced cold saline via a duel lumen catheter with a clamped renal hilum was achieved in a porcine model. Continuous retrograde irrigation with iced saline via a two way ureteral catheter may be an effective method to induce renal hypothermia in patients undergoing robotic assisted and/or laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

  2. Renal oncocytoma: new observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, M.J.; Hartman, D.S.; Friedman, A.C.; Sherman, J.L.; Lautin, E.M.; Pyatt, R.S.; Ho, C.K.; Csere, R.; Fromowitz, F.B.

    1984-10-01

    Renal oncocytomas are uncommon, benign tumors that can be treated by local incision or heminephrectomy; their preoperative differentiation from renal cell carcinoma, treated by radical nephrectomy, would be invaluable. A particularly important finding, a central scar, not stressed in previous reports, is frequently demonstrated by CT examination. The authors evaluated radiographic studies of 18 pathologically confirmed cases of oncocytoma and compared findings with results of CT, sonography, and angiogrpahy studies of 18 renal cell carcinoma cases. Oncocytomas can be suggested if a stellate scar is identified within an otherwise homogeneous tumor on ultrasound (US) and CT; if the mass appears homogeneous but no scar is present, angiography should be performed.

  3. Observations of Cool-Star Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansgar Reiners

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cool stars like the Sun harbor convection zones capable of producing substantial surface magnetic fields leading to stellar magnetic activity. The influence of stellar parameters like rotation, radius, and age on cool-star magnetism, and the importance of the shear layer between a radiative core and the convective envelope for the generation of magnetic fields are keys for our understanding of low-mass stellar dynamos, the solar dynamo, and also for other large-scale and planetary dynamos. Our observational picture of cool-star magnetic fields has improved tremendously over the last years. Sophisticated methods were developed to search for the subtle effects of magnetism, which are difficult to detect particularly in cool stars. With an emphasis on the assumptions and capabilities of modern methods used to measure magnetism in cool stars, I review the different techniques available for magnetic field measurements. I collect the analyses on cool-star magnetic fields and try to compare results from different methods, and I review empirical evidence that led to our current picture of magnetic fields and their generation in cool stars and brown dwarfs.

  4. Intra-Abdominal Cooling System Limits Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury During Robot-Assisted Renal Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, R P H; Piller, V; Hagen, M E; Joliat, C; Buchs, J-B; Nastasi, A; Ruttimann, R; Buchs, N C; Moll, S; Vallée, J-P; Lazeyras, F; Morel, P; Bühler, L

    2018-01-01

    Robot-assisted kidney transplantation is feasible; however, concerns have been raised about possible increases in warm ischemia times. We describe a novel intra-abdominal cooling system to continuously cool the kidney during the procedure. Porcine kidneys were procured by standard open technique. Groups were as follows: Robotic renal transplantation with (n = 11) and without (n = 6) continuous intra-abdominal cooling and conventional open technique with intermittent 4°C saline cooling (n = 6). Renal cortex temperature, magnetic resonance imaging, and histology were analyzed. Robotic renal transplantation required a longer anastomosis time, either with or without the cooling system, compared to the open approach (70.4 ± 17.7 min and 74.0 ± 21.5 min vs. 48.7 ± 11.2 min, p-values < 0.05). The temperature was lower in the robotic group with cooling system compared to the open approach group (6.5 ± 3.1°C vs. 22.5 ± 6.5°C; p = 0.001) or compared to the robotic group without the cooling system (28.7 ± 3.3°C; p < 0.001). Magnetic resonance imaging parenchymal heterogeneities and histologic ischemia-reperfusion lesions were more severe in the robotic group without cooling than in the cooled (open and robotic) groups. Robot-assisted kidney transplantation prolongs the warm ischemia time of the donor kidney. We developed a novel intra-abdominal cooling system that suppresses the noncontrolled rewarming of donor kidneys during the transplant procedure and prevents ischemia-reperfusion injuries. © 2017 The Authors. American Journal of Transplantation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Snowfall observations from natural-draft cooling tower plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, M L; Seymour, D E; Smith, M E; Reeves, R W; Frankenberg, T T

    1976-09-24

    During the winter of 1975-1976, snowfall from the plumes of large natural-draft cooling towers of power plants has been observed. Snow accumulations up to 2.5 centimeters have been found on the ground at extended distances from the cooling towers, and visibility has been restricted to less than 1600 meters in the tower plume near ground level.

  6. IUE observations of star formation in a cooling flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Jørgensen, H.E.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik

    1998-01-01

    Star formation in cooling flows is usually found to have an initial mass function deficient in massive stars, but the center of the cooling flow in Hydra A has been shown to contain a significant number of early type stars. Here we use UV-spectra obtained with the IUE satellite together with ground...

  7. Analysis of the effect of renal excretory system cooling during thermal radiofrequency ablation in an animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Meireles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Analysis of renal excretory system integrity and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation with and without irrigation with saline at 2 o C (SF2. Materials and Methods: The median third of sixteen kidneys were submitted to radiofrequency (exposition of 1 cm controlled by intra-surgical ultrasound, with eight minutes cycles and median temperature of 90 o C in eight female pigs. One excretory renal system was cooled with SF2, at a 30ml/min rate, and the other kidney was not. After 14 days of post-operatory, the biggest diameters of the lesions and the radiological aspects of the excretory system were compared by bilateral ascending pyelogram and the animals were sacrificed in order to perform histological analysis. Results: There were no significant differences between the diameters of the kidney lesions whether or not exposed to cooling of the excretory system. Median diameter of the cooled kidneys and not cooled kidneys were respectively (in mm: anteroposterior: 11.46 vs. 12.5 (p = 0.23; longitudinal: 17.94 vs. 18.84 (p = 0.62; depth: 11.38 vs. 12.25 (p = 0.47. There was no lesion of the excretory system or signs of leakage of contrast media or hydronephrosis at ascending pyelogram. Conclusion: Cooling of excretory system during radiofrequency ablation does not significantly alter generated coagulation necrosis or affect the integrity of the excretory system in the studied model.

  8. Observation of renal function in patients with surgical jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansul Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Each case of surgical jaundice should be considered as a potential case likely to pass in acute renal failure, and hence, a close monitoring of renal functions should be started at the very beginning and should be continued until the final outcome of the treatment.

  9. Design considerations and experimental observations for the TAMU air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system for the VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, S. A., E-mail: shamsulamri@tamu.edu; Dominguez-Ontiveros, E. E., E-mail: elvisdom@tamu.edu; Alhashimi, T., E-mail: jbudd123@tamu.edu; Budd, J. L., E-mail: dubaiboy@tamu.edu; Matos, M. D., E-mail: mailgoeshere@gmail.com; Hassan, Y. A., E-mail: yhasssan@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843-3133 (United States)

    2015-04-29

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a promising passive decay heat removal system for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to ensure reliability of the transfer of the core residual and decay heat to the environment under all off-normal circumstances. A small scale experimental test facility was constructed at Texas A and M University (TAMU) to study pertinent multifaceted thermal hydraulic phenomena in the air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) design based on the General Atomics (GA) concept for the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The TAMU Air-Cooled Experimental Test Facility is ⅛ scale from the proposed GA-MHTGR design. Groundwork for experimental investigations focusing into the complex turbulence mixing flow behavior inside the upper plenum is currently underway. The following paper illustrates some of the chief design considerations used in construction of the experimental test facility, complete with an outline of the planned instrumentation and data acquisition methods. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out to furnish some insights on the overall behavior of the air flow in the system. CFD simulations assisted the placement of the flow measurement sensors location. Preliminary experimental observations of experiments at 120oC inlet temperature suggested the presence of flow reversal for cases involving single active riser at both 5 m/s and 2.25 m/s, respectively and four active risers at 2.25 m/s. Flow reversal may lead to thermal stratification inside the upper plenum by means of steady state temperature measurements. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiment was carried out to furnish some insight on flow patterns and directions.

  10. Design considerations and experimental observations for the TAMU air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system for the VHTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, S. A.; Dominguez-Ontiveros, E. E.; Alhashimi, T.; Budd, J. L.; Matos, M. D.; Hassan, Y. A.

    2015-04-01

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a promising passive decay heat removal system for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to ensure reliability of the transfer of the core residual and decay heat to the environment under all off-normal circumstances. A small scale experimental test facility was constructed at Texas A&M University (TAMU) to study pertinent multifaceted thermal hydraulic phenomena in the air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) design based on the General Atomics (GA) concept for the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The TAMU Air-Cooled Experimental Test Facility is ⅛ scale from the proposed GA-MHTGR design. Groundwork for experimental investigations focusing into the complex turbulence mixing flow behavior inside the upper plenum is currently underway. The following paper illustrates some of the chief design considerations used in construction of the experimental test facility, complete with an outline of the planned instrumentation and data acquisition methods. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out to furnish some insights on the overall behavior of the air flow in the system. CFD simulations assisted the placement of the flow measurement sensors location. Preliminary experimental observations of experiments at 120oC inlet temperature suggested the presence of flow reversal for cases involving single active riser at both 5 m/s and 2.25 m/s, respectively and four active risers at 2.25 m/s. Flow reversal may lead to thermal stratification inside the upper plenum by means of steady state temperature measurements. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiment was carried out to furnish some insight on flow patterns and directions.

  11. Local cooling and warming effects of forests based on satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Maosheng; Motesharrei, Safa; Mu, Qiaozhen; Kalnay, Eugenia; Li, Shuangcheng

    2015-01-01

    The biophysical effects of forests on climate have been extensively studied with climate models. However, models cannot accurately reproduce local climate effects due to their coarse spatial resolution and uncertainties, and field observations are valuable but often insufficient due to their limited coverage. Here we present new evidence acquired from global satellite data to analyse the biophysical effects of forests on local climate. Results show that tropical forests have a strong cooling effect throughout the year; temperate forests show moderate cooling in summer and moderate warming in winter with net cooling annually; and boreal forests have strong warming in winter and moderate cooling in summer with net warming annually. The spatiotemporal cooling or warming effects are mainly driven by the two competing biophysical effects, evapotranspiration and albedo, which in turn are strongly influenced by rainfall and snow. Implications of our satellite-based study could be useful for informing local forestry policies. PMID:25824529

  12. Thermal Analysis of MIRIS Space Observation Camera for Verification of Passive Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk-Hang Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We conducted thermal analyses and cooling tests of the space observation camera (SOC of the multi-purpose infrared imaging system (MIRIS to verify passive cooling. The thermal analyses were conducted with NX 7.0 TMG for two cases of attitude of the MIRIS: for the worst hot case and normal case. Through the thermal analyses of the flight model, it was found that even in the worst case the telescope could be cooled to less than 206°K. This is similar to the results of the passive cooling test (~200.2°K. For the normal attitude case of the analysis, on the other hand, the SOC telescope was cooled to about 160°K in 10 days. Based on the results of these analyses and the test, it was determined that the telescope of the MIRIS SOC could be successfully cooled to below 200°K with passive cooling. The SOC is, therefore, expected to have optimal performance under cooled conditions in orbit.

  13. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, oncocytic variant: Cytological and ultrastructural observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadanori Yamaguchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is only one report on cytological findings of oncocytic variant of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC. In this article, we report a new case with focus on cytological, and ultrastructural findings. A 60-year-old Japanese man was found to have a right renal tumor on medical checkup. In imprint cytological materials, the smears consisted of slightly discohesive clusters and isolated tumor cells with granular green colored cytoplasm on Papanicolaou staining. Nuclei were generally round and centrally located in the cytoplasm, but nuclear irregularity or perinuclear halo was absent. Ultrastructurally, the tumor was full of mitochondria with tubulovesicular cristae. Fluorescence in situ hybridization study using histological material showed multiple chromosomal losses including chromosomes 7, 10, 13, and 17. This finding supports the hypothesis that this variant may ultrastructurally show the nature of chromophobe RCC rather than renal oncocytoma.

  14. The application of knemometry in renal disease: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, C; Schaefer, F; Walther, U; Schärer, K

    1991-07-01

    Short-term lower leg length was measured longitudinally using a high-precision device called a knemometer in 11 children with chronic renal failure and 12 normal children. The method has a high accuracy (mean standard error 0.13 mm) and may prove useful for prediction of long-term total body growth. Its application in renal patients undergoing corticosteroid, growth hormone (GH) and erythropoietin (EPO) therapy is documented. GH was shown to improve lower leg growth in an adolescent who already had passed the maximum of his pubertal spurt. EPO treatment produced no consistent increase of short-term growth.

  15. A VERY DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF A1795: THE COLD FRONT AND COOLING WAKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlert, Steven; McDonald, Michael; Miller, Eric D.; Bautz, Mark W. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); David, Laurence P., E-mail: sehlert@space.mit.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present a new analysis of very deep Chandra observations of the galaxy cluster A1795. Utilizing nearly 750 ks of net ACIS imaging, we are able to resolve the thermodynamic structure of the intracluster medium (ICM) on length scales of ∼1 kpc near the cool core. We find several previously unresolved structures, including a high pressure feature to the north of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) that appears to arise from the bulk motion of A1795's cool core. To the south of the cool core, we find low temperature (∼3 keV), diffuse ICM gas extending for distances of ∼50 kpc spatially coincident with previously identified filaments of Hα emission. Gas at similar temperatures is also detected in adjacent regions without any Hα emission. The X-ray gas coincident with the Hα filament has been measured to be cooling spectroscopically at a rate of ∼1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, consistent with measurements of the star formation rate in this region as inferred from ultraviolet (UV) observations, suggesting that the star formation in this filament as inferred by its Hα and UV emission can trace its origin to the rapid cooling of dense, X-ray emitting gas. The Hα filament is not a unique site of cooler ICM, however, as ICM at similar temperatures and even higher metallicities not cospatial with Hα emission is observed just to the west of the Hα filament, suggesting that it may have been uplifted by A1795's central active galaxy. Further simulations of cool core sloshing and active galactic nucleus feedback operating in concert with one another will be necessary to understand how such a dynamic cool core region may have originated and why the Hα emission is so localized with respect to the cool X-ray gas.

  16. Observations on some renal function indices in dogs under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to evaluate the effect of an increased dose of ketamine on some renal function indices of Ketamine−Xylazine anaesthetised dogs. Five adult female mongrel dogs assigned to two different treatment groups in a randomized cross over design were used for this study. Each of the dogs received either ...

  17. Direct observations of plasma upflows and condensation in a catastrophically cooling solar transition region loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orange, N. B.; Chesny, D. L.; Oluseyi, H. M.; Hesterly, K.; Patel, M.; Champey, P. [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Minimal observational evidence exists for fast transition region (TR) upflows in the presence of cool loops. Observations of such occurrences challenge notions of standard solar atmospheric heating models as well as their description of bright TR emission. Using the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode, we observe fast upflows (v {sub λ} ≤ –10 km s{sup –1}) over multiple TR temperatures (5.8 ≤log T ≤ 6.0) at the footpoint sites of a cool loop (log T ≤ 6.0). Prior to cool loop energizing, asymmetric flows of +5 km s{sup –1} and –60 km s{sup –1} are observed at footpoint sites. These flows, speeds, and patterns occur simultaneously with both magnetic flux cancellation (at the site of upflows only) derived from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic Magnetic Imager's line-of-sight magnetogram images, and a 30% mass influx at coronal heights. The incurred non-equilibrium structure of the cool loop leads to a catastrophic cooling event, with subsequent plasma evaporation indicating that the TR is the heating site. From the magnetic flux evolution, we conclude that magnetic reconnection between the footpoint and background field is responsible for the observed fast TR plasma upflows.

  18. Renal artery sympathetic denervation:observations from the UK experience

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Andrew S.P.; Davies, Justin E; Lobo, Melvin D.; Bent, Clare L.; Mark, Patrick B.; Burchell, Amy E; Thackray, Simon D.; Martin, Una; McKane, William S.; Gerber, Robert T.; Wilkinson, James R.; Antonios, Tarek F.; Doulton, Timothy W.; Patterson, Tiffany; Clifford, Piers C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal denervation (RDN) may lower blood pressure (BP); however, it is unclear whether medication changes may be confounding results. Furthermore, limited data exist on pattern of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) response?particularly in those prescribed aldosterone antagonists at the time of RDN. Methods We examined all patients treated with RDN for treatment-resistant hypertension in 18 UK centres. Results Results from 253 patients treated with five technologies are shown. Pre-proc...

  19. FUSE Observations of Warm Gas in the Cooling Flow Clusters A1795 and A2597

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oegerle, W. R.; Cowie, L.; Davidsen, A.; Hu, E.; Hutchings, J.; Murphy, E.; Sembach, K.; Woodgate, B.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present far-ultraviolet spectroscopy of the cores of the massive cooling flow clusters Abell 1795 and 2597 obtained with FUSE. As the intracluster gas cools through 3 x 10(exp 5)K, it should emit strongly in the O VI lambda(lambda)1032,1038 resonance lines. We report the detection of O VI (lambda)1032 emission in A2597, with a line flux of 1.35 +/- 0.35 x 10(exp -15) erg/sq cm s, as well as detection of emission from C III (lambda)977. A marginal detection of C III (lambda)977 emission is also reported for A1795. These observations provide evidence for a direct link between the hot (10(exp 7) K) cooling flow gas and the cool (10(exp 4) K) gas in the optical emission line filaments. Assuming simple cooling flow models, the O VI line flux in A2597 corresponds to a mass deposition rate of approx. 40 solar mass /yr within the central 36 kpc. Emission from O VI (lambda)1032 was not detected in A1795, with an upper limit of 1.5 x 10(exp -15) erg/sq cm s, corresponding to a limit on the mass cooling flow rate of M(28 kpc) less than 28M solar mass/ yr. We have considered several explanations for the lack of detection of O VI emission in A1795 and the weaker than expected flux in A2597, including extinction by dust in the outer cluster, and quenching of thermal conduction by magnetic fields. We conclude that a turbulent mixing model, with some dust extinction, could explain our O VI results while also accounting for the puzzling lack of emission by Fe(sub XVII) in cluster cooling flows.

  20. Citizen Science participation in the NASA CERES Students' Cloud Observations Online Project (S'COOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S.; Crecelius, S.; Rogerson, T.; Chambers, L. H.

    2012-12-01

    Many science programs designed for the classroom see little participation when school is not in session. Many factors, such as materials, cost, needing a teacher to lead discussion, and reporting/assessment criteria are classroom-centric. The S'COOL project has the ability to serve not only as a classroom-teaching tool, but as a citizen science project in which anyone can help NASA collect cloud data. Since its inception in 1997, the S'COOL project has invited help from the citizen science community from age 6 to 99. The S'COOL project has the ability to reach everyone in the world through satellite overpasses. This provides the citizen scientist with a temporal "match", i.e., the opportunity to make cloud observations "looking up" as various NASA Earth observing satellites make cloud observations "looking down" at the same location. After an observation is made, the observing scientist completes an online report form and sends this directly to NASA Langley Research Center's Atmospheric Science Data Center. After the satellite data are processed, generally within a week, an auto-generated email informs the observer of what the satellite observed, compared side-by-side with what they observed. All of the observations are stored in a database for later viewing and analysis. The ability to view satellite matches and past observations allows the citizen scientist to develop good scientific practices, particularly skills in cloud observation and data analysis techniques. Much of the success of the S'COOL project can be associated with its aim as a classroom-based program that transcends to the citizen science community. This allows both parties to have access to the same materials and data, creating an authentic science experience. Another avenue of success can be found in the project's translation of materials into French and Spanish. Translation provides a multicultural perspective and enables broader participation. Since the aim of the S'COOL project is to collect

  1. Observing and modeling the nocturnal park cool island of an arid city: horizontal and vertical impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Winston T. L.; Pope, Ronald L.; Martin, Chris A.; Brazel, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the horizontal and vertical nocturnal cooling influence of a small park with irrigated lawn and xeric surfaces (˜3 ha) within a university campus of a hot arid city. Temperature data from 0.01- to 3-m heights observed during a bicycle traverse of the campus were combined with modeled spatial temperature data simulated from a three-dimensional microclimate model (ENVI-met 3.1). A distinct park cool island, with mean observed magnitudes of 0.7-3.6°C, was documented for both traverse and model data with larger cooling intensities measured closer to surface level. Modeled results possessed varying but generally reasonable accuracy in simulating both spatial and temporal temperature data, although some systematic errors exist. A combination of several factors, such as variations in surface thermal properties, urban geometry, building orientation, and soil moisture, was likely responsible for influencing differential urban and non-urban near-surface temperatures. A strong inversion layer up to 1 m over non-urban surfaces was detected, contrasting with near-neutral lapse rates over urban surfaces. A key factor in the spatial expansion of the park cool island was the advection of cooler park air to adjacent urban surfaces, although this effect was mostly concentrated from 0- to 1-m heights over urban surfaces that were more exposed to the atmosphere.

  2. Spontaneous Renal Pelvis Rupture: Unexpected Complication of Urolithiasis Expected to Passage with Observation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Tas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy percent of ureteral stones are located at distal ureter. Effective and safe passage of distal ureter stones is mediated by observation or medical expulsive treatment. Most of stones located at distal ureter pass spontaneously under observation; however, some are complicated with urinary tract infection, hydronephrosis, and renal function disturbances. Spontaneous perforation of the upper ureter is a rare condition that poses diagnostic and therapeutic problems. This case is reported, because the patient developed an unexpected spontaneous renal pelvis rupture (SRPR, while she was under observation and expected to pass her right ureteral stone spontaneously through hydration and analgesic treatment.

  3. Renal artery sympathetic denervation: observations from the UK experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Andrew S P; Davies, Justin E; Lobo, Melvin D; Bent, Clare L; Mark, Patrick B; Burchell, Amy E; Thackray, Simon D; Martin, Una; McKane, William S; Gerber, Robert T; Wilkinson, James R; Antonios, Tarek F; Doulton, Timothy W; Patterson, Tiffany; Clifford, Piers C; Lindsay, Alistair; Houston, Graeme J; Freedman, Jonathan; Das, Neelan; Belli, Anna M; Faris, Mohamad; Cleveland, Trevor J; Nightingale, Angus K; Hameed, Awais; Mahadevan, Kalaivani; Finegold, Judith A; Mather, Adam N; Levy, Terry; D'Souza, Richard; Riley, Peter; Moss, Jonathan G; Di Mario, Carlo; Redwood, Simon R; Baumbach, Andreas; Caulfield, Mark J; Dasgupta, Indranil

    2016-06-01

    Renal denervation (RDN) may lower blood pressure (BP); however, it is unclear whether medication changes may be confounding results. Furthermore, limited data exist on pattern of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) response-particularly in those prescribed aldosterone antagonists at the time of RDN. We examined all patients treated with RDN for treatment-resistant hypertension in 18 UK centres. Results from 253 patients treated with five technologies are shown. Pre-procedural mean office BP (OBP) was 185/102 mmHg (SD 26/19; n = 253) and mean daytime ABP was 170/98 mmHg (SD 22/16; n = 186). Median number of antihypertensive drugs was 5.0: 96 % ACEi/ARB; 86 % thiazide/loop diuretic and 55 % aldosterone antagonist. OBP, available in 90 % at 11 months follow-up, was 163/93 mmHg (reduction of 22/9 mmHg). ABP, available in 70 % at 8.5 months follow-up, was 158/91 mmHg (fall of 12/7 mmHg). Mean drug changes post RDN were: 0.36 drugs added, 0.91 withdrawn. Dose changes appeared neutral. Quartile analysis by starting ABP showed mean reductions in systolic ABP after RDN of: 0.4; 6.5; 14.5 and 22.1 mmHg, respectively (p  0.2). In 253 patients treated with RDN, office BP fell by 22/9 mmHg. Ambulatory BP fell by 12/7 mmHg, though little response was seen in the lowermost quartile of starting blood pressure. Fall in BP was not explained by medication changes and aldosterone antagonist use did not affect response.

  4. Effective peer-to-peer support for young people with end-stage renal disease: a mixed methods evaluation of Camp COOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Camp COOL programme aims to help young Dutch people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) develop self-management skills. Fellow patients already treated in adult care (hereafter referred to as ‘buddies’) organise the day-to-day program, run the camp, counsel the attendees, and also participate in the activities. The attendees are young people who still have to transfer to adult care. This study aimed to explore the effects of this specific form of peer-to-peer support on the self-management of young people (16–25 years) with ESRD who participated in Camp COOL (CC) (hereafter referred to as ‘participants’). Methods A mixed methods research design was employed. Semi-structured interviews (n = 19) with initiators/staff, participants, and healthcare professionals were conducted. These were combined with retrospective and pre-post surveys among participants (n = 62), and observations during two camp weeks. Results Self-reported effects of participants were: increased self-confidence, more disease-related knowledge, feeling capable of being more responsible and open towards others, and daring to stand up for yourself. According to participants, being a buddy or having one positively affected them. Self-efficacy of attendees and independence of buddies increased, while attendees’ sense of social inclusion decreased (measured as domains of health-related quality of life). The buddy role was a pro-active combination of being supervisor, advisor, and leader. Conclusions Camp COOL allowed young people to support each other in adjusting to everyday life with ESRD. Participating in the camp positively influenced self-management in this group. Peer-to-peer support through buddies was much appreciated. Support from young adults was not only beneficial for adolescent attendees, but also for young adult buddies. Paediatric nephrologists are encouraged to refer patients to CC and to facilitate such initiatives. Together with nephrologists in adult

  5. ' RENAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    METASTASE OSSEUSE: SOLITAIRE D'UN ADENOCARCINOME RENAL. Fig. 2: TDM ... du gène de résistance aux médicaments. NIDR1. ... vie. La néphrectomie trouve sa place dans quatre situations: En cas de métastase unique, dans un but de réduction tumorale avant immunothérapie, elle peut être adjuvante après.

  6. Using Roving Cloud Observations from the S'COOL Project to Engage Citizen Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, P. M.; Oostra, D.; Moore, S. W.; Rogerson, T. M.; Crecelius, S. A.; Chambers, L. H.

    2011-12-01

    Students' Clouds Observations On-Line (S'COOL) is a hands-on project, which supports NASA research on the Earth's climate. Through their observations, participants are engaged in identifying cloud-types and levels and sending that information to NASA. The two main groups of S'COOL observers are permanent locations such as regularly participating classrooms, and non-permanent locations or Rovers. These non-permanent locations can be a field trip, vacation, or just an occasional observation from a backyard. S'COOL welcomes participation from any interested observers, especially from places where official weather observations are few and far between. This program is offered to citizen scientists all over the world. They are participating in climate research by reporting cloud types and levels within +/- 15 minutes of a satellite overpass and sending that information back to NASA. When a participant's cloud observation coincides with a satellite overpass, the project sends them an email with a MODIS image of the overpass location, and a comparison of the satellite's cloud data results next to their ground-based report. This allows for the students and citizen scientists to participate in ground-truthing the CERES satellite data, to determine the level of agreement/disagreement. A new tool slated for future use in cloud identification, developed by the S'COOL team, is a mobile application. The application is entitled "Cloud Identification for Students" or "CITRUS". The mobile application utilizes a cloud dichotomous key with images to help with cloud identification. Also included in the application is a link to the project's cloud-reporting page to help with data submission in the field. One of the project's recent and most unique roving observers is a solo ocean rower who has traversed many of the world's ocean basins alone in a rowboat. While rowing across the oceans, she has recently been making cloud observations, which she sends back to us for analysis. In doing so

  7. Radiologic observation of the course of renal osteopathy during therapy with Rocaltrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesli, A.

    The radiologic observation of the course of renal osteopathy during therapy with Rocaltrol. By means of a densitometer, the traveculae located in the spongiosa at the base of the proximal phalanxes 2-5 of both hands were counted in 13 patients suffering from renal osteopathy before and after a 3/4-year treatment with Rocaltrol. The number of trabeculae was shown to decrease by 0,8%. Although no comparable values are available in the relevant literature, the drop in number of total trabeculae from 3,505 to 3,476 (-29) is considerably small. However, considering the irreversible progression of renal osteopathy, this decline nevertheless points to the reparative potency of Rocaltrol.

  8. Observation-Based Estimates of Surface Cooling Inhibition by Heavy Rainfall under Tropical Cyclones

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jourdain, N.C.; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J.; Madec, G.; Menkes, C.E.; Vincent, E.M.; Jullien, E.; Barnier, B.

    (referred to as the ‘‘cold wake’’ in many studies). In situ observations of individual TCs (e.g., Jacob et al. 2000; D’Asaro et al. 2007) or numerical case studies (e.g., Price 1981; Greatbatch 1983) suggest that vertical mixing associatedwith the intense... al. 2012a). Numerous studies have been dedicated to understand how precyclone oceanic stratification may influence the cold wake. One, indeed, expects a stronger cooling by vertical mixing in regions of a steep and shallow ther- mocline. The parameter...

  9. Observations of Infrared Radiative Cooling in the Thermosphere on Daily to Multiyear Timescales from the TIMED/SABER Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hunt, Linda A.; Marshall, B. Thomas; Martin-Torres, F. Javier; Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell, James M., III; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Picard, Richard; Winick, Jeremy; hide

    2009-01-01

    We present observations of the infrared radiative cooling by carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) in Earth s thermosphere. These data have been taken over a period of 7 years by the SABER instrument on the NASA TIMED satellite and are the dominant radiative cooling mechanisms for the thermosphere. From the SABER observations we derive vertical profiles of radiative cooling rates (W/cu m), radiative fluxes (W/sq m), and radiated power (W). In the period from January 2002 through January 2009 we observe a large decrease in the cooling rates, fluxes, and power consistent with the declining phase of solar cycle. The power radiated by NO during 2008 when the Sun exhibited few sunspots was nearly one order of magnitude smaller than the peak power observed shortly after the mission began. Substantial short-term variability in the infrared emissions is also observed throughout the entire mission duration. Radiative cooling rates and radiative fluxes from NO exhibit fundamentally different latitude dependence than do those from CO2, with the NO fluxes and cooling rates being largest at high latitudes and polar regions. The cooling rates are shown to be derived relatively independent of the collisional and radiative processes that drive the departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in the CO2 15 m and the NO 5.3 m vibration-rotation bands. The observed NO and CO2 cooling rates have been compiled into a separate dataset and represent a climate data record that is available for use in assessments of radiative cooling in upper atmosphere general circulation models.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope observations of cool white dwarf stars: Detection of new species of heavy elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Harry; Barnhill, Maurice; Provencal, Judi; Roby, Scott; Bues, Irmela; Cordova, France; Hammond, Gordon; Hintzen, Paul; Koester, Detlev; Liebert, James

    1995-01-01

    Observations of cool white dwarf stars with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has uncovered a number of spectral features from previouslly unobserved species. In this paper we present the data on four cool white dwarfs. We present identifications, equivalent width measurements, and brief summaries of the significance of our findings. The four stars observed are GD 40 (DBZ3, G 74-7 (DAZ), L 745-46A (DZ), and LDS 749B (DBA). Many additional species of heavey elements were detected in GD 40 and G 74-7. In L 745-46A, while the detections are limited to Fe 1, Fe II, and Mg II, the quality of the Mg II h and K line profiles should permit a test of the line broadening theories, which are so crucial to abundance determinations. The clear detection of Mg II h and k in LDS 749 B should, once an abundance determination is made, provide a clear test of the hypothesis that the DBA stars are the result of accretion from the interstellar medium. This star contains no other clear features other than a tantalizing hint of C II 1335 with a P Cygni profile, and some expected He 1 lines.

  11. Stochastic Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

  12. Proteinuria as a Noninvasive Marker for Renal Allograft Histology and Failure: An Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naesens, Maarten; Lerut, Evelyne; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Herelixka, Albert; Evenepoel, Pieter; Claes, Kathleen; Bammens, Bert; Sprangers, Ben; Meijers, Björn; Jochmans, Ina; Monbaliu, Diethard; Pirenne, Jacques; Kuypers, Dirk R J

    2016-01-01

    Proteinuria is routinely measured to assess renal allograft status, but the diagnostic and prognostic values of this measurement for renal transplant pathology and outcome remain unclear. We included 1518 renal allograft recipients in this prospective, observational cohort study. All renal allograft biopsy samples with concomitant data on 24-hour proteinuria were included in the analyses (n=2274). Patients were followed for ≥7 years post-transplantation. Compared with proteinuria proteinuria 0.3-1.0 g/24 h, 2.17 (95% CI, 1.49 to 3.18; Pproteinuria 1.0-3.0 g/24 h, and 3.01 (95% CI, 1.75 to 5.18; Pproteinuria >3.0 g/24 h, independent of GFR and allograft histology. The predictive performance of proteinuria for graft failure was lower at 3 months after transplant (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.64, Pproteinuria were repeat transplantation, mean arterial pressure, transplant glomerulopathy, microcirculation inflammation, and de novo/recurrent glomerular disease. The discriminatory power of proteinuria for these intragraft injury processes was better in biopsy samples obtained >3 months after transplant (AUC 0.73, Pproteinuria >1.0 g/24 h. These data support current clinical guidelines to routinely measure proteinuria after transplant, but illustrate the need for more sensitive biomarkers of allograft injury and prognosis. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Prospective observational study with an abbreviated protocol in the management of blunt renal injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Kathleen D; Juang, David; Notrica, David; Grandsoult, Victoria L; Acosta, Juan; Sharp, Susan W; Murphy, J Patrick; St Peter, Shawn D

    2014-01-01

    There are no published management schemes for blunt renal injuries. We are conducting a 2-center prospective observational study with a fixed management scheme. Children with CT proven renal injuries were enrolled with permission. Ambulation is allowed when able regardless of grade. Discharge occurs when tolerating a diet and pain is controlled regardless of hematuria. Urinalysis occurs at follow up in 2-4weeks and repeated as indicated. Between 9/2008 and 9/2012, 70 patients were enrolled. Mean age was 11.8years (3-17), and 70% were male. The mean grade of injury was 2.8±1.1 [1-5]. One nephrectomy (1.4%) was performed for a grade 5 injury. Other renal interventions included an embolization for the hilar bleed and one cystotomy for a clot. Mean LOS was 2.9days±2.4days. In patients without other major injury, LOS was 1.9±1.7days (0.4-8days). There were 5 (7%) readmissions: 3 for pain, 1 for hematuria, and 1 for a bladder clot. 58 patients (83%) gave urinalysis samples at initial follow up (med 18days), where 31 (53%) were positive for blood. Children with blunt renal injury may benefit from management without strict bedrest guidelines. Hematuria appears to have little influence on recovery. © 2014.

  14. Proteinuria as a Noninvasive Marker for Renal Allograft Histology and Failure: An Observational Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerut, Evelyne; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Herelixka, Albert; Evenepoel, Pieter; Claes, Kathleen; Bammens, Bert; Sprangers, Ben; Meijers, Björn; Jochmans, Ina; Monbaliu, Diethard; Pirenne, Jacques; Kuypers, Dirk R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Proteinuria is routinely measured to assess renal allograft status, but the diagnostic and prognostic values of this measurement for renal transplant pathology and outcome remain unclear. We included 1518 renal allograft recipients in this prospective, observational cohort study. All renal allograft biopsy samples with concomitant data on 24-hour proteinuria were included in the analyses (n=2274). Patients were followed for ≥7 years post-transplantation. Compared with proteinuria failure were 1.14 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.81 to 1.60; P=0.50), for proteinuria 0.3–1.0 g/24 h, 2.17 (95% CI, 1.49 to 3.18; P3.0 g/24 h, independent of GFR and allograft histology. The predictive performance of proteinuria for graft failure was lower at 3 months after transplant (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.64, P3 months after transplant (AUC 0.73, P1.0 g/24 h. These data support current clinical guidelines to routinely measure proteinuria after transplant, but illustrate the need for more sensitive biomarkers of allograft injury and prognosis. PMID:26152270

  15. CRRTnet: a prospective, multi-national, observational study of continuous renal replacement therapy practices

    OpenAIRE

    Heung, Michael; Bagshaw, Sean M.; House, Andrew A.; Juncos, Luis A.; Piazza, Robin; Goldstein, Stuart L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is the recommended modality of dialysis for critically ill patients with hemodynamic instability. Yet there remains significant variability in how CRRT is prescribed and delivered, and limited evidence-basis to guide practice. Methods This is a prospective, multi-center observational study of patients undergoing CRRT. Initial enrollment phase will occur at 4 academic medical centers in North America over 5?years, with a target enrollment ...

  16. Observed 1970-2005 cooling of summer daytime temperatures in coastal California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.; Fabris, D.; Maurer, E.; Miller, N.; Milesi, C.; Bornstein, R.

    2009-05-15

    The study evaluated 1948-2004 summer (JJA) mean monthly air temperatures for two California air basins: SoCAB and SFBA. The study focuses on the more rapid post-1970 warming period, and its daily T{sub min} and T{sub max} values were used to produce average monthly values and spatial distributions of trends for each air basins. Additional analyses included T{sub D} values at two NWS sites, SSTs, NCEP reanalysis sea-level pressures, and GCM T{sub ave}-values. Results for all California COOP sites together showed increased JJA T{sub ave}-values; asymmetric warming, as T{sub min}-values increase faster than T{sub max}-values; and thus decreased DTR values. The spatial distribution of observed SoCAB and SFBA T{sub max} values exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling in low-elevation coastal-areas open to marine air penetration and warming at inland areas. Results also showed that decreased DTR values in the valleys arose from small increases at 'inland' sites combined with large decreases at 'coastal' sites. Previous studies suggest that cooling JJA T{sub max}-values in coastal California were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover, while the current hypothesis is that they arises from GHG-induced global-warming of 'inland' areas, which results in increased sea breeze flow activity. Sea level pressure trends showed increases in the oceanic Pacific High and decreases in the central-California Thermal Low. The corresponding gradient thus showed a trend of 0.02 hPa 100-km{sup -1} decade{sup -1}, supportive of the hypothesis of increased sea breeze activity. Trends in T{sub D} values showed a larger value at coastal SFO than at inland SEC, which indicative of increased sea breeze activity; calculated SST trends (0.15 C decade{sup -1}) could also have increase T{sub D}-values. GCM model Tave-values showed warming that decreases from 0.13 C decade{sup -1} at inland California to 0.08 C decade{sup -1} at coastal areas

  17. X-ray observations of complex temperature structure in the cool-core cluster A85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenck, David E.; Datta, Abhirup; Burns, Jack O. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Skillman, Sam [Kavli Fellow, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC, CA 94025 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    X-ray observations were used to examine the complex temperature structure of A85, a cool-core galaxy cluster. Temperature features can provide evidence of merging events which shock heat the intracluster gas. Temperature maps were made from both Chandra and XMM-Newton observations. The combination of a new, long-exposure XMM observation and an improved temperature map binning technique produced the highest fidelity temperature maps of A85 to date. Hot regions were detected near the subclusters to the south and southwest in both the Chandra and XMM temperature maps. The presence of these structures implies A85 is not relaxed. The hot regions may indicate the presence of shocks. The Mach numbers were estimated to be ∼1.9 at the locations of the hot spots. Observational effects will tend to systematically reduce temperature jumps, so the measured Mach numbers are likely underestimated. Neither temperature map showed evidence for a shock in the vicinity of the presumed radio relic near the southwest subcluster. However, the presence of a weak shock cannot be ruled out. There was tension between the temperatures measured by the two instruments.

  18. Observed increase in local cooling effect of deforestation at higher latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuhui Lee; Michael L. Goulden; David Y. Hollinger; Alan Barr; T. Andrew Black; Gil Bohrer; Rosvel Bracho; Bert Drake; Allen Goldstein; Lianhong Gu; Gabriel Katul; Thomas Kolb; Beverly E. Law; Hank Margolis; Tilden Meyers; Russell Monson; William Munger; Ram Oren; Kyaw Tha Paw U; Andrew D. Richardson; Hans Peter Schmid; Ralf Staebler; Steven Wofsy; Lei. Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation in mid- to high latitudes is hypothesized to have the potential to cool the Earth's surface by altering biophysical processes. In climate models of continental-scale land clearing, the cooling is triggered by increases in surface albedo and is reinforced by a land albedo–sea ice feedback. This feedback is crucial in the model predictions; without it...

  19. Nutritional status and clinical outcome of children on continuous renal replacement therapy: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Ana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No studies on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT have analyzed nutritional status in children. The objective of this study was to assess the association between mortality and nutritional status of children receiving CRRT. Methods Prospective observational study to analyze the nutritional status of children receiving CRRT and its association with mortality. The variables recorded were age, weight, sex, diagnosis, albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, severity of illness scores, CRRT-related complications, duration of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit, and mortality. Results The sample comprised 174 critically ill children on CRRT. The median weight of the patients was 10 kg, 35% were under percentile (P 3, and 56% had a weight/P50 ratio of less than 0.85. Only two patients were above P95. The mean age for patients under P3 was significantly lower than that of the other patients (p = 0.03. The incidence of weight under P3 was greater in younger children (p = 0.007 and in cardiac patients and in those who had previous chronic renal insufficiency (p = 0.047. The mortality analysis did not include patients with pre-existing renal disease. Mortality was 38.9%. Mortality for patients with weight P3 (51% vs 33%; p = 0.037. In the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, the only factor associated with mortality was protein-energy wasting (malnutrition (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.067-4.173; p = 0.032. Conclusions The frequency of protein-energy wasting in children who require CRRT is high, and the frequency of obesity is low. Protein-energy wasting is more frequent in children with previous end-stage renal disease and heart disease. Underweight children present a higher mortality rate than patients with normal body weight.

  20. Nutritional status and clinical outcome of children on continuous renal replacement therapy: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ana; Santiago, Maria J; López-Herce, Jesús; Montoro, Sandra; López, Jorge; Bustinza, Amaya; Moral, Ramón; Bellón, Jose M

    2012-09-27

    No studies on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) have analyzed nutritional status in children. The objective of this study was to assess the association between mortality and nutritional status of children receiving CRRT. Prospective observational study to analyze the nutritional status of children receiving CRRT and its association with mortality. The variables recorded were age, weight, sex, diagnosis, albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, severity of illness scores, CRRT-related complications, duration of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit, and mortality. The sample comprised 174 critically ill children on CRRT. The median weight of the patients was 10 kg, 35% were under percentile (P) 3, and 56% had a weight/P50 ratio of less than 0.85. Only two patients were above P95. The mean age for patients under P3 was significantly lower than that of the other patients (p = 0.03). The incidence of weight under P3 was greater in younger children (p = 0.007) and in cardiac patients and in those who had previous chronic renal insufficiency (p = 0.047). The mortality analysis did not include patients with pre-existing renal disease. Mortality was 38.9%. Mortality for patients with weight P3 (51% vs 33%; p = 0.037). In the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, the only factor associated with mortality was protein-energy wasting (malnutrition) (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.067-4.173; p = 0.032). The frequency of protein-energy wasting in children who require CRRT is high, and the frequency of obesity is low. Protein-energy wasting is more frequent in children with previous end-stage renal disease and heart disease. Underweight children present a higher mortality rate than patients with normal body weight.

  1. Acute renal failure in critically ill newborns increases the risk of death: a prospective observational study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ankur; Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-09-01

    To determine the incidence and risk factors of acute renal failure (ARF) in hospitalized critically ill neonates and analyze outcome of all neonates with renal failure in relation to risk factors. In this prospective observational study 815 infants were enrolled. Renal profile (blood urea and serum creatinine) was done after 12 h of life (or at the time of admission for outborn babies) and then every 12 hourly. Daily 24 h urine output was evaluated. Incidence of renal failure in critically ill neonates was 10.67%. Out of 87 ARF neonates 52 (60%) expired. Mortality in the renal failure group was significantly higher in comparison to control group (p renal failure was more common than oliguric renal failure, but mortality in the oliguric renal failure group was more. Neonatal sepsis was the most common cause of ARF. Eight neonates underwent peritoneal dialysis (PD) out of which there were seven neonatal deaths. Prognosis of neonates with ARF requiring PD was very poor. It can thus be concluded that the health care personal should do rapid diagnosis of ARF in neonates with potential risk factors and also goal at an early and effective treatment of these risk factors in neonates with ARF.

  2. Radio and Deep Chandra Observations of the Disturbed Cool Core Cluster Abell 133

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, S. W.; Clarke, T. E.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Owers, M. S.; Sarazin, C. L.; Forman, W. R.; Murray, S. S.

    2010-10-01

    We present results based on new Chandra and multi-frequency radio observations of the disturbed cool core cluster Abell 133. The diffuse gas has a complex bird-like morphology, with a plume of emission extending from two symmetric wing-like features. The plume is capped with a filamentary radio structure that has been previously classified as a radio relic. X-ray spectral fits in the region of the relic indicate the presence of either high-temperature gas or non-thermal emission, although the measured photon index is flatter than would be expected if the non-thermal emission is from inverse Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background by the radio-emitting particles. We find evidence for a weak elliptical X-ray surface brightness edge surrounding the core, which we show is consistent with a sloshing cold front. The plume is consistent with having formed due to uplift by a buoyantly rising radio bubble, now seen as the radio relic, and has properties consistent with buoyantly lifted plumes seen in other systems (e.g., M87). Alternatively, the plume may be a gas sloshing spiral viewed edge-on. Results from spectral analysis of the wing-like features are inconsistent with the previous suggestion that the wings formed due to the passage of a weak shock through the cool core. We instead conclude that the wings are due to X-ray cavities formed by displacement of X-ray gas by the radio relic. The central cD galaxy contains two small-scale cold gas clumps that are slightly offset from their optical and UV counterparts, suggestive of a galaxy-galaxy merger event. On larger scales, there is evidence for cluster substructure in both optical observations and the X-ray temperature map. We suggest that the Abell 133 cluster has recently undergone a merger event with an interloping subgroup, initialing gas sloshing in the core. The torus of sloshed gas is seen close to edge-on, leading to the somewhat ragged appearance of the elliptical surface brightness edge. We show

  3. Observed and Simulated Urban Heat Island and Urban Cool Island in Las Vegas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauceda, Daniel O.

    This research investigates the urban climate of Las Vegas and establishes long-term trends relative to the regional climate in an attempt to identify climate disturbances strictly related to urban growth. An experimental surface station network (DRI-UHI) of low-cost surface temperature (T2m) and relative humidity (RH) sensors were designed to cover under-sampled low-intensity residential urban areas, as well as complement the in-city and surrounding rural areas. In addition to the analysis of the surface station data, high-resolution gridded data products (GDPs) from Daymet (1km) and PRISM (800 m) and results from numerical simulations were used to further characterize the Las Vegas climate trends. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was coupled with three different models: the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) and a single- and multi-layer urban canopy model (UCM) to assess the urban related climate disturbances; as well as the model sensitivity and ability to characterize diurnal variability and rural/urban thermal contrasts. The simulations consisted of 1 km grid size for five, one month-long hindcast simulations during November of 2012: (i) using the Noah LSM without UCM treatment, (ii) same as (i) with a single-layer UCM (UCM1), (iii) same as (i) with a multi-layer UCM (UCM2), (iv) removing the City of Las Vegas (NC) and replacing it with predominant land cover (shrub), and (v) same as (ii) with increasing the albedo of rooftops from 0.20 to 0.65 as a potential adaptation scenario known as "white roofing". T2m long-term trends showed a regional warming of minimum temperatures (Tmin) and negligible trends in maximum temperatures (Tmax ). By isolating the regional temperature trends, an observed urban heat island (UHI) of ~1.63°C was identified as well as a daytime urban cool island (UCI) of ~0.15°C. GDPs agree with temperature trends but tend to underpredict UHI intensity by ~1.05°C. The WRF-UCM showed strong correlations with observed T2m (0.85 UCI

  4. [Efficacy observation of Guan's quadruple therapy for kidney disease on the treatment of chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zheng; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Jiang, Yun-Wu; Tang, Xiao-Yun; Guan, Zun-Xin

    2014-07-01

    To compare the differences in the clinical efficacy between Guan's quadruple therapy for kidney disease and the conventional western medication in the treatment of chronic renal failure (CRF). Eighty patients were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 40 cases in each one. In the observation group, besides the physician instruction of low protein and low phosphorus diet in the two groups, Guan's quadruple therapy for kidney disease was applied, including (1) the isolated herbal moxibustion at Shenshu (BL 23) and Pishu (BL 21), or Ganshu (BL 18), Zusanli (ST 36) and Guanyuan (CV 4) alternatively; (2) acupuncture at the auricular points such as shen (CO10), jiaogan (AHR6), Shenshangxian (TG2), fei (CO14) and pizhixia (AT4); (3) injection of mixture of astragalus injection and lidocaine injection at Feishu (BL 13), Pishu (BL 21), Shenshu (BL 23) and the others; (4) modified Shenshuai Yihao decoction according to syndrome differentiation. In the control group, the conventional western medication was used. After 6 months of treatment, the differences were observed between the two groups in the clinical efficacy, serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), endogenous creatinine (Ccr) and 24 h urine protein quantitation (UPQ). In the observation group, after treatment, the remarkably effective rate was 50.0% (20/40) and the total effective rate was 82.5% (33/40), which were superior to 25.0% (10/40) and 45.0% (18/40) in the control group (both P kidney disease achieves a better efficacy on CRF compared with the conventional western medication. This therapy improves renal functions, relieves clinical symptoms and physical signs and benefits the life quality of patients.

  5. Evaluation of Protocol Biopsy Utility 12 Months after Renal Transplantation: A Multicenter Observational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moulin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical merit of surveillance kidney graft biopsies remains controversial. A retrospective, multicenter analysis evaluated 12-month surveillance biopsies (SB, 154 patients versus no SB (NSB, 138 patients (11 with diagnostic biopsy in patients >18 months posttransplant with estimated GFR (eGFR ≥30 mL/min. The primary objective was to describe renal function at 18 months post-transplant in patients with or without SB at month 12. Globally, most recipients in both cohorts were at low immunological risk (<10% of patients with PRA ≥30%. The immunosuppressive regimen remained unchanged following more than half of SB that exhibited chronic lesions (18/33, 54.5%. Mean (SD eGFR at month 18 (primary endpoint was 56 (19 mL/min/1.73 m² with SB and 54 (15 mL/min/1.73 m² with NSB (=0.48. In the SB group, slight nonspecific changes were observed in 51 cases, rejection (acute or chronic in 6 cases, CNI-related toxicity in 15 cases, recurrence of initial disease in two cases, and interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IF/TA in 83 cases (71.6%, of which 35 cases (30.2% were grade II/III lesions. eGFR <50 mL/min/1.73 m² at month 6 predicted IF/TA grade II or III (OR 3.85, 95% CI 1.64, 9.05, <0.002. SB at 12 months posttransplant did not prompt significant modification of immunosuppression, and no renal benefit was observed.

  6. The "Cool Algol" BD+05 706 : Photometric observations of a new eclipsing double-lined spectroscopic binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, L. A.; Torres, G.; Neuhauser, R.

    1998-05-01

    BVRI Observations of the star BD+05 706, carried out between January, 1997, and April 1998 using the 0.4m reflector and Photometrics CCD camera at the Gettysburg College Observatory, show that the star is an eclipsing binary system with a light curve characteristic of a class of semi-detached binaries known as the "cool Algols". These results are in good agreement with the previous report of BD+05 706 as a cool Algol by Torres, Neuhauser, and Wichmann,(Astron. J., 115, May 1998) who based their classification on the strong X-ray emission detected by Rosat and on a series of spectroscopic observations of the radial velocities of both components of the system obtained at the Oak Ridge Observatory, the Fred L. Whipple Observatory, and the Multiple Mirror Telescope. Only 10 other examples of cool Algols are known, and the current photometric light curve, together with the radial velocity curves obtained previously, allows us to derive a complete solution for the physical parameters of each component, providing important constraints on models for these interesting systems.

  7. CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF ABELL 1142: A COOL-CORE CLUSTER LACKING A CENTRAL BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yuanyuan; Weeren, Reinout van [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Buote, David A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Gastaldello, Fabio, E-mail: yuanyuan.su@cfa.harvard.edu [INAF-IASF-Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-04-10

    Abell 1142 is a low-mass galaxy cluster at low redshift containing two comparable brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) resembling a scaled-down version of the Coma Cluster. Our Chandra analysis reveals an X-ray emission peak, roughly 100 kpc away from either BCG, which we identify as the cluster center. The emission center manifests itself as a second beta-model surface brightness component distinct from that of the cluster on larger scales. The center is also substantially cooler and more metal-rich than the surrounding intracluster medium (ICM), which makes Abell 1142 appear to be a cool-core cluster. The redshift distribution of its member galaxies indicates that Abell 1142 may contain two subclusters, each of which contain one BCG. The BCGs are merging at a relative velocity of ≈1200 km s{sup −1}. This ongoing merger may have shock-heated the ICM from ≈2 keV to above 3 keV, which would explain the anomalous L{sub X}–T{sub X} scaling relation for this system. This merger may have displaced the metal-enriched “cool core” of either of the subclusters from the BCG. The southern BCG consists of three individual galaxies residing within a radius of 5 kpc in projection. These galaxies should rapidly sink into the subcluster center due to the dynamical friction of a cuspy cold dark matter halo.

  8. ROSAT PSPC observations of the early-type galaxies NGC 507 and NGC 499: Central cooling and mass determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Fabbiano, G.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a deep observation of NGC 507 and NGC 499 with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC). The X-ray emission of NGC 507 is extended at least out to 1000 sec (458 kpc at a distance of 94.5 Mpc). The radial profile of X-ray surface brightness goes as Sigma(sub x) is approximately r(exp -1.8) outside the core region. The radial profile is a function of energy such that the softer X-rays have a smaller core radius and a flatter slope. Spectral analysis reveals that the emission temperature, with an average of 1 keV, peaks at an intermediate radius of 2-3 min and falls toward the center (possibly decreases outward as well). The absorption column density is consistent with the Galactic line-of-sight value. The X-ray emission of NGC 499 is extended to 300 sec and suggests a similarly cooler core. The cooler cores of NGC 507 and NGC 499 are strong evidence of the presence of cooling flows in these galaxies. Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium outside the cooling radius, the estimated mass-to-light ratio of NGC 507 is 97 +/- 16 within 458 kpc, indicative of the presence of a heavy halo. Similarly, the mass-to-light ratio of NGC 499 is 89 +/- 14 within 137 kpc. Near the edge of the X-ray-emitting region of NGC 507 we detect 19 soft, unresolved sources. These sources do not have optical counterparts and are significantly in excess of the expected number of background serendipitous sources. We speculate that they may represent cooling clumps in the halo of NGC 507. If there are many undetected cooling clumps distributed at large radii, then the radial profile of the X-ray surface brightness does not directly reflect the potential, adding uncertainty to the measurement of the binding mass; the gas mass could also be overestimated.

