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Sample records for renaat frans belgium

  1. FRANS HEYN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Lucie Heyn and her children would like to take the opportunity to express their gratitude to the Organization for its tribute to Frans. The family also extends its heartfelt thanks to all those who comforted and supported it at this difficult time through their calls, letters and other gestures.

  2. I Frans af Assisis fodspor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    En fodrejse fra Assisi til Rom i Frans af Assisis fodspor sætter gang i tankerne og giver anledning til nye ideer......En fodrejse fra Assisi til Rom i Frans af Assisis fodspor sætter gang i tankerne og giver anledning til nye ideer...

  3. Frans Verbeure (1942 - 2003)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 8 June Frans Verbeure, full professor at the University of Antwerpen and Head of the Particle Physics group, passed away after a long illness. Born on 6 February 1942, Verbeure started his research career in the early sixties, under de leadership of Prof. Fernand Grard, at the "Laboratoire des Hautes Energies" in Brussels, a laboratory funded by the Belgian National Science Foundation. His research activity initially centered around the vigorous bubble chamber physics programme which had started in Saclay and continued at CERN. When the Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen (UIA) was created in 1972, he became the youngest professor in the Physics Department, and remained there until his untimely death. Recognizing the importance of collaboration on a national, as well as international level, Verbeure associated his research group closely with the other experimental particle physics groups at the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB). This collaboration has remained ver...

  4. Frans HEYN 1944-2001

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    It was with great sadness that we learned of the death of our friend and colleague Frans Heyn. Frans passed away on 29 December, surrounded by his loved ones, after a battle against cancer lasting almost seven years. In early 1995 he had been told that he was in the advanced stages of the illness and that he had only a few weeks left to live. We will all remember the fierce determination and remarkable courage with which Frans faced the situation. Drawing on his exceptional intellect and his early training as a biologist, he became an expert on his illness, capable of monitoring its clinical evolution, discussing it with the specialists on an equal footing and even influencing their decisions on treatment. Throughout these years, during which he defied the most pessimistic prognoses, Frans unfailingly continued to carry out his professional duties and responsibilities, right up to the last moment. During this very long period, when he was rarely without physical pain, Frans, who was always attentive to the ...

  5. African Journals Online: Belgium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Belgium. Home > African Journals Online: Belgium. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  6. Fractures françaises

    OpenAIRE

    Courtois, Gérard; Finchelstein, Gilles; Perrineau, Pascal; Teinturier, Brice

    2015-01-01

    Des Français moins pessimistes, mais toujours fortement crispés sur certains sujets de société ? C'est le portrait d'une société toute en paradoxe que dresse, depuis 2013, l'enquête annuelle "Fractures françaises", réalisée par Ipsos en partenariat avec Le Monde, Sciences Po et la Fondation Jean-Jaurès. Gérard Courtois, Gilles Finchelstein, Pascal Perrineau et Brice Teinturier analysent, dans un échange inédit, les principaux résultats de l'édition 2015. Une exploration en profondeur qui relè...

  7. Country profiles: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Within months, Belgium will have to import practically all of its energy requirements; coal production will stop in 1992. Though nuclear will continue to provide the bulk of the country's power supply, government policy has shifted away from reliance on the atom for electricity generation towards natural gas. With no oil reserves of its own, keeping demand under check has been a priority for governments down the years. The actual level of oil imports runs well above consumption since the refining sector supplies products for the European market. Belgium's own petrol station businesses face considerable rationalisation, with average throughput well below EC levels. (author)

  8. Health Information in French (français)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biopsy - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Breast Biopsy - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Colposcopy - français (French) Bilingual PDF ...

  9. [Primary care in Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2017-09-01

    Belgium is an attractive country to work in, not just for doctors but for all Spanish workers, due to it having the headquarters of European Union. The health job allure is double; on the one hand, the opportunity to find a decent job, and on the other, because it is possible to develop their professional abilities with patients of the same nationality in a health system with a different way of working. The Belgium health care system is based on security social models. Health care is financed by the government, social security contributions, and voluntary private health insurance. Primary care in Belgium is very different to that in Spain. Citizens may freely choose their doctor (general practitioner or specialist) increasing the lack of coordination between primary and specialized care. This leads to serious patient safety problems and loss of efficiency within the system. Belgium is a European country with room to improve preventive coverage. General practitioners are self-employed professionals with free choice of setting, and their salary is linked to their professional activity. Ambulatory care is subjected to co-payment, and this fact leads to great inequities on access to care. The statistics say that there is universal coverage but, in 2010, 14% of the population did not seek medical contact due to economic problems. It takes 3 years to become a General Practitioner and continuing medical education is compulsory to be revalidated. In general, Belgian and Spaniards living and working in Belgium are happy with the functioning of the health care system. However, as doctors, we should be aware that it is a health care system in which access is constrained for some people, and preventive coverage could be improved. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Pogodba o mednarodnem franšizingu

    OpenAIRE

    Hafner, Neža

    2016-01-01

    V mednarodnem poslovanju so slovenski podjetniki vedno pogosteje udeleženi v franšiznih sistemih ameriških in evropskih podjetij. Njuno medsebojno sodelovanje odraža dogovor v obliki pogodbe o mednarodnem franšizingu. Pogodba je kompleksen pravni posel, ki ga slovenska zakonodaja posebej ne ureja in se je razvila iz poslovne prakse. V literaturi je zaslediti več različnih opredelitev pogodbe, zato je težko določiti njeno edinstveno definicijo. Franšizorji so običajno lastniki uspešnih, že ute...

  11. François Dosse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta de Moraes Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available François Dosse, historiador francês, nasceu em Paris numa família de classe média, e desde cedo se interessou por política, vinculando-se quando jovem ao trotskismo. Estudou sociologia e história na Université de Vincennes - Paris VIII. Aprovado no exame de Agrégation, lecionou vários anos nos liceus de Pontoise e Boulogne-Billancourt. Foi Maître de conférences no IUFM (Instituto de Formação de Mestres de Versailles e no de Nanterre. Foi aprovado no exame para dirigir pesquisas em 2001, quando produziu um trabalho sobre Michel de Certeau e consolidou sua orientação para a área de teoria da história e historiografia. A convite de Henri Rousseau, vinculou-se ao IHTP, onde participou de vários seminários voltados à epistemologia dos estudos sobre o tempo presente. Publicou inúmeros trabalhos nessa área, focalizando especialmente biografias de intelectuais como Paul Ricoeur e Pierre Nora. Atualmente é Professor no IUFM de Créteil.

  12. Nuclear fuel activities in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bairiot, H

    1997-12-01

    In his presentation on nuclear fuel activities in belgium the author considers the following directions of this work: fuel fabrication, NPP operation, fuel performance, research and development programmes.

  13. Lexique Pove–Français/Français– Pove, Mickala Manfoumbi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Français/Français–. Pove (Mickala Manfoumbi 2004) fait par Mavoungou (2005). En dehors des réserves sur les ques- tions purement lexicographiques, l'ouvrage de Mickala Manfoumbi suscite des interrogations inté- ressantes qui dépassent le ...

  14. François Bayrou visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 3 July, François Bayrou, president of the French political party MOuvement DÉMocrate, visited CERN and took part in a round-table discussion. François Bayrou and Yves Schutz, from the ALICE collaboration, on the experimental site.As a politician, Mr Bayrou greatly appreciated the opportunity to hold discussions with CERN scientists on the international and collaborative nature of the science being done here, and on the development of particle physics over the next fifty years.

  15. Frans Gregersen 60 år

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Tore; Pedersen, Inge Lise; Jørgensen, J. Normann

    2009-01-01

    Hvis man vil mene at "københavnsk sociolingvistik" er alt for snævert som tilbageblik når Frans Gregersen fylder 60, så har man helt bestemt fat i en sandhed. Men sandheden har som bekendt både en kerne og mindst to sider. På den ene side: Det vidtrækkende udsyn og indsyn, langt ud over Valby bakke......, har aldrig rokket ved fødselarens grundlæggende forankring i København; han har altid været københavner, i enhver tænkelig forstand. På den anden side: Midt i den vidtfavnende beskæftigelse med så meget andet, af både faglig og administrativ art, har Frans aldrig sluppet taget i det hjertebarn – den...

  16. Franšizno poslovanje - stanje u Hrvatskoj

    OpenAIRE

    Erceg, Aleksandar; Čičić, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Franšiza se javlja kada tvrtka (davatelj franšize) svoje trgovačko ime (brend) i svoj način (sistem poslovanja, know-how) daje na korištenje određenoj osobi ili grupi (primatelju franšize) koja se slaže da će poslovati u skladu s uvjetima ugovora o franšizi. Brojne su podjele i vrste franšize s kojima se susrećemo u istraživanjima i praksi. Razlozi korištenja franšiznog poslovanja najčešće se opisuju korištenjem dviju teorija: agencijskom teorijom i teorijom nedostatka potencijala (resursa). ...

  17. Robert Cailliau honoured by Belgium

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 15 November, Robert Cailliau received the distinction of Commandeur de l'Ordre de Léopold from Belgium, his home country, for his pioneering work in developing the World Wide Web. Robert Cailliau worked closely with Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the Web.

  18. the Lexique kikongo–français by

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gilles-Maurice de Schryver

    français by the Jesuit missionary Charles Polis, is analysed in great detail. Section 1 expounds on the goal and ... dictionary manuscript for Kikongo: the Lexique kikongo–français by Charles Polis. s.j. (1885–†1943). .... Inkisi River, and all but one (Leverville, the present Lusanga) are close to that river, which thus strongly ...

  19. Nuclear emergency planning in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeesters, P.; Van Bladel, L.

    1995-01-01

    After a small presentation of the international recommendations supporting decision-making, this paper presents the limits of them. For example, particular groups such as pregnant women, are not taken into account. As a matter of fact, the belgium approach is as follows: take into account the more recent risk evaluation for radiation-induced effects, give priority to protecting public health (instead of purely financial cost/benefit analysis), integrate countermeasures aiming at preventive protection of the food chain... But, it should be stressed that those measures present several problems. The main one concerns the information of the public, which should be given as fast as possible. (TEC)

  20. Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Maeyaert, Stijn; Judo, Frank; Vandeburie, Aurelien; Lindemans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The Government Procurement Review brings together contributions from procurement lawyers across five continents and provides real insight to the key issues in government procurement across the different jurisdictions.This publication brings together even wider geographic coverage than the first edition, now covering six continents and 24 national chapters (including the EU chapter) and providing real insight to the key issues in government procurement across the different jurisdictions.

  1. Testez vos connaissances en langue française

    CERN Document Server

    Bouvet, Stéphanie

    2009-01-01

    C'est bien connu, la langue française est riche, très riche. Le " petit " Larousse ne compte pas moins de 150 000 définitions ! Le problème, c'est qu'elle est même tellement riche que vous y perdez parfois votre latin. Avec Testez vos connaissances en langue française, vous allez pouvoir réviser vos classiques tout en découvrant des trésors bien cachés du lexique français : étymologies surprenantes, sens insoupçonné de mots régionaux ou d'argotismes, équivalences entre mots de niveau de langage différents, etc. Ludique et instructif, Testez vos connaissances en langue française est un voyage à travers l'histoire des mots et des usages.

  2. ˝FLUMINENSIA˝ VON FRAN KURELAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldina Veronika Banaš

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Das Buch "Fluminensia" (1862 von Fran Kurelac enthält die für die Schulfestlichkeiten geschriebenen Reden, Gelegenheitsgedichte - Ehrengedichte den bedeutenden und verdienstvollen Zeitgenossen gewidmet: dem Bischof von Senj und Modrus" Mirko Ožegović, Bartol Zmajic von Bakar, dem kroatischen Ban Josip Jelačić u.a. Danach folgen Aufrufe ("Proglasi" aus stürmischem 1848, gerichtet auf die Granzlandbewohner, Deutscher, ungarische Kroaten, Rumänen und Slawonier. Die Aufrufe wurden von Kurelac im Namen der Banalregierung beschrieben. Am Ende des Buches steht eine sprachwissenschaftliche Abhandlung über die ubstantivbiegung. Die für die Schulfestlichkeiten geschreibenen Reden sind wissenschaftliche Inhalte, essaystisch-didaktisch gestalltet, mit der Meldung über die Bedeutung der Wisenschaft, über die Bedeutung und Rolle der Sprache und des Buches für den Fortschritt des Volkes. Der Verfasser widmete dieses Buch seinen ehemaligen Schülern. "Fluminensia" nimmt eine wichtige Stelle in literarischer und sprachwissenschaftlicher Schöpfung auf dem Gebiet von Rijeka und Kroatien im 19. Jahrhundert ein.

  3. Agricultural marketing in Belgium and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Viaene, J.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture in Belgium and the Netherlands has a strong export tradition and has been market oriented for a long time. In this article agricultural markeling in Belgium and the Netherlands is analyzed on the basis of the concepts structure, conduct and performance. In our review of market structure

  4. The Sorrows of Belgium. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Wouters

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On the surface one might assume Martin Conway’s The Sorrows of Belgium. Liberation and political reconstruction 1944-1947 (Oxford, 2012 is exactly what its title implies - a book about the difficult early post-war years in Belgium, and in part this book is exactly that. Conway does offer a detailed cross-sectional analysis of the post-war transition years, ending his story with the Communist departure from the Belgian government in 1947. This book does a lot more than that however, as it attempts to use Belgium to better understand how European state restorations after World War Two in general took shape. In his book Conway confidently merges political, social and economic history that are often still detached schools of research. He brings together elements of institutional reform and the agenda of state elites, social class agency, the fluid dynamics of collective national and regional (or local identities, changing political norms and cultural values, and the role of several key individuals such as the head of state and the prime minister. Such a holistic approach is a rather un-Belgian one, unfortunately. Perhaps this partly explains why the book – although universally well-received – caused debate among some Belgian historians, for example in a debate session on 6thSeptember 2012 at the Brussels based CEGESOMA, where ten Belgian historians and two non-Belgian specialists (Peter Romijn from NIOD and Robert Gerwarth from University College Dublin, who had previously worked with Conway on these issues discussed the book with the author. Some Belgian specialists encountered problems accepting the label ‘conservative’ used by Conway to define Belgian society in 1945-1947, or to understand why he consciously leaves out the post-war purges (the so-called ‘repression’ in Belgium, or accepting that Conway uses 1947 as a terminus instead of 1950-1951 (the formal end of the Belgian Royal Question. This last point loomed over the debate

  5. Health care reform in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schokkaert, Erik; Van de Voorde, Carine

    2005-09-01

    Curbing the growth of public sector health expenditures has been the proclaimed government objective in Belgium since the 1980s. However, the respect for freedom of choice for patients and for therapeutic freedom for providers has blocked the introduction of microeconomic incentives and quality control. Therefore--with some exceptions, particularly in the hospital sector--policy has consisted mainly of tariff and supply restrictions and increases in co-payments. These measures have not been successful in curbing the growth of expenditures. Moreover, there remains a large variation in medical practices. While the structure of health financing is relatively progressive from an international perspective, socioeconomic and regional inequalities in health persist. The most important challenge is the restructuring of the basic decision-making processes; i.e. a simplification of the bureaucratic procedures and a re-examination of the role of regional authorities and sickness funds. Copyright (c) 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Euthanasia for Detainees in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devolder, Katrien

    2016-07-01

    In 2011, Frank Van Den Bleeken became the first detainee to request euthanasia under Belgium's Euthanasia Act of 2002. This article investigates whether it would be lawful and morally permissible for a doctor to accede to this request. Though Van Den Bleeken has not been held accountable for the crimes he committed, he has been detained in an ordinary prison, without appropriate psychiatric care, for more than 30 years. It is first established that Van Den Bleeken's euthanasia request plausibly meets the relevant conditions of the Euthanasia Act and that, consequently, a doctor could lawfully fulfill it. Next, it is argued that autonomy-based reasons for euthanizing him outweigh complicity-based reasons against doing so, and that, therefore, it is also morally permissible for a doctor to carry out the euthanasia request.

  7. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detilleux, E.

    1984-01-01

    The first part of this paper briefly describes the nuclear industry in Belgium and the problem of radioactive wastes with regard to their quality and quantity. The second part emphasizes the recent guidelines regarding the management of the nuclear industry in general and the radioactive wastes in particular. In this respect, important tasks are the reinforcement of administrative structures with regard to the supervision and the control of nuclear activities, the establishment of a mixed company entrusted with the covering of the needs of nuclear plants in the field of nuclear fuels and particularly the setting up of a public autonomous and specialized organization, the 'Public Organization for the Management of Radioactive Waste and Fissile Materials', in short 'O.N.D.R.A.F.'. This organization is in charge of the management of the transport, the conditioning, the storage and the disposal of radioactive wastes. (Auth.)

  8. The Belgium debate on tactical nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumoulin, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This publication proposes a discussion about the opinions and positions of the various Belgium political actors and authorities regarding nuclear weapons. After a synthesis of several interviews with different actors, the author analyses the debate content, and more precisely the positions of peace movements, of the government, and of political parties. Several documents are proposed in appendix: a presentation of the evolution on Belgium nuclear missions, a government's answer to parliamentary resolutions regarding non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament, and a working paper submitted by Belgium, Norway and the Netherlands in the perspective of the 2005 Conference of Parties on the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  9. Recent trends in Belgium's gas activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuijpers, Ch.; Woitrin, D.

    2010-01-01

    This article brings various recent trends together to provide a view of the natural gas activities in Belgium. Belgium has a strategic position as an important nodal point in the North-Western European gas grids. This is illustrated by the high interconnection rate with adjacent networks. Gas volumes are attracted for international transit from border point to border point and to supply the national market. Natural gas represents more than a quarter of Belgium's energy mix and is completely dependent on foreign gas supplies. The Belgian gas market and transmission grid are broken down for H-gas (high calorific value, average of 11,630 kWh/m 3 (n)) and for L-gas (low calorific value, average of 9,769 kWh/m 3 (n)). This article is intended to disclose some statistics in order to contribute to the understanding and benchmarking of Belgium's gas flows, gas consumption, supply diversification and import capacity. (authors)

  10. Climate index for Belgium - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Belgium. (J.S.)

  11. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the research association BELGOWASTE was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: Purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste; centralization assumes the making of adequate arrangements for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of resiudal material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste; deep clay formations are at present preferred; disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol [fr

  12. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the research association BelgoWaste was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste, centralization assuming that adequate arrangements are made for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of residual material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste (deep clay formations are at present preferred); and disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic Ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol. (author)

  13. François de Rose (1910 - 2014)

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2014-01-01

    One of CERN’s founding fathers has passed away.   François de Rose in the ATLAS cavern during his visit to CERN in 2013. Visionaries have the freedom of mind to shape the future when other people’s horizons are obstructed by the present. François de Rose was a visionary. In the aftermath of the Second World War, when Europe was in ruin, when absolutely everything had to be rebuilt, the diplomat understood the importance of reviving fundamental research and, above all, of cooperation on a continental scale as the driving force of this ambition. In a Europe that was just starting to get back on its feet, it would be no mean feat. Nonetheless, François, alongside the prominent physicists of the time, put his energy into making this vision a reality. They lobbied governments for the creation of a centre that would work towards this goal, winning support, and CERN was established in 1954, an achievement of which François was extremely...

  14. Particules de vie conversation avec François Englert

    CERN Document Server

    Baré, François

    2014-01-01

    Ce fut l'événement de l'année 2013 : François Englert obtenait le prix Nobel de physique pour la découverte du boson. Le premier Belge à être honoré par ce prix depuis Ilya Prigogine en 1977. Françoise Baré, journaliste à la RTBF, et Guy Duplat, ingénieur civil physicien, ex-rédacteur en chef du Soir, auteur de Une vague belge (Racine) et journaliste à La Libre Belgique, ont rencontré plusieurs fois, longuement, François Englert, avant son prix et après celui-ci. Ils étaient là lors de l'annonce de la découverte du boson de BEH, lors de l'annonce du prix Nobel et, à Stockholm, lors de la remise du prix par le roi de Suède. À eux, François Englert a accepté de raconter sa chasse au boson, sa vie, ses idées. Au fil de la conversation se dessine alors le portrait attachant d'un homme brillant et libre, habité par un rêve, celui de comprendre, de décortiquer ce monde et de chercher la beauté de ses lois. Avec, en annexe, les grands points scientifiques qui éclairent le travail de F...

  15. The puzzle of Fran: home healthcare in a hurricane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D

    1998-10-01

    A natural disaster in the form of Hurricane Fran resulted not only in stories of ingenuity and compassion, but in a major performance improvement (PI) process for the entire agency. Through this PI process we learned about ourselves as a home health agency and discovered ways to improve our performance. More importantly we discovered ways to improve patient tracking and care during a disaster.

  16. Comédie-Française Tallinnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    La Comedie-Française Tallinnas 7. ja 8. veebruaril, külalisetendused Draamateatris : Molière'i komöödia "Naeruväärsed eputised" Dan Jemmeti lavastuses ja Spiro Scimone "Pidu", Galin Stoevi lavastuses

  17. 75 FR 13454 - Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast... navigable waters of Huntington Bay, New York due to the annual Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships. The..., ``Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY'' (Docket number USCG...

  18. 75 FR 38710 - Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast... Regulation on the navigable waters of Huntington Bay, New York due to the annual Fran Schnarr Open Water... ``Special Local Regulation, Fran Schnarr Open Water Championships, Huntington Bay, NY'' in the Federal...

  19. Comparison of locomotor behaviour between white-headed langurs Trachypithecus leucocephalus and François’ langurs T. françoisi in Fusui, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jinrong XIONG; Shihua GONG; Chenggang QIU; Zhaoyuan LI

    2009-01-01

    We studied the locomotor behaviour of white-headed langurs Trachypithecus leucocephalus and François’ langurs T.françoisi to test two hypotheses: (1) these monkeys have evolved locomotor ability to support their activities on limestone hills, and (2) François’ langurs have evolved more diverse locomotor skills than white-headed langurs. Data were collected from 1996–1998 and in 2005 in Fusui Nature Reserve, Guangxi, and showed that the two species had similar locomotor types, but François’ l...

  20. Report on the application of INES in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The report on the application of INES in Belgium discusses the following topics: historical aspects; communication organization; communication policy in Belgium; events with difficulties or learning opportunities; public acceptance of INES issues; problems with the current systems

  1. The radon anomaly of Porcheresse (Ardennes, Belgium). A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlet, J.M.; Zhu, H.C.; Poffijn, A.

    1999-01-01

    From a very high radon concentration in a dwelling of the village of Porcheresse (Belgium), the paper discusses on of the significance of the numerous radon indoor anomalies detected in the Southern part of Belgium

  2. François-Ronan Dubois, Introduction aux Porn Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Garnier, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Partant des débats qui entourent la pornographie et sa consommation (la pornographie est-elle sexiste ? Ou bien féministe ? Qu’en est-il de la moralité et de la législation ?…), François-Ronan Dubois, agrégé de lettres modernes et doctorant en littérature française, s’interroge sur les porn studies discipline novatrice originaire des États-Unis, qui s’est récemment imposée comme essentielle pour apporter un discours compétent sur la pornographie. Les porn studies s’emparant des formes et des ...

  3. Hommage à François Morel (1923-2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Corvol, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Le 9 mai 2007, François Morel nous quittait à l’âge de 84 ans, après toute une vie consacrée à la recherche sur la physiologie rénale qu’il a réalisée en grande partie au Collège de France où il a été titulaire de la chaire de Physiologie cellulaire de 1967 à 1993. François Morel était né à Genève en 1923. Son père était titulaire de la chaire de Psychiatrie dans cette ville, ce qui l’a sans doute incité à entreprendre des études de médecine. En fait, il n’a jamais exercé la médecine car, trè...

  4. François Morel (1923-2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Corvol, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Le 9 mai 2007, François Morel nous quittait à l’âge de 84 ans, après toute une vie consacrée à la recherche sur la physiologie rénale qu’il a réalisée en grande partie au Collège de France où il a été titulaire de la chaire de Physiologie cellulaire de 1967 à 1993. François Morel était né à Genève en 1923. Son père était titulaire de la chaire de Psychiatrie dans cette ville, ce qui l’a sans doute incité à entreprendre des études de médecine. En fait, il n’a jamais exercé la médecine car, trè...

  5. Modeling of flow through fractured tuff at Fran Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.R.; Ho, C.K.; Glass, R.J.; Nicholl, M.J.; Arnold, B.W.

    1996-01-01

    Numerical studies have modeled an infiltration experiment at Fran Ridge, using the TOUGH2 code, to aid in the selection of computational models for waste repository performance assessment. This study investigates the capabilities of TOUGH2 to simulate transient flows through highly fractured tuff, and provides a possible means of calibrating hydrologic parameters such as effective fracture aperture and fracture-matrix connectivity. Two distinctly different conceptual models were used in the TOUGH2 code, the dual permeability model and the equivalent continuum model. The field experiments involved the infiltration of dyed ponded water in highly fractured tuff. The infiltration observed in the experiment was subsequently modeled using Fran Ridge fracture frequencies, obtained during post-experiment site excavation. Comparison of the TOUGH2 results obtained using the two conceptual models gives insight into their relative strengths and weaknesses

  6. Euthanasia in Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Each of the Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands) has enacted legislation that partially decriminalises euthanasia, defined as an act that intentionally terminates someone's life at their request. In the Netherlands and Luxembourg, but not in Belgium, the legislation partially decriminalised assisted suicide at the same time. In all three countries, euthanasia can only be performed by a doctor, in response to the patient's voluntary and well-considered request, and for patients who have an incurable disease that causes unbearable suffering, without any prospect of relief. In the Netherlands, minors can request euthanasia as of the age of 12 years. In 2011, reported euthanasia accounted for about 1% of deaths in Belgium and 3% in the Netherlands. In 75% of cases, cancer was the disease leading to a request for euthanasia. In the Netherlands, the number of cases of euthanasia reported by doctors in surveys matches the number that is officially declared. In Belgium, it is thought that there are as many unreported as reported cases of euthanasia. Since the enactment of euthanasia legislation, fewer deaths involve the intentional administration of lethal drugs without an explicit request from the patient.

  7. Wingas in natural gas supply in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Recently Wingas has become active in the transport and supply of natural gas in Belgium and succeeded in entering contracts for the supply of natural gas which cover 6% of the Belgian market. Wingas is a German-Russian joint venture between BASF-daughter Wintershall and OAO Gasprom [nl

  8. Elementary Particle Physics in Belgium Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The experimental activities of the Belgian Universities and Institutes are performed within the framework of large international collaborations. Moreover, the universities whose name is colored in light blue with * on the map of Belgium also take part into theoretical work. (All these activities are mainly supported by the FNRS-FWO research foundations.)

  9. Health and social inequities in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, R; Humblet, P C; Lenaerts, A; Godin, I; Moens, G F

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents two different yet complementary on-going studies related to the understanding of the mechanisms leading to social inequalities in health. The first part is devoted to a differential morbidity survey held in southern Belgium. It confirms that striking differences exist in the period around birth between social categories, and between the three districts under study. In a multivariate approach, differences remain between the social categories and between the district samples, which classically studied socio-demographical, behavioural and medical characteristics cannot fully explain. The role of cultural factors is analysed and discussed through the concept of 'health culture' and alternative hypotheses are reviewed in the light of the results. The second part reviews the studies conducted on the so-called avoidable mortality in the EEC and more specifically in Belgium. The concept of avoidable mortality is discussed, as well as its utility from the standpoint of the present concern on social inequalities. Differences between EEC countries are large, and even within Belgium there are important disparities between the districts. The role of health care supply has not been demonstrated yet in these two contexts. For Belgium, it appears that a major part of the unequally distributed mortality is constituted by causes of death considered as avoidable. Moreover, the most discriminating causes of death are overrepresented in socially deprived districts. The two perspectives are confronted in order to delineate perspectives for future research and operational outcomes for policy making and interventions.

  10. François Grabowski ( 1939–2008 )

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    We are saddened by the news that our colleague François Grabowski passed away at the end of April. François joined CERN in February 1968, and as a member of the RF Separators Group in TC Division he participated in the construction of the separator on the beam of the Mirabelle bubble chamber and its installation at Serpukhov (former Soviet Union). He also helped build the shielding for the West Area neutrino beam and the 6 GHz RF separator installed on the separated beam for the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC). During the 80s, as a member of the Superconducting Cavities Group of EF Division (subsequently to become the AT Department), he took part in the development and construction of the LEP200 cavities. Finally, as a member of the SL Division, he went on to work on the superconducting cavities for the LHC. François retired from CERN in July 2004 but was sadly unable to make the most of the time remaining to him as he battled ...

  11. Franšīzes līgums

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziņš, Artūrs

    2011-01-01

    Bakalaura darba "Franšīzes līgums" mērķis ir jaunā nacionālā tiesiskā regulējuma izpēte, tā atbilstības starptautiskajam regulējumam konstatēšana. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no četrām nodaļām, kurās tiek aplūkots franšīzes līgums un tā būtība, tā atšķirība no citiem civiltieskiem līgumiem, franšīzes attīstība Latvijā un tiesiskā regulējuma pilnveidošana Eiropas Savienības tiesiskā regulējuma ietvaros, kā arī problēmjautājumi un to risinājums. Darba autors nonāk pie secinājuma, ka nolūkā past...

  12. Franšīzes devēju un franšīzes ņēmēju konfliktu izraisošie faktori

    OpenAIRE

    Iļjenko, Ivonna

    2015-01-01

    Maģistra darba nosaukums ir „Franšīzes devēju un franšīzes ņēmēju konfliktu izraisošie faktori”. Maģistra darba mērķis ir identificēt būtiskākos konfliktu izraisošos faktorus franšīzes devēju un franšīzes ņēmēju attiecībās, raksturot franšīzes praktisko pielietojumu un izstrādāt priekšlikumus franšīzes popularizēšanai un konfliktu novēršanai franšīzes attiecībās Latvijā. Darba pirmajā nodaļā raksturota franšīzes būtība, tās priekšrocības un trūkumi, konflikta process, konfliktu izraisošie...

  13. Report on nuclear energy in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The findings of a Commission set up in 1975 to report to Belgium's Minister of Economic Affairs on the various aspects of the question of nuclear energy are discussed. The Commission is basically in favour of the increased use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity, but emphasises that the main purpose of its Report is to furnish reasoned judgements to serve as the basis for informed debate. It concludes that the matter is essentially political. Economic, technical, public health and environmental aspects are considered. The present nuclear power programme is briefly reviewed, including reactors planned for up to 1982. The main conclusions of the Report are summarised, including economic and financial considerations. The possibilities of alternative sources of energy are considered, and it is concluded that only coal, oil and natural gas could be important for Belgium in the short or medium term. A policy of diversification should be favoured. (U.K.)

  14. Energy policies of IEA countries: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The report contains a comprehensive in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Belgium, including recommendations on future policy. Belgium has been successful in phasing out the exploitation of its high-cost and uncompetitive coal, without major social problems. To enhance its energy supplies, it has developed a nuclear industry based on a high level of technology and promoted natural gas imports. The electricity and gas industries are highly concentrated and integrated, in many cases preventing competition from working to benefit consumers. Structural reforms in the electricity and gas markets are required to create competitive, efficient, and flexible markets. The report also recommends that responsibilities transferred from the federal government to the three governments need to be harmonized, especially those concerning climate change

  15. Actual and Potential Electoral Absenteeism in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    ACKAERT, Johan; DUMONT, P.; DE WINTER, L.

    2007-01-01

    During the eighties and nineties of the 20th century, absenteeism increased in Belgium. This evolution ended for all types of elections at the beginning of the current century. This paper offered a number of potential explanations for this puzzle, but we acknowledge that further examination is necessary to provide a clear answer for this change. We showed that potential absenteeists share specific characteristics. Potential turnout (in case of abolishment of compulsory voting) ...

  16. History of health technology assessment in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleemput, Irina; Van Wilder, Philippe

    2009-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of health technology assessment (HTA) in Belgium. The information included in the overview is based on legal documents and publicly available year reports of the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). Belgium has a relatively young history in HTA. The principle of evidence-based medicine (EBM) was introduced in the drug reimbursement procedure in 2001, with the establishment of the Drug Reimbursement Committee (DRC). The DRC assesses the efficacy, safety, convenience, applicability, and effectiveness of a drug relative to existing treatment alternatives. For some drugs, relative cost-effectiveness is also evaluated. The activities of the DRC can, therefore, be considered to be the first official HTA activities in Belgium. Later, in 2003, KCE was established. Its mission was to perform policy preparing research in the healthcare and health insurance sector and to give advice to policy makers about how they can obtain an efficient allocation of limited healthcare resources that optimizes the quality and accessibility of health care. This broad mission has been operationalized by activities in three domains of research: HTA, health services research, and good clinical practice. KCE is independent from the policy maker. Its HTAs contain policy recommendations that may inform policy decisions but are not binding. Although the Belgian history of HTA is relatively short, its foundations are strong and the impact of HTA increasing. Nevertheless KCE has many challenges for the future, including continued quality assurance, further development of international collaboration, and further development of methodological guidance for HTA.

  17. Drugs used for euthanasia in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Stichele, R H; Bilsen, J J R; Bernheim, J L; Mortier, F; Deliens, L

    2004-02-01

    Our aim was to describe and assess the medicinal products and doses used for euthanasia in a series of cases, identified within an epidemiological death certificate study in Belgium, where euthanasia was until recently legally forbidden and where guidelines for euthanasia are not available. In a random sample of the deaths in 1998 in Belgium, the physicians who signed the death certificates were identified and sent an anonymous mail questionnaire. The questionnaires of the deaths classified as euthanasia cases were reviewed by a multi-disciplinary panel. A total of 22 among 1925 questionnaires pertained to voluntary euthanasia. In 17 cases, detailed information on the euthanatics (medicinal substances used for euthanasia) used was provided. Opioids were used in 13 cases (in 7 as a single drug). Time between last dose and expiry ranged from 4 to 900 min. The panel judged that only in 4 cases effective euthanatics were used. In the end-of-life decision cases perceived by Belgian physicians as euthanasia, pharmacological practices were disparate, although dominated by the use of morphine, in the very late phase of dying, in doses which were unlikely to be lethal. Most physicians clandestinely engaging in euthanasia in Belgium seemed unaware of procedures for guaranteeing a quick, mild and certain death. Information on the pharmacological aspects of euthanasia should be included in the medical curriculum and continuing medical education, at least in countries with a legal framework permitting euthanasia under specified conditions.

  18. 2017 Outstanding Contributions to ISCB Award: Fran Lewitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Christiana N; Kovats, Diane E; Berger, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    The Outstanding Contributions to the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) Award was launched in 2015 to recognize individuals who have made lasting and valuable contributions to the Society through their leadership, service, and educational work, or a combination of these areas. Fran Lewitter is the 2017 winner of the Outstanding Contributions to ISCB Award and will be recognized at the 2017 Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB)/European Conference on Computational Biology, meeting in Prague, Czech Republic being held from July 21-25, 2017.

  19. François Louis (1928-2010)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    François Louis, who was a CERN mathematician from 1957 to 1988, passed away on 23 March 2010.   Everyone who was at CERN in the early years will remember the important role he played before the advent of computers, as well as his skills as a teacher when it became imperative for us all to make use of them. His lessons, at all levels, were remarkable for their precision and clarity. François loved to share his gifts of intelligence and culture with his friends and colleagues. Never turning down a request for help, he imparted his wisdom to the many who sought it with unfailing modesty and wit. We recall with affection his wonderful conversation, where mathematics merged with literature, cinema and his other great passion, music. Indeed he will also be remembered as a gifted pianist. His critical spirit and impeccable manners, born of a bygone era, left an indelible mark on us all. We are deeply saddened by his death. His friends      

  20. Competitiveness of nuclear power in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, G.; Gillon, J.P.; Delvoye, J.

    1995-01-01

    In Belgium, the power utilities have to draw up periodically, for the Belgium Government, a national equipment plan so as to substantiate the investments planned for the ten year period that follows the publication of the plan. The justification of this plan is mainly based on the cost of the kilowatt-hour produced by the different types of power units. The most recently published plan covers the period 1988-1998. The three power generation means considered in Belgium for comparison are nuclear, coal and gas. Taking into account the official calculation criteria (discount rate of 8.6% and book-keeping life of 20 years), nuclear generation is clearly situated between the low and high hypotheses for gas, while coal is more costly. By using more realistic values of the book-keeping life, nuclear and gas are at the same level. Nuclear power generation can be an economic option for base load generation, especially if gas prices go up. This may be the case in the coming years, since 'a dash for gas' is currently being experienced and since the nuclear fuel costs are lower than the conservative price level adopted in the equipment plant in 1988. Despite the advantages of nuclear energy (economic advantages as a result of price stability, ecological advantages with respect to the greenhouse effect and carbon dioxide production, political advantages in terms of energy independence, and industrial advantages in terms of benefits to the domestic economy), it can only be developed in a favourable context if it is accepted by the citizens. This is the reason why the utilities are waiting for a national political consensus before introducing officially new nuclear plants in their planning proposals. (author). 7 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Langue française et culture francophone en domaine ibérique nouvelles intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Castanyer, Maria Teresa; Desvaux, Alicia Piquer

    2016-01-01

    Ce volume rassemble divers travaux portant sur les différents enjeux de l'enseignement et l'apprentissage du français langue étrangère, de la traduction et de l'évolution des représentations véhiculées dans la transmission de la culture française et francophone.

  2. A l'écoute de la langue française

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Un professeur de français ? C'est quand vous voulez ! Entièrement sonorisé, exercices et corrigés, professeurs particulier par e-mail, navigation bilingue. 108 leçons en 3 niveaux. Parlez comme les français !

  3. FRAN: financial ratio analysis and more (Version 2.0 for Windows)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Hansen; Arnold J., Jr. Palmer

    1999-01-01

    FRAN is a computer-based, stand-alone program designed to generate important financial and operating ratios from tax and wage forms filed with the Internal Revenue Service. FRAN generates standard profitability, financial/leverage, liquidity/solvency, and activity ratios, as well as unique measures of workforce and capital cost and acquisition. Information produced by...

  4. Me seisame uue renessansi lävel / Frans Johansson ; interv. Endrik Randoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Frans

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 2. apr. lk. 28. Juhtimismõtleja ja raamatu "Medici efekt" autor Frans Johansson arutleb teemal, kuidas erinevate ideede, tegevusalade, kultuuride ja kompetentside ristamisel luuakse uusi turge ja ärivõimalusi. Lisa: Frans Johansson

  5. Emergency Planning and Preparedness in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, D.; Maris, M.

    1998-01-01

    The present Belgian nuclear emergency planning and preparedness is based on experience cumulated since the early eighties. This paper describes the organisation, actuation process, the emergency planning zones and the applicable intervention guidance levels. The role of AVN as on-site inspector, nuclear emergency adviser and emergency assessor is explained as well as its human and technical resources. Finally the paper presents briefly the experience feedback on emergency exercises and training in Belgium as well as AVN's views on some debatable topics. (author)

  6. Country policy profile - Belgium. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In Belgium renewable energy is a regional matter, with exceptions for offshore wind power, hydropower and renewable energy sources used in transport which are governed by national regulations. Electricity from renewable sources is promoted mainly through a quota system based on the trade of certificates. Net metering regulation is in place in the regions Brussels, Flanders and Wallonia. For renewable heating and cooling, companies are eligible for a tax deduction on investment costs. The main support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system (RES-Legal Europe, 2014)

  7. The green lacewings in Belgium (Neuroptera : Chrysopidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bozsik, Andras; Mignon, Jacques; Gaspar, Charles

    2002-01-01

    There are merely three published sources of information on the green lacewings in Belgium. The first two were written by a Belgian and a Catalan author at the beginning of the 20th century and the third was published in 1980. Interestingly, the most recent study reported the fewest species (11), the most previous contained 12 and the second one showed 17 species, This confused situation and the paucity of data initiated the authors to identify the green lacewing collection of the Gembloux Uni...

  8. Hantavirus disease (nephropathia epidemica) in Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersago, K.; Verhagen, R.; Servais, A.

    2009-01-01

    vole (Myodes glareolus) abundance peaks. In Western Europe, these abundance peaks are often related to high tree seed production, which is supposedly triggered by specific weather conditions. We evaluated the relationship between tree seed production, climate and NE incidence in Belgium and show...... that NE epidemics are indeed preceded by abundant tree seed production. Moreover, a direct link between climate and NE incidence is found. High summer and autumn temperatures, 2 years and 1 year respectively before NE occurrence, relate to high NE incidence. This enables early forecasting of NE outbreaks...

  9. Consortia for Electronic Library Provision in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Van Borm

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available E-libraries just like the former paper-based libraries will become increasingly essential and indispensable tools in research and education. Library consortia seem to be the way to get e-libraries started all over the world. However, it is unclear yet whether this is going to be a longlasting workable model. The Belgian research libraries follow the international pattern and are rapidly becoming hybrid libraries especially in business, science, applied sciences and biomedicine (the STM disciplines. Still they have large paper bound collections on board and no library is willing to replace these in the near future by a purely electronic collection of journals. The fear of losing the content and thus the „raison d’être“ of the library and the concern for users not yet familiar with e-information sources are the cornerstone for a prudent, yet conservative policy. Increasingly e-information and e-journals are being taken on board. Paper and electronic go side by side in new hybrid libraries partly also due to the market policy set by the publishers in combining paper and electronic in an attempt to keep or improve the annual turnover reached during the past paper period. The transition from paper to electronic occurred in Belgium somewhat later than in other Western European countries. This confirms the position of Belgium often taking up an average position in Western Europe.

  10. Françoise Battagliola, Histoire du travail des femmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Rist

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Initialement paru en 2000, l’ouvrage de Françoise Battagliola vient de bénéficier d’une nouvelle édition : en une centaine de pages denses et bien documentées, l’auteure y brosse un parcours passionnant de l’histoire du travail des femmes en France depuis les débuts de l’industrialisation jus-qu’à la fin du XXe siècle.Le propos s’organise, en gros, selon un axe chronologique, lequel sert de fil conducteur à une problématique voulant éclairer l’histoire, non « des femmes ou du féminin mais des...

  11. Le français de la communication professionnelle

    CERN Document Server

    Danilo, Michel; Lincoln, M

    A partir de 150 heures de français. - Pour acquérir une bonne maîtrise des pratiques professionnelles. - Pour améliorer ses connaissances de la langue tout en se familiarisant avec les pratiques langagières spécifiques du monde du travail. - Pour préparer les examens de la Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de Paris. Dix dossiers : - La communication dans les affaires - Le travail administratif - Le téléphone - La communication interne - Le courrier de l'entreprise - L'offre et la commande - Livraison, transport, assurance - La facturation et le règlement - La communication avec les partenaires - Les nouveaux outils de communication Une cassette audio ainsi que des corrigés accompagnent ce livre.

  12. THE KAJKAVIAN DIALECT IN FRAN GALOVIĆ’S WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jela Maresić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paper analyzes the Kajkavian dialect in Fran Galović’s literary works: the unfinished Kajkavian collection of poems Z mojih bregov (1914, the unfinished novel Rastanak (1914, and the unfinished play Sodoma (1911. In these works the author uses, in various ways, the urban Zagrebian Kajkavian dialect and the local Kajkavian dialect of Peteranec. The paper also includes an overview of the general literary tendencies of the literary movement in which Galović took part and which is called ‘Moderna’. The authors also deal with some of the most important editions of Galović’s works, and they base their linguistic analysis on the manuscripts that are kept in the National and University library in Zagreb.

  13. François Valentijn Antara etika dan estetika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Z. Leirissa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A controversial book on the history of the VOC in the seventeenth century waswritten by François Valentijn, a preacher in the payroll of the Dutch East IndiaCompany (VOC. The book (eight volumes, published in 1724-1726, was knownby its popular title Oud en Nieuw Oost-Indiën. Most of the materials in the bookwere pirated from other sources without acknowledging their authors as isthe proper practice of historiography. But as to its style, a number of Dutchwriters appreciated its esthetic qualities. Beside that, the book is indeed usefulto historians today because some of the materials pirated in the book have nowbeen lost forever.