  9. Three-dimensional evaluation of postoperative swelling in treatment of zygomatic bone fractures using two different cooling therapy methods: a randomized, observer-blind, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modabber, Ali; Rana, Madiha; Ghassemi, Alireza; Gerressen, Marcus; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Hölzle, Frank; Rana, Majeed

    2013-07-29

    Surgical treatment and complications in patients with zygomatic bone fractures can lead to a significant degree of tissue trauma resulting in common postoperative symptoms and types of pain, facial swelling and functional impairment. Beneficial effects of local cold treatment on postoperative swelling, edema, pain, inflammation, and hemorrhage, as well as the reduction of metabolism, bleeding and hematomas, have been described.The aim of this study was to compare postoperative cooling therapy applied through the use of cooling compresses with the water-circulating cooling face mask manufactured by Hilotherm in terms of beneficial impact on postoperative facial swelling, pain, eye motility, diplopia, neurological complaints and patient satisfaction. Forty-two patients were selected for treatment of unilateral zygomatic bone fractures and were divided randomly to one of two treatments: either a Hilotherm cooling face mask or conventional cooling compresses. Cooling was initiated as soon as possible after surgery until postoperative day 3 and was applied continuously for 12 hours daily. Facial swelling was quantified through a three-dimensional optical scanning technique. Furthermore, pain, neurological complaints, eye motility, diplopia and patient satisfaction were observed for each patient. Patients receiving a cooling therapy by Hilotherm demonstrated significantly less facial swelling, less pain, reduced limitation of eye motility and diplopia, fewer neurological complaints and were more satisfied compared to patients receiving conventional cooling therapy. Hilotherapy is more efficient in managing postoperative swelling and pain after treatment of unilateral zygomatic bone fractures than conventional cooling. German Clinical Trials Register ID: DRKS00004846.

  10. The role of genetic nephropathies in the formation of chronic renal failure in children (a clinical observation of a child with acrorenal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Gonchar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors analyze the literature, as well as the results of their own long-term experience in the diagnosis of genetically determined renal diseases accompanied by the development of chronic renal failure. The main causes of diseases, the principles of their diagnosis and treatment were outlined. Clinical observation of a patient with acrorenal syndrome with complicated development of chronic renal failure is given.

  11. Photometric Observations of Two Cool Stars: HD 17025 and HD 38392

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stȩpień, K.

    1995-07-01

    UBV(RI)c observations of a G6/G8IV star HD17025 suggest a variation period of about 9 days. The light curve has a marginal amplitude of about 0.015 of a magnitude but is poorly defined and needs an independent confirmation. No prominent chromospheric emission is visible in a spectrum of this star. The other observed star, a K2 dwarf HD38392, did not show measurable light variations over a two weeks period of observations.

  12. LSQ14efd: observations of the cooling of a shock break-out event in a type Ic Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarino, C.; Botticella, M. T.; Dall'Ora, M.; Della Valle, M.; Benetti, S.; Lyman, J. D.; Smartt, S. J.; Arcavi, I.; Baltay, C.; Bersier, D.; Dennefeld, M.; Ellman, N.; Fraser, M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Howell, D. A.; Inserra, C.; Kankare, E.; Leloudas, G.; Maguire, K.; McCully, C.; Mitra, A.; McKinnon, R.; Olivares E., F.; Pignata, G.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rostami, S.; Smith, K. W.; Sullivan, M.; Valenti, S.; Yaron, O.; Young, D.

    2017-10-01

    We present the photometric and spectroscopic evolution of the type Ic supernova LSQ14efd, discovered by the La Silla QUEST survey and followed by PESSTO. LSQ14efd was discovered few days after explosion and the observations cover up to ∼100 d. The early photometric points show the signature of the cooling of the shock break-out event experienced by the progenitor at the time of the supernova explosion, one of the first for a type Ic supernova. A comparison with type Ic supernova spectra shows that LSQ14efd is quite similar to the type Ic SN 2004aw. These two supernovae have kinetic energies that are intermediate between standard Ic explosions and those which are the most energetic explosions known (e.g. SN 1998bw). We computed an analytical model for the light-curve peak and estimated the mass of the ejecta 6.3 ± 0.5 M⊙, a synthesized nickel mass of 0.25 M⊙ and a kinetic energy of Ekin = 5.6 ± 0.5 × 1051 erg. No connection between LSQ14efd and a gamma-ray burst event could be established. However we point out that the supernova shows some spectroscopic similarities with the peculiar SN-Ia 1999ac and the SN-Iax SN 2008A. A core-collapse origin is most probable considering the spectroscopic, photometric evolution and the detection of the cooling of the shock breakout.

  13. Eligibility for Statin Treatment in Korean Subjects with Reduced Renal Function: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Sub Moon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between statin eligibility and the degree of renal dysfunction using the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III and the American College of Cardiology (ACC/American Heart Association (AHA guidelines in Korean adults.MethodsRenal function was assessed in 18,746 participants of the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study from January 2011 to December 2012. Subjects were divided into three groups according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR: stage 1, eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2; stage 2, eGFR 60 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m2; and stages 3 to 5, eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Statin eligibility in these groups was determined using the ATP III and ACC/AHA guidelines, and the risk for 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS and Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE.ResultsThere were 3,546 (18.9% and 4,048 (21.5% statin-eligible subjects according to ATP III and ACC/AHA guidelines, respectively. The proportion of statin-eligible subjects increased as renal function deteriorated. Statin eligibility by the ACC/AHA guidelines showed better agreement with the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO recommendations compared to the ATP III guidelines in subjects with stage 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD (κ value, 0.689 vs. 0.531. When the 10-year ASCVD risk was assessed using the FRS and PCE, the mean risk calculated by both equations significantly increased as renal function declined.ConclusionsThe proportion of statin-eligible subjects significantly increased according to worsening renal function in this Korean cohort. ACC/AHA guideline showed better agreement for statin eligibility with that recommended by KDIGO guideline compared to ATP III in subjects with CKD.

  14. ALMA observations of cool dust in a low-metallicity starburst, SBS 0335−052

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, L. K; Testi, L; Casasola, V; García-Burillo, S; Combes, F; Nikutta, R; Caselli, P; Henkel, C; Maiolino, R; Menten, K. M; Sauvage, M; Weiss, A

    2014-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 0 Band 7 observations of an extremely metal-poor dwarf starburst galaxy in the Local Universe, SBS 0335−052 (12 + log (O/H) ~ 7.2...

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Robo-AO observed cool subdwarf companions (Ziegler+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, C.; Law, N. M.; Baranec, C.; Riddle, R. L.; Fuchs, J. T.

    2017-09-01

    We selected targets from the 564 spectral type F- through M-subdwarf candidates studied by Marshall (2007, J/AJ/134/778). These targets were selected from the New Luyten Two-Tenths catalog (NLTT; Luyten, 1979nlcs.book.....L; Luyten & Hughes 1980, Proper-Motion Survey with the Forty-Eight Inch Schmidt Telescope LV First Supplement to the NLTT Catalogue (Minneapolis, MN: Univ. Minnesota Press)) of high proper motion stars (>0.18 arcsec/yr) using a reduced proper motion diagram (RPM). Of the 552 subdwarfs confirmed by Marshall, a randomly selected sample of 348 G-, K-, and M-subdwarfs were observed by Robo-AO when available between other high priority surveys. We obtained high-angular-resolution images of the 348 subdwarfs during 32 separate nights of observations between 2012 September 3 and 2013 August 21 (UT). The observations were performed using the Robo-AO laser adaptive optics system (Riddle et al. 2012SPIE.8447E..2OR; Baranec et al. 2013, J. Visualized Exp. 72 e50021; 2014ApJ...790L...8B) mounted on the Palomar 60 inch telescope. (1 data file).

  16. The observable properties of cool winds from galaxies, AGN, and star clusters - I. Theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Mark R.; Thompson, Todd A.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Martin, Crystal L.

    2017-11-01

    Winds arising from galaxies, star clusters, and active galactic nuclei are crucial players in star and galaxy formation, but it has proven remarkably difficult to use observations of them to determine physical properties of interest, particularly mass fluxes. Much of the difficulty stems from a lack of a theory that links a physically realistic model for winds' density, velocity and covering factors to calculations of light emission and absorption. In this paper we provide such a model. We consider a wind launched from a turbulent region with a range of column densities, derive the differential acceleration of gas as a function of column density, and use this result to compute winds' absorption profiles, emission profiles and emission intensity maps in both optically thin and optically thick species. The model is sufficiently simple that all required computations can be done analytically up to straightforward numerical integrals, rendering it suitable for the problem of deriving physical parameters by fitting models to observed data. We show that our model produces realistic absorption and emission profiles for some example cases, and argue that the most promising methods of deducing mass fluxes are based on combinations of absorption lines of different optical depths, or on combining absorption with measurements of molecular line emission. In the second paper in this series, we expand on these ideas by introducing a set of observational diagnostics that are significantly more robust than those commonly in use, and that can be used to obtain improved estimates of wind properties.

  17. Changes of cooling near mesopause under global warming from observations and model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhov, I. I.; Semenov, A. I.; Volodin, E. M.; Dembitskaya, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    The results of joint analysis of temperature variations near mesopause from long-term measurements at the Zvenigorod Scientific Station of the Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS in 1960-2015 and variations of surface air temperature characterizing global climate change. Together with variations of temperature at the mesopause T ms from measurements of the hydroxyl emissions we analyzed the temperature variations near mesopause T m reduced to the same level of solar activity. The observed strong decrease in temperature near mesopause during last decades, particularly in winter, with its tendency to slow down since the 1980's is was detected against the background of general increase in the surface air temperature of the Northern Hemisphere T NHs and the Earth as a whole. It was revealed a sharp drop in winter temperature near mesopause in 1970s. and its synchronicity with the shift in climatic features at the surface associated with changes in formation of El Nino events and their impact on the global climate. The general significant negative correlation of temperature variations near mesopause and T NHs detected from 56-year observational data was not accompanied by any significant coherence between the most long-period temperature variations from the cross-wavelet analysis. To assess the possible manifestation of this coherence the results of numerical simulations with a global climate model were used. According to model simulations for the 20-21 centuries taking into account anthropogenic forcings for significant coherence between long-term variations T m and T NHs the prolonged observations are required for temperature near mesopause-about a century or more.

  18. LOCAL RECURRENCE OF TUBULOCYSTIC CARCINOMA 4 YEARS AFTER RENAL RESECTION (A CLINICAL OBSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Peters

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case of a local recurrence of tubulocystic carcinoma (TCC in a 46-year-old man, a relatively good course (the relapse occurred after 4 years, who has been successfully operated on and is being followed up. This disease is a rare renal malignancy and, until recently, it has been referred to as collecting tubular carcinoma. However, this disease has come to be regarded as an independent nosological entity, by taking into account its certain morphological, immunohistohemical, and cytogenetic characteristics, as well as the nature of its course. About 80 TCC cases have been described to date. Further study of this disease and other rare renal malignancies will allow the more accurate elaboration of management tactics for such patients in terms of certain prognostic factors, which calls for a larger number of cases of this disease.

  19. Renal arteriography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal angiogram; Angiography - kidney; Renal angiography; Renal artery stenosis - arteriography ... an artery by a blood clot Renal artery stenosis Renal cell cancer Angiomyolipomas (noncancerous tumors of the ...

  20. Heat Conduction in Nano-Environment Observed in Cooling Processes of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harata, Akira; Taura, Jyunya; Ogawa, Teiichiro

    2000-05-01

    Ultrafast dynamics of colloidal silver nanoparticles in an aqueous solution was investigated by observing the ultrafast lensing effects caused by a photo-induced refractive index change. The ultrafast response consisted of an instantaneous peak by the optical Kerr effect and a subsequent bi-exponential decay component. The decay component was independent of the relative polarization planes of pump and probe beams and had temperature-dependent time constants ranging from 0.4 to 2.2 ps and from 10 to 100 ps. A minimum at around 7°C was found for the time constant of the fast component. The results suggest that the structure of water molecules adjacent to the silver surface is affected by hydrogen bonds in a temperature-dependent manner similar to that of the molecular structure of bulk water.

  1. RU COOL's scalable educational focus on immersing society in the ocean through ocean observing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, O.; McDonnell, J. D.; Kohut, J. T.; Glenn, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    Many regions of the ocean are exhibiting significant change, suggesting the need to develop effective focused education programs for a range of constituencies (K-12, undergraduate, and general public). We have been focused on developing a range of educational tools in a multi-pronged strategy built around using streaming data delivered through customized web services, focused undergraduate tiger teams, teacher training and video/documentary film-making. Core to the efforts is on engaging the undergraduate community by leveraging the data management tools of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and the education tools of the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Ocean Observing Initiative (OOI). These intuitive interactive browser-based tools reduce the barriers for student participation in sea exploration and discovery, and allowing them to become "field going" oceanographers while sitting at their desk. Those undergraduate student efforts complement efforts to improve educator and student engagement in ocean sciences through exposure to scientists and data. Through professional development and the creation of data tools, we will reduce the logistical costs of bringing ocean science to students in grades 6-16. We are providing opportunities to: 1) build capacity of scientists in communicating and engaging with diverse audiences; 2) create scalable, in-person and virtual opportunities for educators and students to engage with scientists and their research through data visualizations, data activities, educator workshops, webinars, and student research symposia. We are using a blended learning approach to promote partnerships and cross-disciplinary sharing. Finally we use data and video products to entrain public support through the development of science documentaries about the science and people who conduct it. For example Antarctic Edge is a feature length award-winning documentary about climate change that has garnered interest in movie theatres

  2. Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of Photoexcited Heme Model Compounds: Observation of Multiple Electronic Spin States and Vibrational Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, Chinju; Karunakaran, Venugopal

    2017-04-13

    Hemin is a unique model compound of heme proteins carrying out variable biological functions. Here, the excited state relaxation dynamics of heme model compounds in the ferric form are systematically investigated by changing the axial ligand (Cl/Br), the peripheral substituent (vinyl/ethyl-meso), and the solvent (methanol/DMSO) using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy upon excitation at 380 nm. The relaxation time constants of these model compounds are obtained by global analysis. Excited state deactivation pathway of the model compounds comprising the decay of the porphyrin excited state (S*) to ligand to metal charge transfer state (LMCT, τ 1 ), back electron transfer from metal to ligand (MLCT, τ 2 ), and relaxation to the ground state through different electronic spin states of iron (τ 3 and τ 4 ) are proposed along with the vibrational cooling processes. This is based on the excited state absorption spectral evolution, similarities between the transient absorption spectra of the ferric form and steady state absorption spectra of the low-spin ferrous form, and the data analysis. The observation of an increase of all the relaxation time constants in DMSO compared to the methanol reflects the stabilization of intermediate states involved in the electronic relaxation. The transient absorption spectra of met-myoglobin are also measured for comparison. Thus, the transient absorption spectra of these model compounds reveal the involvement of multiple iron spin states in the electronic relaxation dynamics, which could be an alternative pathway to the ground state beside the vibrational cooling processes and associated with the inherent features of the heme b type.

  3. ON THE ROAD TO MORE REALISTIC GALAXY CLUSTER SIMULATIONS: THE EFFECTS OF RADIATIVE COOLING AND THERMAL FEEDBACK PRESCRIPTIONS ON THE OBSERVATIONAL PROPERTIES OF SIMULATED GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skory, Stephen; Hallman, Eric; Burns, Jack O.; Skillman, Samuel W. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); O' Shea, Brian W.; Smith, Britton D., E-mail: stephen.skory@colorado.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    Flux-limited X-ray surveys of galaxy clusters show that clusters come in two roughly equally proportioned varieties: 'cool core' clusters (CCs) and non-'cool core' clusters (NCCs). In previous work, we have demonstrated using cosmological N-body + Eulerian hydrodynamic simulations that NCCs are often consistent with early major merger events that destroy embryonic CCs. In this paper we extend those results and conduct a series of simulations using different methods of gas cooling and of energy and metal feedback from supernovae, where we attempt to produce a population of clusters with realistic central cooling times, entropies, and temperatures. We find that the use of metallicity-dependent gas cooling is essential to prevent early overcooling, and that adjusting the amount of energy and metal feedback can have a significant impact on observable X-ray quantities of the gas. We are able to produce clusters with more realistic central observable quantities than have previously been attained. However, there are still significant discrepancies between the simulated clusters and observations, which indicates that a different approach to simulating galaxies in clusters is needed. We conclude by looking toward a promising subgrid method of modeling galaxy feedback in clusters that may help to ameliorate the discrepancies between simulations and observations.

  4. Rationale and design of oBservational clinical Research In chronic kidney disease patients with renal anemia: renal proGnosis in patients with Hyporesponsive anemia To Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, darbepoetiN alfa (BRIGHTEN Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hideki; Nangaku, Masaomi; Hirakata, Hideki; Wada, Takashi; Hayashi, Terumasa; Sato, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Yasushi; Masaki, Takao; Kagimura, Tatsuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Hase, Hiroki; Kamouchi, Masahiro; Imai, Enyu; Mizuno, Kyoichi; Iwasaki, Manabu; Akizawa, Tadao; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Maruyama, Shoichi; Narita, Ichiei

    2017-06-28

    Renal anemia is an important complication in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients as well as in dialysis patients. Although recombinant human erythropoietin has dramatically improved prognosis and quality of life in these patients, there have been issues among non-dialysis CKD patients who exhibit hyporesponsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA). The causes and definition of ESA hyporesponsiveness, as well as the incidence of renal and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in such patients, are yet to be clarified. This ongoing trial is a multicenter, prospective, observational study of non-dialysis CKD patients with renal anemia. The primary objective is to survey the current realities of the therapy with ESA in Japan and evaluate the correlation between hyporesponsiveness to darbepoetin alfa and CKD progression. The secondary objective is to investigate relationship between ESA hyporesponsiveness and CVD events based on the clinical situation in Japan, and to explore an ESA response index. The subjects consist of CKD patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 who present renal anemia. The target number of registered cases is 2000 patients, based on estimates of incidences of renal and CVD events from past studies. Renal function and CVD events will be observed for 96 weeks after the initiation of darbepoetin alfa administration. Definitions of ESA hyporesponsiveness will also be investigated. By clarifying markers and factors involved in ESA hyporesponsiveness and their relationships with renal and CVD events, this ongoing study aims to improve evidence-based therapies for renal anemia in non-dialysis CKD patients.

  5. Synchrotron cooling in energetic gamma-ray bursts observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hoi-Fung; Greiner, Jochen; van Eerten, Hendrik; Burgess, J. Michael; Narayana Bhat, P.; Briggs, Michael S.; Connaughton, Valerie; Diehl, Roland; Goldstein, Adam; Gruber, David; Jenke, Peter A.; von Kienlin, Andreas; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Paciesas, William S.; Pelassa, Véronique; Preece, Robert D.; Roberts, Oliver J.; Zhang, Bin-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Context. We study the time-resolved spectral properties of energetic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with good high-energy photon statistics observed by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Aims: We aim to constrain in detail the spectral properties of GRB prompt emission on a time-resolved basis and to discuss the theoretical implications of the fitting results in the context of various prompt emission models. Methods: Our sample comprises eight GRBs observed by the Fermi GBM in its first five years of mission, with 1 keV-1 MeV fluence f> 1.0 × 10-4 erg cm-2 and a signal-to-noise ratio level of S/N ≥ 10.0 above 900 keV. We performed a time-resolved spectral analysis using a variable temporal binning technique according to optimal S/N criteria, resulting in a total of 299 time-resolved spectra. We performed Band function fits to all spectra and obtained the distributions for the low-energy power-law index α, the high-energy power-law index β, the peak energy in the observed νFν spectrum Ep, and the difference between the low- and high-energy power-law indices Δs = α - β. We also applied a physically motivated synchrotron model, which is a triple power-law with constrained power-law indices and a blackbody component, to test the prompt emission for consistency with a synchrotron origin and obtain the distributions for the two break energies Eb,1 and Eb,2, the middle segment power-law index β, and the Planck function temperature kT. Results: The Band function parameter distributions are α = -0.73+0.16-0.21, β =ي-2.13+0.28-0.56, Ep = 374.4+307.3-187.7 , , keV (log10Ep = 2.57+0.26-0.30), and Δs = 1.38+0.54-0.31 , with average errors σα ~ 0.1, σβ ~ 0.2, and σEp ~ 0.1Ep. Using the distributions of Δs and β, the electron population index p is found to be consistent with the "moderately fast" scenario, in which fast- and slow-cooling scenarios cannot be distinguished. The physically motivated synchrotron

  6. Not cool with cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Barry

    2010-09-01

    I confess that I may have missed the point of Roland Ennos's article "Urban cool" (August pp22-25), which describes methods of cooling cities by mitigating and reversing the effect of solar heating and includes an illustration of "evapotranspiration" in, of all places, Greater Manchester.

  7. Inter-observer reproducibility in reporting on renal drainage in children with hydronephrosis: a large collaborative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondeur, Marianne; Piepsz, Amy [CHU Saint-Pierre, Departement des Radio-Isotopes, Brussels (Belgium); De Palma, Diego [Ospedale di Circolo, Nuclear Medicine, Varese (Italy); Roca, Isabel [Vall d' Hebron Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Barcelona (Spain); Ham, Hamphrey [University Hospital, Department Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-03-15

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the inter-observer reproducibility in reporting on renal drainage obtained during {sup 99m}Tc MAG3 renography in children, when already processed data are offered to the observers. Because web site facilities were used for communication, 57 observers from five continents participated in the study. Twenty-three renograms, including furosemide stimulation and posterect postmicturition views, covering various patterns of drainage, were submitted to the observers. Images, curves and quantitative parameters were provided. Good or almost good drainage, partial drainage and poor or no drainage were the three possible responses for each kidney. An important bias was observed among the observers, some of them more systematically reporting the drainage as being good, while others had a general tendency to consider the drainage as poor. This resulted in rather poor inter-observer reproducibility, as for more than half of the kidneys, less than 80% of the observers agreed on one of the three responses. Analysis of the individual cases identified some obvious causes of discrepancy: the absence of a clear limit between partial and good or almost good drainage, the fact of including or neglecting the effect of micturition and change of patient's position, the underestimation of drainage in the case of a flat renographic curve, and the difficulties of interpretation in the case of a small, not well functioning kidney. There is an urgent need for better standardisation in estimating the quality of drainage. (orig.)

  8. Film Cooled Recession of SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Test Development, CFD Modeling and Experimental Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Sakowski, Barbara A.; Fisher, Caleb

    2014-01-01

    SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in next generation turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. However, the environmental stability of Si-based ceramics in high pressure, high velocity turbine engine combustion environment is of major concern. The water vapor containing combustion gas leads to accelerated oxidation and corrosion of the SiC based ceramics due to the water vapor reactions with silica (SiO2) scales forming non-protective volatile hydroxide species, resulting in recession of the ceramic components. Although environmental barrier coatings are being developed to help protect the CMC components, there is a need to better understand the fundamental recession behavior of in more realistic cooled engine component environments.In this paper, we describe a comprehensive film cooled high pressure burner rig based testing approach, by using standardized film cooled SiCSiC disc test specimen configurations. The SiCSiC specimens were designed for implementing the burner rig testing in turbine engine relevant combustion environments, obtaining generic film cooled recession rate data under the combustion water vapor conditions, and helping developing the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) film cooled models and performing model validation. Factors affecting the film cooled recession such as temperature, water vapor concentration, combustion gas velocity, and pressure are particularly investigated and modeled, and compared with impingement cooling only recession data in similar combustion flow environments. The experimental and modeling work will help predict the SiCSiC CMC recession behavior, and developing durable CMC systems in complex turbine engine operating conditions.

  9. Efficacy and safety of tacrolimus compared with ciclosporin-A in renal transplantation: 7-year observational results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Bernhard K; Montagnino, Giuseppe; Krüger, Bernd; Margreiter, Raimund; Olbricht, Christoph J; Marcen, Roberto; Sester, Urban; Kunzendorf, Ulrich; Dietl, Karl-Heinz; Rigotti, Paolo; Ronco, Claudio; Hörsch, Silke; Banas, Bernhard; Mühlbacher, Ferdinand; Arias, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The European Tacrolimus versus Ciclosporin-A Microemulsion (CsA-ME) Renal Transplantation Study demonstrated that tacrolimus decreased acute rejection rates at 6 months. Primary endpoints of this investigator-initiated, observational 7-year follow-up study were acute rejection rates, patient and graft survival rates, and a composite endpoint (BPAR, graft loss, and patient death). We analyzed data from the original intent-to-treat population (n = 557; 286 tacrolimus, 271 CsA-ME). A total of 237 tacrolimus and 208 CsA-ME patients provided data. At 7 years, Kaplan-Meier estimated rates of patients free from BPAR were 77.1% in the tacrolimus arm and 59.9% in the CsA-ME arm, graft survival rates amounted to 82.6% and 80.6%, and patient survival rates to 89.9% and 88.1%. Estimated combined endpoint-free survival rates were 60.2% in the tacrolimus arm and 47.0% in the CsA-ME arm (P = tacrolimus during 7 year follow-up: 19.7% vs. 7.9% (P = tacrolimus group stopped steroids and received immunosuppressive monotherapy. Significantly, more CsA-ME patients received lipid-lowering medication and experienced cosmetic and cardiovascular adverse events. Tacrolimus-treated renal transplant recipients had significantly higher combined endpoint-free survival rates mainly driven by lower acute rejection rates despite less immunosuppressive medication at 7 years. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  10. Structural Changes in Cooked Rice Treated with Cooling-Reheating Process and Coconut Milk Addition as Observed With FT-IR and 13C NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Arum Anugrahati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular structural changes of food could be observed by the technique of FT-IR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. This research was aimed to study the structural changes in cooked rice treated with cooling-reheating process and coconut milk addition using FT-IR and 13C NMR. It was found that the cooling-reheating process and addition of coconut milk cause several structural changes of cooked rice. The IR analysis showed the bands at 3,400, 2,900, 1,018 and 856 cm-1 changed due to the retrogradation during cooling process. The spectrum of 13C NMR showed the change of peaks at 100.28 and 100.10 ppm. These changes may be related to the addition of coconut milk during rice cooking.

  11. A spin-down clock for cool stars from observations of a 2.5-billion-year-old cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibom, Søren; Barnes, Sydney A; Platais, Imants; Gilliland, Ronald L; Latham, David W; Mathieu, Robert D

    2015-01-29

    The ages of the most common stars--low-mass (cool) stars like the Sun, and smaller--are difficult to derive because traditional dating methods use stellar properties that either change little as the stars age or are hard to measure. The rotation rates of all cool stars decrease substantially with time as the stars steadily lose their angular momenta. If properly calibrated, rotation therefore can act as a reliable determinant of their ages based on the method of gyrochronology. To calibrate gyrochronology, the relationship between rotation period and age must be determined for cool stars of different masses, which is best accomplished with rotation period measurements for stars in clusters with well-known ages. Hitherto, such measurements have been possible only in clusters with ages of less than about one billion years, and gyrochronology ages for older stars have been inferred from model predictions. Here we report rotation period measurements for 30 cool stars in the 2.5-billion-year-old cluster NGC 6819. The periods reveal a well-defined relationship between rotation period and stellar mass at the cluster age, suggesting that ages with a precision of order 10 per cent can be derived for large numbers of cool Galactic field stars.

  12. Comparative effect of olmesartan and candesartan on lipid metabolism and renal function in patients with hypertension: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Tomohiro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs, including olmesartan and candesartan, are widely used antihypertensive agents. Many clinical studies have demonstrated that ARBs have organ-protecting effects, e.g., cardioprotection, vasculoprotection and renoprotection. However, the effect of prolonged olmesartan monotherapy on lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension is less well studied. We performed a retrospective observational study to compare the effects of olmesartan with those of candesartan, focusing on lipid metabolism and renal function. Methods We used data from the Clinical Data Warehouse of Nihon University School of Medicine obtained between Nov 1, 2004 and Feb 28, 2011, to identify cohorts of new olmesartan users (n = 168 and candesartan users (n = 266. We used propensity-score weighting to adjust for differences in all covariates (age, sex, comorbid diseases, previous drugs between olmesartan and candesartan users, and compared serum chemical data including serum triglyceride (TG, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, total cholesterol (TC, potassium, creatinine and urea nitrogen. The mean exposure of olmesartan and candesartan users was 126.1 and 122.8 days, respectively. Results After adjustment, there were no statistically significant differences in all covariates between olmesartan and candesartan users. The mean age was 60.7 and 61.0 years, and 33.4% and 33.7% of olmesartan and candesartan users were women, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean values for all laboratory tests between baseline and during the exposure period in both olmesartan and candesartan users. In olmesartan users, the reduction of serum TG level was significant in comparison with that in candesartan users. Other parameters of lipid profile and renal function showed no statistically significant difference in the change from baseline to during the exposure period between olmesartan and candesartan users. Conclusions

  13. Comparative effect of olmesartan and candesartan on lipid metabolism and renal function in patients with hypertension: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Yayoi; Takahashi, Yasuo; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Soma, Masayoshi; Asai, Satoshi

    2011-08-10

    Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), including olmesartan and candesartan, are widely used antihypertensive agents. Many clinical studies have demonstrated that ARBs have organ-protecting effects, e.g., cardioprotection, vasculoprotection and renoprotection. However, the effect of prolonged olmesartan monotherapy on lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension is less well studied. We performed a retrospective observational study to compare the effects of olmesartan with those of candesartan, focusing on lipid metabolism and renal function. We used data from the Clinical Data Warehouse of Nihon University School of Medicine obtained between Nov 1, 2004 and Feb 28, 2011, to identify cohorts of new olmesartan users (n = 168) and candesartan users (n = 266). We used propensity-score weighting to adjust for differences in all covariates (age, sex, comorbid diseases, previous drugs) between olmesartan and candesartan users, and compared serum chemical data including serum triglyceride (TG), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), potassium, creatinine and urea nitrogen. The mean exposure of olmesartan and candesartan users was 126.1 and 122.8 days, respectively. After adjustment, there were no statistically significant differences in all covariates between olmesartan and candesartan users. The mean age was 60.7 and 61.0 years, and 33.4% and 33.7% of olmesartan and candesartan users were women, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in mean values for all laboratory tests between baseline and during the exposure period in both olmesartan and candesartan users. In olmesartan users, the reduction of serum TG level was significant in comparison with that in candesartan users. Other parameters of lipid profile and renal function showed no statistically significant difference in the change from baseline to during the exposure period between olmesartan and candesartan users. In this study, we observed a more beneficial effect on lipid

  14. A case of treatment in a patient with synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands: Clinical observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Latypov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma occurs in 1.4 % of cases. The probability of bilateral adrenal metastases from renal cell carcinoma is less than 0.5 %. The clinical observation presents a case of synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands. A 55‑year-old male patient was adm tted with the signs of hematuria and anemia to the Unit of Urology, Clinic of General Surgery, Siberian State Medical University. He was found to have synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous bilateral adrenal involvement. Sequential surgical treatment – radical nephrectomy (with adrenal gland removal on the right side and, after 3 months, adrenalectomy and kidney resection on the left side were performed. All the organs removed displayed tumors that proved to be renal cell carcinomas (a clear cell variant. There were lymph node metastases in the right-sided renal portal. Postoperatively, the investigators performed hormone replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency, an immunotherapy cycle, three cycles of targeted therapy withsorafenib and sunitinib (at an interval of 0.5–2 years, and insulin therapy for new-onset diabetes mellitus. The duration of a follow-up was 6.2 years. When describing the case, the patient was alive and showed a generalized tumorous process with extensive tumor involvement of the solitary kidney. Sunitinib therapy was used.

  15. A case of treatment in a patient with synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands: Clinical observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Latypov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma occurs in 1.4 % of cases. The probability of bilateral adrenal metastases from renal cell carcinoma is less than 0.5 %. The clinical observation presents a case of synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands. A 55‑year-old male patient was adm tted with the signs of hematuria and anemia to the Unit of Urology, Clinic of General Surgery, Siberian State Medical University. He was found to have synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous bilateral adrenal involvement. Sequential surgical treatment – radical nephrectomy (with adrenal gland removal on the right side and, after 3 months, adrenalectomy and kidney resection on the left side were performed. All the organs removed displayed tumors that proved to be renal cell carcinomas (a clear cell variant. There were lymph node metastases in the right-sided renal portal. Postoperatively, the investigators performed hormone replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency, an immunotherapy cycle, three cycles of targeted therapy withsorafenib and sunitinib (at an interval of 0.5–2 years, and insulin therapy for new-onset diabetes mellitus. The duration of a follow-up was 6.2 years. When describing the case, the patient was alive and showed a generalized tumorous process with extensive tumor involvement of the solitary kidney. Sunitinib therapy was used.

  16. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL predicts renal injury in acute decompensated cardiac failure: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macdonald Stephen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute Decompensated Cardiac Failure (ADCF is frequently associated with deterioration in renal function. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL is an early marker of kidney injury. We aimed to determine if NGAL measured at admission predicts in-hospital acute kidney injury (AKI in ADCF. Methods A prospective observational study measured NGAL and B-natriuretic peptide (BNP from patients with ADCF presenting to two tertiary hospitals. Patients received standard care and were followed up daily as inpatients. ADCF was defined by PRIDE score ≥ 6 and AKI by RIFLE criteria. Results One hundred and two patients (median age 80, IQR 69-84 years, 52% male were enrolled. AKI developed in 22 (25% of 90 for whom outcome data was available. Seven patients died. NGAL was significantly elevated in those who developed AKI versus those who did not (median 130 ng/ml vs 69 ng/ml, p = 0.002. NGAL was also higher in those who died (median 136 ng/ml vs 68 ng/ml, p = 0.005. AKI was significantly associated with risk of death (5/22 (23% vs 1/68 (1.5%, p = 0.001, but not length of hospital stay. NGAL significantly correlated with admission eGFR but not BNP. For prediction of AKI, NGAL > 89 ng/ml had sensitivity of 68% and specificity of 70% with area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve of 0.71 (0.58-0.84. After adjustment for baseline renal function, the odds ratio (OR for AKI was 3.73 (1.26-11.01 if admission NGAL > 89 ng/ml. Conclusions Elevated NGAL at admission is associated with in-hospital AKI and mortality in patients with ADCF. However, it has only moderate diagnostic accuracy in this setting.

  17. Observations of Lyα and O vi: Signatures of Cooling and Star Formation in a Massive Central Cluster Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Megan; Connor, Thomas; Voit, G. Mark; Postman, Marc

    2017-02-01

    We report new Hubble Space Telescope COS and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectroscopy of a star-forming region (˜ 100 {M}⊙ yr-1) in the center of the X-ray cluster RX J1532.9+3021 (z = 0.362), to follow-up the CLASH team discovery of luminous UV filaments and knots in the central massive galaxy. We detect broad (˜500 km s-1) Lyα emission lines with extraordinarily high equivalent widths (EQW ˜ 200 Å) and somewhat less broadened Hα (˜220 km s-1). Ultraviolet emission lines of N v and O vi are not detected, which constrains the rate at which gas cools through temperatures of 106 K to be ≲10 M⊙ yr-1. The COS spectra also show a flat rest-frame UV continuum with weak stellar photospheric features, consistent with the presence of recently formed hot stars forming at a rate of ˜10 M⊙ yr-1, uncorrected for dust extinction. The slope and absorption lines in these UV spectra are similar to those of Lyman Break Galaxies at z≈ 3, albeit those with the highest Lyα equivalent widths and star formation rates. This high-EQW Lyα source is a high-metallicity galaxy rapidly forming stars in structures that look nothing like disks. This mode of star formation could significantly contribute to the spheroidal population of galaxies. The constraint on the luminosity of any O vi line emission is stringent enough to rule out steady and simultaneous gas cooling and star formation, unlike similar systems in the Phoenix Cluster and Abell 1795. The fact that the current star formation rate differs from the local mass cooling rate is consistent with recent simulations of episodic active galactic nucleus feedback and star formation in a cluster atmosphere.

  18. The use of the RenalGuard system in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: a first in man prospective, observational, feasibility pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckraz, Heyman; Giri, Ramesh; Wrigley, Benmjamin; Hennessy, Anne-Marie; Nicholas, Johann; Nevill, Alan

    2017-01-01

    As proof of concept, this prospective, observational study assessed the feasibility and early clinical outcomes of performing on-pump cardiac surgery with the RenalGuard system. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is reported in up to 30% of patients undergoing cardiac surgery and is a recognised independent predictor of both morbidity and mortality. Forced diuresis with the RenalGuard system reduces the incidence of AKI during percutaneous coronary intervention procedures but its use in cardiac surgery has not been explored. Ten consecutive patients who were at risk of developing AKI during cardiac surgery were selected. The RenalGuard system was used to facilitate forced diuresis using weight-adjusted intravenous furosemide while maintaining neutral fluid balance by matched intravenous fluid replacement. This regimen was initiated preoperatively in all patients and continued for 6-12 hours postoperatively. Serum creatinine, electrolytes and need for renal replacement were documented in all patients. The RenalGuard system functioned successfully in all patients and facilitated high perioperative urine outputs, even when patients were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). There were no incidences of significant (A) electrolyte imbalance, (B) changes in haemoglobin levels or (C) pulmonary oedema. No patients developed AKI within 36 hours of surgery despite one patient developing cardiac tamponade 8 hours postoperatively and one patient developing paralytic ileus. One patient, however, was 'electively' haemofiltered on day 2 after developing acute right ventricular failure. The median intensive care stay was 1.5 (1, 5) days. The RenalGuard system can be used successfully in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB and may reduce the incidence of AKI in at-risk patients. NCT02974946; Pre-results.

  19. Metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis patients as a risk factor for new-onset diabetes mellitus after renal transplant: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonet J

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Josep Bonet1, Albert Martinez-Castelao2, Beatriz Bayés11Department of Nephrology, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain; 2Department of Nephrology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, IDIBELL, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, SpainPurpose: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of biochemical abnormalities including cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors. The development of diabetes mellitus after renal transplant represents a major posttransplant complication that may adversely affect graft/patient survival. The aim of this study was to assess the role of metabolic syndrome in patients on hemodialysis as a risk factor for the incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus after renal transplant.Patients and methods: This was a prospective observational epidemiologic study carried out in adult nondiabetic patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis and on the renal transplant waiting list between November 2008 and April 2009. Patients were followed up from Visit 1 (baseline to 6 months after the renal transplant. The analysis of the role of metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis patients as a risk factor for the incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus after renal transplant included the estimation of relative risk and its 95% confidence interval (CI.Results: A total of 383 evaluable patients were entered into the study (mean age, 52.7 years; male, 57.7%; Caucasian, 90.1%. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome on hemodialysis was 30.4% (95% CI, 25.8%–35.4%. Hypertension was the most prevalent criterion for metabolic syndrome (65.0%, followed by low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (52.7%, abdominal obesity (36.2%, hypertriglyceridemia (32.4%, and impaired glucose (8.9%. After the renal transplant, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was still 25.8%. During the posttransplant period, the incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus reached 13.0% (95% CI, 7.8%–20.6% and patients with pretransplant metabolic syndrome were 2

  20. Recruitment of Hispanics into an observational study of chronic kidney disease: the Hispanic Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Claudia M; Ricardo, Ana C; Brecklin, Carolyn S; Fischer, Michael J; Rosman, Robert T; Carmona, Eunice; Lopez, Amada; Balaram, Manjunath; Nessel, Lisa; Tao, Kaixiang Kelvin; Xie, Dawei; Kusek, John W; Go, Alan S; Lash, James P

    2012-11-01

    Despite the large burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Hispanics, this population has been underrepresented in research studies. We describe the recruitment strategies employed by the Hispanic Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study, which led to the successful enrollment of a large population of Hispanic adults with CKD into a prospective observational cohort study. Recruitment efforts by bilingual staff focused on community clinics with Hispanic providers in high-density Hispanic neighborhoods in Chicago, academic medical centers, and private nephrology practices. Methods of publicizing the study included church meetings, local Hispanic print media, Spanish television and radio stations, and local health fairs. From October 2005 to July 2008, we recruited 327 Hispanics aged 21-74 years with mild-to-moderate CKD as determined by age-specific estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Of 716 individuals completing a screening visit, 49% did not meet eGFR inclusion criteria and 46% completed a baseline visit. The mean age at enrollment was 57.1 and 67.1% of participants were male. Approximately 75% of enrolled individuals were Mexican American, 15% Puerto Rican, and 10% had other Latin American ancestry. Eighty two percent of participants were Spanish-speakers. Community-based and academic primary care clinics yielded the highest percentage of participants screened (45.9% and 22.4%) and enrolled (38.2% and 24.5%). However, academic and community-based specialty clinics achieved the highest enrollment yield from individuals screened (61.9% to 71.4%). A strategy focused on primary care and nephrology clinics and the use of bilingual recruiters allowed us to overcome barriers to the recruitment of Hispanics with CKD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir for untreated HCV genotype 1 infection in end stage renal disease patients: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, Mandarapu; Raju, Sree Bhushan; Sridhar, Nimmagadda; Vijay Kiran, Bangillapati; Rajesh, Goli; Anvesh, Golla; Raju, Nallagasu

    2017-10-03

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in end stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with increased mortality. Recently, numerous directly acting antiviral agents have been approved for the management of HCV. Ledipasvir along with Sofosbuvir has been approved for management of genotype 1 infection in patients with eGFR ≥30 mL/min. However, there is paucity of data regarding its role in the management of patients on dialysis. This is a single center prospective open label observational study to assess the safety and efficacy of Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir in hemodialysis (HD) patients who were diagnosed with HCV genotype 1 infection. Eligibility criteria were treatment naive HD patients with normal liver histology. We administered Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir combination tablet on alternate days for a period of 12 weeks. Primary efficacy end point was the assessment of sustained virological response (SVR12), and the safety end point was the discontinuation of therapy secondary to adverse drug effects. A total of 21 patients were treated with this regimen. Two patients expired during the study period and are not related to the therapy. SVR12 was achieved in all the 19 patients. None of the patients in our study discontinued the therapy or had severe adverse drug effects. One patient had head ache and another patient had giddiness which were managed symptomatically. Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir combination therapy on alternate days, is effective even in ESRD patients, with excellent SVR12 rates, and it is as safe as in other population groups, without any major adverse reactions. © 2017 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  2. Super-cooled liquid water topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation - investigation based on combination of ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsikko, Anne; Brus, David; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Filioglou, Maria; Komppula, Mika; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2017-04-01

    In the high and mid latitudes super-cooled liquid water layers are frequently observed on top of clouds. These layers are difficult to forecast with numerical weather prediction models, even though, they have strong influence on atmospheric radiative properties, cloud microphysical properties, and subsequently, precipitation. This work investigates properties of super-cooled liquid water layer topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation observed with ground-based in-situ (cloud probes) and remote-sensing (a cloud radar, Doppler and multi-wavelength lidars) instrumentation during two-month long Pallas Cloud Experiment (PaCE 2015) in autumn 2015. Analysis is based on standard Cloudnet scheme supplemented with new retrieval products of the specific clouds and their properties. Combination of two scales of observation provides new information on properties of clouds and precipitation in the sub-arctic Pallas region. Current status of results will be presented during the conference. The authors acknowledge financial support by the Academy of Finland (Centre of Excellence Programme, grant no 272041; and ICINA project, grant no 285068), the ACTRIS2 - European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 654109, the KONE foundation, and the EU FP7 project BACCHUS (grant no 603445).

  3. Effects of stress ulcer prophylaxis in adult ICU patients receiving renal replacement therapy (Sup-Icu RENal, SIREN): Study protocol for a pre-planned observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schefold, Joerg C; Perner, Anders; Lange, Theis; Wetterslev, Jørn; Wise, Matt P; Borthwick, Mark; Bendel, Stepani; Keus, Frederik; Guttormsen, Anne Berit; Marker, Søren; Krag, Mette; Møller, Morten Hylander

    2018-01-10

    Proton pump inhibitors are often used in critically ill patients to prevent gastrointestinal bleeding despite limited evidence for benefit. Patients with acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) are at high risk of gastrointestinal bleeding as (pre-)uremia induces coagulopathy through effects on platelets and coagulation cascades. No high-quality randomized clinical trials have previously assessed the benefits and harms of prophylactic proton pump inhibitor use in this high-risk population of adult critically ill patients. Among the 3350 patients included in the Stress Ulcer Prophylaxis in the Intensive Care Unit (SUP-ICU) trial-an investigator-initiated international randomized clinical trial on prophylactic proton pump inhibitor versus placebo in acutely admitted adult ICU patients at risk of gastrointestinal bleeding-we will compare the benefits and harms of prophylactic use of proton pump inhibitor in patients in need of RRT versus those not requiring this treatment. We will determine the proportion of patients with clinically important bleeding, the proportion of patients with adverse events including pneumonia, Clostridium difficile enteritis, or acute myocardial ischemia in the ICU, as well as transfusion requirements. Moreover, 90 day and 365 day mortality post-randomization will be investigated. As a secondary analysis, we will examine the association between acute kidney injury and RRT during ICU stay and gastrointestinal bleeding. With the outlined predefined analysis, we will characterize the balance between the benefits and harms of stress ulcer prophylaxis in acutely admitted adult ICU patients in need of RRT, including the potential interaction of allocation to proton pump inhibitor versus placebo. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02718261 . Registered on 14 March 2016.

  4. Synchrotron cooling in energetic gamma-ray bursts observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hoi Fung; Greiner, Jochen; van Eerten, Hendrik; Burgess, J. Michael; P. Narayana Bhat; Briggs, Michael S.; Connaughton, Valerie; Diehl, Roland; Goldstein, Adam; Gruber, David; Jenke, Peter A.; von Kienlin, Andreas; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Paciesas, William S.; Pelassa, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    Context. We study the time-resolved spectral properties of energetic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with good high-energy photon statistics observed by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Aims. We aim to constrain in detail the spectral properties of GRB prompt emission on a time-resolved basis and to discuss the theoretical implications of the fitting results in the context of various prompt emission models. Methods. Our sample comprises eight GRBs observe...

  5. Ventilative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Kolokotroni, Maria

    -of-the-art of ventilative cooling potentials and limitations, its consideration in current energy performance regulations, available building components and control strategies and analysis methods and tools. In addition, the report provides twenty six examples of operational buildings using ventilative cooling ranging from...

  6. Renal Leiomyosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Pastora Beardo; Maria José Ledo; Jose Luis Ruiz Campos

    2013-01-01

    Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare malignant tumor of smooth muscle origin that generally stems from soft tissues and uterine tissue. Although, a small percentage of these may originate from the smooth muscle or vessel walls, most of which are of venous origin. Renal leiomyosarcomas may arise from the smooth muscle fibers of renal pelvis, renal capsule or renal vessels, last one is the most frequent. We report a case of renal LMS that could be originated in the renal capsule.

  7. Synchrotron Cooling in Energetic Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hoi-Fung; Greiner, Jochen; van Eerten, Hendrik; Burgess, J. Michael; Bhat, P. Narayana; Briggs, Michael S.; Connaughton, Valerie; Diehl, Roland; Goldstein, Adam; Gruber, David; Jenke, Peter A.; von Kienlin, Andreas; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Paciesas, William S.; Pelassa, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    We study the time-resolved spectra of eight GRBs observed by Fermi GBM in its first five years of mission, with 1 keV - 1 MeV fluence $f>1.0\\times10^{-4}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ and signal-to-noise level $\\text{S/N}\\geq10.0$ above 900 keV. We aim to constrain in detail the spectral properties of GRB prompt emission on a time-resolved basis and to discuss the theoretical implications of the fitting results in the context of various prompt emission models. We perform time-resolved spectral analysis usin...

  8. Two-year outcome and risk factors for mortality in patients with coronary artery disease and renal failure: The prospective, observational CAD-REF Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbertz, Christiane; Reinecke, Holger; Breithardt, Günter; Schmieder, Roland E; Fobker, Manfred; Fischer, Dieter; Schmitz, Boris; Pinnschmidt, Hans O; Wegscheider, Karl; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Brand, Eva

    2017-09-15

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are strongly associated. CAD is the most frequent cause of cardiovascular death in patients with CKD. The prospective observational nationwide multicenter Coronary Artery Disease and REnal Failure (CAD-REF) Registry enrolled 3352 patients with angiographically documented CAD classified according to their baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) into 5 groups according to the K/DOQI-guidelines. Patients were followed for two years. The aim of this study was the analysis of outcome and the identification of risk factors for two-year mortality in patients with both CKD and CAD. With decreasing renal function, patients had more often diabetes mellitus, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and previous cardiovascular events and interventions. The amount of diseased vessels increased with decreasing renal function. For the whole cohort, two-year mortality was 6.5%. Kaplan-Meier-curves showed highest mortality in patients with CKD stages 4 and 5 (22.4%). In multivariate Cox-regression analyses, significant risk factors for two-year all-cause mortality were lower eGFR, current smoking, left ventricular ejection fraction, diabetes mellitus treated with oral medication or insulin, age, and peripheral artery disease. Coronary status missed the level of statistical significance as a risk factor for mortality in multivariable regression analysis. An eGFR reduction of 10ml/min/1.73m2 increased the risk of mortality by 19% regardless of other risk factors. Two-year morbidity and mortality increased with the degree of renal impairment. To improve survival of patients with CAD and CKD, nephroprotection is urgently needed especially for patients with atherosclerotic burden. NCT00679419, http://clinicaltrials.gov/. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lithium and Renal Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nolen, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment......, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results. RESULTS: An increased risk of renal impairment...

  10. Serious renal and urological complications in fast-track primary total hip and knee arthroplasty; a detailed observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars S; Jorgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overall medical complications have been reduced after fast-track total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA), but data on specific renal and urological (RU) complications are limited. METHODS: To describe the incidence and consequences of serious RU complications resulting in length...... postoperatively. Seven complications . (0.08 %) were urological, mainly haematuria after bladder catheterisation, whereas 5 (0.06 were urosepsis/pyelonephritis. CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of serious RU complications after fast-track THA and TKA was 0.61 %. AKI occurred in 0.49% and was most often due...

  11. Exploring the Efficacy and Limitations of Shock-cooling Models: New Analysis of Type II Supernovae Observed by the Kepler Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Adam; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2017-10-01

    Modern transient surveys have begun discovering and following supernovae (SNe) shortly after first light—providing systematic measurements of the rise of Type II SNe. We explore how analytic models of early shock-cooling emission from core-collapse SNe can constrain the progenitor’s radius, explosion velocity, and local host extinction. We simulate synthetic photometry in several realistic observing scenarios; assuming the models describe the typical explosions well, we find that ultraviolet observations can constrain the progenitor’s radius to a statistical uncertainty of ±10%-15%, with a systematic uncertainty of ±20%. With these observations the local host extinction (A V ) can be constrained to a factor of two and the shock velocity to ±5% with a systematic uncertainty of ±10%. We also reanalyze the SN light curves presented by Garnavich et al. (2016) and find that KSN 2011a can be fit by a blue supergiant model with a progenitor radius of {R}sevidence for a shock-breakout flare in the light curve of KSN 2011d.

  12. [Effectiveness and safety of conversion therapy with the combination of sirolimus with low dose cyclosporine in renal transplantation recipients: a five-year clinical observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L; Ding, T; Wang, X X; Lin, Z B; Chen, G

    2016-05-31

    To assess the effectiveness and safety of the conversion therapy from traditional cyclosporine (CsA) triple immunosuppression therapy to sirolimus (SRL) combined with low dose CsA and prednisone (Pred) in renal transplantation recipients in a five-year follow-up period. A prospective, open-label non-randomized study was performed with 46 renal allograft recipients who visited Tongji Hospital regularly for follow-up visits between January 2007 and May 2011 and were taking CsA+ mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)+ Pred. Conversion therapy to SRL+ low dose CsA+ Pred was initiated after renal transplantation. The recipients were allocated to 2 groups according to their renal function and proteinuria before the conversion: active conversion group [n=27, serum creatinine (SCr) ≤ 140 μmol/L with no or minimal proteinuria] and passive conversion group [n=19, SCr>140 μmol/L with less than moderate proteinuria]. After conversion, dosages of SRL and CsA were adjusted for trough levels of 5-7 μg/L and 20-60 μg/L, respectively. SCr and urine protein were compared before and after the conversion in five-year follow-up. Incidence of acute rejection, renal graft survival and SRL-related adverse effects of the immunosuppressive regimen were also observed. After conversion, an average 63% dose reduction of CsA was achieved in all the patients. In the active conversion group, the mean SCr level was (110±19) μmol/L at the time of conversion. Eight patients in this group withdrew from the study during the follow-up period for the following reasons: arthralgia (1 case), deteriorated proteinuria (2 cases), chronic diarrhea (2 cases), mild or suspicious acute rejection (2 cases), and recurrent fever (1 case). The rest patients (19/27) with a mean follow-up time of 5 years had a stable SCr level [(103±12) μmol/L] and a 100% 5-year graft survival. In the passive conversion group, the mean SCr level was (205±45) μmol/L at the time of conversion. There were 4 patients quitting the study

  13. Renal leiomyosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gelincik, İ; Tok, A

    2013-01-01

    Renal leiomyosarcomas are very rare and only account for 1-3% of primary renal malignancies. The prognosis for a renal sarcoma is poor, and differentiation from sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma and a renal sarcoma is particularly necessary. The patient's clinical presentation and imaging findings are not helpful for accurate preoperative diagnosis. The primary treatment is radical nephrectomy with or without adjuvant radiotherapy chemotherapy. The prognosis is poor. We report a case of primar...

  14. Chinese Herbs Containing Aristolochic Acid Associated with Renal Failure and Urothelial Carcinoma: A Review from Epidemiologic Observations to Causal Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal remedies containing aristolochic acid (AA have been designated to be a strong carcinogen. This review summarizes major epidemiologic evidence to argue for the causal association between AA exposure and urothelial carcinoma as well as nephropathy. The exposure scenarios include the following: Belgian women taking slimming pills containing single material Guang Fang Ji, consumptions of mixtures of Chinese herbal products in the general population and patients with chronic renal failure in Taiwan, occupational exposure in Chinese herbalists, and food contamination in farming villages in valleys of the Danube River. Such an association is corroborated by detecting specific DNA adducts in the tumor tissue removed from affected patients. Preventive actions of banning such use and education to the healthcare professionals and public are necessary for the safety of herbal remedies.