  14. Conjugaison progressive du français avec 400 exercices

    CERN Document Server

    Boularès, Michèle

    1999-01-01

    La Conjugaison progressive du français s'adresse aux grands adolescents et aux adultes de tous niveaux. C'est un ouvrage d'apprentissage des formes verbales. On trouve sur la page de gauche : - la règle de formation de chaque temps ; - les verbes types présentés en tableaux et accompagnés d'une liste de verbes conjugués sur le même modèle ; - des remarques phonétiques ou orthographiques ; - des explications sur les difficultés particulières. La page de droite propose des exercices et des activités de difficulté progressive. C'est également un ouvrage de référence grâce aux nombreux tableaux de conjugaison qu'il contient.

  15. Jullien François, Le nu impossible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Delobelle

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bien qu’il ne s’agisse ici que d’esthétique, ce livret intéresse cependant la généralité des sciences humaines par la distinction extrêmement pertinente que l’A. introduit et développe entre les notions de forme externe et de forme interne. En partant du pro­blème posé par la représentation plastique du corps humain, François Jullien note en effet que l’artiste a toujours à choisir entre deux manières fondamentales : ou, comme dans les Idoles cycladiques, se limiter à une « géométrisation du ...

  16. Purple vests. The origins of plural policing in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devroe, E.

    2015-01-01

    This article increases the body of knowledge on the origins of plural policing in a continental setting, more specifically in Belgium. Compared to other European countries, Belgium occupies a unique position, which can be explained by its particular constitutional setting. While non-police public

  17. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Belgium consists of three regions: Brussels, Flanders and Wallonia, each with much autonomy in determining renewable support policies, except for support to offshore wind and hydro power which fall under the competence of the federal government. Electricity from renewable sources is promoted at regional and federal levels mainly through a quota system based on the trade of certificates, complemented by regional support measures. In the three regions small PV installations benefit from net metering. The federal government supports renewable heating and cooling by way of a tax deduction on investment costs. The main support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system under the competence of the federal government

  18. La gouvernance des villes françaises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Pinson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article défend l’idée selon laquelle il n’est plus satisfaisant d’étudier les formes du gouvernement des villes françaises au travers du seul cadre d’analyse des rapports centre-périphérie. La dévolution de compétences aux gouvernements urbains, les transformations du capitalisme et des politiques des États ont fait des villes françaises non plus uniquement des espaces de mise en œuvre des politiques publiques mais des acteurs de l’élaboration de ces politiques et des visions stratégiques qui les inspirent. Les relations « horizontales » qui associent les acteurs urbains peuvent être considérées comme la première explication des formes que prend l’action publique urbaine. Dès lors, il est légitime d’appréhender désormais la gouvernance et les politiques urbaines en France au travers d’outils théoriques qui accordent un rôle de premier plan aux interactions entre acteurs et groupes urbains et aux conflits et logiques de coalition dans lesquels ils sont impliqués. Parmi ces outils théoriques, l’approche en termes de régimes urbains semble particulièrement prometteuse.This article defends the idea according to which it is not satisfactory any more to study the forms of governance of the French cities through the centre-periphery analytical framework. The devolution of new functions to urban governments, the transformations of capitalism and States policies have turned French cities from mere implementation spaces of public policies built at another level to central actors of the production of urban policies and strategies. The «horizontal» relationships linking the urban actors between them can be considered to be the first explanation of the scope and shapes of urban policies. Since then, it is legitimate to study urban governance and policies in French cities through theoretical tools which grant a primary role to the interactions between urban actors and groups and to the conflicts and

  19. In memory of Jean-François Stéphan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, René

    2016-01-01

    This thematic issue of Comptes rendus Geoscience has been assembled to honor the memory of our late colleague and friend Jean-François Stéphan, whose remarkable scientific and community-directed activity has left a deep imprint on both the French and the International Earth Science communities. This volume brings together contributions of colleagues of Jean-François who were also close friends. Naturally, tectonics is the common theme of these contributions. Some of the papers presented here focus on tectonic questions and/or regions Jean-François worked on during his career; other papers present studies Jean-François motivated or encouraged in one way or another. Taken together, the papers of this thematic issue take the reader on a beautiful trip, from past to current tectonics.

  20. Dictionnaire étymologique du français

    CERN Document Server

    Picoche, Jacqueline

    1979-01-01

    Cette nouvelle édition du Dictionnaire étymologique du français, largement enrichie, présente l'arbre généalogique de près de 35 000 mots. Savez-vous que concerto, décret et discernement ont la même racine que crible ?. Que chauvin, espiègle et rocambolesque viennent de noms de personnages de la littérature ?. Que le sens premier de amadouer est " frotter avec de l'amadou " pour se jaunir le teint ?. Pour chaque mot, retrouvez sa famille, son origine, son sens originel ou le sens de sa racine, les diverses formes qu'il a prises depuis sa première attestation et les règles phonétiques expliquant son évolution. Des annexes traitent plus particulièrement des mots à syllabes redoublées (coco, zigzag), de ceux formés sur des onomatopées (hennir, ouistiti) et de ceux venant de noms de personnes (dahlia, praline) ou de lieux (bougie, rugby).

  1. La crise sociale aux Antilles françaises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La crise sociale qui a récemment secoué les Antilles françaises consacre le retour de la « question sociale » sur les scènes politiques insulaires. Elle s’est également traduite par un dessaisissement du personnel politique dont la parole est devenue inaudible, et une montée en puissance de la société civile. Loin d’avoir réglé les problèmes structurels, elle témoigne cependant d’une évolution significative des rapports entre l’outre-mer et l’Hexagone.The social crisis which recently shook the French West Indies legitimises the return of the “social question” on the insular political scenes. It also resulted in a withdrawal of the political personnel whose discourse became inaudible and in the emergence of civil society. Far from having resolved the structural problems, it reveals a significant change of the relationship between the overseas territories  and the Hexagon.

  2. FRAN KURELAC: »RUNJE / PAHULJICE« IRONICAL AND PASTORAL POEMS MOSTLY FROM DUBROVNIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldina Veronika Banaš

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces readers to the book of poems »Runje i Pahuljice« by Fran Kurelac giving details and preparations for the book to be published: from manuscript gathering to his editorial work. This paper presents a contribution in remembrance and honour to Fran Kurelac whose book »Fluminensia« has become a trade-mark for our review »Fluminensia«.

  3. Cancer mortality among nuclear workers in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, H.; Holmstock, L.; Mieghem, E. Van; Swaen, G.M.; Wambersie, A.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate long term health effects of chronic exposure to low doses of ionising radiation, the Nuclear Research Center (SCK.CEN) in Mol set up a retrospective cohort study in 5 nuclear facilities in Belgium (SCK.CEN, Belgonucleaire, Belgoprocess, 2 Electrabel nuclear power plants). Cancer mortality among nuclear workers is studied in relation to occupational exposure to ionising radiation. This study is part of the 'International Collaborative Study on Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers', coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO), pooling data of 14 countries. During the period 1953-1994, all workers registered in one of the participating facilities were included in the study (n=7361). Data have been collected from different information sources: personnel registries (identification, occupational history), dosimetry records (e.g. annual effective dose), National Population Registry and local authorities (vital status). National Institute of Statistics (causes of death from the death certificates), National Radiation Registry/Ministry of Labour (transfer doses), questionnaires (e.g. smoking habits). Retrospective collection of data and privacy protection regulations specific to Belgium hampered the conduct of this study, causing labour intensive and time consuming procedures. Written informed consent of next-of-kin is required to obtain information from the death certificates. Before 1969 only family reported causes of death are available. Despite the above mentioned constraints, first results of Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) calculations are now available for SCK.CEN workers for the period 1969-1994 (n=3270, vital status ascertainment: 95%, underlying cause of death ascertainment: 80%). Available SMR's can be summarised as follows: male workers, no measurable dose (n=785): SMR all causes=75% (95%CI: 61-91), SMR all tumours=64% (95%CI: 42-93), 2 leukemia deaths were observed, whereas 1 is expected, male workers, measurable

  4. Alternatives to detention: open family units in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Schockaert

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary outcomes of an alternative to detention programme in Belgium, based on case management and individual ‘coaches’ for families, are positive and merit consideration by other countries.

  5. Non power applications of nuclear technology: The case of Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaumotte, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    The historical review and oversight of Belgium activities in applications of nuclear technologies has been presented. Especially attention have been paid on industrial applications as sterilization of surgical tools, medical supplies, drugs, food; radiation induced polymerization and composite materials production; nondestructive testing and application of sealed sources in industry. The detailed review has been done on nuclear medicine development in Belgium covering the range of therapeutic applications as well as diagnostic techniques

  6. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy Caparros Megido; Sandrine Desmedt; Christophe Blecker; François Béra; Éric Haubruge; Taofic Alabi; Frédéric Francis

    2017-01-01

    Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crick...

  7. Euthanasia and palliative sedation in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Almagor, Raphael; Ely, E Wesley

    2018-01-04

    The aim of this article is to use data from Belgium to analyse distinctions between palliative sedation and euthanasia. There is a need to reduce confusion and improve communication related to patient management at the end of life specifically regarding the rapidly expanding area of patient care that incorporates a spectrum of nuanced yet overlapping terms such as palliative care, sedation, palliative sedation, continued sedation, continued sedation until death, terminal sedation, voluntary euthanasia and involuntary euthanasia. Some physicians and nurses mistakenly think that relieving suffering at the end of life by heavily sedating patients is a form of euthanasia, when indeed it is merely responding to the ordinary and proportionate needs of the patient. Concerns are raised about abuse in the form of deliberate involuntary euthanasia, obfuscation and disregard for the processes sustaining the management of refractory suffering at the end of life. Some suggestions designed to improve patient management and prevent potential abuse are offered. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Antibiotic prescribing in dental practice in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, A; D'Hoore, W; Vanheusden, A; Van Nieuwenhuysen, J-P

    2009-12-01

    To assess the types and frequency of antibiotic prescriptions by Belgian dentists, the indications for antibiotic prescription, and dentists' knowledge about recommended practice in antibiotic use. In this cross-sectional survey, dental practitioners were asked to record information about all antibiotics prescribed to their patients during a 2-week period. The dental practitioners were also asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire regarding demographic data, prescribing practices, and knowledge about antibiotic use. A random sample of 268 Belgian dentists participated in the survey. During the 2-week period, 24 421 patient encounters were recorded; 1033 patients were prescribed an antibiotic (4.2%). The median number of prescriptions per dentist for the 2 weeks was 3. Broad spectrum antibiotics were most commonly prescribed: 82% of all prescriptions were for amoxycillin, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and clindamycin. Antibiotics were often prescribed in the absence of fever (92.2%) and without any local treatment (54.2%). The most frequent diagnosis for which antibiotics were prescribed was periapical abscess (51.9%). Antibiotics were prescribed to 63.3% of patients with periapical abscess and 4.3% of patients with pulpitis. Patterns of prescriptions were confirmed by the data from the self-reported practice. Discrepancies between observed and recommended practice support the need for educational initiatives to promote rational use of antibiotics in dentistry in Belgium.

  9. The state of psychiatry in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Marc H M; de Witte, Nele; Dom, Geert

    2012-08-01

    Belgium, at the crossroads of different cultures, developed complex governmental structures hindering the development of comprehensive mental health policies. A total of 10.2% of the gross domestic product is spent on healthcare but only 6.1% of this total expenditure goes to mental health. Although mental healthcare is largely accessible and offers high levels of quality, it is questionable whether this can be maintained, given the economic climate. The collection of epidemiological data is problematic due to the different ways registration takes place within different care systems and the complexity of the state structure and its consecutive constitutional reforms. Coming from a largely hospital-driven psychiatric care, mental healthcare reforms of past decades have created more community-based care and new care pathways, still an on-going process. Psychiatry as a profession is currently challenged. Teaching mental health issues remains extremely limited within medical schools, resources for research are disproportionally limited, and working conditions less favourable, all this compared with other specialisms. Hence few graduates choose a career in psychiatry. Changing the public perception of what psychiatry is about, redefining the identity of psychiatrists as medical specialists, and their work have become important challenges for the next future.

  10. A survey of medical informatics in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, F H; Behets, M; Andre, J; de Moor, G; Sevens, C; Willems, J L

    1987-01-01

    The Belgian Society for Medical Informatics (MIM) organized a survey in 1986 in order to assess the present state of development of medical informatics in Belgium. Questionnaires were sent to hospitals, laboratories, private practitioners and pharmacists, as well as to social security organizations and software industries. The response rate was higher in hospitals (93%) than in any other category. Results showed a large number of computerized hospitals (93% of general acute care hospitals and 91% of psychiatric hospitals). There has been a sharp increase (+ 15%) in computerization of the admission, accounting and billing procedures since 1985, most likely in relation with administrative rules issued by the Belgian Government. The same trend (+ 20%) has been observed for computer applications in clinical laboratories, between 1984 and 1985. There is almost one computer terminal for ten beds in the hospitals with more than 200 beds in 1986. This figure exemplifies the present trend to on-line access to data. Computerized instrumental aids to medicine such as text processing, imaging or computerized interpretation of signals have known a rapid extension during recent years, although less comprehensive than administrative applications in hospitals and in social security organizations. The present state of other applications in medicine (general practice, pharmacy, etc.) was more difficult to assess as those information systems remain more pinpointed. In all medical fields, there appears to be a new rise in computer programs offered by software companies.

  11. Selection of potential sites in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damme, R. van den

    1976-01-01

    The construction of two nuclear power plants of 1000 MW is planned. In the framework of the characteristics of the country (lack of big rivers, population density, etc.) and because of the thermal saturation of the Scheldt and Meuse rivers the two units if installed along these rivers will be cooled in closed circuit. For economic considerations Belgium thought to site them along the coast in open-circuit cooling but for ecological and touristic reasons some opposition arose. A new possible siting could be Doel on the same site of the existing three units with a final concentration of 3000 MW. For the second unit different possible sites exist with some preference for Tihange, where two other units are installed. For the 1985 generation of nuclear power units the siting conditions remain the same: inland siting using cooling towers and coastal sites with open-circuit cooling, with a new possibility of creating artificial islands along the Belgian coast. The technical aspects of this alternative are reviewed. (A.F.)

  12. Uranium series disequilibrium measurements at Mol, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovich, M.; Wilkins, M.A.

    1985-02-01

    The contract just completed has funded two parallel uranium series disequilibrium studies and the aims of and the progress to completion of these studies are given in this report. The larger study was concerned with the measurement of uranium series disequilibrium in ground waters derived from sand layers above and below the Boom Clay formation in North East Belgium. The disequilibrium data are analysed in terms of uranium, thorium and radium isotopic geochemistries and in terms of water types and their mixing in the regional groundwater system. It is concluded that most sampled waters are mixtures of younger and older waters. No true old water end-members have been sampled. Simple considerations of the uranium isotopic data indicate that the longest residence times of the sampled waters are not much in excess of 1 to 10 x 10 3 y. Detailed mixing patterns could not be established from this limited data set particularly in the absence of more detailed modelling in conjunction with groundwater hydraulic pressure and flow direction data. (author)

  13. Rétrospective de la diffusion du français en Espagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Cros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Le français bénéficia longtemps en Espagne d’une vieille tradition francophile et de la forte implantation de l’Alliance française. Ainsi, il prédomina dans le système éducatif espagnol jusqu’au milieu du 20ème siècle sans intervention de l’État français pour en assurer la diffusion. Son déclin, amorcé sous Franco, nécessita toutefois la mise en place d’une politique linguistique et éducative compensatoire qui aboutit à un premier accord bilatéral favorisant surtout le développement de l’enseignement en français au sein du réseau de la Mission laïque mais qui eut peu d’effets à l’école espagnole où le français fut relégué au rang de deuxième langue étrangère. Cependant, suite à son adhésion à l’Europe, l’Espagne a recréé, en partenariat avec la France, une dynamique pour le français, notamment grâce aux sections bilingues qui connaissent un succès croissant. La langue française, considérée à présent davantage comme une langue utile, de communication et de travail, est enseignée suivant une méthodologie communicative plus adaptée aux réalités socio-économiques.

  14. Belgium: National approach to ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In Belgium, the licenses for operation of the nuclear power plants granted by Royal Decree do not specify a fixed lifetime. The oldest plants, Doel 1&2 and Tihange 1, have been operational since 1975. The 2003 law regarding the exit from nuclear power limits the operation of nuclear power plants to 40 years. However, in October 2009, the Belgian government declared that they intended to make it legally possible for Doel 1&2 and Tihange 1 to operate until 2025, which would mean a total lifetime of 50 years (this statement was confirmed by the Belgian government in June 2012, only for the Tihange 1 plant). The Belgian Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC) published in 2009 a strategic note regarding the requirements of long-term operation for Doel 1&2 and Tihange 1. Electrabel GDF SUEZ started its LTO programme in order to respond to these requirements. The LTO programme consisted of the following areas of concern, identified in the FANC strategic note: − Preconditions for long-term operation considering the IAEA expectations; − Ageing management; − Design re-evaluation; − Knowledge, competence and behaviour management. The note also stated that the long-term operation of the plants should be evaluated within the framework of the fourth ten-yearly PSR, based upon IAEA NS-G-2.10. As such a license renewal was not required for LTO and the LTO approval will be integrated in the approval process of the 4th PSR. In its strategic note, the Belgian Federal Agency for Nuclear Control explicitly states that the AMP has to be in conformity with the USNRC 10CFR54 and IAEA SRS 57

  15. Tradable green certificates in Flanders (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel

    2004-01-01

    The paper provides details on green certificate systems in Belgium. The Flemish region has established a system and the Walloon region is preparing a slightly different one. The lack of uniformity and consequently of transparency in one country emphasises the need for more EU leadership in the field. The main part of the article analyses the established Flemish system. Green certificates are complementary to other instruments that promote renewable electricity, e.g. direct subventions on the feed-in price of green electricity or direct subventions on capital investments. Certificates execute a forcing effect on the actual development of green power if the imposed shares of green power in total sales are significant and if the fine level is at the height to enforce the quota. If the fine is too low the incentive effect turns into a financing tax effect. When the green certificate system does the job it is designed for, i.e. operating at the edge of the RES-E development and organise the transition from a non-sustainable to a sustainable power system, certificate prices will be high and reduce end-use consumption of electricity. A segmentation of the RES-E sector along the various RES-E technologies is a necessity to keep any certificate system affordable, effective and efficient. One can segment the tradable certificate market or one can assign a different number of certificates to a different RES-E technology project. Both solutions require an intensive follow-up of cost structures and of other policy measures (subventions), but given the infant state of understanding and experience segmenting markets may be best in the nearby years. (Author)

  16. IDF-curves for precipitation In Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohymont, Bernard; Demarde, Gaston R.

    2004-01-01

    The Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves for precipitation constitute a relationship between the intensity, the duration and the frequency of rainfall amounts. The intensity of precipitation is expressed in mm/h, the duration or aggregation time is the length of the interval considered while the frequency stands for the probability of occurrence of the event. IDF-curves constitute a classical and useful tool that is primarily used to dimension hydraulic structures in general, as e.g., sewer systems and which are consequently used to assess the risk of inundation. In this presentation, the IDF relation for precipitation is studied for different locations in Belgium. These locations correspond to two long-term, high-quality precipitation networks of the RMIB: (a) the daily precipitation depths of the climatological network (more than 200 stations, 1951-2001 baseline period); (b) the high-frequency 10-minutes precipitation depths of the hydro meteorological network (more than 30 stations, 15 to 33 years baseline period). For the station of Uccle, an uninterrupted time-series of more than one hundred years of 10-minutes rainfall data is available. The proposed technique for assessing the curves is based on maximum annual values of precipitation. A new analytical formula for the IDF-curves was developed such that these curves stay valid for aggregation times ranging from 10 minutes to 30 days (when fitted with appropriate data). Moreover, all parameters of this formula have physical dimensions. Finally, adequate spatial interpolation techniques are used to provide nationwide extreme values precipitation depths for short- to long-term durations With a given return period. These values are estimated on the grid points of the Belgian ALADIN-domain used in the operational weather forecasts at the RMIB.(Author)

  17. FRAN and RBF-PSO as two components of a hyper framework to recognize protein folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Elham; Ghatee, Mehdi; Shiri, M E

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, an intelligent hyper framework is proposed to recognize protein folds from its amino acid sequence which is a fundamental problem in bioinformatics. This framework includes some statistical and intelligent algorithms for proteins classification. The main components of the proposed framework are the Fuzzy Resource-Allocating Network (FRAN) and the Radial Bases Function based on Particle Swarm Optimization (RBF-PSO). FRAN applies a dynamic method to tune up the RBF network parameters. Due to the patterns complexity captured in protein dataset, FRAN classifies the proteins under fuzzy conditions. Also, RBF-PSO applies PSO to tune up the RBF classifier. Experimental results demonstrate that FRAN improves prediction accuracy up to 51% and achieves acceptable multi-class results for protein fold prediction. Although RBF-PSO provides reasonable results for protein fold recognition up to 48%, it is weaker than FRAN in some cases. However the proposed hyper framework provides an opportunity to use a great range of intelligent methods and can learn from previous experiences. Thus it can avoid the weakness of some intelligent methods in terms of memory, computational time and static structure. Furthermore, the performance of this system can be enhanced throughout the system life-cycle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Overview of radium legacies in Belgium - 59367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehandschutter, B.; Jadoul, L.; Mannaerts, K.; Pepin, S.; Poffijn, A.; Blommaert, W.; Sonck, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Belgian metallurgical company, Union Miniere, has been a key-player in the sector of radium production between 1922 and 1969. The factory based in Olen has extracted radium from minerals and produced radium sources during that period. The radium production facilities have been dismantled in the 70's but legacies of the former production have still to be remediated. An overview of these legacies and of their radiological characteristics will be given. Next to the sites related to radium production, other radium legacies are related to NORM industries, essentially from the phosphate sector (phosphogypsum and CaF 2 stacks). The issue of radium legacies in Belgium encompasses a variety of concrete situations. Next to the issue of the legacies of the former radium production, the other radium contaminated sites are related to current or former NORM industries, especially from the phosphate sector. The methodological and regulatory approaches towards these sites have been described elsewhere in these proceedings. The outcome differs according to the specificities of the site: it will not be the same for the legacies of former radium production where the inventory of radioactivity includes materials which have to be considered and treated as radioactive waste (for example, disused radium sources) than for phosphogypsum stacks where a sufficient level of protection may be brought by relatively simple measures such as restrictions on the use of the site. For these sites, like PG stacks, where radon is the most important exposure pathway in case of intrusion scenario, regulatory measures similar to the ones applied to 'radon-prone areas' (restrictions in the construction of buildings, compulsory radon monitoring in workplaces present on the site,...) may be implemented. In all cases, the radiological risk-assessment will be crucial for the decision-making process. The examples given showed that the probability of occurrence of 'intrusion scenario' (like construction of

  19. Tax wedge in Croatia, Belgium, Estonia, Germany and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabrilo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the taxation of labour income in Croatia, Belgium,Estonia, Germany and Slovakia. Having presented an outline of tax system rules, the paper shows the decomposition of the net average tax wedge for different family types and different income levels based on the OECD methodology. The results show that all observed countries apply a progressive tax schedule, apart from Germany where taxation for higher gross wages is not progressive due to a  cap on the SIC base. When it comes to a taxpayer earning an average gross wage, a Croatian single worker without children has the lowest tax burden, followed by Estonia, Slovakia, Germany and Belgium. However, as regards taxpayers earning 400% of AGW, Estonia has the smallest tax wedge, followed by Slovakia, Germany, Croatia and Belgium. Similar results are obtained by analyzing the tax wedge for couples with two children where one spouse is out of work.

  20. The Historical Taboo: Colonial Discourses and Postcolonial Identities in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobineau Julien

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines so-called colonial discourses in Belgium related to the former Sub-Saharan colony owned by Leopold II of Belgium which today is known as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo or the Congo-Kinshasa. Having introduced the colonial history of the DR Congo from the 15th century until 1910, the study starts with a discussion of Van den Braembussche’s concept of a ‘historical taboo’ and four ways of engaging with such implicit interdictions. Finally, an empirical analysis of colonial discourses in Belgium from the 1890s until today will be presented in conjunction with Belgium’s linguistic-cultural division, taking into account age-related divergence.

  1. François Delsarte and Modern Dance: an encounter in physical expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Teixeira de Souza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses François Delsarte’s system of expression, known as Applied Aesthetics. It presents data related to François Delsarte’s career, such as personal and professional life and his theoretical background. It discusses the laws of gestural expression formulated by Delsarte – Trinity Law, the Law of Correspondence and the Nine Laws of Motion – as well as their dissemination and utilization in modern dance; this discussion mentions some pioneers of modern dance, such as Isadora Duncan, Ruth Saint Denis, Ted Shawn, Vaslav Nijinsky, Rudolf Laban and Mary Wigman.

  2. A classic Late Frasnian chondrichthyan assemblage from southern Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Michał; Gouwy, Sofie; Goolaerts, Stijn

    2017-09-01

    Samples from the Upper Frasnian (Devonian) of Lompret Quarry and Nismes railway section in Dinant Synclinorium, southern Belgium, yielded several chondrichthyan teeth and scales. The teeth belong to three genera: Phoebodus, Cladodoides and Protacrodus. The comparison with selected Late Frasnian chondrichthyan assemblages from the seas between Laurussia and Gondwana revealed substantial local differences of taxonomic composition due to palaeoenvironmental conditions, such as depth, distance to submarine platforms, oxygenation of water, and possibly also temperature. The assemblage from Belgium, with its high frequency of phoebodonts, is the most similar to that from the Ryauzyak section, South Urals, Russia, and the Horse Spring section, Canning Basin, Australia.

  3. Destruction of Chemical Weapons: Evaluation of the Donovan Contained Detonation Chamber (CDC) Poelkapelle, Belgium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeBisschop, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    The Royal Military Academy (RMA) of Belgium was requested by the Belgium Minister of Defense to study alternatives to destroy WWI chemical munitions in an environmentally safe manner (RMA Study F0016...

  4. Franšīzes izmantošana uzņēmumā McDonald’s.

    OpenAIRE

    Žučkova, Alina

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Franšīzes izmantošanas uzņēmumā McDonald’s”. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no četrām nodaļām. Pirmās nodaļas saturs ir balstīts uz franšīzes teorētiskā raksturojuma analīzi. Tas sevī ietver gan franšīzes būtību un principus, gan franšīzes attīstību un tās veidus, gan franšīzes iedalījumu pēc formas, kā arī franšīzes devēja un franšīzes ņēmēja ieguvumu un zaudējumu apskatu. Otrajā nodaļā tiek apskatīta Latvijas likumdošanas bāze, kas ir saistīta ar franšīzi. Tre...

  5. The effect of labour taxes on labour demand: a comparison between Belgium and neighbouring countries

    OpenAIRE

    Laenen, Wout; Moons, Cindy; Persyn, Damiaan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the evolution of labour costs and taxes in Belgium and neighbouring countries. We try to clarify the common issues in the current debate concerning labour costs and labour demand in Belgium and neighbouring countries and investigate the influence of labour costs on employment by using macroeconomic OECD data. We conclude that the tax wedge in Belgium is one of the highest of all OECD countries. Labour costs in Belgium rose at a moderate tempo, but labour productivity evolv...

  6. Income mobility and deprivation dynamics among the elderly in Belgium and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, H.J.; Fouarge, D.J.A.G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of income and deprivation among the elderly in Belgium and the Netherlands between 1985 and 1988. It appears that, in 1985, the average level of deprivation in Belgium and the Netherlands was about the same. However, Belgium saw an increase between 1985 and 1988,

  7. 75 FR 81309 - Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: United... on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The... on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan would be likely to lead...

  8. Mesolithic burial place in La Martina Cave (Dinant, Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewez, M.; Gilot, E.; Groessens-Van-Dyck, M.C.; Cordy, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The ''La Martina'' cave is located near Dinant (Belgium). Although the sediments had been shoveled out in the mid XIXth century, a calcic breccia has provided prehistoric bones. We can distinguish a Pleistocene fauna with cave bear, one Mesolithic burial place with two cromagnoid skeletons, from the 6th millennium BC, and some Holocene faunal remains. (authors). 7 refs

  9. Employee workplace representation in Belgium : effects on firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Annette; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Van der Brempt, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether works councils (WCs) in Belgium have a positive effect on firm performance, notably productivity and profitability, while taking the role of trade unions into account. Design/methodology/approach: The authors first introduce the typical

  10. Ageism in Belgium and Burundi: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquet M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Manon Marquet, Pierre Missotten, Sarah Schroyen, Desiderate Nindaba, Stéphane Adam Psychology of Aging Unit, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium Background: Recent cross-cultural comparisons between Asian and Western cultures have shown that ageism arises more from the lack of availability of social and economic resources for older adults than from the culture itself. We tested this assumption by conducting a survey among people living in a least developed country compared with those living in a developed country.Participants and methods: Twenty-seven Belgians living in Belgium, 29 Burundians living in Belgium, and 32 Burundians living in Burundi were included in this study. Their attitudes toward older adults were assessed using several self-reported measures.Results: Statistical analyses confirmed that older people are more negatively perceived by Burundians living in Burundi than by Burundians and Belgians living in Belgium, whose attitudes did not differ from each other.Conclusion: Consistent with our hypothesis, our results suggest that the level of development of a country and more particularly the lack of government spending on older people (pension and health care systems may contribute to their younger counterparts perceiving them more negatively. Keywords: attitudes toward older adults, cross-cultural differences, socioeconomic development, intergenerational relations

  11. JINR and Belgium Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Collaboration of JINR with research centres and universities in Belgium embraces various aspects of nuclear, elementary particle and solid-state physics. Involved in the co-operation with JINR scientists are Belgian colleagues from UIA (Antwerp), ISIPC, ULB, VUB (Brussels), IRMM (Geel) RUG (Gent), KUL (Leuven) IBAA (Louvain-la-Neuve) and the University of Mons.

  12. Nursing home policies regarding advance care planning in Flanders, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gendt, C.; Bilsen, J.; van der Stichele, R.; Deliens, L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to discover how many nursing homes (NHs) in Flanders (Belgium) have policies on advance care planning (ACP) and their content regarding different medical end-of-life decisions. Methods: A structured mail questionnaire was sent to the NH administrators of all 594

  13. Community nursing in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, J. van der; Kramer, K.; Kerkstra, A.; Stevens, F.C.J.; Derksen, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper contains a comparative study on community nursing in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany, carried out in the region around Maastricht, where the borders of the three countries meet. The well-known problem of comparative studies (the incomparability of concepts and data) has been solved

  14. Supplemental health insurance and equality of access in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Schokkaert (Schokkaert); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); D. de Graeve (Diana); A. Lecluyse (Ann); C. van de Voorde (Carine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of supplemental health insurance on health-care consumption crucially depend on specific institutional features of the health-care system. We analyse the situation in Belgium, a country with a very broad coverage in compulsory social health insurance and where supplemental

  15. Energy policies of IEA countries: Belgium 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Belgium continues to make measured progress in its energy policy, particularly with respect to electricity market liberalisation. The country has improved the independent functioning of the electricity market. An electricity exchange will begin operation shortly. However, to enable Belgian customers to fully benefit from energy market liberalisation, more work needs to be done. In 2003, Belgium decided to phase out nuclear power between 2015 and 2025. As nuclear energy supplies about 55% of the country's electricity, this will be a significant challenge. The federal government should conduct more comprehensive long-term studies on the nuclear energy phase-out and its effects on energy security, environmental protection and economic growth. Belgium's natural gas and electricity markets are highly concentrated. Companies owned by the international power group Suez SA dominate at all levels. Belgium has made some efforts to unbundle these industries and reduce their market dominance, but much more must be done to encourage new entry, increase competition and bring real economic benefits to Belgian customers. 50 refs., 40 tabs., 3 annexes.

  16. Intimate Relations between Occupiers and Occupied (Belgium and France)

    OpenAIRE

    Debruyne, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    During the invasion and occupation of 1914-1918, German soldiers had sexual relations with local women in Belgium and France. There were many cases of rape during the invasion, but the occupation itself was more characterized by a rise in prostitution. Other forms of intimate relations also emerged, but they generally did not outlast the war itself.

  17. Leadership Training Program for Medical Staff in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Neree; Brabanders, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Today healthcare is facing many challenges in a volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous environment. There is a need to develop strong leaders who can cope with these challenges. This article describes the process of a leadership training program for healthcare professionals in Belgium (named "Clinical Leadership Program" or…

  18. Administrative reform movements and commissions in Belgium 1848-2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Thijs (Nick); S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractCurrent analysis of the public administration’s dysfunctions in Belgium bears remarkable resemblance to the analyses made by numerous authors and commissions in the past 150 years. In this article, we provide an overview of the major administrative reform initiatives in

  19. The financial viability of the fitness industry in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breesch, D.; Vos, S.B.; Scheerder, J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether the fitness industry in Belgium is financially viable in its position as a growing commercial player within the framework of the European sport model where non-profit and public sport providers still have a strong impact.

  20. Nematode parasitism in adult dairy cows in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, J.; Claerebout, E.; Dorny, P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Vercruysse, J.

    2000-01-01

    Over a period of 1 year, from November 1997 to October 1998, the abomasa, blood and faecal samples of 121 dairy cows in Belgium were collected and examined for nematode infections. Nematodes were present in the abomasa of 110 animals. Ostertagia was found in all 110, Trichostrongylus was seen in 65

  1. Ten Lessons from Ten Years PPP Experience in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, T.; Verhoest, K.; Voets, J.; Coppens, T.; van Dooren, W.; van den Hurk, M.

    2017-01-01

    In 2004 Flanders, the northern region of Belgium launched a range of large public–private partnership (PPP) projects for a total value of 6 billion euros. Ten years later, PPP has become a well-embedded procurement method for long-term public infrastructure projects. This article makes a critical

  2. A pilot observational survey of hepatitis C in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Maeght, S.; Henrion, J.; Bourgeois, N.; de Galocsy, C.; Langlet, P.; Michielsen, P.; Reynaert, H.; Robaeys, G.; Sprengers, D.; Orlent, H.; Adler, M.

    2008-01-01

    There is a lack of epidemiological data on hepatitis C (HCV) infected patients in Belgium. Therefore our purpose was to address this important question and to evaluate the feasibility of a national HCV observatory. From November 2003 to November 2004, every new patient prospectively seen for HCV

  3. Labelling in the Dictionnaire Français-Mpongwé : A Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wat

    Français–Mpongwé: un cas à l'étude. Les dictionnaires .... words for deceitful people, (5) Labelling for words for sexual orientation, (6). Labelling for some ..... used the tilde ~ or the dash — to substitute the lemma in the illustrative exam- ples.

  4. Grammaire progressive du français niveau intermédiaire

    CERN Document Server

    Grégoire, Maïa

    2017-01-01

    Quatrième édition de l'ouvrage de Grammaire de français langue étrangère (FLE), niveau intermédiaire, dans la collection Progressive du français destiné aux grands adolescents et adultes. Ce qui fait le succès de cet ouvrage de Grammaire: une organisation claire : la leçon de grammaire sur la page de gauche; les exercices d'entraînement sur la page de droite 52 chapitres présentant les points généralement abordés aux niveaux A2 et B1 du Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues un apprentissage progressif : il suit la progression naturelle des méthodes de français un usage souple : pour la classe ou en auto-apprentissage une préparation adaptée aux certifications : un entreînement efficace pour mieux réussir aux examens NOUVEAU! Appli-web de la Grammaire progressive du français incluse Pour s'entraîner et s'évaluer en ligne en sollicitant toutes les compétences écrites et orales : près de 300 exercices interactifs avec dialogues, instructions, exemples et corrigés ora...

  5. Grammaire progressive du français corrigés : niveau intermédiaire

    CERN Document Server

    Thiévenaz, Odile

    2017-01-01

    Quatrième édition des corrigés de l'ouvrage de Grammaire de français langue étrangère (FLE), niveau intermédiaire, dans la collection Progressive du français destiné aux grands adolescents et adultes. Ce qui fait le succès de cet ouvrage de grammaire: Une organisation claire : la leçon de grammaire sur la page de gauche, les exercices d'entraînement sur la page de droite 52 chapitres présentant les points généralement abordés aux niveaux A2 et B1 du Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues Un apprentissage progressif : il suit la progression naturelle des méthodes de français Un usage souple : pour la classe ou en auto-apprentissage Une préparation adaptée aux certifications : un entraînement efficace pour mieux réussir aux examens NOUVEAU!​ Appli-Web de la Grammaire progressive du français Pour s'entraîner et s'évaluer en ligne en sollicitant toutes les compétences écrites et orales: près de 300 exercices interactifs avec dialogues, instructions, exemples et corri...

  6. Comédie-Française: tehtud! Kas ka nähtud? / Margot Visnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Visnap, Margot, 1959-

    2009-01-01

    La Comedie-Française külalisetendustest Eesti Draamateatris Tallinnas (Molière'i komöödia "Naeruväärsed eputised" ja Spiro Scimone "Pidu"), mis jäid artikli autori arvates suhteliselt tagasihoidlikuks

  7. Campus 3 méthode de français

    CERN Document Server

    Pécheur, Jacques; Molinié, Muriel

    2003-01-01

    Méthode de français pour grands adolescents et adultes sur 3 niveaux. Ce niveau comprend : un livre de l'élève, un cahier d'exercices, un livre du professeur, une vidéo, des cassettes audio collectives au CD, et pour l'élève : une cassette audio individuelle ou CD.

  8. 142 Perspective Actionelle Visa-a-Vis L'enseignement du Français ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    29 avr. 2010 ... Français Langue Entrangele au Nigeria : Problem et. Vision. Scholastica .... La langue est conçue comme un instrument de communication et ... langue est un outil fournissant une base commune pour l'enseignement et ...

  9. Vers l'integration des textes dans le programme du fran9ais langue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Au Malawi, on enseigne le fran9ais en tant que langue etrangere depuis une quarantaine d'annees .... !'organisation institutionnelle du systeme educatif du Malawi, le palier secondaire en ... Les objectifs du type : rediger une lettre, decrire une .... nouveau (rheme). Charolles souligne qu'il s'agit d'une performance delicate.

  10. A life of learning in Leiden. The mathematician Frans van Schooten (1615-1660)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dopper, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Frans van Schooten jr. (1615-1660) was one of the most influential Dutch mathematicians of the seventeenth century. He is best known for his two Latin editions (1649, 1659-61) of the Géométrie (1637) of Descartes, which originally appeared in French as an appendix to the Discours de la Methode. This

  11. Burial history of two potential clay host formations in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, J.; Wouters, L.; Van Marcke, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    When dealing with long term stability of repository host rocks, it is important to consider and learn from all past geological events since the deposition of the formations. The burial history of the Boom Clay and Ypresian Clays, both considered as potential host rocks in Belgium, illustrates that the North Belgian region was tectonically relatively stable since deposition. In Northern Belgium, where both formations are located at a few hundreds meters of depth, tectonic movements were relatively small and no significant uplifts took place. The burial history of the Boom Clay in Mol, where the HADES underground research facility is located illustrates this. On the poster, the burial history for both formations is presented at two locations each: one location in the outcrop region and one research site location, where the formation is currently buried under a few 100 metres of sediment. (authors)

  12. Regional emission balances for Belgium in the year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouma, J.W.J.

    1993-01-01

    Regional emission balances are vital with regard to an efficient energy and environmental policy. The emission balances were calculated on the basis of a top-down approach, making use of the regional energy balances for the three regions in Belgium (Wallonie, Brussels, Flanders regions). The emissions of NO X -, SO 2 -and CO 2 -gases in 1990 for the Flanders, the Wallonie and the Brussels region are presented. (A.S.)

  13. The last Frasnian Atrypida (Brachiopoda) in southern Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Godefroid, J.; Helsen, S.

    1998-01-01

    The last representatives of the order Atrypida on the southern flank of the Dinant Synclinorium (Vaulx-Nismes area) in Belgium belong to Costatrypa, Spinatrypa, Spinatrypina (?Spinatrypina), Spinatrypina (Exatrypa), Iowatrypa, ?Waiotrypa, Desquamatia (Desquamatia) and Desquamatia (?Seratrypa). Among the thirteen described taxa, five are new: Spinatrypa tumuli sp. n., Iowatrypa circuitionis sp. n., ?Waiotrypa pluvia sp. n., Desquamatia (Desquamatia) quieta sp. n. and Desquamatia (?Seratrypa) d...

  14. The foundation for climate services in Belgium: CORDEX.be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schaeybroeck, Bert; Termonia, Piet; De Ridder, Koen; Fettweis, Xavier; Gobin, Anne; Luyten, Patrick; Marbaix, Philippe; Pottiaux, Eric; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Van Lipzig, Nicole; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal; Willems, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    According to the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) there are four pillars required to build climate services. As the first step towards the realization of a climate center in Belgium, the national project CORDEX.be focused on one pillar: research modelling and projection. By bringing together the Belgian climate and impact modeling research of nine groups a data-driven capacity development and community building in Belgium based on interactions with users. The project is based on the international CORDEX ("COordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment") project where ".be" indicates it will go beyond for Belgium. Our national effort links to the regional climate initiatives through the contribution of multiple high-resolution climate simulations over Europe following the EURO-CORDEX guidelines. Additionally the same climate simulations were repeated at convection-permitting resolutions over Belgium (3 to 5 km). These were used to drive different local impact models to investigate the impact of climate change on urban effects, storm surges and waves, crop production and changes in emissions from vegetation. Akin to international frameworks such as CMIP and CORDEX a multi-model approach is adopted allowing for uncertainty estimation, a crucial aspect of climate projections for policy-making purposes. However, due to the lack of a large set of high resolution model runs, a combination of all available climate information is supplemented with the statistical downscaling approach. The organization of the project, together with its main results will be outlined. The proposed coordination framework could serve as a demonstration case for regions or countries where the climate-research capacity is present but a structure is required to assemble it coherently. Based on interactions and feedback with stakeholders different applications are planned, demonstrating the use of the climate data.

  15. Morphological and physiological profile of elite basketball players in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, Jan; Bourgois, Jan

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study aimed to gain insight into the physiological profile of elite basketball players in Belgium in relation to their position on the field. METHODS: The group consisted of 144 players, divided into 5 groups according to position (point guards [PG], shooting guards [SG], small forwards [SF], power forwards [PF] and centers [C]). The anthropometrics were measured and the subjects underwent fitness tests (incremental running test, 10m-sprint,5x10m,Squat and Counter Move...

  16. Belgium; Staff Report for the 2001 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2002-01-01

    This 2001 Article IV Consultation highlights that following four years of robust expansion, real GDP growth in Belgium slowed markedly in 2001, as higher oil prices, declining equity values, and the deteriorating external environment adversely affected business investment, household consumption, and exports. The outlook for 2002 depends critically on a recovery in the world economy and, especially, in Belgium’s key European trading partners. Growth for the year is projected by the IMF staff a...

  17. First record of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Francis; Van Bortel, Wim; Coosemans, Marc

    2004-06-01

    The 1st record of Aedes albopictus in Belgium was made in a village in Oost-Vlaanderen Province. Two preimaginal stages were collected on October 31, 2000, in the used tire stock of a recycling company that imports tires from the USA and Japan. The species has reproduced on site, and local environmental conditions make its establishment possible. Anopheles plumbeus was a common companion species found in tires in high densities.