  15. Chinese Herbs Containing Aristolochic Acid Associated with Renal Failure and Urothelial Carcinoma: A Review from Epidemiologic Observations to Causal Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2014-01-01

    Herbal remedies containing aristolochic acid (AA) have been designated to be a strong carcinogen. This review summarizes major epidemiologic evidence to argue for the causal association between AA exposure and urothelial carcinoma as well as nephropathy. The exposure scenarios include the following: Belgian women taking slimming pills containing single material Guang Fang Ji, consumptions of mixtures of Chinese herbal products in the general population and patients with chronic renal failure in Taiwan, occupational exposure in Chinese herbalists, and food contamination in farming villages in valleys of the Danube River. Such an association is corroborated by detecting specific DNA adducts in the tumor tissue removed from affected patients. Preventive actions of banning such use and education to the healthcare professionals and public are necessary for the safety of herbal remedies. PMID:25431765

  16. Low renal replacement therapy incidence among slowly progressing elderly chronic kidney disease patients referred to nephrology care: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Ulrika Hahn; Gasparini, Alessandro; Bellocco, Rino; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Carrero, Juan-Jesus; Evans, Marie

    2017-02-10

    Elderly patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high risk of death before reaching end-stage kidney disease. In order to allocate resources, such as advanced care nephrology where it is most needed, it is essential to know which patients have the highest absolute risk of advancing to renal replacement therapy (RRT). We included all nephrology-referred CKD stage 3b-5 patients in Sweden 2005-2011 included in the Swedish renal registry (SRR-CKD) who had at least two serum creatinine measurements one year apart (+/- 6 months). We followed these patients to either initiation of RRT, death, or September 30, 2013. Decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (%) was estimated during the one-year baseline period. The patients in the highest tertile of progression (>18.7% decline in eGFR) during the initial year of follow-up were classified as "fast progressors". We estimated the cumulative incidence of RRT and death before RRT by age, eGFR and progression status using competing risk models. There were 2119 RRT initiations (24.2%) and 2060 deaths (23.5%) before RRT started. The median progression rate estimated during the initial year was -8.8% (Interquartile range [IQR] - 24.5-6.5%). A fast initial progression rate was associated with a higher risk of RRT initiation (Sub Hazard Ratio [SHR] 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.00-2.51) and also a higher risk of death before RRT initiation (SHR 1.27 (95% CI 1.13-1.43). The five year probability of RRT was highest in younger patients (75 years with a slow progression rate (7, 13, and 25% for CKD stages 3b, 4 and 5 respectively), and slightly higher in elderly patients with a fast initial progression rate (28% in CKD stage 4 and 47% in CKD stage 5) or with diabetic kidney disease. The 5-year probability of RRT was low among referred slowly progressing CKD patients >75 years of age because of the competing risk of death.

  17. Low perfusion pressure is associated with renal tubular injury in infants undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: A secondary analysis of an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojan, Mirela; Basto Duarte, Maria C; Lopez, Vanessa; Tourneur, Laurent; Vicca, Stephanie; Froissart, Marc

    2018-02-09

    Earlier work on adults undergoing surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass suggests that there is a close relationship between the lower limit of the cerebral and renal autoregulation pressures. Although cerebral autoregulation during bypass in infants has been extensively investigated, the impact of bypass on kidney function is not well known. It is, nevertheless, acknowledged that the main pathophysiological process involved in cardiac surgery-related kidney damage is tubular injury, and that urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocaline (uNGAL) is a reliable biomarker of injury. To identify the most predictive bypass variable for the measurement of renal injury, its threshold value and the most predictive time below that threshold. Observational study linking electronically recorded bypass perfusion pressure and oxygen delivery rate with intra-operative uNGAL excretion. Variations in bypass variables were accounted for by their excursions below several thresholds. French tertiary referral paediatric cardiac centre. A total of 72 infants in whom uNGAL was measured within 1 h of bypass. None. Renal injury, identified by a high creatinine normalised uNGAL concentration (>21.2 μg mmol). At the end of bypass, 43.75% of infants had high uNGAL. A more than 40% pressure drop below the normal age-standardised mean arterial pressure was associated with high uNGAL. Receiver operating curve [interquartile range] areas were 0.626 [0.501 to 0.752] for a more than 40% drop, and 0.679 [0.555 to 0.804] for a more than 50% drop. A more than 40% pressure drop for 19.5 min provided a 0.65 negative predictive value for high uNGAL, and a more than 50% pressure drop for 5.4 min provided a 0.67 negative predictive value. The link between uNGAL and oxygen delivery rate was negligible. Maintaining the perfusion pressure above 60% of the normal age-standardised mean arterial pressure may provide an effective renal protective strategy. Registered on October 11, 2010, Clinical

  18. Renal Osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Metin Terzibaşoğlu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency is a functional definition which is characterized by irreversible and progressive decreasing in renal functions. This impairment is in collaboration with glomeruler filtration rate and serum creatinine levels. Besides this, different grades of bone metabolism disorders develop in chronic renal insufficiency. Pathologic changes in bone tissue due to loss of renal paranchyme is interrelated with calcium, phosphorus vitamine-D and parathyroid hormone. Clinically we can see high turnover bone disease, low turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis and osteoporosis in renal osteodystropy. In this article we aimed to review pathology of bone metabolism disorders due to chronic renal insufficiency, clinic aspects and treatment approaches briefly.

  19. Initiation and Cessation Timing of Renal Replacement Therapy in Patients with Type 1 Cardiorenal Syndrome: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Buyun; Yan, Wenyan; Li, Xing; Kong, Xiangqing; Yu, Xiangbao; Zhu, Yamei; Xing, Changying; Mao, Huijuan

    2017-02-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is a rescue therapy for patients with type 1 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) with poor prognoses. However, the optimal timing for initiation and cessation of RRT remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal timing of initiation and cessation of RRT for patients with type 1 CRS. In this retrospective analysis, patients with refractory type 1 CRS receiving RRT were divided into 3 groups according to weaning from RRT and death within 90 days. Baseline characteristics, underlying heart disease, comorbidities, drug use before RRT, indicators of RRT initiation, and prognosis were compared between the 3 groups. Fifty-two patients were enrolled, which included 27 males and 25 females with a mean age of 70.7 ± 16.1 years and a 90-day mortality rate of 65.4%. The mean urine output before RRT initiation was 800 mL/ 24 h in the RRT-independent group, 650 mL/24 h in the RRT-dependent group, and 345 mL/ 24 h in the death group (p = 0.021). Additionally, there were obvious differences in fluid balance between the 3 groups (167, 250, and 1,270 mL, respectively, p = 0.016). Patients could be successfully weaned from RRT when urine output was >880 mL and fluid balance volume was 880 mL/24 h and volume balance is <150 mL/24 h.

  20. Island-enhanced cooling mechanism in typhoon events revealed by field observations and numerical simulations for a coral reef area, Sekisei Lagoon, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Lawrence Patrick C.; Nadaoka, Kazuo; Nakamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2017-11-01

    While widely known for their destructive power, typhoon events can also bring benefit to coral reef ecosystems through typhoon-induced cooling which can mitigate against thermally stressful conditions causing coral bleaching. Sensor deployments in Sekisei Lagoon, Japan's largest coral reef area, during the summer months of 2013, 2014, and 2015 were able to capture local hydrodynamic features of numerous typhoon passages. In particular, typhoons 2015-13 and 2015-15 featured steep drops in near-bottom temperature of 5 °C or more in the north and south sides of Sekisei Lagoon, respectively, indicating local cooling patterns which appeared to depend on the track and intensity of the passing typhoon. This was further investigated using Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) numerical simulations conducted for the summer of 2015. The modeling results showed a cooling trend to the north of the Yaeyama Islands during the passage of typhoon 2015-13, and a cooling trend that moved clockwise from north to south of the islands during the passage of typhoon 2015-15. These local cooling events may have been initiated by the Yaeyama Islands acting as an obstacle to a strong typhoon-generated flow which was modulated and led to prominent cooling of waters on the leeward sides. These lower temperature waters from offshore may then be transported to the shallower inner parts of the lagoon area, which may partly be due to density-driven currents generated by the offshore-inner area temperature difference.

  1. A very cool cooling system

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 Gigatracker is a jewel of technology: its sensor, which delivers the time of the crossing particles with a precision of less than 200 picoseconds (better than similar LHC detectors), has a cooling system that might become the precursor to a completely new detector technique.   The 115 metre long vacuum tank of the NA62 experiment. The NA62 Gigatracker (GTK) is composed of a set of three innovative silicon pixel detectors, whose job is to measure the arrival time and the position of the incoming beam particles. Installed in the heart of the NA62 detector, the silicon sensors are cooled down (to about -20 degrees Celsius) by a microfluidic silicon device. “The cooling system is needed to remove the heat produced by the readout chips the silicon sensor is bonded to,” explains Alessandro Mapelli, microsystems engineer working in the Physics department. “For the NA62 Gigatracker we have designed a cooling plate on top of which both the silicon sensor and the...

  2. Renal angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1988-01-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare lesion composed of smooth muscle cells, adipose tissue and abnormal vessels. It is currently classified as a benign, non-epithelial renal tumor. It has a high incidence in patients suffering from tuberous sclerosis but is more frequently found as an isolated renal...... lesion. Three cases of renal angiomyolipoma, 2 of which underwent perfusion-fixation, were studied by electron microscopy to clarify the cellular composition of this lesion. In the smooth muscle cells abundant accumulation of glycogen was found, whereas the lipocytes disclosed normal ultrastructural......-specific vesicular structures. These findings suggest a secondary vascular damage, i.e. the thickened vessels may not be a primary, integral part of renal angiomyolipoma. Evidence of a common precursor cell of renal angiomyolipoma was not disclosed. It is concluded that renal angiomyolipoma is a hamartoma composed...

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life Impacts Mortality but Not Progression to End-Stage Renal Disease in Pre-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesky, Mark D; Dutton, Mary; Dasgupta, Indranil; Yadav, Punit; Ng, Khai Ping; Fenton, Anthony; Kyte, Derek; Ferro, Charles J; Calvert, Melanie; Cockwell, Paul; Stringer, Stephanie J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL). However, the relationship between pre-dialysis CKD, HRQL and clinical outcomes, including mortality and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unclear. All 745 participants recruited into the Renal Impairment In Secondary Care study to end March 2014 were included. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected at baseline including an assessment of HRQL using the Euroqol EQ-5D-3L. Health states were converted into an EQ-5Dindex score using a set of weighted preferences specific to the UK population. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression and competing risk analyses were undertaken to evaluate the association of HRQL with progression to ESRD or all-cause mortality. Regression analyses were then performed to identify variables associated with the significant HRQL components. Median eGFR was 25.8 ml/min/1.73 m2 (IQR 19.6-33.7ml/min) and median ACR was 33 mg/mmol (IQR 6.6-130.3 mg/mmol). Five hundred and fifty five participants (75.7%) reported problems with one or more EQ-5D domains. When adjusted for age, gender, comorbidity, eGFR and ACR, both reported problems with self-care [hazard ratio 2.542, 95% confidence interval 1.222-5.286, p = 0.013] and reduced EQ-5Dindex score [hazard ratio 0.283, 95% confidence interval 0.099-0.810, p = 0.019] were significantly associated with an increase in all-cause mortality. Similar findings were observed for competing risk analyses. Reduced HRQL was not a risk factor for progression to ESRD in multivariable analyses. Impaired HRQL is common in the pre-dialysis CKD population. Reduced HRQL, as demonstrated by problems with self-care or a lower EQ-5Dindex score, is associated with a higher risk for death but not ESRD. Multiple factors influence these aspects of HRQL but renal function, as measured by eGFR and ACR, are not among them.

  4. Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney Injury, Renal Angina and Epidemiology in critically ill children (AWARE): study protocol for a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Rajit K; Kaddourah, Ahmad; Terrell, Tara; Mottes, Theresa; Arnold, Patricia; Jacobs, Judd; Andringa, Jennifer; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2015-02-26

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with poor outcome in critically ill children. While data extracted from retrospective study of pediatric populations demonstrate a high incidence of AKI, the literature lacks focused and comprehensive multicenter studies describing AKI risk factors, epidemiology, and outcome. Additionally, very few pediatric studies have examined novel urinary biomarkers outside of the cardiopulmonary bypass population. This is a prospective observational study. We anticipate collecting data on over 5000 critically ill children admitted to 31 pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) across the world during the calendar year of 2014. Data will be collected for seven days on all children older than 90 days and younger than 25 years without baseline stage 5 chronic kidney disease, chronic renal replacement therapy, and outside of 90 days of a kidney transplant or from surgical correction of congenital heart disease. Data to be collected includes demographic information, admission diagnoses and co-morbidities, and details on fluid and vasoactive resuscitation used. The renal angina index will be calculated integrating risk factors and early changes in serum creatinine and fluid overload. On days 2-7, all hemodynamic and pertinent laboratory values will be captured focusing on AKI pertinent values. Daily calculated values will include % fluid overload, fluid corrected creatinine, and KDIGO AKI stage. Urine will be captured twice daily for biomarker analysis on Days 0-3 of admission. Biomarkers to be measured include neutrophil gelatinase lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty acid binding protein (l-FABP), and interleukin-18 (IL-18). The primary outcome to be quantified is incidence rate of severe AKI on Day 3 (Day 3-AKI). Prediction of Day 3-AKI by the RAI and after incorporation of biomarkers with RAI will be analyzed. The Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney Injury, Renal Angina and Epidemiology (AWARE) study

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life Impacts Mortality but Not Progression to End-Stage Renal Disease in Pre-Dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Jesky

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with reduced health-related quality of life (HRQL. However, the relationship between pre-dialysis CKD, HRQL and clinical outcomes, including mortality and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD is unclear.All 745 participants recruited into the Renal Impairment In Secondary Care study to end March 2014 were included. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected at baseline including an assessment of HRQL using the Euroqol EQ-5D-3L. Health states were converted into an EQ-5Dindex score using a set of weighted preferences specific to the UK population. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression and competing risk analyses were undertaken to evaluate the association of HRQL with progression to ESRD or all-cause mortality. Regression analyses were then performed to identify variables associated with the significant HRQL components.Median eGFR was 25.8 ml/min/1.73 m2 (IQR 19.6-33.7ml/min and median ACR was 33 mg/mmol (IQR 6.6-130.3 mg/mmol. Five hundred and fifty five participants (75.7% reported problems with one or more EQ-5D domains. When adjusted for age, gender, comorbidity, eGFR and ACR, both reported problems with self-care [hazard ratio 2.542, 95% confidence interval 1.222-5.286, p = 0.013] and reduced EQ-5Dindex score [hazard ratio 0.283, 95% confidence interval 0.099-0.810, p = 0.019] were significantly associated with an increase in all-cause mortality. Similar findings were observed for competing risk analyses. Reduced HRQL was not a risk factor for progression to ESRD in multivariable analyses.Impaired HRQL is common in the pre-dialysis CKD population. Reduced HRQL, as demonstrated by problems with self-care or a lower EQ-5Dindex score, is associated with a higher risk for death but not ESRD. Multiple factors influence these aspects of HRQL but renal function, as measured by eGFR and ACR, are not among them.

  6. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  7. TNOs are cool : A survey of the trans-Neptunian region V. Physical characterization of 18 Plutinos using Herschel-PACS observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommert, M.; Harris, A. W.; Kiss, C.; Pal, A.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Stansberry, J.; Delsanti, A.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, T. G.; Peixinho, N.; Lellouch, E.; Szalai, N.; Henry, F.; Duffard, R.; Fornasier, S.; Hartogh, P.; Mueller, M.; Ortiz, J. L.; Protopapa, S.; Rengel, M.; Thirouin, A.

    Context. The Herschel open time key programme TNOs are Cool: A survey of the trans-Neptunian region aims to derive physical and thermal properties for a set of similar to 140 Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), including resonant, classical, detached and scattered disk objects. One goal of

  8. Renal papillary necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1877, Dr. Nikolaus Friedreich (1825-1882; student of Virchow who became Professor of Pathology at Heidelberg and who also described Friedreich’s ataxia first described renal papillary necrosis (RPN in patients with prostatic hypertrophy and secondary hydronephrosis. Thereafter in 1937, Froboese and Günther emphasized the association of this entity with diabetes mellitus. These authors also observed renal papillary necrosis in cases of urinary tract obstruction even in the absence of diabetes mellitus.

  9. REACTOR COOLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  10. Cool collapsible

    OpenAIRE

    Linnér, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    Cool collabsible är ett projekt som har handlat om att skapa ett hopfällbart utomhusbord. Arbetet har utförts tillsammans med aka buna design consult. Projektet har fokuserats på att hitta en funktion, teknik och material för att sedan transformera detta till ett innovativt utomhusbord. Genom ett utförligt arbete med att definiera målgruppen skapades ramar som format ett bord till den typiska brukaren. Resultatet blev ett hopfällbart bord som hämtat sin inspiration från naturen. Ett bord som ...

  11. Renal outcomes in mixed proliferative and membranous lupus nephritis (Class III/IV + V): A long-term observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, Hidekazu; Hiromura, Keiju; Kayakabe, Ken; Tshilela, Kadiombo Anastasie; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Hamatani, Hiroko; Sakairi, Toru; Kaneko, Yoriaki; Maeshima, Akito; Nojima, Yoshihisa

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of combination of proliferative and membranous lesions (Class III + V or IV + V) on renal outcomes as an independent category distinct from Class III and IV. We retrospectively analyzed 103 Japanese patients (14 male and 89 female) with Class III/IV LN, with or without Class V, who underwent renal biopsy and were treated at our institution. Renal endpoint was defined as doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The number of patients in each group was as follows: pure Class III/IV, 81 patients and mixed Class III/IV + V, 22 patients. During a median follow-up period of 125.0 months, 10 patients developed renal endpoint: five had Class III/IV LN and five had a combination of Class III/IV + V. Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated that patients with mixed Class III/IV + V LN had significantly poorer renal outcomes than patients with Class III/IV LN. Multivariate Cox regression analyses identified serum creatinine, active and chronic lesions (A/C), and mixed Class III/IV + V) as independent risk factors for poor renal outcomes. This study demonstrated a combination of proliferative and membranous LN (ISN/RPS Class III/IV + V) predicts poor renal outcomes.

  12. Renal failure (chronic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clase, Catherine

    2011-05-25

    Continued progression of renal failure will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments used to reduce progression rate of chronic renal failure? What are the effects of lifestyle changes used to reduce progression rate of chronic renal failure? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 44 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: angiotensin II receptor antagonists, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (with or without angiotensin II receptor antagonists), exercise, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, fibrates, lowering blood pressure below usual targets, nicotinates, psychoeducational intervention, smoking cessation, sodium (dietary), statins, structured programmes to achieve therapeutic goals, and targeted lowering of albuminuria/proteinuria.

  13. Renal Afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Alissa A; Carmichael, Casey Y; Wainford, Richard D

    2016-09-01

    The etiology of hypertension, a critical public health issue affecting one in three US adults, involves the integration of the actions of multiple organ systems, including the renal sympathetic nerves. The renal sympathetic nerves, which are comprised of both afferent (sensory input) and efferent (sympathetic outflow) arms, have emerged as a major potential therapeutic target to treat hypertension and disease states exhibiting excess renal sympathetic activity. This review highlights recent advances in both clinical and basic science that have provided new insight into the distribution, function, and reinnervation of the renal sympathetic nerves, with a focus on the renal afferent nerves, in hypertension and hypertension-evoked disease states including salt-sensitive hypertension, obesity-induced hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. Increased understanding of the differential role of the renal afferent versus efferent nerves in the pathophysiology of hypertension has the potential to identify novel targets and refine therapeutic interventions designed to treat hypertension.

  14. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Govorov; A. O. Vasilyev; D. Yu. Pushkar

    2014-01-01

    Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat session...

  15. Renal liposarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo A.L. Bader

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Liposarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal tumor frequently located in retroperitoneum, and rarely presenting an isolated lesion in kidney. CASE REPORT: Female, Caucasian, 49-year old patient, with family history of renal polycystic disease, was selected for organ donation. During preoperative examinations a renal pleomorphic liposarcoma was detected. She was treated with radical nephrectomy and remains asymptomatic, without evidences of recurrence in control ecographic examinations after a 4-year follow-up. COMMENTS: Renal liposarcoma is a rare tumor. We report one case incidentally diagnosed during a routine pre-transplantation assessment in renal donor.

  16. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  17. Renal disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Chronic renal failure in its various stages, requires certain nutritional restrictions associated with the accumulation of minerals and waste products that cannot be easily eliminated by the kidneys...

  18. Cool visitors

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Pictured, from left to right: Tim Izo (saxophone, flute, guitar), Bobby Grant (tour manager), George Pajon (guitar). What do the LHC and a world-famous hip-hop group have in common? They are cool! On Saturday, 1st July, before their appearance at the Montreux Jazz Festival, three members of the 'Black Eyed Peas' came on a surprise visit to CERN, inspired by Dan Brown's Angels and Demons. At short notice, Connie Potter (Head of the ATLAS secretariat) organized a guided tour of ATLAS and the AD 'antimatter factory'. Still curious, lead vocalist Will.I.Am met CERN physicist Rolf Landua after the concert to ask many more questions on particles, CERN, and the origin of the Universe.

  19. Cool Snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm; Grunert, Klaus G; Brunsø, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Young people snack and their snacking habits are not always healthy. We address the questions whether it is possible to develop a new snack product that adolescents will find attractive, even though it is based on ingredients as healthy as fruits and vegetables, and we argue that developing...... such a product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...... people's snacking behaviour and then to develop and test new, healthier snacking solutions. These new snacking solutions were tested and found to be favourably accepted by young people. The paper therefore provides a proof of principle that the development of snacks that are both healthy and attractive...

  20. A case of renal oncocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    筧, 善行; 新井, 永植; 片村, 永樹

    1984-01-01

    We report a case of renal oncocytoma and review 158 cases in the literature. The patient was a 75-year-old woman whose chief complaint was epigastric discomfort without any urological symptoms. The right renal tumor was incidentally discovered by ultrasonography. Its angiographic patterns such as spoke-wheel appearance and homogeneous nephrogram were "characteristic" of renal oncocytoma. We diagnosed it as oncocytoma by microscopical and ultrastructural observation.

  1. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  2. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  3. Slope estimation for informatively right censored longitudinal data modelling the number of observations using geometric and Poisson distributions: application to renal transplant cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffa, Miran A; Lipsitz, Stuart; Woolson, Robert F

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of longitudinal data is often complicated by the presence of informative right censoring. This type of censoring should be accounted for in the analysis so that valid slope estimates are attained. In this study, we developed a new likelihood-based approach wherein the likelihood function is integrated over random effects to obtain a marginal likelihood function. Maximum likelihood estimates for the population slope were acquired by direct maximisation of the marginal likelihood function and empirical Bayes estimates for the individual slopes were generated using Gaussian quadrature. The performance of the model was assessed using the geometric and Poisson distributions to model the number of observations for every individual subject. Our model generated valid estimates for the slopes under both distributions with minimal bias and mean squared errors. Our sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the model to assumptions pertaining to the underlying distribution and demonstrated its insensitivity to normality assumptions. Moreover, superiority of the model in terms of accuracy of slope estimates was consistently shown across the different levels of censoring in comparison to the naïve and bootstrap approaches. This model was illustrated using the cohort of renal transplant patients and estimates of the slopes that are adjusted for informative right censoring were acquired. © The Author(s) 2011.

  4. Association with meteo-climatological factors and daily emergency visits for renal colic and urinary calculi in Cuneo, Italy. A retrospective observational study, 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condemi, Vincenzo; Gestro, Massimo; Dozio, Elena; Tartaglino, Bruno; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Meco, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Incidence and prevalence of kidney stones are affected by genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between various meteorological factors (independent variables) and the daily number of visits to the Emergency Department (ED of the S. Croce and Carle Hospital of Cuneo for renal colic (RC) and urinary stones (UC) as the dependent variable over the years 2007-2010. The Poisson generalized regression models (PGAMs) have been used in different progressive ways. The results of PGAMs (stage 1) adjusted for seasonal and calendar factors confirmed a significant correlation ( p 1), with a first peak after 5 days (lag ranges 0-1, 0-3, and 0-5) and a second weak peak observed along the 5-15 lag range days. The estimated RR for females was significant, mainly in the second and fourth age group considered (19-44 and >65 years): RR for total ED visits 1.27, confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.46 (lag 0-5 days); RR 1.42, CI 1.01-2.01 (lag 0-10 days); and RR 1.35, CI 1.09-1.68 (lag 0-15 days). The research also indicated a moderate involvement of the thermal factor in the onset of RC caused by UC, exclusively in the female sex. Further studies will be necessary to confirm these results.

  5. Cooling of Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorian H.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the theoretical basis for modeling the cooling evolution of compact stars starting from Boltzmann equations in curved space-time. We open a discussion on observational verification of different neutron star models by consistent statistics. Particular interest has the question of existence of quark matter deep inside of compact object, which has to have a specific influence on the cooling history of the star. Besides of consideration of several constraints and features of cooling evolution, which are susceptible of being critical for internal structure of hot compact stars we have introduced a method of extraction of the mass distribution of the neutron stars from temperature and age data. The resulting mass distribution has been compared with the one suggested by supernove simulations. This method can be considered as an additional checking tool for the consistency of theoretical modeling of neutron stars. We conclude that the cooling data allowed existence of neutron stars with quark cores even with one-flavor quark matter.

  6. Renal function after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    The lack of need for immediate renal replacement treatment for military trauma victims suggests that the current policy of restricting operational deployment of those Service personnel with active inflammatory renal disease and significantly impaired renal function, combined with good prehospital care for all trauma casualties, is probably correct. No published estimates of renal function in civilian or military trauma victims in the earliest period following injury have been retrieved. The purpose of the present retrospective study was to assess the renal function of military trauma victims on arrival in the Emergency Department of the field hospital. The case records of 287 military trauma casualties with severe injury (New Injury Severity Score, NISS≥16) were retrospectively reviewed to assess renal function by calculating estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the serum creatine concentration obtained immediately on arrival in the Emergency Department of the field hospitals in Iraq and Afghanistan, 2005-2009. Correlations were attempted between eGFR and other clinical and laboratory variables. Hospital case notes recording management following repatriation were retrieved in 221/287 (77%) cases. None had required immediate renal support in the field. Serum creatine concentration on arrival in the field hospital with demographic data permitting calculation of eGFR was recorded in 158 cases. Median eGFR=76 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (range=43-144). Statistically significant correlations were found among eGFR and pulse rate (r=-0.3, p=0.0002), body temperature (r=0.24, p=0.01) and mean arterial pressure (r=0.2, p=0.02). No statistically significant correlation was found among eGFR and NISS, white cell count, or respiration rate. A stepwise multivariate regression analysis of 106 cases suggested that the best combination of clinical observations to predict renal function were pulse rate and body temperature but the prediction was overoptimistic at lower e

  7. Renal angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1988-01-01

    features. However, a smaller number of smooth muscle cells also contained lipid, thus simulating an intermediate cell stage between adipose- and smooth muscle cells. The abnormal thickening of the subendothelial spaces contained collagen fibrils in a homogeneous matrix, fibroblast-like cells and non......-specific vesicular structures. These findings suggest a secondary vascular damage, i.e. the thickened vessels may not be a primary, integral part of renal angiomyolipoma. Evidence of a common precursor cell of renal angiomyolipoma was not disclosed. It is concluded that renal angiomyolipoma is a hamartoma composed...

  8. Saxagliptin and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate or severe renal impairment: observations from the SAVOR-TIMI 53 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, Jacob A; Bhatt, Deepak L; Braunwald, Eugene; Cavender, Matthew A; Mosenzon, Ofri; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Davidson, Jaime A; Nicolau, Jose C; Corbalan, Ramon; Hirshberg, Boaz; Frederich, Robert; Im, KyungAh; Umez-Eronini, Amarachi A; He, Ping; McGuire, Darren K; Leiter, Lawrence A; Raz, Itamar; Scirica, Benjamin M

    2015-04-01

    The glycemic management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and renal impairment is challenging, with few treatment options. We investigated the effect of saxagliptin in the Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (SAVOR)-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 53 trial according to baseline renal function. Patients with T2DM at risk for cardiovascular events were stratified as having normal or mildly impaired renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] >50 mL/min/1.73 m(2); n = 13,916), moderate renal impairment (eGFR 30-50 mL/min/1.73 m(2); n = 2,240), or severe renal impairment (eGFR 50 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (HR 1.23 [95% CI 0.99-1.55]), eGFR 30-50 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (HR 1.46 [95% CI 1.07-2.00]), and in patients with eGFR <30 (HR 0.94 [95% CI 0.52-1.71]). Patients with renal impairment achieved reductions in microalbuminuria with saxagliptin (P = 0.041) that were similar to those of the overall trial population. Saxagliptin did not affect the risk of ischemic cardiovascular events, increased the risk of heart failure hospitalization, and reduced progressive albuminuria, irrespective of baseline renal function. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  9. Renal hypothermia using ice-cold saline for retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: evaluation of split renal function with technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yoichi; Kaiho, Yasuhiro; Saito, Hideo; Yamada, Shigeyuki; Mitsuzuka, Koji; Miyazato, Minoru; Nakagawa, Haruo; Ishidoya, Shigeto; Ito, Akihiro

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the changes in split renal function after retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy with renal hypothermia using ice-cold saline. From June 2002 to October 2009, 32 patients (median age 56 years) underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy with hypothermia using ice-cold saline for the treatment of small renal tumors. The total renal function was monitored using the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Split renal function was evaluated using technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. The median renal ischemic time, including the initial 10 minutes for cooling, was 52 minutes (range 28-101). Of the patients whose renal temperature was monitored, the lowest renal temperature during cooling was 15-25°C. The median decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate was 7.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (range -16.3 to 33.7). The median decrease in the contribution of the affected kidney to global renal function was 5.3% (range 0.4%-21.1%). On multivariate analysis, a shorter ischemia duration was an independent predictor of a lesser decrease in the contribution of the affected kidney (P = .0032). The methods we have described are simple and effective to facilitate suboptimal hypothermia. The decrease in the renal contribution of the affected kidney appeared to be minimal, although the ischemic time was relatively longer in our series. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Renewable Heating and Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  11. Renal failure in patients with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almueilo, Samir H

    2015-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is encountered in 20-25% of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) at the time of diagnosis. There is often a precipitating event. Several biochemical and clinical correlations with renal failure in MM have been reported. Renal failure in MM is associated with worse outcome of the disease. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 64 patients with MM admitted to our institution during the period January 1992 to December 2012. Abnormal renal function was observed in 24 (37.5%) patients and 17 (26.6%) of them had renal failure; 14 of the 17 (82.4%) of patients with renal failure had Stage III MM. Urine Bence- Jones protein was positive in ten (58.8%) patients with renal failure versus ten (21.3%) patients without renal failure (P = 0.004). Potential precipitating factors of renal failure were determined in nine patients. Renal function normalized in 11 patients with simple measures, while six patients required hemodialysis; one remained dialysis dependent till time of death. Early mortality occurred in five (29.4%) patients with renal failure as compared with two (4.3%) patients in the group without renal failure (P = 0.005). In conclusion, renal failure is associated with a higher tumor burden and Bence-Jones proteinuria in patients with MM. It is reversible in the majority of patients; however, early mortality tends to be higher in patients with persistent renal failure.

  12. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  13. Utility of Volume Assessment Using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hyun Park

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Fluid overload prior to continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT is an important prognostic factor. Thus, precise evaluation of fluid status is necessary to treat such patients. In this study, we investigated whether fluid assessment using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA can predict outcomes in critically ill patients requiring CRRT. Methods A prospective observational study was performed in patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit and who required CRRT. BIA was conducted before CRRT; then, the ratio of extracellular water to total body water (ECW/TBW was derived to estimate volume status. Results A total of 31 patients treated with CRRT were included. There were 18 men (58.1%, and the median age was 67 years (interquartile range, 51 to 78 years. Fourteen patients (45.2% died within 28 days after CRRT initiation. Patients were divided into 16 with ECW/TBW ≥0.41 and 15 with ECW/TBW <0.41. Survival rate within 28 days was different between the two groups (P = 0.044. Cox regression analysis revealed a relationship between ECW/TBW ≥0.41 and 28-day mortality, but it was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 9.8; P = 0.061. Lastly, the area under the curve of ECW/TBW for 28-day mortality was analyzed. The area under the curve of ECW/TBW was 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.92, and this was significant (P = 0.037. Conclusions Fluid status can be assessed using BIA in critically ill patients requiring CRRT, and BIA can predict mortality. Further large trials are needed to confirm the usefulness of BIA in critically ill patients.

  14. The urogenital-hypogastric sheath: an anatomical observation on the relationship between the inferomedial extension of renal fascia and the hypogastric nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X F; Luo, G H; Ding, Z H; Li, G X; Chen, X W; Zhong, S Z

    2014-11-01

    The study aimed to perform an anatomical observation on the inferomedial extension of the renal fascia (RF) to the pelvis and explore its relationship with the hypogastric nerves (HGNs). Gross anatomy was performed on 12 formalin-fixed and 12 fresh cadavers. Sectional anatomy was performed on four formalin-fixed cadavers. Different from the traditional concept, both the anterior and posterior RF included the outer and inner layer with different inferomedial extensions. The multiple layers of RF extended downward to form a sandwich-like and compound fascia sheath with potential and expandable spaces which was named as "the urogenital-hypogastric sheath." Below the level of the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery, the bilateral urogenital-hypogastric sheath communicated with the counterpart in front of the great vessels in the midline and the superior hypogastric plexus ran into the urogenital-hypogastric sheath which carried the HGNs, ureters, and genital vessels downward to their terminations in the pelvis. In the retrorectal space, the urogenital-hypogastric sheath surrounded the fascia propria of the rectum posterolaterally as a layer of coat containing HGNs. The multiple layers of RF with different extensions are the anatomical basis of the formation of the urogenital-hypogastric sheath. As a special fascial structure in the retroperitoneal space and the pelvis, emphasis on its formation and morphology may be helpful for not only unifying the controversies about the relationship between the pelvic fascia and HGNs but also improving the intraoperative preservation of the HGNs by dissecting in the correct surgical plane.

  15. Implementation of continuous renal replacement therapy with regional citrate anticoagulation on a surgical and trauma intensive care unit: impact on clinical and economic aspects-an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sebastian; Stahl, Wolfgang; Fels, Theresa; Träger, Karl; Georgieff, Michael; Wepler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is being increasingly used during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in intensive care units as an alternative to systemic heparin anticoagulation. However, due to its availability in a variety of solutions and dialysis systems, RCA is still considered a complex intervention, possibly leading to confusion and pitfalls in everyday practice. We therefore tested retrospectively if the introduction of RCA as a new anticoagulation strategy for CRRT was feasible and had not negatively impacted efficacy, safety, metabolic stability, filter lifetime, and cost-effectiveness compared to well-established systemic heparin. This observational, retrospective study was performed on a non-cardiac surgical and trauma intensive care unit (ICU) in a university hospital. All charts of patients receiving one of the CRRT techniques from May 2006 to April 2010 were reviewed. The first 60 consecutive patients receiving CRRT with regional citrate anticoagulation after its implementation in February 2008 (continuous veno-venous haemodialysis, Multifiltrate® with integrated CiCa® system, AV 1000 S® filter, n = 60) were included in the study. The last 50 consecutive patients with systemic heparin anticoagulation therapy (continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration, PRISMAFLEX®, AN69® filter, n = 50), treated immediately before the introduction of RCA, were used as a historic control group. Both treatment modalities were effective in terms of uraemia control. Patients in the citrate group presented with significantly higher pH levels, lower ionized calcium levels, and higher sodium levels compared with the heparin treated group, however, without notable adverse clinical events. Interestingly, mean circuit lifetime was significantly longer in the citrate group (48.6 ± 24.2 h vs. 18.8 ± 13.5 h; p parameters, i.e. different filters, modes of dialysis, and flow parameters not having been standardized, we were unable to draw a

  16. Safety and treatment outcomes of first-line pazopanib in renal cell carcinoma: A prospective observational study in a single Malaysia tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Nor Mohd Farez Ahmat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pazopanib is the standard of care for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC. Previous studies on this indication were limited to patients who were selected on the basis of a fairly preserved performance status and normal organ function. Thus, the clinical trial population may not be representative of all patients seen in real-world practice. Based on these considerations, this prospective single-centre observational study was designed to evaluate the treatment outcomes and safety profile of pazopanib in Malaysian population. Patients and methods: Patients prescribed with pazopanib between June 2015 and June 2017 were recruited and followed up for 2-years or till death whichever comes first. Progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS were evaluated. Multivariate and survival analysis were performed. Results: Twenty-seven patients were treated with pazopanib where 89% had clear cell histology.  Sixteen patients (59% were intermediate risk and 41% were poor risk based on Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC criteria. All patients experienced at least one adverse event. The most common were cutaneous toxicity (92% followed by proteinuria, hypertension, diarrhoea and mucositis. Treatment interruption was needed in 15 patients. The median PFS and OS were 9.57 months and 15.5 months, respectively. In multivariate analysis, MSKCC risk score demonstrates strong predictive treatment outcome. The median PFS was 14.5 months in intermediate risk and 3.96 months in poor risk (OR: 0.2, p<0.001. However, the median OS is still immature to be reported since 63% of intermediate risk group is still alive at 2-years follow-up. Conclusion: In mRCC patients, treatment with pazopanib was effective in patients with intermediate risk group. In terms of safety, patient tolerated pazopanib quite well with mostly experienced grade 1 to 2 adverse events.

  17. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study.

  18. Renal Hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil Bozkurt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon perivascular tumor originating from pericytes in the pelvis, head and tneck, and the meninges; extremely rarely in the urinary system. We report a case of incidentally detected renal mass in which radiologic evaluation was suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. First, we performed partial nephrectomy, and then, radical nephrectomy because of positive surgical margins and the pathological examination of the surgical specimen that revealed a hemangiopericytoma. No additional treatment was administered.

  19. Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripalani, Lakshmi A.

    2016-01-01

    The adult who is inexperienced in the art of observation may, even with the best intentions, react to a child's behavior in a way that hinders instead of helping the child's development. Kripalani outlines the need for training and practice in observation in order to "understand the needs of the children and...to understand how to remove…

  20. X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.R.; /SLAC; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.

    2006-01-17

    We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

  1. [Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux, V; Lechevallier, E; Pamela, A; Long, J-A; Rambeaud, J-J

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to perform a systematic review of literature concerning epidemiology, clinical and biological data, prognosis and therapy of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas. Data on sarcomatoid renal cell carcinomas have been sought by querying the server Medline with MeSH terms following or combination of them: "renal carcinoma", "renal cell carcinoma," "renal cancer", "sarcomatoid" "sarcomatoid transformation" and "sarcomatoid differentiation." The articles obtained were selected according to their methodology, the language in English or French, the relevance and the date of publication. Twenty papers were selected. According to the literature, a sarcomatoid contingent can be observed in all subtypes of renal cell carcinomas, with a frequency of 1 to 15% of cases. The median age at diagnosis was 60 years with a majority of symptomatic patients (90%), mainly with abdominal pain and hematuria. These tumors were often found in patients with locally advanced or metastatic (45-77%). The imaging was not specific for the diagnosis and biopsy had a low sensitivity for identifying a sarcomatoid contingent. The treatment was based on a combination of maximal surgical resection whenever possible and systemic therapy for metastastic disease. Pathological data often showed large tumors, Furhman 4 grades, combined biphasic carcinomatous contingent (clear cell carcinoma in most cases) and sarcomatoid. Genetically, there was no specific abnormality but a complex association of chromosomal additions and deletions. The prognosis was pejorative with a specific median survival of 5 to 19 months without any impact of the sarcomatoid contingent rate. Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma is a form not to ignore despite its rarity. Mainly symptomatic and discovered at an advanced stage, it has a poor prognosis, requiring multidisciplinary management quickly and correctly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Activity and cool spots on the surfaces of G-type stars with superflares from observations with the Kepler Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanov, I. S.; Dmitrienko, E. S.

    2015-09-01

    The properties of active regions (cool spots) on the surfaces of 279 G-type stars in which more than 1500 superflares with energies of 1033-1036 erg were detected are analyzed. Diagrams plotting the superflare energy against activity parameters of the stars (the area of their magnetic spots) are considered, and a more extensive study of the activity of two stars with the highest numbers of flares is presented. The range of variation of the superflare energies (up to two orders of magnitude) is realized over the entire interval of rotation periods. It is proposed that the plot of superflare energy vs. rotational period is bimodal. There are probably no appreciable differences in the maximum flare energies for the two groups of objects, which have rotational periods of more than and less than 10 days. Three groups of stars with different surface spottednesses can be distinguished in a plot of superflare energy vs. cool-spot area. The range of variation of the flare energy within a group is roughly the same for these three groups. Most of the points on this diagram lie to the right of the dependence corresponding to B = 3000Gand an inclination i = 90° (the first two groups of objects). It is confirmed that the flare activity is not related directly to circumpolar active regions, since the majority of the points on the diagram lie to the right of the dependence for B = 1000 G and i = 3°. Analysis of stars from the sample, including objects with more than 20 superflares, shows that large variations of the energy (by up to two orders of magnitude) can be reached with small variations of the spottedness parameter S for a single star. Appreciable variability of the spottedness (by factors of five to six) was detected for only two objects from the sample (KIC 10422252 and KIC 11764567). These stars displayed an increase in the flare energy by orders of magnitude for any spottedness level. The activity of KIC 11551430 and KIC 11764567 is analyzed in detail using all

  3. Renal Insufficiency and Early Bystander CPR Predict In-Hospital Outcomes in Cardiac Arrest Patients Undergoing Mild Therapeutic Hypothermia and Cardiac Catheterization: Return of Spontaneous Circulation, Cooling, and Catheterization Registry (ROSCCC Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjala Chelvanathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA patients are a critically ill patient population with high mortality. Combining mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH with early coronary intervention may improve outcomes in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate predictors of mortality in OHCA patients undergoing MTH with and without cardiac catheterization. Design. A retrospective cohort of OHCA patients who underwent MTH with catheterization (MTH + C and without catheterization (MTH + NC between 2006 and 2011 was analyzed at a single tertiary care centre. Predictors of in-hospital mortality and neurologic outcome were determined. Results. The study population included 176 patients who underwent MTH for OHCA. A total of 66 patients underwent cardiac catheterization (MTH + C and 110 patients did not undergo cardiac catheterization (MTH + NC. Immediate bystander CPR occurred in approximately half of the total population. In the MTH + C and MTH + NC groups, the in-hospital mortality was 48% and 78%, respectively. The only independent predictor of in-hospital mortality for patients with MTH + C, after multivariate analysis, was baseline renal insufficiency (OR = 8.2, 95% CI 1.8–47.1, and p = 0.009. Conclusion. Despite early cardiac catheterization, renal insufficiency and the absence of immediate CPR are potent predictors of death and poor neurologic outcome in patients with OHCA.

  4. Bilateral anomalies of renal pelves presenting with supernumerary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current observation presents a case of right duplicated renal pelvis and anomalies of right and left renal vessels. The duplicated pelves formed anterior and posterior segments which entered the renal substance separately and each had its own set of renal major calyces. The anterior segment appeared dilated, ...

  5. Variation in the use of renal replacement therapy in patients with septic shock: a substudy of the prospective multicenter observational FINNAKI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Indications for renal replacement therapy (RRT) have not been generally standardized and vary among intensive care units (ICUs). We aimed to assess the proportion, indications, and modality of RRT, as well as the association between the proportion of RRT use and 90-day mortality in patients with septic shock in Finnish adult ICUs. Methods We identified patients with septic shock from the prospective observational multicenter FINNAKI study conducted between 1 September 2011 and 1 February 2012. We divided the ICUs into high-RRT and low-RRT ICUs according to the median of the proportion of RRT-treated patients with septic shock. Differences in indications, and modality of RRT between ICU groups were assessed. Finally, we performed an adjusted logistic regression analysis to evaluate the possible association of the ICU group (high vs. low-RRT) with 90-day mortality. Results Of the 726 patients with septic shock, 131 (18.0%, 95% CI 15.2 to 20.9%) were treated with RRT. The proportion of RRT-treated patients varied from 3% up to 36% (median 19%) among ICUs. High-RRT ICUs included nine ICUs (354 patients) and low-RRT ICUs eight ICUs (372 patients). In the high-RRT ICUs patients with septic shock were older (P = 0.04), had more cardiovascular (P RRT ICUs. No significant differences in indications for or modality of RRT existed between the ICU groups. The crude 90-day mortality rate for patients with septic shock was 36.2% (95% CI 31.1 to 41.3%) in the high-RRT ICUs compared to 33.9% (95% CI 29.0 to 38.8%) in the low-RRT ICUs, P = 0.5. In an adjusted logistic regression analysis the ICU group (high-RRT or low-RRT ICUs) was not associated with 90-day mortality. Conclusions Patients with septic shock in ICUs with a high proportion of RRT had more severe organ dysfunctions and received more organ-supportive treatments. Importantly, the ICU group (high-RRT or low-RRT group) was not associated with 90-day mortality. PMID:24499547

  6. Renal leiomyosarkom

    OpenAIRE

    A, Gelincik İ Tok

    2013-01-01

    Renal leiomyosarkomlar, oldukça nadirdir ve primer böbrek malignitelerinin %1-3'ünü oluştururlar. Renal sarkomların prognozu kötüdür ve özellikle sarkomatoid renal hücreli karsinomdan ayrımının yapılması gerekir. Hastanın klinik prezentasyonu ve radyolojik bulguları kesin olarak preoperatif tanı koymaya yardımcı değildir. Başlıca tedavi adjuvan radyoterapi veya kemoterapi ile birlikte veya tek başına radikal nefrektomidir. Prognozu kötüdür. Tanısını immünohistokimya ile doğruladığımız pr...

  7. Renal hemodynamic effect of tacrolimus in renal transplanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Strologo, L; Pontesilli, C; Montini, G; Ginevri, F; Ardissino, G; Campagnano, P; Pastore, A; Federici, G; Rizzoni, G

    2001-10-01

    Like cyclosporine (CsA), tacrolimus acts through the inhibition of renal phosphatase calcineurin. CsA induces reversible vasoconstriction, causing a transient reduction of renal plasma flow in patients with renal transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of tacrolimus on renal plasma flow in renal transplanted children. Eight children were studied with a median age of 10.6 years, a mean glomerular filtration rate (inulin clearance) of 55 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (range 29-95), and a mean follow-up after transplantation of 5.6 months. Effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) was studied in each patient for 12 h after tacrolimus administration. Clearances were obtained every 2 h for 12 h after drug administration. Tacrolimus pharmacokinetics was also studied. Average ERPF at the start of the test was 289 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (range 177-404, SD +/- 106). Variation in each of the 2-h periods was not significant, although a mild reduction of plasma flow was observed in three of the eight children. No correlation was found between tacrolimus AUC, peak, or trough levels and renal blood flow variations. Despite the relatively small number of patients studied, these data suggest that, in vivo, a therapeutic oral dose of tacrolimus is not necessarily followed by a significant reduction of ERPF in renal transplanted children.

  8. [Porphyrins in renal calculi (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traba Villameytide, Ma L

    2005-02-01

    We performed a review of the porphyrines content in a type of black, charcoal-like, renal calculi exhibiting infrared spectra (IRS) similar to those characteristic of "organic material" which has not yet been fully elucidate. Several other types of renal calculi, mainly those of small size, spontaneous passage renal stone, may also have diffuse or isolated dark charcoal components showing "organic material" IRS. After observing that haemoglobin has an "organic material" IRS, we studied, by a sensitive thin layer chromatography method, the presence of porphyrines in several types of dark or charcoal renal stones, since porphyrines are the physiological precursors of haemo group biosynthesis. We found two types of porphyrine content: coproporphyrin, in patients suffering from hepatopathy, and uroporphyrin and heptacarboxil-porphyrin in patients with some types of porphyria or with chronic renal failure.

  9. Trauma renal

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Júnior, Gerson Alves; Paganelli, Fernando; Scarpelini, Sandro; Stracieri, Luís Donizetti Silva; Féres, Ornar; Andrade, José Ivan de

    1999-01-01

    Apresentamos uma revisão sobre trauma renal, com ênfase na avaliação radiológica, particularmente com o uso da tomografia computadorizada, que tem se tornado o exame de eleição, ao invés da urografia excretora e arteriografia. O sucesso no tratamento conservador dos pacientes com trauma renal depende de um acurado estadiamento da extensão da lesão, classificado de acordo com a Organ Injury Scaling do Colégio Americano de Cirurgiões. O tratamento conservador não-operatório é seguro e consiste ...

  10. Sarcoidose renal

    OpenAIRE

    AQUINO, MARIA ENEDINA CLAUDINO DE; SALES, ROBERTA KARLA BARBOSA DE; SANTOS, JOSÉ ANTÔNIO FREIRE DOS; RÉGIS, ANA LIDIA; MORRONE, NELSON

    2001-01-01

    Em uma mulher de 62 anos, branca, em avaliação pré-operatória de facectomia, foram detectadas alterações urinárias, tendo sido firmados os diagnósticos de calculose renal esquerda e exclusão renal homolateral. No pré-operatório da nefrectomia foram evidenciados processo pulmonar intersticial bilateral e adenopatia torácica, cuja investigação foi adiada para após a cirurgia. No rim retirado foram detectados granulomas epitelióides não necrotizantes, o mesmo ocorrendo posteriormente em biópsia ...

  11. Renal transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Bugeja, Mark

    1983-01-01

    The first Renal Transplantation ever to be carried out in Malta was performed on the 22nd April, 1983, a day that may well be included in the Medical History of our Islands. This .event is another step -forward following the introduction, not very long'ago, at St. Luke's Hospital, of Haemodialysis or as the lay- man would call it, the 'Kidney Machine'. What follows is not meant to be a case- presentation proper but is intended to serve as a base over which some pros and cons of renal transpla...

  12. Checking whether there is an increased risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other cancers with specific modern immunosuppression regimens in renal transplantation: protocol for a network meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Brian; Joseph, Lawrence; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Tetzlaff, Jennifer; Hersi, Mona; Kokolo, Madzouka; Fergusson, Nicolas; Bennett, Alexandria; Buenaventura, Chieny; Fergusson, Dean; Tricco, Andrea; Strauss, Sharon; Moher, David; Knoll, Greg

    2014-02-22

    Patients undergoing renal transplant procedures require multi-agent immunosuppressive regimens both short term (induction phase) and long term (maintenance phase) to minimize the risk of organ rejection. There are several drug classes and agents for immunosuppression. Use of these agents may increase the risk of different harms including not only infections, but also malignancies including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. There is a need to identify which regimens minimize the risk of such outcomes. The objective of this systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies is to explore whether certain modern regimens of immunosuppression used to prevent organ rejection in renal transplant patients are associated with an increased risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other malignancies. 'Modern' regimens were defined to be those evaluated in controlled studies beginning in 1990 or later. An electronic literature search of Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials has been designed by an experienced information specialist and peer reviewed by a second information specialist. Study selection and data collection will be performed by two reviewers. The outcomes of interest will include post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other incident forms of malignancy occurring in adult renal transplant patients. Network meta-analyses of data from randomized and observational studies will be performed where judged appropriate based on a review of the clinical and methodological features of included studies. A sequential approach to meta-analysis will be used to combine data from different designs. Our systematic review will include both single-agent and multi-agent modern pharmacotherapy regimens in patients undergoing renal transplantation. It will synthesize malignancy outcomes. Our work will also add to the development of methods for network meta-analysis across study

  13. Clinical application of calculated split renal volume using computed tomography-based renal volumetry after partial nephrectomy: Correlation with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Ho; Park, Young Joo; Ku, Ja Yoon; Ha, Hong Koo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical application of computed tomography-based measurement of renal cortical volume and split renal volume as a single tool to assess the anatomy and renal function in patients with renal tumors before and after partial nephrectomy, and to compare the findings with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. The data of 51 patients with a unilateral renal tumor managed by partial nephrectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The renal cortical volume of tumor-bearing and contralateral kidneys was measured using ImageJ software. Split estimated glomerular filtration rate and split renal volume calculated using this renal cortical volume were compared with the split renal function measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. A strong correlation between split renal function and split renal volume of the tumor-bearing kidney was observed before and after surgery (r = 0.89, P < 0.001 and r = 0.94, P < 0.001). The preoperative and postoperative split estimated glomerular filtration rate of the operated kidney showed a moderate correlation with split renal function (r = 0.39, P = 0.004 and r = 0.49, P < 0.001). The correlation between reductions in split renal function and split renal volume of the operated kidney (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) was stronger than that between split renal function and percent reduction in split estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.64, P < 0.001). The split renal volume calculated using computed tomography-based renal volumetry had a strong correlation with the split renal function measured using technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. Computed tomography-based split renal volume measurement before and after partial nephrectomy can be used as a single modality for anatomical and functional assessment of the tumor-bearing kidney. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  14. Restaurant Food Cooling Practices†

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROWN, LAURA GREEN; RIPLEY, DANNY; BLADE, HENRY; REIMANN, DAVE; EVERSTINE, KAREN; NICHOLAS, DAVE; EGAN, JESSICA; KOKTAVY, NICOLE; QUILLIAM, DANIELA N.

    2017-01-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study. PMID:23212014

  15. Hiperparatiroidismos renales

    OpenAIRE

    Malagón Castro, Valentín

    2011-01-01

    En la presente monografía presentamos una síntesis, lo más completa posible, del gran problema de los Hiperparatirodismos secundarios a lesiones renales, enfocando su estudio con un criterio unicista, con el objeto de hacer más didáctico este amplio capítulo de la patología.

  16. Renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lene Kjær; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Renal denervation (RDN) has, within recent years, been suggested as a novel treatment option for patients with resistant hypertension. This review summarizes the current knowledge on this procedure as well as limitations and questions that remain to be answered. RECENT FINDINGS...

  17. Trauma renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Alves Pereira Júnior

    Full Text Available Apresentamos uma revisão sobre trauma renal, com ênfase na avaliação radiológica, particularmente com o uso da tomografia computadorizada, que tem se tornado o exame de eleição, ao invés da urografia excretora e arteriografia. O sucesso no tratamento conservador dos pacientes com trauma renal depende de um acurado estadiamento da extensão da lesão, classificado de acordo com a Organ Injury Scaling do Colégio Americano de Cirurgiões. O tratamento conservador não-operatório é seguro e consiste de observação contínua, repouso no leito, hidratação endovenosa adequada e antibioti- coterapia profilática, evitando-se uma exploração cirúrgica desnecessária e possível perda renal. As indicações para exploração cirúrgica imediata são abdome agudo, rápida queda do hematócrito ou lesões associadas determinadas na avaliação radiológica. Quando indicada, a exploração renal após controle vascular prévio é segura, permitindo cuidadosa inspeção do rim e sua reconstrução com sucesso, reduzindo a probabilidade de nefrectomia.

  18. Adiabatic Cooling of Antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielse, G; McConnell, R; Richerme, P; Kalra, R; Novitski, E; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Sefzick, T; Zielinski, M; Fitzakerley, D; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Mullers, A; Walz, J

    2011-01-01

    Adiabatic cooling is shown to be a simple and effective method to cool many charged particles in a trap to very low temperatures. Up to 3 x 10(6) (p) over bar are cooled to 3.5 K-10(3) times more cold (p) over bar and a 3 times lower (p) over bar temperature than previously reported. A second cooling method cools (p) over bar plasmas via the synchrotron radiation of embedded (p) over bar (with many fewer (p) over bar than (p) over bar) in preparation for adiabatic cooling. No (p) over bar are lost during either process-a significant advantage for rare particles.

  19. TNOs are cool: A survey of the trans-Neptunian region. V. Physical characterization of 18 Plutinos using Herschel-PACS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommert, M.; Harris, A. W.; Kiss, C.; Pál, A.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Stansberry, J.; Delsanti, A.; Vilenius, E.; Müller, T. G.; Peixinho, N.; Lellouch, E.; Szalai, N.; Henry, F.; Duffard, R.; Fornasier, S.; Hartogh, P.; Mueller, M.; Ortiz, J. L.; Protopapa, S.; Rengel, M.; Thirouin, A.

    2012-05-01

    Context. The Herschel open time key programme TNOs are Cool: A survey of the trans-Neptunian region aims to derive physical and thermal properties for a set of ~140 Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), including resonant, classical, detached and scattered disk objects. One goal of the project is to determine albedo and size distributions for specific classes and the overall population of TNOs. Aims: We present Herschel-PACS photometry of 18 Plutinos and determine sizes and albedos for these objects using thermal modeling. We analyze our results for correlations, draw conclusions on the Plutino size distribution, and compare to earlier results. Methods: Flux densities are derived from PACS mini scan-maps using specialized data reduction and photometry methods. In order to improve the quality of our results, we combine our PACS data with existing Spitzer MIPS data where possible, and refine existing absolute magnitudes for the targets. The physical characterization of our sample is done using a thermal model. Uncertainties of the physical parameters are derived using customized Monte Carlo methods. The correlation analysis is performed using a bootstrap Spearman rank analysis. Results: We find the sizes of our Plutinos to range from 150 to 730 km and geometric albedos to vary between 0.04 and 0.28. The average albedo of the sample is 0.08 ± 0.03, which is comparable to the mean albedo of Centaurs, Jupiter family comets and other TNOs. We were able to calibrate the Plutino size scale for the first time and find the cumulative Plutino size distribution to be best fit using a cumulative power law with q = 2 at sizes ranging from 120-400 km and q = 3 at larger sizes. We revise the bulk density of 1999 TC36 and find ρ = 0.64-0.11+0.15 g cm-3. On the basis of a modified Spearman rank analysis technique our Plutino sample appears to be biased with respect to object size but unbiased with respect to albedo. Furthermore, we find biases based on geometrical aspects

  20. Renale Osteopathie

    OpenAIRE

    Horn S

    2001-01-01

    Die renale Osteopathie umfaßt Erkrankungen des Knochens, die bei Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen auftreten, wie den sekundären bzw. tertiären Hyperparathyreoidismus, die adynamische Knochenerkrankung und die Osteopathie nach Nierentransplantation. Durch die Identifikation des Kalzium-Sensing-Rezeptors bzw. des Vitamin D-Rezeptors hat sich unser Verständnis der Zusammenhänge in den letzten Jahren erheblich verbessert. Neue Medikamente versprechen effizientere Prophylaxe- und Thera...

  1. Renale Knochenerkrankungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Störungen des Mineral- und Knochenstoffwechsels sind bei fast allen Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen anzutreffen. Pathogenetisch spielt eine Neigung zur Phosphatretention bei einer Reduktion der glomerulären Filtrationsrate die zentrale Rolle. Neben typischen, aber sehr variablen Veränderungen der Knochenstruktur (renale Osteopathie besteht auch eine sehr enge Assoziation zwischen diesen Störungen und dem massiv erhöhten kardiovaskulären Risiko der Patienten.

  2. Renal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Džamić Zoran; Dimitrijević Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is charac...

  3. Hiperparatiroidismos renales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín Malagón Castro

    1957-04-01

    Full Text Available En la presente monografía presentamos una síntesis, lo más completa posible, del gran problema de los Hiperparatirodismos secundarios a lesiones renales, enfocando su estudio con un criterio unicista, con el objeto de hacer más didáctico este amplio capítulo de la patología.

  4. Chemical Renal Denervation in the Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consigny, Paul M., E-mail: paul.consigny@av.abbott.com; Davalian, Dariush, E-mail: dariush.davalian@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, Innovation Incubator (United States); Donn, Rosy, E-mail: rosy.donn@av.abbott.com; Hu, Jie, E-mail: jie.hu@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, Bioanalytical and Material Characterization (United States); Rieser, Matthew, E-mail: matthew.j.rieser@abbvie.com; Stolarik, DeAnne, E-mail: deanne.f.stolarik@abbvie.com [Abbvie, Analytical Pharmacology (United States)

    2013-12-03

    Introduction: The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery. Methods: Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose–response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10{sup −5} M through 10{sup −2} M paclitaxel. Conclusion: We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel.

  5. Jet-cooled laser-induced dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of NiC: Observation of low-lying Ω = 0+ state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukund, Sheo; Yarlagadda, Suresh; Bhattacharyya, Soumen; Nakhate, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Laser-induced dispersed fluorescence spectra of 58Ni12C molecules, produced in a free-jet apparatus, have been studied. A new low-lying Ω = 0+ state has been observed at Te = 5178 (6) cm-1. Based on previous ab initio calculations this state is plausibly assigned as 0+ spin-orbit component of the first excited 3 Π state. The term energies of vibrational levels up to v = 10 for X1Σ+ ground and v = 3 for Ω = 0+ states have been determined. The harmonic and anharmonic wavenumbers respectively equal to 833 (4) and 6.7 (13) cm-1 for Ω = 0+ state have been measured.

  6. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  7. Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters and ROSAT Observations of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Raymond E., III

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results on the elliptical galaxy NGC 1407 were published in the proceedings of the first ROSAT symposium. NGC 1407 is embedded in diffuse X-ray-emitting gas which is extensive enough that it is likely to be related to the surrounding group of galaxies, rather than just NGC 1407. Spectral data for NGC 1407 (AO2) and IC 1459 (AO3) are also included in a complete sample of elliptical galaxies I compiled in collaboration with David Davis. This allowed us to construct the first complete X-ray sample of optically-selected elliptical galaxies. The complete sample allows us to apply Malmquist bias corrections to the observed correlation between X-ray and optical luminosities. I continue to work on the implications of this first complete X-ray sample of elliptical galaxies. Paul Eskridge Dave Davis and I also analyzed three long ROSAT PSPC observations of the small (but not dwarf) elliptical galaxy M32. We found the X-ray spectra and variability to be consistent with either a Low Mass X-Ray Binary (LMXRB) or a putative 'micro"-AGN.

  8. RENAL DAMAGE WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Kolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between renal damage and malignant neoplasms is one of the most actual problems of the medicine of internal diseases. Very often, exactly availability of renal damage determines the forecast of cancer patients. The range of renal pathologies associated with tumors is unusually wide: from the mechanical effect of the tumor or metastases on the kidneys and/or the urinary tract and paraneoplastic manifestations in the form of nephritis or amyloidosis to nephropathies induced with drugs or tumor lysis, etc. Thrombotic complications that develop as a result of exposure to tumor effects, side effects of certain drugs or irradiation also play an important role in the development of the kidney damage. The most frequent variants of renal damage observed in the practice of medical internists (therapists, urologists, surgeons, etc., as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches are described in the article. Timely and successful prevention and treatment of tumor-associated nephropathies give hope for retaining renal functions, therefore, a higher life standard after completion of anti-tumor therapy. Even a shortterm episode of acute renal damage suffered by a cancer patient must be accompanied with relevant examination and treatment. In the caseof transformation of acute renal damage into the chronic kidney disease, such patients need systematic and weighted renoprotective therapy and correct dosing of nephrotoxic drugs.

  9. Malignancy and chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramon

    2003-01-01

    Increased incidence of cancer at various sites is observed in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Certain malignant diseases, such as lymphomas and carcinomas of the kidney, prostate, liver and uterus, show an enhanced prevalence compared with the general population. In particular, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) shows an excess incidence in ESRD patients. A multitude of factors, directly or indirectly associated with the renal disease and the treatment regimens, may contribute to the increased tumor formation in these patients. Patients undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT) are prone to develop acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), which may subsequently lead to the development of RCC. In pre-dialysis patients with coexistent renal disease, as in dialysis and transplant patients, the presence of ACKD may predispose to RCC. Previous use of cytotoxic drugs (eg, cyclophosphamide) or a history of analgesic abuse, are additional risk factors for malignancy. Malignancy following renal transplantation is an important medical problem during the follow-up. The most common malignancies are lymphoproliferative disorders (early after transplantation) and skin carcinomas (late after transplantation). Another important confounder for risk of malignancy after renal transplantation is the type of immunosuppression. The type of malignancy is different in various countries and dependent on genetic and environmental factors. Finally, previous cancer treatment in a uremic patient on the transplant waiting list is of great importance in relation to waiting time and post-malignancy screening.

  10. Cooling water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  11. The Effects of Renal Denervation on Renal Hemodynamics and Renal Vasculature in a Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloop, Willemien L.; Hubens, Lisette E. G.; Spiering, Wilko; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Goldschmeding, Roel; Bleys, Ronald L. A. W.; Voskuil, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Recently, the efficacy of renal denervation (RDN) has been debated. It is discussed whether RDN is able to adequately target the renal nerves. Objective We aimed to investigate how effective RDN was by means of functional hemodynamic measurements and nerve damage on histology. Methods and Results We performed hemodynamic measurements in both renal arteries of healthy pigs using a Doppler flow and pressure wire. Subsequently unilateral denervation was performed, followed by repeated bilateral hemodynamic measurements. Pigs were terminated directly after RDN or were followed for 3 weeks or 3 months after the procedure. After termination, both treated and control arteries were prepared for histology to evaluate vascular damage and nerve damage. Directly after RDN, resting renal blood flow tended to increase by 29±67% (P = 0.01). In contrast, renal resistance reserve increased from 1.74 (1.28) to 1.88 (1.17) (P = 0.02) during follow-up. Vascular histopathology showed that most nerves around the treated arteries were located outside the lesion areas (8±7 out of 55±25 (14%) nerves per pig were observed within a lesion area). Subsequently, a correlation was noted between a more impaired adventitia and a reduction in renal resistance reserve (β: -0.33; P = 0.05) at three weeks of follow-up. Conclusion Only a small minority of renal nerves was targeted after RDN. Furthermore, more severe adventitial damage was related to a reduction in renal resistance in the treated arteries at follow-up. These hemodynamic and histological observations may indicate that RDN did not sufficiently target the renal nerves. Potentially, this may explain the significant spread in the response after RDN. PMID:26587981

  12. "TNOs are Cool": A survey of the trans-Neptunian region. XIII. Statistical analysis of multiple trans-Neptunian objects observed with Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, I. D.; Doressoundiram, A.; Lellouch, E.; Vilenius, E.; Müller, T.; Stansberry, J.

    2017-11-01

    Context. Gravitationally bound multiple systems provide an opportunity to estimate the mean bulk density of the objects, whereas this characteristic is not available for single objects. Being a primitive population of the outer solar system, binary and multiple trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) provide unique information about bulk density and internal structure, improving our understanding of their formation and evolution. Aims: The goal of this work is to analyse parameters of multiple trans-Neptunian systems, observed with Herschel and Spitzer space telescopes. Particularly, statistical analysis is done for radiometric size and geometric albedo, obtained from photometric observations, and for estimated bulk density. Methods: We use Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the real size distribution of TNOs. For this purpose, we expand the dataset of diameters by adopting the Minor Planet Center database list with available values of the absolute magnitude therein, and the albedo distribution derived from Herschel radiometric measurements. We use the 2-sample Anderson-Darling non-parametric statistical method for testing whether two samples of diameters, for binary and single TNOs, come from the same distribution. Additionally, we use the Spearman's coefficient as a measure of rank correlations between parameters. Uncertainties of estimated parameters together with lack of data are taken into account. Conclusions about correlations between parameters are based on statistical hypothesis testing. Results: We have found that the difference in size distributions of multiple and single TNOs is biased by small objects. The test on correlations between parameters shows that the effective diameter of binary TNOs strongly correlates with heliocentric orbital inclination and with magnitude difference between components of binary system. The correlation between diameter and magnitude difference implies that small and large binaries are formed by different mechanisms. Furthermore

  13. ``Aggressive`` renal angiomyolipoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cittadini, G. Jr. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, F. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Danza, F.M. [Catholic Sacro Cuore Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Derchi, L.E. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, R.S. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-11-01

    We describe the US and CT examinations of 4 patients with renal angiomyolipoma with an `aggressive` appearance, and review the literature. The imaging findings in 4 patients with benign renal angiomyolipomas associated with thrombosis of the renal vein and/or inferior vena cava are presented. CT demonstrated fat densities within both tumor and thrombus. In one patient, small lymph nodes with low density internal areas were detected in the para-aortic region. When considering our patients together with those reported in the literature, we found that most angiomyolipomas with venous invasion were large and centrally located within the kidney. Venous thrombosis was observed in 9 lesions of the right kidney, and in only 4 of the left one. One patient only had symptoms due to the thrombus; 10 had problems due to the tumor; and 3 were asymptomatic. Only 4 patients with pararenal enlarged lymph nodes have been reported on in the imaging literature. Fat-containing nodes were detected by CT in one case only; the others had enlarged nodes of soft-tissue density. In one patient the diagnosis of hamartomatous lymph node invasion was established by angiography. In patients with renal angiomyolipoma, demonstration of both fatty thrombus and the fatty infiltration of lymph nodes of the renal hilum cannot be regarded as an indication of malignancy, but only of local aggessive behavior. Conservative treatment seems possible. Detection of enlarged lymph nodes of soft tissue density may cause difficult diagnostic problems, with the diagnosis addressed only by the presence of associated lesions. (orig./MG).

  14. Bilateral Renal Mass-Renal Disorder: Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Tiryaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old woman has presented complaining of weakness and fatigue to her primary care physician. The renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When the renal masses have been discovered by sonography in this setting, the functional imaging may be critical. We reported a case about bilateral renal masses in a young female patient with tuberculosis and renal insufficiency. Magnetic resonance (MR has revealed the bilateral renal masses in patient, and this patient has been referred to our hospital for further management. The patient’s past medical and surgical history was unremarkable.

  15. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  16. MRI features of renal oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Hindman, Nicole; Fitzgerald, Erin F; Niver, Benjamin E; Melamed, Jonathan; Babb, James S

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively describe the MRI features of the pathologically related entities renal oncocytoma and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Twenty-eight cases of histologically proven renal oncocytoma and 15 of chromophobe RCC evaluated with preoperative MRI from January 2003 through June 2009 at our institution were independently reviewed for an array of MRI features by two radiologists blinded to the final histopathologic diagnosis. These features were tabulated and compared between chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytoma by use of the Mann-Whitney test and binary logistic regression. Renal oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC showed no significant difference in size or any of 16 qualitative imaging features (p = 0.0842-1.0, reader 1; p = 0.0611-1.0, reader 2). Microscopic fat, hemorrhage, cysts, infiltrative margins, perinephric fat invasion, renal vein invasion, enhancement homogeneity, and hypervascularity were each observed in less than 20% of cases by both readers. A central scar and segmental enhancement inversion (a recently described finding in which early contrast-enhanced images show relatively more enhanced and less enhanced intralesional components with inversion of their relative enhancement on later images) were observed by both readers in at least 10% of cases of both renal oncocytoma and of chromophobe RCC with no significant difference between the two entities (p = 0.2092-0.2960). We have presented the largest series to date of the MRI features of both renal oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC. These related entities exhibited similar findings, and no MRI features were reliable in distinguishing between them.

  17. [Renal decapsulation for the treatment of anuria : A "forgotten" treatment from the early 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dräger, D L; Protzel, C; Hakenberg, O W

    2017-01-01

    In the early 20th century, Harrison first performed renal decapsulation in anuric children with scarlet fever and observed improvement in renal function postoperatively. The pathophysiological explanation was seen in intraparenchymal renal pressure due to edema which was improved by surgical decapsulation. The technique of decapsulation was simple excision after incision and blunt dissection of the renal parenchyma. Renal decapsulation then became a procedure commonly used for many indications in inflammatory renal conditions; indications were renal angioneurosis, hydronephrosis, toxic, bacterial and chronic nephritis, renal abscess and even eclampsia. With the beginning of the antibiotic era, renal decapsulation became obsolete and has disappeared from the urological spectrum completely.

  18. Bilateral renal artery variation

    OpenAIRE

    Üçerler, Hülya; Üzüm, Yusuf; İkiz, Z. Aslı Aktan

    2015-01-01

    Each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery, although renal artery variations are common. Variations of the renal arteryhave become important with the increasing number of renal transplantations. Numerous studies describe variations in renalartery anatomy. Especially the left renal artery is among the most critical arterial variations, because it is the referred side forresecting the donor kidney. During routine dissection in a formalin fixed male cadaver, we have found a bilateral renal...

  19. [Renal involvement in systemic sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Luis J; Barrera, Antonio

    2006-11-01

    Renal crisis is one of the most severe complications of systemic sclerosis, and its frequency is 10%, and it is characterized by malignant hypertension, hyperreninemia, azotemia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and renal failure. In the pathogenesis of renal affection, the main mechanism is the endothelial damage (thickness of arterial vessels), decrease of blood flow and hyperplasia of the yuxtaglomerular apparatus as well as release of renina. Pathological changes of scleroderma kidney are similar to those observed in other forms of malignant hypertension. Renal crisis was considered as fatal complications, however it is now successfully treated with angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitors. Copyright © 2006 Elsevier España S.L. Barcelona. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Drug-induced renal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced renal toxicity into four major renal syndromes: • acute renal failure. • chronic renal failure. • glomerulonephritis. • tubulopathies. These major renal syndromes are discussed in further detail below (see summary in Table I). Acute renal failure. Drugs can cause acute renal failure by causing pre-renal, intrinsic or.

  1. Renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  2. Temperature responsive cooling apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weker, M.L.; Stearns, R.M.

    1987-08-11

    A temperature responsive cooling apparatus is described for an air conditioner or refrigeration system in operative association with a reservoir of fluid, the air conditioner or refrigeration system having an air cooled coil and means for producing a current of air for cooling the coil, the temperature responsive cooling apparatus comprising: (a) means for transferring the fluid from the reservoir to the air conditioner temperature responsive cooling apparatus, (b) a fluid control device activated by the current of air for cooling the coil; (c) a temperature activated, nonelectrical device for terminating and initiating the flow of fluid therethrough in an intermittent fashion for enhancing the operability of the compressor associated with the refrigeration system and for reducing the quantity of fluid required to cool the coil of the refrigeration system, (d) a fluid treatment device for preventing, reducing or mitigating the deposition of nonevaporative components on the air cooled coil, and (e) means for dispersing the fluid to the air cooled coil from the fluid control device for cooling the coil and increasing the efficiency of the air conditioner thereby reducing the cost of operating and maintaining the air conditioner without damaging the air conditioner and without the deposition of nonevaporative components thereupon.

  3. Renale Osteopathie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Die renale Osteopathie umfaßt Erkrankungen des Knochens, die bei Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen auftreten, wie den sekundären bzw. tertiären Hyperparathyreoidismus, die adynamische Knochenerkrankung und die Osteopathie nach Nierentransplantation. Durch die Identifikation des Kalzium-Sensing-Rezeptors bzw. des Vitamin D-Rezeptors hat sich unser Verständnis der Zusammenhänge in den letzten Jahren erheblich verbessert. Neue Medikamente versprechen effizientere Prophylaxe- und Therapiemöglichkeiten. Wir beeinflussen dadurch nicht nur die Morbidität und Lebensqualität, sondern auch die Mortalität unserer Patienten.

  4. Laser cooling of fast stored ions in barrier buckets

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenbarth, U; Grieser, M; Grimm, R; Lauer, I; Lenisa, P; Luger, V; Mudrich, M; Schätz, T; Schramm, U; Schwalm, D; Weidemüller, M

    2000-01-01

    We apply novel bunch forms for efficient laser cooling of fast stored ion beams at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring. sup 9 Be sup + ions are longitudinally confined in barrier buckets providing free motion of the cooled ions inside the bucket (quasi-coasting beam). The implementation of laser cooling in barrier buckets is described, and longitudinal dynamics of laser cooling is compared to electron cooling. With laser cooling, longitudinal temperatures far below 1 K are reached, corresponding to a momentum spread of DELTA p/p<10 sup - sup 6. When the thermal energy becomes sufficiently small, significant modifications of the ion distribution due to space-charge effects are observed.

  5. Gas turbine cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancalari, Eduardo E.

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

  6. Renal calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrah, Leslie N

    1979-01-01

    Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long an...

  7. Evaporative Cooling Availability in Water Based Sensible Cooling Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Costelloe, Ben; Finn, Donal

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments have prompted a review of evaporative cooling technology as an effective means of cooling modern deep plan buildings. Prominent among these developments is the success of high temperature sensible cooling systems, such as chilled ceilings, which require a supply of cooling water at 14 to 18°C. Crucial to the success of evaporative cooling technology, as a significant means of cooling in modern applications, is the ability to generate cooling water, in an indirect circuit, ...

  8. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...... cooling system that includes such considerations as thermal comfort of the occupants, which design parameters will influence the cooling capacity and how the system should be controlled. Examples of applications are presented....

  9. Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service; CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    In 1977, in a record-time of 9 months, the magnets of the g-2 experiment were modified and used to build a proton/antiproton storage ring: the "Initial Cooling Experiment" (ICE). It served for the verification of the cooling methods to be used for the "Antiproton Project". Stochastic cooling was proven the same year, electron cooling followed later. Also, with ICE the experimental lower limit for the antiproton lifetime was raised by 9 orders of magnitude: from 2 microseconds to 32 hours. For its previous life as g-2 storage ring, see 7405430. More on ICE: 7711282, 7809081, 7908242.

  10. Turbine airfoil cooling system with cooling systems using high and low pressure cooling fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Messmann, Stephen John; Scribner, Carmen Andrew

    2017-10-25

    A turbine airfoil cooling system including a low pressure cooling system and a high pressure cooling system for a turbine airfoil of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, the low pressure cooling system may be an ambient air cooling system, and the high pressure cooling system may be a compressor bleed air cooling system. In at least one embodiment, the compressor bleed air cooling system in communication with a high pressure subsystem that may be a snubber cooling system positioned within a snubber. A delivery system including a movable air supply tube may be used to separate the low and high pressure cooling subsystems. The delivery system may enable high pressure cooling air to be passed to the snubber cooling system separate from low pressure cooling fluid supplied by the low pressure cooling system to other portions of the turbine airfoil cooling system.

  11. Simulated Measurements of Cooling in Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohayai, Tanaz [IIT, Chicago; Rogers, Chris [Rutherford; Snopok, Pavel [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    Cooled muon beams set the basis for the exploration of physics of flavour at a Neutrino Factory and for multi-TeV collisions at a Muon Collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) measures beam emittance before and after an ionization cooling cell and aims to demonstrate emittance reduction in muon beams. In the current MICE Step IV configuration, the MICE muon beam passes through low-Z absorber material for reducing its transverse emittance through ionization energy loss. Two scintillating fiber tracking detectors, housed in spectrometer solenoid modules upstream and downstream of the absorber are used for reconstructing position and momentum of individual muons for calculating transverse emittance reduction. However, due to existence of non-linear effects in beam optics, transverse emittance growth can be observed. Therefore, it is crucial to develop algorithms that are insensitive to this apparent emittance growth. We describe a different figure of merit for measuring muon cooling which is the direct measurement of the phase space density.

  12. Standing Slow MHD Waves in Radiatively Cooling Coronal Loops

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In particular, the background plasma is assumed to be radiatively cooling. The effects of cooling on longitudinal slow MHD modes is analytically evaluated by choosing a simple form of radiative function, that ensures the temperature evolution of the background plasma due to radiation, coincides with the observed cooling ...

  13. Relationship among Mortality of Patients with Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery, Fluid Balance and Ultrafiltration of Renal Replacement Therapy: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Buyun; Sun, Jian; Liu, Si; Yu, Xiangbao; Zhu, Yamei; Mao, Huijuan; Xing, Changying

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the relationship among mortality of patients with cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI), fluid balance, and ultrafiltration of renal replacement therapy (RRT). From January 2009 to October 2015, hospitalized patients with CSA-AKI receiving continuous or prolonged intermittent RRT were screened. The effects of fluid balance and ultrafiltration of RRT on clinical outcome were analyzed. The 30-day mortality of all the 63 patients in the study was 58.6%. Compared with the death group, the survival group had a significantly lower fluid balance, larger ultrafiltration volume, and similar ultrafiltration rate during the first 3 days of RRT. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that positive fluid balance during the first day of RRT, cardiac function of grade IV, and higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score were independent risk factors of 30-day mortality. Fluid balance was more relevant to short-term prognosis of CSA-AKI-RRT patients than ultrafiltration volume or ultrafiltration rate. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Traumatismo Renal

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Martinez S.

    2017-01-01

    Introdução: A realização deste trabalho visa a elaboração de uma revisão sistematizada subordinada à temática da traumatologia renal. Objectivos: Os principais objectivos deste trabalho são: apurar a etiologia, definir a classificação, analisar o diagnóstico e expôr o tratamento e as complicações. Desenvolvimento: Os traumatismos são a principal causa de morte antes dos 40 anos. O rim é o órgão do aparelho génito-urinário mais frequentemente atingido. Os traumatismos renais são mais fre...

  15. TRANSPLANTE RENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Geraldo Rozza Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprender el significado de espera del trasplante renal para las mujeres en hemodiálisis. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo-interpretativo, realizado con 12 mujeres en hemodiálisis en Florianópolis. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas en profundidad en el domicilio. Fue utilizado el software Etnografh 6.0 para la pre-codificación y posterior al análisis interpretativo emergieron dos categorías: “las sombras del momento actual”, que mostró que las dificultades iniciales de la enfermedad están presentes, pero las mujeres pueden hacer frente mejor a la enfermedad y el tratamiento. La segunda categoría, “la luz del trasplante renal”, muestra la esperanza impulsada por la entrada en la lista de espera para un trasplante.

  16. [Hypertension and renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...

  17. Solar absorption cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    As the world concerns more and more on global climate changes and depleting energy resources, solar cooling technology receives increasing interests from the public as an environment-friendly and sustainable alternative. However, making a competitive solar cooling machine for the market still

  18. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  19. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  20. The final cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    Thursday 29th May, the cool-down of the final sector (sector 4-5) of LHC has begun, one week after the start of the cool-down of sector 1-2. It will take five weeks for the sectors to be cooled from room temperature to 5 K and a further two weeks to complete the cool down to 1.9 K and the commissioning of cryogenic instrumentation, as well as to fine tune the cryogenic plants and the cooling loops of cryostats.Nearly a year and half has passed since sector 7-8 was cooled for the first time in January 2007. For Laurent Tavian, AT/CRG Group Leader, reaching the final phase of the cool down is an important milestone, confirming the basic design of the cryogenic system and the ability to operate complete sectors. “All the sectors have to operate at the same time otherwise we cannot inject the beam into the machine. The stability and reliability of the cryogenic system and its utilities are now very important. That will be the new challenge for the coming months,” he explains. The status of the cool down of ...

  1. Infarction of renal transplant with extrarenal excretion of Tc-99m MAG{sub 3} demonstrated by renal scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Min Woo; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbok National University Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    A 38-year-old woman with end stage renal disease received a living related donor-renal transplant to the right iliac fossa. She developed anuria a week later. Tc-99m MAG{sub 3} renal scintigraphy demonstrated no perfusion, uptake, or excretion of the radioactive tracer from the renal transplant. The expected area of the renal allograft appeared as a photopenic area with increased rim activity. The gallbladder and bowel activities were observed on delayed images at 24 hours. There was no blood flow within the renal artery on renal doppler examination. This case shows total absence of perfusion and function in the infarcted renal transplant with extrarenal excretion of Tc-99m MAG{sub 3} caused by acute renal artery thrombosis.

  2. Renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma: 2 Cases report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O. Boudaouara

    2017-06-29

    Jun 29, 2017 ... half of them having a history of tuberous sclerosis complex. Observations: We report two cases of renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma diagnosed at our institution in order to analyze their clinical behaviour and histopathological features, and insist on diagnostic pitfalls. Conclusion: Renal tumours with certain ...

  3. INITIAL COOLING EXPERIMENT (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    ICE was built in 1977, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring (see 7405430). Its purpose was to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project. Stochastic cooling proved a resounding success early in 1978 and the antiproton project could go ahead, now entirely based on stochastic cooling. Electron cooling was experimented with in 1979. The 26 kV equipment is housed in the cage to the left of the picture, adjacent to the "e-cooler" located in a straight section of the ring. With some modifications, the cooler was later transplanted into LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) and then, with further modifications, into the AD (Antiproton Decelerator), where it cools antiprotons to this day (2006). See also: 7711282, 7802099, 7809081.

  4. Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    ICE was built in 1977, in a record time of 9 months, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring. Its purpose was to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project, to be launched in 1978. Already early in 1978, stochastic cooling proved a resounding success, such that the antiproton (p-pbar)project was entirely based on it. Tests of electron cooling followed later: protons of 46 MeV kinetic energy were cooled with an electron beam of 26 kV and 1.3 A. The cage seen prominently in the foreground houses the HV equipment, adjacent to the "cooler" installed in a straight section of the ring. With some modifications, the cooler was later transplanted into LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) and then, with further modifications, into the AD (Antiproton Decelerator), where it cools antiprotons to this day (2006). See also: 7711282, 7802099, 7908242.

  5. Renal Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction with Hemin Augments Renal Hemodynamics, Renal Autoregulation, and Excretory Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady T. Botros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenases (HO-1; HO-2 catalyze conversion of heme to free iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin/bilirubin. To determine the effects of renal HO-1 induction on blood pressure and renal function, normal control rats (n=7 and hemin-treated rats (n=6 were studied. Renal clearance studies were performed on anesthetized rats to assess renal function; renal blood flow (RBF was measured using a transonic flow probe placed around the left renal artery. Hemin treatment significantly induced renal HO-1. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were not different (115±5 mmHg versus 112±4 mmHg and 331±16 versus 346±10 bpm. However, RBF was significantly higher (9.1±0.8 versus 7.0±0.5 mL/min/g, P<0.05, and renal vascular resistance was significantly lower (13.0±0.9 versus 16.6±1.4 [mmHg/(mL/min/g], P<0.05. Likewise, glomerular filtration rate was significantly elevated (1.4±0.2 versus 1.0±0.1 mL/min/g, P<0.05, and urine flow and sodium excretion were also higher (18.9±3.9 versus 8.2±1.0 μL/min/g, P<0.05 and 1.9±0.6 versus 0.2±0.1 μmol/min/g, P<0.05, resp.. The plateau of the autoregulation relationship was elevated, and renal vascular responses to acute angiotensin II infusion were attenuated in hemin-treated rats reflecting the vasodilatory effect of HO-1 induction. We conclude that renal HO-1 induction augments renal function which may contribute to the antihypertensive effects of HO-1 induction observed in hypertension models.

  6. [Anatomy character of renal artery and treatment of living-donor renal transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Fei, Ji-guang; Chen, Li-zhong; Wang, Chang-xi; Deng, Su-xiong; Qiu, Jiang; Li, Jun; Chen, Guo-dong; Huang, Gang

    2009-12-15

    To study the anatomy characters of renal artery and the treatment of multiple arteries in living donor renal grafts. Records of 142 living donors were analyzed in our center. We analyzed the anatomic structure of renal arteries by DSA and CTA pre-transplantation. Thirty-one kidneys with multiple arteries were transplanted after reconstruction. Then clinical effects were compared between multiple-renal-arteries group (n=31) and single-renal-artery group (n=111). The incidence of multiple renal artery was 30.99%, and there was no difference between both sides (left kidney 22.54%, right kidney 22.13%). If the multiple artery occurred in left or right kidney, the incidence of the multiple artery occurred in the other side was 56.25% and 60.00%, respectively. The diameter of left main renal artery was more magnanimous (P=0.001) and the first branch was more closed to abdominal aorta (P=0.004). Operation time and warm/cool ischemia time were longer in the multiple-renal-arteries group. However, estimated blood loss, delayed graft function, acute rejection and flow rate of arcuate artery were similar in both groups, the same as serum creatinine and serum creatinine clearance rate on day 7, 1 month and 3 month post-operation. It was shown by repeated measures ANOVA that graft with multiple arteries didn't affect the tendency of renal function at early time post-operation. Comprehending the character of renal artery and accurate treatment of multiple artery anastomosis are critical for the effect of the living kidney transplantation.

  7. BILATERAL DUPLICATION OF RENAL ARTERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Prajkta A Thete; Mehera Bhoir; M.V.Ambiye

    2014-01-01

    Routine dissection of a male cadaver revealed the presence of bilateral double renal arteries. On the right side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta just above the main renal artery. On the left side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta about 1 cm above the main renal artery. Knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, su...

  8. Anomalous origin of left testicular artery from an additional renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gonadal arteries arising from additional renal arteries present an important variation that should be noted in order to avoid inadvertent injury to these vessels in renal hilar dissection and retroperitoneal surgery. During routine dissection, we observed the unusual origin of the left testicular artery from an additional renal ...

  9. The initial cooling of pahoehoe flow lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, L.; Denlinger, R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new thermal model for the initial cooling of pahoehoe lava flows. The accurate modeling of this initial cooling is important for understanding the formation of the distinctive surface textures on pahoehoe lava flows as well as being the first step in modeling such key pahoehoe emplacement processes as lava flow inflation and lava tube formation. This model is constructed from the physical phenomena observed to control the initial cooling of pahoehoe flows and is not an empirical fit to field data. We find that the only significant processes are (a) heat loss by thermal radiation, (b) heat loss by atmospheric convection, (c) heat transport within the flow by conduction with temperature and porosity-dependent thermal properties, and (d) the release of latent heat during crystallization. The numerical model is better able to reproduce field measurements made in Hawai'i between 1989 and 1993 than other published thermal models. By adjusting one parameter at a time, the effect of each of the input parameters on the cooling rate was determined. We show that: (a) the surfaces of porous flows cool more quickly than the surfaces of dense flows, (b) the surface cooling is very sensitive to the efficiency of atmospheric convective cooling, and (c) changes in the glass forming tendency of the lava may have observable petrographic and thermal signatures. These model results provide a quantitative explanation for the recently observed relationship between the surface cooling rate of pahoehoe lobes and the porosity of those lobes (Jones 1992, 1993). The predicted sensitivity of cooling to atmospheric convection suggests a simple field experiment for verification, and the model provides a tool to begin studies of the dynamic crystallization of real lavas. Future versions of the model can also be made applicable to extraterrestrial, submarine, silicic, and pyroclastic flows.

  10. Renal artery and parenchymal changes after renal denervation: assessment by magnetic resonance angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Margreet F.; Vink, Eva E.; Blankestijn, Peter J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Doormaal, Pieter Jan van; Habets, Jesse; Vonken, Evert-Jan; Leiner, Tim [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Beeftink, Martine M.A.; Verloop, Willemien L.; Voskuil, Michiel [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bots, Michiel L. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Fadl Elmula, Fadl Elmula M. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine and Department of Cardiology, Ullevaal, Oslo (Norway); Hammer, Frank [Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Hoffmann, Pavel [Oslo University Hospital, Section for Interventional Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, Ullevaal, Oslo (Norway); Jacobs, Lotte; Staessen, Jan A. [University of Leuven, Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Leuven (Belgium); Mark, Patrick B.; Taylor, Alison H. [University of Glasgow, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Persu, Alexandre; Renkin, Jean [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Pole of Cardiovascular Research, Institut de Recherche Experimentale et Clinique, Brussels (Belgium); Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cardiology Department, Brussels (Belgium); Roditi, Giles [Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Spiering, Wilko [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Vascular Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the European Network COordinating research on Renal Denervation (ENCOReD) Consortium

    2017-09-15

    Relatively little is known about the incidence of long-term renal damage after renal denervation (RDN), a potential new treatment for hypertension. In this study the incidence of renal artery and parenchymal changes, assessed with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) after RDN, is investigated. This study is an initiative of ENCOReD, a collaboration of hypertension expert centres. Patients in whom an MRA was performed before and after RDN were included. Scans were evaluated by two independent, blinded radiologists. Primary outcome was the change in renal artery morphology and parenchyma. MRAs from 96 patients were analysed. Before RDN, 41 renal anomalies were observed, of which 29 mostly mild renal artery stenoses. After a median time of 366 days post RDN, MRA showed a new stenosis (25-49% lumen reduction) in two patients and progression of pre-existing lumen reduction in a single patient. No other renal changes were observed and renal function remained stable. We observed new or progressed renal artery stenosis in three out of 96 patients, after a median time of 12 months post RDN (3.1%). Procedural angiographies showed that ablations were applied near the observed stenosis in only one of the three patients. (orig.)

  11. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  12. Oxypurines, protein, glucose and the functional state of blood vasculature are markers of renal calcium stone-forming processes? Observations in men with idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Mahimaidos; Schwille, Paul O

    2002-03-01

    . In trial 3 patients' oxypurinemia and proteinuria were normal, but body mass index, glycemia and insulinemia were increased. Urinary total protein, albumin and non-albumin proteins were positively predicted (multivariate regression analysis) by urinary xanthine, glucose and pH (trial 1); MA was positively (trial 3) or negatively (trial 2) predicted by urinary total protein. In calcium urolithiasis, a disorder of affluence, 1) oxypurinuria and proteinuria and oxypurinemia and MA appear causally linked, presumably via oxidant/antioxidant imbalance-induced renal tissue damage; 2) urinary proteins may act as inhibitors or promoters of stone-forming processes; 3) a stone-initiating role of impaired vasodilatation is conjectural; 4) overweight, obesity, mild glucosuria and hyperdynamic blood circulation are regular signs.

  13. Indirect evaporative cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, M.J.; Chapman, H.L.; Pescod, D.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics and applications of three indirect evaporative cooling systems are described. The rock bed regenerative unit is now in licensed production and some operational experience is available, while the plastic plate heat exchanger unit has been demonstrated to be effective. A third system, based on a rotary heat exchanger is included. Although less development has been done on it, several successful applications of the heat exchanger are operational. All systems provide comfort cooling in which building indoor temperature varies over the day at an operating cost less than 50% of that of a comparable refrigerated cooling system.

  14. Cryogenic generator cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckels, P. W.; Fagan, T. J.; Parker, J. H., Jr.; Long, L. J.; Shestak, E. J.; Calfo, R. M.; Hannon, W. F.; Brown, D. B.; Barkell, J. W.; Patterson, A.

    The concept for a hydrogen cooled aluminum cryogenic generator was presented by Schlicher and Oberly in 1985. Following their lead, this paper describes the thermal design of a high voltage dc, multimegawatt generator of high power density. The rotor and stator are cooled by saturated liquid and supercritical hydrogen, respectively. The brushless exciter on the same shaft is also cooled by liquid hydrogen. Component development testing is well under way and some of the test results concerning the thermohydraulic performance of the conductors are reported. The aluminum cryogenic generator's characteristics are attractive for hydrogen economy applications.

  15. Relationship between sonographic renal length and renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Sonography, Renal length, Renal. Parenchymal Thickness, Renal Biopsy. Résumé. But: Pour determiner 1e rapport entre l'épaisseur parenchymal rénale sonographic (RPT) et la longueur rénale (RL) dans le nigérien normal (1' adulte. Conception D'Etude: Le RL et le RPT de 309 sujets normaux dans la marge ...

  16. LHC cooling gains ground

    CERN Multimedia

    Huillet-Miraton Catherine

    The nominal cryogenic conditions of 1.9 K have been achieved in sectors 5-6 and 7-8. This means that a quarter of the machine has reached the nominal conditions for LHC operation, having attained a temperature of below 2 K (-271°C), which is colder than interstellar space! Elsewhere, the cryogenic system in Sector 8-1 has been filled with liquid helium and cooled to 2K and will soon be available for magnet testing. Sectors 6-7 and 2-3 are being cooled down and cool-down operations have started in Sector 3-4. Finally, preparations are in hand for the cool-down of Sector 1-2 in May and of Sector 4-5, which is currently being consolidated. The LHC should be completely cold for the summer. For more information: http://lhc.web.cern.ch/lhc/Cooldown_status.htm.

  17. Warm and Cool Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannlein, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity in which first grade students draw dinosaurs in order to learn about the concept of warm and cool colors. Explains how the activity also helped the students learn about the concept of distance when drawing. (CMK)

  18. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  19. Cooling tower waste reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, S.J.; Celeste, J.; Chine, R.; Scott, C.

    1998-05-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the two main cooling tower systems (central and northwest) were upgraded during the summer of 1997 to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. In 1996, these two tower systems generated approximately 135,400 lbs (61,400 kg) of hazardous sludge, which is more than 90 percent of the hazardous waste for the site annually. At both, wet decks (cascade reservoirs) were covered to block sunlight. Covering the cascade reservoirs reduced the amount of chemical conditioners (e.g. algaecide and biocide), required and in turn the amount of waste generated was reduced. Additionally, at the northwest cooling tower system, a sand filtration system was installed to allow cyclical filtering and backflushing, and new pumps, piping, and spray nozzles were installed to increase agitation. the appurtenance upgrade increased the efficiency of the cooling towers. The sand filtration system at the northwest cooling tower system enables operators to continuously maintain the cooling tower water quality without taking the towers out of service. Operational costs (including waste handling and disposal) and maintenance activities are compared for the cooling towers before and after upgrades. Additionally, the effectiveness of the sand filter system in conjunction with the wet deck covers (northwest cooling tower system), versus the cascade reservoir covers alone (south cooling tower south) is discussed. the overall expected return on investment is calculated to be in excess of 250 percent. this upgrade has been incorporated into the 1998 DOE complex-wide water conservation project being led by Sandia National Laboratory/Albuquerque.

  20. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  1. Gastrointestinal complications in renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Jeet Singh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal complications are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality among renal allograft recipients. We retrospectively analyzed incidence of these complications and their impact on the patient outcome. Materials & Methods: Between 1998 to Aug 2002, 558 live related renal transplants were performed at our center. The immunosuppression used consisted mainly of cyclosporine, azathioprine and prednisolone, though varied in some patients. These patients were followed for any occurrence of significant gastrointestinal problems. Results: Out of the of 538 renal transplant recipients studied, gastro esophageal ulcerations were seen in 3% patients. Acute pancreatitis was observed in twelve (2.2% patients and four patients had acute intestinal obstruction secondary to fecal impaction. Infectious complications included acute diarrheas in 18% of patients. Three patients developed abdominal tuberculosis. Acute rejection episodes were encountered in 26% of the patients. During these episodes, 58% of patients experienced prolonged ileus. Most of these complications (66% occurred within first one-year post transplant. Three patients presenting with acute intestinal obstruction required laparotomy (two- bands, one-intussusception. There were four mortalities -two patients had severe pancreatitis, one patient had massive upper GI bleed and one succumbed due to perforation peritonitis. Conclusions: Gastrointestinal complications account for significant morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients. Paralytic ileus secondary to acute vascular rejection is quite common and resolves spontaneously with recovery of renal function.

  2. Stacking with Stochastic Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles seen by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly protected from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently shielded against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 105, the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters)....

  3. Cool Flame Quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Howard; Chapek, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Cool flame quenching distances are generally presumed to be larger than those associated with hot flames, because the quenching distance scales with the inverse of the flame propagation speed, and cool flame propagation speeds are often times slower than those associated with hot flames. To date, this presumption has never been put to a rigorous test, because unstirred, non-isothermal cool flame studies on Earth are complicated by natural convection. Moreover, the critical Peclet number (Pe) for quenching of cool flames has never been established and may not be the same as that associated with wall quenching due to conduction heat loss in hot flames, Pe approx. = 40-60. The objectives of this ground-based study are to: (1) better understand the role of conduction heat loss and species diffusion on cool flame quenching (i.e., Lewis number effects), (2) determine cool flame quenching distances (i.e, critical Peclet number, Pe) for different experimental parameters and vessel surface pretreatments, and (3) understand the mechanisms that govern the quenching distances in premixtures that support cool flames as well as hot flames induced by spark-ignition. Objective (3) poses a unique fire safety hazard if conditions exist where cool flame quenching distances are smaller than those associated with hot flames. For example, a significant, yet unexplored risk, can occur if a multi-stage ignition (a cool flame that transitions to a hot flame) occurs in a vessel size that is smaller than that associated with the hot quenching distance. To accomplish the above objectives, a variety of hydrocarbon-air mixtures will be tested in a static reactor at elevated temperature in the laboratory (1g). In addition, reactions with chemical induction times that are sufficiently short will be tested aboard NASA's KC-135 microgravity (mu-g) aircraft. The mu-g results will be compared to a numerical model that includes species diffusion, heat conduction, and a skeletal kinetic mechanism

  4. Evaluation of left renal vein entrapment using multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyraz, Ahmet K.; Onur, Mehmet R. [Dept. of Radiology, Firat Univ. School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey)], e-mail: akursadpoyraz@yahoo.com.tr; Firdolas, Fatih [Dept. of Urology, Firat Univ. School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey); Kocakoc, Ercan [Dept. of Radiology, Bezmialem Vakif Univ., School of Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-03-15

    Background: Nutcracker syndrome, also called left renal vein entrapment syndrome, is a cause of non-glomerular hematuria with difficulties in diagnosis. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a powerful tool to prevent unnecessary diagnostic procedures. Purpose: To retrospectively determine the prevalence of nutcracker phenomenon and nutcracker syndrome seen in MDCT in consecutive patients. Material and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study and waived the requirement for informed consent. Abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT scans were reviewed from 1000 consecutive patients. MDCT scan assessment included renal vein diameter measurements and evaluation for the presence of anterior or posterior left renal vein entrapment. Electronic medical records and urine analysis reports of patients with left renal vein entrapment were reviewed. Student's t test was used to assess differences in renal vein diameter in patients with left renal vein entrapment. Results: Left renal vein entrapment was observed in 10.9% (109), retroaortic left renal vein in 6.5% (65), entrapment of left renal vein between superior mesenteric artery and aorta in 4.1% (41), and circumaortic left renal vein in 0.3% (3) of patients. Mean diameters of right (8.8 {+-} 1.9 mm) and unentrapped left (8.9 {+-} 1.8 mm) renal veins were not significantly different (P = 0.1). The mean diameter of anterior entrapped left renal veins (10.3 {+-} 2 mm) was significantly greater (P = 0.04) than contralateral renal veins (8.6 {+-} 2.1 mm) in their widest portion. In 8.8% of patients with the left renal vein entrapment, urine analysis showed isomorphic hematuria or proteinuria with no other known cause. Varicocele and pelvic congestion were seen in 5.5% of patients with the left renal vein entrapment. Conclusion: Left renal vein entrapment is not a rare entity and renal nutcracker phenomenon might be underdiagnosed.

  5. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this disorder. Alternative Names Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Krapf R, ...

  6. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain proper fluid ... marrow and strengthen the bones. The term kidney (renal) failure describes a situation in which the kidneys have ...

  7. Cardio Renal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KV Sahasranam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, physicians have recognized that the kidney and the heart are related especially when there is severe dysfunction of either of them. Dysfunction of one of these organs seldom occurs in isolation. Of late the cardio renal syndrome is assuming significance because of its increasing incidence, awareness and complications. There is no definite definition of the cardio renal syndrome. However, an attempted definition states that it is a "decline in renal function in the setting of advanced heart failure". This definition does not cover the whole gamut of the cardio renal syndrome. Cardiac diseases are associated independently with a decrease in renal function and progression of existing renal disease. Chronic Kidney disease (CKD is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and outcome. This bidirectional nature of cardiac and renal interaction is called Cardio Renal Syndrome (CRS.

  8. The effects of acute renal failure on long-term renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanullah, Mohammad; Sawyer, Robert; Hise, Michael K

    2003-03-01

    The relationship between acute renal failure (ARF) and long-term renal function remains unknown. We therefore undertook a study of patients at the Baltimore VA Hospital to examine the effects of a bout of acute renal injury on long-term renal function. We retrospectively reviewed the relationship between serum creatinine and time of observation for 6058 individuals who had values greater than 1.4 mg/dL in any two consecutive years. Individuals were stratified according to total years of observation with a minimum of two years. Severity of acute renal injury was divided into mild, moderate, and severe with elevations in baseline creatinine of 300% respectively. Sporadic elevations in creatinine were evident in 8-15% of the population. There were a total of 1328 episodes of acute renal failure in 916 patients that were suitable for analysis. Mild ARF on a substrate of normal or mildly abnormal renal function resolved without long-term sequelae. Moderate and severe ARF occurred more frequently on a background of reduced renal function but baseline function was retained in at least 60% of patients. We conclude that ARF is more frequent in patients with chronic kidney disease but it is not invariably associated with an accelerated course to end-stage renal disease or death. Overall, the majority of ARF events resolved without adverse long-term effects suggesting appropriate management in the majority of instances.

  9. Relationship between sonographic renal length and renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the relationship between sonographic renal parenchymal thickness (RPT) and renal length (RL) in normal adult Nigerian. Study design: The RL and RPT of 309 normal subjects within the age range of 18 – 80years were measured sonographically and prospectively. Correlation was performed between ...

  10. Heating and cooling processes in disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitke, Peter

    2015-09-01

    This chapter summarises current theoretical concepts and methods to determine the gas temperature structure in protoplanetary disks by balancing all relevant heating and cooling rates. The processes considered are non-LTE line heating/cooling based on the escape probability method, photo-ionisation heating and recombination cooling, free-free heating/cooling, dust thermal accommodation and high-energy heating processes such as X-ray and cosmic ray heating, dust photoelectric and PAH heating, a number of particular follow-up heating processes starting with the UV excitation of H2, and the release of binding energy in exothermal reactions. The resulting thermal structure of protoplanetary disks is described and discussed. 10th Lecture from Summer School "Protoplanetary Disks: Theory and Modelling Meet Observations"

  11. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  12. Cardio-renal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Gnanaraj; Jai Radhakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-renal syndrome is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The purpose of this article is to highlight the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the renal system and how their interaction results in the complex syndrome of cardio-renal dysfunction. Additionally, we outline the available therapeutic strategies to manage this complex syndrome.

  13. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Irastorza, Igor; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a mild preference for a non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP or a massless HP represent the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO and the massless HP requires a multi TeV energy scale of new physics that might be accessible at the LHC.

  14. Solenoidal ionization cooling lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Fernow

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We explore a practical approach for designing ionization cooling channels with periodic solenoidal focusing. We examine the lattice characteristics in terms of the properties of the coils and the cell geometry. The peak magnetic field in the coils is an important engineering constraint in lattice design. We examine the dependence of the peak field, momentum passband locations, and the beta function on the coil parameters. We make a systematic examination of all allowed lattice configurations taking into account the symmetry properties of the current densities and the beta function. We introduce a unique classification for comparing cooling lattice configurations. While solutions with a single coil per cell illustrate most of the effects that are important for cooling channel design, the introduction of additional coils allows more flexibility in selecting the lattice properties. We look at example solutions for the problem of the initial transverse cooling stage of a neutrino factory or muon collider and compare our results with the properties of some published cooling lattice designs. Scaling laws are used to compare solutions from different symmetry classes.

  15. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Don E [ORNL; Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL; Becklehimer, Jeff [Cray, Inc.; Donovan, Matthew J [ORNL; Layton, Christopher C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  16. Muon ionization cooling experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    A neutrino factory based on a muon storage ring is the ultimate tool for studies of neutrino oscillations, including possibly leptonic CP violation. It is also the first step towards muon colliders. The performance of this new and promising line of accelerators relies heavily on the concept of ionisation cooling of minimum ionising muons, for which much R&D is required. The concept of a muon ionisation cooling experiment has been extensively studied and first steps are now being taken towards its realisation by a joint international team of accelerator and particle physicists. The aim of the workshop is to to explore at least two versions of an experiment based on existing cooling channel designs. If such an experiment is feasible, one shall then select, on the basis of effectiveness, simplicity, availability of components and overall cost, a design for the proposed experiment, and assemble the elements necessary to the presentation of a proposal. Please see workshop website.

  17. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI,I.; AHRENS,L.; BRENNAN,M.; HARRISON,M.; KEWISCH,J.; MACKAY,W.; PEGGS,S.; ROSER,T.; SATOGATA,T.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; YAKIMENKO,V.

    2001-06-18

    We introduce plans for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This project has a number of new features as electron coolers go: It will cool 100 GeV/nucleon ions with 50 MeV electrons; it will be the first attempt to cool a collider at storage-energy; and it will be the first cooler to use a bunched beam and a linear accelerator as the electron source. The linac will be superconducting with energy recovery. The electron source will be based on a photocathode gun. The project is carried out by the Collider-Accelerator Department at BNL in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics.

  18. Hot moons and cool stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller René

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The exquisite photometric precision of the Kepler space telescope now puts the detection of extrasolar moons at the horizon. Here, we firstly review observational and analytical techniques that have recently been proposed to find exomoons. Secondly, we discuss the prospects of characterizing potentially habitable extrasolar satellites. With moons being much more numerous than planets in the solar system and with most exoplanets found in the stellar habitable zone being gas giants, habitable moons could be as abundant as habitable planets. However, satellites orbiting planets in the habitable zones of cool stars will encounter strong tidal heating and likely appear as hot moons.