  18. Recruitment barriers for prophylactic vaccine trials: A study in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Lauriane; Van Damme, Pierre; Vandermeulen, Corinne; Mali, Stéphanie

    2017-12-04

    Recruitment of volunteers is one of the main challenges in clinical trial management, and there is little information about recruitment barriers for preventative vaccine trials. We investigated both the recruitment barriers and recruitment strategies for preventive vaccine trials in Belgium. A 10 min survey was used as well as interviews of staff at all clinical trial sites in Belgium that regularly perform vaccine trials. We observed that there are successful recruitment strategies and few recruitment issues for trials involving healthy adults and those over 65 years old. However, challenges face the recruitment of paediatric populations, pregnant women, patients and the very elderly (over 85 years old). From these results, we identified three priority areas to increase recruitment for prophylactic vaccine trials in Belgium. These are: the lack of public knowledge about infectious diseases; the lack of resources of healthcare professionals to take part in clinical trials; and the burden to potential volunteers to take part in a trial. These were discussed with stakeholders and solutions were proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of the passage of a derecho in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Karim

    2012-04-01

    From the 7th July, 2010 until 14th July, 2010, a heat wave dominated the weather in Belgium. Three major storm situations occurred during this period and all three caused severe damage. In this paper, we discuss the last storm case of 14th July. That day, a quasi-linear convective system (QLCS) crossed parts of France, Belgium and the Netherlands and caused very important wind damages and at least 2 people were killed. Most of the damage was caused by straight-line wind but at least one tornado was observed over the north of the Netherlands. This complex was induced in a very favorable synoptic configuration for severe weather and also the timing of the storm was favorable. In the frame of the Supercell project at the RMI, a damage survey was made of one of the most affected regions, which yielded useful information about the origin of the losses. Careful examination of the radar imagery revealed some connections between internal mesovortices and tracks of enhanced damage. As far as known, this paper is the first description of a derecho in Belgium. It is also the first time a connection is shown between some mesovortices and several damage tracks over the country. During the evolution of the QLCS, several examples of successive vortices were found in front of the system. Several of the vortices were accompanied by a tornado or a funnel cloud and the damage was typically concentrated along elongated tracks.

  20. Action Française and culture : Life, Times and Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Fraixe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Olivier Dard, Michel Leymarie, Neil McWilliam (éds, Le maurrassisme et la culture. L’Action française. Culture, société, politique (III, Villeneuve-d’Ascq, Presses universitaires du Septentrion, 2010. This book is the result of a collective work on the intellectual hegemony which the Action Française exercised in France in the interwar period. It studies some of the main actors who constructed Maurrassism, the stategies which allowed them to dominate French cultural life from the beginning of the 1920s to the end of World War II and their ideology. It shows how this ideology was disseminated in different fields, history, literature, music, etc. and how this plural approach contributed to the success of a movement whose aim was to disqualify the very idea of democracy.

  1. Evidence and mechanism of Hurricane Fran-Induced ocean cooling in the Charleston Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lian; Pietrafesa, L. J.; Bohm, E.; Zhang, C.; Li, X.

    Evidence of enhanced sea surface cooling during and following the passage of Hurricane Fran in September 1996 over an oceanic depression located on the ocean margin offshore of Charleston, South Carolina (referred to as the Charleston Trough), [Pietrafesa, 1983] is documented. Approximately 4C° of sea surface temperature (SST) reduction within the Charleston Trough following the passage of Hurricane Fran was estimated based on SST imagery from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-14 polar orbiting satellite. Simulations using a three-dimensional coastal ocean model indicate that the largest SST reduction occurred within the Charleston Trough. This SST reduction can be explained by oceanic mixing due to storm-induced internal inertia-gravity waves.

  2. [The story of Annales pharmaceutiques françaises. 1809-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chast, F

    2009-11-01

    The Annales pharmaceutiques françaises is 200 years old. Initially, in 1809, the Bulletin de pharmacie was the organ of the Société de pharmacie de Paris. The journal was one of the dynamic events stimulated by the law of Germinal in year XI of the French revolution (1803). Its readership increased tremendously, rapidly making it the first regular journal in the pharmaceutical world. In 1984 it became the Journal de pharmacie et chimie published for a century. It was in 1943 that the journal took on its current name of the Annales pharmaceutiques françaises. The journal is now the official organ of the French National Academy of Pharmacy. The six annual issues are supplemented by an internet diffusion allowing readers access in all French-speaking countries.

  3. Book review: F. Azouvi, Le Mythe du grand silence: Auschwitz, les Français, la mémoire

    OpenAIRE

    Cavaletto , Andrea

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Review of: F. Azouvi, "Le Mythe du grand silence: Auschwitz, les Français, la mémoire", Fayard, 2012. Journal of Interdisciplinary History of Ideas, vol.2, n.4, December 2013

  4. Bibliographie d’histoire de l’éducation française

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

     Les notices contenues dans les numéros Bibliographie d'histoire de l’éducation française sont désormais intégrées dans la base de donnée de la BHEF, actualisée en permanence et accessible en ligne sur le site du Service d'histoire de l’éducation : http://www.inrp.fr/she/bhef/

  5. Des résumés en français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Patrut

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Des résumés en français
    BRAIN. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience
    CERVEAU. Recherche large en intelligence artificielle et neurosciences
    Volume 1, Numéro 4
    Juillet 2010: « Automne 2010»
    www.brain.edusoft.ro
    Sous la direction de: Bogdan Pătruţ

  6. ILALOK. Dictionnaire vili–français/Mpisukulu bi kum' bi tshi vili ku tshi mputu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Mavoungou

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available On connaît le vif intérêt de l'Institut des Langues Locales au Kouilou pour la promotion des langues maternelles et des cultures dont elles sont le véhicule irremplaçable. La parution aux Éditions L'Harmattan du Dictionnaire vili–fran-çais en 2008 vient couronner des années d'efforts acharnés et de privations. Ce dictionnaire, consacré au civili, poursuit ainsi la tradition des ouvrages lexico-graphiques commencés par les missionnaires. Pour le civili notamment on peut citer les contributions des révérends pères Derouet (n.d. et Marichelle (1902 qui furent imprimés à la vieille imprimerie de Loango. Dans la préface du Dic-tionnaire vili–français (en abrégé DVF dans le reste du texte, le R.P. Marichelle précise que la parution de son dictionnaire vient compléter l'oeuvre du R.P. Derouet auteur du Dictionnaire français–vili. Hormis les travaux lexicographi-ques sur le civili, deux autres ouvrages ont également été publiés. Il s'agit de Proverbes et dictons du Loango en Afrique Centrale de René Mavoungou Pambou (1997 et de Parlons vili de Gervais Loembé (2005. La parution du Dictionnaire vili–français complète parfaitement bien cette série.

  7. Wimpy UK restorānu franšīzes analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Ogurcova, Inna

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Wimpy UK restorānu franšīzes analīze”. Autore Inna Ogurcova. Darba mērķis ir balstoties uz teorētiskajām zināšanām, kā arī uz apkopoto un izpētīto informāciju par Wimpy UK uzņēmumu un tā konkurentiem, analizēt Wimpy UK franšīzes piedāvājumu un noteikt tā pieprasījuma samazināšanās iemeslu, kā arī izstrādāt ierosinājumus uzņēmuma franšīzes pieprasījuma palielināšanai. Bakalaura darba pamatdaļa sastāv no trijām daļām. Pirmajā, teorētiskajā daļā, tiek apskatīts fra...

  8. Objectif Express 1 le monde professionnel en français A1/A2

    CERN Document Server

    Tauzin, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    Avec un nouveau look et des contenus actualisés pour prendre en compte les évolutions du monde de l’entreprise française, la nouvelle édition d'Objectif Express 1 propose une parfaite association entre le français de tous les jours et le français de l'entreprise. 10 unités basées sur des thématiques de l'entreprise : Entrez en contact ; Organisez votre journée ; Trouvez un emploi ... Chaque unité propose : - 4 leçons d'apprentissage (1 leçon = 1 double page) basées sur des tâches concrètes et simples, ancrées dans le monde du travail francophone - 1 double page Outils linguistiques - 1 page Entrainez-vous - 1 page Testez-vous - 2 pages Repères dans chaque unité : des repères culturels et des repères professionnels Toutes les 3 unités, un scénario professionnel pour une mise en œuvre des acquis langagiers et une mobilisation des compétences professionnelles de l'apprenant. Une préparation aux diplômes DFP A2, DELF Pro A1 et A2 et au test BULATS En annexes : des tableaux d...

  9. A familial study of Hallermann–Streiff–François syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epée E

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available E Epée,1 D Beleho,2 AT Bitang,3 VA Njami,4 C Bengondo,5 Côme Ebana Mvogo1 1Ophthalmology Department, Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 2Ophthalmology Department, Okola District Hospital, Okola, Cameroon; 3Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 4Higher Institute of Health Sciences, Université des Montagnes, Bangangté, Cameroon; 5Stomatology Department, Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon Abstract: Hallermann–Streiff–François syndrome is a rare sporadic genetic pathology characterized by a phenotype consisting of growth retardation, ocular abnormalities, and a “bird-like head”. We hereby report a case of this syndrome found in three generations of the same family – father, daughter, and grand-daughter – who presented with a short stature and facial dysmorphic features, nystagmus, cataract, and bilateral microphthalmia. The discussion is based on the clinical and genetic aspects, and the challenges in management of this oculo-mandibulo-facial syndrome. The association of congenital cataract, facial dysmorphic features, and microphthalmia, should guide the diagnosis of dysmorphic syndromes such as Hallermann–Streiff–François syndrome. Keywords: Hallermann–Streiff–François syndrome, familial cataract, dysmorphic features, rare, Cameroon

  10. Subinertial response of the Gulf Stream System to Hurricane Fran of 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lian; Pietrafesa, Leonard J.; Zhang, Chen

    The evidence of subinertial-frequency (with periods from 2 days to 2 weeks) oceanic response to Hurricane Fran of 1996 is documented. Hurricane Fran traveled northward across the Gulf Stream and then over a cool-core trough, known as the Charleston Trough, due east of Charleston, SC and in the lee of the Charleston Bump during the period 4-5 September, 1996. During the passage of the storm, the trough closed into a gyre to form an intense cool-core cyclonic eddy. This cool-core eddy had an initial size of approximately 130 km by 170 km and drifted northeastward along the Gulf Stream front at a speed of 13 to 15 km/day as a subinertial baroclinic wave. Superimposed on this subinertial-frequency wave were near-inertial frequency, internal inertia-gravity waves formed in the stratified mixed-layer base after the passage of the storm. The results from a three-dimensional numerical ocean model confirm the existence of both near-inertial and subinertial-frequency waves in the Gulf Stream system during and after the passage of Hurricane Fran. Model results also showed that hurricane-forced oceanic response can modify Gulf Stream variability at both near-inertial and subinertial frequencies.

  11. Biznesa formāta franšīzes līguma tiesiskais regulējums

    OpenAIRE

    Gailāns, Andrejs

    2009-01-01

    Šajā darbā autors analizē tiesisko regulējumu, kas izriet no Biznesa Formāta Franšīzes (BFF) attiecībām. Darbā ir aprakstīta franšīzes līguma izcelšanās vēsture, sniegta Biznesa Formāta Franšīzes līguma definīcija, norādītas galvenās tā pazīmes, un kritēriji, ar kuriem BFF atšķiras no citiem franšīzes modeļiem, kā arī dots īss franšīzes veidu raksturojums. Darbā ir sniegts nozares doktrinālo dokumentu apraksts, kā arī aprakstīti franšīzes līguma nozīmīgākie posmi, tādi kā pirmslīguma attiecīb...

  12. Use of INIS magnetic tapes, in Belgium, with the help of STAIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coster, M. de; Bijnens, A.; Wandeler-Brankaer, M. de; Strubbe-Kuyer, A.

    1975-01-01

    In the framework of its participation to an international scientific information network, Belgium has developed a computerised sectorial nuclear system based on the use of the INIS magnetic tapes. Our paper describes how the system is operated by the CEN/SCK (Centre d'Etude de l'Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)) and the C.T.I. (Centre de Traitement de l'Information du Ministere des Affaires Economiques, Brussels (Belgium)). (authors)

  13. Roman whetstone production in northern Gaul (Belgium and northern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Thiébaux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the latest research on the production of Roman whetstones in northern Gaul. To date, little has been written about this specialised industry. However, three workshops producing whetstones were discovered recently in the north of Gaul in Buizingen (Province of Flemish Brabant, Belgium, Nereth (Province of Liège, Belgium and Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne (Department of Ardennes, France. Production debris and rough-outs recovered at these sites allowed us to reconstruct the operational sequence of manufacture, from the choice of raw material to the finished product. Technological studies enabled us to determine the production stages and highlight the similarities and differences between the three study areas. Analyses of the materials reveal the use of fine-grained sedimentary and low-grade metamorphic rocks outcropping near the workshops. All these rocks are linked to the Caledonian inliers of Brabant-London, Stavelot-Venn, and Rocroi. The large amount of waste found at Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne, far more than that recovered at Buizingen and Nereth, is indicative of the economic importance of this whetstone workshop. This importance is reflected in the fact that whetstones from Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne are distributed over a large area throughout Belgium, France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie and Champagne-Ardenne regions, Germany, and the Netherlands. This paper presents the waste and rough-outs from the three production sites. It also defines rock types and their origins and offers insights into whetstone manufacturing processes and techniques.

  14. Regional energy and environment exploration in Belgium 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciujpers, C.

    1994-01-01

    The prospects for energy consumption and related emission of NO x , SO 2 , and CO 2 gases for the year 2000 are reported for three regions (the Flanders, Brussels Metropolitan, and Wallonie region) in Belgium. Two scenarios were developed: a reference scenario in which the policy of 1990 is continued on the one hand and a policy making scenario in which the energy and carbon taxes, proposed by the European Commission are introduced on the other hand. This methodology allows to estimate the impact of the energy and carbon taxes on energy consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases. In conclusion is stated that at continued policy, primary energy consumption in Belgium will rise 22.4 percent from 1990 to 2000. The introduction of energy and carbon taxes will result in a reduction of the primary energy consumption with 5.9 percent. At a continued policy NO X , SO 2 emissions will reduce respectively 27.2 percent, 18.8 percent while CO 2 emissions will increase 21.4 percent from 1990 till 2000. Compared to the continued scenario, the introduction of energy and carbon taxes in Belgium will lead to additional NO X and CO 2 emissions of respectively 6.5 and 13.6 percent, while the CO 2 emission will be reduced by 9.5 percent in 2000. It is concluded that the proposed energy and carbon taxes are important impulses for the realization of the Belgian objective to reduce the CO 2 -emission from 1990 to 2000 by five percent. (A.S.) 5 Figs. 9 Tabs

  15. The Coca-Cola incident in Belgium, June 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemery, B; Fischler, B; Boogaerts, M; Lison, D; Willems, J

    2002-11-01

    The present paper describes the outbreak of health complaints that occurred in Belgium, in June 1999, among schoolchildren and members of the general public in relation to the consumption of Coca-Cola and other soft drinks. The outbreak took place in the wake of a major food crisis, caused by PCB/dioxin contamination of animal feed, that had erupted shortly before. The clinical features (absence of serious poisoning) and epidemiological characteristics of the Coca-Cola outbreak pointed to mass sociogenic illness, and no subsequent toxicological or other data have refuted this hypothesis.

  16. [Ancient methods of animal disease prevention in Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammerickx, M

    1994-06-01

    The author describes traditional methods of animal disease control in Belgium and the evolution of these methods up to the present time. Evidence is drawn mainly from Belgian law. The principles of hygienic prophylaxis, which have required little modification over the passage of time, were set out at the beginning of the 18th century by Lancisi and Bates, physicians to Pope Clement XI and King George I of Great Britain, respectively. These principles were immediately incorporated into Belgian law. However, it was not until the second half of the 19th century that they were applied correctly and with success.

  17. A paradise for LGBT rights? The paradox of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhout, Bart; Paternotte, David

    2011-01-01

    How is it that a small country such as Belgium, with its reputation of relative conservatism, has jumped to the forefront of LGBT-friendly nations when it comes to the extension of rights to, and implementation of government policies for, its LGBT population? The analysis offered here focuses on a combination of six causes: the impact of wider secularization processes; the political history and culture of the country; the organization of especially the Flemish LGBT movement and reasons for its political effectiveness; mainstream social trends in national scapegoating hierarchies; the overall media environment; and the window of opportunity opened by the political landslide of 1999.

  18. Age structure of the population in Belgium and social security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooghe, G

    1991-01-01

    The effects of demographic aging and of various socioeconomic factors on the social security system in Belgium are explored. "Special attention is given to the impact of the ageing of the population on the pension problem. Based on a simple formula a series of percentages of taxation have been calculated as a function of shifts in the proportion of retired vs. active population and in the proportion of the average income vs. the average amount of pension. One of the conclusions is that the progressive ageing of the population will become the most significant factor in the growth of social expenditures." excerpt

  19. Low and medium radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.; Bonne, A.; Van de Voorde, N.; Detilleux, E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes some information on the producers and production of radioactive wastes in Belgium, the evolution of the technical thinking in this area, how the management of radioactive wastes has been and is being organized in the country, and some practical achievements. This paper does not contain much information on new methods and processes and is based primarily on actual experience. Successively the following subjects are discussed: the waste producers; the main objectives in treatment/conditioning and disposal; organization; treatment and conditioning technology; and storage and disposal

  20. Benign disease in radiation therapy: a survey in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauduin, M.; Deneufbourg, J.M.; Deneve, W.; Hermans, J.; Hoornaert, M.T.; Scalliet, P.; Spaas, P.; Vanderick, J.; Dijcke, V.; Van Houtte, P.; Vynckier, S.; Weltens, C.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996 and 2000, a survey of radiation practice in Belgium was performed by sending a questionnaire to the different centers asking their opinion and number of patients treated. There was a great similarity between the two surveys both for indications and total number of patients irradiated. For the most common indications (prevention of cheloids, heterotopic bone formation, hyperthyroid ophthalmopathy), there was a trend to use similar radiation technique following recent publications. In contrast, if the number of cases of macular degeneration is declining, the prevention of vessels restenosis is becoming more and more an indication. (authors)

  1. La discussion pacifique comme rapport à la langue Française sur wikilf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léda Mansour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article veut participer aux études sur le rapport des locuteurs à leur propre langue, ici la langue française. Alors que les études sur la langue pointent un lien “passionnel” qui prendra plusieurs formes: rapport puriste (parler sans faire des fautes, rapport a­ ectif (les mythes de beauté, d’ordre et de clarté, rapport idéologique (défendre sa langue, il existe, ailleurs, des lieux “pacifi ques” où la langue n’est pas disputée mais discutée. Nous avons choisi de travailler sur le site de création langagière WikiLf; c’est en créant un nouveau mot que l’on est le plus exposé à notre façon de voir/penser notre langue. Notre analyse se centre sur l’usage du métalangage laissant émerger un certain savoir sur la langue capable de traduire autrement le rapport à sa propre langue. Nous avons démontré qu’il existe un rapport plutôt spontané des locuteurs francophones qui semble dénué de toute passion, éloigné des postures normatives. Les wikistes donnent l’exemple d’une communauté qui pacifi quement met en discussion la langue française, ce qui représente d’abord un objet de réfl exion, mais encore un choix de recherche perme ant de nous positionner afi n de rendre compte (prendre en compte d’une relation plus souple des usagers de la langue française.

  2. Mayotte s'ancre dans la république française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Taglioni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Le champ géographique des compétences de l'administration territoriale française va évoluer en 2011 avec la création du 101e département, celui de Mayotte. Cette départementalisation hors de l'hexagone est le fruit d'un long processus politique commencé en 1975 à la date du premier référendum qui allait par la suite séparer Mayotte du reste de l'archipel des Comores. Cette départementalisation s'inscrit dans un climat d'instabilité sociale et politique particulièrement aigu dans l'ensemble des quatre départements français d'outre-mer depuis plusieurs mois. Elle apparaît ainsi comme un paradoxe dans l'histoire des outre-mers français, et des outre-mers d'autres pays dans le monde, qui cherchent en général à s'affranchir de la puissance tutélaire au lieu d'y être assimilés.The geographical field of the French administration jurisdiction will evolve in 2011 with the creation of the 101st department: Mayotte. This departmentalization outside the hexagon is the result of a long political process begun in 1975 to the date of the first referendum that would thereafter Mayotte separate from the rest of the Comoros archipelago. This departmentalization comes within a social and political instability particularly acute for several months in the French overseas departments. It appears as a paradox in the history of the French overseas, and overseas from other countries in the world, which generally seek to escape the tutelary power instead of being assimilated.

  3. La Sociéte Française d'Exobiologie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulin, F.

    2010-12-01

    L'exobiologie est une jeune science, très pluridisciplinaire qui, de façon générale, a pour objet l'étude de la vie dans l'univers. Plus précisément, elle inclut l'étude des conditions et des processus qui ont permis l'émergence du vivant sur notre planète, et ont pu oumo pourraient le permettre ailleurs, l'étude de l'évolution de la matière organique vers des structures complexes dans l'univers, et les recherches qui concernent la distribution de la vie sous toutes les formes qu'elle pourrait revêtir, et son évolution. La Société Française d'Exobiologie a été fondée en mai 2009. Elle a pour buts principaux de fédérer les recherches en exobiologie au niveau français en facilitant l'établissement de contacts interdisciplinaires entre les chercheurs français et faire connaître et expliquer l'exobiologie pour satisfaire la demande socio culturelle provenant d'un public diversifié, par le biais de conférences, d'ateliers, d'expositions. La SFE est reconnue comme Société savante. Elle compte actuellement 140 membres et vient d'organiser son premier colloque national d'exobiologie à Biarritz.

  4. Changements organisationnels, structures industrielles et innovations environnementales : le cas des firmes industrielles françaises

    OpenAIRE

    Nadel, Simon

    2014-01-01

    La thèse analyse les déterminants de l’adoption des innovations environnementales dans l’industrie française et ses interactions avec les changements organisationnels, d’une part, et les structures industrielles, d’autre part. Elle offre tout d’abord une revue de la littérature économique qui fonde l’analyse de l’innovation environnementale. Elle propose ensuite une analyse empirique, sur données d’entreprise, du comportement éco-innovateur des firmes autour de trois éclairages. La première p...

  5. RECHERCHES Une expertise française en microbiologie prévisionnelle : le projet PREVIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyonnet Jean-Pierre

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Le projet PREVIUS (une dénomination non encore définitive vise la construction d’une expertise française en microbiologie prévisionnelle (ou « microbiologie quantitative » dans le domaine agro-alimentaire. Mis en chantier depuis un an, cet outil élaboré avec le soutien des pouvoirs publics à l’intention des professionnels et de leurs partenaires (organismes publics, fournisseurs, clients, laboratoires, centres techniques devrait être opérationnel fin 2002.

  6. Lietuvos Yamaha muzikos mokyklų valdymo ypatumai: franšizės metodas

    OpenAIRE

    Užkuraitienė, Fausta

    2007-01-01

    Franšizė yra viena iš tarptautinio verslo internacionalizavimo galimybių. Teoretikai ir praktikai pabrėžia šios verslo formos pranašumus prieš alternatyvas eksportą, investicijas ar bendrų kompanijų kūrimą. Tačiau Lietuvos mokslininkų darbuose randame tik fragmentinius šios kontraktinės tarptautinio verslo plėtros formos analizės elementus. Menkai analizuojami valdymo, kontrolės, kultūrinės adaptacijos klausimai. Tyrimo tikslas - įvertinti Lietuvos Yamaha muzikos mokyklų valdymo ypatumus, vei...

  7. Word versus Honor: The Case of Françoise de Rohan vs. Jacques de Savoie

    OpenAIRE

    McIlvenna, Una

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines one of the most notorious scandals of sixteenth-century France. In 1557, Françoise de Rohan, a lady-in-waiting to Catherine de Medici, launched a legal battle to get the duke of Nemours, Jacques de Savoie, to recognize their orally-agreed marriage contract and formally recognize the child whom he had fathered with her. Central to Rohan’s case were not only the love-letters Nemours had written to her but also the eye-witness testimonies of her servants, who had overheard th...

  8. Distributional and regional economic impact of energy taxes in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandyck, Toon; Van Regemorter, Denise

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the macroeconomic and distributional effects of increased oil excises in Belgium by combining a regional Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model with a microsimulation framework that exploits the rich detail of household-level data. The link between the CGE model and the microlevel is top–down, feeding changes in commodity prices, factor returns and employment by sector into a microsimulation model. The results suggest that policymakers face an equity-efficiency trade-off driven by the choice of revenue recycling options. When the additional revenue is used to raise welfare transfers to households, the reform is beneficial for lower income groups, but output levels decrease in all regions. However, when the energy tax revenue is used to lower distortionary labour taxes, the tax shift is slightly regressive. In this case, national GDP is hardly affected but regional production levels diverge. The impact of the environmental tax reform on income distribution depends strongly on changes in factor prices and welfare payments, whereas sector composition is an important determinant for regional impact variation. - Highlights: • We study the impact of oil excises across regions and households in Belgium. • Lower income groups gain if the revenue is used to raise welfare payments. • If labour taxes are reduced, the reform is only slightly regressive. • The differential impact across households is driven by factor price changes. • Sector composition is a crucial determinant for impact variation across regions

  9. The taxation of diesel cars in Belgium – revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayeres, Inge; Proost, Stef

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the current taxation of diesel and gasoline cars in Belgium with the guidelines for optimal taxation. We find that diesel cars are still taxed much less than gasoline cars, resulting in a dominant market share for diesel cars in the car stock. If the fuel tax is the main instrument to control for externalities and generate revenues, the diesel excise should be much higher than the excise on gasoline for two reasons: diesel is more polluting than gasoline and more importantly, through the better fuel efficiency, diesel cars contribute less fiscal revenues per mile. - Highlights: ► With a correct tax system the diesel excise should be higher than that on gasoline. ► When this is difficult, the fixed annual charge should be higher for diesel cars. ► The current tax structure for gasoline and diesel cars in Belgium is suboptimal. ► It implies that CO 2 emissions are reduced, but in a very cost-inefficient way

  10. The health-related social costs of alcohol in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghe, Nick; Lievens, Delfine; Annemans, Lieven; Vander Laenen, Freya; Putman, Koen

    2017-12-16

    Alcohol is associated with adverse health effects causing a considerable economic impact to society. A reliable estimate of this economic impact for Belgium is lacking. This is the aim of the study. A prevalence-based approach estimating the direct, indirect and intangible costs for the year 2012 was used. Attributional fractions for a series of health effects were derived from literature. The human capital approach was used to estimate indirect costs, while the concept of disability-adjusted life years was used to estimate intangible costs. Sensitivity and scenario analyses were conducted to assess the uncertainty around cost estimates and to evaluate the impact of alternative modelling assumptions. In 2012, total alcohol-attributable direct costs were estimated at €906.1 million, of which the majority were due to hospitalization (€743.7 million, 82%). The indirect costs amounted to €642.6 million, of which 62% was caused by premature mortality. Alcohol was responsible for 157,500 disability-adjusted life years representing €6.3 billion intangible costs. Despite a number of limitations intrinsic to this kind of research, the study can be considered as the most comprehensive analysis thus far of the health-related social costs of alcohol in Belgium.

  11. Local seismic tomography in Belgium - implications for the geological structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichien, E.; Camelbeek, T.; Henriet, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    We present the results of a local seismic tomography in Belgium using well-located local earthquakes registered by 37 stations of the permanent seismic network and by mobile stations installed by the Royal Observatory of Belgium. Previous studies did not offer a lot of information on the middle and lower crust. The seismic profiles shot in the region (Belcorp, Decorp, Ecors, …) all show an unreflective middle and lower crust. The gravimetric and magnetic data show the presence of a sharp transition between the Brabant Massive and the Ardennes allochtone, furthermore, a broad positive gravimetric anomaly, is interpreted as a Moho uplift underneath the Campine region. Our results confirm the sharp transition between the Brabant Massif (higher than expected velocities) and the Ardennes allochtone (lower than expected velocities). At 27 km of depth lower crust - upper mantle velocities (7.50 km/s) are found underneath the Campine region and the Eifelplume region, confirming the Moho uplifts to 28 km underneath these regions. At 13 km similar velocities (7.50 km/s) are seen underneath the Eifelplume, they correspond to a lower crust-upper mantle that trusted in the crust during the Variscan orogeny.

  12. Pertussis Serodiagnosis in Belgium from 1990 to 2009 ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Muriel; Rodeghiero, Caroline; Eylenbosch, Romain; Mans, Yvan; Swalus-Steenhouwer, Jeannine; Piérard, Denis; Huygen, Kris; Vanhoof, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of pertussis by culture and PCR is most sensitive when performed on nasopharyngeal specimens collected pertussis in Belgium from 1990 to 2009. In total, 13,163 patients were analyzed for Bordetella pertussis-specific antibodies by agglutination, complement fixation, immunofluorescence, and ELISA. The number of positive pertussis cases detected by serodiagnosis ranged between 50 and 150 annually. The mean age of positive cases increased from 9.9 years in 1990 to 33.9 years in 2009. Whereas from 1990 to 2003, children and young adolescents made up the majority of cases, from 2004 onwards, cases were detected in all age groups and the distribution became bimodal, with a first peak at the age of 10 to 20 years and a second at the age of 35 to 50 years. In contrast, patients diagnosed since 2001 by PCR and/or culture were mostly children younger than 1 year of age. Despite extensive childhood vaccination campaigns, whooping cough is still present in Belgium. Our findings confirm the potential role of adults in the continued transmission of pertussis and strongly warrant booster or cocoon vaccinations in older age groups. PMID:21346057

  13. Franšīzes izmantošana auto nomas uzņēmumos Latvijā

    OpenAIRE

    Burtniece, Ramona

    2009-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs „Franšīzes izmantošana auto nomas uzņēmumos Latvijā”. Darba mērķis: izpētīt preču zīmes nozīmi starptautiskajā tirdzniecībā un franšīzē, analizējot uz franšīzes pamata darbojošos auto nomas uzņēmumu darbību Latvijā, to iespējamās priekšrocības vai zaudējumus salīdzinājumā ar vietējiem uzņēmumiem. Darba ietvaros izpētīts preču zīmes jēdziens, franšīzes būtība, likumdošana, kas to regulē, analizēta un salīdzināta 2 uz franšīzes pamata darbojošos auto nomu darbība un, veicot ...

  14. Restorānu franšīzes attīstība Latvijā

    OpenAIRE

    Zaļā, Magda

    2013-01-01

    'Jauniem uzņēmējiem, kam trūkst kompetences biznesa uzsākšanai, un uzņēmumiem, kuriem nākas izvērtēt alternatīvas paplašināšanās metodes, risinājums var būt franšīze. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir piedāvāt priekšlikumus restorānu franšīzes uzņēmumu attīstībai Latvijā un ārpus tās. Darbā aprakstīta franšīzes attīstība, veidi; salīdzināti franšīzes restorāni Latvijā, pētīts to potenciāls ārvalstīs un ārvalstu franšīzes potenciāls Latvijā; analizētas priekšrocības; noteikti attīstības faktori;...

  15. Acculturation Profiles of Russian-Speaking Immigrants in Belgium and Their Socio-Economic Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, Dmitry; van de Vijver, Fons

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the relationship of acculturation profiles of Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium, the duration of their stay, and their socio-economic adaptation. The data came from a socio-psychological survey of 132 Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium (first generation) and were processed using latent…

  16. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form: psychometric characteristics and construct validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, N.; van Esbroeck, R.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; de Cooman, R.; Pepermans, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Belgium Form (CAAS-Belgium) consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. A pilot

  17. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in injured drivers : comparison between Belgium and The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legrand, S.-A. Houwing, S. Hagenzieker, M. & Verstraete, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The study objective was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and (il)licit drugs in seriously injured drivers in Belgium (BE) and the Netherlands (NL). Injured car and van drivers admitted to the emergency departments of five hospitals in Belgium and three in the Netherlands from January 2008 to May

  18. Acculturation profiles of Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium and their socio-economic adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryev, Dmitry; van de Vijver, Fons

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the relationship of acculturation profiles of Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium, the duration of their stay, and their socio-economic adaptation. The data came from a socio-psychological survey of 132 Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium (first

  19. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... (Second Review)] Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan AGENCY: United..., and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with full reviews... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan would be...

  20. Balzac peint les français: social satire and construction of ideal types in Les français peints par eux-mêmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa Moccia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tra il 1840 e il 1842, negli stessi anni in cui prendeva forma quella che sarà di lì a poco la Comédie Humaine, furono dati alle stampe nove volumi dell’opera Les Français peints par eux-mêmes, pubblicata da Léon Curmer. L’opera vide la collaborazione di disegnatori e scrittori fra i quali Honoré de Balzac che contribuì al progetto scrivendo due voci l’épicier e la femme comme il faut. Les Français peints par eux-mêmes, definito nel sottotitolo Encyclopédie morale du XIXe siècle, è uno dei maggiori esempi di «letteratura panoramica», come ebbe a definirla Walter Benjamin (Benjamin 1979, e vi si mescolano caricatura e determinismo fisiologico impiegati per ritrarre, e non semplicemente descrivere, i tipi umani e sociali che popolano Parigi e la Provincia. L’introduzione di Léon Curmer e Jules Janin colloca il progetto globale dell’opera sotto l’etichetta di «tableau», già utilizzata da Louis-Sébastien Mercier (Mercier 1782, della società contemporanea messa al servizio della storia dei costumi. Da un lato, il dispositivo umoristico dell’opera scatena dall’idea di classificare gli uomini, svuotati della loro soggettività e degradati a tipi sociali, al pari delle specie animali e vegetali, ricalcando e “scoronando”, dunque, l’intento normalizzante dell’Enciclopedia dei lumi. Per questo motivo, la mise en page (ogni voce dell’opera è strutturata in type, tête de page, cul de lampe, contribuisce a creare un transtesto (Genette 1997, che stringe l’occhio al lettore del tempo, nutrito dalle opere di Buffon e Cuvier.  Dall’altro, però, l’intento dichiaratamente “serio” dell’opera che deve occuparsi di spiegare, con intento pedagogico e attraverso l’escamotage dell’autoritratto, i francesi ai Francesi, suggerisce una seconda ipotesi: la società tutta è risibile perché ridicola è la borghesia del regno di Luigi Filippo. Il contributo si propone di indagare il tipo di satira che

  1. Vocabulaire progressif du français avec 250 exercices : niveau débutant

    CERN Document Server

    Miquel, Claire

    2002-01-01

    Le Vocabulaire progressif du français est un ouvrage destiné aux étudiants adolescents et adultes de niveaux débutant et faux débutant. Conçu pour être utilisé comme complément de méthode en classe, ou comme guide pour un auto-apprentissage, il comprend : - sur la page de gauche, une leçon de vocabulaire : les mots sont mis en contexte dans des phrases, des histoires, des dialogues, ou bien encore mis en scène grâce à des illustrations - sur la page de droite, des exercices d'application et des activités de communication classés par ordre de difficulté croissante. Le lexique est présenté de façon thématique. Chaque chapitre est constitué de plusieurs séquences assurant un enrichissement progressif. Ce manuel aborde un vocabulaire vivant qui correspond à la réalité des Français d'aujourd'hui. Il constitue une véritable initiation aux codes culturels. Les corrigés sont disponibles dans un livret séparé (ISBN 2090338792)

  2. Taxi ! méthode de français : niveau 3

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Anne-Marie

    2004-01-01

    Taxi ! 3 est une méthode interactive, qui développe non seulement les connaissances, mais aussi les savoir-faire et les savoir-être de l'apprenant, à l'écrit comme à l'oral. La méthode est très simple à utiliser : une leçon = une double page. Taxi ! 3 couvre le niveau Bl du Cadre européen commun de référence pour l'apprentissage, l'enseignement et l'évaluation des langues. La méthode permet de se préparer aux épreuves A3 et A4 du DELF 1er degré. Une progression et des contenus fonctionnels et langagiers solides permettent à l'apprenant d'atteindre rapidement une autonomie en français dans des situations de la vie courante. Taxi ! 3 permet de mieux connaître la France d'aujourd'hui et les comportements des Français à travers une grande variété de documents authentiques (écrit et audio).

  3. Three-dimensional modeling of flow through fractured tuff at Fran Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.R.; Ho, C.K.; Glass, R.J.; Nicholl, M.J.; Arnold, B.W.

    1996-01-01

    Numerical studies have been made of an infiltration experiment at Fran Ridge using the TOUGH2 code to aid in the selection of computational models for performance assessment. The exercise investigates the capabilities of TOUGH2 to model transient flows through highly fractured tuff and provides a possible means of calibration. Two distinctly different conceptual models were used in the TOUGH2 code, the dual permeability model and the equivalent continuum model. The infiltration test modeled involved the infiltration of dyed ponded water for 36 minutes. The 205 gallon filtration of water observed in the experiment was subsequently modeled using measured Fran Ridge fracture frequencies, and a specified fracture aperture of 285 μm. The dual permeability formulation predicted considerable infiltration along the fracture network, which was in agreement with the experimental observations. As expected, minimal fracture penetration of the infiltrating water was calculated using the equivalent continuum model, thus demonstrating that this model is not appropriate for modeling the highly transient experiment. It is therefore recommended that the dual permeability model be given priority when computing high-flux infiltration for use in performance assessment studies

  4. Starptautiskas kompānijas franšīze Latvijā - ,,McDonald's"

    OpenAIRE

    Sīle, Līga

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā tiek apskatīta stratēģiskā vadīšana un produktu diferencēšanas stratēģija, kā arī franšīze kā uzņēmējdarbības forma. Tiek analizēts uzņēmums McDonald’s un tā darbība dažādu valstu tirgos diferencēšanas stratēģijas ietvaros, veikta konkurentu analīze Latvijā, izvirzīti secinājumi un izteikti priekšlikumi. Pirmajā nodaļā tiek aprakstīta stratēģiskā vadīšana, tās būtība un līmeņi, kā arī tuvāk aplūkota diferencēšanas stratēģija. Otrajā nodaļā apskatīta franšīzes būtība un veid...

  5. Three-dimensional modeling of flow through fractured tuff at Fran Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.R.; Ho, C.K.; Glass, RJ.; Nicholl, M.J.; Arnold, B.W.

    1996-09-01

    Numerical studies have been made of an infiltration experiment at Fran Ridge using the TOUGH2 code to aid in the selection of computational models for performance assessment. The exercise investigates the capabilities of TOUGH2 to model transient flows through highly fractured tuff and provides a possible means of calibration. Two distinctly different conceptual models were used in the TOUGH2 code, the dual permeability model and the equivalent continuum model. The infiltration test modeled involved the infiltration of dyed ponded water for 36 minutes. The 205 gallon infiltration of water observed in the experiment was subsequently modeled using measured Fran Ridge fracture frequencies, and a specified fracture aperture of 285 microm. The dual permeability formulation predicted considerable infiltration along the fracture network, which was in agreement with the experimental observations. As expected, al fracture penetration of the infiltrating water was calculated using the equivalent continuum model, thus demonstrating that this model is not appropriate for modeling the highly transient experiment. It is therefore recommended that the dual permeability model be given priority when computing high-flux infiltration for use in performance assessment studies

  6. Grammaire progressive du français avec 400 exercices : niveau avancé

    CERN Document Server

    Boularès, Michèle

    1997-01-01

    La Grammaire progressive du français, de niveau avancé, s'adresse à de grands adolescents et adultes ayant suivi environ 250 heures de cours.Par une méthode progressive, des exemples nombreux et pertinents pour renforcer les règles de grammaire, une langue authentique, cet ouvrage a pour objectif de rendre vivant et stimulant l'apprentissage de la grammaire.Elle présente et explique des points complexes (subjonctif, gérondif, adjectif verbal, participe présent...) et relie résolument la forme et le sens afin de ne pas dissocier grammaire et communication. La Grammaire progressive du français est une grammaire pédagogique: les explications grammaticales sont simples, le plus souvent de l'ordre de la phrase, elles utilisent un minimum de métalangage; des exemples clairs et nombreux illustrent chque explication grammaticale; la langue utilisée dans les exemples et les exercices est authentique. Quand l'exemple illustrant un point grammatical exige un niveau de langage soutenue, celui-ci est signalé...

  7. Le français du tourisme dans le contexte universitaire chinois : analyse comparative des besoins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Lu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette recherche vise à dévoiler la situation de l’enseignement du français du tourisme dans le contexte universitaire chinois. A travers une analyse des besoins, nous tâchons de vérifier si la formation actuelle correspond aux besoins des apprenants ainsi qu’à la demande du marché du travail. Des enquêtes ont été menées auprès d’étudiants, d’enseignants et de professionnels. Les résultats montrent que les publics se diversifient avec des besoins variés et que la rupture de l’ensei gnement avec le secteur professionnel est évidente. Trois propositions sont ainsi formulées en vue de fournir des conseils à l’amélioration et à l’innovation de la formation du français du tourisme dans les universités chinoises.

  8. 75 FR 61699 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...-831, and A-583-830] Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and... steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan, pursuant to... sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on SSPC from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and...

  9. Challenges in physician supply planning: the case of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léonard Christian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Planning human resources for health (HRH is a complex process for policy-makers and, as a result, many countries worldwide swing from surplus to shortage. In-depth case studies can help appraising the challenges encountered and the solutions implemented. This paper has two objectives: to identify the key challenges in HRH planning in Belgium and to formulate recommendations for an effective HRH planning, on the basis of the Belgian case study and lessons drawn from an international benchmarking. Case description In Belgium, a numerus clausus set up in 1997 and effective in 2004, aims to limit the total number of physicians working in the curative sector. The assumption of a positive relationship between physician densities and health care utilization was a major argument in favor of medical supply restrictions. This new regulation did not improve recurrent challenges such as specialty imbalances, with uncovered needs particularly among general practitioners, and geographical maldistribution. New difficulties also emerged. In particular, limiting national training of HRH turned out to be ineffective within the open European workforce market. The lack of integration of policies affecting HRH was noteworthy. We described in the paper what strategies were developed to address those challenges in Belgium and in neighboring countries. Discussion and evaluation Planning the medical workforce involves determining the numbers, mix, and distribution of health providers that will be required at some identified future point in time. To succeed in their task, health policy planners have to take a broader perspective on the healthcare system. Focusing on numbers is too restrictive and adopting innovative policies learned from benchmarking without integration and coordination is unfruitful. Evolving towards a strategic planning is essential to control the effects of the complex factors impacting on human resources. This evolution requires

  10. Challenges in physician supply planning: the case of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stordeur, Sabine; Léonard, Christian

    2010-12-08

    Planning human resources for health (HRH) is a complex process for policy-makers and, as a result, many countries worldwide swing from surplus to shortage. In-depth case studies can help appraising the challenges encountered and the solutions implemented. This paper has two objectives: to identify the key challenges in HRH planning in Belgium and to formulate recommendations for an effective HRH planning, on the basis of the Belgian case study and lessons drawn from an international benchmarking. In Belgium, a numerus clausus set up in 1997 and effective in 2004, aims to limit the total number of physicians working in the curative sector. The assumption of a positive relationship between physician densities and health care utilization was a major argument in favor of medical supply restrictions. This new regulation did not improve recurrent challenges such as specialty imbalances, with uncovered needs particularly among general practitioners, and geographical maldistribution. New difficulties also emerged. In particular, limiting national training of HRH turned out to be ineffective within the open European workforce market. The lack of integration of policies affecting HRH was noteworthy. We described in the paper what strategies were developed to address those challenges in Belgium and in neighboring countries. Planning the medical workforce involves determining the numbers, mix, and distribution of health providers that will be required at some identified future point in time. To succeed in their task, health policy planners have to take a broader perspective on the healthcare system. Focusing on numbers is too restrictive and adopting innovative policies learned from benchmarking without integration and coordination is unfruitful. Evolving towards a strategic planning is essential to control the effects of the complex factors impacting on human resources. This evolution requires an effective monitoring of all key factors affecting supply and demand, a dynamic

  11. les causes de l'abandon de l'etude du français en form deux au kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frederick Iraki

    réserver ou fixer un rendez vous qui n'est pas agréable et facile dans la culture kenyane. L'Ambassade de France au Kenya a aussi été mentionnée, pour souligner qu'elle a arrêté des bourses et des supports linguistiques surtout pour les professeurs de français et les étudiants de français à l'université. Ils pensent que ...