  19. How cool is Uchimizu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solcerova, Anna; van Emmerik, Tim; Hilgersom, Koen; van de Ven, Frans; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-04-01

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) was first described 200 years ago, but ways to mitigate heat in urban areas reach much further into the past. Uchimizu is a 17th century Japanese tradition, in which water is sprinkled around houses, temples, and in gardens to cool the ground surface and the air, and to settle the dust. Nowadays, megacities such as Tokyo are aiming to revive the - by modern technology suppressed - method, and uchimizu is promoted by local authorities as a "clever way to feel cool". Unfortunately, the number of published studies that have quantified the cooling effects of uchimizu is limited, and only uses measurements of the surface temperature, or air temperature at a single height, as a measure of the cooling effect. In this research a dense 3D Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) setup was used to measure air temperature within once cubic meter of air above an urban surface with high spatial and temporal resolution. Six experiments were performed to systematically study the effect of (1) applied water amount, (2) initial surface temperature, and (3) shading on the cooling effect of uchimizu. We present the results and the subsequent analyses of these experiments, done during summer in Delft, The Netherlands. We show that this simple water sprinkling method has the potential to decrease extreme temperatures in impervious and paved parts of urban areas considerably. Besides mitigating the UHI, uchimizu practice is also an opportunity to increase awareness among citizens, and stimulate citizen participation in solving heat stress problems and energy saving. By providing refreshing insights on the cooling effect of uchimizu, we aim to contribute to the modern revival of this old tradition.

  20. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2002-01-01

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  1. Insuficiencia renal aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Miyahira Arakaki

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a clinic syndrome characterized by decline in renal function occurring over a short time period. Is a relatively common complication in hospitalized critically ill patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. ARF has often a multi-factorial etiology syndrome usually approached diagnostically as pre-renal, post-renal, or intrinsic ARF. Most intrinsic ARF is caused by ischemia or nephrotoxins and is classically associated with acute tubular necrosis (ATN. High mortality is associated with severity of ARF, age more than 60 years old and presence of pulmonar and cardiovascular complications. Most patients who survive an episode of ARF recover sufficient renal function; however, 50% have subclinical functional defects in renal function or scarring on renal biopsy. ARF is irreversible in approximately 5% of patients, usually as a consequence of complete cortical necrosis. ( Rev Med Hered 2003; 14: 36-43.

  2. Evaluation of renal masses including retrograde renal brushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, W B; Bibbo, M; Thomsen, S; Lu, C T

    1976-02-01

    1. The evaluation of renal masses has become an increasingly important topic because of the increasing incidence of kidney cancer, the improved cure rate of renal carcinoma with the proper preoperative diagnosis, and the proliferation in renal mass diagnostic methodology. 2. A variety of benign entities can produce an abnormal renal mass with attendant difficulties in being distinguished from malignant neoplasms. Among these benign lesions are: simple renal cysts, polycystic kidneys, congenital variations in renal size and shape, segmental renal hypertrophy, renal infarcts, intrarenal hematomas, renal hamartomas, renal leiomyomas, renal adenomas, renal angiomas, renal fibrolipomatosis, hydronephrosis of a duplicated collecting system, renal abscesses, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. 3. Nephrotomography, nephrosonography (ultrasound), adrenalin renal arteriography, selective magnification renal arteriography, renal venography and cavography, lymphangiography, renal scintillation scanning, abnormal levels of enzymes in blood and urine, immunologic studies (circulating antibodies and tumor-associated antigens), percutaneous needle aspirations, and retrograde renal brushing have all increased the diagnostic accuracy of determining the etiology of renal masses. None of these diagnostic procedures is infallible. A judicious combination of procedures gives the most reliable diagnostic results. 4. A search continues for (a) chemical agent(s) or a chemical profile in the blood or urine which is (are) specific for renal carcinoma, but as yet this is an investigational area and not a practical clinical reality.

  3. Hyperuricemia and Acute Renal Failure in Renal Transplant Recipients Treated With High-Dose Mizoribine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akioka, K; Ishikawa, T; Osaka, M; Kadotani, Y; Okugawa, K; Nakano, K; Osaka, Y; Tsuchiya, K; Sako, H

    Hyperuricemia is a common adverse event frequently found in renal transplant recipients with mizoribine (MZ). Hyperuricemia itself will be a cause of renal dysfunction, and renal dysfunction also will be a cause of hyperuricemia simultaneously. This study investigates frequency of hyperuricemia and renal failure in renal transplant recipients treated with high-dose MZ. From December 2007 to October 2015, there was a total of 32 living related renal transplant recipients treated with high-dose MZ. Of the 32 patients, 28 were treated with urate-lowering medications. One patient received allopurinol (AP) and 13 patients received benzbromarone (BB). For 6 of them, their urate-lowering medications were converted to febuxostat (FX) form AP or BB. In the remaining 14 patients, FX was administered from the beginning. In 2 cases of ABO-incompatible living related renal transplant recipients who were maintained with high-dose MZ and BB, severe hyperuricemia and acute renal failure occurred. One patient was a 48-year-old man, and his creatinine (Cr) level increased to 8.14 mg/dL and his serum uric acid (UA) was 24.6 mg/dL. Another patient was a 57-year-old man, and his Cr level increased to 3.59 mg/dL and his UA was 13.2 mg/dL. In both cases Cr and UA were improved, and no finding of acute rejection and drug toxicity was observed in graft biopsy specimens. BB was switched to FX and discontinuance or reduction of MZ was done. Combination of MZ and BB has the risk of acute renal dysfunction after renal transplantation. Latent renal dysfunction should be watched for in renal transplant recipients receiving high-dose MZ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preoperative planning of renal transplantation: a comparison of non-contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance angiography with observations from surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankholm, Anne Dorte; Pedersen, Bodil G; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian; Andersen, Gratien; Hørlyck, Arne; Østrat, Ernst Ø; Laustsen, Sussie; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    Many candidates for kidney transplantation need to undergo vessel examination before the transplantation procedure. To identify the optimal preoperative modality for the examination of vessel status without the use of contrast agents in kidney transplant candidates. Fifty-three consecutive patients were examined and 31 patients were transplanted. Ultrasonography (US), non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (NCCT), and non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCMRA) were compared using inspection during kidney transplantation (TX) as a reference standard. The sensitivity and specificity to severe arteriosclerotic changes and the accuracy were calculated. Kappa statistics were used to assess the agreement between TX and the different examination modalities, and McNemar's test was used to test for significant differences. US had higher sensitivity (1.0) and better agreement with observations from surgery (k = 0.89) than both NCCT (sensitivity = 0.60; k = 0.72) and NCMRA (sensitivity = 0.20; k = 0.30). No significant difference was found between TX and US (P = 0.3173) or TX and NCCT (P = 0.1573), but there was a significant difference between TX and NCMRA (P = 0.0455). US was inconclusive in 20% of cases, and the internal iliac artery could not be visualized in 69% of cases. Either US or NCCT can be used as the preferred preoperative imaging modality to examine vessel status before kidney transplantation, but a combination of the two is preferable. NCMRA should not be used as the sole imaging modality for preoperative imaging before kidney transplantation because of its low sensitivity in detecting severe arteriosclerotic disease without the presence of stenosis. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  5. Dietary restriction in moderately obese rats improves body size and glucose handling without the renal and hepatic alterations observed with a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devassy, Jessay G; Caligiuri, Stephanie P B; Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Ibrahim, Naser H M; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G; House, James D; Aukema, Harold M

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is increasing worldwide, and high-protein (HP) diets are widely used for weight loss. However, the overall safety of HP diets is not well established in obese individuals, who make up a significant proportion of the population. To evaluate the health effects of an HP diet in obesity, obesity-prone (OP) Sprague-Dawley rats were given high-fat diets for 12 weeks to induce obesity. Following this, for 8 more weeks, these rats were given either a normal-protein (NP) (15% of energy) or an HP (35% of energy) diet ad libitum, or the NP diet at a restricted level to achieve body weights similar to those of the HP group (pair-weighted (PW) group). Obesity-resistant (OR) control rats were also given the NP diet throughout the feeding period. The HP-OP group had higher food intake but lower body weight, improved glucose handling, and lowered serum haptoglobin compared with the NP-OP group. These benefits were also observed in PW-OP rats. In addition, PW-OP rats had less fat accumulation when compared with NP-OP rats, and an improved Lee index, lower liver size, and lower serum alanine aminotransferase when compared with HP-OP rats. On the other hand, kidney size, proteinuria, and serum homocysteine were increased in HP-OP rats compared with NP-OP rats, whereas PW-OP rats did not experience these effects. These results indicate that in obese rats, more benefits are obtained via dietary restriction with an NP diet and without some of the potentially detrimental effects of an HP diet.

  6. [Continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canepari, G; Inguaggiato, P; Gigliola, G; Bainotti, S; Formica, M

    2006-01-01

    Several techniques are currently available in the continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) spectrum, adhering to different clinical conditions and illness severity. Commercially available machines have become more user-friendly, even for non-dialysis staff however, nephrologists need specific knowledge to give an adequate prescription that must be different from chronic hemodialysis. Competence and experience in the technical possibilities of CRRT lead to an individual ultra-filtration and treatment dose prescription. Clearances of solutes with different molecular weight can be modulated by coupling (combining) diffusion and convection, and by changing the fluid infusion rate. In addition, CRRT has an important impact on metabolism with its cooling effect, removal of nourishing substances and modification of electrolytic and acid-base balance. In septic patients standard CRRT has no specific indications in the absence of acute renal failure. Other extracorporeal therapies, such as high volume hemofiltration coupled with plasma filtration-adsorption (CPFA), have been developed aiming for a major influence on sepsis evolution. The versatility of CRRT has great value not only in adapting the treatment schedule to clinical conditions, but also in performing extracorporeal therapies in a wide array of logistical circumstances.

  7. Elementary stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G

    1983-12-01

    Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)

  8. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  9. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    2001-05-13

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling.

  10. Refractory anemia leading to renal hemosiderosis and renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddappa, Sujatha; Mythri, K M; Kowsalya, R; Parekh, Ashish

    2011-01-01

    Renal hemosiderosis is a rare cause of renal failure and, as a result, may not be diagnosed unless a detailed history, careful interpretation of blood parameters and renal biopsy with special staining is done. Here, we present a rare case of renal hemosiderosis presenting with renal failure.

  11. Refractory anemia leading to renal hemosiderosis and renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Siddappa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal hemosiderosis is a rare cause of renal failure and, as a result, may not be diagnosed unless a detailed history, careful interpretation of blood parameters and renal biopsy with special staining is done. Here, we present a rare case of renal hemosiderosis presenting with renal failure.

  12. Salvageability of renal function following renal revascularisation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion for the aortic arch and its branches.[1,2] It is ... Renal artery revascularisation procedures are usually carried out on children with renal artery stenosis from varied causes, including ... Salvageability of renal function in children who underwent renal revascularisation for Takayasu's arteritisinduced renal artery stenosis ...

  13. Electron Cooling Study for MEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zhang [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Yuhong [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Electron cooling of the ion beams is one critical R&D to achieve high luminosities in JLab's MEIC proposal. In the present MEIC design, a multi-staged cooling scheme is adapted, which includes DC electron cooling in the booster ring and bunched beam electron cooling in the collider ring at both the injection energy and the collision energy. We explored the feasibility of using both magnetized and non-magnetized electron beam for cooling, and concluded that a magnetized electron beam is necessary. Electron cooling simulation results for the newly updated MEIC design is also presented.

  14. Recurrent renal giant leiomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öziş, Salih Erpulat; Gülpınar, Kamil; Şahlı, Zafer; Konak, Baha Burak; Keskin, Mete; Özdemir, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Ömür

    2016-01-01

    Primary renal leiomyosarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors. They constitute 1-2% of adult malignant renal tumors. Although leiomyosarcomas are the most common histological type (50-60%) of renal sarcomas, information on renal leiomyosarcoma is limited. Local or systemic recurrences are common. The radiological appearance of renal leiomyosarcomas is not specific, therefore renal leiomyosarcoma cannot be distinguished from renal cell carcinoma by imaging methods in all patients. A 74-year-old female patient presented to our clinic complaining of a palpable mass on the right side of her abdomen in November 2012. The abdominal magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass, 25 × 24 × 23 cm in size. Her past medical history revealed that she has undergone right radical nephrectomy in 2007, due to a 11 × 12 × 13 cm renal mass that was then reported as renal cell carcinoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, but the pathological diagnosis was low-grade renal leiomyosarcoma. The most recent follow-up of the patient was in 2011, with no signs of local recurrence or distant metastases within this four-year period. The patient underwent laparotomy on November 2012, and a 35 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The pathological examination of the mass was reported as high-grade leiomyosarcoma. The formation of this giant retroperitoneal mass in 1 year can be explained by the transformation of the lesion's pathology from low-grade to a high-grade tumor.

  15. Functional and clinical evaluation of renal injury in patients treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer: Low dose and comorbidity considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Ibrahimov

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Functional renal impairment without any clinical signs or symptoms can be observed in low doses after radiotherapy. Careful treatment planning and a detailed evaluation of the functional renal capacity before treatment may help to reduce late renal toxicity.

  16. Sorption cooling: a valid extension to passive cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornink, D.J.; Burger, Johannes Faas; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Passive cooling has shown to be a very dependable cryogenic cooling method for space missions. Several missions employ passive radiators to cool down their delicate sensor systems for many years, without consuming power, without exporting vibrations or producing electromagnetic interference. So for

  17. Comments on Ionization Cooling Channel Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States). Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics

    2013-12-04

    Ionization cooling channels with a wide variety of characteristics and cooling properties are being developed. These channels can produce cooling performances that are largely consistent with the ionization cooling theory developed previously. In this paper we review ionization cooling theory, discuss its application to presently developing cooling channels, and discuss criteria for optimizing cooling.

  18. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevtic, V. E-mail: vladimir.jevtic@mf.uni-lj.si

    2003-05-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination.

  19. Calcified renal oncocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, N.F. (Veterans Administration, Minneapolis, MN); Ewing, S.L.

    1983-10-01

    Renal oncocytoma, a neoplasm thought to derive from cells of the proximal convoluted tubules, exhibits benign clinical features. Its preoperative distinction from typical renal cell carcinoma would enable the surgeon to perform a more limited procedure. In a patient who is a poor operative candidate, surgery might be deferred. However, preoperative diagnosis has been elusive. A rare case of bilateral renal oncocytoma is reported. One of these tumors represents the first reported oncocytoma showing radiologically demonstrable calcification.

  20. Thrombospondin in Renal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo, Christian; Daniel, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Thrombospondins (TSPs) are multifunctional matricellular glycoproteins which are involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, proliferation, apoptosis, the NO-cGMP-dependent protein kinase pathway and transforming growth factor (TGF) _ activation. The TSP family consists of 5 members, but currently only data on effects of TSP-1 and TSP-2 in renal disease are available. Both TSPs are hardly expressed within the healthy renal cortex and can be upregulated during renal disease. Using different an...

  1. Vaporization Would Cool Primary Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Miyake, Robert N.

    1991-01-01

    Temperature of discharging high-power-density primary battery maintained below specified level by evaporation of suitable liquid from jacket surrounding battery, according to proposal. Pressure-relief valve regulates pressure and boiling temperature of liquid. Less material needed in cooling by vaporization than in cooling by melting. Technique used to cool batteries in situations in which engineering constraints on volume, mass, and location prevent attachment of cooling fins, heat pipes, or like.

  2. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  3. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  4. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio L. Heldwein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the current treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, focusing on medical treatment options. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The most important recent publications have been selected after a literature search employing PubMed using the search terms: advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma, anti-angiogenesis drugs and systemic therapy; also significant meeting abstracts were consulted. RESULTS: Progress in understanding the molecular basis of renal cell carcinoma, especially related to genetics and angiogenesis, has been achieved mainly through of the study of von Hippel-Lindau disease. A great variety of active agents have been developed and tested in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC patients. New specific molecular therapies in metastatic disease are discussed. Sunitinib, Sorafenib and Bevacizumab increase the progression-free survival when compared to therapy with cytokines. Temsirolimus increases overall survival in high-risk patients. Growth factors and regulatory enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase IX may be targets for future therapies. CONCLUSIONS: A broader knowledge of clear cell carcinoma molecular biology has permitted the beginning of a new era in mRCC therapy. Benefits of these novel agents in terms of progression-free and overall survival have been observed in patients with mRCC, and, in many cases, have become the standard of care. Sunitinib is now considered the new reference first-line treatment for mRCC. Despite all the progress in recent years, complete responses are still very rare. Currently, many important issues regarding the use of these agents in the management of metastatic renal cancer still need to be properly addressed.

  5. Incidental renal neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Minne Nedergaard; Walter, Steen

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of associations between tumor size, pathological stage, histological subtype and tumor grade in incidentally detected renal cell carcinoma vs symptomatic renal cell carcinoma, we discussed the need for a screening program of renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. We analyzed a consecutive...... series of 204 patients with renal tumors in 2011 and 2012. The tumors were classified according to detection mode: symptomatic and incidental and compared to pathological parameters. Eighty-nine patients (44%) were symptomatic, 113 (55%) were incidental. Information was not available in two patients...

  6. Spontaneous renal artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Santhosh G; Pillai, Unnikrishnan; Vaidyan, Philip B; Ishiyama, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Isolated spontaneous dissection of renal arteries or its branches are extremely rare. Most cases of renal artery dissection are associated with underlying pathology of the renal arteries. We report a case of spontaneous dissection of the left main renal artery and infarction of the left kidney with positive antiphospholipid antibody. Extensive work up of the patient including imaging studies confirmed the diagnosis of SRAD. Antiphospholipid antibodies may have a role in the pathogenesis of arterial dissection by causing endothelial dysfunction. This is a first literature report.

  7. Atheroembolic renal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk factors for atherosclerosis, including age, male gender, cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes. Alternative Names Renal disease - atheroembolic; Cholesterol embolization syndrome; Atheroemboli - ...

  8. Primary renal angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar E. Souza

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal Angiosarcoma is a rare neoplasm and only 24 cases have been reported in specialized literature. We describe a case of primary renal angiosarcoma in a patient presenting with hematuria, palpable abdominal mass, left flank pain and anemia. A computerized tomography of the abdomen with contrast medium showed a tumor with 15 cm diameter, in the upper pole of the left kidney, with a low-density central area, suggesting necrosis or hemorrhage. Diagnosis was given in a morphologic base and proven by an immunohistochemical study. Primary renal angiosarcoma should be included among differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal hematoma and hemorrhagic renal tumors.

  9. Heating, ventilation and cooling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available air and diluting the humidity or mixing the cool humid air with the air from a conventional air conditioner. Climate Specific The performance of an evaporative cooler is highly dependant on atmospheric conditions. Evaporative coolers work best... that an installed system is being maintained correctly by competent persons to ensure both smooth and efficient operation as well as to prevent mould growth. Legionnaires disease is a concern within evaporative coolers if it is not maintained correctly...

  10. Laser Cooling of Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Panel (b) com- pares the cooling efficiencies of available thermoelectric coolers ( TECs ) with ZBLANP:Yb3+-based optical refrigerators. Devices based...on materials with low parasitic heating will outperform TECs below 200 . Coolers made from current materials are less efficient than TECs at all...luminescence extraction efficiency are being explored as well. A novel method based on the frustrated total internal reflection across a vacuum “ nano -gap” is

  11. Non-Laser Cooling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilico, Laurent

    We first review trapped ion radiative cooling and show that it is only efficient for high frequency oscillating particles in Penning traps. We then describe in detail resistive cooling and explain in the frame of an exercice why and how thermal equilibrium with the resistor is reached. We finally discuss buffer gas cooling in Paul traps.

  12. Ice for air cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, J.

    1987-04-09

    The first ice plant on an industrial scale came into service at Harmony goldmine in November 1985. This surface installation has a refrigeration output of about 5.2 MW, corresponding to 1000 t/d of ice. The ice melting tank is at a depth of 1088m. The planning and construction of this first industrial-scale ice plant were based on the result obtained from a research project which gave particular emphasis to investigating the problems related to the transport of ice in pipelines and to the ice-to-water heat transfer in ice-melting tanks. The particular advantage of ice as a coolant is that the mass circulation needed with ice is five times less than with water. It is claimed that, in the circumstances which are specific to Harmony mine, ice cooling is economically viable at a depth of only 1,100 m or thereabouts; however, calculations for very powerful cooling systems have shown that ice has a cost advantage over water + Pelton turbines only at depths of 3,000 m or more. Cost comparisons apart, this ice plant is useful for the testing of technology and safety in the production, transport and melting of the ice and prepares the way for a powerful ice cooling system which will work at great depths. 6 references.

  13. Low mass integrated cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Low mass on - detec tor cooling systems are being developed and stud ied by the Detector Technology group (PH - DT) in the CERN Physics Department in close collaboration with LHC and non - LHC experiments . Two approaches are currently being investigated. The first approach, for barrel configurations, consists in integrating the cooli ng apparatus in light mechanical structures support ing the detectors. In this case , the thermal management can be achieved either with light cooling pipes and thin plates or with a network of microchannels embedded in thin strips of silicon or polyimide . Both configuratio ns are being investigated in the context of the 2018 upgrade program of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). Moreover, it is also possible to use a s ilicon microchannel cooling device itself as structural support for the detectors and electronics. Such a configur ation has been adopted by the NA62 collaboration for the ir GigaTracKer (GTK) as well as by the LHCb collaboration for the 2018 major upgrade of...

  14. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Barton, Donald; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruhwiler, David L; Burger, Al; Burov, Alexey; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Eidelman, Yury I; Favale, Anthony; Fedotov, Alexei V; Fischer, Wolfram; Funk, L W; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Harrison, Michael; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Koop, Ivan; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Mahler, George; Malitsky, Nikolay; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Merminga, Lia; Meshkov, Igor; Mirabella, Kerry; Montag, Christoph; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Parzen, George; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Shatunov, Yuri; Sidorin, Anatoly O; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Trbojevic, Dejan; Troubnikov, Grigory; Wang, Gang; Wei, Jie; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang; ain, Animesh K

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.ags...

  15. Longitudinal dynamics of laser-cooled fast ion beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidemüller, M.; Eike, B.; Eisenbarth, U.

    1999-01-01

    We present recent results of our experiments on laser cooling of fast stored ion beams at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring. The longitudinal motion of the ions is directly cooled by the light pressure force, whereas efficient transverse cooling is obtained indirectly by longitudinal....... When applying laser cooling in square-well buckets over long time intervals, hard Coulomb collisions suddenly disappear and the longitudinal temperature drops by about a factor of three. The observed longitudinal behaviour of the beam shows strong resemblance with the transition to an Coulomb...

  16. Renal cell carcinoma in patient with crossed fused renal ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Cakmak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal cell carcinomas have rarely been reported in patients with crossed fused renal ectopia. We presented a patient with right to left crossed fused kidney harbouring renal tumor. The most frequent tumor encountered in crossed fused renal ectopia is renal cell carcinoma. In this case, partial nephrectomy was performed which pave way to preservation of the uninvolved both renal units. Due to unpredictable anatomy, careful preoperative planning and meticulous delineation of renal vasculature is essential for preservation of the uninvolved renal units.

  17. Rapid improvement in renal function in patients with multiple myeloma and renal failure treated with bortezomib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qayum Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Myeloma (MM frequently presents with renal dysfunction apart from other manifestations. Development of renal failure in patients with MM carries a poor prognosis. Bortezo-mib is a new addition to drugs used in MM and has shown good efficacy and safety profiles. Previous trials have shown its efficacy in relapsed and refractory MM as well. Studies have also shown that bortezomib is also effective in patients with MM who present with renal failure. We report here six cases of renal failure secondary to MM treated with bortezomib. All patients had poor performance status of 3-4 on ECOG scale. Five out of six patients showed satisfactory anti-myeloma response to bortezomib. Reversal of renal failure was observed in all six patients. Adverse effects to bortezomib were mild and manageable. Reversal of renal failure persisted despite incomplete response to MM in two cases, and progression of disease in one patient. It appears that bortezomib may have an effect on the kidneys in reversal of renal failure, other than its anti-myeloma effect. In conclusion, borte-zomib appears to be an effective treatment for patients with advanced MM and renal failure irres-pective of performance status and age.

  18. Calculation of the hardness distribution in cooled steel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Processing and Heat Treatment of Materials, Espoo (Finland)); Kivivuori, S. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Processing and Heat Treatment of Materials, Espoo (Finland)); Korhonen, A.S. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Processing and Heat Treatment of Materials, Espoo (Finland))

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare different computer methods in hardness distribution calculations on cooled steel products. A micro-alloyed steel, a direct quenching steel and two hardening and tempering steels were investigated. The methods used to calculate the hardness distributions were based on Jominy curves and the formulas devised by the Creusot-Loire group. For the micro-alloyed steel a method based on a TTT diagram and Avrami equation was also used. In the present work different cooling methods were also investigated. The test specimens were cooled by using spray cooling, quenching in water and quenching in oil. From the cooling tests the following results were obtained. The hardness calculation method based on the Jominy curves gives fairly good results. Spray cooling compared with quenching in water gives a more uniform hardness distribution. It was also observed that inverse hardening may occur if the film phase breaks down at a low surface temperature. (orig.)

  19. Thermodynamics of Quantum Feedback Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Liuzzo-Scorpo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to initialize quantum registers in pure states lies at the core of many applications of quantum technologies, from sensing to quantum information processing and computation. In this paper, we tackle the problem of increasing the polarization bias of an ensemble of two-level register spins by means of joint coherent manipulations, involving a second ensemble of ancillary spins and energy dissipation into an external heat bath. We formulate this spin refrigeration protocol, akin to algorithmic cooling, in the general language of quantum feedback control, and identify the relevant thermodynamic variables involved. Our analysis is two-fold: on the one hand, we assess the optimality of the protocol by means of suitable figures of merit, accounting for both its work cost and effectiveness; on the other hand, we characterise the nature of correlations built up between the register and the ancilla. In particular, we observe that neither the amount of classical correlations nor the quantum entanglement seem to be key ingredients fuelling our spin refrigeration protocol. We report instead that a more general indicator of quantumness beyond entanglement, the so-called quantum discord, is closely related to the cooling performance.

  20. Cooling lubricants; Kuehlschmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Breuer, D. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Blome, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Deininger, C. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Hahn, J.U. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Kleine, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Nies, E. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Pflaumbaum, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Stockmann, R. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Willert, G. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Sonnenschein, G. [Maschinenbau- und Metall-Berufsgenossenschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    As a rule, the base substances used are certain liquid hydrocarbons from mineral oils as well as from native and synthetic oils. Through the addition of further substances the cooling lubricant takes on the particular qualities required for the use in question. Employees working with cooling lubricants are exposed to various hazards. The assessment of the concentrations at the work station is carried out on the basis of existing technical rules for contact with hazardous substances. However, the application/implementation of compulsory investigation and supervision in accordance with these rules is made difficult by the fact that cooling lubricants are, as a rule, made up of complicated compound mixtures. In addition to protecting employees from exposure to mists and vapours from the cooling lubricants, protection for the skin is also of particular importance. Cooling lubricants should not, if at all possible, be brought into contact with the skin. Cleansing the skin and skin care is just as important as changing working clothes regularly, and hygiene and cleanliness at the workplace. Unavoidable emissions are to be immediately collected at the point where they arise or are released and safely disposed of. This means taking into account all sources of emissions. The programme presented in this report therefore gives a very detailed account of the individual protective measures and provides recommendations for the design of technical protection facilities. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Als Basisstoffe dienen in der Regel bestimmte fluessige Kohlenwasserstoffverbindungen aus Mineraloelen sowie aus nativen oder synthetischen Oelen. Durch die Zugabe von weiteren Stoffen erlangt der Kuehlschmierstoff seine fuer den jeweiligen Anwendungsabfall geforderten Eigenschaften. Beschaeftigte, die mit Kuehlschmierstoffen umgehen, sind unterschiedliche Gefahren ausgesetzt. Die Beurteilung der Kuehlschmierstoffkonzentrationen in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz erfolgt auf der Grundlage bestehender

  1. A case of renal oncocytoma

    OpenAIRE

    村本, 将俊; 内田, 豊昭; 及能, 久隆; 石田, 裕則; 宇都宮, 拓治; 頴川, 晋; 真下, 節夫; 小柴, 健

    1994-01-01

    A case of renal oncocytoma found incidentally by routine medical checkups is reported. An asymptomatic 70-year-old male was found to have a right renal mass by abdominal ultrasonography. Selective renal arteriography supported the diagnosis of renal oncocytoma with a typical appearance of "spoke-wheel" pattern. Right radical nephrectomy was performed. However, in consideration of the possibility of renal cell carcinoma. The diagnosis of renal oncocytoma was finally confirmed pathologically. T...

  2. Aldosterone as a renal growth factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thomas, Warren

    2011-04-05

    Aldosterone regulates blood pressure through its effects on the cardiovascular system and kidney. Aldosterone can also contribute to the development of hypertension that leads to chronic pathologies such as nephropathy and renal fibrosis. Aldosterone directly modulates renal cell proliferation and differentiation as part of normal kidney development. The stimulation of rapidly activated protein kinase cascades is one facet of how aldosterone regulates renal cell growth. These cascades may also contribute to myofibroblastic transformation and cell proliferation observed in pathological conditions of the kidney. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder that is accelerated by hypertension. EGFR-dependent proliferation of the renal epithelium is a factor in cyst development and trans-activation of EGFR is a key feature in initiating aldosterone-induced signalling cascades. Delineating the components of aldosterone-induced signalling cascades may identify novel therapeutic targets for proliferative diseases of the kidney.

  3. Renal amyloidosis in cattle with inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitok, O M; Elitok, B; Unver, O

    2008-01-01

    The association of inflammatory diseases such as traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP), mastitis, metritis, and pododermatitis with renal amyloidosis in cattle is poorly described. Serum amyloid A (SAA) levels are elevated during inflammatory diseases, and renal amyloidosis is formed as a complication. This study was conducted with 82 crossbred cattle with mastitis (n = 18 cows), metritis (n = 11 cows), TRP (n = 30 cows), and pododermatitis (n = 23 : 15 cows and 8 beef cattle). Ten clinically healthy cows served as controls. Hematological, urinary, and blood parameters, including SAA, were measured by an automated procedure provided with trade kits. Determination of amyloidal structures was made by histopathological examination of renal biopsy specimens. At the end of this trial, amyloidosis was detected in 5 cows displaying typical nephrotic syndrome, with hypoproteinemia and proteinuria in combination with polyuria and weight loss. Furthermore, it was observed that cows with renal amyloidosis had significantly higher (P pododermatitis have a high prevalence of systemic amyloidosis in response to inflammation.

  4. Myocardial infarction does not further impair renal damage in 5/6 nephrectomized rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, Willemijn A. K. M.; Henning, Robert H.; Kluppel, Alex C. A.; Xu, Ying; de Zeeuw, Dick; van Dokkum, Richard P. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Recent observational studies show that reduced renal function is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Previously, we reported that myocardial infarction (MI) indeed enhanced mild renal function decline in rats after unilateral nephrectomy (NX) and

  5. Laser cooling by adiabatic transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcia, Matthew; Cline, Julia; Bartolotta, John; Holland, Murray; Thompson, James

    2017-04-01

    We have demonstrated a new method of laser cooling applicable to particles with narrow linewidth optical transitions. This simple and robust cooling mechanism uses a frequency-swept laser to adiabatically transfer atoms between internal and motional states. The role of spontaneous emission is reduced (though is still critical) compared to Doppler cooling. This allows us to achieve greater slowing forces than would be possible with Doppler cooling, and may make this an appealing technique for cooling molecules. In this talk, I will present a demonstration of this technique in a cold strontium system. DARPA QUASAR, NIST, NSF PFC.

  6. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient...... (1.1%) had complete distal renal tubular acidosis and 14 (15.5%) incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Our results confirm that distal renal tubular acidification defects are associated with a more severe form of stone disease and make distal renal tubular acidosis one of the most frequent...... metabolic disturbances in renal stone formers. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was relatively more common in female stone formers and most often found in patients with bilateral stone disease (36%). Since prophylactic treatment in renal stone formers with renal acidification defects is available...

  7. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    (1.1%) had complete distal renal tubular acidosis and 14 (15.5%) incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Our results confirm that distal renal tubular acidification defects are associated with a more severe form of stone disease and make distal renal tubular acidosis one of the most frequent...... metabolic disturbances in renal stone formers. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was relatively more common in female stone formers and most often found in patients with bilateral stone disease (36%). Since prophylactic treatment in renal stone formers with renal acidification defects is available......Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient...

  8. Cancer - renal pelvis or ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney cancer - renal pelvis; Ureter cancer Images Kidney anatomy References National Cancer Institute. PDQ transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer ...

  9. Laser Cooling of Molecular Anions

    CERN Document Server

    Yzombard, Pauline; Gerber, Sebastian; Doser, Michael; Comparat, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scheme for laser cooling of negatively charged molecules. We briefly summarise the requirements for such laser cooling and we identify a number of potential candidates. A detailed computation study with C$\\_2^-$, the most studied molecular anion, is carried out. Simulations of 3D laser cooling in a gas phase show that this molecule could be cooled down to below 1 mK in only a few tens of milliseconds, using standard lasers. Sisyphus cooling, where no photo-detachment process is present, as well as Doppler laser cooling of trapped C$\\_2^-$, are also simulated. This cooling scheme has an impact on the study of cold molecules, molecular anions, charged particle sources and antimatter physics.

  10. Renal dysfunction in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrunaga, Nathalie H; Mindikoglu, Ayse L; Rockey, Don C

    2015-05-01

    Renal dysfunction causes significant morbidity in cirrhotic patients. Diagnosis is challenging because it is based on serum creatinine, which is used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate, which itself is not an ideal measure of renal function in patients with cirrhosis. Finding the exact cause of renal injury in patients with cirrhosis remains problematic due to the limitations of the current diagnostic tests. The purpose of this review is to highlight studies used to diagnose renal dysfunction in patients with renal dysfunction and review current treatments. New diagnostic criteria and classification of renal dysfunction, especially for acute kidney injury (AKI), have been proposed in hopes of optimizing treatment and improving outcomes. New biomarkers that help to differentiate structural from functional AKI in cirrhotic patients have been developed, but require further investigation. Vasoconstrictors are the most commonly recommended treatment of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Given the high mortality in patients with type 1 HRS, all patients with HRS should be evaluated for liver transplantation. When renal dysfunction is considered irreversible, combined liver-kidney transplantation is advised. Development of new biomarkers to differentiate the different types of AKI in cirrhosis holds promise. Early intervention in cirrhotic patients with renal dysfunction offers the best hope of improving outcomes.

  11. Late unıon of the renal veıns wıth the ınterposed left renal artery

    OpenAIRE

    Çavdar, Safiye; Şehirli, Ümit; Malcic-Gürbüz, Jasna; Gümüşçü, Burak; Akalın, Aytül

    2003-01-01

    The complicated embryological development of the renal vein shows extensive variability in its anatomy. In this study, the rare bilateral late union of the renal veins with the interposed renal artery was observed during dissection for educational purposes. Its significance in different clinical conditions has been discussed.

  12. Effects of Renal Denervation on Renal Artery Function in Humans: Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Doltra

    Full Text Available To study the effects of RD on renal artery wall function non-invasively using magnetic resonance.32 patients undergoing RD were included. A 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance of the renal arteries was performed before RD and after 6-month. We quantified the vessel sharpness of both renal arteries using a quantitative analysis tool (Soap-Bubble®. In 17 patients we assessed the maximal and minimal cross-sectional area of both arteries, peak velocity, mean flow, and renal artery distensibility. In a subset of patients wall shear stress was assessed with computational flow dynamics. Neither renal artery sharpness nor renal artery distensibility differed significantly. A significant increase in minimal and maximal areas (by 25.3%, p = 0.008, and 24.6%, p = 0.007, respectively, peak velocity (by 16.9%, p = 0.021, and mean flow (by 22.4%, p = 0.007 was observed after RD. Wall shear stress significantly decreased (by 25%, p = 0.029. These effects were observed in blood pressure responders and non-responders.RD is not associated with adverse effects at renal artery level, and leads to an increase in cross-sectional areas, velocity and flow and a decrease in wall shear stress.

  13. Slow cooling protocol improves fatigue life of zirconia crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Vitor G; Lorenzoni, Fabio C; Bonfante, Estevam A; Silva, Nelson R F A; Thompson, Van P; Bonfante, Gerson

    2015-02-01

    To compare the fatigue life and damage modes of zirconia crowns fabricated with and without framework design modification when porcelain veneered using a fast or slow cooling protocol. Composite resin replicas of a first molar full crown preparation were fabricated. Zirconia copings were milled as conventional (0.5mm even thickness, Zr-C, n=20,) or modified (lingual margin of 1.0mm thickness, 2.0mm height connected to two proximal struts of 3.5mm height, Zr-M, n=20). These groups were subdivided (n=10 each) according to the veneer cooling protocol employed: fast cooling (Zr-CFast and Zr-MFast) and slow cooling (Zr-CSlow and Zr-MSlow). Crowns were cemented and fatigued for 10(6) cycles in water. The number of cycles to failure was recorded and used to determine the interval databased 2-parameter probability Weibull distribution parameter Beta (β) and characteristic life value Eta (η). 2-parameter Weibull calculation presented β=5.53 and β=4.38 for Zr-MFast and Zr-CFast, respectively. Slow cooled crowns did not fail by completion of 10(6) cycles, thereby Weibayes calculation was applied. Increased fatigue life was observed for slow cooled crowns compared to fast cooled ones. Groups Zr-MFast and Zr-MSlow presented no statistical difference. Porcelain cohesive fractures were mainly observed in fast cooled groups. Slow cooled crowns presented in some instances inner cone cracks not reaching the zirconia/veneer interface. Improved fatigue life in tandem with the absence of porcelain fractures were observed in slow cooled crowns, regardless of framework design. Crowns fast cooled chiefly failed by porcelain cohesive fractures. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Eligibility for renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persu, Alexandre; Jin, Yu; Baelen, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Based on the SYMPLICITY studies and CE (Conformité Européenne) certification, renal denervation is currently applied as a novel treatment of resistant hypertension in Europe. However, information on the proportion of patients with resistant hypertension qualifying for renal denervation after...... a thorough work-up and treatment adjustment remains scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the proportion of patients eligible for renal denervation and the reasons for noneligibility at 11 expert centers participating in the European Network COordinating Research on renal Denervation in treatment......-resistant hypertension (ENCOReD). The analysis included 731 patients. Age averaged 61.6 years, office blood pressure at screening was 177/96 mm Hg, and the number of blood pressure-lowering drugs taken was 4.1. Specialists referred 75.6% of patients. The proportion of patients eligible for renal denervation according...

  15. Pharmacokinetics and renal excretion of desmopressin after intravenous administration to healthy subjects and renally impaired patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agersø, Henrik; Seiding Larsen, Lotte; Riis, Anders; Lövgren, Ulf; Karlsson, Mats O; Senderovitz, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of desmopressin. Methods Twenty-four subjects were enrolled in the study, 18 with varying degrees of renal impairment and six healthy volunteers. Each subject received a single intravenous dose of 2 µg desmopressin. Blood and urine samples were collected for 24 h and assayed for desmopressin by radioimmunoassay. Plasma concentrations and the amounts of desmopressin excreted in the urine were analysed simultaneously by use of mixed effects modelling. Results Only mild adverse events were observed. Both the renal and the nonrenal clearance of desmopressin were found to vary with the creatinine clearance (CrCL). A decrease of 1.67% in the CrCL (corresponding to 1 ml min−1 from 60 ml min−1) was found to cause a 1.74% decrease in the renal clearance and a 0.93% decrease in the nonrenal clearance. The fall in renal clearance caused the amount of desmopressin excreted in urine to decrease from 47% in healthy subjects to 21% in the patients with severe renal impairment. The mean systemic clearance of desmopressin was 10 litres h−1 in healthy subjects and 2.9 litres h−1 in patients with severe renal impairment (difference −7.5 litres h−1, 95% CI [−11; −4.3] litres h−1). Correspondingly, the mean terminal half-life, was 3.7 h in healthy subjects and 10 h in patients with severe renal impairment (difference 6.7 h, 95% CI [4.0; 9.4] h). Conclusion Although desmopressin appears to be safe and well-tolerated by patients with impaired renal function, great caution should be exercised when titrating towards an efficient dosage regimen if patients with moderately or severely impaired renal function are to be treated with desmopressin at all. PMID:15373927

  16. Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma is the Most Common Nonclear Renal Cell Carcinoma in Young Women: Results from the SEER Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael; Blakely, Stephen; Shapiro, Oleg; Vourganti, Srinivas; Mollapour, Mehdi; Bratslavsky, Gennady

    2016-04-01

    The renal cell cancer incidence is relatively low in younger patients, encompassing 3% to 7% of all renal cell cancers. While young patients may have renal tumors due to hereditary syndromes, in some of them sporadic renal cancers develop without any family history or known genetic mutations. Our recent observations from clinical practice have led us to hypothesize that there is a difference in histological distribution in younger patients compared to the older cohort. We queried the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) 18-registry database for all patients 20 years old or older who were surgically treated for renal cell carcinoma between 2001 and 2008. Patients with unknown race, grade, stage or histology and those with multiple tumors were excluded from study. Four cohorts were created by dividing patients by gender, including 1,202 females and 1,715 males younger than 40 years old, and 18,353 females and 30,891 males 40 years old or older. Chi-square analysis was used to compare histological distributions between the cohorts. While clear cell carcinoma was still the most common renal cell cancer subtype across all genders and ages, chromophobe renal cell cancer was the most predominant type of nonclear renal cell cancer histology in young females, representing 62.3% of all nonclear cell renal cell cancers (p renal cell cancer remained the most common type of nonclear renal cell cancer. It is possible that hormonal factors or specific pathway dysregulations predispose chromophobe renal cell cancer to develop in younger women. We hope that this work provides some new observations that could lead to further studies of gender and histology specific renal tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Keeping cool, staying virtuous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waltorp, Karen

    2015-01-01

    their everyday lives. I focus on love and marriage, the imperatives of appearing cool among peers, and keeping the family’s honour intact through the display of virtuous behaviour. Building on Bourdieu’s writings on the split habitus, I introduce the term composite habitus, as it underscores the aspect...... of a habitus that is split between (sometimes contradictory) composite parts. The composite habitus of the young women is more than a hysteresis effect (where disposition and field are in mismatch and the habitus misfires), as the composite habitus also opens up to a range of possible strategies. I present...

  18. Cooling performance of solar cell driven, thermoelectric cooling prototype headgear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, T.; Azuma, H.; Shimizu, H.; Obora, H.; Sato, S. [Nippon Inst. of Technology, Saitama (Japan). Dept. of Systems Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Cooling performance of solar cell-driven, thermoelectric cooling prototype headgear was examined experimentally. Three types of prototype headgear were made and examined. They were cooled by thermoelectric elements and driven by solar cells. Conventional cooling caps driven by solar cells only blow ambient air to the face with an electric fan. A thermoelectric element was set at the front of the headgear to cool the forehead. Solar cells were mounted on the top and the brim of the headgear to work the thermoelectric element. Three prototypes of headgear with solar cells and a thermoelectric element were made and tested. Refrigeration capacity and thermal comfort were examined by subject in cases of sitting, walking and bicycling. The temperature difference between ambient and cooling temperature was required to be 4-5 degrees Celsius for thermal comfort. (author)

  19. Onderzoeksrapportage duurzaam koelen : EOS Renewable Cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeze, J.; Sluis, van der S.; Wissink, E.

    2010-01-01

    For reducing energy use for cooling, alternative methods (that do not rely on electricity) are needed. Renewable cooling is based on naturally available resources such as evaporative cooling, free cooling, phase change materials, ground subcooling, solar cooling, wind cooling, night radiation &

  20. Renal vascular changes in renal disease independent of hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, W. J.; Demircan, M. M.; Weening, J. J.; Krediet, R. T.; van der Wal, A. C.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is common in patients with renal disease, but little is known about the effect of renal disease and loss of renal function on vascular morphology. Intima proliferation of small renal arteries, which correlates with atherosclerosis in the aorta, is sometimes

  1. Renal replacement therapy after cardiac surgery; renal function recovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinthorsdottir, Kristin Julia; Kandler, Kristian; Agerlin Windeløv, Nis

    2013-01-01

    To assess renal outcome in patients discharged from hospital following cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) with need for renal replacement therapy.......To assess renal outcome in patients discharged from hospital following cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) with need for renal replacement therapy....

  2. PRELIMINARYANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT COOLING SYSTEMS OF SOWS IN FARROWING ROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Barbari

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary evaluation of different cooling systems for farrowing - lactating sows was conducted in a pig farm in the North of Italy. In an experimental farrowing room 16 crates were used to study different cooling solutions during three cycles of observations. The evaluated systems were: drip cooling (five crates, drip and snout cooling (six crates, drip cooling and a full steel sheet placed under the body of the sow (five crates. Rectal and skin temperatures were measured during hot hours of the day. Fat thickness was measured and body condition score of the sows was estimated at the beginning and at the end of the lactating period. A closed-circuit television system was also installed to collect information about the behaviour of the sows cooled with the drip system or with both drip and snout cooling system. While differences concerning body and skin temperatures as well as BCS and fat thickness were not significant, the behavioural patterns showed how the sows appreciated the contemporaneous use of the drip and snout cooling methods. The sows preferred to lie with the snout towards the air outlet especially during the hottest hours of the day. In order to obtain the best thermal conditions inside the farrowing crate, the drip system had to be coupled with the snout cooling system and the full metal floor placed under the head of the sows. Further studies are necessary to confirm the preliminary obtained results.

  3. Renal function recovery in end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichette, V; Quérin, S; Desmeules, M; Ethier, J; Copleston, P

    1993-09-01

    Renal function recovery (RFR) is a rare event in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although some predictive factors have been described, there are still unresolved questions. We have analyzed the Canadian Organ Replacement Register data for the 1981 to 1989 period to assess the incidence and factors predictive of RFR in a large ESRD population as well as the outcome after recovery. Renal function recovery was defined as the interruption of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for more than 3 months. Patients on RRT for < or = 45 days were excluded. Of 14,318 registered ESRD patients, 342 (2.4%) experienced RFR after 8.9 +/- 0.5 months of RRT (mean +/- SEM); 52.3% of the recoveries occurred within 6 months of initiating RRT, while 23.7% were only observed after 12 months or more. By Cox regression, patients within the following diagnostic groups had a significantly higher rate of RFR than those with primary glomerulonephritis, who are considered to comprise the reference group: myeloma (relative rate [RR] = 6.00; P < 0.001), drug-induced disease (RR = 4.21; P < 0.001), vascular/hypertensive disease (RR = 2.60; P < 0.001), and systemic disease (RR = 2.58; P < 0.001). Inversely, patients with polycystic kidneys (RR = 0.06; P = 0.004) and diabetic patients (RR = 0.56; P = 0.024) had a lower rate of RFR than those with glomerulonephritis. Men younger than 45 years had a lower rate of RFR than older men and women of all ages (P < or = 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Renal Preservation Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichun Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal preservation therapy has been a promising concept for the treatment of localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC for 20 years. Nowadays partial nephrectomy (PN is well accepted to treat the localized RCC and the oncological control is proved to be the same as the radical nephrectomy (RN. Under the result of well oncological control, minimal invasive method gains more popularity than the open PN, like laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN and robot assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN. On the other hand, thermoablative therapy and cryoablation also play an important role in the renal preservation therapy to improve the patient procedural tolerance. Novel modalities, but limited to small number of patients, include high-intensity ultrasound (HIFU, radiosurgery, microwave therapy (MWT, laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT, and pulsed cavitational ultrasound (PCU. Although initial results are encouraging, their real clinical roles are still under evaluation. On the other hand, active surveillance (AS has also been advocated by some for patients who are unfit for surgery. It is reasonable to choose the best therapeutic method among varieties of treatment modalities according to patients' age, physical status, and financial aid to maximize the treatment effect among cancer control, patient morbidity, and preservation of renal function.

  5. The rise, fall, and possible resurrection of renal denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Rajiv; Raphael, Claire E; Negoita, Manuela; Pocock, Stuart J; Gersh, Bernard J

    2016-04-01

    Renal denervation has a chequered history. Dramatic reductions in blood pressure after denervation of the renal arteries were observed in early trials, but later trials in which denervation was tested against a sham procedure produced neutral results. Although a sound pathophysiological basis exists for interruption of the renal sympathetic nervous system as a treatment for hypertension, trial data to date are insufficient to support renal denervation as an established clinical therapy. In this Perspectives article, we summarize the currently available trial data, device development, and trials in progress, and provide recommendations for future trial design.

  6. Third Prize: Comparison of radical nephrectomy, laparoscopic microwave thermotherapy, cryotherapy, and radiofrequency ablation for destruction of experimental VX-2 renal tumors in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichel, Louis; Kim, Issac Y; Uribe, Carlos; Khonsari, Sephir; Basillote, Jay; Steward, Earl; Coad, James; Bischof, John; Rudie, Eric; Kluge, Stan; McDougall, Elspeth M; Clayman, Ralph V

    2005-11-01

    Currently available minimally invasive renal tumor-ablation procedures include cryotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, and microwave thermotherapy. In this study, we investigated the ability of these three approaches to destroy experimental renal tumors in rabbits. The mechanism of potential tumor metastasis was also explored. The VX-2 tumor line is an aggressive rabbit epidermoid tumor with a high metastatic potential. An initial experiment comparing cooled-tip microwave thermotherapy with cryotherapy and radical nephrectomy for treatment of small VX-2 tumors revealed that all microwave-treated rabbits had local recurrence and that several also had diffuse intraperitoneal carcinomatosis. In view of these results, a second experiment was performed in which 45 New Zealand White rabbits were implanted laparoscopically with VX-2 xenografts underneath the kidney capsule and divided into five groups of 9 each. The test groups were microwave thermotherapy with a 3.5-mm cooled-tip probe, microwave thermotherapy with a 3.5-mm noncooled- tip probe, radiofrequency ablation with a 1.5-mm cooled-tip probe, radiofrequency ablation with a 1.5- mm non-cooled tip probe, and cryotherapy with a 2.3-mm cryoprobe. The control groups were five rabbits that were not treated, five rabbits with tumors that had the tumor pierced with a probe but were untreated, and five rabbits that underwent nephrectomy after piercing of the tumor. Treatment was initiated 5 days after tumor implantation. One month later, all animals were euthanized and autopsied. At 5 days after tumor implantation, laparoscopic inspection revealed no visible peritoneal metastases. At 1 month, in the cooled and non-cooled microwave-thermotherapy groups, carcinomatosis occurred in five and six of nine animals, respectively. In comparison, carcinomatosis was detected in two of nine animals in the cryotherapy group at autopsy. With respect to cooled and non-cooled radiofrequency ablation, carcinomatosis was observed in four of

  7. Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Vijaykumar Wader

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma is the most common neoplasm of the kidney comprised of different histological variants. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC mainly diagnosed in the sixth decade of life. It is important to identify this entity because it has significantly better prognosis than the clear cell (conventional and papillary renal cell carcinomas. The chromophobe renal cell carcinoma should be differentiated from oncocytoma and clear cell carcinoma. We report a case of a 70 year-old male who presented with a six month history of hematuria, left sided flank pain and a palpable non-tender lump in the left lumbar region. On radiology, the possibility of a left renal neoplasm was raised. A left radical nephrectomy was done and histopathological diagnosis of Type 2 (mixed chromophobe renal cell carcinoma was given. We present this case owing to its relative rarity of incidence, difficulties encountered and differential diagnoses to be considered during diagnosis as the prognosis and management protocols differ with different variants.

  8. Perioperative acute renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahon, Padraig

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent biochemical evidence increasingly implicates inflammatory mechanisms as precipitants of acute renal failure. In this review, we detail some of these pathways together with potential new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears to be a sensitive, specific and reliable biomarker of renal injury, which may be predictive of renal outcome in the perioperative setting. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C is superior to creatinine. No drug is definitively effective at preventing postoperative renal failure. Clinical trials of fenoldopam and atrial natriuretic peptide are, at best, equivocal. As with pharmacological preconditioning of the heart, volatile anaesthetic agents appear to offer a protective effect to the subsequently ischaemic kidney. SUMMARY: Although a greatly improved understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure has offered even more therapeutic targets, the maintenance of intravascular euvolaemia and perfusion pressure is most effective at preventing new postoperative acute renal failure. In the future, strategies targeting renal regeneration after injury will use bone marrow-derived stem cells and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1.

  9. Readmission for dehydration or renal failure after ileostomy creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Ian M; Solan, Patrick; Rafferty, Janice F; Ferguson, Martha A; Davis, Bradley R

    2013-08-01

    Ileostomy creation is a commonly performed operation in colorectal surgery; however, many patients develop complications such as dehydration postoperatively. Dehydration is often severe enough to warrant hospital readmission and may result in renal failure. The true incidence of this complication has not been well described. The aim of this study was to identify the rate of hospital readmission secondary to dehydration or renal failure within 30 days of ileostomy creation. Retrospective review of all patients undergoing ileostomy creation from 2007 to 2011 in a single colorectal practice of 4 surgeons was performed. Charts were reviewed to identify patients readmitted for dehydration or renal failure within 30 days of operation. Data were then analyzed to identify predictors of readmission, dehydration, and renal failure. Subset analysis compared patients readmitted with simple dehydration versus patients with renal failure. Two hundred one patients undergoing colorectal operations that included ileostomy creation within a 4-year period at a single institution for a variety of indications were included. The primary outcome measured was readmission for dehydration or renal failure. We observed a 17% 30-day readmission rate for dehydration or renal failure following ileostomy creation. Age greater than 50 was identified as an independent predictor of readmission with renal failure, whereas IPAA was predictive of readmission for simple dehydration, but not renal failure. Patients admitted with renal failure had significantly longer hospital stays and median hospital charges after readmission in comparison with patients admitted with simple dehydration. This study was limited by its retrospective nature and its limited sample size. Hospital readmission due to dehydration or renal failure following ileostomy creation is common, with age >50 being the strongest predictor for renal failure. Appropriate strategies to decrease dehydration and renal failure following

  10. Midterm renal functions following acute renal infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakir Ongun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore clinical features of renal infarction (RI that may have a role in diagnosis and treatment in our patient cohort and provide data on midterm renal functions. Medical records of patients with diagnosis of acute RI, established by contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT and at least 1 year follow-up data, who were hospitalized in our clinic between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed; including descriptive data, clinical signs and symptoms, etiologic factors, laboratory findings, and prescribed treatments. Patients with solitary infarct were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA only, whereas patients with atrial fibrillation (AF or multiple or global infarct were treated with anticoagulants. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR referring to renal functions was determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formula. Twenty-seven renal units of 23 patients with acute RI were identified. The mean age was 59.7 ± 15.7 years. Fourteen patients (60.8% with RI had atrial fibrillation (AF as an etiologic factor of which four had concomitant mesenteric ischemia at diagnosis. At presentation, 20 patients (86.9% had elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, 18 patients (78.2% had leukocytosis, and 16 patients (69.5% had microscopic hematuria. Two patients with concomitant mesenteric ischemia and AF passed away during follow up. Mean eGFR was 70.8 ± 23.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 at admission and increased to 82.3 ± 23.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 at 1 year follow up. RI should be considered in patients with persistent flank or abdominal pain, particularly if they are at high risk of thromboembolism. Antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant drugs are both effective treatment options according to the amplitude of the infarct for preserving kidney functions.