  12. L’Institut français de recherche pour l’exploitation de la mer (IFREMER)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Note portant sur l’auteur L’Institut français de recherche scientifique pour le développement en coopération (ORSTOM) et le Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD) sont deux organismes français de recherche qui œuvrent au Brésil depuis plus de vingt ans. Cette contribution permet de faire connaître l’éventail des recherches entreprises et leurs aspects originaux ainsi que les résultats obtenus, les apports et les profits mutuels, en deux mot...

  13. Euthanasia in Belgium: legal, historical and political review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Toni C

    2017-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates the Belgian euthanasia experience by considering its practice and policy, both before and after the formal decriminalisation of euthanasia in 2002. The pre-legal practice of euthanasia, the evolution of euthanasia legislation, criticism of this legislation, the influence of politics, and later changes to the 2002 Act on Euthanasia are discussed, as well as the subject of euthanasia of minors and the matter of organ procurement. It is argued that the Belgian euthanasia experience is characterised by political expedition, and that the 2002 Act and its later amendments suffer from practical and conceptual flaws. Illegal euthanasia practices remain a live concern in Belgium, something which nations who are seeking to decriminalise euthanasia should consider. Copyright © 2017 by the National Legal Center for the Medically Dependent and Disabled, Inc.

  14. Environmental conditions and Puumala virus transmission in Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linard, Catherine; Tersago, Katrien; Leirs, Herwig

    2007-01-01

    of this study is to better understand the causal link between environmental features and PUUV prevalence in bank vole population in Belgium, and hence with transmission risk to humans. Our hypothesis was that environmental conditions controlling the direct and indirect transmission paths differ....... Based on logistic regressions, we show that PUUV prevalence among bank voles is more linked to variables favouring the survival of the virus in the environment, and thus the indirect transmission: low winter temperatures are strongly linked to prevalence among bank voles, and high soil moisture...... is linked to the number of NE cases among humans. The transmission risk to humans therefore depends on the efficiency of the indirect transmission path. Human risk behaviours, such as the propensity for people to go in forest areas that best support the virus, also influence the number of human cases...

  15. Plutonium-enriched thermal fuel production experience in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Taking into account the strategic aspects of nuclear energy such as availability and sufficiency of resources and independence of energy supply, most countries planning to use plutonium look mainly to its use in fast reactors. However, by recycling the recovered uranium and plutonium in light water reactors, the saving of the uranium that would otherwise be required could already be higher than 35%. Therefore, until fast reactors are introduced, for macro- or microeconomic reasons, the plutonium recycle option seems to be quite valuable for countries having the plutonium technology. In Belgium, Belgonucleaire has been developing the plutonium technology for more than 20 yr and has operated a mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant since 1973. The past ten years of plant operation have provided for many improvements and relevant new documented experiences establishing a basis for new modifications that will be beneficial to the intrinsic quality, overall safety, and economy of the fuel

  16. [Control of the legal practice of euthanasia in Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, M

    2015-01-01

    The Belgian law legalizing euthanasia under strict conditions came into effect September 22, 2002. Any physician performing euthanasia has to complete a registration document and to send it within four days to a federal commission whose mission is to verify that the legal conditions were fulfilled. From September 22, 2002 to December 31, 2013, 8.767 documents have been registered and analyzed by this commission. They are described in six reports referred to Parliament. The present paper analyzes the work of this commission and answers the criticisms concerning its quality and its efficiency. The allegations that clandestine euthanasia's escaping any control are performed are also discussed. In conclusion, it appears that the legal obligations concerning the practice of euthanasia in Belgium are fully effective.

  17. Lifecourses, pensions and poverty among elderly women in Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, Hans; Tavernier, Wouter De

    2015-01-01

    , family history and pension regulations can provide greater insight into the mechanisms that produce poverty among elderly women in Belgium. To that end, we make use of register data on some 9,000 women aged 65-71. Data on the poverty risk of these women is linked to career and family data, spanning over...... 45 years. We find that pension policy can indeed account for the higher poverty risk of some groups of elderly women (e.g. divorcees) as compared to others (e.g. widows). Similarly, pension policy can, to a large extent, directly or indirectly explain how previous lifecourse events, such as marital...... dissolution or childbirth, affect old-age poverty risk. However, our study also reveals some unexpected findings. Most notably, pension regulations fail to account for the beneficial situation of married women. Indeed, our analyses suggest that capital (income) may prove more decisive than pension rights...

  18. The radon problem in schools and public buildings in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poffijn, A.; Uyttenhove, J.; Tondeur, F.

    1992-01-01

    Owing to differences in geology, radon in Belgium is recognised to be a more serious problem in the southern part of the country than in the northern part. From national and regional surveys, it became clear that in the province of Luxembourg indoor radon concentrations exceeding the European reference level of 400 Bq.m -3 frequently occur. As many people (children as well as adults) spend an important part of the day indoors at school or at work, it was decided by the local authorities to conduct a more systematic survey. In all schools and public buildings, measurements with integrating etched track devices have been performed. The results of these campaigns are discussed and a limiting scheme for radon in schools and public buildings, based mainly upon the existing Belgian regulations for protecting against ionising radiation is presented. (author)

  19. Regulatory aspects of underground radioactive waste disposal in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    In Belgium, the underground disposal of radioactive waste is subject to two sets of regulations. The licensing system for the construction and operation of a mine includes, notably, consultation with the local authorities involved. Nuclear installations are governed by a Regulation of 28 February 1963 and, in particular, waste management facilities require a licence from either the provincial authorities or the Crown, as appropriate. Applications must be accompanied by detailed plans, and a licence will be granted only if all safety and other regulations have been complied with. Inspections are provided for to ensure continued compliance. Under a law of 5 August 1978, the Government is enabled to take a preponderant part in the management of radioactive waste and to undertake, alone, its storage. (NEA) [fr

  20. Sustainability in the Power Sector. 2010 Update. Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, T.; Ten Kate, A.; Racz, K.

    2010-11-15

    This 2010 series of power company and thematic fact sheets aims to raise public awareness about sustainability issues in the electricity sector and to improve the sustainability of power companies operating in the Netherlands. The fact sheet series investigates the companies' performance on incorporating renewable energy sources into their fuel mix for both generation and supply of electricity, and on their investments and future plans with respect to energy sources at both the Dutch and European level. The 2010 fact sheet series is the annual update that is going into its fourth year, and builds on the work from previous years (available at www.somo.nl), but includes a slightly different range of companies due to a number of recent and pending mergers and acquisitions among power companies with operations in the Netherlands. For the first time this year, Essent is fully incorporated in the RWE company profile. SPE, a company covered for the first time, is included in the company profile of its owner EdF. The Vattenfall and Nuon fact sheets were drafted and reviewed separately, and combined into one company profile afterwards. In total, the 2010 series consist of ten company fact sheets; Delta, Dong Energy, E.ON, EdF, SPE, Eneco, Enel, Gdf Suez/Electrabel, Iberdrola, Nuon/Vattenfall and RWE. The company fact sheets form the basis of three separate reports, covering companies active in (1) The Netherlands, (2) Belgium, and an overview of (3) the largest European companies. This report is the version for Belgium, and covers the following companies, all active on the Belgian market: EdF, GDF Suez/Electrabel, RWE, SPE, Vattenfall/Nuon.

  1. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Desmedt, Sandrine; Blecker, Christophe; Béra, François; Haubruge, Éric; Alabi, Taofic; Francis, Frédéric

    2017-01-13

    Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g). Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step) before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed.

  2. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Caparros Megido

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g. Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed.

  3. Identification and characterization of NORM industries in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, Hans; Paridaens, Johan; Froment, Pascal; Van Cauteren, Jef; Timmermans, Cor; Cosemans, Christian; Sassi, Fiore

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the Norm issue in the Belgium industry is given, mainly based on a study on behalf of Offender/Nitras, the Belgian agency for radioactive waste. The phosphate industry, which was identified as the main source of enhanced natural radioactivity, is mainly located in F landers, the northern part of Belgium. The five Flemish phosphate plants handled, from 1920 to 2006, 60 M ton of phosphate ore containing 72 TBq of uranium-238 (radium-226) and 3.5 TBq of thorium-232. This resulted in a vast legacy of 500 ha of contaminated sites. In the non-ferro industry high activity-concentrations of the thorium decay series were identified with careerist (tin ore). Zircon sands with high uranium concentrations are applied for the production of precision casting molds. Almost every industry with a large turnover of materials has some problems with Norm, because of the selective concentration of certain radionuclides in by-products, residues or product streams. Examples of a blast furnace and a coal-fired power plant are given. In these cases the natural radioactivity is concentrated in blast furnace slag or fly ash, both of which are used as input material in the cement industry. The extraction and purification of ground water was also identified as a potential source for generating Norm sludges. Finally, ample remains from past Norm practices exist. A number of historical sites, including a former mining area of alum shale in the valley of the Meuse, several coal mining sites, a col tan processing site in Ghent and a radium facility in Olen were contaminated before present standards of radiological protection were developed. (author)

  4. The cost of alcohol in the workplace in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecco, Juan; Jacques, Denis; Annemans, Lieven

    2013-09-01

    It has been suggested that alcohol problems have a major impact in the workplace. It has long been recognized that misuse can have serious consequences for the productivity of workers. The extent of the problem is still an uncalculated cost. Few studies provide clear evidence of a cause, effect or relationship between substance abuse and workplace costs and valuable guidance to employers in evaluating the cost of substance abuse in their workplaces is missing. To estimate the awareness, policies and cost to employers of drinking in the workplace in Belgium and to illustrate the potential gains from drinking cessation provision. Costs vary with type of industry and policy in place; therefore, to estimate these costs, results from a survey were combined with evidence drawn from a review of literature. An Internet survey of 216 workplaces in Belgium, based on a stratified random sample of workplaces with 50 or more employees, was conducted in 2005. Further information was collected from 150 occupational physicians. Additional evidence was compiled from a review of the literature of drinking-related costs. 216 General Directors or HR Directors completed a questionnaire related to awareness, policy and costs. 150 occupational physicians completed a questionnaire related to awareness and policy. Companies are unaware or underestimate alcohol misuse among their employees. At least 84% of companies have no education or information policy about substance abuse. Absenteeism, accidents and turnover account for 0.87% of the wage bill. Reduced productivity/ (presenteeism accounts for 2.8%. The construction industry, postal services, hospitality industry (hotel/restaurants and catering) and sanitation industry (collection, street cleaning) are the most problematic sectors. Awareness: many companies are totally unaware of the impact of substance abuse and those that are aware underestimate the problem. Sectors are heterogeneous; some are more problematic than others. Policy

  5. Nationwide inventory of mosquito biodiversity (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belgium, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteirt, V; Boyer, S; Damiens, D; De Clercq, E M; Dekoninck, W; Ducheyne, E; Grootaert, P; Garros, C; Hance, T; Hendrickx, G; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2013-04-01

    To advance our restricted knowledge on mosquito biodiversity and distribution in Belgium, a national inventory started in 2007 (MODIRISK) based on a random selection of 936 collection points in three main environmental types: urban, rural and natural areas. Additionally, 64 sites were selected because of the risk of importing a vector or pathogen in these sites. Each site was sampled once between May and October 2007 and once in 2008 using Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. Diversity in pre-defined habitat types was calculated using three indices. The association between species and environmental types was assessed using a correspondence analysis. Twenty-three mosquito species belonging to traditionally recognized genera were found, including 21 indigenous and two exotic species. Highest species diversity (Simpson 0.765) and species richness (20 species) was observed in natural areas, although urban sites scored also well (Simpson 0.476, 16 species). Four clusters could be distinguished based on the correspondence analysis. The first one is related to human modified landscapes (such as urban, rural and industrial sites). A second is composed of species not associated with a specific habitat type, including the now widely distributed Anopheles plumbeus. A third group includes species commonly found in restored natural or bird migration areas, and a fourth cluster is composed of forest species. Outcomes of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed sampling scheme and support the choice of the trap type. Obtained results of this first country-wide inventory of the Culicidae in Belgium may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  6. François Le Guévellou, L'ésotérisme et les sciences occultes en Russie. Aperçu historique et lexiques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Santamaria

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Professeur de linguistique russe à l'INALCO, François Le Guévellou s'est fait connaître du public spécialisé par la rédaction de dictionnaires français-russe / russe-français présentant des lexiques quelque peu originaux (Dictionnaire des gros mots russes ; Dictionnaire russe-français des noms d’animaux et de plantes ; Les termes de couleurs en français et en russe. Etude contrastive et lexiques ; Dictionnaire des onomatopées et interjections russes, souvent accompagnés de savantes études in...

  7. Rencontre avec la civilisation française: l’ambassade de Mehmed Efendi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Monique Bernard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A embaixada de Mehmed Efendi se apresenta como a oportunidade, para a “Sublime Porte”, para renovar as relações diplomáticas com a França, adormecidas há mais de um século. O embaixador chega a Toulon no dia 22 de novembro de 1720, segue para Paris passando por Bordeaux e pelo vale do Loire; permanecendo em Paris de 16 de março a 3 de agosto de 1721; em seguida desce para Sète, passando por Lyon. A Relação na primeira pessoa refere-se principalmente ao visual, já que a comunicação lingüística era das mais limitadas. Ela retém essencialmente realizações concretas, científicas e técnicas que suscitam a admiração: os cenários da ópera, os instrumentos de astronomia, o canal do Midi, ou a “máquina de Marly”... Tantas “maravilhas” contribuirão para a introdução da influência francesa em Constantinopla.Palavras-chave: História; França; Turquia; Mehmed Efendi.Résumé: L’ambassade de Mehmed Efendi est l’occasion, pour la Sublime Porte, de renouer, avec la France, des relations diplomatiques en sommeil depuis plus d’un siècle. L’ambassadeur arrive à Toulon le 22 novembre 1720; il gagne Paris par Bordeaux et la vallée de la Loire; il y séjourne du 16 mars au 3 août 1721; puis regagne Sète par Lyon. La Relation à la premiére personne se réfère principalment au visuel, la communication linguistique étant des plus limitées. Elle retie essentiellement des réalisations concrètes, scientifiques et techniques qui suscitent l’admiration: les décors de l’opéra, les instruments d’astronomie, le canal du Midi, ou encore la “machine de Marly”... Tant de “merveilles” contribueront à introduire l’influence française à Constantinople.Mots-clés: Histoire; France; Turquie; Mehmed Efendi.Keywords: History; France; Turkey; Mehmed Efendi.

  8. Communication Received from Belgium Concerning its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 15 October 2012 from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with Belgium's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011. A declaration concerning the nuclear policy situation in Belgium was also enclosed with the note verbale [es

  9. Communication received from Belgium concerning its policies regarding the management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 10 September 2008 from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with Belgium's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines) and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2007. In addition to these figures, a declaration on MOX fuel in Belgium was under cover of the Note Verbale

  10. Communication Received from Belgium Concerning its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 15 October 2012 from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with Belgium's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011. A declaration concerning the nuclear policy situation in Belgium was also enclosed with the note verbale

  11. Communication Received from Belgium Concerning its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 15 October 2012 from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with Belgium's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011. A declaration concerning the nuclear policy situation in Belgium was also enclosed with the note verbale [fr

  12. Resenha de: La vie de la forêt française au XIVè siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurípedes Simões de Paula

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available DEVÈZE (M.. La vie de Ia forêt française au XIVe siècle. Paris. S. E. V. P. E. N. École Pratique des Hautes Études. Centre de Recharches historiques. VIe section. Coleção "Les hom-mes et la terre". Tomos I e II.

  13. Buster Still Speechless: A “Silent” Comic at the Cinémathèque française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Teichner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to identify the underlying historiographical discourses advanced by the Cinémathèque Française’s recent Buster Keaton retrospective and to question the actor-director’s status as a “silent” comic in light of his wide ranging sound era output. 

  14. Frans Hals in mennonitischen Brauerkreisen: Die Porträts eines unbekannten Ehepaares im Wallraf-Richartz-Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijzenhout, F.; Jonkhoff, I.; Kramer, M.; de Bruijne, D.

    2014-01-01

    To this day the sitters in Frans Hals’s portraits of a man and a 32-year-old woman (1640) in the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum & Fondation Corboud could not be identified. These could be the portraits mentioned in the 1676 inventory of the estate of the late Geertruijt Gerrits van Santen (1605/1610-1675),

  15. François Arago a 19th century French humanist and pioneer in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lequeux, James

    2016-01-01

    François Arago, the first to show in 1810 that the surface of the Sun and stars is made of incandescent gas and not solid or liquid, was a prominent physicist of the 19th century. He used his considerable influence to help Fresnel, Ampere and others develop their ideas and make themselves known. This book covers his personal contributions to physics, astronomy, geodesy and oceanography, which are far from negligible, but insufficiently known. Arago was also an important and influential political man who, for example, abolished slavery in the French colonies. One of the last humanists, he had a very broad culture and range of interests. In parallel to his biography, this title also covers the spectacular progresses of science at the time of Arago, especially in France: the birth of physical optics, electromagnetism and thermodynamics. Francois Arago’s life is a fascinating epic tale that reads as a novel.

  16. Microstructural Analyses of Topopah Spring Tuff from the Large Block Test at Fran Ridge, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Microstructural information (e.g., porosity, pore size distribution, and surface area) of porous media is critical to understanding water transport mechanisms and physical properties and their bearing on geophysical measurements. We report microstructural data obtained by mercury injection porosimetry (MIP) on 33 samples of densely welded Topopah Spring tuff from Fran Ridge, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The characterization of these samples is also important for the interpretation and analysis of the Large Block Test (LBT) performed in support of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). This report includes previously published data on samples from the same location (Roberts and Lin, 1996). We also present information from the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (YMSCP/LLNL) Large Block Test Engineering Plan (Wilder, 1995) to allow correlation of our data directly to various planes within the Large Block

  17. ATLANTIS ROLLS OUT TO PAD 39A FOLLOWING HURRICANE FRAN THREAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A view from the flame trench looking up shows the Space Shuttle Atlantis, mounted on the Mobile Launcher Platform and Crawler- Transporter, as it arrives atop the hardstand at Launch Pad 39A. After the Shuttle and launch stand are in position, the crawler will be pulled back. This is the third time Atlantis has completed the journey to Launch Pad 39A in the STS-79 mission flow. The Shuttle was rolled back from the pad in July due to the threat from Hurricane Bertha, then rolled back again earlier this week because of Hurricane Fran. The targeted launch date for Atlantis on Mission STS-79 -- the fourth docking between the U.S. Shuttle and Russian Space Station Mir -- is now Sept. 16 at 4:54 a.m. EDT. The three rollout dates for Atlantis to Pad 39A are: July 1, Aug. 20 and Sept. 5.

  18. Développement touristique et durabilité en Cerdagne française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Dérioz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La conjugaison de la crise climatique et immobilière fait ressortir la fragilité du système touristique cerdan français. Si la question même de sa pérennité ne peut plus être ignorée celle de sa diversification, à défaut de sa reconversion, semble avoir bien du mal à entrer dans un débat public qui s’amorce à peine.The combined effect of problems related toclimate warming and the recent crisis in real estate has underlined the fragility of tourism in the Cerdagne region of southern France. Although the question of the very survival of tourism here can no longer be ignored, the possibility of its diversification, or even its restructuring, seems to be facing serious difficulties in becoming part of a public debate that is barely off the ground.

  19. Pratiques de la plage en Polynésie française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Blondy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Les plages sont des lieux de coprésence entre touristes et société locale où un double processus d'appropriation territoriale est à l'œuvre. La Polynésie française permet de mettre en évidence les différentes formes de territorialisation entre les plages publiques et les plages privées des hôtels. Les premières connaissent un triple cloisonnement spatial et social des usages de la plage. Elles sont un révélateur de clivages socio-culturels. Quant aux secondes, elles montrent une homogénéité des pratiques et un cloisonnement atténué, posant la question d'une création d'un «entre-soi».

  20. Risques environnementaux et enjeux à Clipperton (Pacifique français)

    OpenAIRE

    Jost, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Sur l’atoll inhabité de Clipperton, quatrième territoire français du Pacifique, les écosystèmes terrestres et lagonaires se dégradent de façon préoccupante tandis que les risques naturels sont majeurs. Depuis les années soixante, un processus de désertification de la couronne a été enclenché suite à l’élimination du porc introduit à la fin du XIXe siècle et à la prolifération consécutive des crabes terrestres omnivores et à celle de milliers d’oiseaux de mer. L’absence de végétation correspon...

  1. The Influence of François Delsarte’s Ideas on the Modernity of Dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Albertina Silva Grebler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the influence François Delsarte’s ideas had on the pioneers of modern dance. Having rejected books on gestural rhetoric of his own time to conduct a rigorous study on human behavior in strong emotional situations, Delsarte established principles and systematized exercises that provided the pioneers of modern dance an alternative method of interpretation and creation, more centered on the subject and on their relationship with the environment, than on the imitation of traditional gestures. Delsarte’s system allowed modern creators to consider the took as a raw material for a research that was no longer defined by traditional techniques, but by the pursuit of a subjective form of corporeality.

  2. A Dynamic Assessment of the François-Mitterrand Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Vesque-Jeancard

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The François-Mitterrand Library, main site of the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF, was built in 1993 by architect Dominique Perrault. The library, which hosts 13 million documents, welcomes 3,500 visitors per day, either for consultation of documents in its majestic reading rooms or for conferences and exhibitions. The evolution of services provided to the library's visitors (increase in electronic resources for instance, the broadening of the BnF's users (from researchers to a broader public, including professionals and young people, the change in the building's environment (public transportation, urban extension, etc. along with the evolution of regulations (facilities for the disabled, etc. or, more recently, increased consideration for sustainable development, led to a continuous adaptation of the building throughout the last 15 years. This dynamic assessment will continue to be a key factor for the library to successfully face future challenges.

  3. Du fonctionnement dialogique de l’insistance pronominale en français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowakowska Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En appui sur les travaux de Bakhtine, le dialogisme peut être défini comme l’orientation constitutive de tout discours vers d’autres discours. Le présent article examine le fonctionnement dialogique de l’insistance pronominale en français (je travaille, moi !. Est-elle un marqueur ou un signale dialogique ? Nous présenterons dans un premier temps le cadre théorique et méthodologique de notre recherche ainsi que les données sur lesquelles celle-ci est basée. Nous proposerons ensuite une description syntaxique et textuelle de l’insistance pronominale, avant de la relier à la notion de dialogisme pour voir si ce phénomène linguistique est un marqueur ou un signal dialogique au sens attribué à cette distinction par Bres et Mellet 2009.

  4. Une prospective pour la filière française des vins biologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aigrain Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La viticulture biologique française est une filière dynamique. Si certaines évolutions de la demande de bio sont similaires à celles observées pour le vin conventionnel (rosé, Bag-in-box, …, d'autres comme la demande de vins sans sulfites ou de vins « vegan » interpellent plus spécifiquement ce segment. La filière des vins bio se trouve à la fois devoir respecter la règlementation viticole et celle de la production en bio, que ce soit par le cahier des charges de production de la matière première « raisin » que de sa transformation en vin. Elle doit satisfaire des consommateurs exigeants et fédérer des producteurs passionnés parfois jusqu'à l'excès. Face à cette forte dynamique de développement soutenue par une demande qui contourne partiellement les circuits classiques de distribution, la filière française des vins bio (France Vins Bio a souhaité mener un exercice de prospective conduit par FranceAgriMer et Montpellier SupAgro. La présente communication va présenter, après un rappel des grands principes et de la méthode de prospective utilisée, les thématiques explorées, les principales hypothèses combinées et l'essentiel des scénarios sur lesquels elles débouchent.

  5. Constitution d’un Corpus de Français Langue Etrangère destiné aux Apprenants Allemands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauth Camille

    2014-07-01

    Nationale de la Recherche et Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft attribué à l’équipe Parole du LORIA UMR 7503, Nancy – France et à l’Equipe de Linguistique Computationnelle et de Phonétique FR 4.7 de l’Université de la Sarre Sarrebruck – Allemagne dans lequel le français et l’allemand sont des langues cibles. Pour la paire allemand-français, peu de corpus parallèles sont disponibles. Nous présentons ici l’élaboration d’un corpus de productions orales de locuteurs natifs et non natifs pour la paire allemand-français. Notre corpus entend mettre au jour les déviations phonétiques et phonologiques que les locuteurs allemands produisent lorsqu’ils apprennent le français. Ce travail s’insère dans un projet plus global, Ce projet entend étudier les difficultés que les locuteurs français rencontrent lorsqu’ils apprennent l’allemand, et réciproquement. Aussi, cinquante locuteurs allemands seront recrutés dans des milieux universitaires et scolaires (niveau lycée en Allemagne et cinquante locuteurs français dans les mêmes milieux en France. Il s’agit pour les deux populations de produire d’une part le corpus en langue étrangère (en langue française pour les locuteurs allemands et en langue allemande pour les locuteurs français mais également le corpus en langue maternelle (en allemand pour les allemands et en français pour les français. Les corpus ainsi obtenus devraient nous permettre d’identifier les difficultés que les locuteurs allemands ou français rencontrent lorsqu’ils apprennent le français ou l’allemand. Les données de contrôle sont doubles puisque l’on pourra à la fois se référer aux productions des apprenants dans leur langue maternelle (ici l’allemand, mais également à celles de locuteurs natifs (ici germanophones. Nous ne présenterons ici que la constitution du corpus en français.

  6. L’école historique française du droit a-t-elle existé?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Sturmel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Jourdan ou Klimrath, émules français de Savigny dans la première moitié du XIXe siècle, sont des noms que les historiens du droit connaissent bien. Mais cela a-t-il toujours été le cas et surtout quelle a été la portée de leur action scientifique au XIXe siècle? Ce sont ces questions auxquelles l’article tente de répondre et cela de deux points de vue: d’une part en examinant la réception en France des thèses de ce que l’on a appelé l’Ecole historique française dans un temps où l’Ecole de l’exégèse exerce une domination sans partage; d’autre part, en observant les réactions allemandes devant cette production juridique historique française qui s’inscrit dans le courant savignien, observation basée notamment sur le dépouillement exhaustif de la Kritische Zeitschrift für Rechtswissenschaft und Gesetzgebung des Auslandes dirigée par Mittermaier. Que constate-t-on? Des deux côtés du Rhin, l’Ecole historique française a été étouffée. Ici, ses adeptes étaient accusés de pro germanisme; là, ils n’étaient finalement que les disciples de Savigny. Et pourtant leur action en faveur des sciences juridique et historique mérite pleinement qu’on voie en eux les fondateurs d’une véritable Ecole historique française du droit.

  7. The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeyer, F. de; Van Dyck, E.; Janssens, J.P.; Duliere, A.; Fondaire, D.; Bodart, O.

    2005-01-01

    In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally established

  8. The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeyer, F. de; Van Dyck, E. [OVAM, Mechelen (Belgium); Janssens, J.P.; Duliere, A. [BIM, Brussel (Belgium); Fondaire, D. [DGRNE, Liege (Belgium); Bodart, O. [Governement Wallon, Namur (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally

  9. Normabweichungen im Zeitungsdeutsch Ostbelgiens (Deviations from the Standard in the Newspaper German of East Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter H.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that the German used in the east Belgium newspaper differs fr om standard High German. Proceeds to list these differences in the areas of lexicology, semantics and stylistics, morphology and syntax, orthography e tc. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  10. An empirical study of the underground economy in the Kingdom of Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Goli, Marco; Dana, Léo-Paul

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the underground economy in Belgium. Although several government initiatives are attempting to combat underground economic activities, we found illegal foreign workers identifying opportunities and fulfilling market needs. Underground employment thus thrives in a variety...

  11. In-hospital costs associated with chronic constipation in Belgium: a retrospective database study

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, P; Lamotte, M; Joseph, A; Dubois, D; Boeckxstaens, G

    2013-01-01

    Background Real-life data on the economic burden of chronic idiopathic constipation are scarce. The objectives of this study were to assess hospitalization resource use and costs associated with chronic constipation and its complications in Belgium. Methods This was a single country, retrospective study using the IMS Hospital Disease Database (2008), which comprises data on 34% of acute hospital beds in Belgium and contains information on patient demographics, length of stay (LOS), billed cos...

  12. Draft genome sequences of two commensal Enterococcus cecorum strains isolated from chickens in Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolka, Beata; Boyen, Filip; Butaye, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two commensal Enterococcus cecorum strains (1710s23 and 1711s24), cultivated from the ceca of healthy laying hens originating from different farms in Belgium.......Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two commensal Enterococcus cecorum strains (1710s23 and 1711s24), cultivated from the ceca of healthy laying hens originating from different farms in Belgium....

  13. Belgium postpones by 2025 the start of phasing out nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Belgium has two nuclear power plants at Doel and Tihange that supply 55% of electric power. These reactors should closed between 2015 and 2025 but an international group of experts established that the consumption reduction and the development of renewable energy sources in belgium from now to 2020-2030 will not be sufficient to adjust the lack of production. they proposed to extend at ten years the oldest reactors lifetime, that was accepted by the government. (N.C.)

  14. Burden of blood transfusion in knee and hip surgery in the US and Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Christopher M; Joshi, Ashish V; Szpalski, Marek; Gunzburg, Robert; Du Bois, Mark; Donceel, Peter; Saunders, William B

    2009-09-01

    Transfusion services in orthopaedic surgery can lead to unnecessary complications and increased healthcare costs. The objective of this study was to assess treatments and costs associated with blood and blood product transfusions in a historical cohort of 189,457 inpatients in the US and 34,987 inpatients in Belgium undergoing knee or hip surgery. Descriptive analysis, logistic regression and ordinary least squares regression were used to describe the factors associated with the use and cost of allogeneic blood transfusion. Hospitalisation costs for joint replacement surgery totalled $12,718 (SD=6,356) and averaged 4.33 days in the US, while costs in Belgium were $6,526 (SD=3,192) and averaged 17.1 days. The use of low molecular weight heparin and tranexamic acid was much higher in Belgium than the US (36% and 99% compared to 0% and 40%, respectively). Patients in the US spent 12.7 (pcosts per hospitalisation than patients in Belgium. While hospital costs for patients were greater in the US, length of stay was shorter and patients were less likely to have transfusion services than those patients in Belgium. While this study is limited by factors inherent to observational studies, such as omitted variable bias, misclassification, and disease comorbidity, there are substantial differences in the use of blood products between Belgium and the US.

  15. Inadequacies of Belgium nuclear emergency plans: lessons from the Fukushima catastrophe have not been learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boilley, David; Josset, Mylene

    2015-01-01

    After having outlined that some Belgium regional authorities made some statements showing that they did not learn lessons neither from the Chernobyl catastrophe, nor from the Fukushima accident, this report aims at examining whether Belgium is well prepared to face a severe nuclear accident occurring within its borders or in neighbouring countries, whether all hypotheses have actually been taken into account, and whether existing emergency plans are realistic. After a presentation of Belgium's situation regarding nuclear plants (Belgium plants and neighbouring French plants), the report presents the content and organisation of the nuclear emergency plan for the Belgium territory at the national, provincial and municipal levels. While outlining inadequacies and weaknesses of the Belgium plan regarding the addressed issues, it discusses the main lessons learned from the Fukushima accident in terms of emergency planning areas, of population sheltering, of iodine-based prophylaxis, of population evacuation, of food supply, of tools (measurement instruments) and human resources, and of public information. In the next parts, the report addresses and discusses trans-border issues, and the commitment of stakeholders

  16. Location of radiotherapy centers: An exploratory geographic analysis for Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotteels, C.; Peeters, D.; Coucke, P.A.; Thomas, I.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. - The distance between the patient's home and a radiotherapy department may represent a hurdle for the patient and influence treatment choice. Therefore, it is necessary to check whether the geographical distribution of radiotherapy centers is in accordance with cancer incidence, taking also into account the cost of travelling to the radiotherapy department. The objective of this study is double; first, to map the current locations of radiotherapy centers across the country and second, to evaluate the observed spatial disparities with appropriate tools. Materials and methods. - A model of operational research (P-median) is used to suggest the optimal locations and allocations and to compare them with the current situation. This is an exploratory study with simple inputs. It helps to better understand the current geographical distribution of radiotherapy centers in Belgium as well as its possible limitations. Results-conclusion. - It appears that the current situation is on the average acceptable in terms of accessibility to the service and that the method presents huge potentialities for decision making so as to yield a spatial system that is both efficient and equitable. (authors)

  17. Towards 100% renewable energy in Belgium by 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devogelaer, D.; Gusbin, D. [Federal Planning Bureau FPB, Brussels (Belgium); Duerinck, J.; Nijs, W. [VITO, Mol (Belgium); Marenne, Y.; Orsini, M; Pairon, M. [Institute for Consultancy and Studies in Sustainable Development ICEDD, Namur (Belgium)

    2012-12-15

    In this report, different long-term evolutions of the Belgian future energy system are drafted, analysed and evaluated. All evolutions are designed to meet the requirement of a 100% renewable based national energy system by 2050. For this purpose, a baseline is developed which depicts an energy system without the stringent renewables' requirement. Next, different trajectories are sketched that lead up to a 100% renewable coverage in 2050. The trajectories show that it is feasible to combine economic growth and comfort with far going deployment of renewable energy sources, provided a number of key options and effective policies and measures are being implemented. These options were deducted from several discussions with stakeholders via an open dialogue process, as well as with national experts, and finally, were presented to the Steering committee. The analysis leads to the undeniable observation that drastic changes in a multitude of areas throughout society are required to obtain the desired level of renewable energy penetration in 2050, but also that such a transition can be realised through various sectoral, technology and inter-temporal choices. In other words, this study describes a vast number of different trajectories leading to a 100% renewable energy system in Belgium in the long term, as well as their socio-economic impacts.

  18. PBDEs in freshwater mussels and fish from Flanders, Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covaci, A.; Voorspoels, S.; Schepens, P. [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Toxicological Center; Bervoets, L.; Hoff, P.; Voets, J.; Campenhout, K. van; Blust, R. [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are widely used in textiles, plastics, electronic equipment and other materials for more than 30 years. Due to their massive use, PBDEs have become ubiquitously present in aquatic organisms and it was recently evidenced that their levels seem to increase rapidly. Higher PBDE concentrations were found in biota from freshwater compared to similar marine species. This is probably due to a higher pollution load found near point pollution sources that are almost exclusively inland located. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) fulfil the requirements of a good biomonitoring organism for freshwater ecosystems: they are easy to collect and to handle, are available in sufficient numbers, have a relative long lifespan, are sedentary and resistant to various types of pollution without suffering a too high mortality and have a high filtration rate which favours the bioaccumulation of organic contaminants. Fish species are another suitable tool for the biomonitoring of organic contaminants. The occurrence of PBDEs in fish species from Europe has already received some attention, but the amount of data is still limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of PBDEs in zebra mussels and several representative freshwater fish species (eel, carp and gibel carp) at different sites in Flanders, Belgium. In parallel, other organohalogenated contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-DDE and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were also measured and their relationship with PBDEs was investigated.

  19. [Euthanasia 2002-2014: The situation in Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossignol, D

    2016-10-01

    Since 2002, Belgian law has authorized the practice of euthanasia under certain clear conditions. All cases have to be reported to the Assessment and Control Commission (ACC). To date, more than 9000 cases have been reported. To make a statement about the Belgian experience requires consideration of several different essential points: detailed data and information from the ACC reports, their analysis, consequences on medical practice, problems experienced, legal and medical perspectives, criticism and attacks. The concept of individual and institutional conscience is also considered. Euthanasia for minors has been permitted since March 2014 but, to date, no case has been reported. In the light of what has happened in Belgium, we propose to analyse the legal situation in France. The Belgian experience is much more than an example and shows that, in difficult and painful situations, it is possible to meet the expectations of patients experiencing intolerable suffering with great respect and without imposing dogmatically something they do not wish. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Reactivation hazard mapping for ancient landslides in West Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Dewitte

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several examples in western Europe have shown that, at least for deep-seated rotational slides, reactivation of formerly slipped masses is a more frequent phenomenon than the occurrence of new landslides, therefore representing a higher hazard. We selected a study area comprised of 13 landslides located in the Flemish Ardennes (West Belgium and predicted the hazard related to scarp retreat. The scarp reactivations were identified from the comparison of DTMs produced for 1952 and 1996. Robust results were obtained with the Gamma operator of a fuzzy set approach and a combination of geomorphic, topographic and land use data. We built first a prediction model from the relations linking the 1952–1996 retreat events to the conditioning parameters of 1952. The prediction rate of the resulting susceptibility map is estimated by a cross-validation procedure. We then applied the statistics of this model to the data of 1996 in order to produce a susceptibility map responding to the present-day conditions. Finally, we estimated the conditional probabilities of occurrence of future reactivations for the period 1996–2036.

  1. The energy market in Flanders, Belgium, in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    The Flemish Regulation Entity for the Electricity and Gas market (VREG) aims at becoming the knowledge centre of the liberalised energy market in Flanders, Belgium. Knowledge must be obtained and made available to the public with respect to the market for energy. This does not only involve aspects pertaining to the physical connection of grids across the borders of districts and countries, but also the effects of economic, political and financial decisions and tendencies in Flanders and surrounding area. In the past, data on the energy market were publishes as part of the annual report. As of 2006, reporting is separated. This Energy Market Report is built up based on data that was made available by the market parties. It focuses on the various actors and their market positions as well as on the specific historical and future evolutions. Moreover, market forces are portrayed. The price evolutions of the past years are analysed. Finally, attention is paid to the growing market of certificates.(mk) [nl

  2. Cocaine and metabolites in waste and surface water across Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuijs, Alexander L.N. van [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: alexander.vannuijs@ua.ac.be; Pecceu, Bert [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Theunis, Laetitia; Dubois, Nathalie; Charlier, Corinne [Laboratory of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, University of Liege, (ULg), CHU Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Jorens, Philippe G. [Department of Clinical Pharmacology/Clinical Toxicology, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), University Hospital of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Neels, Hugo [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Laboratory of Toxicology, ZNA Stuivenberg, Lange Beeldekensstraat 267, 2060 Antwerp (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (Ukraine), Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2009-01-15

    Cocaine abuse, a growing social problem, is currently estimated from population surveys, consumer interviews and crime statistics. A new approach based on the analysis of cocaine (COC) and metabolites, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), in water samples was applied to 28 rivers and 37 waste water treatment plants in Belgium using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. While EME was undetectable, COC and BE were detectable with concentrations ranging from <1 to 753 ng/L and <1 to 2258 ng/L, respectively. BE concentrations were employed to calculate the local amount of abused cocaine. The highest values (up to 1.8 g/day cocaine per 1000 inhabitants) were found in large cities and during weekends. The estimation of cocaine abuse through water analysis can be executed on regular basis without cooperation of patients. It also gives clear geographical information, while prevention campaigns can easily be implemented and evaluated. - Cocaine consumption can be evaluated through analysis of waste and surface water.

  3. Cocaine and metabolites in waste and surface water across Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuijs, Alexander L.N. van; Pecceu, Bert; Theunis, Laetitia; Dubois, Nathalie; Charlier, Corinne; Jorens, Philippe G.; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine abuse, a growing social problem, is currently estimated from population surveys, consumer interviews and crime statistics. A new approach based on the analysis of cocaine (COC) and metabolites, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), in water samples was applied to 28 rivers and 37 waste water treatment plants in Belgium using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. While EME was undetectable, COC and BE were detectable with concentrations ranging from <1 to 753 ng/L and <1 to 2258 ng/L, respectively. BE concentrations were employed to calculate the local amount of abused cocaine. The highest values (up to 1.8 g/day cocaine per 1000 inhabitants) were found in large cities and during weekends. The estimation of cocaine abuse through water analysis can be executed on regular basis without cooperation of patients. It also gives clear geographical information, while prevention campaigns can easily be implemented and evaluated. - Cocaine consumption can be evaluated through analysis of waste and surface water

  4. Polyphasic analysis of a middle ages coprolite microbiota, Belgium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Appelt

    Full Text Available Paleomicrobiological investigations of a 14(th-century coprolite found inside a barrel in Namur, Belgium were done using microscopy, a culture-dependent approach and metagenomics. Results were confirmed by ad hoc PCR--sequencing. Investigations yielded evidence for flora from ancient environment preserved inside the coprolite, indicated by microscopic observation of amoebal cysts, plant fibers, seeds, pollens and mold remains. Seventeen different bacterial species were cultured from the coprolite, mixing organisms known to originate from the environment and organisms known to be gut inhabitants. Metagenomic analyses yielded 107,470 reads, of which known sequences (31.9% comprised 98.98% bacterial, 0.52% eukaryotic, 0.44% archaeal and 0.06% viral assigned reads. Most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The 16 S rRNA gene dataset yielded 132,000 trimmed reads and 673 Operational Taxonomic Units. Most abundant bacterial phyla observed in the 16 S rRNA gene dataset belonged to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Chlamydia. The Namur coprolite yielded typical gut microbiota inhabitants, intestinal parasites Trichuris and Ascaris and systemic pathogens Bartonella and Bordetella. This study adds knowledge to gut microbiota in medieval times.

  5. Plant life management in Belgium: an integrated project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacquier, W.; Smet, M. de; Hennart, J.C.; Greer, J.L.; Breesch, Ch.; Havard, P.

    2001-01-01

    In Belgium, a specific plant life management project, named ''Continuous Operation of Belgian NPPs'' is currently developing. Its final objective is to centralize all safety and economic aspects of plant life management in order to determine, for each NPP unit, the optimal actions required to maintain their safe and reliable operation. As the lifetime of safety-related active components is permanently controlled by the current maintenance programs, the project focuses only on passive safety-related components and on non-safety components important for the availability of the plants. These structures and components were evaluated and compared on the basis of a set of weighted criteria in order to measure their criticality and to identify those which must be considered in the project. The selection and the ranking of those components is based on the KBM TM methodology (Knowledge Based Maintenance). This methodology facilitates the collection, formalization and exchange of know-how and gives immediate results thanks to a sequential and systematic step by step analysis. (author)

  6. The BINA collaboration: science at the Royal Observatory of Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cat, Peter; Cuypers, Jan; Blomme, Ronny; Frémat, Yves; Groenewegen, Martin; Lampens, Patricia; Lobel, Alex; Pauwels, Thierry; Van de Steene, Griet; van Hoof, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The Belgo-Indian Network for Astronomy and Astrophysics (BINA) is a collaboration between Indian and Belgian astronomical institutes with the main aim to optimize the scientific output of the Indo-Belgian telescopes, being the 4.0-m International Liquid Mirror Telescope and the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope. These new facilities are both located at the Devasthal Observatory near Nainital, India. In this contribution, we introduce projects that are of scientific interest for colleagues of the department "Astronomy and Astrophysics" of the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB). It serves as an invitation for Indian astronomers to participate. We highlight how these projects could benefit from observations with the Indo-Belgian telescopes by using instruments from the first-generation (currently offered) and/or the next-generation (development or design phase). We show that, from an ROB point-of-view, the BINA would be the most successful if the 3.6-m DOT would be equipped with an efficient optical high-resolution spectrograph.

  7. Updating trends in cutaneous cancers in south-east Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhoda, Isabelle; Quatresooz, Pascale; Fumal, Isabelle; Nikkels, Arjen F; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gerald E

    2004-07-01

    From data collected in a dermatopathology laboratory, the ratios between the numbers of specific cancers represent good markers for identifying any epidemiological shift in their prevalence and incidence among the reference population. The objective of the present study was to assess the ratios of the annual incidence of skin cancers in the Mosan region and Ardennes of Belgium over the past 6 years, and to compare the data with previous similar evaluations. A total of 7,640 skin cancers were collected and compared with regard to age and gender. Changes in time show that the trend of the increase in incidence of malignant melanoma (MM) is more impressive than that of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The age distribution of BCC and SCC confirms the increasing risk with ageing. By contrast, there is a steady decrease over the past decade in the mean age for MM, teenagers and young adults now form an expanding proportion of MM patients. There is an ongoing trend in diagnosing an increased number of skin cancers in our laboratory. This trend is particularly obvious for MM affecting young adults.

  8. The centenary commemorations of the Great War in Belgium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wouters

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As the start of the centenary commemoration of the First World War (wwi in 2014 drew closer, Belgium saw the rise of a bigger ‘commemorative competition’. The different governments launched their own commemorative programmes, parallel to (and sometimes against each other. In the slipstream of this, a huge commercial and business competition erupted in a struggle for funding and visitors. There was also an unprecedented funding of new academic wwi-research. This contribution first makes some remarks on this research, and then looks briefly at the commemorative and memorial policies. On the one hand, current wwi policies confirm (and reinforce the differences in similar policies related to the Second World War. The narratives, as well as the moral or didactic categories, are clearly distinct. On the other hand however, there are some similarities to be found in the policy frameworks created after 1995. Some characteristics of such policy mechanisms are a more pro-active role (national authorities adopt in the construction of memories, a strong interconnectedness between public and private interests and an underlying driving meta-narrative of a national duty to remember connected to the target of an emotional and active investment of each individual citizen.

  9. Towards 100% renewable energy in Belgium by 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devogelaer, D.; Gusbin, D. [Federal Planning Bureau FPB, Brussels (Belgium); Duerinck, J.; Nijs, W. [VITO, Mol (Belgium); Marenne, Y.; Orsini, M; Pairon, M. [Institute for Consultancy and Studies in Sustainable Development ICEDD, Namur (Belgium)

    2012-12-15

    In this report, different long-term evolutions of the Belgian future energy system are drafted, analysed and evaluated. All evolutions are designed to meet the requirement of a 100% renewable based national energy system by 2050. For this purpose, a baseline is developed which depicts an energy system without the stringent renewables' requirement. Next, different trajectories are sketched that lead up to a 100% renewable coverage in 2050. The trajectories show that it is feasible to combine economic growth and comfort with far going deployment of renewable energy sources, provided a number of key options and effective policies and measures are being implemented. These options were deducted from several discussions with stakeholders via an open dialogue process, as well as with national experts, and finally, were presented to the Steering committee. The analysis leads to the undeniable observation that drastic changes in a multitude of areas throughout society are required to obtain the desired level of renewable energy penetration in 2050, but also that such a transition can be realised through various sectoral, technology and inter-temporal choices. In other words, this study describes a vast number of different trajectories leading to a 100% renewable energy system in Belgium in the long term, as well as their socio-economic impacts.

  10. Consumer motivation towards purchasing fruit from integrated production in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoppen, J; Verbeke, W; Van Huylenbroeck, G

    2001-01-01

    Consumer concerns about food safety have been steadily growing during the last decade. Along with the recognition of the increasing power from the consumer side of food chains, this has forced agricultural producers to innovate and adapt their production methods. One of those developments is integrated production of pip fruit (IFP). This research analyses and presents motivational structures of consumers towards purchasing IP fruit in Belgium. The research methodology builds on means-end-chain (MEC) theory, with data collected through personal laddering interviews with consumers. A hierarchical value map, indicating motivational structures for farm shop purchase of IP-labelled apples, is presented. IP-apple buyers pursue typical values, with health being paramount. The findings reveal interactions between market channel characteristics and product attributes, including characteristics that refer to production methods. Also, the study shows how outlet choice influences the perception and the motivation structure of the respondents for the specific product, fresh fruit in this case. From the findings, two sets of implications are set forth. First, marketing implications pertaining to advertising through the application of the "Means-End Conceptualization of the Components of Advertising Strategy" or MECCAS model. Second, implications to producers with respect to adapting their production methods to the needs and wants of the present end consumers.

  11. Implications and priorities of tobacco control in Belgium and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bartsch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to define what tobacco control is both in Europe and around the world. The situation of tobacco control in Belgium will be compared to other European countries using the tobacco control scale (TCS. If countries demonstrating a high TCS score have lower tobacco smoking prevalence than countries with a low TCS, it is not known whether the decrease in smoking prevalence over several years is well correlated with the increase in TCS score in each country during the same period. Moreover the article will raise the question of how far research will continue control into controlling the use of tobacco. The remaining 20% of smokers in the best tobacco control scale countries who are still smoking are not similar to the 20% that are now ex-smokers. Indeed we are now facing the "hard core smokers", who show great resistance to policy measures and be considered as ill individuals requiring specialised care rather than individuals with bad habits. The future tobacco control scale should place more importance on the quality of care and the implication of European countries providing improved access to this form of care and validated forms of treatment of this chronic, difficult to treat disease.

  12. Climate policy in Belgium and the Flemish District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereno, M.

    2001-01-01

    According to the agreement of the Environment Ministers' Council of the European Union Belgium will have to reduce its overall greenhouse gas emissions by 7,5 % during the first commitment period (2008-2012) in relation to the reference year 1990. International climate change policy is implemented by Belgian federal authorities responsible for fiscal, labelling and product policies and regional authorities (Flanders, Wallonia and Brussels) responsible for energy, environmental and agricultural policies. This article discusses the important issues raised by Belgian federal and Flemish regional climate change policy. It focuses onto the Belgian national climate change plan' and the Flemish Region's policies as laid down in its regional Environmental Policy Plan. The overall context of this article is given in by the international climate change negotiations in The Hague during the sixth Conference of the Parties in execution of the United Nation's Framework on Climate Change. In conclusion of this article a brief overview of the Belgian point of view on the failed negotiations in The Hague is given. 6 refs

  13. Systematic study of the phosphate industry in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poffijn, A.

    2002-01-01

    Three major phosphate-processing industries have been investigated in Belgium. In one of them the activity concentration of 226 Ra in the ore was quite high, almost 1,100 Bq/kg, and the concentration in the silt waste was exceeding 7,000 Bq/kg. The radon concentration at ground level in the silt basin was more than 500 Bq/m 3 and in some of the buildings radon levels of up to 800 Bq/m 3 were measured. Gamma radiation levels from 0.1 to 4.4 μSv/h were found. The area downstream from one of the plants is being investigated. The riverbanks have been found to be highly contaminated up to 5 to 10m from the river. The radium concentration at 30 cm depth ranged between 400 to 4,000 Bq/kg and in river sediments between 400 to 2,000 Bq/kg. The gamma radiation levels reached 2 μSv/h

  14. Les relatives en dont du français : études empiriques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeillé Anne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Les relatives en dont ont fait l’objet de plusieurs études théoriques (Godard 1988 mais ont moins été étudiées d’un point de vue empirique (Gapany 2004. C. Blanche-Benveniste (1995 notait leur rareté dans des corpus oraux, où ils sont principalement compléments de certains verbes. Notre objectif est d’observer le comportement des relatives en dont en français d’un point de vue empirique. Pour ce faire, nous avons en premier lieu étudié les relatives dans deux corpus, le French Treebank (corpus écrit et le Corpus de Français Parlé Parisien des années 2000 (corpus oral. Ces études nous ont permis de confirmer en partie les travaux de C. Blanche-Benveniste (1995 : l’usage de dont en français écrit diffère effectivement de son usage en français oral, mais dont est loin d’être réservé à l’oral à quelques expressions figées. Nous avons pu aussi confirmer l’étude de Godard (1980 : les dont complément de nom (extractions hors de SN ne sont pas marginaux, et les plus frequents sont ceux où le nom est sujet, ce qui considéré comme agrammatical par certaines théories linguistiques comme agrammaticales. De ce point de vue, les corpus nous ont permis de vérifier que les extractions hors du SN sujet ne posent pas de problèmes en français. Leur usage est même plutôt répandu, et inclut les extractions hors de « vrais sujets » de verbes transitifs, contrairement aux prédictions des hypothèses de la grammaire générative. En grammaire générative en effet, les relatives comme les autres structures à extraction sont soumises à des contraintes d’îles (Ross 1957. Selon la contrainte de l’îlot nominal, il est plus difficile d’extraire un complément de nom qu’un complément de verbe. La contrainte de l’îlot sujet exclut quant à elle l’extraction du complément du sujet, qui n’est possible que lorsque le sujet est derivé (passif, moyen… ou argument interne (Chomsky 2008. Or, nous

  15. Vstop v podjetništvo s pomočjo nakupa franšize na primeru podjetja Tomas Sport 2, d. o. o..

    OpenAIRE

    Jaušovec, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Franšizing je skozi leta razvoja postajal ena izmed najbolj priljubljenih oblik poslovanja podjetja, saj mu omogoča hitro rast in pokritje več trgov. Ravno zaradi prodaje že dodelanega poslovnega modela ta posamezniku omogoči lažji in manj tvegan vstop na trg. V diplomskem projektu se osredotočimo na osnovne pojme franšizinga, njegovo zgodovino in možnosti le-tega v Sloveniji. Razčlenimo franšizne sisteme glede na njegovo mesto v proizvodno prodajni verigi in glede na njegovo dejavnost. P...

  16. Blaving comme TICE pour ameliorer la fluidite des apprenants de français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derly Cervantes Cerra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cette recherche a été de comparer le niveau de fluidité des étudiants de français de l’Universidad del Atlántico, avant et après avoir utilisé le réseau social Blaving. Pour mener à bien cette comparaison, nous avons fait des interviews, des enquêtes et des enregistrements en vue d’ une activité diagnostique qui consistait à répondre oralement à une question en espagnol et à une autre en français, en une minute. Dans cette activité-là, en premier lieu, on a vu reflété leur manque de fluidité et leurs erreurs de prononciation. Cependant tout de suite avec l’aide du réseau social Blaving, ils ont considérablement amélioré dans ces aspects linguistiques. Autrement dit, les résultats obtenus ont été l’augmentation du nombre de syllabes prononcées en français pendant une minute et l’amélioration de leur prononciation. ResumenEl objetivo de la presente investigación consistió en comparar el nivel de fluidez de los estudiantes de francés de la Universidad del Atlántico, antes y después de utilizar la red social Blaving. Para llevar a cabo esta comparación, realizamos entrevistas, encuestas y grabaciones enfocadas hacia una actividad diagnóstica que consistía en responder oralmente una pregunta en español y otra en francés durante un minuto. En dicha actividad, se reflejó, en primera instancia, su falta de fluidez y sus errores de pronunciación. Pero, luego, con el apoyo de la red social Blaving, los estudiantes mejoraron sustancialmente en estos aspectos lingüísticos. En otras palabras, los resultados obtenidos fueron dos: el aumento del número de sílabas pronunciadas en francés durante un minuto y el mejoramiento de su pronunciación. AbstractThe purpose of this research study was to compare the level of fluency and pronunciation among students of French at the Universidad del Atlántico before and after the use of the social network Blaving. In order to

  17. La République de Macédoine dans la presse française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Glamcevski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Les médias français s'intéressent à la République de Macédoine quand la Grèce refuse de la reconnaître, mais souvent adoptent des positions progrecques.Malgré son nom illustre, la Macédoine est un pays très mal connu en France. Jusqu’en 1991, très peu de gens connaissaient l’existence de la République de Macédoine. Les médias français commencent à s’intéresser au pays lors du blocus de sa reconnaissance par la Grèce (1991. De nombreux articles, commentaires, interviews tentent alors d’éclaircir la situation du pays, mais il y a eu très peu d’interventions de la part des intellectuels et « experts ». Cette communication montre les grandes lignes des articles parus en France dans la période entre 1991 et 2009. Mais la presse française, en assimilant le peuple macédonien au terme « Slaves », voulait sans doute pendant le conflit du Kosovo et le conflit de 2001, éclaircir la situation, mais l’utilisation de ce terme est aussi comprise comme une tentative de négation de l’existence du peuple macédonien. Le nom de la République de Macédoine bloque le pays dans son passé, c'est aux Macédoniens de définir leur identité, pas à leurs voisins ni aux membres de l'UE.In spite of its famous name, Macedonia is not well-known in France. Till 1991, very few persons even knew the existence of a Republic of Macedonia. The French Medias began to get interested in it with the Greek blocus of Macedonia. A lot of papers, comments, interviews tried then to explain the main lines of the country's situation but with a very light participation of experts or intellectuals. One can find in this paper the main lines of the French press on Macedonia from spring 1999 to September 2001. The French papers, as a whole, assimilating the “Macedonian” people to “Slaves”, perhaps to make a clear difference when explaining the situation during the Kossovo crisis or later, during the crisis inside Macedonia, contributed

  18. Özkan Bardakçi, François Pugnière (éd.), La Dernière Croisade. Les Français et la guerre de Candie 1669

    OpenAIRE

    Bernat, Chrystel

    2011-01-01

    Construit autour de l’édition critique d’un manuscrit inédit, découvert dix ans auparavant par Robert Sauzet, l’ouvrage de Özkan Bardakçi et François Pugnière présente, comme en écho Au Grand Siècle des âmes de leur préfacier (Perrin 2007), une étude de l’expédition française engagée en Crète lors de la cinquième guerre vénéto-ottomane pour tenter, à l’été 1669, de sauver la place de Candie menacée, en ce troisième siège, de tomber aux mains des Turcs. L’affaire, de dimension européenne et à ...

  19. La bêtise, un privilège français ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cámpora

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Le mot « bêtise » en français est polysémique et graduel et il ne semble pas y avoir en espagnol d'équivalent qui recouvre la totalité de ses acceptions. Cette situation acquiert des proportions considérables lorsqu'il s'agit de traduire Flaubert : en français flaubertien le mot « bêtise » s'étend comme on sait sur toute une gamme de signifiés, et le sens et le degré de nuisance que Flaubert lui attribue changent incessamment selon le contexte. Or une étude suivie des occurrences de « bêtise » dans des éditions argentines montre que ce qui se perd en premier dans le processus de traduction est justement cet emploi répété du mot : “torpeza”, “estupidez”, “barbaridad”, “idiotez”, “necedad”, “tontería” sont quelques unes des équivalences retenues par les traducteurs. Quels sont les effets de ce manque sur la textualité flaubertienne lorsqu'elle est traduite en espagnol ? Et est-ce nécessairement un manque ?The word “bêtise” is in French polysemic and gradual and there does not seem to be an equivalent in Spanish that covers the totality of its occurrences. The problem gets patently worse when translating Flaubert: in Flaubertian French the word “bêtise” spreads, as we know, to a whole range of signifiers, and the meaning and degree of nuisance that Flaubert attributes to it change constantly according to the context. Now the study of the occurrences of “bêtise” in Argentinean editions show that what is lost at first in the translation process is precisely this repeated use of the word: “torpeza”, “estupidez”, “barbaridad”, “idiotez”, “necedad”, “tontería” are a few of the equivalences given by the translators. What are the effects of this deficiency on the Flaubertian text when it is translated into Spanish? And is it necessarily a deficiency?

  20. Recent Photocatalytic Applications for Air Purification in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Boonen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic concrete constitutes a promising technique to reduce a number of air contaminants such as NOx and VOC’s, especially at sites with a high level of pollution: highly trafficked canyon streets, road tunnels, the urban environment, etc. Ideally, the photocatalyst, titanium dioxide, is introduced in the top layer of the concrete pavement for best results. In addition, the combination of TiO2 with cement-based products offers some synergistic advantages, as the reaction products can be adsorbed at the surface and subsequently be washed away by rain. A first application has been studied by the Belgian Road Research Center (BRRC on the side roads of a main entrance axis in Antwerp with the installation of 10.000 m² of photocatalytic concrete paving blocks. For now however, the translation of laboratory testing towards results in situ remains critical of demonstrating the effectiveness in large scale applications. Moreover, the durability of the air cleaning characteristic with time remains challenging for application in concrete roads. From this perspective, several new trial applications have been initiated in Belgium in recent years to assess the “real life” behavior, including a field site set up in the Leopold II tunnel of Brussels and the construction of new photocatalytic pavements on industrial zones in the cities of Wijnegem and Lier (province of Antwerp. This paper first gives a short overview of the photocatalytic principle applied in concrete, to continue with some main results of the laboratory research recognizing the important parameters that come into play. In addition, some of the methods and results, obtained for the existing application in Antwerp (2005 and during the implementation of the new realizations in Wijnegem and Lier (2010–2012 and in Brussels (2011–2013, will be presented.

  1. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    Uranium occurrences and resources - To date the uranium identified in Belgium is limited to a number of occurrences and none of these have as yet proved significant from a reserve or resource viewpoint. The main uranium occurrences ares (1) In the Upper Cambrian graphite schists corresponding to the culm of Sweden small zones are found (30 - 50 cm thick) with an average of 20 ppm uranium. (2) Near Vise at the base of the Carboniferous the Visean formation is discordantly superimposed on the Permian (Frasnian) and overlain by shales and phyllites. Solution pockets at the boundary contain phosphatic lenses that contain uranium values of up to 200 ppm. Autunite and Torbernite are the main uranium minerals associated with a number of complex phosphatic minerals. Within the Chalk (Maestrichtien) of the Mons basin, that is mainly in the Ciply - St. Symphorien and Baudow district. Here is found enrichment of uranium up to 140 ppm over large areas related to phosphatic chalk. The thickness of the zone varies from a few to 20 metres. However, as the P 2 O 5 content is not high enough for the deposits to be exploited at present for phosphate there is little possibility of the uranium being concentrated at high enough levels to be exploited for itself alone. (4) Near to Vielsalm (in the Stavelot Massif) are some thin quartz veins containing small amounts of copper and uranium minerals (Torbornite). Values of up to 70 ppm are recorded. (5) A number of low uranium values are recorded associated with phosphatic nodules and zones in the Lower Pleistocene and Tertiary

  2. 'Homogeneity in brachytherapy' - Dummy run experience in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methords

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The homogeneity of brachytherapy treatments in Belgium was appreciated through a dummy run with two fictive patients. Materiel and Methods: All members of the Belgian Brachytherapy Board received last year a questionnaire about treatment technique, technical approach, dosimetry and treatment planning, for 2 selected clinical histories. Case 1: T1 G1 NO MO - SCC of the lateral border of the mobile tongue (dimensions: 12x10x5mm). Case 2: T1 G1 NO MO - SCC of the lateral side of the nose (10x12x3mm). Results: 10 members out of 14 from the Belgian Brachytherapy Board returned their questionnaire. Little variation has been observed regarding treatment technique, technical approach (H and N: hairpins or loops, skin: plastic tubes), dose (60-65 Gy), activity of Ir-192 (1-2 mCi/cm), definition of Gross Tumor Volume and dosimetry (Paris System). On the contrary, a large difference was observed in the definition of the Clinical Target Volume and the Treated Volume. Despite of this large difference, the ratio treated volume on clinical target volume was always satisfactory (1,2 for skin cancer - 2 for H and N cancer), indicating that the treatment was well adapted to the Clinical Target Volume in all but 1 instance. Variations of a factor 2 in the dose rate of irradiation were tolerated (40-80 cGy/h). Conclusion: Rigid guidelines are mostly followed by the responders concerning dose, dose prescription and implantation techniques. Large variations are encountered concerning safety margins (Clinical Target definition) and dose rate

  3. Climate index for Belgium - Methodology; Indice climatique Belgique - Methodologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Belgium. (J.S.)

  4. An oral health survey of vulnerable older people in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visschere, Luc; Janssens, Barbara; De Reu, Griet; Duyck, Joke; Vanobbergen, Jacques

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight in the oral health of persons aged 65 years or more. Data were obtained from 652 vulnerable older persons (≥65) by means of a clinical oral examination. Additional demographic data were gathered including age, gender, residence, and care dependency. The mean age of the total study sample was 83 (7.7) years and 71 % was female. Nearly 33 % of the sample was living at home with support, and 67 % was residing in nursing homes. The number of occluding pairs was low and the proportion of edentulous people was highest among persons with the highest care dependency. The mean Decay-missing-filled teeth index (DMFT) was 20.3 (9.0). A prosthetic treatment need and inadequate oral hygiene levels were observed in 40 % and more than 60 % of the subjects, respectively. The highest treatment need was observed in the oldest age group and the highest mean dental plaque in older persons with the highest care dependency. The oral health in frail older people in Belgium is poor. The restorative and prosthetic treatment need is high and oral hygiene levels are problematic. Age, residence, and care dependency seemed to have some influence on oral health parameters. In the long term, the most important future challenge of oral health care policies is to identify older adults before they begin to manifest such oral health deterioration. Regular dental visits should be strongly promoted by all (oral) health care workers during the lifespan of all persons including older adults.

  5. Regulation of NORM industries and NORM residues in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermans, G.; Dehandschutter, B.; Pepin, S.; Sonck, M. [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control - FANC (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    In the Belgian Royal Decree of 20 July 2001, which transposed the EU Directive 96/26/EURATOM (BSS) into national legislation regarding radiation protection regulations, a list of 'work activities involving natural radiation sources' (i.e. NORM industries) was defined based on the concept described in Article 40 of the Directive. These activities are subject to declaration to the Belgian radiation protection authority (Federal Agency for Nuclear Control - FANC). The initial list was subsequently modified by a FANC decree in 2012 to reflect the increased knowledge about NORM in other industrial sectors, most of which have also been added in the recently published New Basic Safety Standards (Directive 2013/53/EURATOM). In March 2013, an additional decree was published by FANC regulating the acceptance of NORM residues by non-radioactive waste treatment facilities. This regulation was fitted within the framework described above by introducing NORM residue treatment into the existing NORM industry list. It introduces generic exemption levels above which the processing or disposal of NORM residues will be considered as a 'work activity' and submitted to declaration according to the Belgian radiation protection regulations. On basis of this declaration, specific acceptance criteria are assigned to the disposal or processing facility. FANC has published technical and methodological guides for the operators of the concerned facilities and industries to facilitate the declaration process, and has recently organized a round-table gathering both NORM industries and waste processing industries to identify the needs, uncertainties and concerns regarding the regulatory control of NORM in Belgium. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  6. Projected reduction in healthcare costs in Belgium after optimization of iodine intake: impact on costs related to thyroid nodular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Annemans, Lieven; Van Oyen, Herman; Tafforeau, Jean; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Background: Several surveys in the last 50 years have repeatedly indicated that Belgium is affected by mild iodine deficiency. Within the framework of the national food and health plan in Belgium, a selective, progressive, and monitored strategy was proposed in 2009 to optimize iodine intake. The objective of the present study was to perform a health economic evaluation of the consequences of inadequate iodine intake in Belgium, focusing on undisputed and measurable health outcomes such as th...

  7. A sociologia da saúde nos Estados Unidos, Grã-Bretanha e França: panorama geral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Duarte Nunes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar um panorama geral da sociologia médica/sociologia da saúde nos Estados Unidos, Grã-Bretanha e França, das suas origens até hoje, situando a produção científica mais expressiva desse campo nesses países. A moderna sociologia médica/saúde emerge em diferentes momentos: nos Estados Unidos logo após a Segunda Guerra; na Grã-Bretanha, nos anos 60; e na França, na década de 1970. O estudo dessas trajetórias nacionais mostra que, na atualidade, constitui um campo estabelecido e em franco desenvolvimento com uma temática bastante diversificada e uma pluralidade de abordagens teóricas.

  8. Vocabulaire progressif du français avec 250 exercices : niveau débutant : corrigés

    CERN Document Server

    Miquel, Claire

    2002-01-01

    Pour travailler en autonomie, un complément indispensable au Vocabulaire progressif du français niveau débutant : les corrigés de toutes les activités.Les corrigés sont organisés sur le modèle du livre par chapitres thématiques correspondant à divers domaines de la réalité quotidienne et contemporaine. Le lexique est présenté de façon thématique. Chaque chapitre est constitué de plusieurs séquences assurant un enrichissement progressif. Ce manuel aborde un vocabulaire vivant qui correspond à la réalité des français d'aujourd'hui. Il constitue une véritable initiation aux codes culturels.

  9. Entre crônica e reportagem, familiaridade e exotismo: Françoise em Paris (La Patrie, 1900)

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Pinson

    2015-01-01

    Por volta de 1900, a imprensa quebequense passa por grandes transformações. Jornais como La Presse, La Patrie e Montreal Star passam a priorizar a informação e a reportagem. Contudo, ainda pouco se conhece sobre a história da reportagem no Québec. Neste artigo, proponho-me a analisar principalmente as crônicas de Françoise (pseudônimo de Robertine Barry), exemplo ímpar da transição poética entre a crônica e a reportagem no Canadá francês. Os textos que Françoise publica em La Patrie por ocasi...

  10. Hans Hulshof, Erik Kwakernaak en Frans Wilhelm, Geschiedenis van het talenonderwijs in Nederland. Onderwijs in de moderne talen van 1500 tot heden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda T.A. Amsing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hans Hulshof, Erik Kwakernaak en Frans Wilhelm, Geschiedenis van het talenonderwijs in Nederland. Onderwijs in de moderne talen van 1500 tot heden (Groningen: Passage, 2015, 468 pp., isbn 978 90 5452 315 4.

  11. L’émigration russe et la naissance d’une orthodoxie française 1925-1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Pnevmatikakis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La révolution d’octobre 1917 et la guerre civile qui s’ensuivit en Russie eut comme conséquence l’émigration de millions d’orthodoxes russes vers les pays de l’Europe occidentale et plus particulièrement la France. Persuadés depuis le début du déracinement que leur exile avait un caractère providentiel, les orthodoxes russes de France ont œuvré pour la réalisation d’une synthèse qui permettrait le rapprochement entre les chrétiens d’Orient et d’Occident et aboutirait au dépassement définitif des dilemmes identitaires historiques. Durant la période 1925-1953, la reconnaissance du français comme langue liturgique orthodoxe, la fondation de la première paroisse orthodoxe de langue française, l’acceptation dans l’orthodoxie d’un groupe chrétien français utilisant une ancienne forme liturgique gallicane, la recherche pour la reconstitution dudit « rite des Gaules » et les efforts pour l’organisation ecclésiastique d’une « orthodoxie française » sous l’obédience du patriarcat de Moscou, sont des exemples montrant l’engagement sincère de certains esprits pionniers au sein de l’émigration russe pour la réalisation d’une orthodoxie authentiquement occidentale.

  12. Montag e a memória perdida:notas sobre Fahrenheit 451 de François Truffaut

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Terezinha Elisabeth da

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyzes aspects related to books and memory, in François Truffault’s Fahrenheit 451. It discusses issues related to the prohibition and destruction of books by totalitarian regimes. It emphasizes Montag’s trajectory through the movie and his transformation into a book protector and point out characteristics of the society portrayed in the film, specially its fondness for the image and for the oral information.

  13. 40 ans de linguistique textuelle et didactisation du français langue étrangère

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita

    2016-01-01

    particulièrement l’apprentissage de la lecture de textes académiques en français. En même temps, on montrera comment l’analyse et la compréhension de textes ne s’arrêtent pas au linguistique et au textuel ; bien au contraire, la linguistique textuelle enchainera naturellement sur le cognitif et sur le culturel. En...

  14. L'étude des dangers : contenu, limites et spécificités françaises

    OpenAIRE

    Farret , Régis

    2008-01-01

    National audience; Il ne s'agit pas aujourd'hui de présenter par le menu ce qu'est une étude de dangers, mais de prendre un peu de recul pour exposer la méthode d'analyse des risques qu'est l'étude de dangers et de montrer les particularités françaises avec un regard sur ce qui passe ailleurs en Europe.

  15. Communication progressive du français avec 320 exercices : niveau débutant

    CERN Document Server

    Miquel, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Ce qui fait le succès de cete ouvrage de communication: Une organisation claire: la leçon sur la page de gauche; les exercices et les activités communicatives sur la page de droite 40 fiches présentant les points généralement abordés au niveau A1 du Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues Un apprentissage progressif: il suit la progression naturelle des méthodes de français Un usage souple: pour la classe ou en auto-apprentissage Une préparation adaptée aux certifications: un entrainement efficace pour mieux réussir aux examens A découvrir dans cette deuxième édition revue et augmentée: Un CD audio avec 69 documents sonores Un test d'évaluation avec ses corrigés Des illustrations pédagogiques acutelles et colorées 50 nouveaux exercices. Un livret de corrigés est proposé à part (ISBN 978-209-038133-7).

  16. Paintings on copper by the Flemish artist Frans Francken II: PIXE characterization by external microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corregidor, V.; Oliveira, A.R.; Rodrigues, P.A.; Alves, L.C.

    2015-01-01

    Resorting to an external proton microbeam, PIXE analyses of three oil paintings on copper support dated from the XVII century and attributed to the Flemish artist Frans Francken II, were undertaken. The present work aims to contribute to the compositional study of the painting materials employed by XVII century artists that exploited copper as a support for oil painting, and specifically the materials used by Francken’s workshop, particularly copper plates. Because of the low thickness of the pictorial layers of this type of paintings and its non-destructive character, PIXE is the ideal technique to study the elemental composition of the paintings. Several spots in each painting were chosen for analysis in order to cover almost all the pigments used in the colour palette. Lead and calcium were detected in practically every analysed regions, probably related to the presence of lead white and chalk, usually used as ground layer on copper paintings. Small quantities of gold were also detected, which is present in many of this artist’s works to embellish some details of the representations. Also this work reports the first application of the external proton microbeam set-up available at CTN/IST in Portugal for the characterization of oil paintings

  17. Impôts Français : CRDS - French version only

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Avis de dégrèvements IMPORTANT : Cette note d'information concerne uniquement : - les membres du personnel de nationalité française ou résidents permanents1 , domiciliés en France dans le département de l'Ain et rémunérés par le CERN (titulaires, boursiers, attachés payés et de projet) ; - Les anciens membres du personnel de l'Organisation, bénéficiaires de la Caisse de Pensions du CERN, domiciliés ou ayant été domiciliés en France dans le département de l'Ain. Ces personnes ont récemment reçu, ou sont sur le point de recevoir, un avis de dégrèvement émanant de la Direction des Services Fiscaux de l'Ain (DSFA) et portant sur la Contribution au Remboursement de la Dette Sociale (CRDS). I. Informations général...

  18. La messagerie pratique de la communication commerciale en français

    CERN Document Server

    Descotes-Genon, Christiane; Szilagyi, Elisabeth

    1990-01-01

    Ce manuel s'adresse à : - des étudiants qui se destinent à des carrières commerciales ou au secrétariat, - des professionnels désirant " rafraîchir " leurs connaissances en français commercial. Il peut être utilisé dès le niveau intermédiaire. Les objectifs Son objectif est de permettre à un public non francophone d'apprendre à : - rédiger des lettres commerciales, - utiliser les nouveaux outils de la télématique (minitel, télex, téléfax...), - communiquer efficacement par téléphone. Le contenu Cet ouvrage est constitué : - de lettres commerciales authentiques à analyser, - d'exercices progressifs visant à l'acquisition du savoir-écrire commercial : les normes, le vocabulaire, les paragraphes standards, - de simulations et de jeux de rôles à partir de situations enregistrées pour donner les moyens de communiquer par le téléphone, le minitel, le télex et le télécopieur, - d'informations pratiques sur la réalité technique de ces nouveaux outils, - de répertoires alphabétiqu...

  19. Grammaire progressive du français niveau intermédiaire : avec 680 exercices

    CERN Document Server

    Grégoire, Maïa

    2013-01-01

    Une organisation claire : la leçon de grammaire sur la page de gauche ; les exercices d'entraînement sur la page de droite ; 52 chapitres présentant les points généralement abordés aux niveaux A2 et B1 du Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues ; Un apprentissage progressif : il suit la progression naturelle des méthodes de français ; Un usage souple : pour la classe ou en auto-apprentissage ; Une préparation adaptée aux certifications : un entraînement efficace pour mieux réussir aux examens ; Une large place faite à l'évaluation : de nombreux exercices de révision et des bilans réguliers. À découvrir dans cette troisième édition tout en couleurs : Un CD audio avec 14 documents sonores ; 80 nouveaux exercices et activités communicatives ; Des chapitres révisés et des exercices plus variés ; Un test d'évaluation avec ses corrigés ; Et... un livre web, 100% en ligne, inclus. Cet ouvrage contient un code d'activation donnant gratuitement accès sur http://livre-web.com...

  20. The Cartesian doctor, François Bayle (1622-1709), on psychosomatic explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Patricia

    2011-06-01

    There are two standing, incompatible accounts of Descartes' contributions to the study of psychosomatic phenomena that pervade histories of medicine, psychology, and psychiatry. The first views Descartes as the father of "rational psychology" a tradition that defines the soul as a thinking, unextended substance. The second account views Descartes as the father of materialism and the machine metaphor. The consensus is that Descartes' studies of optics and motor reflexes and his conception of the body-machine metaphor made early and important contributions to physiology and neuroscience but otherwise his impact was minimal. These predominately negative assessments of Descartes' contributions give a false impression of the role his philosophy played in the development of medicine and psychiatry in seventeenth-century France and beyond. I explore Descartes' influence in the little-known writings of a doctor from Toulouse, François Bayle (1622-1709). A study of Bayle gives us occasion to rethink the nature and role of psychosomatic explanation in Descartes' philosophy. The portrait I present is of a Cartesian science that had an actual and lasting effect on medical science and practice, and may offer something of value to practitioners today. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. La motivation des expressions idiomatiques de la mort en français, espagnol et anglais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Negro Alousque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE Les expressions idiomatiques, marquées par le figement et l’idiomaticité, ont fait l’objet de nombreuses recherches dans les dernières années (González Rey, 2002; Palma, 2007; García-Page, 2008. Le présent article porte sur la motivation des expressions idiomatiques de la mort dans une perspective cognitive (Lakoff et Johnson, 1980; Lakoff, 2006 et comparative. Nous analysons les deux types de motivation (iconique et culturelle qui fournissent une base à ces expressions en français, espagnol et anglais. La motivation iconique repose sur un mécanisme cognitif (métaphore, métonymie ou image mentale, alors que la motivation culturelle se fonde sur un élément appartenant au domaine de la religion, la mythologie, l’histoire ou la littérature. Ces locutions reflètent une vision de la mort en tant qu’évènement, ‘mourir’, ou en tant qu’état, ‘être mort’. Leur sens figuré semble s’enraciner dans notre expérience physique et/ou culturelle, ce qui pourrait expliquer pourquoi on retrouve des expressions identiques dans les trois langues étudiées

  2. Aux membres du personnel français détachés au CERN - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Affiliation au régime de retraite français Le CERN a reçu la lettre suivante de la Mission permanente de la France auprès des Organisations Internationales à Genève au sujet de la récente publication d'un décret concernant la retraite des fonctionnaires français détachés dans les organisations internationales : " .. l'article 20 de la loi 2002-73 du 17 janvier 2002 a mis fin au caractère obligatoire de l'affiliation au régime de retraite français pour les fonctionnaires détachés à l'étranger ou dans les organisations internationales. Le décret 2002-1391 du 21 novembre 2002, publié au Journal Officiel du 28 novembre 2002, a prévu que les fonctionnaires concernés disposent d'un délai de quatre mois à partir de la notification de leur arrêté de détachement pour faire part à leur administration d'origine de leur volonté de continuer à cotiser au régime national. Pour les fonctionnaires ayant déjà reçu la notification de leur arrêté de détachement à la date du 1er décembre 20...

  3. Les Pronoms Personnels de Troisième Personne en Français et en Italien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Bidaud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nous étudions dans cet article les pronoms personnels de troisième personne du français et de l'italien dans une perspective psychomécanique. Nous commencerons par voir que les pronoms personnels de troisième personne peuvent être sémiologiquement identiques à des déterminants et qu'ils viennent après ces derniers dans l'idéogénèse, puis nous situerons les pronoms personnels de troisième personne par rapport aux pronoms personnels de première et de deuxième personne, et nous verrons que les pronoms personnels de troisième personne peuvent appartenir au plan nominal ou au plan verbal. Nous étudierons ensuite de façon détaillée les pronoms personnels de troisième personne du français et de l'italien, et nous nous intéresserons plus particulièrement aux pronoms français y et italien ci dans une dernière partie.

  4. Franšīzes izmantošana Latvijas uzņēmējdarbības vidē

    OpenAIRE

    Berdinska, Zane

    2014-01-01

    Franšīze, kā uzņēmējdarbības veids Latvijā nav padziļināti izpētīta, nav izdota pilnvērtīga literatūra, kas skaidrotu franšīzes būtību un likumdošanā ir robi, kas ietekmē franšīzes izplatību Latvijā. Darba mērķis - izpētīt un izanalizēt franšīzes būtību, noskaidrot uzņēmējdarbības veida priekšrocības un trūkumus, izplatību Latvijas uzņēmējdarbības vidē un sniegt priekšlikumus franšīzes attīstības veicināšanai. Bakalaura darba uzdevumi: izpētīt informāciju par franšīzes vēsturi, izanali...

  5. Weather based risks and insurances for crop production in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Extreme weather events such as late frosts, droughts, heat waves and rain storms can have devastating effects on cropping systems. Damages due to extreme events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage, soil type and soil conditions. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by limited aid received for agricultural damage, an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers and projected intensification of weather extremes with climate change. According to both the agriculture and finance sectors, a risk assessment of extreme weather events and their impact on cropping systems is needed. The impact of extreme weather events particularly during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar requires a modelling approach to capture the mixture of non-linear interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The risk of soil moisture deficit increases towards harvesting, such that drought stress occurs in spring and summer. Conversely, waterlogging occurs mostly during early spring and autumn. Risks of temperature stress appear during winter and spring for chilling and during summer for heat. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, the regional crop model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) enabled to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields, yield losses and insurance claims for different crops. Physically based crop models such as REGCROP assist in understanding the links between different factors causing crop damage as demonstrated for cropping systems in Belgium. Extreme weather events have already precipitated contraction of insurance coverage in some markets (e.g. hail insurance), and the process can be expected to continue if the losses or damages from such events increase in the future. Climate

  6. Communication received from Belgium concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 18 August 2004 from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with Belgium's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2003. In the light of the request expressed by Belgium in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures to the Note Verbale of 18 August 2004 are attached for the information of all Member States

  7. Communication received from Belgium concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale, dated 8 July 2003, from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Belgium, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2002. In the light of the request expressed by Belgium in its Note Verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the enclosures to the Note Verbale of 8 July 2003 are attached for the information of all Member States

  8. De l’harmonie dans la construction des mots français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roché Michel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La formation des gentilés, particulièrement sensible aux contraintes d’euphonie, permet de mettre en évidence, pour le français, deux manifestations complémentaires de la contrainte dissimilative. L’une, négative, tend à éviter la consécution à faible distance du même phonème ou de deux phonèmes proches. Elle explique la sous-représentation des deux principaux suffixes, -ais et -ois, après une accroche en sifflante, à cause de la sifflante conte-nue par le suffixe au féminin, ainsi que la sous-représentation de -ais après /E/ et de -ois après /A/. L’autre, positive, favorise entre les voyelles une harmonie fondée sur les contrastes. De-vant les suffixes dont la voyelle est une voyelle d’avant moyenne ou haute (-ais, -ain, -in, -ier…, sont privilégiés les radicaux dont la dernière voyelle est une voyelle d’arrière moyenne ou basse, et de préférence un /O/ plutôt qu’un /A/. Devant les suffixes dont la voyelle est une voyelles d’arrière moyenne ou basse (-ois, -ot, -on, -and, -at, -ard…, sont privilégiés les radi-caux dont la dernière voyelle est une voyelle d’avant moyenne ou haute, et de préférence un /i/ plutôt qu’un /E/. Pour cela, un yod au contact du suffixe joue le même rôle qu’un /i/ dans la syllabe précédente. Cette harmonie est obtenue soit par la sélection du suffixe, soit par un aménagement – substitution, épenthèse, troncation, insertion d’un interfixe, etc. – du radical fourni par la base. On observe d’autre part une harmonisation de l’accroche consonantique du radical avec la voyelle du suffixe. Devant -ois, sont privilégiées les attaques en labiale ou en vélaire, en accord avec le double caractère du /w/ propre à ce suffixe. Devant -ais et -ain, ce sont les attaques en dentale. Devant -ot, -on, -and, -at, -ard, la tendance à rapprocher l’articu-lation de la consonne de celle de la voyelle peut aller jusqu’aux vélaires mais elle s’arrête sou

  9. Communication received from Belgium concerning its policies regarding the management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 18 October 2005 from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government, in keeping with Belgium's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2004

  10. Geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium, 2008-2013: a principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strale, Mathieu; Krysinska, Karolina; Overmeiren, Gaëtan Van; Andriessen, Karl

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium over 2008--2013 on local (i.e., district or arrondissement) level. There were differences in the regional distribution of suicide and railway suicides in Belgium over the study period. Principal component analysis identified three groups of correlations among population variables and socio-economic indicators, such as population density, unemployment, and age group distribution, on two components that helped explaining the variance of railway suicide at a local (arrondissement) level. This information is of particular importance to prevent suicides in high-risk areas on the Belgian railway network.

  11. Communication Received from Belgium Concerning its Policies regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication, dated 20 September 2002, from the Permanent Mission of Belgium to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Belgium, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available information on its national holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel, as of 31 December 2000 and 31 December 2001

  12. Theoretical chemistry in Belgium a topical collection from theoretical chemistry accounts

    CERN Document Server

    Champagne, Benoît; De Proft, Frank; Leyssens, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Readers of this volume can take a tour around the research locations in Belgium which are active in theoretical and computational chemistry. Selected researchers from Belgium present research highlights of their work. Originally published in the journal Theoretical Chemistry Accounts, these outstanding contributions are now available in a hardcover print format. This volume will be of benefit in particular to those research groups and libraries that have chosen to have only electronic access to the journal. It also provides valuable content for all researchers in theoretical chemistry.

  13. It takes two to tango! Belgium, Europe and work-life balance

    OpenAIRE

    Reyniers, Philippe; Vielle, Pascale

    2009-01-01

    Today, national and European levels of governance must move in close embrace. This article concerns the usages of European political resources by Belgian actors in the making of family-friendly policies. The history of policy changes that took place in Belgium over the last 20 years in these matters benefit from the analogy with tango. Like tango dancers, Belgium and Europe seem to enjoy a close intimacy. They regularly exchange the roles of leader and follower and there is no room for a rela...

  14. Ozone and ultraviolet radiation. Observations and research in the Netherlands and Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An overview of recent scientific research in Belgium and the Netherlands on the title subject is given. After an overall introduction on ozone and ultraviolet radiation in chapter 1 attention is paid to observations and monitoring of ozone and UV-radiation in chapter 2 and recent research projects in the Netherlands and Belgium with respect to those quantities in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the biological effects of UV-radiation are described, while in chapter 5 the international policy to protect the ozone layer is discussed as well as the effects of such policy on the UV burden and public health. 10 refs

  15. Training in the Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector in Belgium. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Jan; And Others

    An international team of researchers studied the following aspects of training in Belgium's motor vehicle repair and sales sector: structure and characteristics; institutional and social context; relationship to Belgium's overall labor market; changing structural, economic, and organizational conditions; and training and recruitment and…

  16. 76 FR 25666 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from Belgium: Final Results of Full Sunset Review and Revocation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Corporation and the United Steel, Paper and Forestry, Rubber, Manufacturing, Energy, Allied Industrial and... included in the scope of the AD orders on SSPC from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, the Republic of Korea... Certain Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan, and the...