  11. Pregnancy in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouattar, T; Hakim, H; Rhou, H; Benamar, L; Bayahia, R; Ouzeddoun, N

    2009-06-01

    Renal transplantation with a well-functioning graft leads to a rapid restoration of endocrine and sexual functions. The aim of this study was to examine our experience with pregnancies among renal transplant patients, particularly with regard to their impact on graft function. We analyzed 10 pregnancies in 7 renal transplant recipients for long-term graft outcomes in terms of clinical and biological data. The mean patient age was 28.5 +/- 4 years. They all received a living donor kidney. The time between transplantation and the onset of pregnancy was 33.4 +/- 23.2 months. Regarding the immunosuppressive therapy, all patients received steroids and cyclosporine; 4 patients received in addition azathioprine and 2 received mycophenolate mofetil that was changed at 1 month before conception to azathioprine. There was no significant difference between the serum creatinine before and during pregnancy. We did not observe any acute rejection episode. Pregnancy complications were preclampsia in 1 case, hypertension in 1 case, urinary tract infection in 2 cases, and anemia in 80% of patients during the third trimester. Premature rupture of membranes occurred in 1 case and preterm delivery in 2 cases. Two cases of neonatal death were registered. Cesarean section was performed in 50% of cases. The follow-up revealed 2 cases of chronic rejection. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for pregnancy which generally occurs at 2 years after kidney transplantation.

  12. Longitudinal dynamics of laser-cooled fast ion beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidemüller, M.; Eike, B.; Eisenbarth, U.

    1999-01-01

    We present recent results of our experiments on laser cooling of fast stored ion beams at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring. The longitudinal motion of the ions is directly cooled by the light pressure force, whereas efficient transverse cooling is obtained indirectly by longitudinal-transverse co......We present recent results of our experiments on laser cooling of fast stored ion beams at the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring. The longitudinal motion of the ions is directly cooled by the light pressure force, whereas efficient transverse cooling is obtained indirectly by longitudinal......-transverse coupling mechanisms. Laser cooling in novel bunch forms consisting of square-well buckets leads to longitudinally space-charge dominated beams. The observed longitudinal ion density distributions can be well described by a self-consistent mean-field model based on a thermodynamic Debye-Huckel approach....... When applying laser cooling in square-well buckets over long time intervals, hard Coulomb collisions suddenly disappear and the longitudinal temperature drops by about a factor of three. The observed longitudinal behaviour of the beam shows strong resemblance with the transition to an Coulomb...

  13. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...... that perform well in the diagnosis of main renal artery stenosis may fall short when it comes to branch artery stenosis. We report 2 cases that illustrate these difficulties and show that a branch artery stenosis may be overlooked even by the gold standard method, renal angiography....

  14. Litiasis coraliforme renal izquierda

    OpenAIRE

    Polo Barzallo, Humberto; Vintimilla Carzola, María Paz

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El cálculo coraliforme se denomina de esta manera porque ocupan la mayor parte del sistema colector y se asemeja al coral marino, o a las astas de un venado. (1) Estos cálculos comprometen la función renal por un fenómeno obstructivo e infeccioso, patología que de no ser tratada efectivamente lleva al daño renal progresivo e irreversible. (2) Caso Clínico: Paciente de sexo masculino de 60 años de edad.Antecedentes: Litiasis Renal Izquierda con tratamiento quirúrgico a base...

  15. EFFECT OF COOLING RATES ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B eutectic prepared under various cooling rates had been investigated using differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was observed that for ...

  16. Multiple renal anomalies associated with encapsulated swellings of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current observation reports the occurrence of the left renal anomalies and encapsulated swellings involving the left sciatic nerve in a 47 years old male cadaver. Renal anomalies consisted of left double kidney, left bifid ureter and double arterial supply to the left kidney. The double kidney consisted of the two upper and ...

  17. Primary renal neoplasia of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jeffrey N; Henry, Carolyn J; Turnquist, Susan E; Tyler, Jeff W; Liptak, Julius M; Rizzo, Scott A; Sfiligoi, Gabriella; Steinberg, Steven J; Smith, Annette N; Jackson, Tarraca

    2006-01-01

    Primary renal tumors are diagnosed uncommonly in dogs. Signs and survival will differ among different categories of primary renal tumors. Data were collected from the medical records of 82 dogs with primary renal tumors diagnosed by examination of tissue obtained by ultrasound-guided biopsy, needle aspiration, surgery, or at postmortem examination. This was a multi-institutional, retrospective study. Forty-nine dogs had carcinomas, 28 had sarcomas, and 5 had nephroblastomas. The dogs were geriatric (mean 8.1 years; range: 1-17) with a weight of 24.9 kg (range: 4.5-80). Tumors occurred with equal frequency in each kidney with 4% occurring bilaterally. Initial signs included one or more of hematuria, inappetance, lethargy. weight loss, or a palpable abdominal mass. Pain was reported more frequently in dogs with sarcomas (5/28). The most common hematologic abnormalities were neutrophilia (22/63), anemia (21/64), and thrombocytopenia (6/68). Polycythemia was present in 3 dogs and resolved with treatment. Hematuria (28/49), pyuria (26/49), proteinuria (24/50), and isosthenuria (20/56) were the most frequently observed abnormalities on urinalysis. Pulmonary metastases were noted on thoracic radiographs in 16% of dogs at diagnosis. Seventy-seven percent of dogs had metastatic disease at the time of death. Median survival for dogs with carcinomas was 16 months (range 0-59 months), for dogs with sarcomas 9 months (range 0-70 months), and for dogs with nephroblastomas 6 months (range 0-6 months). Primary renal tumors in dogs are generally highly malignant with surgery being the only treatment that improves survival.

  18. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  19. Theory of tapered laser cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Hiromi; Wei, J.

    1998-03-25

    A theory of tapered laser cooling for fast circulating ion beams in a storage ring is constructed. The authors describe the fundamentals of this new cooling scheme, emphasizing that it might be the most promising way to beam crystallization. The cooling rates are analytically evaluated to study the ideal operating condition. They discuss the physical implication of the tapering factor of cooling laser, and show how to determine its optimum value. Molecular dynamics method is employed to demonstrate the validity of the present theory.

  20. ATLAS' major cooling project

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, a considerable effort has been put into commissioning the various units of ATLAS' complex cryogenic system. This is in preparation for the imminent cooling of some of the largest components of the detector in their final underground configuration. The liquid helium and nitrogen ATLAS refrigerators in USA 15. Cryogenics plays a vital role in operating massive detectors such as ATLAS. In many ways the liquefied argon, nitrogen and helium are the life-blood of the detector. ATLAS could not function without cryogens that will be constantly pumped via proximity systems to the superconducting magnets and subdetectors. In recent weeks compressors at the surface and underground refrigerators, dewars, pumps, linkages and all manner of other components related to the cryogenic system have been tested and commissioned. Fifty metres underground The helium and nitrogen refrigerators, installed inside the service cavern, are an important part of the ATLAS cryogenic system. Two independent helium refrigerators ...

  1. Magnetic entropy and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Some manifestations of magnetism are well-known and utilized on an everyday basis, e.g. using a refrigerator magnet for hanging that important note on the refrigerator door. Others are, so far, more exotic, such as cooling by making use of the magnetocaloric eect. This eect can cause a change...... in the temperature of a magnetic material when a magnetic eld is applied or removed. For many years, experimentalists have made use of dilute paramagnetic materials to achieve milliKelvin temperatures by use of the magnetocaloric eect. Also, research is done on materials, which might be used for hydrogen, helium...... the eect: the isothermal magnetic entropy change and the adiabatic temperature change. Some of the manifestations and utilizations of the MCE will be touched upon in a general way and nally I will talk about the results I have obtained on a sample of Gadolinium Iron Garnet (GdIG, Gd3Fe5O12), which...

  2. Film cooling for a closed loop cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2003-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. At least one film cooling hole is defined through a wall of at least one of the cavities for flow communication between an interior of the cavity and an exterior of the vane. The film cooling hole(s) are defined adjacent a potential low LCF life region, so that cooling medium that bleeds out through the film cooling hole(s) reduces a thermal gradient in a vicinity thereof, thereby the increase the LCF life of that region.

  3. COOL CORE CLUSTERS FROM COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasia, E.; Borgani, S.; Murante, G.; Planelles, S.; Biffi, V.; Granato, G. L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Beck, A. M.; Steinborn, L. K.; Dolag, K. [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Scheinerstr.1, D-81679 München (Germany); Ragone-Figueroa, C., E-mail: rasia@oats.inaf.it [Instituto de Astronomá Teórica y Experimental (IATE), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientiíficas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET), Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, X5000BGR, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2015-11-01

    We present results obtained from a set of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy clusters, aimed at comparing predictions with observational data on the diversity between cool-core (CC) and non-cool-core (NCC) clusters. Our simulations include the effects of stellar and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback and are based on an improved version of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GADGET-3, which ameliorates gas mixing and better captures gas-dynamical instabilities by including a suitable artificial thermal diffusion. In this Letter, we focus our analysis on the entropy profiles, the primary diagnostic we used to classify the degree of cool-coreness of clusters, and the iron profiles. In keeping with observations, our simulated clusters display a variety of behaviors in entropy profiles: they range from steadily decreasing profiles at small radii, characteristic of CC systems, to nearly flat core isentropic profiles, characteristic of NCC systems. Using observational criteria to distinguish between the two classes of objects, we find that they occur in similar proportions in both simulations and observations. Furthermore, we also find that simulated CC clusters have profiles of iron abundance that are steeper than those of NCC clusters, which is also in agreement with observational results. We show that the capability of our simulations to generate a realistic CC structure in the cluster population is due to AGN feedback and artificial thermal diffusion: their combined action allows us to naturally distribute the energy extracted from super-massive black holes and to compensate for the radiative losses of low-entropy gas with short cooling time residing in the cluster core.

  4. Hereditary Renal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Lakshmi; Jim, Belinda

    2017-07-01

    Hereditary kidney disease comprises approximately 10% of adults and nearly all children who require renal replacement therapy. Technologic advances have improved our ability to perform genetic diagnosis and enhanced our understanding of renal and syndromic diseases. In this article, we review the genetics of renal diseases, including common monogenic diseases such as polycystic kidney disease, Alport syndrome, and Fabry disease, as well as complex disorders such as congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. We provide the nephrologist with a general strategy to approach hereditary disorders, which includes a discussion of commonly used genetic tests, a guide to genetic counseling, and reproductive options such as prenatal diagnosis or pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for at-risk couples. Finally, we review pregnancy outcomes in certain renal diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney tumor - CT scan Kidney metastases, CT scan Kidney - blood and urine flow References Campbell SC, Lane BR. Malignant renal tumors. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, ...

  6. Primary renal synovial sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish D. Bakhshi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary Renal Sarcoma is rare tumor comprising only 1% of all renal tumours. Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors arising in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults and account for 5-10% of all soft tissue tumours. Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney is rare and has poor prognosis. It can only be diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. It should be considered as a differential in sarcomatoid and spindle cell tumours. We present a case of 33-year-old female, who underwent left sided radical nephrectomy for renal tumour. Histopathology and genetic analysis diagnosed it to be primary renal synovial sarcoma. Patient underwent radiation therapy and 2 years follow up is uneventful. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  7. Dopamins renale virkninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1990-01-01

    is frequently employed in cases of acute oliguric renal failure but the results available concerning the therapeutic effect are frequently retrospective and uncontrolled. The results suggest that early treatment with 1-3 micrograms/kg/min dopamine combined with furosemide can postpone or possibly render...... are possible not exclusively secondary to alterations in the renal haemodynamics but may also be due to specific tubular effects. Recent investigations have revealed that dopamine does not increase RBF and GFR in patients with chronic renal failure if GFR is less than 60 ml/minute. Dopamine in low doses......Dopamine is an endogenic catecholamine which, in addition to being the direct precursor of noradrenaline, has also an effect on peripheral dopaminergic receptors. These are localized mainly in the heart, splanchnic nerves and the kidneys. Dopamine is produced in the kidneys and the renal metabolism...

  8. Renal protection in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Tarnow, L; Rossing, P

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The combination of diabetes and hypertension increases the chances of progressive renal disorder and, ultimately, renal failure. Roughly 40% of all diabetics, whether insulin-dependent or not, develop diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is the single most important cause of end......-stage renal disease in the Western world and accounts for more than a quarter of all end-stage renal diseases. Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Increased arterial blood pressure is an early and common phenomenon in incipient and overt diabetic...... nephropathy. The relationship between arterial blood pressure and diabetic nephropathy is a complex one, with diabetic nephropathy increasing blood pressure and blood pressure accelerating the course of nephropathy. OVERVIEW: Calcium antagonists antagonize preglomerular vasoconstriction. Additional putative...

  9. Potential Use of Autologous Renal Cells from Diseased Kidneys for the Treatment of Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sunil K; Abolbashari, Mehran; Jackson, John D; Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs when certain conditions cause the kidneys to gradually lose function. For patients with CKD, renal transplantation is the only treatment option that restores kidney function. In this study, we evaluated primary renal cells obtained from diseased kidneys to determine whether their normal phenotypic and functional characteristics are retained, and could be used for cell therapy. Primary renal cells isolated from both normal kidneys (NK) and diseased kidneys (CKD) showed similar phenotypic characteristics and growth kinetics. The expression levels of renal tubular cell markers, Aquaporin-1 and E-Cadherin, and podocyte-specific markers, WT-1 and Nephrin, were similar in both NK and CKD kidney derived cells. Using fluorescence- activated cell sorting (FACS), specific renal cell populations were identified and included proximal tubular cells (83.1% from NK and 80.3% from CKD kidneys); distal tubular cells (11.03% from NK and 10.9% from CKD kidneys); and podocytes (1.91% from NK and 1.78% from CKD kidneys). Ultra-structural analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed microvilli on the apical surface of cultured cells from NK and CKD samples. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed a similar organization of tight junctions, desmosomes, and other intracellular structures. The Na+ uptake characteristics of NK and CKD derived renal cells were also similar (24.4 mmol/L and 25 mmol/L, respectively) and no significant differences were observed in the protein uptake and transport characteristics of these two cell isolates. These results show that primary renal cells derived from diseased kidneys such as CKD have similar structural and functional characteristics to their counterparts from a normal healthy kidney (NK) when grown in vitro. This study suggests that cells derived from diseased kidney may be used as an autologous cell source for renal cell therapy, particularly in patients with CKD or end

  10. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Aggravates Renal Injury through Cytokines and Direct Renal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhui Zhai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between renal injury and reinfection that is caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and to analyze the mechanism of renal injury. Rats were repeatedly infected with RSV on days 4, 8, 14, and 28, then sacrificed and examined on day 56 after the primary infection. Renal injury was examined by transmission electron microscopy and histopathology. The F protein of RSV was detected in the renal tissue by indirect immunofluorescence. Proteinuria and urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, serum levels of albumin, urea nitrogen, and creatinine, secretion of cytokines, T lymphocyte population and subsets, and dendritic cell (DC activation state were examined. The results showed that renal injury was more serious in the reinfection group than in the primary infection group. At a higher infection dose, 6×106 PFU, the renal injury was more severe, accompanied by higher levels of proteinuria and urinary GAGs excretion, and lower levels of serum albumin. Podocyte foot effacement was more extensive, and hyperplasia of mesangial cells and proliferation of mesangial matrix were observed. The maturation state of DCs was specific, compared with the primary infection. There was also a decrease in the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+T lymphocytes, due to an increase in the percentage of CD8+T lymphocytes and a decrease in the percentage of CD4+T lymphocytes, and a dramatic increase in the levels of IL-6 and IL-17. In terms of the different reinfection times, the day 14 reinfection group yielded the most serious renal injury and the most significant change in immune function. RSV F protein was still expressed in the glomeruli 56 days after RSV infection. Altogether, these results reveal that RSV infection could aggravate renal injury, which might be due to direct renal injury caused by RSV and the inflammatory lesions caused by the anti-virus response induced by RSV.

  11. OBSTETRIC RENAL FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Renal failure in obstetrics is rare but important complication, associated with significant mortality and long term morbidity.1,2 It includes acute renal failure due to obstetrical complications or due to deterioration of existing renal disease. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the etiology and outcome of renal failure in obstetric patients. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 30 pregnant and puerperal women with acute renal failure or pre-existing renal disease developing renal failure during pregnancy between November 2007 to sep-2009. Patients who presented/developed ARF during the hospital stay were included in this study. RESULTS: Among 30 patients, mean age was 23 years and 33 years age group. 12 cases (40% patients were primigravidae and 9(30% patients were multigravidae and 9 cases (30% presented in post-partum period. Eighteen cases (60% with ARF were seen in third trimester, followed by in postpartum period 9 cases (30%. Most common contributing factors to ARF were Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome 60%, sepsis 56.6%, post abortal ARF 10%. DIC 40%. Haemorrhage as the aetiology for ARF was present 46%, APH in 20% and PPH in 26.6%. The type of ARF was renal in (63% and prerenal (36%; Oliguric seen in 10 patients (33% and high mortality (30%. Among the 20 pregnant patients with ARF, The average period of gestation was 33±2 weeks (30 -36 weeks, 5 cases (25% presented with intrauterine fetal demise and 18 cases (66% had preterm vaginal delivery and 2 cases (10% had induced abortion. And the average birth weight was 2±0.5 kg (1.5 kg. Eight cases (26% required dialysis. 80% of patients recovered completely of renal functions. 63% patients recovered without renal replacement therapy whereas 17% required dialysis. the maternal mortality was 20%, the main reason for mortality was septic shock and multi organ dysfunction (66%. CONCLUSION: ARF related pregnancy was seen commonly in the primigravidae and in the third trimester, the most

  12. Exercise and Renal Function

    OpenAIRE

    Masato, SUZUKI; Japan Society of Exercise and Sports Physiology; Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Jikeidai University School of Medicine

    1996-01-01

    Research on renal function during exercise is very rare in the sports medicine area because it has no direct bearing on the performance of exercise. However, the kidneys play an important role in maintaining a constant internal state, which, when disturbed by exercise in a hot environment, is normalized by means of enhanced conservation of water and electrolytes by the kidneys. It is the purpose of this article to review the previous literature, to relate some of our findings on renal functio...

  13. Renal pathology in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Peernel

    2006-01-01

    The class of Reptilia varies widely. Both the gross morphology and microscopic anatomy of the kidneys are specific for each species. In each species of reptile, the physiology of the renal system has adapted to the specific conditions of life, including, among other factors, the type of food, environmental temperature, and the availability of water. The pathology of the kidneys in reptiles has been poorly studied, but in recent years a number of investigators have specifically studied reptilian renal pathology.

  14. Neonatal renal cystic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Anshika; Krishnappa, Vinod; Kumar, Deepak; Raina, Rupesh

    2017-08-02

    Neonatal renal cystic diseases have a great impact on the morbidity and mortality of the affected neonates and infants. A good insight into the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment options of various neonatal renal cystic diseases aid in early diagnosis and intervention, thereby preventing complications. PubMed search was done for articles on "neonatal renal cystic diseases" and relevant publications including reviews were considered for our article. Both hereditary and nonhereditary causes of cystic kidney diseases can result in severe morbidity and mortality. The main diagnostic modality is ultrasound imaging and most of the neonatal renal cystic diseases are detected during prenatal ultrasound screening. Commonly encountered neonatal renal cystic diseases are autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and multicystic dysplastic kidney. A thorough knowledge of various renal cystic diseases can be of extreme prognostic value. Physicians should be aware of the impact of early diagnosis and intervention on the lives of those affected. Further research about treatment of these diseases is ongoing and can result in breakthrough therapies for these patients.

  15. Hereditary Renal Cancer Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Naomi B.

    2013-01-01

    Inherited susceptibility to kidney cancer is a fascinating and complex topic. Our knowledge about types of genetic syndromes associated with an increased risk of disease is continually expanding. Currently, there are 10 syndromes associated with an increased risk of all types of renal cancer, which are reviewed herein. Clear cell renal cancer is associated with von Hippel Lindau disease, chromosome 3 translocations, PTEN hamartomatous syndrome and mutations in BAP1, as well as several of the genes encoding the proteins comprising the succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDHB/C/D). Type 1 papillary renal cancers arise in conjunction with germline mutations in MET and type 2 as part of Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (FH mutations). Chromophone and oncocytic renal cancers are predominantly associated with Birt Hogg Dubé syndrome. Angiomyolipomas are commonly and their malignant counterpart epitheliod angiomyolipomas rarely are found in patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. The targeted therapeutic options for the renal cancer associated with these diseases are just starting to expand, and are an area of active clinical research. PMID:24359990

  16. Targeting Strategies for Renal Cell Carcinoma: From Renal Cancer Cells to Renal Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zhi-xiang; Mo, Jingxin; Zhao, Guixian; Shu, Gang; Fu, Hua-Lin; Wei ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common form of urologic tumor that originates from the highly heterogeneous epithelium of renal tubules. Over the last decade, targeting therapies to renal cancer cells have transformed clinical care for RCC. Recently, it was proposed that renal cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from renal carcinomas were responsible for driving tumor growth and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, according to the theory of CSCs; this has provided the rati...

  17. Mechanisms for mass loss from cool stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M.

    1987-11-01

    The mechanisms believed responsible for the loss of mass from cool, red giant stars are reviewed. While observations indicate that both radiation pressure on dust grains and pulsations are important, theoretical considerations indicate that neither is sufficient by itself to account for the high rates of mass loss that have been observed. The current picture involves a two-step process wherein pulsations act to levitate matter well above the photosphere to the point at which the gas is sufficiently cool for dust grains to form. Radiation pressure on the dust then drives the matter to infinity. Whereas this model is applicable to spherically symmetric mass loss, the outflowing matter in many mass-losing systems displays a pronounced bipolarity, implying axial symmetry on the large scale. A secondary star appears to be responsible for the geometry of such systems. A new scenario involving two winds is presented to describe how the bipolar geometry might be produced. 91 references.

  18. Comparison of computed tomography findings between renal oncocytomas and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Hyeok; Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Joo Yong; Han, Woong Kyu; Rha, Koon Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon; Yoon, Young Eun

    2015-10-01

    To investigate and distinguish the computed tomography (CT) characteristics of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) and renal oncocytoma. Fifty-one patients with renal oncocytoma and 120 patients with chRCC, diagnosed by surgery between November 2005 and June 2015, were studied retrospectively. Two observers, who were urologists and unaware of the pathological results, reviewed the preoperative CT images. The tumors were evaluated for size, laterality, tumor type (ball or bean pattern), central stellate scar, segmental enhancement inversion, and angular interface pattern and tumor complexity. To accurately analyze the mass-enhancing pattern of renal mass, we measured Hounsfield units (HUs) in each phase and analyzed the mean, maximum, and minimum HU values and standard deviations. There were 51 renal oncocytomas and 120 chRCCs in the study cohort. No differences in clinical and demographic characteristics were observed between the two groups. A central stellate scar and segmental enhancement inversion were more likely in oncocytomas. However, there were no differences in ball-/bean-type categorization, enhancement pattern, and the shape of the interface between the groups. Higher HU values tended to be present in the corticomedullary and nephrogenic phases in oncocytomas than in chRCC. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the presence of a central stellate scar and higher mean HU values in the nephrogenic phase were highly predictive of renal oncocytoma (area under the curve=0.817, prenal oncocytomas from chRCCs.

  19. Comparison of computed tomography findings between renal oncocytomas and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Hyeok; Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Joo Yong; Han, Woong Kyu; Rha, Koon Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate and distinguish the computed tomography (CT) characteristics of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) and renal oncocytoma. Materials and Methods Fifty-one patients with renal oncocytoma and 120 patients with chRCC, diagnosed by surgery between November 2005 and June 2015, were studied retrospectively. Two observers, who were urologists and unaware of the pathological results, reviewed the preoperative CT images. The tumors were evaluated for size, laterality, tumor type (ball or bean pattern), central stellate scar, segmental enhancement inversion, and angular interface pattern and tumor complexity. To accurately analyze the mass-enhancing pattern of renal mass, we measured Hounsfield units (HUs) in each phase and analyzed the mean, maximum, and minimum HU values and standard deviations. Results There were 51 renal oncocytomas and 120 chRCCs in the study cohort. No differences in clinical and demographic characteristics were observed between the two groups. A central stellate scar and segmental enhancement inversion were more likely in oncocytomas. However, there were no differences in ball-/bean-type categorization, enhancement pattern, and the shape of the interface between the groups. Higher HU values tended to be present in the corticomedullary and nephrogenic phases in oncocytomas than in chRCC. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the presence of a central stellate scar and higher mean HU values in the nephrogenic phase were highly predictive of renal oncocytoma (area under the curve=0.817, prenal oncocytomas from chRCCs. PMID:26495070

  20. Be Cool, Man! / Jevgeni Levik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levik, Jevgeni

    2005-01-01

    Järg 1995. aasta kriminaalkomöödiale "Tooge jupats" ("Get Shorty") : mängufilm "Be Cool, Chili Palmer on tagasi!" ("Be Cool") : režissöör F. Gary Gray, peaosades J. Travolta ja U. Thurman : USA 2005. Lisatud J. Travolta ja U. Thurmani lühiintervjuud

  1. Dialogues in the COOL Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, S.I.P.; Kroeze, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Options for the Long-term (COOL) Project is a participatory integrated assessment (PIA) comprising extensive dialogues at three levels: national, European and global. The objective of the COOL Project was to ‘develop strategic notions on how to achieve drastic reductions of greenhouse

  2. Quantitative data analysis to determine best food cooling practices in U.S. restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Donald W; Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Reimann, Dave; Koktavy, Nicole; Blade, Henry; Nicholas, David

    2015-04-01

    Data collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that improper cooling practices contributed to more than 500 foodborne illness outbreaks associated with restaurants or delis in the United States between 1998 and 2008. CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) personnel collected data in approximately 50 randomly selected restaurants in nine EHS-Net sites in 2009 to 2010 and measured the temperatures of cooling food at the beginning and the end of the observation period. Those beginning and ending points were used to estimate cooling rates. The most common cooling method was refrigeration, used in 48% of cooling steps. Other cooling methods included ice baths (19%), room-temperature cooling (17%), ice-wand cooling (7%), and adding ice or frozen food to the cooling food as an ingredient (2%). Sixty-five percent of cooling observations had an estimated cooling rate that was compliant with the 2009 Food and Drug Administration Food Code guideline (cooling to 41 °F [5 °C] in 6 h). Large cuts of meat and stews had the slowest overall estimated cooling rate, approximately equal to that specified in the Food Code guideline. Pasta and noodles were the fastest cooling foods, with a cooling time of just over 2 h. Foods not being actively monitored by food workers were more than twice as likely to cool more slowly than recommended in the Food Code guideline. Food stored at a depth greater than 7.6 cm (3 in.) was twice as likely to cool more slowly than specified in the Food Code guideline. Unventilated cooling foods were almost twice as likely to cool more slowly than specified in the Food Code guideline. Our data suggest that several best cooling practices can contribute to a proper cooling process. Inspectors unable to assess the full cooling process should consider assessing specific cooling practices as an alternative. Future research could validate our estimation method and study the effect of specific practices on the full

  3. Quantitative Data Analysis To Determine Best Food Cooling Practices in U.S. Restaurants†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Donald W.; Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Reimann, Dave; Koktavy, Nicole; Blade, Henry; Nicholas, David

    2017-01-01

    Data collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that improper cooling practices contributed to more than 500 foodborne illness outbreaks associated with restaurants or delis in the United States between 1998 and 2008. CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) personnel collected data in approximately 50 randomly selected restaurants in nine EHS-Net sites in 2009 to 2010 and measured the temperatures of cooling food at the beginning and the end of the observation period. Those beginning and ending points were used to estimate cooling rates. The most common cooling method was refrigeration, used in 48% of cooling steps. Other cooling methods included ice baths (19%), room-temperature cooling (17%), ice-wand cooling (7%), and adding ice or frozen food to the cooling food as an ingredient (2%). Sixty-five percent of cooling observations had an estimated cooling rate that was compliant with the 2009 Food and Drug Administration Food Code guideline (cooling to 41°F [5°C] in 6 h). Large cuts of meat and stews had the slowest overall estimated cooling rate, approximately equal to that specified in the Food Code guideline. Pasta and noodles were the fastest cooling foods, with a cooling time of just over 2 h. Foods not being actively monitored by food workers were more than twice as likely to cool more slowly than recommended in the Food Code guideline. Food stored at a depth greater than 7.6 cm (3 in.) was twice as likely to cool more slowly than specified in the Food Code guideline. Unventilated cooling foods were almost twice as likely to cool more slowly than specified in the Food Code guideline. Our data suggest that several best cooling practices can contribute to a proper cooling process. Inspectors unable to assess the full cooling process should consider assessing specific cooling practices as an alternative. Future research could validate our estimation method and study the effect of specific practices on the full

  4. Performance studies of a passively cooled mahal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, G.N. [Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies; Lugani, N. [Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies; Singh, A.K. [Development Alternatives, New Delhi (India); Garg, H.P. [Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    1995-09-01

    The design and performance of an ancient passively cooled mahal (building) have been presented. The mahal was generally used for pilgrims during their visit to the city of Banaras. Energy balance equations for different components, namely walls and roof, of a mahal have been used to evaluate the performance of the mahal in terms of an enclosed-room air temperature. It is observed that a reasonable thermal comfort temperature is achieved by ventilation using natural cold air through the windows. (orig.)

  5. Evaporative cooling for Holstein dairy cows under grazing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtorta, Silvia E.; Gallardo, Miriam R.

    . Twenty-four grazing Holstein cows in mid and late lactation were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: control and cooled. The trial was performed at the Experimental Dairy Unit, Rafaela Agricultural Experimental Station (INTA), Argentina. The objective was to evaluate the effects of sprinkler and fan cooling before milkings on milk production and composition. The effects of the cooling system on rectal temperature and respiration rate were also evaluated. Cooled cows showed higher milk production (1.04 l cow-1 day-1). The concentration and yield of milk fat and protein increased in response to cooling treatment. The cooling system also reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate. No effects were observed on body condition. It was concluded that evaporative cooling, which is efficient for housed animals, is also appropriate to improve yields and animal well-being under grazing systems. These results are impressive since the cooling system was utilized only before milkings, in a system where environmental control is very difficult to achieve. This trial was performed during a mild summer. The results would probably be magnified during hotter weather.

  6. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface....... To prevent wet discomfort, the T-shirt was made of a polyester material having a water-repellent silicon coating on the inner surface. The chest, front upper arms, and nape of the neck were adopted as the cooling areas of the human body. We conducted human subject experiments in an office with air...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  7. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  8. Tarp-Assisted Cooling as a Method of Whole-Body Cooling in Hyperthermic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yuri; Adams, William M; Belval, Luke N; Vandermark, Lesley W; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the efficacy of tarp-assisted cooling as a body cooling modality. Participants exercised on a motorized treadmill in hot conditions (ambient temperature 39.5°C [103.1°F], SD 3.1°C [5.58°F]; relative humidity 38.1% [SD 6.7%]) until they reached exercise-induced hyperthermia. After exercise, participants were cooled with either partial immersion using a tarp-assisted cooling method (water temperature 9.20°C [48.56°F], SD 2.81°C [5.06°F]) or passive cooling in a climatic chamber. There were no differences in exercise duration (mean difference=0.10 minutes; 95% CI -5.98 to 6.17 minutes or end exercise rectal temperature (mean difference=0.10°C [0.18°F]; 95% CI -0.05°C to 0.25°C [-0.09°F to 0.45°F] between tarp-assisted cooling (48.47 minutes [SD 8.27 minutes]; rectal temperature 39.73°C [103.51°F], SD 0.27°C [0.49°F]) and passive cooling (48.37 minutes [SD 7.10 minutes]; 39.63°C [103.33°F], SD 0.40°C [0.72°F]). Cooling time to rectal temperature 38.25°C (100.85°F) was significantly faster in tarp-assisted cooling (10.30 minutes [SD 1.33 minutes]) than passive cooling (42.78 [SD 5.87 minutes]). Cooling rates for tarp-assisted cooling and passive cooling were 0.17°C/min (0.31°F/min), SD 0.07°C/min (0.13°F/min) and 0.04°C/min (0.07°F/min), SD 0.01°C/min (0.02°F/min), respectively (mean difference=0.13°C [0.23°F]; 95% CI 0.09°C to 0.17°C [0.16°F to 0.31°F]. No sex differences were observed in tarp-assisted cooling rates (men 0.17°C/min [0.31°F/min], SD 0.07°C/min [0.13°F/min]; women 0.16°C/min [0.29°F/min], SD 0.07°C/min [0.13°F/min]; mean difference=0.02°C/min [0.04°F/min]; 95% CI -0.06°C/min to 0.10°C/min [-0.11°F/min to 0.18°F/min]). Women (0.04°C/min [0.07°F/min], SD 0.01°C/min [0.02°F/min]) had greater cooling rates than men (0.03°C/min [0.05°F/min], SD 0.01°C/min [0.02°F/min]) in passive cooling, with negligible clinical effect (mean difference=0.01°C/min [0.02°F/min]; 95% CI 0.001

  9. Film cooling air pocket in a closed loop cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael; Osgood, Sarah Jane; Bagepalli, Radhakrishna; Webbon, Waylon Willard; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending between them. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. To provide for air film cooing of select portions of the airfoil outer surface, at least one air pocket is defined on a wall of at least one of the cavities. Each air pocket is substantially closed with respect to the cooling medium in the cavity and cooling air pumped to the air pocket flows through outlet apertures in the wall of the airfoil to cool the same.

  10. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooling systems. 153.432 Section 153.432 Shipping COAST... Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling systems. (a) Each cargo cooling system must have an equivalent standby... cooling system. (b) Each tankship that has a cargo tank with a required cooling system must have a manual...

  11. Midterm renal functions following acute renal infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongun, Sakir; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demir, Omer; Cimen, Sertac; Aslan, Guven

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore clinical features of renal infarction (RI) that may have a role in diagnosis and treatment in our patient cohort and provide data on midterm renal functions. Medical records of patients with diagnosis of acute RI, established by contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) and at least 1 year follow-up data, who were hospitalized in our clinic between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed; including descriptive data, clinical signs and symptoms, etiologic factors, laboratory findings, and prescribed treatments. Patients with solitary infarct were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) only, whereas patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or multiple or global infarct were treated with anticoagulants. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) referring to renal functions was determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Twenty-seven renal units of 23 patients with acute RI were identified. The mean age was 59.7 ± 15.7 years. Fourteen patients (60.8%) with RI had atrial fibrillation (AF) as an etiologic factor of which four had concomitant mesenteric ischemia at diagnosis. At presentation, 20 patients (86.9%) had elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 18 patients (78.2%) had leukocytosis, and 16 patients (69.5%) had microscopic hematuria. Two patients with concomitant mesenteric ischemia and AF passed away during follow up. Mean eGFR was 70.8 ± 23.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at admission and increased to 82.3 ± 23.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 1 year follow up. RI should be considered in patients with persistent flank or abdominal pain, particularly if they are at high risk of thromboembolism. Antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant drugs are both effective treatment options according to the amplitude of the infarct for preserving kidney functions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  12. Value of renal cortical thickness as a predictor of renal function impairment in chronic renal disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Rafael Yamashita

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the presence of linear relationship between renal cortical thickness, bipolar length, and parenchymal thickness in chronic kidney disease patients presenting with different estimated glomerular filtration rates (GFRs and to assess the reproducibility of these measurements using ultrasonography. Materials and Methods: Ultrasonography was performed in 54 chronic renal failure patients. The scans were performed by two independent and blinded radiologists. The estimated GFR was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Interobserver agreement was calculated and a linear correlation coefficient (r was determined in order to establish the relationship between the different renal measurements and estimated GFR. Results: The correlation between GFR and measurements of renal cortical thickness, bipolar length, and parenchymal thickness was, respectively, moderate (r = 0.478; p < 0.001, poor (r = 0.380; p = 0.004, and poor (r = 0.277; p = 0.116. The interobserver agreement was considered excellent (0.754 for measurements of cortical thickness and bipolar length (0.833, and satisfactory for parenchymal thickness (0.523. Conclusion: The interobserver reproducibility for renal measurements obtained was good. A moderate correlation was observed between estimated GFR and cortical thickness, but bipolar length and parenchymal thickness were poorly correlated.

  13. Claudin-7 and claudin-8: immunohistochemical markers for the differential diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Cohen, Cynthia; Lawson, Diane; Picken, Maria M; Amin, Mahul B; Young, Andrew N

    2009-02-01

    Claudin-7 and claudin-8 code for tight junction proteins expressed in distal nephron epithelium. In a recent oligonucleotide microarray study, we identified claudin-7 and claudin-8 as candidate markers to distinguish chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from other renal tumors, including oncocytoma. Distinction of these lesions can be difficult by light microscopy but is clinically important because chromophobe renal cell carcinoma has malignant biological potential, whereas renal oncocytoma is benign. Claudin-7 and claudin-8 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in 11 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and 17 oncocytomas using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of tumor with adjacent nonneoplastic kidney. Steam antigen retrieval was performed before immunohistochemistry. Specificity was verified by negative control reactions without primary antibody and appropriate membranous staining patterns in positive control tissues (colon carcinoma and adjacent nonneoplastic kidney). Claudin-7 protein was expressed in a membranous pattern in 10 of 11 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and 4 of 17 oncocytomas (P oncocytoma, 11 of 17 cases showed cytoplasmic, 4 of 17 membranous, and 2 of 17 negative reactions. In chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, 0 of 11 cases showed cytoplasmic, 3 of 11 membranous, and 8 of 11 negative reactions (P renal cell carcinomas and 1 of 17 oncocytomas (63% sensitivity, 84% specificity, 88% positive predictive value for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma). Negative claudin-7 and cytoplasmic claudin-8 were observed in 10 of 17 oncocytomas and 0 of 11 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (59% sensitivity, 100% specificity and positive predictive value for oncocytoma). The distal nephron proteins claudin-7 and claudin-8 have potential use as immunohistochemical biomarkers in the differential diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma. Expression of claudin-7 and claudin-8 may reflect the relationship of chromophobe renal

  14. Monitoring Chandra Observations of the Quasi-persistent Neutron Star X-Ray Transient MXB 1659-29 in Quiescence: The Cooling Curve of the Heated Neutron Star Crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, R.A.D.; Homan, J.; Miller, J.M.; Lewin, W.H.G.

    2004-01-01

    We have observed the quasi-persistent neutron star X-ray transient and eclipsing binary MXB 1659-29 in quiescence on three occasions with Chandra. The purpose of our observations was to monitor the quiescent behavior of the source after its last prolonged (~2.5 yr) outburst that ended in 2001

  15. Microparticulate ICE slurry for renal hypothermia: laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in a porcine model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikanov, S; Wille, M; Large, M; Razmaria, A; Lifshitz, D; Chang, A; Wu, Y; Kasza, K; Shalhav, A (Nuclear Engineering Division); (University of Chicago Medical Center)

    2010-10-01

    Previously, we described the feasibility of renal hypothermia using microparticulate ice slurry during laparoscopy. In the present study, we compared surface cooling with the ice slurry versus near-frozen saline or warm ischemia (WI) during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in a porcine model. We used a single-kidney porcine model. Animals in 5 equal groups (n = 6 each) underwent right laparoscopic complete nephrectomy. In Phase I, left LPN was performed under 90 minutes of ischemia and 90-minute renal cooling with either slurry (Slurry group 1) or saline (Saline group 1). No cooling was applied in the WI group. In Phase II, to simulate more extreme condition, ischemia time was extended to 120 minutes and cooling shortened to 10 minutes (Slurry group 2 and Saline group 2). The study endpoints were renal and core temperature during the surgery and serum creatinine at baseline and days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after the procedure. The ice slurry was easily produced and delivered. Nadir renal temperature (mean {+-} SD) was 8 {+-} 4 C in Slurry group 1 vs. 22.5 {+-} 3 C in Saline group 1 (P < .0001). Renal rewarming to 30 C occurred after 61 {+-} 7 minutes in Slurry group 2 vs. 24 {+-} 6 minutes in Saline group 2 (P < .0001). Core temperature decreased on average to 35 C in the Saline groups compared with 37 C in the Slurry groups (P < .0001). Serum creatinine did not differ between the Saline and Slurry groups in Phases I and II at any time point. Ice slurry provides superior renal cooling compared with near-frozen saline during LPN without associated core hypothermia.

  16. Central cooling: absorptive chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-08-01

    This technology evaluation covers commercially available single-effect, lithium-bromide absorption chillers ranging in nominal cooling capacities of 3 to 1,660 tons and double-effect lithium-bromide chillers from 385 to 1,060 tons. The nominal COP measured at operating conditions of 12 psig input steam for the single-effect machine, 85/sup 0/ entering condenser water, and 44/sup 0/F exiting chilled-water, ranges from 0.6 to 0.65. The nominal COP for the double-effect machine varies from 1.0 to 1.15 with 144 psig entering steam. Data are provided to estimate absorption-chiller performance at off-nominal operating conditions. The part-load performance curves along with cost estimating functions help the system design engineer select absorption equipment for a particular application based on life-cycle costs. Several suggestions are offered which may be useful for interfacing an absorption chiller with the remaining Integrated Community Energy System. The ammonia-water absorption chillers are not considered to be readily available technology for ICES application; therefore, performance and cost data on them are not included in this evaluation.

  17. Immunosuppression in the elderly renal allograft recipient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Nuria; Pérez-Sáez, María José; Pascual, Julio

    2016-01-01

    strategies in elderly kidney recipients. Data extraction and risk of bias evaluation were systematically performed. RESULTS: Ten studies were included: 2 randomized clinical trials and 8 observational. A marginal benefit was found for early renal function with delayed tacrolimus or complete tacrolimus...

  18. Renal involvement in autoimmune connective tissue diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Kronbichler, Andreas; Mayer, Gert

    2013-01-01

    Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders that share certain clinical presentations and a disturbed immunoregulation, leading to autoantibody production. Subclinical or overt renal manifestations are frequently observed and complicate the clinical course of CTDs. Alterations of kidney function in Sj?gren syndrome, systemic scleroderma (SSc), auto-immune myopathies (dermatomyositis and polymyositis), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), antiphospholipid syndrome n...

  19. ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND RENAL DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Belyalov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ischemic heart disease (IHD with comorbid kidney dysfunction has more severe course and worse prognosis, regardless of the chosen therapeutic strategy for the treatment of coronary disease. Traits of diagnosis and treatment of IHD in patients with renal dysfunction, including end-stage kidney disease, are discussed. The analysis of the studies showed increasing difficulties in the diagnosis of IHD, and decrease in the effectiveness of drug and invasive treatment.Results of large randomized and observational studies can help to treat patients with IHD and comorbid renal dysfunction more effectively and safe. 

  20. Local thrombolysis in renal artery embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billmann, P.; Hoerl, W.H.; Hohnloser, S.

    1985-02-01

    Thrombo-embolic occlusions of the renal arteries are usually a result of co-existing cardiac disease, in most cases cardiac arrhythmias or ischaemic heart disease. Similar findings have been observed in mesenteric infarction and embolism into the lower extremities. The duration of ischeamia determines the prognosis. Surgical intervention has been the mainstay of previous therapy. However, the application of local thrombolysis, which is an extension of the diagnostic catheter studies, provides an alternative form of treatment. As in the case of peripheral artery disease, the choice of treatment can only be made in consultation with the surgeon. This report presents experience with the use of local thrombolysis of renal artery emboli.

  1. Idiopathic renal replacement lipomatosis: A rare renal pseudo tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailja P Wahal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal replacement lipomatosis (RRL is a rare condition that occurs as an end result of renal atrophy or destruction of renal parenchyma by excessive lipomatous tissue in renal sinus and perinephric space. We report a case of RRL presenting as a right renal mass clinically. Intra-venous pyelography and renal scan revealed a left non-functioning kidney. A left nephrectomy was performed. After histopathological examination and extensive literature search, a diagnosis of RRL was given. In majority of cases, it is associated with renal calculi. Idiopathic variety is not common. It is a rare entity and the diagnosis may be missed due to lack of experience. It has to be differentiated from other fat-containing tumors such as renal lipoma, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, angiomyolipoma and liposarcoma.

  2. Renal Infarction Caused by Isolated Spontaneous Renal Artery Intramural Hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sihyung; Lee, Ga Hee; Jin, Kyubok; Park, Kang Min; Kim, Yang Wook; Park, Bong Soo

    2015-11-24

    Acute renal infarction is an uncommon condition resulting from an obstruction or a decrease in renal arterial blood flow. Isolated spontaneous renal artery intramural hematoma is a rare cause of renal infarction. A 46-year-old healthy man presented to our emergency room because of sudden onset of severe right flank pain. An enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan showed a low-attenuated lesion in the lateral portion of the right kidney but no visible thromboembolisms in the main vessels. Computed tomography angiography revealed acute infarction resulting from intramural hematoma of the anterior segmental artery of the right kidney, with distal occlusion. The rarity and non-specific clinical presentation of renal infarction often lead to a delayed diagnosis that may result in impaired renal function. Clinical suspicion is important in the early diagnosis, and intramural hematoma of the renal artery should be considered the cause of renal infarction even in healthy patients without predisposing factors.

  3. Renal involvement in autoimmune connective tissue diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronbichler, Andreas; Mayer, Gert

    2013-04-04

    Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders that share certain clinical presentations and a disturbed immunoregulation, leading to autoantibody production. Subclinical or overt renal manifestations are frequently observed and complicate the clinical course of CTDs. Alterations of kidney function in Sjögren syndrome, systemic scleroderma (SSc), auto-immune myopathies (dermatomyositis and polymyositis), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), antiphospholipid syndrome nephropathy (APSN) as well as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are frequently present and physicians should be aware of that.In SLE, renal prognosis significantly improved based on specific classification and treatment strategies adjusted to kidney biopsy findings. Patients with scleroderma renal crisis (SRC), which is usually characterized by severe hypertension, progressive decline of renal function and thrombotic microangiopathy, show a significant benefit of early angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use in particular and strict blood pressure control in general. Treatment of the underlying autoimmune disorder or discontinuation of specific therapeutic agents improves kidney function in most patients with Sjögren syndrome, auto-immune myopathies, APSN and RA.In this review we focus on impairment of renal function in relation to underlying disease or adverse drug effects and implications on treatment decisions.

  4. Reversing cooling flows with AGN jets: shock waves, rarefaction waves and trailing outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fulai; Duan, Xiaodong; Yuan, Ye-Fei

    2018-01-01

    The cooling flow problem is one of the central problems in galaxy clusters, and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback is considered to play a key role in offsetting cooling. However, how AGN jets heat and suppress cooling flows remains highly debated. Using an idealized simulation of a cool-core cluster, we study the development of central cooling catastrophe and how a subsequent powerful AGN jet event averts cooling flows, with a focus on complex gasdynamical processes involved. We find that the jet drives a bow shock, which reverses cooling inflows and overheats inner cool-core regions. The shocked gas moves outward in a rarefaction wave, which rarefies the dense core and adiabatically transports a significant fraction of heated energy to outer regions. As the rarefaction wave propagates away, inflows resume in the cluster core, but a trailing outflow is uplifted by the AGN bubble, preventing gas accumulation and catastrophic cooling in central regions. Inflows and trailing outflows constitute meridional circulations in the cluster core. At later times, trailing outflows fall back to the cluster centre, triggering central cooling catastrophe and potentially a new generation of AGN feedback. We thus envisage a picture of cool cluster cores going through cycles of cooling-induced contraction and AGN-induced expansion. This picture naturally predicts an anti-correlation between the gas fraction (or X-ray luminosity) of cool cores and the central gas entropy, which may be tested by X-ray observations.

  5. Renal and sympathoadrenal responses in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Drummer, C; Norsk, P

    2001-01-01

    According to a classic hypothesis, weightlessness should promote the renal excretion rate of sodium and water and lead to a fluid- and electrolyte-depleted state. This hypothesis is based on experiments in which weightlessness has been simulated in humans by head-down bed rest and water immersion....... However, after 5 to 6 days of space mission, the diuretic and natriuretic responses to an intravenous isotonic saline load were attenuated and plasma norepinephrine and renin concentrations increased compared with those of the acute supine position before flight. Renal fluid excretion after an oral water...... load was also attenuated in space. Similar decreases were not observed during head-down bed rest. Sympathetic activity is of major importance in regulating blood volume and renal function. Studies in space have indicated that, compared with that while in a supine position on Earth, sympathoadrenal...

  6. Renal stem cells: fact or science fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCampbell, Kristen K; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2012-06-01

    The kidney is widely regarded as an organ without regenerative abilities. However, in recent years this dogma has been challenged on the basis of observations of kidney recovery following acute injury, and the identification of renal populations that demonstrate stem cell characteristics in various species. It is currently speculated that the human kidney can regenerate in some contexts, but the mechanisms of renal regeneration remain poorly understood. Numerous controversies surround the potency, behaviour and origins of the cell types that are proposed to perform kidney regeneration. The present review explores the current understanding of renal stem cells and kidney regeneration events, and examines the future challenges in using these insights to create new clinical treatments for kidney disease.

  7. High serum enalaprilat in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, T; Heisterberg, J; Kamper, A L

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and their metabolites are excreted renally and doses should hence be reduced in renal insufficiency. We studied whether the dosage of enalapril in daily clinical practice is associated with drug accumulation of enalaprilat in chronic...... was 10 (2.5-20) mg and the trough serum concentration of enalaprilat was 31.8 (concentrations of enalaprilat than has been reported in subjects with normal kidney function, and a marked elevation of serum enalaprilat was observed......-68) ml/minute and correlated linearly with GFR (r=0.86, p=0.003). Intra-subject day-to-day variation in trough concentrations was 19.7%. CONCLUSION: Patients with chronic renal failure given small or moderately high doses of enalapril may thus have markedly elevated levels of serum enalaprilat. Whether...

  8. Cryoablation of Renal Angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makki, Ahmad; Graumann, Ole; Hoyer, Soren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small series have reported that cryoablation (CA) is a safe and feasible minimally invasive nephron-sparing alternative for the treatment of renal angiomyolipomas (renal AMLs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of CA in patients with renal AML....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 19 renal AML lesions treated with CA at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, over a 5-year period. RESULTS: The treatment was performed as laparoscopy-assisted CA on 7 lesions, and in the remaining 12 lesions CA was performed as a percutaneous ultrasound...... 13). Mean maximum tumor volume was reduced from 50.1 cm(3) (IQR 53.3) to 12.2 cm(3) (IQR 14.1), p = 0.05. No patients presented with retroperitoneal hemorrhage or recurrence during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Treating renal AMLs with CA appears to be a safe and effective nephron-sparing approach and could...

  9. Giant renal oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Nebojsa; Ignjatovic, Ivan; Kostov, Milos; Mijović, Zaklina; Zivković, Sladjana; Kosević, Branko

    2013-01-01

    Renal onkocytoma is a distinctive benign tumor derived from epithelial cells of the distal renal tubules. These tumors are often clinically asymptomatic, diagnosed accidentally and difficult to distinguish from renal cell carcinoma. We presented a giant renal onkocytoma in a man aged 64, without any signs or symptoms of the urogenital system disorder. The preoperative diagnosis described the tumor mass of the right kidney, size 16 x 14 cm, and indicated a malignant tumor of kidney. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy. The tumor was encapsulated at the intersection with the characteristic central hyaline scar. Microscopically, it was built of uniform polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohystochemiclly, tumor cells were immunoreactive to CK AE1/AE3 and CD 117, but showed negative immunoreactivity to CK 7, RCC marker and Vimentin. Giant renal oncocytomas are rare tumors with benign clinical course. As a rule, they are discovered by accident. Clinical differentiation from malignant tumors of the kidney is not possible. They are treated surgically, mainly by radical nephrectomy. A definitive diagnosis is made only by histopathological examination of tumors using immunohistochemical marker panels.

  10. Giant renal oncocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Nebojša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Renal onkocytoma is a distinctive benign tumor derived from epithelial cells of the distal renal tubules. These tumors are often clinically asymptomatic, diagnosed accidentally and difficult to distinguish from renal cell carcinoma. Case report. We presented a giant renal onkocytoma in a man aged 64, without any signs or symptoms of the urogenital system disorder. The preoperative diagnosis described the tumor mass of the right kidney, size 16 x 14 cm, and indicated a malignant tumor of kidney. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy. The tumor was encapsulated at the intersection with the characteristic central hyaline scar. Microscopically, it was built of uniform polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohystochemiclly, tumor cells were immunoreactive to CK AE1/AE3 and CD 117, but showed negative immunoreactivity to CK 7, RCC marker and Vimentin. Conclusion. Giant renal oncocytomas are rare tumors with benign clinical course. As a rule, they are discovered by accident. Clinical differentiation from malignant tumors of the kidney is not possible. They are treated surgically, mainly by radical nephrectomy. A definitive diagnosis is made only by histopathological examination of tumors using immunohistochemical marker panels.