  17. Risk assessment of soil compaction in Walloon Region (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlotte, Rosiere; Marie-France, Destain; Jean-Claude, Verbrugge

    2010-05-01

    The proposed Soil Framework Directive COM(2006)232 requires Member States to identify areas at risk of erosion, decline in organic matter, salinisation, compaction, sealing and landslides, as well as to set up an inventory of contaminated sites. The present project aims to identify the susceptibility to compaction of soils of the Walloon Region (Belgium) and to recommend good farming practices avoiding soil compaction as far as possible. Within this scope, the concept of precompression stress (Pc) (Horn and Fleige, 2003) was used. Pc is defined as the maximum major principal stress that a soil horizon can withstand against any applied external vertical stress. If applied stress is higher than Pc, the soil enters in a plastic state, not easily reversible. For a given soil, the intensity of soil compaction is mainly due to the applied load which depends on vehicle characteristics (axle load, tyre dimensions, tyre inflation pressure, and vehicle velocity). To determine soil precompression stress, pedotransfert functions of Lebert and Horn (1991) defined at two water suctions (pF 1.8 and 2.5) were used. Parameters required by these functions were found within several databases (Aardewerk and Digital Map of Walloon Soils) and literature. The validation of Pc was performed by measuring stress-strain relationships using automatic oedometers. Stresses of 15.6, 31, 3, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 kPa were applied for 10 min each. In this study, the compaction due to beet harvesters was considered because the axle load can exceed 10 tons and these machines are often used during wet conditions. The compaction at two depth levels was considered: 30 and 50 cm. Compaction of topsoil was not taken into account because, under conventional tillage, the plough depth is lower than 25 cm. Before and after the passage of the machines, following measurements were performed: granulometry, density, soil moisture, pF curve, Atterberg limits, ... The software Soilflex (Keller et al., 2007

  18. Landslides in Flanders (Belgium): Where science meets public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eeckhaut, M.; Poesen, J.; Vandekerckhove, L.

    2009-04-01

    Although scientific research on landslides in the Flemish Ardennes (710 km²; Belgium), has been conducted over the last decades, the Flemish Government only took account of slope failure as a soil degradation process after the occurrence of several damaging landslides in the beginning of the 21st century. Here we aim to present the successful collaboration between the Physical and Regional Geography Research Group (FRG; Dept. Earth and Environmental Sciences K.U.Leuven) and the Environment, Nature and Energy Department (LNE; Flemish Government) in landslide management. We will demonstrate how geomorphologists produced practical tools for landslide management which can be directly applied by LNE as well as other local and regional authorities and planners. Since 2004 three projects on landslide inventory mapping and susceptibility assessment in the Flemish Ardennes have been funded by LNE, and a fourth one on landslide susceptibility assessment in remaining hilly regions in Flanders west of Brussels recently started. Together with a steering committee composed of stakeholders, persons from LNE supervise the research carried out by geomorphologists experienced in landslide studies. For the establishment of the landslide inventory map of the Flemish Ardennes we combined the analysis of LIDAR-derived hillshade and contour line maps with detailed field controls. Additional information was collected through interviews with local authorities and inhabitants and from analysis of newspaper articles and technical reports. Then, a statistical model, logistic regression, was applied to produce a high quality classified landslide susceptibility map. The unique part of this collaboration is that all end products are online available at user-friendly websites designed by LNE. The scientific report containing (1) general information on landslides, (2) a description of the study area, (3) an explanation of the materials and methods used, (4) a presentation of the resulting

  19. Study of the raw materials used in the manufacture of ceramics in Fran Ali (Oued Laou, Marruecos); Estudio de materiales usados en la fabricacion de las ceramicas de Fran Ali (Oued Laou, Marruecos)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios Neira, J.; Martin de la Cruz, J. C.; Montealegre Contreras, L.

    2012-11-01

    The thermal behaviour, mineralogy, texture and micro-structure of the original rocks used as raw materials in the manufacture of ceramics of the potter community in Fran Ali (Oued Laou, Tetouan, Morocco) were studied. The original rocks of the alteration deposit are metapelites and altered philites from the Units Malaguide-Gomaride in the Baetic-Rifian mountain system. The techniques used by local potters and the water used to prepare the ceramic bodies were also studied. Original rocks are metapelites or filadios and raw materials belong to levels caused by exogenous or supergene alteration (quartz-illite and chlorite type clays). The ceramics studied by microscopy exhibit anisotropy. (Author) 15 refs.

  20. El concepto de límite en el B-Mu de François Roche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Pandolfini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen

    Algunos proyectos, como el Dusty relief/B‐mu (2002 de François Roche demuestran como edificios complejos, que toman distancia desde los modelos mecanicistas para referirse a nuevos paradigmas, se pueden interpretar y comprenderse  mejor gracias a un análisis perceptivo que acerca el proyecto de arquitectura a cuestiones como la relación psicológica del hombre con la arquitectura, el miedo al espacio, y las  patologías  vinculadas a la percepción y a las neurosis modernas.
    En este caso, aparte de las repercusiones que la fachada de  polvo podría tener en el ámbito de la ecología urbana, es interesante analizar algunos aspectos ligados a la dicotomía  entre forma externa y volúmenes internos para la que François Roche cita como referencia el raumplan de Adolf Loos, pero que presenta motivos para una reflexión vinculada a los aspectos  perceptivos.
    El artículo trata de analizar como François Roche proyecta sus edificios extremando la dicotomía entre interior/visual y  exterior/táctil, desarrollando así una nueva relación con el lugar. Roche diseña la fachada exterior del B‐mu autoimponiéndose  una limitación del sentido de la vista, a favor de una dimensión háptica del proyecto y lo hace envolviendo los ámbitos arquitectónicos más familiares de una interfaz abstracta y táctil.

    Palabras clave

    edificio, percepción, entorno, envolvente, límite

    Abstract

    Some projects such as Dusty relief/B‐mu (2002 by François  Roche demonstrate how complex buildings, which distance themselves from the mechanicist models in order to refer  themselves to new paradigms, can be better understood and interpreted thanks to a perceptive analysis.
    This analysis brings the architectural project closer to matters  such as man’s psychological relationship to Architecture, the fear of space

  1. The Role of the Company in Generating Skills. The Learning Effects of Work Organisation. Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, Jacques; Fusulier, Bernard; Debaty, Pol; Maroy, Christian

    Changes in the organization of work and production and in the management and structure of firms have an effect on the development of jobs and the segregation between certain trades and occupations. This macrocontext is a determining factor in the development of training and the acquisition of skill in Belgium. The Flemish region demonstrates the…

  2. Case Study: Wenduine, Belgium : Vulnerability of buildings on a coastal dike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    On coastal dikes in Belgium, many residential buildings are found. Most of the old buildings are masonry structures with two to three floors (Figure 1). The ground floors are always elevated (Figure 2), and the entrances of the basements are closed by shutters

  3. Optical dating of relict sand wedges and composite-wedge pseudomorphs in Flanders, Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Ghysels, Günther; Murray, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    We report on quartz Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of the infill of 14 relict sand wedges and composite-wedge pseudomorphs at 5 different sites in Flanders, Belgium. A laboratory dose recovery test indicates that the single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure is suitable for...

  4. From federated federalism to converging federalism? The case of EU subsidiarity scrutiny in Spain and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandamme, T.

    2012-01-01

    In political science literature, federal systems may be classified as ‘dual’ or ‘co-operative’ polities. This contribution further explores this dichotomy between dual and co-operative systems from the perspective of Spain and Belgium, two EU member states that may be qualified as ‘dual’ systems.

  5. The Components of Income Inequality in Belgium : Applying the Shorrocks-Decomposition with Bootstrapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, G.J.M.; Nelissen, J.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    We look at the contribution of various income components on income inequality and the changes in this in Belgium.Starting from the Shorrocks decomposition, we apply bootstrapping to construct confidence intervals for both the annual decomposition and the changes over time.It appears that the

  6. Different measles outbreaks in Belgium, January to June 2016 – a challenge for public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammens, Tine; Maes, Virginie; Hutse, Veronik; Laisnez, Valeska; Schirvel, Carole; Trémérie, Jean Marie; Sabbe, Martine

    2016-01-01

    During the first half of 2016, several outbreaks of measles were reported in the three regions of Belgium. Main challenges for public health were severe complications occurring in adults, nosocomial transmission and infection in healthcare workers. Here, we describe those outbreaks and lessons learnt for public health. PMID:27541858

  7. Justifying continuous sedation until death: A focus group study in nursing homes in Flanders, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rys, S.; Deschepper, R.; Deliens, L.; Mortier, F.; Bilsen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous Sedation until Death (CSD), the act of reducing or removing the consciousness of an incurably ill patient until death, has become a common practice in nursing homes in Flanders (Belgium). Quantitative research has suggested that CSD is not always properly applied. This qualitative study

  8. Interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vertommen, Tine; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Wouters, Kristien; Kampen, J.K.; Brackenridge, Celia H.; Rhind, Daniel J.A.; Neels, Karel; Eede, Van Den Filip

    2016-01-01

    The current article reports on the first large-scale prevalence study on interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium. Using a dedicated online questionnaire, over 4,000 adults prescreened on having participated in organized sport before the age of 18 were surveyed

  9. Education, Ethnic Homogenization and Cultural Hybridization (Brussels, Belgium, and Cape Town, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Johan, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The eight chapters of this theme issue examine the ways in which autochthonous communities regard the supply side of education. The supply side is segregational in nature, and immigrants themselves move toward ethnic homogenization. The focus is on urban minorities in Brussels (Belgium). Compares the situation in Cape Town (South Africa). (SLD)

  10. The stock market performance of the central banks of Belgium and Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Goldberg, Lawrence G.

    2002-01-01

    Most central banks issue stock that is held by the government and/or commercial banks and is not tradable. In contrast, stocks of the central banks of Belgium and Japan are traded on the Brussels and Tokyo stock exchanges. The purpose of the paper is to examine this unique phenomenon of stock market

  11. The medical practice of euthanasia in Belgium and The Netherlands: legal notification, control and evaluation procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, T.; Bilsen, J.J.; Cohen, J.; Rurup, M.L.; Keyser, E.; Deliens, L.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare current legal procedures for notifying, controlling and evaluating (NCE-procedures) euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands, and to discuss the implications for a safe and controllable euthanasia practice. METHODS: We systematically studied and compared official

  12. The governance of public-private partnerships in sports infrastructure: Interfering complexities in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, M.; Verhoest, K.

    2015-01-01

    Although public-private partnership (PPP) in infrastructure development has gained foothold in Flanders (the northern part of Belgium) over time, dissimilar results are evident and the controversy around PPP remains. This paper investigates the contradictory achievements of the Flemish Sports

  13. Teacher Evaluation Policy as Perceived by School Principals: The Case of Flanders (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuytens, Melissa; Devos, Geert

    2018-01-01

    In Flanders (Belgium), a new teacher evaluation policy was issued which placed a lot of autonomy with school principals to develop and implement a new teacher evaluation system. In this study, we explore how Flemish principals perceive the new teacher evaluation policy and what influences their perception. Results demonstrate that principals…

  14. First isolation of Trichinella britovi from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Belgium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schynts, F; Giessen, Joke van der; Tixhon, S; Pozio, E; Dorny, P; Borchgrave, J de

    2006-01-01

    Since 1992, when the European Union Council Directive requires that wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in EU for commercial purpose should be examined for Trichinella, the infection has not been detected in wild boars from Belgium, despite serological evidence of the presence of anti-Trichinella

  15. The New Partnership Approach in the 2003 Belgium-Netherlands Tax Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.K. Fibbe (Gijsbert); M. Isenbaert (Mathieu)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractSince 1 January 2003, a new double tax Treaty is applicable between Belgium and the Netherlands. The old Treaty of 1970 already included a specific provision relating to partnerships. Including three distinct provisions has now expanded the tradition and it is the objective of this

  16. Euthanasia and other end-of-life decisions: a mortality follow-back study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Block, L.; Deschepper, R.; Bilsen, J.J.; Bossuyt, N.; Casteren, van V.; Deliens, L.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study compares prevalence and types of medical end-of-life decisions between the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking communities of Belgium. This is the first nationwide study that can make these comparisons and the first measurement after implementation of the euthanasia law (2002).

  17. An expanding culture of control? The municipal administrative sanctions Act in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devroe, E.; Bruinsma, G.; Van, der Beken T.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth study of the Act on Municipal Administrative Sanctions 1999 (MAS), which is the first major piece of legislation regulating antisocial behaviour in Belgium. MAS provides municipalities with an instrument to sanction antisocial behaviour and conduct perceived to

  18. Flexicurity and human resources management for older workers in the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredgaard, Th.; Tros, F.; Blanpain, R.; Dickens, L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a comparative survey done in the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany and Belgium. Against the background of the European debates on active ageing as well as on flexicurity, the main goal of this survey is to investigate to what extent 'flexicurity arrangements' are

  19. Victims or heroes? Elucidating the Profile of Current Irregular Chinese Migrants in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Ching Lin

    2006-01-01

    Agency versus victimhood In anthropology: main focus on migrants strategies, migrants life and migration project In legal studies and criminology, emphasis is on victimhood Methodology: Desk research: -academic articles -government documents -international reports, in particular the Hypocrates report on human trafficking: case study of Belgium -police files and statistics -court cases Interviews: -12 in-depth interviews with undocumented Chinese in Belgian de...

  20. 76 FR 50495 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... Review] Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan Determinations On the... Africa, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time.\\2\\ The Commission further determines...

  1. Kettneraspis, Radiaspis and Ceratarges (Trilobita) from the Middle Devonian of the Rochefort area (Ardennes, Belgium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viersen, van A.P.

    2007-01-01

    The Middle Eifelian trilobite fauna of the Belgian Ardennes shows close affinities with that of the German Eifel. Two trilobite taxa are recorded from Middle Eifelian strata near the town of Jemelle, on the southern border of the Dinant Synclinorium, Belgium. Kettneraspis bayarti sp. nov. is closely

  2. Time trend of clinical cases of Lyme disease in two hospitals in Belgium, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keukeleire, Mathilde; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Kabamba, Benoît; Belkhir, Leila; Pierre, Philippe; Luyasu, Victor; Robert, Annie

    2017-12-05

    As several studies indicated an increase in Lyme disease (LD), notably in neighbouring countries, concerns have arisen regarding the evolution of Lyme disease in Belgium. In order to confirm or infirm the increase of LD in Belgium, we focused on hospital admissions of patients diagnosed with LD between 2000 and 2013 based on hospital admission databases from two hospitals in Belgium. Hospital databases are a stable recording system. We did a retrospective analysis of the medical files of patients hospitalized with Lyme disease in two Belgian hospitals between 2000 and 2013. The annual number of cases of LD for the two studied Belgian hospitals remained stable between 2000 and 2013, ranging from 1 for the Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc to 15 for the the Clinique Saint-Pierre. No increasing trend were noted in the estimated annual incidence rate but the average estimated annual incidence rate was higher for the hospital Saint-Pierre (8.1 ± 3.7 per 100,000 inhabitants) than Saint-Luc (2.2 ± 1.5 per 100,000 inhabitants). The number of hospital cases of LD peaked between June and November. Based on hospital admissions with LD, no increasing trend was observed for the period 2000-2013 in the two studied Belgian hospitals. This is in line with other studies carried out in Belgium.

  3. The politics of labelling youth vernaculars in the Netherlands and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornips, L.; Jaspers, J.; de Rooij, V.; Nortier, J.; Svendsen, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter critically analyses the labelling of youthful language use in Belgium and the Netherlands. Urban youthful speech practices have in recent years been assigned a variety of labels, some of which have gained currency among insiders as well as outsiders. Linguists have not infrequently

  4. Trade openness, real exchange rates and job reallocation : Evidence from Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Colantone (Italo)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the impact of real exchange rate movements on job reallocation at the industry level. The analysis focuses on the manufacturing sector of Belgium, using data for 82 NACE 3-digit industries, over the time span 1996-2002. I find that real exchange rate changes do

  5. Do-not-resuscitate policy on acute geriatric wards in Flanders, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gendt, de C.; Bilsen, J.J.; Stichele, van der R.; Lambert, M.; Noortgate, N. Den; Deliens, L.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the historical development and status of a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) policy on acute geriatric wards in Flanders, Belgium, and to compare it with the international situation. DESIGN: Structured mail questionnaires. SETTING: All 94 acute geriatric wards in hospitals in Flanders

  6. Stability of organic matter in soils of the Belgium Loess Belt upon erosion and deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Cammeraat, E.; Wang, Z.; Govers, G.; Kalbitz, K.

    2011-01-01

    Stability of organic matter in soils of the Belgium Loess Belt upon erosion and deposition X. Wang, L.H. Cammeraat, Z. Wang, G. Govers, K. Kalbitz. Abstract: Soil erosion has significant impacts on terrestrial C dynamics, which removes C from topsoil and continually exposes subsoil that has lower C

  7. Physician-assisted death: attitudes and practices of community pharmacists in East Flanders, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, J.J.; Bauwens, M.; Bernheim, J.L.; Stichele, R.V.; Deliens, L.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates attitudes and practices of community pharmacists with respect to physician-assisted death. Between 15 February and 15 April 2002, we sent anonymous mail questionnaires to 660 community pharmacists in the eastern province of Flanders, Belgium. The response rate was 54% (n =

  8. Physician-assisted death: attitudes and practices of community pharmacists in East Flanders, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, J.J.; Bauwens, M.; Bernheim, J.L.; Stichele, R.V.; Deliens, L.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates attitudes and practices of community pharmacists with respect to physician-assisted death. Between 15 February and 15 April 2002, we sent anonymous mail questionnaires to 660 community pharmacists in the eastern province of Flanders, Belgium. The response rate was 54%

  9. Abstracts of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine congress, 26-30 August 1995, Brussels, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The issue contains 888 abstracts of lectures and poster sessions of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine Congress held in Brussels, Belgium, from August 26 to 30, 1995. The key subjects adressed are diagnostic nuclear medicine techniques, especially scintiscanning, SPET and PET and their applications in diagnostic medicine. There is an alphabetic index of author names. (vhe) [de

  10. Constitutional and Judicial Language Protection in Multilingual States: A Brief Overview of South Africa and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Bambust (Isabelle); A. Kruger (Albert); T. Kruger (Thalia)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The purpose of this contribution is to provide a very modest comparison of judicial language protection in South Africa and in Belgium. First of all, the authors sketch briefly the historical context and the constitutional status of languages in both countries. It is

  11. A tale of two charters : Political crisis, political realignment and administrative reform in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); N. Thijs (Nick); G. Bouckaert (Geert)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstractCharters are official commitments to quality and reform. Belgium introduced its Charter of the User of Public Services in 1993. The federal administration’s Copernicus reform began in 1999 and had a strong external outlook. It therefore may be considered as a second User Charter. In

  12. International comparison of results of infection surveillance: The Netherlands versus Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, R.; van den Berg, J. M.; Veerman-Brenzikofer, M. L.; Kurz, X.; Jans, B.; Klazinga, N.

    1994-01-01

    To explore the potential benefit of comparing results from two national surveillance networks. Two prospective multicenter cohort studies of surgical wound infections (SWI). Thirty-five and 62 acute-care hospitals in The Netherlands (NL) and Belgium (B), respectively, from October 1, 1991, to June

  13. Les huiles d’olive vierges françaises : évolution, état des lieux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinatel Christian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La production française d’huiles d’olive vierges bien que très modeste (environ 5000 T par rapport à la production mondiale (0,22 %, présente une originalité et une diversité de caractéristiques notamment organoleptiques. Cette diversité se retrouve dans les huit Appellations d’Origine françaises existantes actuellement qui représentent environ 30 % de la production nationale. La production en agriculture biologique, actuellement de l’ordre de 15 %, progresse. Le suivi des indices de qualité (acidité, indice de peroxyde, absorption spécifique en UV K232 et K270, éthyl esters, analyse organoleptique montre une amélioration constante de la qualité des huiles d’olive vierges qui sont conformes aux normes internationales. Toutefois, quelques échantillons présentent des valeurs de K270> 0,22, qui ne correspondent pas à un état d’oxydation élevé mais à une forte teneur en composés phénoliques. De plus, certaines productions françaises particulières (huiles « fruité noir », huiles Corse « à l’ancienne » présentent des typicités appréciées d’une partie des consommateurs et qui méritent d’être conservées et pérennisées, malgré leur classification dévalorisante par les critères règlementaires. Les teneurs en composés phénoliques totaux varient fortement en fonction des différents types de fruités ou de type de récolte. Les profils organoleptiques standards des AOP, AOC et des principales variétés françaises sont décrits par des descripteurs analogiques.

  14. Christian Marcon, La recherche française en intelligence économique : Bilan et perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Moinet, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    L’ouvrage « La recherche française en intelligence économique. Bilan et perspectives » que nous propose Christian Marcon est assurément une pierre qui manquait à la construction d’un édifice pour le moins intrigant et longtemps resté un OVNI conceptuel alors qu’il devenait une pratique quotidienne des organisations. Un OVNI désormais bien ancré dans la littérature tant académique que professionnelle ainsi que le démontre notamment la liste des ouvrages parus dans la collection Intelligence éc...

  15. Nizet Jean, Pichault François, Les performances des organisations africaines : pratiques de gestion en contexte incertain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Laloy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage, dirigé par Jean Nizet et François Pichault, propose d’aborder la question du fonctionnement et des performances des organisations africaines en dépassant la posture “radicale” selon laquelle les caractéristiques de la culture africaine (manque d’expérience et de formation des entrepreneurs, clientélisme et corruption, prégnance des cultures traditionnelles et non rationnelles... expliqueraient à elles seules l’inhibition du développement des organisations. Ce type d’approche, qu...

  16. Cartographie interactive sur minitel: l'Atlas télématique des villes françaises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe WANIEZ

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available L'atlas télématique des villes françaises met à la disposition d'un large public des informations statistiques, sous la forme de cartes s'affichant sur l'écran des terminaux minitel. Deux exemples de session d'interrogation illustrent l'usage pouvant être fait de ce nouveau service vidéotex: les élections européennes de 1984, la criminalité en 1982.

  17. Brique après brique, construire le latino-américanisme toulousain (et français)

    OpenAIRE

    Guibert, Martine; Gaignard, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Durant plus d’une quarantaine d’années (des années 1960 jusqu’au début des années 2010), Romain Gaignard a posé une à une les briques de l’édifice latino-américaniste toulousain (et français), selon un processus de construction qui a valorisé rencontres, hasards de la vie et exigences politiques des plus hautes instances nationales. Repoussant les frontières académiques et institutionnelles, jouant avec les emboîtements d’échelles, tant spatiales que temporelles, il a ainsi prati...

  18. Devoir et l’évidentialité en français et en roumain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Spiridon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Le verbe devoir a une valeur lexicale pleine (renvoyant à la notion de dette et plusieurs valeurs modales. L’analyse que nous proposons associera à devoir une valeur évidentielle pour l’ensemble de ses valeurs modales. Devoir indique que le locuteur a motivé son propos en le faisant dépendre d’une source qui peut coïncider soit avec une règle, soit avec un fait. Les données relatives au roumain ainsi que l'analyse diachronique fondée sur l'origine latine du verbe devoir (debere étayeront notre propos en fournissant d'une part des pistes pour comprendre la manière dont se sont mises en place les valeurs modales propres au verbe français et d'autre part en faisant apparaître une forme roumaine (« o fi + gérondif ou participe passé » codant une indication qui semble être l'inverse de celle relative à devoir modal.The French verb devoir has a lexical value (referring to the notion of debt and several modal values. The analysis proposed will posit that any modal value of devoir codes a form of evidentiality. Devoir indicates that the speaker has motivated his/her utterance by making it depend on a source that coincides with a rule or a fact. Data provided by Romanian and diachronic analysis taking into account the Latin origin of devoir (debere will support this view. On the one hand they will allow us a better understanding of the way in which the modal values of the French verb came into being. On the other hand, we shall notice that Romanian has a structure named “presumptive” which codes the opposite, i.e. that the information given in the utterance is not dependant on one particular source.

  19. Franšīzes uzņēmuma dibināšanas iespējas starptautiskā tirgū.

    OpenAIRE

    Maklere, Madara

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darba autore: Madara Makere. Bakalaura darba tēma: „Franšīzes uzņēmuma dibināšanas iespējas starptautiskā tirgū”. Darbs sastāv no trim nodaļām. Pirmajā nodaļā tiek aprakstīta teorija par franšīzi un tās veidiem. Otrajā daļā tiek apskatīta informācija par franšīzi vairāk no praktiskā viedokļa, precīzāk, Latvijā esošā franšīzes uzņēmuma apskate un piesaistes uzņēmuma informācija. Trešajā daļā tiek apskatīts franšīzes dibināšanas pamats un ar to saistošā informācija. Bakalaura...

  20. Frančaizinga izmantošana Latvijas Republikas mazajā un vidējā biznesā

    OpenAIRE

    Žuks, Vadims

    2017-01-01

    Diplomdarba tēma ir frančaizinga veikšanas problēmas Latvijas mazajā un vidējā biznesā. Darbā tiek izskatīti frančaizinga veikšanas teorētiskie pamati, tiek analizēta Latvijas frančaizinga biznesa likumdošanas bāze un francāizinga modeļa ieviešanas īpatnības, ka arī konkrēta frančaizinga biznesa uzsākšanas un darbības uzlabošanas pasākumi. Diplomdarbs izpildīts uz 82 lappusēm. Darbs satur 8 attēlus, 12 tabulas un 3 pielikumus. Darba atslēgas vārdi ir: frančaizinga bizness, biznesa veikšanas p...

  1. Veiksmīgas ārzemju un Latvijas franšīzes piemērs un analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzina, Jūlija

    2015-01-01

    Šī diplomdarba tēmas aktualitātes pamatojums ir tāds, ka pastāv vairāki faktori, kas kavē starptautiskā biznesa attīstību. Lai atrisinātu šo problēmu, ir vajadzīgi jauni ekonomiskie mehānismi, viens no kuriem ir franšīze, kas ļauj palielināt rentabilitāti. Diplomdarba mērķis ir noskaidrot franšīzes attīstības iespējas, apskatīt franšīzes ietekmējošus faktorus, kā arī analizēt franšīzes izdevigumu Latvijā uz veiksmīgas ārzemju un Latvijas franšīzes piemēra. Diplomdarbs sastāv no 3 daļām....

  2. An analysis on energy efficiency initiatives in the building stock of Liege, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Mahapatra, Sadhan; Teller, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Built environment is responsible for 60% of total energy consumption in European countries and 128 million BOE of primary energy in Belgium. The average energy consumption in the residential buildings of Belgium is 70% higher than the EU average and stands at 348 kW h/m 2 /year. Energy Performance Building Directive (EPBD) provides guidelines for energy performance analysis of buildings in Belgium. In this study, a holistic approach has been adopted to analyse the building stock of Liege, Belgium. This analysis is based on ‘General Socio-economic survey 2001’ and ‘Housing quality survey 2006 in Walloon region’ databases. It considers parameters such as buildings age, built-up area, type of heating system, type of fuel used, adjacency, insulation of roofs and walls and energy consumption etc. for an in depth analysis. This study concludes that about 69% of buildings which are constructed before 1945 needs serious renovation towards the improvement of roof and external wall insulation level. It then successfully identifies specific areas which need detailed study to evaluate the comfort status in the existing building stock, improvement of insulation level and its effect on heating energy consumption as well as the economic analysis on energy efficiency measurements. -- Highlights: •Energy efficiency studies of building stock of Liege, Belgium. •Energy Performance Building Directive is used as reference for analysis. •Buildings age, built-up area and energy consumption data are used for analysis. •Identifies the areas to improve energy efficiency of building stock

  3. Naissance d’une notion. La première réception du film d’art français en Italie

    OpenAIRE

    Alovisio, Silvio

    2011-01-01

    L’auteur propose une première exploration des discours relatifs au film d’art français dans la presse cinématographique italienne entre 1908 et 1912. Non seulement la réception des premiers films d’art français en Italie influence le développement de nouvelles stratégies de promotion des produits de l’industrie cinématographique, mais elle contribue aussi à l’émergence d’un discours critique jusqu’alors superficiel, en plaçant au centre la question de l’acteur. Le film d’art français offre en...

  4. Communication progressive du français avec 320 exercices : niveau débutant : corrigés

    CERN Document Server

    Miquel, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Ce qui fait le succès de cet ouvrage de communication: Une organisation claire: la leçon sur la page de gauche; les exercices et les activités communicatives sur la page de droite 40 fiches présentant les points généralement abordés au niveau A1 du Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues Un apprentissage progressif: il suit la progression naturelle des méthodes de français Un usage souple: pour la classe ou en auto-apprentissage Une préparation adaptée aux certifications: un entrainement efficace pour mieux réussir aux examens A découvrir dans cette deuxième édition revue et augmentée: Un CD audio avec 69 documents sonores Un test d'évaluation avec ses corrigés Des illustrations pédagogiques acutelles et colorées 50 nouveaux exercices. Communication Progressive du français niveau débutant, 2ème édition (ISBN 978-209-038132-0).

  5. Dos lienzos firmados por Alonso del Arco en la parisina iglesia Saint-François de Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delenda, Odile

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available El inventario detallado realizado en las iglesias de París por los conservadores des Oeuvres d'Art Religieuses et Civiles del ayuntamiento de la capital francesa, puede reservar gratas sorpresas. Muy recientemente Guénola Groud, conservateur du Patrimoine y su equipo, pudieron localizar en la «Salle des mariages» de la nueva iglesia de Saint-François-de-Sales (Paris, XVIIème dos importantes lienzos de medio punto, la Adoración de los Pastores (Fig. 2 y la Adoración de los Magos (Fig. 1 firmados por el pintor Alonso del Arco (1635-1704 colaborador y discípulo de Antonio Pereda. Existen en efecto dos iglesias Saint-François-de-Sales. La más antigua, de 1873, está situada en la calle Brémontier mientras que la más reciente, construida entre 1911 y 1913, tiene su entrada principal en la calle Ampère…

  6. Grammaire progressive du français corrigés : niveau intermédiaire : avec 680 exercices

    CERN Document Server

    Thiévenaz, Odile

    2013-01-01

    Les corrigés de la 3e édition de la Grammaire progressive du français - niveau intermédiaire Ce qui fait le succès de cette grammaire : Une organisation claire : la leçon de grammaire sur la page de gauche ; les exercices d'entraînement sur la page de droite ; 52 chapitres présentant les points généralement abordés aux niveaux A2 et B1 du Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues ; Un apprentissage progressif : il suit la progression naturelle des méthodes de français ; Un usage souple : pour la classe ou en auto-apprentissage ; Une préparation adaptée aux certifications : un entraînement efficace pour mieux réussir aux examens ; Une large place faite à l'évaluation : de nombreux exercices de révision et des bilans réguliers. À découvrir dans cette troisième édition tout en couleurs (ISBN 978 209 038 124 5) : Un CD audio avec 14 documents sonores ; 80 nouveaux exercices et activités communicatives ; Des chapitres révisés et des exercices plus variés ; Un test d'�...

  7. L’action française: une matrice européenne et transatlantique des droites radicales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier DARD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available L’action française et le maurrassisme sont indissociables de la figure de maurras. En même temps, ils la dépassent. L’action française renvoie à une réalité polymorphe articulée autour de trois piliers: une doctrine, un quotidien et une ligue. Cet ensemble a eu une influence incontestable non seulement en France mais aussi à l’étranger. Une étude sur ce dernier point permet de mettre en lumière une chronologie sensiblement différente de celle qui a été proposée pour la France. En même temps, l’examen des vecteurs de pénétration et des transferts politiques et culturels à l’œuvre font découvrir les différentes façons d’être maurrassien de l’Europe aux Amériques.

  8. [Louis-Marie Rousseau and the "Chocolat rationnel des pharmaciens français" (Rational Chocolate of French pharmacists)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Cécile

    2015-03-01

    In 1883, the chemist Louis-Marie Rousseau (1849-1930) creats the "Compagnie hygiénique française" (French Hygienic Company). The company manufactures and sells the "Poudre de viande Rousseau" (Rousseau meat powder) and the "Chocolat Rousseau" (Rousseau Chocolate) by methods developed and patented by the pharmacist. Ten years after a successful collaboration, L.-M. Rousseau separates from his associates and founds the "Chocolaterie spéciale d'Ermont" (Special Chocolate factory of Ermont) in the village of Ermont near Paris. Here is manufactured the "Chocolat Rationnel des pharmaciens français" (Rational Chocolate of French pharmacists), hygienic chocolate sold only in pharmacies. The factory is also a pharmaceutical laboratory where is extracted theobromine from waste vegetable substances of cocoa. It then produces the "Théobromine Rousseau cristallisée" (crystallized Rousseau's Theobromine) sold as tablets, then the "Théosol" that will be commercialized until the middle of 1930s.

  9. Pour une introduction de la pragmatique dans l’enseignement du français en Espagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Ruiz de Zarobe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La composante pragmatique est conçue dans le Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues (2001 comme une des composantes de la “compétence communicative” que tout étudiant de langue étrangère doit atteindre. Cette composante a été remise en valeur ces dernières années, à la suite de l´interculturalité produite par la globalisation, où le besoin de connaître les langues étrangères du point de vue social, culturel et interculturel est plus grand que jamais. Cet article prétend montrer certains domaines où la pragmatique peut être appliquée à la didactique du Français Langue Étrangère, en visant les différents types d´apprenants et de besoins d´apprentissage qui ont lieu dans nos complexes sociétés actuelles, ce qui met en valeur le besoin d´introduire la pragmatique dans l´enseignement du français.

  10. A Life Course Perspective in the Analysis of Self-Experiences of Female Migrants in Belgium: the Case of Ukrainian and Russian Women in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Heyse

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes how migration transforms experiences of the self in Russian and Ukrainian women in Belgium, from a retrospective life course perspective. The author particularly focuses on gender identities in interaction with other aspects of the self such as educational and professional background, nationality and legal status. She aims both to highlight variation in gendered responses between Russian and Ukrainian women (inter-subjective variation, and within Russian and Ukrainian women (intra-subjective variation over time and in two life domains (family and the labour market. The present analysis draws on the transversal analysis of the FEMIGRIN-project, a Belgian science policy project on female migration that cross-compared 5 case studies of female migrants in Belgium. The results of this transversal analysis were grouped in the construction of several “characteristic” migration trajectories of female migrants in Belgium. The present article reconstructs these trajectories with the qualitative data of the Russian and Ukrainian case study, from a life course and intersectional theory perspective. The combined life course and intersectional research perspective enabled the author to study how personal goals, aspirations and experiences of the self are continuously interpreted and re-interpreted in the course of migration, in interaction with the surrounding environment. Since women’s migration life courses develop largely according to their legal status and migration type, the author can conclude that female migrants’ opportunities and constraints are highly determined by these social categories. The analysis reveals that women’s life courses seem to be less structured by the investment of individual level capacities than by policy determined categories.

  11. A instrução pública na França revolucionária: considerações a partir do Essais sur l’enseignement en general et sur celui des mathématiques en particulier, de Sylvestre-François Lacroix - The public instruction in revolutionary France: some remarks accord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vicente Marafioti Garnica

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda o livro Essais sur l'enseignement en général, et sur celui des mathématiques en particulier, de Sylvestre-François Lacroix, publicado originalmente na França em 1805, enfatizando sua primeira parte, na qual o autor discute a instrução pública e, particularmente, as escolas centrais da França revolucionária.Palavras-chave: Sylvestre-François Lacroix (1765-1843, instrução pública, Essais sur l'enseigne-ment en général, et sur celui des mathématiques en particulier, iluminismo, França. The public instruction in revolutionary France: some remarks according to Lacroix’s Essais sur l’enseignement en general et sur celui des mathématiques en particulierAbstractThe article discusses the book Essais sur l'enseignement en général, et sur celui des mathématiques en particulier, by Sylvestre-François Lacroix, originally published in France in 1805. The first part of the book, in which the author discusses public education, and particularly the central schools of revolutionary France, is emphasized.Key-words: Sylvestre-François Lacroix (1765-1843, public instruction, Essais sur l'enseignement en général, et sur celui des mathématiques en particulier, enlightenment, France. Instrucción pública en Francia revolucionaria: consideraciones a la vista del libro Essais sur l’enseignement en general et sur celui des mathématiques en particulier, de Sylvestre-François LacroixResumenEl artículo aborda el libro Essais sur l'enseignement en général, et sur celui des mathématiques en particulier de Sylvestre-François Lacroix, publicado originalmente en Francia, en 1805, haciendo hincapié en su primera parte, en la que el autor habla de la instrucción pública y en particular de las escuelas centrales en Francia en el período revolucionario.Palabras-clave: Sylvestre-François Lacroix (1765-1843, instrucción pública, Essais sur l'enseigne-ment en général, et sur celui des mathématiques en particulier

  12. L’Afrique et l’histoire des techniques. Hommage à François Sigaut Africa and the history of techniques. Tribute to François Sigaut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Chastanet

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spécialiste de l’histoire et de l’anthropologie des techniques des sociétés préindustrielles, dans le domaine de l’agriculture et de l’alimentation, François Sigaut (10 novembre 1940 – 2 novembre 2012 nous a quittés récemment, emporté en deux mois par un cancer, alors qu’il avait encore de nombreux travaux en chantier. Ses recherches étaient centrées sur l’Europe, mais il s’intéressait également aux autres continents, à l’Afrique en particulier. Cet intérêt était lié à sa démarche comparativ...

  13. Late Devonian (Frasnian) phyllopod and phyllocarid crustacean shields from Belgium reinterpreted as ammonoid anaptychi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolaerts, Stijn; Denayer, Julien; Mottequin, Bernard

    2017-12-01

    The taxonomic affinities of fossils from the Frasnian succession of Belgium previously described as phyllopod and phyllocarid crustacean shields are discussed. The rediscovery of the holotype of Ellipsocaris dewalquei, the type species of the genus Ellipsocaris Woodward in Dewalque, 1882, allows to end the discussion on the taxonomic assignation of the genus Ellipsocaris. It is removed from the phyllopod crustaceans as interpreted originally and considered here as an ammonoid anaptychus. Furthermore, it is considered to be a junior synonym of the genus Sidetes Giebel, 1847. Similarly, Van Straelen's (1933) lower to middle Frasnian record Spathiocaris chagrinensis Ruedemann, 1916, is also an ammonoid anaptychus. Although ammonoids can be relatively frequent in some Frasnian horizons of Belgium, anaptychi remain particularly scarce and the attribution to the present material to peculiar ammonoid species is not possible.

  14. [The development of clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic periodontitis in Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyn, Jan; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    In many disciplines of medicine guidelines are developed for the diagnosis and treatment of disease. These are essentially intended to standardize care and to optimize communication between the general practitioner and the specialist. Guidelines have already been described in the literature for chronic periodontitis. However, given the unique conditions in Belgium, these may not be appropriate for the average dental practice. In this manuscript the development of Belgian clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic periodontitis is described. Basically, ten clinical questions were used as a basis for a thorough literature search. Evidence-based clinical guidelines were developed and adapted during three peer review sessions. In the final session Belgian specialists, who had all been invited, participated. This made sure that the scientific input was sufficiently transformed into clinical guidelines which are actually feasible today in Belgium.

  15. First Do No Harm: Euthanasia of Patients with Dementia in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Almagor, Raphael

    2016-02-01

    In Memory of Ed Pellegrino. Euthanasia in Belgium is not limited to terminally ill patients. It may be applied to patients with chronic degenerative diseases. Currently, people in Belgium wish to make it possible to euthanize incompetent patients who suffer from dementia. This article explains the Belgian law and then explores arguments for and against euthanasia of patients with dementia. It probes the dementia paradox by elucidating Dworkin's distinction between critical and experiential interests, arguing that at the end-of-life this distinction is not clearcut. It argues against euthanasia for patients with dementia, for respecting patients' humanity and for providing them with more care, compassion, and good doctoring. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Plasma selenium levels in healthy blood bank donors in the central-eastern part of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenbergh, Rudy; Robberecht, Harry; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; De Smet, Annie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Hermans, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with Zeeman background correction and after improved matrix modification, was used to measure the plasma selenium content of healthy blood bank donors in the central part of Belgium. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 80 men and 80 women was 79.7+/-4.4ng/mL with a range of 55.0-117.4ng/mL. There was no gender difference observed. Plasma selenium level was significantly highest for the adult group, aged 45-64 years, compared to the others, except the young adults (18-24 years). The mean plasma selenium concentration measured corresponded well with literature data for Belgium. The obtained values were found to be in the medium range, compared with recent literature values for the European countries.

  17. Risk adjustment and the fear of markets: the case of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schokkaert, E; Van de Voorde, C

    2000-02-01

    In Belgium the management and administration of the compulsory and universal health insurance is left to a limited number of non-governmental non-profit sickness funds. Since 1995 these sickness funds are partially financed in a prospective way. The risk adjustment scheme is based on a regression model to explain medical expenditures for different social groups. Medical supply is taken out of the formula to construct risk-adjusted capitation payments. The risk-adjustment formula still leaves scope for risk selection. At the same time, the sickness funds were not given the instruments to exert a real influence on expenditures and the health insurance market has not been opened for new entrants. As a consequence, Belgium runs the danger of ending up in a situation with little incentives for efficiency and considerable profits from cream skimming.

  18. Recent developments of and future prospects for nuclear power plant instrumentation and control in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naisse, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The production of electricity in Belgium is covered for almost 70% by seven nuclear power plants all of pressurized water reactor type. Four major topics are representative of the evolution of nuclear power production in Belgium: The suspentions of the studies for the new Belgian PWR unit (DOEL 5), the commissioning of the simulators in DOEL and TIHANGE, the revamping of the oldest nuclear units, the studies of new storage installations for radioactive waste. The delay imposed on the construction of DOEL 5 will allow to go further into the examination of the implications arising from the new technologies in I and C. The use modern I and C systems for modifications in existing plants will allow a better estimation of their advantages and disadvantages. (author)

  19. Exploring Environmental Inequalities in Belgium: a New Theoretical and Empirical Way to Deal with Environmental Conflicts in Urban Areas?

    OpenAIRE

    Lejeune, Zoé

    2013-01-01

    Environmental Inequalities (EI) – the unequal distribution of environmental goods and bads among space and population – are a field of research at the crossroads of political science, environmental studies, and urban studies. Unlike US Environmental Justice movement, EI are not seen by actors or studied as a specific frame for action and collective mobilisation in Belgium in environmental matters. Environmental conflicts are however numerous in urban areas in Belgium where industrial activ...

  20. Establishing specialized health services for professional consultation in euthanasia: experiences in the Netherlands and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilsen Johan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg have adopted laws decriminalizing euthanasia under strict conditions of prudent practice. These laws stipulate, among other things, that the attending physician should consult an independent colleague to judge whether the substantive criteria of due care have been met. In this context initiatives were taken in the Netherlands and Belgium to establish specialized services providing such consultants: Support and Consultation for Euthanasia in the Netherlands (SCEN and Life End Information Forum (LEIF in Belgium. The aim of this study is to describe and compare these initiatives. Methods We studied and compared relevant documents concerning the Dutch and Belgian consultation service (e.g. articles of bye-laws, inventories of activities, training books, consultation protocols. Results In both countries, the consultation services are delivered by trained physicians who can be consulted in cases of a request for euthanasia and who offer support and information to attending physicians. The context in which the two organisations were founded, as well as the way they are organised and regulated, is different in each country. By providing information on all end-of-life care matters, the Belgian LEIF seems to have a broader consultation role than the Dutch SCEN. SCEN on the other hand has a longer history, is more regulated and organised on a larger scale and receives more government funding than LEIF. The number of training hours for physicians is equal. However, SCEN-training puts more emphasis on the consultation report, whereas LEIF-training primarily emphasizes the ethical framework of end-of-life decisions. Conclusion In case of a request for euthanasia, in the Netherlands as well as in Belgium similar consultation services by independent qualified physicians have been developed. In countries where legalising physician-assisted death is being contemplated, the development of such a

  1. Naturalization and impact of a horticultural species, Cotoneaster horizontalis (Rosaceae) in biodiversity hotspots in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Piqueray, Julien; Mahy, Grégory; Vanderhoeven, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Cultivation of ornamental plant species has been recognized to foster plant naturalization of exotics by counteracting environmental stochasticity and continuously providing propagules. As a preliminary attempt to describe the invasion status of C horizontalis, we gathered information on the occurrence of the species in Belgium by compiling various databases. We assessed the naturalization status of C. horizontalis in Belgian calcareous grasslands, high-value habitats recognized as biodiversi...