  11. [The focal renal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Jan

    2013-06-05

    The focal renal lesions are altogether common. Most frequently are found Columna Bertini hypertrophies (so called pseudotumors) and simple renal cysts. The role of sonography in the practice is to distinguish pseudotumors from real renal tumors, and simple renal cysts from complex cysts. The differentiation of complex renal cysts is possible with the help of the CEUS (= contrast enhanced ultrasound) and other imaging modalities such as CT or MRI. In these cases, the CEUS imaging agent has clear advantages over CT and MRI, because it is composed of gas bubbles, which are only slightly smaller than red blood cells and remains exclusively intravascularly while the CT and MRI contrast agents diffuse into the interstitial space without any real perfusion. The real tumors can be differentiated from certain focal non-tumorous changes based on the ultrasound and clinic. The further differentiation of individual kidney tumors and metastases using ultrasound, MRI, CT and CEUS is only partly possible. In all uncertain or unclear cases, therefore, an open or ultrasound-guided biopsy is useful.

  12. Measurements of Beam Cooling in Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohayai, Tanaz; Snopok, Pavel; Rogers, Chris; Neuffer, David; Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Cooled muon beams are essential for production of high-flux neutrino beams at the Neutrino Factory and high luminosity muon beams at the Muon Collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment, MICE aims to demonstrate muon beam cooling through ionization energy loss of muons in material. The standard figure of merit for cooling in MICE is the transverse RMS emittance reduction and to measure this, the individual muon positions and momenta are reconstructed using scintillating-fiber tracking detectors, before and after a low-Z absorbing material. In this study, in addition to a preview on the standard measurement technique, an alternative technique is described, which is the measurement of phase-space density using the novel Kernel Density Estimation method. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE - AC05 - 06OR23100.

  13. CLIC inner detectors cooling simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Ramos, F.; Villarejo Bermudez, M.

    2014-01-01

    The strict requirements in terms of material budget for the inner region of the CLIC detector concepts require the use of a dry gas for the cooling of the respective sen- sors. This, in conjunction with the compactness of the inner volumes, poses several challenges for the design of a cooling system that is able to fulfil the required detec- tor specifications. This note introduces a detector cooling strategy using dry air as a coolant and shows the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations used to validate the proposed strategy.

  14. CO$_2$ cooling experience (LHCb)

    CERN Document Server

    Van Lysebetten, Ann; Verlaat, Bart

    2007-01-01

    The thermal control system of the LHCb VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a two-phase C0$_2$ cooling system based on the 2-Phase Accumulator Controlled Loop (2PACL) method. Liquid carbon dioxide is mechanically pumped in a closed loop, chilled by a water-cooled freon chiller and evaporated in the VELO detector. The main goal of the system is the permanent cooling of the VELO silicon sensors and of the heat producing front-end electronics inside a vacuum environment. This paper describes the design and the performance of the system. First results obtained during commissioning are also presented.

  15. Sympathetic Cooling of Quantum Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Meghana; Weimer, Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    We discuss the possibility of maximizing the cooling of a quantum simulator by controlling the system-environment coupling such that the system is driven into the ground state. We make use of various analytical tools such as effective operator formalism and the quantum master equations to exactly solve the model of an Ising spin chain consisting of N particles coupled to a radiation field. We maximize the cooling by finding the dependence of the effective rate of transitions of the various excited states into the ground state. We show that by adding a single dissipative qubit, we already get quite substantial cooling rates. Volkswagen Foundation, DFG.

  16. Cooling towers principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G B; Osborn, Peter D

    1990-01-01

    Cooling Towers: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the theory and practice, so that installations are correctly designed and operated. As with all branches of engineering, new technology calls for a level of technical knowledge which becomes progressively higher; this new edition seeks to ensure that the principles and practice of cooling towers are set against a background of up-to-date technology. The book is organized into three sections. Section A on cooling tower practice covers topics such as the design and operation of c

  17. Co-existence of chronic renal failure, renal clear cell carcinoma, and Blau syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Ipek; Ozguven, Aykan; Canda, Ebru; Yilmaz, Omer; Nese, Nalan; Ozkol, Mine; May, Sandra; Franke, Andre; Cirak, Sebahattin

    2010-05-01

    Blau syndrome is a rare, multisystem, autosomal-dominant, and granulomatous disorder caused by susceptibility variants in the NOD2 gene. We describe here a 14-year-old girl with Blau syndrome with incidentally diagnosed renal carcinoma. The index case presented with growth retardation and recurrent symmetric arthritis. Her clinical symptoms included bilateral cataract due to recurrent uveitis, camptodactyly, and persistent erythematous rash with ichthyosis. Her two sisters and her mother were affected with combinations of these conditions-symmetric polyarthritis, uveitis, and skin involvement-suggesting an autosomal dominant trait. The index case developed a chronic renal insufficiency, and an abdominal computerized tomography scan revealed a 2.5-cm mass in the left kidney. The histopathological examination showed renal clear cell carcinoma, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis,and giant cell granulomas in both the tumor and nonneoplastic renal tissue. Granulomatous inflammation was observed in the skin biopsy specimen. The patient was diagnosed with Blau syndrome based on her family history, uveitis, granulomatous inflammation proved by skin biopsy, and polyarthritis. Sequencing of the NOD2 gene showed a heterozygous p.R334Q mutation in all affected family members. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient with Blau syndrome accompanied by chronic renal failure and renal carcinoma.

  18. Renal primordia activate kidney regenerative events in a rat model of progressive renal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Imberti

    Full Text Available New intervention tools for severely damaged kidneys are in great demand to provide patients with a valid alternative to whole organ replacement. For repairing or replacing injured tissues, emerging approaches focus on using stem and progenitor cells. Embryonic kidneys represent an interesting option because, when transplanted to sites such as the renal capsule of healthy animals, they originate new renal structures. Here, we studied whether metanephroi possess developmental capacity when transplanted under the kidney capsule of MWF male rats, a model of spontaneous nephropathy. We found that six weeks post-transplantation, renal primordia developed glomeruli and tubuli able to filter blood and to produce urine in cyst-like structures. Newly developed metanephroi were able to initiate a regenerative-like process in host renal tissues adjacent to the graft in MWF male rats as indicated by an increase in cell proliferation and vascular density, accompanied by mRNA and protein upregulation of VEGF, FGF2, HGF, IGF-1 and Pax-2. The expression of SMP30 and NCAM was induced in tubular cells. Oxidative stress and apoptosis markedly decreased. Our study shows that embryonic kidneys generate functional nephrons when transplanted into animals with severe renal disease and at the same time activate events at least partly mimicking those observed in kidney tissues during renal regeneration.

  19. Optimization of renal transfection using a renal suction-mediated transfection method in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yota; Kawakami, Shigeru; Fuchigami, Yuki; Oyama, Natsuko; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Konishi, Satoshi; Shimizu, Kazunori; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    We previously developed a suction-mediated transfection method in mice. The purpose of this study was to optimize the suction-mediated transfection conditions using a pressure-controlled computer system for efficient and safe kidney-targeted gene delivery in mice. Naked pCMV-Luc was injected into the tail vein in mice, and then the right kidney was suctioned by a device of the suction pressure-controlled system. The effects of renal transfection conditions, such as the suction pressure degree, suction pressure waveform and device area were evaluated by measuring luciferase expression. In addition, renal injury was examined. The renal suction-mediated transfection method at -30 kPa showed high transgene expression. The renal suction waveform did not affect the transfection activity. Under the optimized conditions, the high transgene expression was mostly observed at the renal suctioned site. The transfection conditions used did not induce histological defects or increases in two renal injury biomarkers (Kidney injury molecule-1 mRNA and Clusterin mRNA). We have clarified the transfection conditions for efficient and safe transfection in the kidney using the suction-mediated transfection method in mice.

  20. Flexible ureteroscopy for renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, M; Amón, J H; Mainez, J A; Rodríguez, V; Alonso, D; Martínez-Sagarra, J M

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this prospective study are to present our experience with retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), and to analyze its results and complications. 150 patients with renal stones were treated with RIRS. 111 cases showed single stones whilst multiple stones were observed in 39 cases. The mean size was 19.12mm (r: 5-74). Success rate was defined as the absence of residual stones or the presence of fragments ≤2mm. in 21 (14%) patients RIRS could not be performed on first attempt because it was impossible to place the ureteral access sheath. The immediate success rate was 85.7%, and 91.6% at three months later. The average operating time was 85min (r: 25-220). Postoperative complications were observed in 22 cases (14.6%), although most of them were classified as Clavien 1 and 2 (19 cases), and only 2% (3 cases) showed Clavien 4 complications (sepsis requiring admission in the intensive care unit). 10 patients underwent a second procedure in order to complete the treatment. Thus, the number of procedures per patient was 1.06. There were no late complications. the treatment of renal stones with flexible ureteroscopy using the ureteral access sheath shows a high successful rate with a low complication rate. In order to define its indication more precisely, randomized studies comparing RIRS with minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures (miniperc and microperc) would be necessary. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of Mass Profiles and Cooling Flows of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies AO2, AO3 and Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters AO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Raymond E., III

    1998-01-01

    This final report uses ROSAT observations to analyze two different studies. These studies are: Analysis of Mass Profiles and Cooling Flows of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies; and Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters.

  2. Renal sympathetic denervation: MDCT evaluation of the renal arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Barry D

    2013-08-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal sympathetic denervation is a new treatment of refractory systemic hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of MDCT to evaluate the anatomic configuration of the renal arteries in the context of renal sympathetic denervation.

  3. A cooling vest for working comfortably in a moderately hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Naoe; Tanabe, Shin-ichi; Hayama, Hirofumi; Komatsu, Masayoshi

    2002-01-01

    To alleviate worker's thermal discomfort in a moderately hot environment, a new cooling vest was designed and proposed in this paper. To investigate the effect of the cooling vest and to collect the knowledge for the design of comfortable cooling vest, subjective experiments were conducted. Two kinds of cooling vests, the new one and the commercially available one, were used for comparison. The new cooling vest had more insulation and its surface temperature was higher than the commercially available one. Experiments were performed in the climatic chamber where operative temperature was controlled at 30.2 degrees C and relative humidity was at 37% under still air. In addition, experiment without cooling vest was carried out as a control condition. The results obtained in these experiments were as follow: 1) By wearing both types of cooling vest, the whole body thermal sensation was closer to the neutral conditions than those without cooling vest. This effect was estimated to be equal to the 5.7 degrees C decrement of operative temperature. The subjects felt more comfortable with the cooling vest than without it. They felt more thermally acceptable than that without cooling vest. Wearing the cooling vest was useful to decrease the sweating sensation. 2) The local discomfort was observed when the local thermal sensation was "cool" approximately "cold" with the cooling vest. 3) The new cooling vest kept the skin temperature at chest at about 32.6 degrees C. On the other hand, by wearing the commercially available one, it lowered to about 31.1 degrees C. By wearing the new cooling vest, there was a tendency that local thermal sensation vote was higher and local comfort sensation vote was more comfortable than those of the condition wearing the commercially available one. It is important for the design of a comfortable cooling garment to prevent over-cool down from the body.

  4. Passive low energy cooling of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Baruch

    1994-01-01

    A practical sourcebook for building designers, providing comprehensive discussion of the impact of basic architectural choices on cooling efficiency, including the layout and orientation of the structure, window size and shading, exterior color, and even the use of plantings around the site. All major varieties of passive cooling systems are presented, with extensive analysis of performance in different types of buildings and in different climates: ventilation; radiant cooling; evaporative cooling; soil cooling; and cooling of outdoor spaces.

  5. Polyhydramnios and acute renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, D. V.; Kelly, Moira B.; Pryor, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Acute renal failure secondary to ureteric obstruction is described in a primigravida with twin gestation and polyhydramnios. Relief of the obstruction occurred on drainage of the liquor and return to normal renal function following delivery.

  6. Renal effects of renal x irradiation and induced autoallergic glomerulonephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappaport, D.S.; Casarett, G.W.

    1979-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine what influence a single large x-ray exposure of kidney has on the development and course of an experimental autoallergic glomerulonephritis (EAG) in rats. EAG was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by immunization with Bordetella pertussis vaccine and homogenate of homologous kidney tissue and Freund's complete adjuvant. Progressive arteriolonephrosclerosis (ANS) was observed in right (irradiated) kidneys following unilateral renal irradiation (1500 rad). Rats were either immunized, sham-immunized, irradiated, sham-irradiated, or both immunized and irradiated. Light and immunofluorescent microscopic observation, urine protein content, and kidney weights were evaluated. In immunized-irradiated animals the effects of irradiation and immunization were largely additive. Immunization did not considerably influence the development and course of ANS and irradiation did not considerably influence the development and course of EAG.

  7. Cool oxygen plasma oxidation of the organic matter of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobetskii, I.A.; Nazimov, S.A.; Romanchuk, V.V. [COAL-C Ltd., Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Oxidation of the sapropelitic coals has been carried out by cool oxygen plasma. The changes in concentration of oxygen- and hydrogen-containing groups of organic matter were observed by photoacoustic FTIR-spectroscopy during the cool oxygen plasma oxidation (COPO). The accumulation of oxygen-containing bands, such as C-O and O-H, during COPO was shown. The complete elimination of aromatic and aliphatic structure occurred in first two hours of oxidation. (orig.)

  8. The white dwarf cooling sequence of 47 Tucanae

    OpenAIRE

    García Berro, Enrique; Torres, Santiago; Althaus, Leandro Gabriel; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Context. 47 Tucanae is one of the most interesting, well-observed, and theoretically studied globular clusters. This allows us to determine the reliability of our understanding of white dwarf cooling sequences, to compare different methods of determining its age, and to assess other important characteristics, such as its star formation history. Aims. Here we present a population synthesis study of the cooling sequence of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. In particular, we study the d...

  9. [Renal pleomorphic sarcoma in four guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankel, Julia; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Warschau, Martina; Thöle, Anna Milena; Fehr, Michael

    2017-10-17

    Renal tumours apparently are rare not only in cats and dogs, but also in guinea pigs and can be difficult to diagnose. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical findings in guinea pigs with renal tumours. Furthermore, the symptoms, diagnostic possibilities and therapy are compared with renal tumours in other small animals, including cats and dogs. During a period of 4 years and 4 months the data of guinea pigs that had been presented in the clinic were retrospectively analysed. The analysis comprised guinea pigs that underwent a macroscopical and histopathological postmortem examination, and were diagnosed to have a renal neoplasm. Four guinea pigs had a renal tumour. The percentage of renal neoplasms in relation to the overall necropsied carcasses and the number of organs originating from guinea pigs was 4.7 % and the percentage of renal neoplasms in relation to the overall diagnosed tumours of the abdominal and pelvic cavities was 30.7 %. Histology and immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of renal pleomorphic sarcomas in all four cases. In two of the four guinea pigs, the classical triad, as described for cats and dogs with renal tumours (weight loss, abdominal mass and haematuria), was observed. During clinical examination, a prominent, apparently painful abdominal mass in the region of the kidneys was palpable in all four cases. Applying radiography, the suspected diagnosis of a mass in the area of the kidney was confirmed in three cases, and in two animals the renal origin of the masses was determined by ultrasound examination. Because a renal neoplasm is a pain-inducing disease with a high risk of metastases in domestic animals, a prompt nephrectomy should be performed when azotaemia is absent.

  10. Hypoperfusion of cerebral cortex in renal hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, K M; Gross, P M

    1991-05-01

    Morphometric and physiological measurements in the parietal cortex of rats with 2-kidney-1-clip renal hypertension and their normotensive controls indicated a 23% increase in capillary bed volume accompanied by a 32% reduction in the rate of cortical blood flow in the renal hypertensive animals. From these measures, we estimated an 83% increase in the duration of blood transit through the cortical capillary network of renal hypertensive rats, a new expression of altered microvascular function in the brain of this hypertensive model. The rate of glucose utilization in the cerebral cortex of renal hypertensive animals was not different from that observed for normotensive animals. Thus, for capillary networks in cerebral cortex of renal hypertensive rats, we demonstrated markedly reduced rates of perfusion independent of tissue metabolic factors, despite expansion of capillary bed volume.

  11. [Renal transplantation in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros-Domingo, Mara; Romero-Navarro, Benjamín; Valverde-Rosas, Saúl; Delgadillo, Rodolfo; Varela-Fascinetto, Gustavo; Muñoz-Arizpe, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Despite being considered a high risk procedure, renal transplantation has been recognized for more than 20 years as the best therapeutic option for children with end-stage renal disease since it is superior than any available dialytic procedure in improving the neuropsychological development and the quality of life. Today pediatric patients have similar graft survival than adults, and 10 year-old children or less have better outcome than any other age group. These remarking results are due to the development of specialized pediatric transplant centers and research programs, improvement in the selection and preparation of donors and recipients, refinement of the surgical technique and the use of new immunossupressive drugs.

  12. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Costa-Bauza, Antonia; Prieto, Rafel M

    2006-01-01

    Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins) and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine) is discussed. PMID:16956397

  13. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Rafel M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine is discussed.

  14. Advance in MEIC cooling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhong [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Ya. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, D. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Hutton, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Kimber, A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Li, R. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Nissen, E. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, H. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Cooling of ion beams is essential for achieving a high luminosity for MEIC at Jefferson Lab. In this paper, we present the design concept of the electron cooling system for MEIC. In the design, two facilities are required for supporting a multi-staged cooling scheme; one is a 2 MeV DC cooler in the ion pre-booster; the other is a high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) ERL-circulator cooler in the collider ring. The simulation studies of beam dynamics in an ERL-circulator cooler are summarized and followed by a report on technology development for this cooler. We also discuss two proposed experiments for demonstrating high energy cooling with a bunched electron beam and the ERL-circulator cooler.

  15. Cooled Ceramic Turbine Vane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — N&R Engineering will investigate the feasibility of cooled ceramics, such as ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine blade concepts that can decrease specific...

  16. Efficacy of a water-cooled garment for auxiliary body cooling in heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, P K; Pradhan, C K; Nag, A; Ashtekar, S P; Desai, H

    1998-02-01

    The efficacy of a water-cooled jacket for auxiliary body cooling was examined under a simulated hot environment. The personal garment comprised of a water re-circulating three-layered vest of cotton fabric lined with 2 mm diameter latex tubing and inter-spaced coating of rubberized solution. Four subjects wearing the water-cooled jacket were tested in the environment chamber (30, 35 and 40 degrees C DB, 50-60% RH, air velocity 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m/s, with corresponding average effective temperature of 26 +/- 2.3, 33 +/- 1.1 and 36 +/- 1.5 degrees C). The inlet water temperature was maintained at 10-12 degrees C, with flow rates of 2.6 +/- 0.3, 4.3 +/- 0.3 and 5.1 +/- 0.3 l/h). At 30 degrees C DB, variation in water flow had marginal effect on microclimate, while at higher temperatures (35 and 40 degrees C DB), the re-circulating cooled water had noticeable effects in lowering microclimate, trunk and other skin temperatures, and maintaining the body core within 36.7 +/- 0.2 to 37.5 +/- 0.2 degrees C, over 2 h exposure at 35 and 40 degrees C DB. The observation indicates that the water-cooled jacket provided auxiliary cooling to maintain comfortable microclimate, skin and body core temperatures. This enabled subjects to sustain comfortable heat balance over 2 h heat exposure without any noticeable heat strain.

  17. Lightweight Passive Microclimate Cooling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    adsorption of working fluid vapor is exo- thermic , so this chamber will reject heat to the environment and will be finned to promote natural convection...estimate of the cooling capacity. The water reservoir was immersed in one liter of water contained in an insulated vessel. A heater was placed in the...placed in a pocket in the vest, which has insulation on the outside. This arrangement limits the cooling lost to the outside. 22 SH-cULI)ER STRAP CKET

  18. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Kramer, Anneke; Abad Diez, José M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article provides a summary of the 2011 ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org). METHODS: Data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from national and regional renal registries in 30 countries in Europe and bordering the ...

  19. Management of chronic renal failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, D.; Apperloo, AJ; de Jong, P.

    1992-01-01

    There is growing evidence that treatment of patients with renal function impairment will undergo a major shift within the next few years. Along with more or less successful attempts to alleviate the signs and symptoms of reduced renal function, new insights into renal pathophysiology as well as new

  20. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  1. Renal denervation: Results of a single-center cohort study; Renale Denervation. Ergebnisse einer Single-Center Kohortenstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetkens, J.A.; Thomas, D.; Doerner, J.; Schild, H.H.; Naehle, C.P. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Wilhelm, K. [Johanniter Hospital, Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Duesing, R. [Hypertension Center, Bonn (Germany); Woitas, R.P.; Hundt, F. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine I

    2015-01-15

    To investigate the effect of renal denervation on office-based and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) in a highly selective patient population with drug-resistant hypertension. Patients with drug resistant hypertension eligible for renal denervation were included in the study population. Office blood pressure and ABPM were assessed prior to and after renal denervation. To detect procedure related renal or renal artery damage, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography (MRA) were performed pre-interventional, one day post-interventional, and one month after renal denervation. Mean follow-up time between renal denervation and blood pressure re-assessment was 9.5 ± 3.9 months. Between August 2011 and March 2013, 17 patients prospectively underwent renal denervation. Pre-interventional mean office blood pressure and ABPM were 177.3 ± 20.3/103.8 ± 20.4 mmHg and 155.2 ± 20.5/93.7 ± 14.5 mmHg, respectively. Post-interventional, office blood pressure was significantly reduced to 144.7 ± 14.9/89.5 ± 12.1 (p < 0.05). ABPM values remained unchanged (147.9 ± 20.3/90.3 ± 15.6, p > 0.05). The number of prescribed antihypertensive drugs was unchanged after renal denervation (4.7 ± 2.0 vs. 4.2 ± 1.2, p = 0.18). No renovascular complications were detected in follow-up MRI. After renal denervation, no significant decrease in ABPM was observed. These results may indicate a limited impact of renal denervation for drug resistant hypertension.

  2. Percutaneous Renal Biopsy : A Report of 200 Caces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahadori

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available In the diffuse medical diseases of kidney, percutaneous renal biopsy is a valuable, safe and hazardless procedure. With the aid of this nearly new technique renal pathology, the natural history of renal diseases and the response of renal diseases to therapy, as well as the prognosis of renal disorders can be evaluated."nWe have analysed 210 percutaneous biopsies in Tehran. Complications were observed in 13% of cases, there is no mortality and no patient required drastic therapeutic intervention. Anuria, peri-renal colic and peri-renal hematoma were the only serious complications, which were seen in 4 patients, and were. readily controled with simple measures We obtained renal tissue in 95% cases of our patients and in 9 I% of them the tissue was adequate for c'ear diagnosis."nLike other authors, we believe that the procedure, when properly performed, can give a far more valuable informations about the patients without any realy dangerous risk.

  3. [Acetaminophen (paracetamol) causing renal failure: report on 3 pediatric cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vaillant, J; Pellerin, L; Brouard, J; Eckart, P

    2013-06-01

    Renal failure secondary to acetaminophen poisoning is rare and occurs in approximately 1-2 % of patients with acetaminophen overdose. The pathophysiology is still being debated, and renal acetaminophen toxicity consists of acute tubular necrosis, without complication if treated promptly. Renal involvement can sometimes occur without prior liver disease, and early renal manifestations usually occur between the 2nd and 7th day after the acute acetaminophen poisoning. While therapy is exclusively symptomatic, sometimes serious metabolic complications can be observed. The monitoring of renal function should therefore be considered as an integral part of the management of children with acute, severe acetaminophen intoxication. We report 3 cases of adolescents who presented with acute renal failure as a result of voluntary drug intoxication with acetaminophen. One of these 3 girls developed severe renal injury without elevated hepatic transaminases. None of the 3 girls' renal function required hemodialysis, but one of the 3 patients had metabolic complications after her acetaminophen poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of splenic and renal infarctions in acute abdominal emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stefania E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; Scaglione, Mariano; Gatta, Gianluca; Lombardo, Patrizia; Stavolo, Ciro; Romano, Luigia; Grassi, Roberto

    2004-04-01

    Introduction: Splenic and renal infarctions are usually related to vascular disease or haematologic abnormalities. Their association is infrequent and rarely observed in trauma. In this study, we analyze our data to look at the occurrence of renal and splenic infarctions based on CT findings in a period of 4 years. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings of 84 patients admitted to our Department of Diagnostic Imaging from June 1998 to December 2002, who underwent emergency abdominal spiral CT examination and in whom there was evidence of splenic and/or renal infarction. Results: We found 40 cases of splenic infarction and 54 cases of renal infarction, associated in 10 patients. In 26 patients, there was also evidence of intestinal infarction. A traumatic origin was found in 19 cases; non-traumatic causes were found in 65 patients. Association between renal and splenic infarction in the same patient was related to trauma in two cases. Conclusions: Although renal and splenic infarctions are a common manifestation of cardiac thromboembolism, other systemic pathologies, infections or trauma may lead to this occurrence. Renal infarction may be clinically and/or surgically managed with success in most cases. There are potential complications in splenic infarction, such as development of pseudocysts, abscesses, hemorrhage, subcapsular haematoma or splenic rupture; splenectomy in these cases may be necessary. Some patients with splenic and/or renal infarction may be clinically asymptomatic. The high accuracy of CT examination is needed to allow a correct evaluation of infarcted organs.

  5. Development of a water-mist cooling system: A 12,500 Kcal/h air-cooled chiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Neng Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and energy exhaustion problems are becoming a severe problems, of which energy conservation and carbon reduction are the most critical. Between 40% and 48% of the total electricity used in a building is consumed by air conditioning systems. The development of a supersonic water-misting cooling system with a fuzzy control system is proposed to optimize existing condenser noise, space, and energy consumption, as well as to address problems with cooling capacity resulting from improper control between compressors and condensers. An experimental platform was established for conducting tests, observing cooling efficiencies, and calculating power saving statuses. Comparing the observed cooling efficiency, a temperature difference of 5.4 °C was determined before and after the application; this is significant regarding efficiency. The method produces no pollution or water accumulation. When compared with fixed frequency air-cooled water chillers, an exceptional energy saving of 25% was observed. The newly developed supersonic mist-cooled chiller is an excellent solution to increasing water and electricity fees.

  6. Advancements in renal protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders, Femke

    2008-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a rising worldwide public health problem. The prevention of progressive renal function loss of both native and transplanted kidneys is therefore the main challenge in current clinical nephrology. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) with blood

  7. Chemokines in Renal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Segerer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemokines, members of a large family of chemotactic cytokines, act as directional cues for sorting inflammatory cell subsets to sites of inflammation or lymphoid microenvironments. In addition to their effects on migration, chemokines can also activate effector function in leukocytes and are involved in cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Therefore, it is not surprising that chemokines play important roles in a wide range of human diseases, including genetic immunodeficiencies, infections, autoimmune diseases, and malignant tumors. In this report, we have reviewed recent developments (since mid 2003 in chemokines in renal diseases. In animal models, chemokines are produced at the site of injury, leading to inflammatory cell recruitment. The therapeutic impact of the blockade of CCR1, CCR2, CCR4, CCR5, or the corresponding ligands has been further studied in various renal disease models. Recent studies on the role of the chemokine receptors in human diseases have demonstrated the expression of CXCR1, CXCR3, CCR2, and CCR5 on different subsets of inflammatory cells. The number of CCR5- and CXCR3-positive interstitial infiltrating cells (mainly T cells correlates with renal function and proteinuria in glomerular diseases. Polymorphisms of chemokines and chemokine receptors are of impact on renal disease courses and allograft survival. Chemokine receptor blockade has approached clinical applications in nonrenal diseases and awaits the application in patients with kidney diseases.

  8. Primary renal undifferentiated sarcoma as an infiltrative mass in a 12 year old boy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Mi Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hwa [Dept. of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Undifferentiated sarcomas are rare tumors not classified into any sarcoma subtype. Due to their rarity, imaging findings of undifferentiated sarcomas are poorly characterized. The purpose of this report was to present imaging findings of a pathologically confirmed undifferentiated sarcoma originated from the left kidney of a 12-year-old boy. The mass was infiltrative involving the renal pelvis. It mimicked massive hilar lymphadenopathy with a preserved renal contour visible by both ultrasonography and CT. Renal vein thrombosis was also observed. Although undifferentiated sarcomas are rare, they should be considered in differential diagnosis of infiltrative renal masses with renal pelvis invasion in children.

  9. Expression profiles of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and disposition in human renal tissues and renal cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Hauwaert, Cynthia; Savary, Grégoire; Buob, David; Leroy, Xavier; Aubert, Sébastien; Flamand, Vincent; Hennino, Marie-Flore; Perrais, Michaël; Lo-Guidice, Jean-Marc; Broly, Franck; Cauffiez, Christelle; Glowacki, François

    2014-09-15

    Numerous xenobiotics have been shown to be harmful for the kidney. Thus, to improve our knowledge of the cellular processing of these nephrotoxic compounds, we evaluated, by real-time PCR, the mRNA expression level of 377 genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), transporters, as well as nuclear receptors and transcription factors that coordinate their expression in eight normal human renal cortical tissues. Additionally, since several renal in vitro models are commonly used in pharmacological and toxicological studies, we investigated their metabolic capacities and compared them with those of renal tissues. The same set of genes was thus investigated in HEK293 and HK2 immortalized cell lines in commercial primary cultures of epithelial renal cells and in proximal tubular cell primary cultures. Altogether, our data offers a comprehensive description of kidney ability to process xenobiotics. Moreover, by hierarchical clustering, we observed large variations in gene expression profiles between renal cell lines and renal tissues. Primary cultures of proximal tubular epithelial cells exhibited the highest similarities with renal tissue in terms of transcript profiling. Moreover, compared to other renal cell models, Tacrolimus dose dependent toxic effects were lower in proximal tubular cell primary cultures that display the highest metabolism and disposition capacity. Therefore, primary cultures appear to be the most relevant in vitro model for investigating the metabolism and bioactivation of nephrotoxic compounds and for toxicological and pharmacological studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Renal Aging: Causes and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Eoin D; Hughes, Jeremy; Ferenbach, David A

    2017-02-01

    Individuals age >65 years old are the fastest expanding population demographic throughout the developed world. Consequently, more aged patients than before are receiving diagnoses of impaired renal function and nephrosclerosis-age-associated histologic changes in the kidneys. Recent studies have shown that the aged kidney undergoes a range of structural changes and has altered transcriptomic, hemodynamic, and physiologic behavior at rest and in response to renal insults. These changes impair the ability of the kidney to withstand and recover from injury, contributing to the high susceptibility of the aged population to AKI and their increased propensity to develop subsequent progressive CKD. In this review, we examine these features of the aged kidney and explore the various validated and putative pathways contributing to the changes observed with aging in both experimental animal models and humans. We also discuss the potential for additional study to increase understanding of the aged kidney and lead to novel therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Renal scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B

    2014-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface cooling due to forest fire smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan

    1991-11-01

    In four different cases of extensive forest fire smoke the surface temperature effects were determined under the smoke cloud. In all cases, daytime cooling and no nighttime effects were found. The locations of smoke clouds from extensive forest fires in western Canada in 1981 and 1982, in northern China and Siberia in 1987, and in Yellowstone National Park in northwestern Wyoming in 1988 were determined from satellite imagery. As these smoke clouds passed over the midwestern United States for the Canadian and Yellow-stone fires and over Alaska for the Chinese/Siberian fires, surface air temperature effects were determined by comparing actual surface air temperatures with those forecast by model output statistics (MOS) of the United States National Weather Service. MOS error fields corresponding to the smoke cloud locations showed day-time cooling of 1.5° to 7°C under the smoke but no nighttime effects. These results correspond to theoretical estimates of the effects of smoke, and they serve as observational confirmation of a portion of the nuclear winter theory. This also implies that smoke from biomass burning can have a daytime cooling effect of a few degrees over seasonal time scales. In order to properly simulate the present climate with a numerical climate model in regions of regular burning it may be necessary to include this smoke effect.

  13. The renal nerves in chronic heart failure: efferent and afferent mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Alicia M.; Pellegrino, Peter R.; Zucker, Irving H.

    2015-01-01

    The function of the renal nerves has been an area of scientific and medical interest for many years. The recent advent of a minimally invasive catheter-based method of renal denervation has renewed excitement in understanding the afferent and efferent actions of the renal nerves in multiple diseases. While hypertension has been the focus of much this work, less attention has been given to the role of the renal nerves in the development of chronic heart failure (CHF). Recent studies from our laboratory and those of others implicate an essential role for the renal nerves in the development and progression of CHF. Using a rabbit tachycardia model of CHF and surgical unilateral renal denervation, we provide evidence for both renal efferent and afferent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CHF. Renal denervation prevented the decrease in renal blood flow observed in CHF while also preventing increases in Angiotensin-II receptor protein in the microvasculature of the renal cortex. Renal denervation in CHF also reduced physiological markers of autonomic dysfunction including an improvement in arterial baroreflex function, heart rate variability, and decreased resting cardiac sympathetic tone. Taken together, the renal sympathetic nerves are necessary in the pathogenesis of CHF via both efferent and afferent mechanisms. Additional investigation is warranted to fully understand the role of these nerves and their role as a therapeutic target in CHF. PMID:26300788

  14. The Renal Nerves in Chronic Heart Failure: Afferent and Efferent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Marie Schiller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The function of the renal nerves has been an area of scientific and medical interest for many years. The recent advent of a minimally invasive catheter-based method of renal denervation has renewed excitement in understanding the afferent and efferent actions of the renal nerves in multiple diseases. While hypertension has been the focus of much this work, less attention has been given to the role of the renal nerves in the development of chronic heart failure (CHF. Recent studies from our laboratory and those of others implicate an essential role for the renal nerves in the development and progression of CHF. Using a rabbit tachycardia model of CHF and surgical unilateral renal denervation, we provide evidence for both renal efferent and afferent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CHF. Renal denervation prevented the decrease in renal blood flow observed in CHF while also preventing increases in Angiotensin-II receptor protein in the microvasculature of the renal cortex. Renal denervation in CHF also reduced physiological markers of autonomic dysfunction including an improvement in arterial baroreflex function, heart rate variability, and decreased resting cardiac sympathetic tone. Taken together, the renal sympathetic nerves are necessary in the pathogenesis of CHF via both efferent and afferent

  15. Sub-Doppler Laser Cooling using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    He, Peiru; Anderson, Dana Z; Rey, Ana Maria; Holland, Murray

    2016-01-01

    We propose a sub-Doppler laser cooling mechanism that takes advantage of the unique spectral features and extreme dispersion generated by the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). EIT is a destructive quantum interference phenomenon experienced by atoms with multiple internal quantum states when illuminated by laser fields with appropriate frequencies. By detuning the lasers slightly from the "dark resonance", we observe that, within the transparency window, atoms can be subject to a strong viscous force, while being only slightly heated by the diffusion caused by spontaneous photon scattering. In contrast to other laser cooling schemes, such as polarization gradient cooling or EIT-sideband cooling, no external magnetic field or strong external confining potential is required. Using a semiclassical approximation, we derive analytically quantitative expressions for the steady-state temperature, which is confirmed by full quantum mechanical numerical simulations. We find that the lowest ...

  16. Impingement jet cooling in gas turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Due to the requirement for enhanced cooling technologies on modern gas turbine engines, advanced research and development has had to take place in field of thermal engineering. Impingement jet cooling is one of the most effective in terms of cooling, manufacturability and cost. This is the first to book to focus on impingement cooling alone.

  17. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  18. Cooled Low-Noise HEMT Microwave Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, J. Javier; Ortiz, Gerardo G.; Duh, Kuanghann George

    1992-01-01

    Prototype cooled low-noise microwave amplifiers based on high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMT's) considered as replacements for cooled ruby masers used as low-noise receiver-front-end amplifiers in communications, radio science, radar systems, radio astronomy, and telemetry. HEMT amplifier operates at 12 K, requires less cooling power and operates at lower cost with simpler, more-reliable cooling system.

  19. Double renal artery in cat/ Artéria renal dupla em gato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Abidu-Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the renal vessels variations has importance in a systematization program of radiological and surgical anatomy, both in humans and animals, applied for research and surgical training. Renal arteries have been considered by dissective or angiographic study means. Particular attention has been paid to the study of these vessels, outlining the variations noticed among various animal species. The renal arteries sites of origin of the abdominal aorta vary according to the renal topography of the different animals. As a rule, the right artery arises more cranially than the left one, according with the most cranial position of the right kidney. Thus, the goal of this article is to describe a case of a left double renal artery originating from the ventral portion of the aorta, in a three old male cat cadaver, formalin-preserved at 10% and with latex colored vascular injection. It was observed that the left kidney was supplied by two arteries of different topography and arrangements, showing duplicity of the renal artery.O conhecimento das variações nos vasos renais possui importância em um programa de sistematização da anatomia radiológica e cirúrgica, tanto para o homem quanto para animais destinados a pesquisa, ensino e treinamento cirúrgico. As artérias renais têm sido estudas tanto radiograficamente quanto através de dissecção. Atenção particular é dada ao estudo desses vasos enfatizando as variações entre as diferentes espécies animais. O local de origem das artérias renais a partir da aorta abdominal varia de acordo com a topografia renal nos diferentes animais. A artéria renal direita se origina mais cranialmente que a esquerda de acordo com a posição mais cranial do rim direito. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever um caso de dupla artéria renal esquerda originando-se da superfície ventral da artéria aorta abdominal em um cadáver de gato macho com três anos de idade. O mesmo foi fixado e preservado com

  20. Retroperitoneal neoplasms within the perirenal space in infants and children: Differentiation of renal and non-renal origin in enhanced CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yinghua [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); The Secondly Clinical Medicine College, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 610041 (China); Song Bin, E-mail: cjr.songbin@vip.163.co [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xu Juan [Department of Radiology, The Fourth People Hospital, Sichuan Province, Chengdu 610015 (China); Chen Weixia [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Zhao Xiaofei; Jia Rui [The Secondly Clinical Medicine College, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wu Bi; Li Zhenlin [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2010-09-15

    central plane of tumor' (OR = 0.038) was displayed in 24 of 26 (92.3%) non-renal tumors, but in only 5 of 16 (31.3%) renal tumors (P < 0.001). The CT findings such as 'pseudocapsule' (OR = 38.5), 'necrosis and cystic change' (OR = 11.2), 'vascularity' (OR = 16.867), 'distant metastasis' (OR = 5.96), and 'inferior vena cava tumor thrombus' which were thought to be characteristic of renal tumors were observed with significant higher incidence in renal tumors group than in the non-renal tumors group (P < 0.05); while CT signs of 'irregular mass' (OR = 0.045) and 'intratumoral calcifications' (OR = 0.065) were observed with lower incidence in renal tumors group than in the non-renal tumors group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The 'crescent sign', 'beak sign', 'embedded kidney sign' and 'renal arteries feeding' are the most specific CT signs suggestive of renal tumors and distinguish them from non-renal origin tumors within the perirenal space. Other CT signs, such as 'pseudocapsule', 'hypervascular tumors' and 'Inferior vena cava tumor thrombus', when present, tumors of renal origin are strongly suggested. On the other hand, CT signs of 'irregular mass', 'intratumoral calcifications', and associated elevated urinary vanillylmandelic acid strongly suggest the non-renal tumors.

  1. New cooling regulation technology of secondary cooling station in DCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuan; Yan, Jun-wei; Zhu, Dong-sheng; Liu, Fei-long; Lei, Jun-xi [The Key Lab of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Liang, Lie-quan [The Key Lab of E-Commerce Market Application Technology of Guangdong Province, Guangdong University of Business Studies, Guangzhou 510320 (China)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a kind of new control technology of secondary cooling station (constant flow rate/variable temperature difference) in district cooling system (DCS) is proposed in view of serial consequences including low efficiency and high operating cost caused by low temperature of supply water in DCS. This technology has been applied in DCS of Guangzhou University City. The result has already indicated that such technology can increase the supply and return temperatures of buildings, return water temperature of primary side in the plate heat exchanger unit, moreover, the efficiency of both the chiller and the whole system are improved significantly. (author)

  2. Beam Cooling with ionisation losses

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo; Kadi, Y; Vlachoudis, V

    2006-01-01

    A novel type of particle "cooling", called Ionization Cooling, is applicable to slow (v of the order of 0.1c) ions stored in a small ring. The many traversals through a thin foil enhance the nuclear reaction probability, in a steady configuration in which ionisation losses are recovered at each turn by a RF-cavity. For a uniform target "foil" the longitudinal momentum spread diverges exponentially since faster (slower) particles ionise less (more) than the average. In order to "cool" also longitudinally, a chromaticity has to be introduced with a wedge shaped "foil". Multiple scattering and straggling are then "cooled" in all three dimensions, with a method similar to the one of synchrotron cooling, but valid for low energy ions. Particles then stably circulate in the beam indefinitely, until they undergo for instance nuclear processes in the thin target foil. This new method is under consideration for the nuclear production of a few MeV/A ion beams. Simple reactions, for instance Li 7 + D Li 8 + p, are more ...

  3. Interventions to prevent hemodynamic instability during renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvris, Adrianna; Malhi, Gurpreet; Hiremath, Swapnil; McIntyre, Lauralyn; Silver, Samuel A; Bagshaw, Sean M; Wald, Ron; Ronco, Claudio; Sikora, Lindsey; Weber, Catherine; Clark, Edward G

    2018-02-22

    Hemodynamic instability related to renal replacement therapy (HIRRT) may increase the risk of death and limit renal recovery. Studies in end-stage renal disease populations on maintenance hemodialysis suggest that some renal replacement therapy (RRT)-related interventions (e.g., cool dialysate) may reduce the occurrence of HIRRT, but less is known about interventions to prevent HIRRT in critically ill patients receiving RRT for acute kidney injury (AKI). We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of RRT-related interventions for reducing HIRRT in such patients across RRT modalities. A systematic review of publications was undertaken using MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, and Cochrane's Central Registry for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs). Studies that assessed any intervention's effect on HIRRT (the primary outcome) in critically ill patients with AKI were included. HIRRT was variably defined according to each study's definition. Two reviewers independently screened abstracts, identified articles for inclusion, extracted data, and evaluated study quality using validated assessment tools. Five RCTs and four observational studies were included (n = 9; 623 patients in total). Studies were small, and the quality was mostly low. Interventions included dialysate sodium modeling (n = 3), ultrafiltration profiling (n = 2), blood volume (n = 2) and temperature control (n = 3), duration of RRT (n = 1), and slow blood flow rate at initiation (n = 1). Some studies applied more than one strategy simultaneously (n = 5). Interventions shown to reduce HIRRT from three studies (two RCTs and one observational study) included higher dialysate sodium concentration, lower dialysate temperature, variable ultrafiltration rates, or a combination of strategies. Interventions not found to have an effect included blood volume and temperature control, extended duration of intermittent RRT, and slower blood flow rates during continuous RRT initiation. How HIRRT was defined and its

  4. Renal energy excretion of horses depends on renal hippuric acid and nitrogen excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, B; Südekum, K-H; Zeyner, A; Goren, G; Kienzle, E

    2018-02-01

    The prediction of renal energy excretion is crucial in a metabolizable energy system for horses. Phenolic acids from forage cell walls may affect renal energy losses by increasing hippuric acid excretion. Therefore, the relationships were investigated between renal energy, nitrogen (N) and hippuric acid excretion of four adult ponies (230-384 kg body weight (BW)) consuming diets based on fresh grass, grass silage, grass cobs (heat-dried, finely chopped, pressed grass), alfalfa hay, straw, extruded straw and soybean meal. Feed intake was measured; urine and faeces were quantitatively collected for three days. Feed was analysed for crude nutrients, gross energy, amino acids and neutral-detergent-insoluble crude protein (CP); faeces were analysed for crude nutrients and cross energy; urine was analysed for N, hippuric acid, creatinine and gross energy. Renal energy excretion (y; kJ/kg BW 0.75 ) correlated with renal N excretion (x 1 ; g/kg BW 0.75 ) and renal hippuric acid excretion (x 2 ; g/kg BW 0.75 ): y = 14.4 + 30.2x 1 +20.7x 2 (r = .95; n = 30; p energy losses per gram CP intake: (i) protein supplements (e.g., soybean meal): 4.2-4.9 kJ/g CP intake (ii) alfalfa hay, grains, dried sugar beet pulp: 6.4 kJ/g CP intake, (iii) hay, preserved grass products, straw: 5.2-12.3 kJ/g CP intake (mean 8) and (iv) fresh grass. For group (iii) a negative relationship was observed between renal energy losses per gram of CP and the content of CP or neutral-detergent-insoluble CP in dry matter. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. A report of unusual origin of right renal artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamac B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available During evaluation of abdominal aorta in the serial forensic autopsy cases in the Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institute Morgue, we observed a variation in the origin of the right renal artery in a 49-year-old woman who died of external cause. In this case the right renal artery originated from the superior mesenteric artery. On the left side, the left renal artery arose from the aorta. Clinical significance and embryonic development of this variation have been discussed briefly and a short overview of the literature was given.

  6. Advances in laser cooling of Tm:YLF crystals (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Saeid; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Tonelli, Mauro; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2017-02-01

    We investigate high power laser cooling in Tm:YLF crystals both in ambient pressure and high vacuum. For this purpose, we have constructed a high power CW OPO broadly tunable from 1755 nm to 2000 nm. By using this tunable source, laser cooling for (3 mm3) 1% doped Tm:YLF crystal was observed from 1801 nm to 2000 nm. Cooling efficiency of the sample, external quantum efficiency (EQE), background absorption and optimum laser cooling wavelength are extracted from laser induced temperature modulation spectrum (LITMoS) test on the cooling sample. To improve cooling performance, we have designed multiple pass non-resonant cavities to maximize the absorption of the laser light inside the sample. We setup multiple pass cavities in a high vacuum chamber to reduce convective heat load and enhance laser cooling results.

  7. Two-photon cooling of magnesium atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malossi, N.; Damkjær, S.; Hansen, P. L.

    2005-01-01

    A two-photon mechanism for cooling atoms below the Doppler temperature is analyzed. We consider the magnesium ladder system (3s2)S01¿(3s3p)P11 at 285.2nm followed by the (3s3p)P11¿(3s3d)D21 transition at 880.7nm . For the ladder system quantum coherence effects may become important. Combined with...... and experiment is excellent. In addition, by properly choosing the Rabi frequencies of the two optical transitions a velocity independent atomic dark state is observed....

  8. Tunable carrier multiplication and cooling in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Jens Christian; Ulstrup, Søren; Crepaldi, Alberto; Cilento, Federico; Zacchigna, Michele; Miwa, Jill A; Cacho, Cephise; Chapman, Richard T; Springate, Emma; Fromm, Felix; Raidel, Christian; Seyller, Thomas; King, Phil D C; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Grioni, Marco; Hofmann, Philip

    2015-01-14

    Time- and angle-resolved photoemission measurements on two doped graphene samples displaying different doping levels reveal remarkable differences in the ultrafast dynamics of the hot carriers in the Dirac cone. In the more strongly (n-)doped graphene, we observe larger carrier multiplication factors (>3) and a significantly faster phonon-mediated cooling of the carriers back to equilibrium compared to in the less (p-)doped graphene. These results suggest that a careful tuning of the doping level allows for an effective manipulation of graphene's dynamical response to a photoexcitation.

  9. Expression profiles of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and disposition in human renal tissues and renal cell models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Hauwaert, Cynthia; Savary, Grégoire [EA4483, Université de Lille 2, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, Pôle Recherche, 59045 Lille (France); Buob, David [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie Pathologie Génétique, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Leroy, Xavier; Aubert, Sébastien [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie Pathologie Génétique, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR837, Centre de Recherche Jean-Pierre Aubert, Equipe 5, 59045 Lille (France); Flamand, Vincent [Service d' Urologie, Hôpital Huriez, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Hennino, Marie-Flore [EA4483, Université de Lille 2, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, Pôle Recherche, 59045 Lille (France); Service de Néphrologie, Hôpital Huriez, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Perrais, Michaël [Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR837, Centre de Recherche Jean-Pierre Aubert, Equipe 5, 59045 Lille (France); and others

    2014-09-15

    Numerous xenobiotics have been shown to be harmful for the kidney. Thus, to improve our knowledge of the cellular processing of these nephrotoxic compounds, we evaluated, by real-time PCR, the mRNA expression level of 377 genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), transporters, as well as nuclear receptors and transcription factors that coordinate their expression in eight normal human renal cortical tissues. Additionally, since several renal in vitro models are commonly used in pharmacological and toxicological studies, we investigated their metabolic capacities and compared them with those of renal tissues. The same set of genes was thus investigated in HEK293 and HK2 immortalized cell lines in commercial primary cultures of epithelial renal cells and in proximal tubular cell primary cultures. Altogether, our data offers a comprehensive description of kidney ability to process xenobiotics. Moreover, by hierarchical clustering, we observed large variations in gene expression profiles between renal cell lines and renal tissues. Primary cultures of proximal tubular epithelial cells exhibited the highest similarities with renal tissue in terms of transcript profiling. Moreover, compared to other renal cell models, Tacrolimus dose dependent toxic effects were lower in proximal tubular cell primary cultures that display the highest metabolism and disposition capacity. Therefore, primary cultures appear to be the most relevant in vitro model for investigating the metabolism and bioactivation of nephrotoxic compounds and for toxicological and pharmacological studies. - Highlights: • Renal proximal tubular (PT) cells are highly sensitive to xenobiotics. • Expression of genes involved in xenobiotic disposition was measured. • PT cells exhibited the highest similarities with renal tissue.

  10. Acute Renal Failure with Severe Loin Pain and Patchy Renal Vasoconstriction in a Patient without Hypouricemia, Provoked by Epileptic Seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Michitaka; Imaizumi, Takahiro; Yamakawa, Taishi; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2017-01-01

    A 26-year-old Japanese man without hypouricemia and with 3 previous episodes of seizures concurrent with acute kidney injury (AKI) was admitted due to an epileptic seizure, lower back pain and AKI. His creatinine kinase levels were slightly elevated. Patchy renal ischemia on contrast-enhanced computed tomography and persistent residual contrast medium was observed, consistent with acute renal failure with severe loin pain and patchy renal ischemia after anaerobic exercise (ALPE). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) demonstrated signal changes in the corresponding area. ALPE should be considered a cause of AKI following seizures. We recommend DWI as an alternative diagnostic modality.

  11. Screening renal stone formers for distal renal tubular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    A group of 110 consecutive renal stone formers were screened for distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) using morning fasting urinary pH (mfUpH) levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in patients with levels above 6.0. In 14 patients (12.7%) a renal acidification defect was noted......; 13 had incomplete and 1 had complete distal RTA. Distal RTA was found particularly in recurrent stone formers (17%), and especially in those with bilateral stone disease, where a distal renal tubular acidification defect was found in 50%. We have been unable to differentiate primary from secondary...... RTA in renal stone formers. Regardless of whether the acidification defect is primary or secondary to stone formation, however, all renal stone formers with distal RTA can expect to benefit from prophylactic alkaline therapy and it is recommended that the screening procedure, which is easy to use...

  12. Problemas renales de la cirrosis Renal problems of cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro García

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una revisión actualizada y condensada acerca de los problemas renales más relevantes que ocurren en la cirrosis tales como las alteraciones en el manejo del sodio y del agua, el tratamiento de la ascitis y el edema y el enfoque de la falla renal que ocurre en esta enfermedad, es decir síndrome hepato-renal y necrosis tubular aguda.

    We present a condensed and updated review on the most common renal problems occurring in cirrhosis such as the handling of sodium and water, the treatment of ascites and edema and the approach to the renal failure that frequently takes place in this disease, namely hepato-renal syndrome and acute tubular necrosis.

  13. The New English: Hot Stuff or Cool, Man, Cool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Robert W.

    1971-01-01

    The new English, the cool English, requires that teachers and students alike become learners in the quest for the understanding of language. McLuhan speaks directly to all English teachers, and provides insights into the crucial changes in communication that are now going on. (Author)

  14. New Approaches to Final Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermilab

    2014-11-10

    A high-energy muon collider scenario require a “final cooling” system that reduces transverse emittances by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of the alternative approach. A more explicit understanding of solenoidal cooling beam dynamics is introduced.

  15. Photoexcitation and cooling of positronium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermer, C.D.; Howell, R.H.; Jones, K.M.; Liang, E.P.; Magnotta, F.; Ziock, K.P.

    1988-08-01

    Our demonstration of multiple-photon resonant cycling between the 1/sup 3/S and 2/sup 3/P states of ortho-Positronium (oPs) makes possible the production of cold positronium (Ps) through the technique of laser cooling. A simplified analysis of magnetic mixing in excited-state Ps is given. This effect is important both as a diagnostic of resonant cycling and Ps cooling. The significance of cold Ps in fine structure measurements and the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate is discussed. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Renal Transplantation in HIV-positive Renal Transplant Recipients: Experience at the Mannheim University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J; Singer, T; Nowak, K; Brust, J; Göttmann, U; Schnülle, P; Krüger, B; Krämer, B K; Benck, U

    2015-11-01

    Renal transplantation in HIV-positive patients with end-stage renal disease has in recent years become a successful treatment option. We report two patients who underwent renal transplantation using a combination of basiliximab, calcineurin inhibitors, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and steroids with a "non-interacting" antiretroviral combination therapy consisting of stavudine or abacavir, lamivudine, and nevirapine. We observed no acute rejection but a BK polyomavirus infection in both patients. In conclusion, a quadruple immunosuppression with an interleukin 2 receptor antagonist, a calcineurin inhibitor, MMF, and steroids appears to be advisable to prevent high rates of acute rejection, but if possible thereafter immunosuppression should be tapered rapidly (eg, MMF stop, prednisolone dose 5 mg/d). The selection of antiretroviral agents should avoid compounds that interact severely with the immunosuppression used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Renal injury in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, F Clarke; Hunt, Jeremy J; Sevier, Thomas L

    2003-04-01

    Hematuria is the most common presenting sign of renal injury. Its presence in athletes may indicate a benign entity such as exercise-induced hematuria or a more serious injury in the presence of trauma. Exercise-induced hematuria can originate in the kidney, bladder, urethra, or prostate. The type of activity, as well as activity duration and intensity, contributes to its development. A wide differential diagnosis must be considered if hematuria persists longer than 24 to 72 hours. Trauma to the kidney can occur from a direct blow or deceleration; contact and collision sports are most commonly involved. Fortunately, most sports-related renal trauma is mild, and can be managed expectantly. A sporting injury rarely results in nephrectomy. Determining return to play for the athlete with a single kidney remains a controversial issue that requires patient education and an individualized approach.