  2. Louse-borne relapsing fever in a refugee from Somalia arriving in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcis, Gilles; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Bontems, Sebastien; Sauvage, Anne-Sophie; Meuris, Christelle; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Leonard, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in a refugee from Somalia who had arrived in Belgium a few days earlier. He complained of myalgia and secondarily presented fever. Blood smears revealed spirochetes later identified as Borrelia recurrentis. LBRF should be considered in countries hosting refugees, particularly those who transit through endemic regions. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Congenital jaundice in bovine aborted foetuses: an emerging syndrome in southern Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delooz, L; Mori, M; Petitjean, T; Evrard, J; Czaplicki, G; Saegerman, C

    2015-04-01

    Southern Belgium faces an unusual recent increase of icteric bovine aborted foetuses. In the necropsy room, the majority of foetuses presented jaundice and splenomegaly. Despite a wide range of analyses, no definitive cause of abortion has yet been established but some analysis results support the leptospirosis hypothesis. This first description of cases will help veterinary practitioners to recognize more cases and to conduct those to the laboratory for future investigations. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance prevalence of pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli in food-producing animals in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Chantziaras, Ilias; Dewulf, Jeroen; Boyen, Filip; Callens, Benedicte; Butaye, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In this article, detailed studies on antimicrobial resistance to commensal E. coli (in pigs, meat-producing bovines, broiler chickens and veal calves) and pathogenic E. coli (in pigs and bovines) in Belgium are presented for 2011. Broiler chicken and veal calf isolates of commensal E. coli demonstrated higher antimicrobial resistance prevalence than isolates from pigs and bovines. Fifty percent of E. coli isolates from broiler chickens were resistant to at least five antimicrobials, whereas s...

  5. Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in Belgium: a useful indicator for detecting mild iodine deficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Vandevijvere

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations are a good indicator of iodine deficiency in the population. A frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L below 3% has been proposed as the threshold indicating iodine sufficiency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate feasibility and usefulness of nation-wide neonatal TSH concentration screening results to assess iodine status in Belgium. All newborns born in Belgium during the period 2009-2011 (n = 377713 were included in the study, except those suffering from congenital hypothyroidism and premature neonates. The frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L from 2009 to 2011 in Belgium fluctuated between 2.6 and 3.3% in the centres using the same TSH assay. There was a significant inverse association between neonatal TSH level and birth weight. The longer the duration between birth and screening, the lower the TSH level. Neonatal TSH levels were significantly lower in winter than in spring or autumn and significantly lower in spring and summer than in autumn while significantly higher in spring compared to summer. In conclusion, despite that pregnant women in Belgium are mildly iodine deficient, the frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L was very low, suggesting that the neonatal TSH threshold proposed for detecting iodine deficiency needs to be re-evaluated. Although neonatal TSH is useful to detect severe iodine deficiency, it should not be recommended presently for the evaluation of iodine status in mildly iodine deficient regions.

  6. Consumption patterns and living conditions inside Het Steen, the late medieval prison of Malines (Mechelen, Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Troubleyn, L.; Kinnaer, F.; Ervynck, A.; Beeckmans, L.; Caluwé, D.; Cooremans, B.; de Buyser, F.; Deforce, K.; Desender, K.; Lentacker, A.; Moens, J.; Van Bulck, G.; Van Dijck, M.; Van Neer, W.; Wouters, W.

    2009-01-01

    Excavations at the Main Square (Grote Markt) of Malines (Mechelen, Belgium) have unearthed the building remains of a tower, arguably identifiable as the former town prison: Het Steen. When this assumption is followed, the contents of the fills of two cesspits dug out in the cellars of the building illustrate aspects of daily life within the early 14th-century prison. An integrated approach of all find categories, together with the historical context available, illuminates aspects of the mater...

  7. Roll out of intraveneous artesunate under named patient programmes in the Netherlands, Belgium and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Intravenous (IV) artesunate is the treatment of choice for severe malaria. In Europe, this treatment is only available in a few countries via named patient programmes (NPPs). As a case study, the legal and organisational aspects and pharmacovigilance of these NPPs and possibilities for harmonisation within the EU were studied over time and space using IV artesunate (Malacef) in the Netherlands, Belgium and France. Methods The legal base and organisation of NPPs in the Netherlands, Belgium and France were studied. The diffusion and cumulative availability of IV artesunate and the pharmacovigilance components were compared among the three countries using distribution data from the period 2007 through 2012. Results Artesunate has quickly gained acceptance for treating severe malaria in the Netherlands, whereas both Belgium and France have introduced this treatment more hesitantly. This difference in acceptance is due to differences in the implementation of NPP legislation among the countries. France currently has a proactive system in which treatment requires the permission for each patient and an intensive follow-up protocol. On the other hand, Belgium and Dutch NPPs are more dependent on the investigators’ initiative and are therefore potentially faster and more flexible, facilitating the discovery of adverse effects that have not been reported by more formal comparative clinical trials. Conclusions NPPs provide a unique opportunity to study both the benefits and risks of unregistered products for treating rare diseases, provided that the patients are actively vigilated. Thus, we recommend that NPPs should be harmonised throughout Europe in order to ensure equal availability of treatment and therapeutic benefit to all Europeans without compromising patient safety. PMID:24063858

  8. Prototypes construction from partial rankings to characterize the attractiveness of companies in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Napoles, Gonzalo; Dikopoulou, Zoumpolia; Papageorgiou, Elpiniki; Bello, Rafael; Vanhoof, Koen

    2016-01-01

    What are the most relevant factors to be considered by employees when searching for an employer? The answer to this question poses valuable knowledge from the Business Intelligence viewpoint since it allows companies to retain personnel and attract competent employees. It leads to an increase in sales of their products or services, therefore remaining competitive across similar companies in the market. In this paper we assess the attractiveness of companies in Belgium by using a new two-stage...

  9. The Moderation of Cultural Difference on Consumer Relationship Management in Belgium, the United States, and China

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Customer relationship management (CRM) is a strategic approach aiming to create and improve shareholder value by creating and managing suitable relationships with their corresponding customer segments. As national culture is one of the fundamental factors that distinguishes customers from one country to another, the objective of this study is to explore how cultural factors influence CRM. Empirically, this study tests how different cultural dimensions from Belgium, the United States, and Chin...

  10. The informal economy in Belgium's hotel and catering sector: survival strategy and crime risk

    OpenAIRE

    Klima, Noel

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on explanatory qualitative research into the illegal economy within the hotel and catering industry in Belgium. Low profitability, exacerbated by pricing pressures customers and suppliers, predispose hotel and catering entrepreneurs to attempting a variety of non-legal modes of economic survival, including involvement in a ‘black market’ (‘off the books’ trading) between providers, suppliers and some customers. There are similar arrangements for the highly fluid workforce, ...

  11. Utilitarian cycling in Belgium: a cross-sectional study in a sample of regular cyclists.

    OpenAIRE

    de Geus, B.; Degraeuwe, B.; Vandenbulcke, G.; INT PANIS, Luc; Thomas, I.; Aertsens, Joris; De Weerdt, Y.; Torfs, R.; Meeusen, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: For an accurate estimation of health benefits and hazards of utilitarian cycling, a prospective collection of bicycle usage data (exposure) is fundamental. Individual and environmental correlates are necessary to guide health promotion and traffic safety issues. Firstly, this study aims to report on utilitarian bicycle usage in Belgium, using a prospective data collection in regular adult commuter cyclists. Secondly, the association is explored between the individual variation in ...

  12. Assessing Dutch and English Immersion Education in French-Speaking Belgium: Linguistic, Cognitive and Educational Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Hiligsmann, Philippe; Van Mensel, Luk; American Association for Applied Linguistics

    2016-01-01

    Our paper aims to present a 5-year multidisciplinary research project on immersion education in French-speaking Belgium. Our project starts from the premise that although recently published surveys have confirmed that immersion learners outperform traditional L2 learners as far as target language test scores are concerned, it nonetheless remains largely unclear to what extent, in what respect and thanks to which (internal and external) processes and factors immersion students show increased l...

  13. Belgium; Technical Note on Stress Testing the Banking and Insurance Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    The Belgium Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) stress testing exercise examines a financial sector that remains in a state of transformation. Domestic economic challenges remain sources of continued uncertainty as the banking sector consolidates and reduces funding risks. Insurers face challenges from adverse economic and business conditions. Solvency and funding shocks under different macroeconomic scenarios were assessed. Both banking and insurance tests underscore the importance of...

  14. Migratory geese foraging on grassland:Case study in the region of Flanders (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gils, Bert; De Vliegher, Alex; Huysentruyt, Frank; Casaer, Jim; Devos, Koen

    2012-01-01

    Every winter nearly 100 000 migratory geese visit Northwestern Flanders (Belgium), including several protected species such as the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus). The geese mainly forage on agricultural grassland, where they remove all the green parts and leave substantial amounts of droppings. In 2009 several farmers’ concerns about this phenomenon were thoroughly investigated. The main findings revealed that grass production on grazed parcels is reduced by 450 kg DM/ha on average ...

  15. Demand in the context of trafficking in human beings in the domestic work sector in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    CAMARGO MAGALHÃES, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Belgian anti-THB policy is often pointed as exemplary given its broad definition of the crime of trafficking for labour exploitation, as being the work or service carried out in conditions contrary to human dignity, in which the coercion element is not compulsory. However, hardly any policy initiatives in Belgium tackle specifically demand-side aspects in labour exploitation and THB in the domestic work sector. Recent policy changes in the domain of domestic work at diplomatic households and ...

  16. Centralized treatment facility for low level radioactive waste produced in Belgium. The CILVA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, Cl.; Detilleux, M.; Debieve, P.

    1993-01-01

    Due to rather limited amount of waste produced and the small size of the Belgian territory (30 x 10 3 km 2 ), ONDRAF/NIRAS strategy aims at centralizing treatment conditioning and storage of radioactive waste. ONDRAF/NTRAS has decided to set up a new infrastructure: the CILVA unit. The CILVA facility is focused on the supercompaction and the incineration treatment, so that ONDRAF/NIRAS can safely manage all radioactive wastes produced in Belgium. (2 figs.)

  17. Adaptation of forest management to climate change as perceived by forest owners and managers in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa-Silva, Rita; Ponette, Quentin; Verheyen, Kris; Van Herzele, Ann; Muys, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Background Climate change is likely to cause significant modifications in forests. Rising to this challenge may require adaptation of forest management, and therefore should trigger proactive measures by forest managers, but it is unclear to what extent this is already happening. Methods The survey carried out in this research assesses how forest stakeholders in Belgium perceive the role of their forest management in the context of climate change and the impediments that limit their...

  18. Impact of rotavirus vaccination on hospitalisations in Belgium: comparing model predictions with observed data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudouin Standaert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Published economic assessments of rotavirus vaccination typically use modelling, mainly static Markov cohort models with birth cohorts followed up to the age of 5 years. Rotavirus vaccination has now been available for several years in some countries, and data have been collected to evaluate the real-world impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalisations. This study compared the economic impact of vaccination between model estimates and observed data on disease-specific hospitalisation reductions in a country for which both modelled and observed datasets exist (Belgium. METHODS: A previously published Markov cohort model estimated the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the number of rotavirus hospitalisations in children aged <5 years in Belgium using vaccine efficacy data from clinical development trials. Data on the number of rotavirus-positive gastroenteritis hospitalisations in children aged <5 years between 1 June 2004 and 31 May 2006 (pre-vaccination study period or 1 June 2007 to 31 May 2010 (post-vaccination study period were analysed from nine hospitals in Belgium and compared with the modelled estimates. RESULTS: The model predicted a smaller decrease in hospitalisations over time, mainly explained by two factors. First, the observed data indicated indirect vaccine protection in children too old or too young for vaccination. This herd effect is difficult to capture in static Markov cohort models and therefore was not included in the model. Second, the model included a 'waning' effect, i.e. reduced vaccine effectiveness over time. The observed data suggested this waning effect did not occur during that period, and so the model systematically underestimated vaccine effectiveness during the first 4 years after vaccine implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Model predictions underestimated the direct medical economic value of rotavirus vaccination during the first 4 years of vaccination by approximately 10% when assessing

  19. [Piet de Somer, the University of Leuven and the Belgium poliovaccine in 1956-57].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiau, A

    2011-01-01

    In the years following WW II, all 'Western' countries were struck by recurrent epidemics of infantile paralysis (poliomyelitis). In the early 1950s, a vaccine developed by Jonas Salk in Pittsburgh, became available in the U.S. and Canada. In 1953-54 central virology laboratories in Sweden, Denmark and France were already well advanced in setting up local production lines of the vaccine. At that point in time, the Catholic University of Leuven, on the initiative of the young microbiology professor, Piet De Somer, and in collaboration with the pharmaceutical concern R.I.T. (Recherches et Industries Thérapeutiques, Genval, Belgium), erected a new, multidisciplinary medical research institute, the Rega Institute. One of the research units to be headed by De Somer was destined to introduce the relatively new discipline of virology. As a test case, De Somer decided to venture on developing a production line of the Salk vaccine. In less than one year's time, the project was successful, such that Belgium became one of the first European countries to be self-supporting for its vaccine supply and to be able to initiate a large-scale vaccination campaign. The planning, preparation and execution of the project was accompanied by an extensive correspondence of De Somer with experts and other concerned parties in Belgium and abroad. This correspondence has been preserved and allows for a detailed reconstruction of the remarkable achievement.

  20. Attitudes of physicians and pharmacists towards International Non-proprietary Name prescribing in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bever, Elien; Elseviers, Monique; Plovie, Marijke; Vandeputte, Lieselot; Van Bortel, Luc; Vander Stichele, Robert

    2015-03-01

    International Non-proprietary Name (INN) prescribing is the use of the name of the active ingredient(s) instead of the brand name for prescribing. In Belgium, INN prescribing began in 2005 and a major policy change occurred in 2012. The aim was to explore the opinions of Dutch-speaking general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists. An electronic questionnaire with 39 five-point Likert scale statements and one open question was administered in 2013. Multivariate analysis was performed with multiple linear regression on a sum score for benefit statements and for drawback statements. Answers to the open question were qualitatively analysed. We received 745 valid responses with a representable sample for both subgroups. Participants perceived the motives to introduce INN prescribing as purely economic (to reduce pharmaceutical expenditures for the government and the patient). Participants accepted the concept of INN prescribing, but 88% stressed the importance of guaranteed treatment continuity, especially in older, chronic patients, to prevent patient confusion, medication non-adherence and erroneous drug use. In conclusion, the current way in which INN prescribing is applied in Belgium leads to many concerns among primary health professionals about patient confusion and medication adherence. Slightly adapting the current concept of INN prescribing to these concerns can turn INN prescribing into one of the major policies in Belgium to reduce pharmaceutical expenditures and to stimulate rational drug prescribing. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  1. Quality control of brachytherapy equipment in the Netherlands and Belgium: current practice and minimum requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfrink, Robert J.M.; Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karine K.; Kleffens, Herman J. van; Rijnders, Alex; Schaeken, Bob; Aalbers, Tony H.L.; Dries, Wim J.F.; Venselaar, Jack L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: Brachytherapy is applied in 39 radiotherapy institutions in The Netherlands and Belgium. Each institution has its own quality control (QC) programme to ensure safe and accurate dose delivery to the patient. The main goal of this work is to gain insight into the current practice of QC of brachytherapy in The Netherlands and Belgium and to reduce possible variations in test frequencies and tolerances by formulating a set of minimum QC-requirements. Materials and methods: An extensive questionnaire about QC of brachytherapy was distributed to and completed by the 39 radiotherapy institutions. A separate smaller questionnaire was sent to nine institutions performing intracoronary brachytherapy. The questions were related to safety systems, physical irradiation parameters and total time spent on QC. The results of the questionnaires were compared with recommendations given in international brachytherapy QC reports. Results: The answers to the questionnaires showed large variations in test frequencies and test methods. Furthermore, large variations in time spent on QC exist, which is mainly due to differences in QC-philosophy and differences in the available resources. Conclusions: Based on the results of the questionnaires and the comparison with the international recommendations, a set of minimum requirements for QC of brachytherapy has been formulated. These guidelines will be implemented in the radiotherapy institutions in The Netherlands and Belgium

  2. La edad de la empatía. Lecciones de la naturaleza para una sociedad más justa y solidaria, por Fran de Waal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Milito Barone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rsseña del libro Fran de Waal, La edad de la empatía. Lecciones de la naturaleza para una sociedad más justa y solidaria (Barcelona: Tusquets Editores, 2011, 258 pp. ISBN: 978-84-8383-350-6

  3. Franšaizings kā starptautiskā biznesa iespēja un tā attīstība Latvijā.

    OpenAIRE

    Dolģe, Daiga

    2014-01-01

    Arvien biežāk uzņēmumi pielieto franšīzes metodi sava biznesa attīstīšanā, it īpaši, gadījumos, kad uzņēmums vēlas ar minimālu investīciju daudzumu apgūt jaunus tirgus. Savukārt pērkot franšīzi ir iespējams iegūt lielu potenciālo klientu skaitu ar jau pazīstama zīmola palīdzību un atbalstu no franšīzes devēja, kas ir īpaši izdevīgi mazāk pieredzējušiem uzņēmējiem. Baklaura darba mērķis ir sniegt vērtējumu franšīzei kā starptautiskai biznesa iespējai un izdarīt secinājumus un priekšlikumus...

  4. Resenha de: Recherches sur les effectifs des armées françaises des Guerres d'Italie aux Guerres de Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurípedes Simões de Paula

    1963-12-01

    Full Text Available LOT, Ferdinand. Recherches sur les effectifs des armées fran-çaises des Guerres d'Italie aux Guerres de Religion. Paris. S. E. V. P. E. N. École Pratique des Hautes Études. VIe Sec-tion. Collection Bibliothèque Générale.

  5. Franšīzes izmantošanas iespējas un efektivitātes novērtēšana Baltijā

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Nadežda

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura tēma ir “Franšīzes izmantošanas iespējas un efektivitātes novērtēšana Baltijā”. Perspektīva biznesa attīstībā ir viens galvenajiem dzinējspēkiem, kurš motivē uzņēmējus, uzsākot savu darbību. Viens no mūsdienās plaši izmantojamajiem biznesa modeļiem ir franšīzes sistēma. Pasaulē bizness uz franšīzes pamata skaitās kā drošs, jo uzņēmējam ir spēja veiksmīgi attīstīt savu komercdarbību bez iepriekšējām zināšanām un pieredzi, jo franšīze paredz ne tikai gatavo biznesa rokasgrāmatu, bet a...

  6. Comedie-Française esmakordselt Eestis : Päikesekuninga asutatud maailmakuulus teater ainult kahel õhtul Tallinnas / M[argot] V[isnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Visnap, Margot, 1959-

    2009-01-01

    La Comedie-Française külalisetendused Draamateatris Tallinnas 7. ja 8. veebruaril: Molière'i komöödia "Naeruväärsed eputised" Dan Jemmeti lavastuses ja Spiro Scimone "Pidu" Galin Stoevi lavastuses

  7. Entre Classicisme et Modernité : La Nouvelle Revue Française dans le champ littéraire de la Belle Epoque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffeman-Bijman, M.N.

    2003-01-01

    The literary review La Nouvelle Revue Française enjoys an enormous prestige in France. In Entre Classicisme et Modernité, Maaike Koffeman explores the origins of this legend of French literary life by means of a historical, literary and sociological analysis of the first years of the review s

  8. The Politics of Deception and the French Lais in the Roman de Fauvel, Manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds français 146

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinescu, R.C.I.

    2014-01-01

    The interpolated version of the French allegorical satire, the Roman de Fauvel, transmitted in manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds français 146 (produced in Paris ca. 1317), targets the corruption within the French royal court in the last years of the rule of King Philip IV of

  9. Structure et fonctionnement des écosystèmes du Haut-Rhône français.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRAIEM M. M.

    1980-07-01

    Full Text Available L'examen qualitatif de contenus stomacaux de Barbeaux du Haut-Rhône français met en évidence un régime alimentaire assez varié, essentiellement zoophage, avec une composante permanente constituée, par ordre de dominance décroissante, de larves de Diptères, d'Ephéméroptères, de Trichoptères et de Nématodes. Ce régime parait, d'autre part, davantage lié à la taille, à l'âge du poisson et au faciès du cours d'eau, qu'à la composition de la faune benthique. Le Barbeau est planctonophage et microbenthophage pendant son jeune âge ; il devient essentiellement benthophage en vieillissant.

  10. Entre subjectivité et narration : la voix-off dans quelques documentaires français contemporains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Fiant

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available À travers l’analyse de sept films documentaires réalisés dans les années 2000 par Chantal Akerman, Vincent Dieutre, Vladimir Léon, Henri-François Imbert et Raymond Depardon, ce texte se propose d’étudier différentes modalités d’utilisation de la voix-off à des fins narratives mais aussi subjectives. Aussi, c’est la fameuse omniscience de la voix-off qui est remise en cause par ces cinéastes qui l’utilisent au contraire pour divulguer leurs doutes et leur fragilité. La voix-off participe alors de l’élaboration de nouvelles formes narratives, en l’occurrence documentaires.

  11. La presse française commente la question macédonienne à l’aube des guerres balkaniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pitsos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Comment la presse française, en trois familles idéologiques distinctes, présente la question macédonienne en 1912.L’objectif de cette communication est d’étudier comment la presse française aborda la question macédonienne au commencement de la première guerre balkanique. Une première catégorie de journaux (socialistes, syndicalistes, anarchistes, anticléricaux se prononce pour la paix et soutient soit le maintien du statu quo territorial, soit la création d’une fédération balkanique, en dénonçant en même temps le caractère expansionniste des projets des alliés balkaniques. Une deuxième catégorie (nationalistes de droite, antirépublicains adopte la rhétorique officielle des royaumes balkaniques qui justifiaient leur mobilisation au nom de la défense des droits de leurs coreligionnaires dans l’Empire ottoman et notamment en Macédoine. La plupart de ces plumes ont trempé d’une part dans la haine du Turc et du musulman et sont inspirées d’autre part, par leur volonté revancharde contre l’Allemagne qui aurait équipé l’armée ottomane alors que l’industrie française aurait doté les alliés balkaniques. Enfin, une dernière catégorie (catholiques, bonapartistes considère que le bouleversement du statu quo territorial au profit des royaumes orthodoxes serait préjudiciable pour les intérêts économiques et culturels français.French newspapers comment the Macedonian question at the dawn of the Balkan Wars.The aim of this paper is to study how the French newspapers dealt with the Macedonian question at the beginning of the Balkan Wars. A first group (socialists, trade-unionists, anarchists, anticlerical, backs up a peaceful settlement of the dispute and is in favor of the maintenance of the status quo or the creation of a Balkan federation. It is also denouncing the expansionist character of allies’ projects. A second group (right nationalists, antirepublicans adopts the official rhetoric of the

  12. Literaire strategieën: de drie satellieten van La Nouvelle Revue Française (1910-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Koffeman

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available La Nouvelle Revue Française, opgericht in 1908 door een groep schrijvers rond André Gide, is het belangrijkste Franse literaire maandblad van het interbellum geweest. In de jaren voorafgaand aan de Eerste Wereldoorlog is de reputatie van het tijdschrift nog relatief bescheiden, maar er is al wel een duidelijke progressie te constateren. Deze is niet alleen toe te schrijven aan de inhoudelijke kwaliteit van de bijdragen, maar vooral ook aan de manier waaorp de redactie het tijdschrift promoot. De oprichters bedienen zich van een 'mutimedia-strategie': zij ontwikkelen rond de NRF verschillende nevenactiviteiten om de naamsbekendheid van het tijdschrift te vergroten en zijn literatuuropvattingen onder een breder publiek te verspreiden. 

  13. [Anthropology of the individual, sex, and race in the works of Fran Gundrum Oriovčanin (1856-1919)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, Martin; Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella

    2015-11-01

    By analysing his unpublished and published works, we have identified anthropological elements in the studies of Croatian physician Fran Gundrum Oriovčanin (1856-1919) that distinguish him as one of the rare researchers in Croatia who attempted to synthesize cultural and biological anthropology. Gundrum collected comparative data on biological characteristics of various ethnic groups, searched for a connection between biological structures and cultural development, and assessed certain social facts and customs from the perspective of medical teleology. This article presents the four most frequent anthropological issues raised in his work: anatomy and physiology of individuals, ethnic groups and "races"; attitudes on prostitution; Jews as a model of alcohol abstinence; and the "degeneration" of Western culture/civilisation. In spite of pronounced linear evolutionism, his work compares social and medical practices between Western and non-Western nations.

  14. La fiscalité française, un chef-d'œuvre en péril ?

    OpenAIRE

    Henri Sterdyniak

    2007-01-01

    La fiscalité au sens large, c'est-à-dire en incluant les cotisations sociales, prélève 44 % du PIB en France. Elle joue donc un rôle crucial, tant par sa masse que par sa structure, pour déterminer les revenus et orienter les comportements des agents économiques. Pour certains, la fiscalité française, trop pesante, trop redistributive, étouffe l’initiative privée ; elle doit être allégée et rendue plus neutre. Pour d’autres, au contraire, il faut l’utiliser pour compenser la croissance des in...

  15. UBER DIE SCHREIBUNG UND RECHTSCHREIBUNG MIT BESONDERER RÜCKSICHT AUF DIE RECHTSCHREIBUNGSLÖSUNGEN IN "FLUMINENSIA" VON FRAN KURELAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Badurina

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Im Artikel sind zunächst Grundsetzen der Schreibung und der Rechtschreibung dargestellt, demnach die Schreibung und die Rechtschreibung in "Fluminensia" von Fran Kurelac. Die von Kurelac vorgeschlagenen Lösungen sind mit den Lösungen seiner unmittelbaren Vorgänger und Zeitgenossen vergleicht, sowie mit der heutigen Rechtschreibungspraxis. Für die von Kurelac vorgeschlagne Schreibung ist festgestellt, daß es sich um ein beständiges System handelt, das von der Tradition ausgeht und das sich nur in eingen Lösungen von heutigen unterscheidet. In der Rechtschreibung überwiegt der morphologische Grundsatz, was leicht in Verbindung mit den Grundgedanken der Philologischen Schule in Rijeka zu steilen ist.

  16. Statut, menaces et conservation des oiseaux endémiques terrestres de Polynésie française

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Fabienne

    2007-01-01

    Avec pas moins de 28 espèces d'oiseaux endémiques terrestres, la Polynésie française peut être considérée comme un hot spot de la biodiversité. Cette avifaune se répartit sur 118 îles éparpillées sur près de 5 millions de km2. Sur 28 espèces, cinq sont en danger critique d'extinction, et sept autres sont considérées comme en danger. Compte tenu de la faiblesse du nombre d'individus et de la petite taille des îles, ces oiseaux endémiques peuvent très vite passer au stade critique par le fait d...

  17. O imaginário do sangue e de sua pureza na antiga França

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Jouanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A palavra sangue, na França dos primeiros tempos modernos, por um lado designava o líquido vital que corria nas veias, e por outro a linhagem, a "raça". O sangue era com efeito considerado o veículo das qualidades físicas e morais hereditárias que caracterizavam a personalidade de uma linhagem. Sua pureza devia facilitar o exercício das virtudes. Essa crença permitia explicar a superioridade da nobreza e afirmar que a hierarquia social era justa, já que natural; era igualmente ela que legitimava o poder dos reis, caracterizados pela excelência de seu sangue.

  18. Queneau, Perec, Duras : Trois manières de boire dans le roman français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Montémont

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available L’alcool et les alcools sont des thèmes étroitement associés au monde littéraire : si l’on en doutait, une recherche dans la base Frantext, qui comporte près de 3952 textes français et francophones, suffirait à nous en convaincre : une requête sur le lemme alcool ne ramène pas moins de 3338 occurrences. Si l’on élargit l’isotopie considérée, on trouve 23 372 occurrences de vin, 2953 mentions de bière, 1436 d’eau-de-vie, 834 de Champagne, 122 de cognac… ainsi que quelques dizaines de cuites, r...

  19. Vers une approche fonctionnelle de l'enseignment de la terminologie: Action recherche en classe de Français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Jarc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available L'article se propose d'étudier les différents paramètres de l'enseignement de la terminologie dans le cadre du cours de Français langue étrangère à la Faculté des Sciences Sociales de Ljubljana (FSS afin de jeter des ponts entre l’évolution de théorie dans le domaine de la terminologie descriptive et la pratique de l’enseignement dans un contexte du cours de français sur objectifs spécifiques (FOS. Les résultats d’une action recherche menée au sein d’un groupe d’étudiants en sciences sociales montrent que les solutions théoriques pour la constitution de glossaires thématiques ne sont pas automatiquement transposables dans la pratique pédagogique et que des solutions adaptées, axées sur une approche fonctionnelle s’imposent dans une classe de langue étrangère. ----- The purpose of the paper is to study different parameters in terminology teaching within the framework of a French language course offered at the Faculty of Social Sciences (FSS in Ljubljana, in order to better integrate the theoretical developments in the field of descriptive terminology with the teaching practice of French for specific purposes (FSP. The results of an action research carried out in a group of students of social sciences suggest that the theoretical solutions applied for glossary compilation, and the use of terminological record sheets to describe terms cannot be viewed as automatically transferable into the classroom practice, and that consequently, each classroom situation has direct implications for the use of terminological record sheets in terminology teaching, which calls for adapted solutions, based on the functional approach to teaching foreign language for specific purposes.

  20. Valeurs bibliophiles dans la langue française presentes en Bucovine (XVII-eme-XVIII-eme siecles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Mitric

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Comme on le sait, la Moldavie a été la plus réceptive des trois provinces roumaines à la culture française. Dans cette province-ci, les contacts avec le mouvement d'idées européen ont été plus puissants. La lutte d'affirmation nationale a mené à l'augmentation de la conscience politique de la société moldave et à une participation plus accentuée à la vie politique. Le goût pour la lecture a évolue, aussi, pendant que la mentalité a commencé se transformer; on sollicite et ensuite traduit les oeuvres dans lesquelles apparaissent les idées sociales politiques, l'histoire universelle, la géographie, les conquêtes de la technique ou la littérature philosophique-moralisatrice. Les plus anciennes copies en roumain des oeuvres traduites du français, qui se trouvent dans nos bibliothèques datent de la fin du XVIII-ème siècle. Celles-ci sont des traductions de Voltaire, Marmontel, Ambrosius Marlianus, Francesco Loredano, Fénélon, Johan Thuresson Oxenstiern, Gabriel Pérau, Alain Réné Lesage, André Guillaume Constant d' Orville. Le livre imprimé (inclusivement jusqu' en 1800 provient des ateliers typographiques de Paris, Londres, Genève, Regensburg, Basel et Berlin. Le plus ancien exemplaire, Le tableau de L'Europe, est imprimé à Paris, en 1651. Pour ceux qui s'y intéressent, nous avons organisé la liste de ces livres, sur catégories de détenteurs.

  1. Entre crônica e reportagem, familiaridade e exotismo: Françoise em Paris (La Patrie, 1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Pinson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Por volta de 1900, a imprensa quebequense passa por grandes transformações. Jornais como La Presse, La Patrie e Montreal Star passam a priorizar a informação e a reportagem. Contudo, ainda pouco se conhece sobre a história da reportagem no Québec. Neste artigo, proponho-me a analisar principalmente as crônicas de Françoise (pseudônimo de Robertine Barry, exemplo ímpar da transição poética entre a crônica e a reportagem no Canadá francês. Os textos que Françoise publica em La Patrie por ocasião da Exposição Universal de 1900 se mostram ao mesmo tempo como crônica mundana expatriada, crítica cultural, narrativa de viagem e reportagem. Esta é a hibridez genérica que pretendemos investigar a partir da reflexão sobre diversos aspectos deste corpus: o de ter sido escrito por uma mulher jornalista, grande figura ligada ao gênero mais antigo da crônica, praticante de uma reportagem que não se anuncia como tal. Há nesses textos uma série de traços característicos dos primórdios da reportagem quebequense, que se baseia em empréstimos de gêneros mais familiares como a crônica e se interessa por objetos culturalmente e linguisticamente próximos, mas geograficamente distantes. A partir desse estudo, poderemos, portanto, compreender como a reportagem se impôs progressivamente adotando alguns procedimentos típicos da crônica.     This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  2. Le Grand Prix de l’image française, une existence éphémère

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Crépin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Du long parcours de la reconnaissance de la bande dessinée, on retient généralement quelques faits : la création du Club des bandes dessinées animé par Francis Lacassin dans les années 1960, puis celle du festival d’Angoulême et du CNBDI dans la décennie suivante. Mais il est une initiative qui est oubliée : la création, à l’initiative d’Auguste Liquois et du Syndicat des dessinateurs de journaux d’enfants, d’un Grand Prix de l’image française qui entendait doter les auteurs de bande dessinée d’un dispositif de consécration comparable à ceux que connaissent les écrivains. Voyant le jour en 1946, ce prix se solde par un échec à la mesure de la place occupée dans la culture d’alors par une bande dessinée accusée de tous les maux qui frappent la jeunesse.Some important facts mark the recognition of comic art in France and Europe: the creation of a Comics Club hosted by Francis Lacassin in the 1960s, and the International festival of Angoulême and of the National Center of Image and Comic Book (CNBDI in the next decade. But an initiative is curentlly forgotten: the creation, at the initiative of Auguste Liquois and of the Union of newspaper cartoonists of children (SDJE, of the French Image Award (Grand Prix de l’Image Française which was intended to give comics authors a consecration device similar to those dedicated to writers. Created in 1946, this award results in a failure that reflects the problematic place that occupy comic books in the culture of the time.

  3. Evaluating the Early Benefit of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine on Genital Warts in Belgium: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak-Felden, Geraldine; Gobbo, Corrado; Simondon, François

    2015-01-01

    Genital warts (GWs) are common, with about 5% to 10% of people having at least one episode in their lifetime. They develop about 2–3 months after infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 6 and 11. The prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV), protects against HPV6/11 infections and diseases. In Belgium, HPV vaccines started to be reimbursed in 2007 and have been fully reimbursed since December 2008 for women 12 to 18 years old. This study aimed at evaluating the real-life benefit of qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium on GWs by measuring both vaccine impact (VI) at a population level and the direct effect of the qHPV vaccine at an individual level (vaccine effectiveness (VE)), using data from a large sick-fund (MLOZ) reimbursement database. A first reimbursement for imiquimod (most common first-line GWs treatment in Belgium) was used as a surrogate for a first GWs episode; reimbursement of qHPV vaccine was used as surrogate for vaccination. VI was estimated by comparing the incidence of GWs before and after qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium (ecologic evaluation). VE was assessed by comparing GWs incidences in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated women, among women eligible for HPV vaccination. VI was evaluated in 9,223,384 person-years. Overall, GWs incidence rates decreased significantly between the pre- and post-vaccination periods (-8.1% (95% CI: -15.3; -0.3) for men and women aged 18–59 years. This decrease was highest in women targeted by the HPV vaccination programme (-72.1% (95% CI: -77.9; -64.7) in women aged 16–22 years, with a 43% vaccine uptake in 2013). A significant decrease was also observed in men aged 16-22 years (-51.1%, 95%CI: -67.6; -26.2), suggesting herd-protection. VE was evaluated in 369,881 person-years. Age-adjusted VE for fully vaccinated women was 88.0% (95% CI: 79.4; 93.0). VE was higher when the first dose was given younger and remained high for over 4 years post-vaccination in all ages. High VI and VE of the q

  4. Mastering French Cuisine, Espousing French Identity Epouser la cuisine et l'identité françaises: récits de transformation d'Américaines mariées à des Français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy Shields-Argelès

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws from a series of comprehensive and life story interviews with twelve middle and upper class Franco-American couples (six in each country. In it we recount and analyze the narratives of two American wives (Linda and Beth who tell, in very different ways, the story of their rencontre with France as one that profoundly changes their relationship to food and their own identity. Taken as ideal types, Linda’s narrative, like those of other women who return home, is one of reintegration, while Beth’s narrative, like those of other expatriate spouses, is one of exile. Despite the differences in their perspectives, French gastronomic discourse and American nutrition discourse delineate national boundaries and shape individual subjectivities in both narratives, allowing us, in a final analysis, to explore the interweaving of daily food practices, emotion and national identity.Cet article s’appuie sur des entretiens compréhensifs et des récits de vie menés auprès de douze couples franco-américain vivant en France et aux Etats-Unis (six par pays. Il relate et analyse les « récits de transformation » de deux Américaines mariées à des Français (Linda et Beth, qui racontent, de façon très différente, l’histoire de leur rencontre avec la France comme un processus ayant profondément changé leur relation à l’alimentation et leur propre identité. Vu comme idéal-type, le récit de Linda, à l’instar d’autres femmes rentrées dans leur pays, est un récit de réintégration, celui de Beth, à l’instar d’autres femmes expatriées, un récit d’exil. Malgré leurs perspectives différentes, le discours gastronomique français et le discours nutritionnel américain dessinent des frontières nationales et informent les subjectivités individuelles dans les deux récits, ce qui nous permet, en conclusion, d’explorer l’imbrication des pratiques alimentaires quotidiennes, l’émotion et l’identité nationale.

  5. Le camfranglais, né de l’acclimatement/acclimatation du français, au cœur d’une glottonomie socio-profane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venant Eloundou Eloundou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cette contribution analyse les perceptions que les internautes des sites Forum Bonaberi.com et Cameroon-Info.Net ont du camfranglais, né du processus d’acclimatement/acclimatation du français au Cameroun. Mettant à contribution les discours des camfranglophones, l’approche glottonomique et l’imaginaire linguistique, l’étude se focalise sur les représentations systémiques et sociolinguistiques du camfranglais. S’agissant du premier axe, l’analyse des interventions discursives révèle les spécificités linguistiques du camfranglais, en l’opposant au pidgin-english-camerounais né de l’anglais et aux variétés de français parlé au Cameroun. Le second axe examine l’imaginaire de la variation sociolangagière du camfrançais. Il en découle que les internautes ont une saisie variationniste de cet parler selon trois niveaux : diachronique, diatopique et diaphasique. Ce camfranglais apparaît dans les discours épilinguistiques analysés comme une langue à part entière : d’où la revendication de ses statuts et ses fonctions officiels ; voire sa prise en compte glottopolitique. Toutes ces représentations faites par ce qu’on peut appeler les acteurs glottonomiques profanes permettent d’aboutir à la conclusion selon laquelle la gestion des problématiques glottopolitiques doit tenir compte de toutes les composantes sociales, pour un développement durable, stimulé par des langues. Par ailleurs, relativement à la linguistique française, cette analyse permet de saisir les tensions sociolinguistiques et les modalités de représentations impliquant le français et le camfranglais. Si le français constitue une langue matrice pour le camfranglais, il ressort de cette réflexion que ses locuteurs construisent des représentations visant à établir une frontière linguistique et sociolinguistique entre la langue mère (français et le camfranglais dérivé.

  6. Euthanasia in patients dying at home in Belgium: interview study on adherence to legal safeguards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Van den Block, Lieve; Cohen, Joachim; Van Casteren, Viviane; Deliens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Background Euthanasia became legal in Belgium in 2002. Physicians must adhere to legal due care requirements when performing euthanasia; for example, consulting a second physician and reporting each euthanasia case to the Federal Review Committee. Aim To study the adherence and non-adherence of GPs to legal due care requirements for euthanasia among patients dying at home in Belgium and to explore possible reasons for non-adherence. Design of study Large scale, retrospective study. Setting General practice in Belgium. Method A retrospective mortality study was performed in 2005–2006 using the nationwide Belgian Sentinel Network of General Practitioners. Each week GPs reported medical end-of-life decisions taken in all non-sudden deaths of patients in their practice. GP interviews were conducted for each euthanasia case occurring at home. Results Interviews were conducted for nine of the 11 identified euthanasia cases. Requirements concerning the patient's medical condition were met in all cases. Procedural requirements such as consultation of a second physician were sometimes ignored. Euthanasia cases were least often reported (n = 4) when the physician did not regard the decision as euthanasia, when only opioids were used to perform euthanasia, or when no second physician was consulted. Factors that may contribute to explaining non-adherence to the euthanasia law included: being unaware of which practices are considered to be euthanasia; insufficient knowledge of the euthanasia law; and the fact that certain procedures are deemed burdensome. Conclusion Substantive legal due care requirements for euthanasia concerning the patient's request for euthanasia and medical situation were almost always met by GPs in euthanasia cases. Procedural consultation and reporting requirements were not always met. PMID:20353662

  7. Euthanasia in Belgium: trends in reported cases between 2003 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, Sigrid; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim; Chambaere, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the Belgian Act on Euthanasia came into effect, regulating the intentional ending of life by a physician at the patient’s explicit request. We undertook this study to describe trends in officially reported euthanasia cases in Belgium with regard to patients’ sociodemographic and clinical profiles, as well as decision-making and performance characteristics. Methods: We used the database of all euthanasia cases reported to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee on Euthanasia in Belgium between Jan. 1, 2003, and Dec. 31, 2013 (n = 8752). The committee collected these data with a standardized registration form. We analyzed trends in patient, decision-making and performance characteristics using a χ2 technique. We also compared and analyzed trends for cases reported in Dutch and in French. Results: The number of reported euthanasia cases increased every year, from 235 (0.2% of all deaths) in 2003 to 1807 (1.7% of all deaths) in 2013. The rate of euthanasia increased significantly among those aged 80 years or older, those who died in a nursing home, those with a disease other than cancer and those not expected to die in the near future (p euthanasia requests, beyond the legal requirements to do so (p euthanasia request (from 34.0% in 2003 to 42.6% in 2013). These trends were not significant for cases reported in French. Interpretation: Since legalization of euthanasia in Belgium, the number of reported cases has increased each year. Most of those receiving euthanasia were younger than 80 years and were dying of cancer. Given the increases observed among non–terminally ill and older patients, this analysis shows the importance of detailed monitoring of developments in euthanasia practice. PMID:27620630

  8. Prevalence and content of written ethics policies on euthanasia in Catholic healthcare institutions in Belgium (Flanders).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastmans, Chris; Lemiengre, Joke; van der Wal, Gerrit; Schotsmans, Paul; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette

    2006-04-01

    Euthanasia is performed worldwide, regardless of the existence of laws governing it. Belgium became the second country in the world to enact a law on euthanasia in 2002. Healthcare institutions bear responsibility for guaranteeing the quality of care for patients at the end of life, and for ensuring support for caregivers involved. Therefore, institutional ethics policies on end-of-life decision-making, especially on euthanasia, may be useful. A cross-sectional mail survey of general directors of Catholic hospitals and nursing homes in Belgium was used to describe the prevalence and content of written ethics policies for competent terminally ill, incompetent terminally ill, and non-terminally ill patients. Of the 298 targeted institutions, 81% of hospitals and 62% of nursing homes returned complete questionnaires. Of these, 79% of hospitals and 30% of nursing homes had a written ethics policy on euthanasia. Of hospitals 83% and of nursing homes 85% permitted euthanasia for competent terminally ill patients only in exceptional cases in accordance with legal due care criteria and provisions outlined by the palliative filter procedure. Euthanasia for incompetent terminally ill patients was prohibited by 27% of the hospitals and by 60% of the nursing homes. For non-terminally ill patients, these figures were 43 and 64%, respectively. Catholic healthcare institutions in Belgium (Flanders) made great efforts to develop written ethics policies on euthanasia. Only a small group of institutions completely prohibited euthanasia. Most of the institutions considered euthanasia to be an option if all possible alternatives (e.g., palliative filter procedure, which contains more rigorous criteria than those in the Belgian Euthanasia Act), have been thoroughly investigated.