  18. Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Renal Angiomyolipomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, Mircea, E-mail: mcristescu@uwhealth.org [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology (United States); Abel, E. Jason, E-mail: abel@urology.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin, Department of Urology (United States); Wells, Shane, E-mail: swells@uwhealth.org; Ziemlewicz, Timothy J., E-mail: tziemlewicz@uwhealth.org [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology (United States); Hedican, Sean P., E-mail: hedican@surgery.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin, Department of Urology (United States); Lubner, Megan G., E-mail: mlubner@uwhealth.org; Hinshaw, J. Louis, E-mail: jhinshaw@uwhealth.org; Brace, Christopher L., E-mail: cbrace@uwhealth.org; Lee, Fred T., E-mail: flee@uwhealth.org [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-03-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety and efficacy of US-guided percutaneous microwave (MW) ablation in the treatment of renal angiomyolipoma (AML).Materials and MethodsFrom January 2011 to April 2014, seven patients (5 females and 2 males; mean age 51.4) with 11 renal AMLs (9 sporadic type and 2 tuberous sclerosis associated) with a mean size of 3.4 ± 0.7 cm (range 2.4–4.9 cm) were treated with high-powered, gas-cooled percutaneous MW ablation under US guidance. Tumoral diameter, volume, and CT/MR enhancement were measured on pre-treatment, immediate post-ablation, and delayed post-ablation imaging. Clinical symptoms and creatinine were assessed on follow-up visits.ResultsAll ablations were technically successful and no major complications were encountered. Mean ablation parameters were ablation power of 65 W (range 60–70 W), using 456 mL of hydrodissection fluid per patient, over 4.7 min (range 3–8 min). Immediate post-ablation imaging demonstrated mean tumor diameter and volume decreases of 1.8 % (3.4–3.3 cm) and 1.7 % (27.5–26.3 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Delayed imaging follow-up obtained at a mean interval of 23.1 months (median 17.6; range 9–47) demonstrated mean tumor diameter and volume decreases of 29 % (3.4–2.4 cm) and 47 % (27.5–12.1 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Tumoral enhancement decreased on immediate post-procedure and delayed imaging by CT/MR parameters, indicating decreased tumor vascularity. No patients required additional intervention and no patients experienced spontaneous bleeding post-ablation.ConclusionOur early experience with high-powered, gas-cooled percutaneous MW ablation demonstrates it to be a safe and effective modality to devascularize and decrease the size of renal AMLs.

  19. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  20. Obstructive acute renal failure by severe gastric distension after binge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchel, Julie; Lvovschi, Virginie; Joly, Luc-Marie

    2017-08-01

    Binge eating occurs in patients with eating disorders and can result in metabolic complications, leading to gastric rupture or necrosis. However, organ failure as acute renal failure is rarely observed. We report the case of an overeating episode resulting in massive gastric dilatation and acute renal failure with abdominal pressure and bilateral ureteral obstruction. The outcome was favorable with gastric aspiration and fasting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Renal Impairment and Cardiovascular Disease in HIV-Positive Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Lundgren, Jens D; Ross, Mike

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While the association between renal impairment and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established in the general population, the association remains poorly understood in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. METHODS: Individuals with ≥2 estimated glomerular...... relation between confirmed impaired eGFR and CVD was observed. This finding highlights the need for renal preventive measures and intensified monitoring for emerging CVD, particularly in older individuals with continuously low eGFRs....

  2. Incidental Eosinophilic Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma in Renal Allograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alharbi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC in renal allograft in transplant recipients is 0.22–0.25%. De novo clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe RCCs and RCCs with sarcomatoid differentiation originating in renal allograft have been reported. Routine surveillance for graft tumours is not routinely practiced and these tumours are commonly asymptomatic and incidentally discovered. We describe a case of incidental, eosinophilic chromophobe RCC in a 31-year-old, long-term renal transplant male recipient, who presented with acute gastroenteritis 11 years after transplantation. The graft was nonfunctional at the time of presentation. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scan demonstrated 1.8 cm well-defined, round enhancing lesion, confined to the renal allograft and suspicious for malignancy. Pathological examination of graft nephrectomy specimen showed gross, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of eosinophilic chromophobe RCC. Fifty-five months after surgery, the patient was alive and free of malignancy. To the best of our knowledge, only five chromophobe RCCs originating in a renal allograft were previously described in English literature. We suggest that chromophobe RCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of renal allograft mass, including eosinophilic tumours, and emphasise the importance of periodic screening of renal allograft in all renal transplant recipients.

  3. Incidental Eosinophilic Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma in Renal Allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Abdullah; Al Turki, Maram S; Aloudah, Noura; Alsaad, Khaled O

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in renal allograft in transplant recipients is 0.22-0.25%. De novo clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe RCCs and RCCs with sarcomatoid differentiation originating in renal allograft have been reported. Routine surveillance for graft tumours is not routinely practiced and these tumours are commonly asymptomatic and incidentally discovered. We describe a case of incidental, eosinophilic chromophobe RCC in a 31-year-old, long-term renal transplant male recipient, who presented with acute gastroenteritis 11 years after transplantation. The graft was nonfunctional at the time of presentation. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scan demonstrated 1.8 cm well-defined, round enhancing lesion, confined to the renal allograft and suspicious for malignancy. Pathological examination of graft nephrectomy specimen showed gross, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of eosinophilic chromophobe RCC. Fifty-five months after surgery, the patient was alive and free of malignancy. To the best of our knowledge, only five chromophobe RCCs originating in a renal allograft were previously described in English literature. We suggest that chromophobe RCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of renal allograft mass, including eosinophilic tumours, and emphasise the importance of periodic screening of renal allograft in all renal transplant recipients.

  4. Renal functional outcomes after surgery for renal cortical tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Lascano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Historically, radical nephrectomy represented the gold standard for the treatment of small (≤ 4cm as well as larger renal masses.  Recently, for small renal masses, the risk of ensuing chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease has largely favored nephron-sparing surgical techniques, mainly partial nephrectomy. In this review, we surveyed the literature on renal functional outcomes after partial nephrectomy for renal tumors. The largest randomized control trial comparing radical and partial nephrectomy failed to show a survival benefit for partial nephrectomy. With regards to overall survival, surgically induced chronic kidney disease (GFR < 60 ml/min/ 1.73m2 caused by nephrectomy might not be as deleterious as medically induced chronic kidney disease. In evaluating patients who underwent donor nephrectomy, transplant literature further validates that surgically induced reductions in GFR may not affect patient survival, unlike medically induced GFR declines.  Yet, because patients who present with a renal mass tend to be elderly with multiple comorbidities, many develop a mixed picture of medically, and surgically-induced renal disease after extirpative renal surgery.  In this population, we believe that nephron sparing surgery optimizes oncological control while protecting renal function. 

  5. The first high resolution image of coronal gas in a starbursting cool core cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean

    2017-08-01

    Galaxy clusters represent a unique laboratory for directly observing gas cooling and feedback due to their high masses and correspondingly high gas densities and temperatures. Cooling of X-ray gas observed in 1/3 of clusters, known as cool-core clusters, should fuel star formation at prodigious rates, but such high levels of star formation are rarely observed. Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a leading explanation for the lack of star formation in most cool clusters, and AGN power is sufficient to offset gas cooling on average. Nevertheless, some cool core clusters exhibit massive starbursts indicating that our understanding of cooling and feedback is incomplete. Observations of 10^5 K coronal gas in cool core clusters through OVI emission offers a sensitive means of testing our understanding of cooling and feedback because OVI emission is a dominant coolant and sensitive tracer of shocked gas. Recently, Hayes et al. 2016 demonstrated that synthetic narrow-band imaging of OVI emission is possible through subtraction of long-pass filters with the ACS+SBC for targets at z=0.23-0.29. Here, we propose to use this exciting new technique to directly image coronal OVI emitting gas at high resolution in Abell 1835, a prototypical starbursting cool-core cluster at z=0.252. Abell 1835 hosts a strong cooling core, massive starburst, radio AGN, and at z=0.252, it offers a unique opportunity to directly image OVI at hi-res in the UV with ACS+SBC. With just 15 orbits of ACS+SBC imaging, the proposed observations will complete the existing rich multi-wavelength dataset available for Abell 1835 to provide new insights into cooling and feedback in clusters.

  6. Absolute frequency measurements on Mg{sup +} cooling transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batteiger, Valentin; Herrmann, Maximilian; Knuenz, Sebastian; Bernhardt, Birgitta; Udem, Thomas; Haensch, Theodor W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Zhu, Feng; Schuessler, Hans [Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas (United States)

    2008-07-01

    We present isotopically resolved absolute frequency measurements of both fine structure components of the 3s-3p transition in single, trapped magnesium ions. The transitions are observed in the limit of unresolved sidebands, which would lead to strongly asymmetric line shapes due to cooling and heating if only one laser were swept over the resonance. A novel spectroscopy scheme based on sympathetic cooling and spatially resolved detection allows to observe symmetric lines. The measurements contribute to astronomical searches for drifts of the fine structure constant in quasar absorption spectra and improve the accuracy over previous measurements by two orders of magnitude.

  7. Sympathetic laser cooling of antiprotons with molecular anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Sebastian; Fesel, Julian; Tietje, Ingmari; Zimmer, Christian; Hinterberger, Alexander; Doser, Michael; Yzombard, Pauline; Comparat, Daniel; Aegis Collaboration

    2017-04-01

    Antimatter experiments conducted at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN address the fundamental questions why primordial antimatter is not observed in the present Universe. The weak equivalent principle (WEP) can be tested measuring the gravitational acceleration of antihydrogen atoms in the Earth's gravitational field that are horizontally emitted from a Penning trap. The antihydrogen atoms can be produced via resonant charge exchange of Rydberg positronium and antiprotons at temperatures potentially determined by the recoil limit of the constituents To prepare an ensemble of cold antihydrogen with a narrow velocity spread we plan to extend the existing electron cooling mechanism of antiprotons by laser-cooling techniques of negative C2-molecules in a Penning trap in order to sympathetically cool antiprotons to the mK regime. The generation of cold antihydrogen atoms can ultimately also be used for precision spectroscopy experiments of electromagnetic interaction as a test of CPT symmetry. In this presentation the status of the experiment at CERN and a computational study of sympathetic cooling of antiprotons using photodetachment cooling, Doppler and AC Stark Sisyphus cooling of C2-will be presented.

  8. Renal tissue oxygenation in essential hypertension and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruijm, Menno; Hofmann, Lucie; Vogt, Bruno; Muller, Marie-Eve; Piskunowicz, Maciej; Stuber, Matthias; Burnier, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that renal tissue hypoxia plays an important role in the development of renal damage in hypertension and renal diseases, yet human data were scarce due to the lack of noninvasive methods. Over the last decade, blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI), detecting deoxyhemoglobin in hypoxic renal tissue, has become a powerful tool to assess kidney oxygenation noninvasively in humans. This paper provides an overview of BOLD-MRI studies performed in patients suffering from essential hypertension or chronic kidney disease (CKD). In line with animal studies, acute changes in cortical and medullary oxygenation have been observed after the administration of medication (furosemide, blockers of the renin-angiotensin system) or alterations in sodium intake in these patient groups, underlining the important role of renal sodium handling in kidney oxygenation. In contrast, no BOLD-MRI studies have convincingly demonstrated that renal oxygenation is chronically reduced in essential hypertension or in CKD or chronically altered after long-term medication intake. More studies are required to clarify this discrepancy and to further unravel the role of renal oxygenation in the development and progression of essential hypertension and CKD in humans.

  9. The porcine remnant kidney model of chronic renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sanjay; Gordon, Jeffery D; Fu, Alex A; Glockner, James F; Chade, Alejandro R; Mandrekar, Jaywant; Lerman, Lilach; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and characterize a porcine model of chronic renal insufficiency created by renal artery embolization. The model was created using 42 castrated juvenile male pigs (7-8 months old) in two parts (pilot (N = 10) group, definitive (N = 26) group, and control group (N = 6). In the pilot group, the embolization procedure was optimized with respect to the size of polyvinyl acrylide (PVA) particles, coils, and amount of kidney embolized. The animals were followed serially for 4 weeks after the embolization procedure to determine the renal function and hypertensive response. In the definitive group, these results were extended to later time points and a left total nephrectomy and a right partial nephrectomy (remnant) were performed and these animals were followed for 28 to 84 days. The kidney function after the embolization was characterized by acute deterioration in renal function, followed by improvement, and "stable" chronic renal insufficiency with statistically significant elevation in creatinine and BUN being observed until day 42. The mean arterial blood pressure remained significantly elevated until day 7 after which it began to decrease to pre-embolization value. The remnant kidney developed fibrosis in the tublointerstitial compartment as it hypertrophied and increased its weight which remained significantly elevated after embolization. A reproducible remnant kidney model of chronic renal insufficiency in pigs was developed. In this model, stable renal insufficiency develops by 4 weeks that lasts until 12 weeks.

  10. Renal Tissue Oxygenation in Essential Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menno Pruijm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that renal tissue hypoxia plays an important role in the development of renal damage in hypertension and renal diseases, yet human data were scarce due to the lack of noninvasive methods. Over the last decade, blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI, detecting deoxyhemoglobin in hypoxic renal tissue, has become a powerful tool to assess kidney oxygenation noninvasively in humans. This paper provides an overview of BOLD-MRI studies performed in patients suffering from essential hypertension or chronic kidney disease (CKD. In line with animal studies, acute changes in cortical and medullary oxygenation have been observed after the administration of medication (furosemide, blockers of the renin-angiotensin system or alterations in sodium intake in these patient groups, underlining the important role of renal sodium handling in kidney oxygenation. In contrast, no BOLD-MRI studies have convincingly demonstrated that renal oxygenation is chronically reduced in essential hypertension or in CKD or chronically altered after long-term medication intake. More studies are required to clarify this discrepancy and to further unravel the role of renal oxygenation in the development and progression of essential hypertension and CKD in humans.

  11. Improvement of Diagnostic Accuracy by Standardization in Diuretic Renal Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, In Young; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Kyung Han; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Kim, Kwang Myung; Choi, Hwang; Choi, Yong [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    We evaluated diagnostic accuracy of diuretic renal scan with standardization in 45 children(107 hydronephrotic kidneys) with 91 diuretic assessments. Sensitivity was 100% specificity was 78%, and accuracy was 84% in 49 hydronephrotic kidneys with standardization. Diuretic renal scan without standardization, sensitivity was 100%, specificity was 38%, and accuracy was 57% in 58 hydronephrotic kidneys. The false-positive results were observed in 25 cases without standardization, and in 8 cases with standardization. In duretic renal scans without standardization, the causes of false-positive results were 10 early injection of lasix before mixing of radioactivity in loplsty, 6 extrarenal pelvis, and 3 immature kidneys of false-positive results were 2 markedly dilated systems postpyeloplsty, 2 etrarenal pevis, 1 immature kidney of neonate , and 2 severe renal dysfunction, 1 vesicoureteral, reflux. In diuretic renal scan without standardization the false-positive results by inadequate study were common, but false-positive results by inadequate study were not found after standardization. The false-positive results by dilated pelvo-calyceal systems postpyeloplsty, extrarenal pelvis, and immature kidneys of, neonates were not dissolved after standardization. In conclusion, diagnostic accuracy of diuretic renal scan with standardization was useful in children with renal outflow tract obstruction by improving specificity significantly.

  12. Renal Vein Reconstruction for Harvesting Injury in Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkan Bozkurt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation is the best treatment choice in the end-stage renal disease. In the renal transplantation, renal vein damage or shortness which occurs during cadaveric or living donor nephrectomy causes technical difficulties for surgeons. The lack of the donors already especially cadaveric, the acquirement of the graft, gets very much importance. In this report, it is aimed to share the clinical experiment by which it seen, how anastomosis can become appropriate by using the renal vein which is damaged in the way that anastomosis cannot be done anyway by using cadaveric vena cava graft. The renal vein brought to length for anostomosis which is repaired by using cadaveric vena cava graft, is anastomosed successfully by becoming an end-to-side of the external iliac vein of the recipient. Vascular anastomoses are applied easily in technique. The time of the warm ischemia was under 2 hours and the kidney was functional in the post-operative period. Renal vein trombosis was not observed. The renal vein damage occured during cadaveric or living donor nephrectomy, can be repaired by some methods. In the kidneys in which vein requirement is done, the success rates are rather high although acute tubular necrosis and delayed function can be seen more.

  13. Efficacy of ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy for the evaluation of renal dysfunction following renal transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jae; Choi, Chul Soon; Min, Seon Jeong; Lee, Gyung Kyu; Lee, Eil Seong; Kang, Ik Won; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    To evaluate the usefulness and complications of renal biopsy under ultrasonography-guidance in renal dysfunction after renal transplantation. Ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy was done in 47 patients with the transplanted kidney. The subjects consisted of 30 males and 17 females, age ranged from 16 to 66 years (average age=38 years). Biopsies were done once in 27 patients, twice in 17 patients, three times in 3 patients, a total of 70 biopsies. The success rate of renal biopsy for the accurate pathologic diagnosis and the incidence and types of complications following biopsy were evaluated. The success rate of renal biopsy for the accurate pathologic diagnosis was 96%(67/70). Pathologic diagnosis included 27 cases of acute rejection (39%), 8 cases of acute tubular necrosis (11%), 4 cases of acute rejection and acute tubular necrosis (6%), 4 cases of cyclosporin toxicity (6%), 4 cases of primary disease recurrence (6%), 4 cases of infection (6%) and others. Complications after renal biopsy included 15 cases of microscopic hematuria (21%), 1 case of gross hematuria with spontaneous cessation and 1 case of life threatening hemorrhage. Ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy is a safe and effective diagnostic method for the evaluation of renal dysfunction following renal transplantation.

  14. Radionuclide evaluation of renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueschen, A.J.; Witten, D.M.

    1979-06-01

    The renal scintillation camera study and the excretory urogram should be considered to be complementary studies. The renal scintillation camera study provides an accurate evaluation of changes in total, differential, and segmental renal function but affords only a gross assessment of anatomic changes. The excretory urogram provides superior information about renal anatomic changes but only inferior information about functional changes of the kidney. The advantages of a renal scintillation camera study with regard to the patient are that it is done in a state of normal hydration, it requires no bowel preparation, it is not associated with allergic reactions, it provides a low radiation exposure, and it is a noninvasive procedure for differential renal function which requires no ureteral catheters.

  15. On synthesis and optimization of cooling water systems with multiple cooling towers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available minimization, which incorporates the performances of the cooling towers involved. The study focuses mainly on cooling systems consisting of multiple cooling towers that supply a common set of heat exchangers. The heat exchanger network is synthesized using...

  16. Influence of solar variability on the infrared radiative cooling of the thermosphere from 2002 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G; Hunt, Linda A; Mertens, Christopher J; Thomas Marshall, B; Russell, James M; Woods, Thomas; Earl Thompson, R; Gordley, Larry L

    2014-04-16

    Infrared radiative cooling of the thermosphere by carbon dioxide (CO2, 15 µm) and by nitric oxide (NO, 5.3 µm) has been observed for 12 years by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics satellite. For the first time we present a record of the two most important thermospheric infrared cooling agents over a complete solar cycle. SABER has documented dramatic variability in the radiative cooling on time scales ranging from days to the 11 year solar cycle. Deep minima in global mean vertical profiles of radiative cooling are observed in 2008-2009. Current solar maximum conditions, evidenced in the rates of radiative cooling, are substantially weaker than prior maximum conditions in 2002-2003. The observed changes in thermospheric cooling correlate well with changes in solar ultraviolet irradiance and geomagnetic activity during the prior maximum conditions. NO and CO2 combine to emit 7 × 10(18) more Joules annually at solar maximum than at solar minimum. First record of thermospheric IR cooling rates over a complete solar cycleIR cooling in current solar maximum conditions much weaker than prior maximumVariability in thermospheric IR cooling observed on scale of days to 11 years.

  17. Cool gaseous nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Shaver, P A; Pottasch, S R

    1979-01-01

    The electron temperatures of diffuse gaseous nebulae have long been thought to be close to 10/sup 4/K. Much lower temperatures were derived from some of the early radio continuum and recombination line work, but these were generally considered to be wrong for a variety of reasons. While there is little doubt that the bright nebulae do indeed have temperatures of approximately 8000-9000K, there are strong indications that some nebulae of lower densities have much lower temperatures, observations of several low-density nebulae were made in order to determine electron temperatures in the absence of such effects as collisional de-excitation, stimulated emission, and pressure broadening. Several of these nebulae have been found to have temperatures below 5000K and for two of them which are discussed (RCW94 and G339.1-0.2) absolute upper limits of approximately 4700 K are imposed by the line widths alone. (11 refs).

  18. Cool dust and baby stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eales, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The helium that is cooling its camera is about to run out, but the data from the Herschel Space Observatory, which is designed to study how stars and galaxies form, are likely to keep sub-millimetre-wavelength astronomers busy for years to come. Steve Eales explains.

  19. Heat recovery with milk cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindt, P.

    1980-01-01

    Considerable enregy costs in the milk industry come from hot water preparation. Simultaneously, surplus heat results from the milk cooling process. Heat recovery systems are described, and cost benefits will be compared with investment costs. Such systems work economically for operations with more than 25 cows; the amortization period here is between four and five years.

  20. A cool present for LEIR

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    LEIR (Low Energy Ion Ring), which will supply lead ions to the LHC experiments, has taken delivery of one of its key components, its electron cooling system. From left to right, Gérard Tranquille, Virginia Prieto and Roland Sautier, in charge of the electron cooling system for LEIR at CERN, and Christian Lacroix, in charge of installation for the LEIR machine. On 16 December, the day before CERN's annual closure, the LEIR teams received a rather impressive Christmas present. The "parcel" from Russia, measuring 7 metres in length and 4 metres in height, weighed no less than 20 tonnes! The component will, in fact, be one of the key elements of the future LEIR, namely its electron cooling system. LEIR is one of the links in the injector chain that will supply lead ions to the LHC experiments, in particular ALICE (see Bulletin No. 28/2004 of 5 July 2004), within the framework of the I-LHC Project. The electron cooling system is designed to reduce and standardise transverse ion velocity. This focuses the bea...

  1. Cool Runnings For String 2

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    String 2 is a series of superconducting magnets that are prototypes of those which will be installed in the LHC. It was cooled down to 1.9 Kelvin on September 14th. On Thursday last week, the dipoles of String 2 were successfully taken to nominal current, 11850 A.

  2. Solar-powered cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-12-24

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

  3. International Ventilation Cooling Application Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzer, Peter; Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; OSullivan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The currently running International Energy Agency, Energy and Conservation in Buildings, Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling (VC) project, is coordinating research towards extended use of VC. Within this Annex 62 the joint research activity of International VC Application Database has been carried out, ...

  4. Prevalence and Significance of Unrecognized Renal Dysfunction in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbaum, Zach; Leader, Avi; Neuman, Yoram; Shlezinger, Meital; Goldenberg, Ilan; Mosseri, Morris; Pereg, David

    2016-02-01

    Unrecognized renal insufficiency, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate acute coronary syndrome. We aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of unrecognized renal insufficiency in a large unselected population of patients with acute coronary syndrome. The study population consisted of patients with acute coronary syndrome included in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli biennial Surveys during 2000-2013. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Patients were stratified into 3 groups: 1) normal renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rates ≥60 mL/min/1/73 m(2)); 2) unrecognized renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rates acute coronary syndrome patients. Unrecognized renal insufficiency was present in 2536 (19.8%). Patients with unrecognized renal insufficiency were older and more frequently females. All-cause mortality rates at 1 year were highest among patients with recognized renal insufficiency, followed by patients with unrecognized renal insufficiency, with the lowest mortality rates observed in patients with normal renal function (19.4%, 9.9%, and 3.3%, respectively, P coronary angiography and were less commonly treated with guideline-based cardiovascular medications. Acute coronary syndrome patients with unrecognized renal insufficiency should be considered as a high-risk population. The question of whether this group would benefit from a more aggressive therapeutic approach should still be evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D' Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma.

  6. Multi-pass cooling for turbine airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, George [Palm City, FL

    2011-06-28

    An airfoil for a turbine vane of a gas turbine engine. The airfoil includes an outer wall having pressure and suction sides, and a radially extending cooling cavity located between the pressure and suction sides. A plurality of partitions extend radially through the cooling cavity to define a plurality of interconnected cooling channels located at successive chordal locations through the cooling cavity. The cooling channels define a serpentine flow path extending in the chordal direction. Further, the cooling channels include a plurality of interconnected chambers and the chambers define a serpentine path extending in the radial direction within the serpentine path extending in the chordal direction.

  7. Gas turbine heat transfer and cooling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Je-Chin; Ekkad, Srinath

    2012-01-01

    FundamentalsNeed for Turbine Blade CoolingTurbine-Cooling TechnologyTurbine Heat Transfer and Cooling IssuesStructure of the BookReview Articles and Book Chapters on Turbine Cooling and Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 2010ReferencesTurbine Heat TransferIntroductionTurbine-Stage Heat TransferCascade Vane Heat-Transfer ExperimentsCascade Blade Heat TransferAirfoil Endwall Heat TransferTurbine Rotor Blade Tip Heat TransferLeading-Edge Region Heat TransferFlat-Surface Heat TransferNew Information from 2000 to 20102.10 ClosureReferencesTurbine Film CoolingIntroductionFilm Cooling on Rotat

  8. Cooling tower selection and installation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristowe, K.

    1981-02-01

    Conserving and recycling water in industrial plants cooling towers are discussed. The fundamental principles of a cooling tower are explained by considering a droplet of water inside a cooling tower. The need for correct wet bulb selection for a given re-cooled water temperature in order to choose the proper cooling tower size is discussed. Site considerations, which are mainly dependent on the piping requirements and pump placements, are presented. Benefits of various types of pack and maintenance for cooling towers are discussed. (MCW)

  9. Contrast agents and renal cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Giulia; Briguori, Carlo; Quintavalle, Cristina; Zanca, Ciro; Rivera, Natalia V; Colombo, Antonio; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2008-10-01

    Contrast media (CM) induce a direct toxic effect on renal tubular cells. This toxic effect may have a role in the pathophysiology of contrast nephropathy. We evaluated (i) the cytotoxicity of CM [both low-osmolality (LOCM) and iso-osmolality (IOCM)], of iodine alone, and of an hyperosmolar solution (mannitol 8%) on human embryonic kidney (HEK 293), porcine proximal renal tubular (LLC-PK1), and canine Madin-Darby distal tubular renal (MDCK) cells; and (ii) the effectiveness of various antioxidant compounds [n-acetylcysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid and sodium bicarbonate] in preventing CM cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of CM was assessed at different time points, with different methods: cell viability, DNA laddering, flow cytometry, and caspase activation. Both LOCM and IOCM produced a concentration- and time-dependent increase in cell death as assessed by the different methods. On the contrary, iodine alone and hyperosmolar solution did not induce any significant cytotoxic effect. There was not any significant difference in the cytotoxic effect between LOCM and IOCM. Furthermore, both LOCM and IOCM caused a marked increase in caspase-3 and -9 activities and poly(ADP-ribose) fragmentation, while no effect on caspase-8/-10 was observed, thus indicating that the CM activated apoptosis mainly through the intrinsic pathway. Both CM induced an increase in protein expression levels of pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl2 family (Bim and Bad). NAC and ascorbic acid but not sodium bicarbonate had a dose-dependent protective effect on renal cells after 3 h incubation with high dose (200 mg iodine/mL) of both LOCM and IOCM. Both LOCM and IOCM induce a dose-dependent renal cell apoptosis. NAC and ascorbic acid but not sodium bicarbonate prevent this contrast-induced apoptosis.

  10. Renal oncocytoma growth rates before intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Anil Nicholas; Thompson, R Houston; Leibovich, Bradley C; Harmsen, W Scott; Sebo, Thomas J; Callstrom, Matthew R; Kawashima, Akira; Atwell, Thomas D

    2012-11-01

    To describe the growth rates of oncocytomas before treatment with surgical resection or percutaneous ablation. This single-institution retrospective study included 33 consecutive, pathologically proven renal oncocytomas with serial contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans spanning at least 1 year before intervention, from 2000 to 2009. Tumours were measured by two radiologists, and growth rates and interobserver variability were calculated. The mean (range) pre-procedural imaging surveillance period was 36 (12-124) months (median 33 months). The mean (SD) oncocytoma size was 17 (11) mm (range 4-47 mm, median 15 mm) in maximum transverse diameter on initial imaging and grew to a mean (SD) of 26 (5) mm (range 10-83 mm, median 23 mm) by the time of treatment. Overall, the mean (SD) and median growth rates were 2.9 (2.6) mm/year and 2.7 mm/year, respectively (range -1.2-10.9 mm/year). After weighting by the se of each tumour's growth rate, the mean (SD) change was 2.1 (1.2) mm/year. The mean (range) interobserver variability for each tumour measurement was 1 (0-7) mm with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99. Renal oncocytomas grow at a rate similar to reported growth rates of renal cell carcinoma. As the observation of growth does not distinguish between benign and malignant renal tumours, growth of small renal masses under active surveillance should be carefully considered before a switch is made to intervention. © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  11. [Case report of rare co-occurrence of renal cell carcinoma and crossed renal dystopia (L-shaped kidney)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakov, V N; Los, M S

    2017-10-01

    L-shaped kidney refers to a rare anomaly of the relative kidney positioning. Due to low prevalence, the literature on the co-occurrence of this anomaly with malignancy is lacking. And, if the diagnosis of a renal anomaly does not present difficulties, if a tumor is detected in such a kidney, even MSCT does not always help differentiate a pelvic tumor from a tumor of the renal parenchyma spreading to the pelvicalyceal system. This has important implications for choosing an appropriate surgical strategy. A feature of the presented clinical observation is the co-occurrence of the rare anomaly of kidney position and locally advanced renal cell carcinoma spreading to the renal pelvis. Due to the massive spread of the tumor, an organ-sparing surgery was not feasible. Due to the suspicion of tumor spread to the renal pelvis, the patient underwent nephrureterectomy of the L-shaped kidney. Introduction to renoprival state with transfer to chronic hemodialysis became the only option to maintain homeostasis and extend the patients life. Histological examination revealed clear cell renal cell carcinoma with invasion of the pelvis and renal capsule, with no clear demarcation between the fused kidneys.

  12. Anatomy of renal arterial supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamanarong, K; Prachaney, P; Utraravichien, A; Tong-Un, T; Sripaoraya, K

    2004-05-01

    A thorough knowledge of the variations of the renal artery has grown in importance with the increasing numbers of renal transplants, vascular reconstructions, and various surgical and radiologic techniques. The literature indicates that multiple renal arteries are found in 9- 76% of cadavers. The purpose of this study is to establish the incidence and characteristics of variations of renal arteries in Thais. A total of 267 Thai cadavers were dissected in the anatomy laboratory. The anatomical findings included: a single hilar artery in 82% of cases; double renal arteries in 17% of cases (one hilar artery with an upper polar artery occurred in 7%; two hilar arteries in 7%, and one hilar artery combined with one lower polar artery in 3%); and triple renal arteries occurred in 1% (two hilar arteries with one upper polar artery in 0.4% and two hilar arteries with one lower polar artery in 0.6%). In preparation for interventions, such as living renal donation, vascular reconstruction, renovascular hypertension, or radical nephrectomy, the results indicate that preoperative renal imaging is necessary and that operative techniques with attention to multiple renal arteries should be considered. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Renal myxoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique C Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Myxomas are rare tumors that can appear in many anatomical locations. There are only 14 cases of renal involvement documented in the literature. This article reports a case of renal myxoma in an elderly woman with recurrent cystitis. After five years of follow-up, the computed tomography (CT revealed a large solid tumor mass in the left kidney. Tumor resection was performed preserving the affected kidney with histopathological diagnosis of renal myxoma. The objective of this study is to report a rare case of renal myxoma, emphasizing the importance of the differential diagnosis from other benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors.

  14. Computed tomography of renal oncocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, E. (Univ. of Kansas, Kansas City); Huntrakoon, M.

    1983-10-01

    Renal oncocytoma is a relatively rare tumor that has an excellent prognosis and usually may be treated adequately by local resection. Preoperative differentiation from renal cell carcinoma, which requires radical nephrectomy, is thus of importance. The computed tomographic (CT) and pathologic features of three incidentally-detected renal oncocytomas were compared with those of six renal cell carcinomas of comparable size. Renal cell carcinoma appears on CT as a solid mass that generally has an indistinct interface with normal renal parenchyma, a lobulated contour, and a nonhomogeneous pattern of contrast enhancement. These features correlate with the pathologic findings of an irregular tumor margin and the frequent presence of tumor hemorrhage and necrosis. Oncocytoma, on the other hand, generally has a distinct margin, a smooth contour, and a homogeneous appearance on contrast-enhanced CT scans. These findings correlate with a smooth tumor margin and absence of tumor hemorrhage and necrosis on pathologic examination. These features are not pathognomonic of oncocytoma, as angiographic evidence suggests that renal cell carcinoma may show both distinct margination and a homogeneous blush in 6% of cases. However, their demonstration by CT should alert radiologists and surgeons to the possibility that a renal mass may be an oncocytoma. Such a presumptive diagnosis then can lead to a surgical approach that allows for renal-conserving surgery.

  15. Renal replacement therapy in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing and managing critically ill patients with renal dysfunction is a part of the daily routine of an intensivist. Acute kidney insufficiency substantially contributes to the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. Renal replacement therapy (RRT not only does play a significant role in the treatment of patients with renal failure, acute as well as chronic, but also has spread its domains to the treatment of many other disease conditions such as myaesthenia gravis, septic shock and acute on chronic liver failure. This article briefly outlines the role of renal replacement therapy in ICU.

  16. Image-Guided Renal Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Gregory T; Sella, David M; Atwell, Thomas D

    2015-09-01

    The role of interventional radiology in the management of renal malignancy has expanded in the past 2 decades, largely because of the efficacy of image-guided ablation in treating renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Clinical guidelines now incorporate ablation into standardized RCC management algorithms. Importantly, both radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation have shown long-term durability in the definitive treatment of RCC, and early outcomes following microwave ablation are equally promising. While selective renal artery embolization has a role in the palliation of select patients with RCC, it can also be used to minimize complications in the ablation of larger renal masses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sporotrichosis in Renal Transplant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gewehr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current report describes two renal transplant recipients who presented with sporotrichosis. In addition, the authors review the general aspects of sporotrichosis in renal transplant recipients reported in the literature. Sporotrichosis is a rare fungal infection in transplant patients and has been reported primarily in renal transplant recipients not treated with antifungal prophylaxis. Extracutaneous forms of sporotrichosis without skin manifestations and no previous history of traumatic injuries have been described in such patients and are difficult to diagnose. Renal transplant recipients with sporotrichosis described in the present report were successfully treated with antifungal therapy including amphotericin B deoxycholate, lipid amphotericin B formulations, fluconazole and itraconazole.

  18. Extraluminal cooling of bilateral common carotid arteries as a method to achieve selective brain cooling for neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo; Hartings, Jed A; Yang, Xiaofang; Tortella, Frank C; Lu, Xi-Chun M

    2008-05-01

    Systemic cooling to achieve brain hypothermia has been investigated as a neuroprotective therapy but can present serious adverse effects. Here we describe a novel method to selectively cool the rat brain and investigate its neuroprotective effects following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). The novelty of our method of selective brain cooling (SBC) was that the extraluminal cooling of the carotid arterial blood was achieved by using a cooling cuff wrapped around each common carotid artery (CCA). Within 20 min of CCA cooling, brain temperature could be lowered by 2-5 degrees C below the baseline and maintained stable for approximately 2 h while maintaining body temperature at 37 degrees C. No adverse effects of SBC were observed on systemic physiology, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), bleeding time, or tissue histology in normal animals. In rats having sustained 2-h MCAo, intra-ischemic SBC for 90 min, initiated 30 min following the onset of ischemia, significantly reduced infarction measured at 24 h post-injury (normothermic rats=312+/-51 mm3, SBC rats=139+/-83 mm3). In subgroup experiments, the incidence of peri-infarct depolarization (PID) was assessed during the MCAo and cooling period. Compared to normothermic but ischemic rats, SBC significantly reduced the number of PID events from 6.2+/-2.5 to 2.0+/-2.5, and reduced infarct volumes from 323+/-79 to 139+/-102 mm3. In conclusion, this extralumimal cooling method of SBC provides a safe and efficient approach to rapidly and safely achieve hypothermic neuroprotection.

  19. A new cooling technique for heavy ions in a Penning trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, G.; Becker, St.; Bollen, G.; Kluge, H.-J.; Moore, R. B.; Otto, Th.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Wiess, U.

    1991-09-01

    A new cooling technique for heavy ions stored in a Penning trap has been developed. The axial and cyclotron motions are cooled by buffer gas collisions. The outward radial diffusion caused by the buffer gas is counteracted by an azimuthal quadrupole rf field at the sum frequency of the magnetron and cyclotron motions. A mass selectivity of 500 in the cooling is achieved while the axial energy distribution is observed to be in equilibrium with the buffer gas temperature ( T = 300 K).

  20. Factors associated with diffusely increased renal uptake of Tc-99m diphosphono-propanedicarboxylic acid on bone scintigraphy in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keunyoung; Kim, Seong-Jang; Song, Sang H; Kim, In-Joo; Pak, Kyoungjune; Kim, So J; Shin, Senghyeon; Kim, Bum S

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to determine the factors contributing toward diffusely increased renal uptake on bone scintigraphy using technetium-99m (Tc-99m) diphosphono-propanedicarboxylic acid (DPD) in patients with end-stage renal disease. One-hundred and forty-three bone scintigraphies, performed between June 2007 and July 2013, in 135 patients with chronic kidney disease were analyzed retrospectively, including 22 bone scintigraphies (15 patients; eight women; seven men) with glomerular filtration rates less than 15 ml/min/1.73 m. Patients with nephrocalcinosis were excluded. The clinical records of medication and underlying disease were reviewed retrospectively. The presence of renal artery calcification was visually estimated and the Hounsfield unit (HU) of renal parenchyma was measured by abdominal and pelvic nonenhanced computed tomography. Two patients underwent peritoneal dialysis and 13 underwent hemodynamic dialysis. Diffusely increased renal Tc-99m DPD uptake was observed on 15 of 22 (68%) bone scintigraphy images. Laboratory test results were not significantly different between the patients with or without increased renal uptake. A history of inflammatory conditions or antibiotic administration did not correlate with kidney visualization. The significant factor for diffuse renal tracer uptake on multivariate analysis was renal artery calcification (odds ratio: 18.42; 95% confidence interval: 2.01-79.43; Prenal tracer uptake (P=0.04) and renal artery calcification (P=0.02). Small renal arteriolar calcification and a higher HU value of renal parenchyma could be associated with diffusely increased renal Tc-99m DPD uptake in patients with end-stage renal disease.

  1. Heating-related flows in cool solar loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Mariska, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of spatial and temporal variations in the heating of cool loop models are investigated in an attempt to explain the net redshifts that are observed on the sun. The response of initially static cool loops to changes in the energy input is simulated. For hot loops, it is found that spatially asymmetric changes produce a final steady state that is dynamic, and that spatially symmetric changes produce a final state that is static. Some general properties of cool loop equilibria are discussed, emphasizing the relationship between structure and energy input. The results are unable to explain the net redshifts observed in emission lines formed near 100,000 K on the sun.

  2. Thermal Non-equilibrium Consistent with Widespread Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J.; Mok, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Time correlation analysis has been used to show widespread cooling in the solar corona; this cooling has been interpreted as a result of impulsive (nanoflare) heating. In this work, we investigate wide-spread cooling using a 3D model for a solar active region which has been heated with highly stratified heating. This type of heating drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions, meaning that though the heating is effectively steady, the density and temperature in the solution are not. We simulate the expected observations in narrowband EUV images and apply the time correlation analysis. We find that the results of this analysis are qualitatively similar to the observed data. We discuss additional diagnostics that may be applied to differentiate between these two heating scenarios.

  3. Laparoscopic Nephrectomy, Ex Vivo Partial Nephrectomy, and Autotransplantation for the Treatment of Complex Renal Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmir Gopal Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary era of minimally invasive surgery, very few T1/T2 renal lesions are not amenable to nephron-sparing surgery. However, centrally located lesions continue to pose a clinical dilemma. We sought to describe our local experience with three cases of laparoscopic nephrectomy, ex vivo partial nephrectomy, and autotransplantation. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy was performed followed by immediate renal cooling and perfusion with isotonic solution. Back-table partial nephrectomy, renorrhaphy, and autotransplantation were then performed. Mean warm ischemia (WIT and cold ischemic times (CIT were 2 and 39 minutes, respectively. Average blood loss was 267 mL. All patients preserved their renal function postoperatively. Final pathology confirmed pT1, clear cell renal cell carcinoma with negative margins in all. All are disease free at up to 39 months follow-up with stable renal function. In conclusion, the described approach remains a viable option for the treatment of complex renal masses preserving oncological control and renal function.

  4. Electron cooling in a young radio supernova: SN 2012aw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Naveen; Ray, Alak [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Chakraborti, Sayan [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Stockdale, Christopher [Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53233 (United States); Chandra, Poonam [National Center for Radio Astronomy-TIFR, Pune 411007 (India); Smith, Randall [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Roy, Rupak; Bose, Subhash [Aryabhhata Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Nainital 263129 (India); Dwarkadas, Vikram [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Sutaria, Firoza [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560034 (India); Pooley, David, E-mail: nyadav@tifr.res.in, E-mail: akr@tifr.res.in [Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    We present the radio observations and modeling of an optically bright Type II-P supernova (SN), SN 2012aw which exploded in the nearby galaxy Messier 95 (M95) at a distance of 10 Mpc. The spectral index values calculated using C, X, and K bands are smaller than the expected values for the optically thin regime. During this time, the optical bolometric light curve stays in the plateau phase. We interpret the low spectral-index values to be a result of electron cooling. On the basis of comparison between the Compton cooling timescale and the synchrotron cooling timescale, we find that the inverse Compton cooling process dominates over the synchrotron cooling process. We therefore model the radio emission as synchrotron emission from a relativistic electron population with a high energy cutoff. The cutoff is determined by comparing the electron cooling timescale, t {sub cool}, and the acceleration timescale, t-tilde {sub acc}. We constrain the mass-loss rate in the wind ( M-dot ∼1.9×10{sup −6} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) and the equipartition factor between relativistic electrons and the magnetic field ( α-tilde =ϵ{sub e}/ϵ{sub B}∼1.12×10{sup 2}) through our modeling of radio emission. Although the time of explosion is fairly well constrained by optical observations within about two days, we explore the effect of varying the time of explosion to best fit the radio light curves. The best fit is obtained for the explosion date as 2012 March 15.3 UT.

  5. Expression of parafibromin in major renal cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cui

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Parafibromin, encoded by HRPT2 gene, is a recently identified tumor suppressor. Complete and partial loss of its expression have been observed in hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT, parathyroid carcinoma, breast carcinoma, lung carcinoma, gastric and colorectal carcinoma. However, little has been known about its expression in renal tumors. In order to study the expression of parafibromin in a series of the 4 major renal cell tumors - clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC, papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC and oncocytoma. One hundred thirty nine renal tumors including 61 ccRCCs, 37 pRCCs, 22 chRCCs and 19 oncocytomas were retrieved and used for the construction of renal tissue microarrays (TMAs. The expression of parafibromin was detected by immunohistochemical method on the constructed TMAs. Positive parafibromin stains are seen in 4 out of 61 ccRCCs (7%, 7 out of 37 pRCCs (19%, 12 out of 23 chRCCs (52% and all 19 oncocytomas (100%. Parafibromin expression varies significantly (P< 8.8 x10-16 among the four major renal cell tumors and were correlated closely with tumor types. No correlation of parafibromin expression with tumor staging in ccRCCs, pRCCs and chRCCs, and Fuhrman nuclear grading in ccRCCs and pRCCs. In summary, parafibromin expression was strongly correlated with tumor types, which may suggest that it plays a role in the tumorigenesis in renal cell tumors.

  6. Upregulation of Interleukin-33 in obstructive renal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Yu, E-mail: wychen624@cgmh.org.tw [Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ya-Jen [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chia-Hao [Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Tzu-Hsien [Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shang-Der [Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Hsing, Chung-Hsi [Department of Anesthesiology, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Yang, Jenq-Lin, E-mail: jyang@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2016-05-13

    Interstitial fibrosis and loss of parenchymal tubular cells are the common outcomes of progressive renal diseases. Pro-inflammatory cytokines have been known contributing to the damage of tubular cells and fibrosis responses after renal injury. Interleukin (IL)-33 is a tissue-derived nucleus alarmin that drives inflammatory responses. The regulation and function of IL-33 in renal injury, however, is not well understood. To investigate the involvement of cytokines in the pathogenesis of renal injury and fibrosis, we performed the mouse renal injury model induced by unilateral urinary obstruction (UUO) and analyze the differentially upregulated genes between the obstructed and the contralateral unobstructed kidneys using RNA sequencing (RNAseq). Our RNAseq data identified IL33 and its receptor ST2 were upregulated in the UUO kidney. Quantitative analysis confirmed that transcripts of IL33 and ST2 were upregulated in the obstructed kidneys. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that IL-33 was upregulated in Vimentin- and alpha-SMA-positive interstitial cells. By using genetically knockout mice, deletion of IL33 reduced UUO-induced renal fibrosis. Moreover, in combination with BrdU labeling technique, we observed that the numbers of proliferating tubular epithelial cells were increased in the UUO kidneys from IL33-or ST2-deficient mice compared to wild type mice. Collectively, our study demonstrated the upregulation of IL-33/ST2 signaling in the obstructed kidney may promote tubular cell injury and interstitial fibrosis. IL-33 may serve as a biomarker to detect renal injury and that IL-33/ST2 signaling may represent a novel target for treating renal diseases. -- Highlights: •Interleukin (IL)-33 was upregulated in obstructed kidneys. •Interstitial myofibroblasts expressed IL-33 after UUO-induced renal injury. •Deficiency of IL33 reduced interstitial fibrosis and promoted tubular cell proliferation.

  7. Renal cirsoid arteriovenous malformation masquerading as neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, K; George, D

    1988-12-01

    A woman with renal colic and microscopic hematuria had filling defects in the left renal collecting system detected on excretory urography. A nephrectomy, performed because of suspected malignancy, might have been averted by renal angiography.

  8. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts

  9. A combined capillary cooling system for cooling fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ana Paula; Pelizza, Pablo Rodrigo; Galante, Renan Manozzo; Bazzo, Edson [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (LabCET/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Engenharia de Sistemas Termicos], Emails: ana@labcet.ufsc.br, pablo@labcet.ufsc.br, renan@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br

    2010-07-01

    The operation temperature control has an important influence over the PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) performance. A two-phase heat transfer system is proposed as an alternative for cooling and thermal control of PEMFC. The proposed system consists of a CPL (Capillary Pumped Loop) connected to a set of constant conductance heat pipes. In this work ceramic wick and stainless mesh wicks have been used as capillary structure of the CPL and heat pipes, respectively. Acetone has been used as the working fluid for CPL and deionized water for the heat pipes. Experimental results of three 1/4 inch stainless steel outlet diameter heats pipes and one CPL have been carried out and presented in this paper. Further experiments are planned coupling the proposed cooling system to a module which simulates the fuel cell. (author)

  10. Renal vein oxygen saturation in renal artery stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Rehling, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Renal vein oxygen-saturation was measured in 56 patients with arterial hypertension and unilateral stenosis or occlusion of the renal artery. Oxygen-saturation in blood from the ischaemic kidney (84.4%, range 73-93%) was significantly higher than that from the 'normal' contralateral kidney (81...

  11. The evaluation of renal parenchymal scarring using static renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To analyze whether operative techniques and other variables related to patient and renal stone characteristics affect potential renal parenchymal damage. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised 64 patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy operations (PCNL). Data of the operated ...

  12. Renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma presenting clinically as renal cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe a 22-year old female who presented with a 5-year history of a palpable, painless mass in the right flank. Computerized tomography demonstrated a solid renal mass measuring 18 cm × 13 cm with peripheral calcification, areas of vascularity and necrosis. The appearance suggested renal cell carcinoma or ...

  13. [Treatment of type II diabetic patients with chronic renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, Henri; Perlemoine, Caroline; Raffaitin, Christelle; Rigalleau, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Glycaemic control is a key element in the management of patients with chronic renal insufficiency, associated of course with treatment of all the other associated factors. Dietary management should not merely be wishful thinking but a reality, involving the control of body weight, the maintenance of lean body mass, the observance of a sufficient carbohydrate intake and the control of protein intake, which, always tends to be excessive in diabetics. Drug treatment with oral antidiabetics may be given without risk of iatrogenic effects: glitazone has no effect on renal metabolism but may increase water retention; glinides are insulin secretagogues without renal metabolism so there is no risk of hypoglycaemia in the event of impaired renal function; if not insulin remains an excellent alternative with, however, a change in its half-life with the elevated creatinine clearance. In all cases, the goal remains the control of glycosylated haemoglobin without iatrogenic effects.

  14. Renal tubular acidosis due to the milk-alkali syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, J; Better, O S; Winaver, J; Chaimowitz, C; Barzilai, A; Jacobs, R

    1977-06-01

    A 60-year-old man with a history of excessive ingestion of calcium carbonate presented with azotemia, hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. His acid-base status was initially normal. Following the cessation of calcium carbonate treatment, the hypercalcemia and azotemia disappeared, and the patient was found to be in metabolic acidosis with blunted acid excretion and a urine pH of 6.1. Kidney biopsy showed focal tubular calcification; the tubular damage was apparently caused by hypercalcemia and had resulted in renal tubular acidosis. During the three months of observation since that time there has been a tendecy for spontaneous remission of the renal tubular acidosis. Impaired renal hydrogen ion excretion prevented the development of metabolic alkalosis despite ingestion of alkali initially, and was later responsible for the metabolic acidosis. Renal tubular acidosis occurring as a sequel to the milk-alkali syndrome may aggravate the danger of nephrocalcinosis in this syndrome.

  15. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  16. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. Copyright © 2011 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The database of the Danish Renal Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Astrid Christine; Søgaard, Mette; Mehnert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF THE DATABASE: The main purpose of the database of the Danish Renal Cancer Group (DaRenCaData) is to improve the quality of renal cancer treatment in Denmark and secondarily to conduct observational research. STUDY POPULATION: DaRenCaData includes all Danish patients with a first-time diagn......AIM OF THE DATABASE: The main purpose of the database of the Danish Renal Cancer Group (DaRenCaData) is to improve the quality of renal cancer treatment in Denmark and secondarily to conduct observational research. STUDY POPULATION: DaRenCaData includes all Danish patients with a first...... indicators have been selected for monitoring treatment quality and outcome after renal cancer. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The incidence of renal cancer in Denmark has increased from 12.7 per 100,000 population-years in 2010-2011 to 15.9 per 100,000 population-years in 2014-2015. A total of 3,977 Danish patients...

  18. Retro-Aortic Inverted Left Renal Vein: A Rare Anomaly Found in a Renal Donor

    OpenAIRE

    Sabouri, Sofia; Hosseini, Ashrafsadat; Shivaei, Seyedeh Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Awareness of the renal vascular anatomy including variants of the renal vein is important for abdominal and renal surgeries, such as renal transplantation. The complex embryological development of the renal vein results in the following variations: additional renal veins on the left side, circum-aortic renal collar and retro-aortic renal veins. In this report, we present a case of a 35-year-old renal donor who had a rare renal vein anomaly that had been shown by computed tomography (CT) angio...

  19. Beam cooling with ionization losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubbia, C. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia (Italy) and CERN AB Department, Geneva (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Carlo.Rubbia@cern.ch; Ferrari, A. [CERN AB Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Kadi, Y. [CERN AB Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Vlachoudis, V. [CERN AB Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2006-12-01

    This novel type of Ionization Cooling is an effective method in order to enhance the (strong) interaction probability of slow (few MeV/A) ions stored in a small ring. The many traversals through a thin target strongly improve the nuclear reaction rate with respect to a single-pass collision, in a steady configuration in which ionization losses of a target 'foil' (typically few hundred {mu}g/cm{sup 2} thick) are continuously recovered by an RF-cavity. With a flat foil, betatron oscillations are 'cooled', but the momentum spread diverges exponentially, since faster (slower) particles ionize less (more) than the average. In order to 'cool' the beam also longitudinally, a chromaticity has to be introduced with a wedge-shaped 'foil'. Therefore, in equilibrium conditions, multiple scattering and straggling are both balanced by phase-space compression. Classic Ionization Cooling [A.A. Kolomensky, Atomnaya Energiya 19 (1965) 534; Yu.M. Ado, V.I. Balbekov, Atomnaya Energiya 31(1) (1971) 40-44; A.N. Skrinsky, V.V. Parkhomchuk, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 12 (1981) 3; E.A. Perevendentsev, A.N. Skrinsky, in: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on High Energy Acceleration, 1983, p. 485] is designed to cool the direct beam until it has been compressed and extracted for further use. In practice, this limits its applicability to non-interacting muon beams. Instead, in this new method, applicable to strongly interacting collisions, the circulating beam is not extracted. Ionization cooling provides 'in situ' storage of the beam until it is converted by a nuclear interaction with the target. Simple reactions-for instance {sup 7}Li+D->{sup 8}Li+p-are more favourably produced in the 'mirror' kinematical frame, namely with a heavier ion colliding against a gas-jet D{sub 2} target. Kinematics is generally very favourable, with angles in a narrow angular cone (around {approx}10{sup o} for the mentioned reaction) and with a

  20. Fast renal decline to end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krolewski, Andrzej S.; Skupien, Jan; Rossing, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A new model of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes emerged from our studies of Joslin Clinic patients. The dominant feature is progressive renal decline, not albuminuria. This decline is a unidirectional process commencing while patients have normal renal function and, in the majority......, progressing steadily (linearly) to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). While an individual's rate of renal decline is constant, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope varies widely among individuals from –72 to –3.0 ml/min/year. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines define rapid......, that very fast and fast decline from normal eGFR to ESRD within 2 to 10 years constitutes 50% of the Joslin cohort. In this review we present data about frequency of fast decliners in both diabetes types, survey some mechanisms underlying fast renal decline, discuss methods of identifying patients at risk...