  9. Trace elements in home-produced eggs in Belgium: Levels and spatiotemporal distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waegeneers, Nadia; Hoenig, Michel; Goeyens, Leo; De Temmerman, Ludwig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, copper and zinc in home-produced eggs, soils and kitchen waste samples of private chicken owners in Belgium, and to determine spatiotemporal differences in trace element contents in eggs. Eggs were sampled in all provinces of Belgium in autumn 2006 and spring 2007. A total number of 59 private chicken owners participated in the study. Trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry except for mercury, which was determined by atomic absorption of mercury vapour. The mean fresh weight concentrations in eggs in autumn and spring respectively were < 8.0 and < 8.0 μg/kg for arsenic, 0.5 and < 0.5 μg/kg for cadmium, 116 and 74 μg/kg for lead, 0.43 and 0.52 mg/kg for copper, 20.3 and 19.2 mg/kg for zinc, and 3.15 and 4.44 μg/kg for mercury. Analysis of variance determined significant differences in some trace element concentrations in eggs among seasons and regions in Belgium. Average concentrations of arsenic, cadmium and mercury corresponded well with values measured in other countries, while copper and zinc concentrations were within the same order of magnitude as in other countries. Average lead concentrations were high compared to concentrations in eggs from other countries and correlated well with lead concentrations in soil, indicating that the soil is an important source. Other sources of trace elements in eggs might be home-grown vegetables and forage (grass and herbs), and indirectly, air pollution.

  10. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality. © 2016 Poultry

  11. Survey report of site selection process on the basis of local partnerships. Slovenia and Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Tatsuji; Nakata, Hisakazu; Kanzaki, Noriko; Osawa, Hideaki; Hayakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Local partnership approach to achieve stakeholder consensus on low-level waste disposal, with particular focus on the siting of repositories are adopted in Europe. Especially in Belgium and Slovenia, final repository site had been decided in each country. The authors investigate on these two cases on the basis of interviews with implementing organizations for final disposal, representatives of local partnerships and citizens concerned so that the problem of introducing a local partnership in Japan can be examined. Its results are used as a reference for studying measures to determine the radioactive final repository site in Japan. (author)

  12. The diet and consumption of dominant fish species in the upper Scheldt estuary, Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maes, J.; De Brabandere, Loreto; Ollevier, F.

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the diet composition and trophic niche overlap were examined for the dominant members of the fish assemblage of the turbid low-salinity zone of the Scheldt estuary (Belgium). Samples of fish were taken in the cooling water of a power plant. Juveniles of eight species dominated...... of trophic niche overlap showed that, in general, niche overlap between individuals of the same species was significantly higher than overlap between individuals from different species, suggesting that the available food resources were partitioned. The total annual prey consumption by the dominant fish...

  13. Euthanasia for people with psychiatric disorders or dementia in Belgium: analysis of officially reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, Sigrid; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim; Chambaere, Kenneth

    2017-06-23

    Euthanasia for people who are not terminally ill, such as those suffering from psychiatric disorders or dementia, is legal in Belgium under strict conditions but remains a controversial practice. As yet, the prevalence of euthanasia for people with psychiatric disorders or dementia has not been studied and little is known about the characteristics of the practice. This study aims to report on the trends in prevalence and number of euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia diagnosis in Belgium and demographic, clinical and decision-making characteristics of these cases. We analysed the anonymous databases of euthanasia cases reported to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee Euthanasia from the implementation of the euthanasia law in Belgium in 2002 until the end of 2013. The databases we received provided the information on all euthanasia cases as registered by the Committee from the official registration forms. Only those with one or more psychiatric disorders or dementia and no physical disease were included in the analysis. We identified 179 reported euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia as the sole diagnosis. These consisted of mood disorders (N = 83), dementia (N = 62), other psychiatric disorders (N = 22) and mood disorders accompanied by another psychiatric disorder (N = 12). The proportion of euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia diagnosis was 0.5% of all cases reported in the period 2002-2007, increasing from 2008 onwards to 3.0% of all cases reported in 2013. The increase in the absolute number of cases is particularly evident in cases with a mood disorder diagnosis. The majority of cases concerned women (58.1% in dementia to 77.1% in mood disorders). All cases were judged to have met the legal requirements by the Committee. While euthanasia on the grounds of unbearable suffering caused by a psychiatric disorder or dementia remains a comparatively limited practice in Belgium, its

  14. Economic effects of a carbon tax: with a general equilibrium illustration for Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proost, S.; Regemorter, D. Van

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility and efficiency arguments of an international and a national carbon tax are analysed. It is argued that an internationally organized carbon tax can be a good instrument for implementing an international CO 2 abatement strategy. Less efficient instruments like national CO 2 reduction emission objectives are more likely to be implemented. A national carbon tax is analysed as a policy instrument to reach such an internationally agreed national CO 2 emission reduction objective. This is done for Belgium using a dynamic general equilibrium model. (author)

  15. The influence of age and gender on venous symptomatology. An epidemiological survey in Belgium and Luxembourg

    OpenAIRE

    Vuylsteke, Marc E.; Colman, Roos; Thomis, Sarah; Guillaume, Genevieve; Degrande, Evy; Staelens, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to measure the incidence of the symptoms in patients with chronic venous disease (CVD) and to look for the influence of age on the severity of symptoms for both genders. Materials and methods A survey was carried out in Belgium and Luxembourg between May and September 2013. Patient recruitment was done by 406 general practitioners (GPs). Each GP screened 10-20 consecutive patients older than 18 years. Inquiries were made regarding the presence of symptoms and poss...

  16. Internalization of external cost for the production and distribution of electricity in Flanders, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torfs, R.; De Nocker, L.; Schrooten, L.; Aernouts, K.; Liekens, I.

    2005-04-01

    This report elaborates the external costs of electricity production and distribution in Flanders, Belgium, and tests them against prices and taxes for electricity use. The authors examined whether these external costs decrease in time and whether such a decrease leads to internalization in the price for the users through taxes, levies or other economic instruments. The external costs mainly include external environmental costs caused by air pollution and greenhouse gases, but also damage caused by accidents, hindrance and radioactive substances that may be released. [nl

  17. Annual progress report on nuclear data 1983 of the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements, Geel (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    In this progress report of the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements at Geel (Belgium) researches related to neutron data and to non-neutron nuclear data are gathered. Neutron data are essentially related to cross-section measurements: for instance, concerning actinides, structural materials as Cr and Fe, fission products. Some studies are classified as concerning standard neutron data. Underlying physics is no forgotten neither than equipment (linear accelerator). Non-neutron nuclear data is concerned essentially with decay studies. Some compilations and evaluations are also given. Improvement of measurement and source preparation techniques is a part of this section

  18. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - Belgium 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-12

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Belgium for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  19. [Recent population policy measures in Belgium, especially with respect to fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, E

    1985-01-01

    Policy measures affecting fertility, recently adopted in Belgium, are reviewed. The author notes that although responsibility for population matters has been delegated to the respective language groups, the responsibility for family law, divorce, abortion, social security, taxation, and labor policy remains a national responsibility. There are currently no measures in these areas adopted primarily for demographic reasons. Differences between the approaches taken by the French- and Dutch-speaking communities are noted. The author suggests that the French-speaking community has focused on problems relating to contraception and abortion, and the Dutch-speaking community has emphasized social welfare and family policy

  20. The CO2-energy tax in Belgium: the effects and the fiscal redistribution of the revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossier, F.; Van den Steen, P.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and economic effects of the introduction of a carbon dioxide energy tax in Belgium are described. The objective of reducing carbon dioxide emission values by five percent in 2000 with respect to the carbon dioxide production in 1990 can only be achieved by taking additional measures. The environmental and economic effects of a carbon dioxide tax are strongly dependent on the spending of the revenues. The best results are achieved when the revenues are spent on projects for the rational use of energy. (A.S.)

  1. Strategic Partnerships and Open Innovation in the Biotechnology Industry in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Segers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Strategic partnerships in the biotechnology industry allow new technology-based firms to gain a foothold in this high-cost, high-risk industry. In this article, we examine the impact of strategic partnerships and open innovation on the success of new biotechnology firms in Belgium by developing multiple case studies of firms in regional biotechnology clusters. We find that, despite their small size and relative immaturity, new biotechnology firms are able to adopt innovative business models by providing R&D and services to larger firms and openly cooperating with them through open innovation.

  2. Satellite Derived Forest Phenology and Its Relation with Nephropathia Epidemica in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Barrios

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The connection between nephropathia epidemica (NE and vegetation dynamics has been emphasized in recent studies. Changing climate has been suggested as a triggering factor of recently observed epidemiologic peaks in reported NE cases. We have investigated whether there is a connection between the NE occurrence pattern in Belgium and specific trends in remotely sensed phenology parameters of broad-leaved forests. The analysis of time series of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index revealed that changes in forest phenology, considered in literature as an effect of climate change, may affect the mechanics of NE transmission.

  3. Satellite derived forest phenology and its relation with nephropathia epidemica in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, José Miguel; Verstraeten, Willem W; Maes, Piet; Clement, Jan; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Haredasht, Sara Amirpour; Wambacq, Julie; Lagrou, Katrien; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Van Ranst, Marc; Berckmans, Daniel; Coppin, Pol

    2010-06-01

    The connection between nephropathia epidemica (NE) and vegetation dynamics has been emphasized in recent studies. Changing climate has been suggested as a triggering factor of recently observed epidemiologic peaks in reported NE cases. We have investigated whether there is a connection between the NE occurrence pattern in Belgium and specific trends in remotely sensed phenology parameters of broad-leaved forests. The analysis of time series of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index revealed that changes in forest phenology, considered in literature as an effect of climate change, may affect the mechanics of NE transmission.

  4. Les discours de François Hollande (2009-2012: la force axiologico-affective du changement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Immacolata Spagna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – Within the field of argumentative analysis, our purpose is to underline the function and the effectiveness of the axiological-emotional content of the change proposed by François Hollande in his speeches (2009-2012.On the basis of the emotional orientation, given in a dysphoric register towards the previous government and in a euphoric one towards the auspicious future, the argumentation of the change claimed by the “normal” president is based on values. To not change would mean to accept the current situation and therefore all its negative values.Putting the reader in a condition of emotional tension with the aim of energizing him to find a remedy, Hollande’s proposition becomes, thus, a call to action, an implicit request for social, politic and moral engagement, to change the course of history and to realize a better future. Keywords: Argumentation, political discourse, emotion, axiological, change.  Résumé – Dans le cadre de l’analyse argumentative, cet article vise à souligner la fonction et l’efficacité de la charge axiologico-affective du changement proposé par François Hollande dans ses discours (2009-2012.Sur la base de l’orientation émotionnelle, donnée dans un registre dysphorique à l’égard du gouvernement passé et euphorique vers l’avenir prometteur, l’argumentation du changement invoqué par le président “normal” se fonde sur les valeurs. Ne pas changer signifierait accepter la situation actuelle et, par là, toutes ces valeurs négatives.Mettant le lecteur dans une condition de tension émotive pour le motiver à trouver un remède, la proposition de Hollande devient ainsi un appel à agir, une requête implicite d’engagement social, politique et moral pour changer le cours de l’histoire et réaliser un futur meilleur. Mots clés: argumentation, discours politique, émotion, axiologique, changement. 

  5. Un dictionnaire espagnol/français de la Deuxième partie : utilité, questionnement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie HIREL-WOUTS

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Il s’agit de faire le point sur l’élaboration du premier dictionnaire espagnol-français de la Deuxième partie d’Alphonse X, menée dans le cadre de l’atelier de traduction du texte juridique alphonsin. Le caractère éminemment pragmatique de l’entreprise ne doit pas faire oublier la complexe relation qu’entretenaient Alphonse X et ses collaborateurs avec les mots. Les Sept parties s’offrent en effet à nous tout à la fois comme une traduction de sources latines, grecques ou arabes, qu’il nous revient à notre tour de traduire, et comme un corpus lexicographique d’une exceptionnelle richesse dont nous devons comprendre les soubassements idéologiques si nous voulons respecter le « sens » du mot alphonsin et le reporter dans notre propre lexique espagnol-français. C’est de cette double mise en abyme et de ses implications pratiques pour notre projet dont il sera ici question.Se trata de hacer el balance sobre la elaboración del primer diccionario español-francés de la Segunda partida de Alfonso X, realizada en el marco de la traducción del texto jurídico alfonsí. El carácter sumamente pragmático de tal empresa no debe ocultar la compleja relación del rey Sabio y sus colaboradores con la palabra. Las Siete partidas constituyen de hecho no sólo una traducción de fuentes latinas, griegas o árabes que nos toca traducir, sino un corpus lexicográfico de tremenda riqueza, cuyas bases ideológicas tenemos que percibir si queremos reflejar adecuadamente la significación de la palabra alfonsí en nuestro propio diccionario. El presente artículo propone algunas reflexiones sobre esta doble mise en abyme y sus implicaciones prácticas para nuestro proyecto.

  6. The Presence of Borrelia miyamotoi, A Relapsing Fever Spirochaete, in Questing Ixodes ricinus in Belgium and in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochez, C; Heyman, P; Heylen, D; Fonville, M; Hengeveld, P; Takken, W; Simons, L; Sprong, H

    2015-08-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a tick-borne bacterium that may cause relapsing fever in humans. As this pathogen has been discovered in Europe only recently, only little is known about its local impact on human health and its spatial distribution. In this study, we show the results of PCR screenings for B. miyamotoi in flagged Ixodes ricinus from Belgium and the Netherlands. B. miyamotoi was detected in nine of thirteen, and three of five locations from the Netherlands and Belgium, respectively. These outcomes indicate that B. miyamotoi is more spread than previously thought. The mean infection rate B. miyamotoi was 1.14% for Belgium and 3.84% for the Netherlands. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. About three cases of ulceroglandular tularemia, is this the re-emergence of Francisella tularensis in Belgium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, E; Van Eeckhoudt, S; Thissen, X; Ausselet, N; Fretin, D; Stefanescu, I; Glupczynski, Y; Delaere, B

    2015-10-01

    Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by Francisella tularensis that can be transmitted by several ways to human being and cause different clinical manifestations. We report three clinical cases of tularemia with ulceroglandular presentation in young males acquired during outdoor activities in Southern Belgium. Confirmation of the diagnosis was established by serology. Only three cases of tularemia have been reported in Belgium between 1950 and 2012 by the National Reference Laboratory CODA-CERVA (Ref Lab CODA-CERVA) but re-emergence of tularemia is established in several European countries and F. tularensis is also well known to be present in animal reservoirs and vectors in Belgium. The diagnosis of tularemia has to be considered in case of suggestive clinical presentation associated with epidemiological risk factors.

  8. François Couperin’s Allemandes for Harpsichord: Linguistic Characteristics of 18th Century French Oratory as an Interpretive Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pavan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This text discusses the linguistic characteristics of French oratory of the eighteenth century as an interpretive resource for François Couperin’s allemandes for harpsichord. The main objective was to investigate the oratory and its equivalence with the musical discourse of this time and place as a tool for interpreting the genre. The methodological approach followed was an analysis of the linguistic variations of French oratory of the eighteenth century and its correspondence with the allemandes of François Couperin contained in the four Livres de pièces de clavecin. Upon establishing the close relationship between the spoken language and musical expression, it was possible to apply the study of the suggested discourse to interpretative decisions.

  9. ‘Sand’s Way’: The Voices of George Sand’s François the Waif in Marcel Proust’s Remembrance of Things Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Grauby

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces one of the origins of Marcel Proust’s artistic vocation in his fascination for a novel by George Sand, François le Champi (François the Waif. In Remembrance of Things Past, the adult writer explores the gradual recognition of this early phase of his formation: Sand’s novel appears in the ‘Combray’ section in Swann’s Way and it reappears at the moment of apparent illumination regarding his future as a writer in Time Regained. Leaving deliberately aside the psychoanalytic implications of the story, this article will instead emphasise the ‘vocality’ of the story, taken from the oral tradition of the provincial Berry countryside and imbued with colloquial texture, to show how the retelling of this moment in time when the novel was encountered includes a definition of what artistic vocation is for the narrator.

  10. O (desconhecimento do rosto do outro: dimensões da (incomunicabilidade em Oswaldo França Júnior e Lya Luft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Salgueiro Marques

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto tem como objetivo analisar o tema do desconhecimento do outro em dois contos de escritores brasileiros contemporâneos: “Eu não o conheci”, de Oswaldo França Júnior, e “A Pedra da Bruxa”, de Lya Luft. Ambos refletem sobre a morte de um filho. Procede-se um estudo comparado dos textos no sentido de apontar algumas semelhanças e diferenças tanto entre aspectos formais, tais como conto e miniconto, quanto entre pontos de vista, espaço, tempo, e a questão da incomunicabilidade, à luz do conceito de “Rosto”, explorado por Emmanuel Lévinas e Giorgio Agamben, que nos auxilia a definir a causa do profundo mal-estar exposto pelos narradores desses contos.Palavras-chave: Oswaldo França Júnior; Lya Luft; Conto; Miniconto; Incomunicabilidade; Rosto.

  11. Speech to be delivered by Mr. François de Rose, president of Council of the european organization for nuclear research on the occasion of the inauguration of the CERN proton synchrotron on 5 february 1960

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1960-01-01

    Speech to be delivered by Mr. François de Rose, president of Council of the european organization for nuclear research on the occasion of the inauguration of the CERN proton synchrotron on 5 february 1960

  12. [François de Lapeyronie, from Montpellier (1678-1747). "Surgery restorer" and universal spirit. The soul, Musc, rooster eggs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Louis-Paul; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2009-01-01

    François de Lapeyronie was a master in surgery in 1695 in Paris then in 1717 and rewarded with the rank of Medical Doctor of the University of Reims. The authors try to underline his intelligence and his broadmindedness through three publications about the centre of the soul in the corpus callosum, the anatomical dissection of a kind of stone marten and the scientific research of the so called 'egg of cock'.

  13. Regulamentação da internet: perspectiva comparada entre Brasil, Chile, Espanha, EUA e França

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Segurado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A governança global ocupa lugar privilegiado na agenda de debates sobre o funcionamento da rede mundial de computadores, e o Brasil assumiu um papel de destaque nesse processo, principalmente após a aprovação do Marco Civil da Internet (lei n.12.965, de 23 de abril de 2014, que contém princípios, garantias, direitos e deveres para internautas e provedores no país. O estudo comparado foi desenvolvido a partir da seleção de categorias consideradas fundamentais para a análise: a neutralidade de rede, o direito à privacidade dos cidadãos internautas e a discussão sobre direitos autorais sob a lógica da propriedade intelectual. Foram esses os aspectos centrais que utilizamos para a análise das regulamentações em cinco países, Brasil, Chile, Espanha, EUA e França.

  14. A Morte e a Iniciação Feminina nos Lais de Maria de França

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Dias da Silveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo dos significados da morte na construção de práticas sociais inclui a análise de imagens que são construídas e transformadas coletivamente ao longo de séculos em uma sociedade. A considerar esse processo de longa duração, o presente ensaio tem como eixo a relação entre morte e feminino e pretende estabelecer o entrelaçamento da perspectiva histórica com a literária e a antropológica. Serão tratadas as representações do imaginário feminino sobre a morte na literatura medieval, especificamente, no a lai de Yonec de Maria de França (séc. XII, no qual é possível identificar uma estrutura narrativa mais antiga, de feições míticas. Nesse lai, o significado da morte está relacionado a estágios iniciáticos do mundo feminino, envolvendo elementos de um imaginário forjado da sobrevivência de tradições pré-cristãs, bem como da religiosidade popular medieval e das experiências de mulheres naquela sociedade. O estudo do lai de Yonec poderá evidenciar a riqueza desse universo apresentado pela voz de uma mulher.

  15. Tout va bien ! méthode de français : cahier d'exercices 2

    CERN Document Server

    Augé, H; Marlhens, C; Martin, L

    2005-01-01

    Tout va bien ! est une méthode de français destinée aux grands adolescents et adultes débutants ou faux-débutants. Ses objectifs respectent scrupuleusement les recommandations du Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues, comme en témoigne le portfolio qui accompagne le livre de l'élève. Tout va bien ! propose : Des supports et des situations de communication authentiques ou proches de l'authentique, permettant à l'élève de se sensibiliser aux différents registres et de découvrir certains aspects de la culture francophone tout autant que la langue. De très nombreuses activités visant l'acquisition des quatre compétences de communication et l'utilisation de stratégies spécifiques. Un travail sur la grammaire et le vocabulaire associés aux situations et au service de la communication faisant une large place à l'observation et à la réflexion. Une invitation régulière à l'évaluation, au travail an autonomie et à l'auto-évaluation.

  16. Café crème méthode de français : niveau 1

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneman-Pougatch, Massia; Beacco di Giura, Marcella; Jennepin, Dominique

    1997-01-01

    Une méthode de français pour grands adolescents et adultes pour assurer un apprentissage complet, pratique, dynamique et efficace. 80 ? 100 heures de cours. 16 unité de 8 pages organisées en quatre parties, qui reprennent les quatre types de discours : 1 - Bonjour ! (l'informatif) 2 - A mon avis... (l'argumentatif) 3 - Dis pourquoi... (l'explicatif) 4 - Alors raconte... ( le narratif) Chaque unité comprend : - 3 pages "" Découvertes "" Activités de compréhension, exploitation et réemploi : la découverte de la langue par les activités. - 3 pages "" Boîte ? outils "" 1 page Vocabulaire et Phonétique et 2 pages Grammaire (tableaux, exercices systématiques d'acquisition et animation grammaticale) : la systématisation formelle. - 2 pages "" Paroles en liberté "" Dialogues avec une exploitation orale et écrite : l'élargissement et le réemploi. Toutes les 4 unités : un bilan-test de 2 pages et un supplément de civilisation (3 pages). En annexe : un précis grammatical et un lexique multilingue.

  17. Tout va bien ! méthode de français : cahier d'exercices 1

    CERN Document Server

    Augé, H; Marlhens, C; Martin, L

    2005-01-01

    Tout va bien ! est une méthode de français destinée aux grands adolescents et adultes débutants ou faux-débutants. Ses objectifs respectent scrupuleusement les recommandations du Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues, comme en témoigne le portfolio qui accompagne le livre de l'élève. Tout va bien ! propose : Des supports et des situations de communication authentiques ou proches de l'authentique, permettant à l'élève de se sensibiliser aux différents registres et de découvrir certains aspects de la culture francophone tout autant que la langue. De très nombreuses activités visant l'acquisition des quatre compétences de communication et l'utilisation de stratégies spécifiques. Un travail sur la grammaire et le vocabulaire associés aux situations et au service de la communication faisant une large place à l'observation et à la réflexion. Une invitation régulière à l'évaluation, au travail an autonomie et à l'auto-évaluation.

  18. Prostitutes and criminals: beginnings of eugenics in Croatia in the works of Fran Gundrum from Oriovac (1856-1919).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, Martin; Fatović-Ferencić, Stella

    2012-04-01

    Fran Gundrum (1856-1919) was a Croatian physician, encyclopedist, and an advocate of medical enlightenment and healthy lifestyle. In order to identify and analyze Gundrum's ideas about the problems of prostitution and criminality, we studied all of his books, booklets, and articles published between 1905 and 1914. We showed that Gundrum's theories of heredity, morality, and sexual hygiene incorporated many of the important discussions of his time, especially those related to the Darwinian paradigm. Gundrum's project of collecting statistics on prostitutes was the first such study published on the territory of today's Croatia. Although he rejected the notions of born prostitutes and born criminals, defended by Italian criminal anthropologist Cesare Lombroso, he still regarded eugenics as a convenient method of dealing with the ills of society. He believed that criminals were degenerate individuals representing a violent threat to the society and that it was legitimate to use radical means, such as sterilization and deportation, to deal with this problem. Organicistic view of the society prevented him from seeing the individual rights as important as that of the society to protect itself. Nevertheless, this view led to many humanistic ideas, such as the binomial illness/poverty in case of prostitution, which influenced many prominent works of social medicine movement.

  19. Le Petit Robert dictionnaire alphabétique et analogique de la langue française

    CERN Document Server

    Rey, Alain

    2014-01-01

    60 000 mots, 300 000 sens 35 000, citations. Retrouvez le français vivant, les mots et expressions d'aujourd'hui : astroparticule, biothèque, caméo, clivant, coltan, dim sum, fadette, itinérance, locavore, microbiote, modeux, street art, transgénérationnel ...Vérifiez l'usage de chaque mot : l'orthographe, la prononciation, les nuances de sens, les homonymes. Découvrez l'histoire des mots et leur étymologie Passez d'une idée à l'autre, allez du connu vers l'inconnu, en suivant les liens entre les mots : synonymes, analogies, contraires... Rencontrez les auteurs classiques et contemporains, par leurs citations : Olivier Adam, Emmanuel Carrère, Jean Echenoz, Annie Ernaux, Alice Ferney, Le Clézio, Carole Martinez, Patrick Modiano, Marie NDiaye, Amélie Nothomb, Daniel Pennac, Pascal Quignard, Michel Tournier, Michel Tremblay, Delphine de Vigan ... Voyagez dans la francophonie et partez à la découverte de ses richesses.

  20. Experiência e Utopia em Theodor W. Adorno, André Gorz e François Dubet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio César Camargo

    2007-01-01

    sociedade contemporânea. Conceito bastante complexo quanto a sua possibilidade de apreensão pela sociologia, experiência se refere tanto a problemas relativos ao conhecimento e suas possibilidades, mas também para as possibilidades de transformação da sociedade. Entende-se que há três teóricos da sociedade contemporânea, que partindo de bases epistemológicas diferentes, problematizam a emancipação humana a partir de uma singular atenção ao conceito de experiência. Theodor W. Adorno, André Gorz e François Dubet representam três formas de pensamento sobre a sociedade bastante diferentes, mas que possuem em comum o interesse normativo, e seu confronto nos mostra a importância do conceito de experiência para a compreensão da sociedade contemporânea e para pensar-se a utopia.

  1. Development of gridded solar radiation data over Belgium based on Meteosat and in-situ observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journée, Michel; Vanderveken, Gilles; Bertrand, Cédric

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge on solar resources is highly important for all forms of solar energy applications. With the recent development in solar-based technologies national meteorological services are faced with increasing demands for high-quality and reliable site-time specific solar resource information. Traditionally, solar radiation is observed by means of networks of meteorological stations. Costs for installation and maintenance of such networks are very high and national networks comprise only few stations. Consequently the availability of ground-based solar radiation measurements has proven to be spatially and temporally inadequate for many applications. To overcome such a limitation, a major effort has been undertaken at the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMI) to provide the solar energy industry, the electricity sector, governments, and renewable energy organizations and institutions with the most suitable and accurate information on the solar radiation resources at the Earth's surface over the Belgian territory. Only space-based observations can deliver a global coverage of the solar irradiation impinging on horizontal surface at the ground level. Because only geostationary data allow to capture the diurnal cycle of the solar irradiance at the Earth's surface, a method that combines information from Meteosat Second Generation satellites and ground-measurement has been implemented at RMI to generate high resolution solar products over Belgium on an operational basis. Besides these new products, the annual and seasonal variability of solar energy resource was evaluated, solar radiation climate zones were defined and the recent trend in solar radiation was characterized.

  2. Mobile gaming and problematic smartphone use: A comparative study between Belgium and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Männikkö, Niko; Kääriäinen, Maria; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J

    2018-03-01

    Background and aims Gaming applications have become one of the main entertainment features on smartphones, and this could be potentially problematic in terms of dangerous, prohibited, and dependent use among a minority of individuals. A cross-national study was conducted in Belgium and Finland. The aim was to examine the relationship between gaming on smartphones and self-perceived problematic smartphone use via an online survey to ascertain potential predictors. Methods The Short Version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ-SV) was administered to a sample comprising 899 participants (30% male; age range: 18-67 years). Results Good validity and adequate reliability were confirmed regarding the PMPUQ-SV, especially the dependence subscale, but low prevalence rates were reported in both countries using the scale. Regression analysis showed that downloading, using Facebook, and being stressed contributed to problematic smartphone use. Anxiety emerged as predictor for dependence. Mobile games were used by one-third of the respective populations, but their use did not predict problematic smartphone use. Very few cross-cultural differences were found in relation to gaming through smartphones. Conclusion Findings suggest mobile gaming does not appear to be problematic in Belgium and Finland.

  3. Determinants of utilisation differences for cancer medicines in Belgium, Scotland and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Alessandra

    2017-12-01

    Little comparative evidence is available on utilisation of cancer medicines in different countries and its determinants. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical model to test the correlation between utilisation and possible determinants in selected European countries. A sample of 31 medicines for cancer treatment that obtained EU-wide marketing authorisation between 2000 and 2012 was selected. Annual data on medicines' utilisation covering the in- and out-patient public sectors were obtained from national authorities between 2008 and 2013. Possible determinants of utilisation were extracted from HTA reports and complemented by contacts with key informants. A longitudinal mixed effect model was fitted to test possible determinants of medicines utilisation in Belgium, Scotland and Sweden. In the all-country model, the number of indications reimbursed positively correlated with increased consumption of medicines [one indication 2.6, 95% CI (1.8-3.6); two indications 2.4, 95% CI (1.4-4.3); three indications 4.9, 95% CI (2.2-10.9); all P marketing authorisation [1.2, 95% CI (1.02-1.4); p marketing authorisation. Prices had a negative effect on consumption in Belgium and Sweden. The positive impact of financial MEAs in Scotland suggests that the latter may remove the regressive effect of list prices on consumption.

  4. Science–policy challenges for biodiversity, public health and urbanization: examples from Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keune, H; De Blust, G; Van den Berge, K; Brosens, D; Van Herzele, A; Simoens, I; Kretsch, C; Gilbert, M; Linard, C; Flandroy, L; Versteirt, V; Hartig, T; De Keersmaecker, L; Eggermont, H; Dessein, J; Vanwambeke, S; Prieur-Richard, A H; Wittmer, H; Martens, P; Mathijs, E

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, the importance of a coordinated effort to protect both biodiversity and public health is more and more recognized. These issues are often concentrated or particularly challenging in urban areas, and therefore on-going urbanization worldwide raises particular issues both for the conservation of living natural resources and for population health strategies. These challenges include significant difficulties associated with sustainable management of urban ecosystems, urban development planning, social cohesion and public health. An important element of the challenge is the need to interface between different forms of knowledge and different actors from science and policy. We illustrate this with examples from Belgium, showcasing concrete cases of human–nature interaction. To better tackle these challenges, since 2011, actors in science, policy and the broader Belgian society have launched a number of initiatives to deal in a more integrated manner with combined biodiversity and public health challenges in the face of ongoing urbanization. This emerging community of practice in Belgium exemplifies the importance of interfacing at different levels. (1) Bridges must be built between science and the complex biodiversity/ecosystem–human/public health–urbanization phenomena. (2) Bridges between different professional communities and disciplines are urgently needed. (3) Closer collaboration between science and policy, and between science and societal practice is needed. Moreover, within each of these communities closer collaboration between specialized sections is needed. (letter)

  5. Incentives for market penetration of biosimilars in Belgium and in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartenbroekx, N; Farfan-Portet; Espín, J; Gerkens, S

    2014-12-01

    Biosimilars are products similar to a biological already authorized and no longer protected by a patent. As the biological product, they contain a biological substance produced by or derived from a living organism. Alike with generics, biosimilars are potential tool to ensure savings for health systems. The current lack of market penetration of biosimilars may be seen by national authorities as a lost opportunity in terms of cost- containment. The objective of this paper is therefore to analyze the current situation in Belgium and to identify potential measures to stimulate biosimilar uptake in Belgium through an analysis of the experience in five European countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. This international comparison was performed using a two steps analysis: a structured review of the literature followed by a validation from experts in each country. Potential incentives and constraints were identified, i.e., prescription quotas/target, clinical guidelines, primary substitution, reference price system, fixed payment and public tendering. However, the literature reviewed provided little evaluation of the effectiveness of these policies in terms of biosimilar uptake or potential savings. The impact of these policies on biosimilar related savings is currently based on expectation and assumptions. Such kind of studies is therefore essential in the future.

  6. A Typology of Interprofessional Teamwork in Acute Geriatric Care: A Study in 55 units in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piers, Ruth D; Versluys, Karen J J; Devoghel, Johan; Lambrecht, Sophie; Vyt, André; Van Den Noortgate, Nele J

    2017-09-01

    To explore the quality of interprofessional teamwork in acute geriatric care and to build a model of team types. Cross-sectional multicenter study. Acute geriatric units in Belgium. Team members of different professional backgrounds. Perceptions of interprofessional teamwork among team members of 55 acute geriatric units in Belgium were measured using a survey covering collaborative practice and experience, managerial coaching and open team culture, shared reflection and decision-making, patient files facilitating teamwork, members' belief in the power of teamwork, and members' comfort in reporting incidents. Cluster analysis was used to determine types of interprofessional teamwork. Professions and clusters were compared using analysis of variance. The overall response rate was 60%. Of the 890 respondents, 71% were nursing professionals, 20% other allied health professionals, 5% physicians, and 4% logistic and administrative staff. More than 70% of respondents scored highly on interprofessional teamwork competencies, consultation, experiences, meetings, management, and results. Fewer than 55% scored highly on items about shared reflection and decision-making, reporting incidents from a colleague, and patient files facilitating interprofessional teamwork. Nurses in this study rated shared reflection and decision-making lower than physicians on the same acute geriatric units (P teamwork in acute geriatric units is satisfactory, but shared reflection and decision-making needs improvement. Four types of interprofessional teamwork are identified and can be used to benchmark the teamwork of individual teams. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Benedicte; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny; Capsa, Daniela; Gannedahl, Mia

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the value of interventions in multiple sclerosis (MS) - where lifetime costs and outcomes cannot be observed - outcome data have to be combined with costs. This requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 countries collecting data on resource consumption and work capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalent symptoms for patients with MS. Descriptive analyses are presented by level of severity, from the societal perspective, in EUR 2015. A total of 1856 patients (mean age: 54 years) participated in Belgium; 66% were below retirement age, and of these, 44% were employed. Employment was related to disease severity, and MS affected productivity at work in 85% of the patients. Overall, 95% and 72% of the patients experienced fatigue and cognitive difficulties, respectively, as a problem. Mean utility and annual costs were 0.703 and €26,400 at Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-3, 0.478 and €45,300 at EDSS 4-6.5, and 0.193 and €62,000 at EDSS 7-9. The mean cost of a relapse was estimated to be €3000. This study provides current data on MS in Belgium that are important for development of health policies and for estimating the value of current and future treatments.

  8. A social preference valuations set for EQ-5D health states in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleemput, Irina

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed at deriving a preference valuation set for EQ-5D health states from the general Flemish public in Belgium. A EuroQol valuation instrument with 16 health states to be valued on a visual analogue scale was sent to a random sample of 2,754 adults. The initial response rate was 35%. Eventually, 548 (20%) respondents provided useable valuations for modeling. Valuations for 245 health states were modeled using a random effects model. The selection of the model was based on two criteria: health state valuations must be consistent, and the difference with the directly observed valuations must be small. A model including a value decrement if any health dimension of the EQ-5D is on the worst level was selected to construct the social health state valuation set. A comparison with health state valuations from other countries showed similarities, especially with those from New Zealand. The use of a single preference valuation set across different health economic evaluations within a country is highly preferable to increase their usability for policy makers. This study contributes to the standardization of outcome measurement in economic evaluations in Belgium.

  9. How to overcome hurdles in opiate substitution treatment? A qualitative study with general practitioners in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeyman, Jessica; Symons, Linda; Van Royen, Paul; Van Hal, Guido; Peremans, Lieve

    2016-06-01

    Opiate substitution treatment (OST) is the administration of opioids (methadone or buprenorphine) under medical supervision for opiate addiction. Several studies indicate a large unmet need for OST in general practice in Antwerp, Belgium. Some hurdles remain before GPs engage in OST prescribing. Formulate recommendations to increase engagement of GPs in OST, applicable to Belgium and beyond. In 2009, an exploratory qualitative research was performed using focus group discussions and interviews with GPs. During data collection and analysis, purposive sampling, open and axial coding was applied. The script was composed around the advantages, disadvantages and conditions of engaging in OST in general practice. We conducted six focus groups and two interviews, with GPs experienced in prescribing OST (n = 13), inexperienced GPs (n = 13), and physicians from addiction centres (n = 5). Overall, GPs did not seem very willing to prescribe OST for opiate users. A lack of knowledge about OST and misbehaving patients creates anxiety and makes the GPs reluctant to learn more about OST. The GPs refer to a lack of collaboration with the addiction centres and a need of support (from either addiction centres or experienced GP-colleagues for advice). Important conditions for OST are acceptance of only stable opiate users and more support in emergencies. Increasing GPs' knowledge about OST and improving collaboration with addiction centres are essential to increase the uptake of OST in general practice. Special attention could be paid to the role of more experienced colleagues who can act as advising physicians for inexperienced GPs.

  10. Economic consequences of legal and illegal drugs: The case of social costs in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Delfine; Vander Laenen, Freya; Verhaeghe, Nick; Putman, Koen; Pauwels, Lieven; Hardyns, Wim; Annemans, Lieven

    2017-06-01

    Legal and illegal drugs impose a considerable burden to the individual and to society. The misuse of addictive substances results in healthcare and law enforcement costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life. A social cost study was conducted to estimate the substance-attributable costs of alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs and psychoactive medication to Belgian society in 2012. The cost-of-illness framework with prevalence-based and human capital approach was applied. Three cost components were considered: direct, indirect and intangible costs related to substance misuse. The direct and indirect cost of addictive substances was estimated at 4.6 billion euros in Belgium (419 euros per capita or 1.19% of the GDP) and more than 515,000 healthy years are lost due to substance misuse. The Belgian social cost study reaffirms that alcohol and tobacco impose the highest cost to society compared to illegal drugs. Health problems are the main driver of the social cost of legal drugs. Law enforcement expenditure exceed the healthcare costs but only in the case of illegal drugs. Estimating social costs of addictive substances is complex because it is difficult to determine to what extent the societal harm is caused by substances. It can be argued that social cost studies take only a 'snapshot' of the monetary consequences of substance misuse. Nevertheless, the current study offers the most comprehensive analysis thus far of the social costs of substance misuse in Belgium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in dietary habits following temporal migration. The case of international students in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cueto, Federico; Verbeke, Wim; Lachat, Carl; Remaut-De Winter, Anne Marie

    2009-02-01

    This paper reports findings from a cross-sectional survey carried out in April-May 2006 among international students enrolled at Ghent University in Belgium. The aim of the study was to assess their knowledge and attitudes related to nutrition, perceived changes in dietary habits, perceived barriers to healthy eating and the determinants of dietary changes since their arrival in Belgium. In total, 235 students from 60 countries participated. Following the reported dietary changes, which were factor-analyzed into "less energy-dense" foods, "more fruits and vegetables" and "less processed" foods, three clusters could be identified. Cluster 1 composed of students who increased their fruits, vegetables and fiber intake. Cluster 2, the largest, reported dietary changes overall and in particular towards less processed foods. Cluster 3 composed of students who changed in the main towards less energy-dense foods. Gender differences were observed in healthy dietary changes, particularly in males. Healthier choices were hindered by a perceived unavailability of healthy food products. Gender and availability of healthy foods should be taken into consideration when informing temporal migration populations, such as international students in this study, about the healthy food options available during their stay in a different cultural, food and dietary environment.

  12. Cooking up a culinary identity for Belgium. Gastrolinguistics in two Belgian cookbooks (19th century).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parys, Nathalie

    2013-12-01

    The notion of cookbooks as socio-historic markers in a society is generally accepted within food studies. As both representations and prescriptions of food practices, perceived habits and attitudes towards food, they represent a certain identity for their readers. This paper investigates the nature of the identity that Belgian cookbooks constructed through their rhetoric. An important part of this study is to explore how and to what extent explicit reference to Belgium was made. To this end recipe titles/labels and recipe comments used in two leading bourgeois cookbooks from nineteenth-century Belgium were subjected to a quantitative and qualitative content analysis. The analysis showed that clear attention was paid to national culinary preferences. In terms of a domestic culinary corpus, it became apparent that both the Dutch and French editions of these cookbooks promoted dishes that were ascribed a Belgian origin. Internationality, however, was also an important building block of Belgian culinary identity. It was part of the desire of Belgian bourgeoisie to connect with an international elite. It fit into the 'search for sophistication', which was also expressed through the high representation of the more costly meats and sweet dishes. In addition, other references associated with bourgeois norms and values, such as family, convenience and frugality, were additional building blocks of Belgian culinary identity. Other issues such as tradition, innovation and health, were also matters of concerns to these Belgian cookbooks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus strains from naturally infected cats in Belgium and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukaerts, Inge D M; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Taffin, Elien R L; Daminet, Sylvie; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2015-01-22

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a major pathogen in feline populations worldwide, with seroprevalences up to 26%. Virus strains circulating in domestic cats are subdivided into different phylogenetic clades (A-E), based on the genetic diversity of the V3-V4 region of the env gene. In this report, a phylogenetic analysis of the V3-V4 env region, and a variable region in the gag gene was made for 36 FIV strains isolated in Belgium and The Netherlands. All newly generated gag sequences clustered together with previously known clade A FIV viruses, confirming the dominance of clade A viruses in Northern Europe. The same was true for the obtained env sequences, with only one sample of an unknown env subtype. Overall, the genetic diversity of FIV strains sequenced in this report was low. This indicates a relatively recent introduction of FIV in Belgium and The Netherlands. However, the sample with an unknown env subtype indicates that new introductions of FIV from unknown origin do occur and this will likely increase genetic variability in time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Defining nearly zero-energy housing in Belgium and the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlecnik, E. [OTB Research Institute for the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5030, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    Europe expects the housing sector to evolve towards 'nearly zero-energy' dwellings. Meanwhile, general terms and research, marketing and legal definitions considering such dwellings have already been introduced. Appraisal of existing definitions is now needed for further policy development. This paper examines what nearly zero-energy terms can be expected to be adopted in Belgium and the Netherlands. The research method uses an interview method based on innovation diffusion theory. The analysis traces the regional adoption trajectory of relevant definitions and examines the opportunities and barriers for the inclusion of existing definitions in regional energy policy. The analysis shows that - whilst international prominence of the terms 'net zero energy' and 'net zero carbon', in addition to 'low energy' and 'passive house', is observed - in Belgium and the Netherlands 'passive house' and 'energy neutral' are preferred. The research findings indicate that the adoption of already existing definitions for nearly zero-energy houses will depend on the region and can prove a very complex process with several conflicting issues. Terms should be clearly defined and used at all political and marketing levels. It is recommended to enhance the relative advantage, demonstrability, visibility and compatibility of favoured definitions by policy initiatives.

  15. Media awards for responsible reporting of suicide: Experiences from Australia, Belgium and Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier Michella

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Media awards to encourage responsible reporting of suicide have been introduced in several countries, including Australia, Belgium and Denmark. Aims This study aimed to examine the experiences of Australian, Belgian and Danish award recipients in preparing stories on suicide, and consider the impacts of the awards for these recipients and for media professionals more broadly. Method We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with the majority (14 out of 15 of past recipients of the awards in the three countries of interest. Results Media awards appear to show promise as a method of reinforcing national and international media guidelines on reporting suicide. The recipients of awards were proud to have had their achievements recognized in this way, and had developed a heightened awareness of the issues inherent in reporting suicide. Although relatively few had prepared subsequent stories on suicide, a number had been given opportunities to provide advice to other media professionals about how best to approach this sensitive topic. Recipients viewed the awards as an important means by which good quality reporting can be rewarded, and a springboard for raising community awareness about suicide. Conclusion The experience from Australia, Belgium and Denmark suggests that media awards which recognize responsible reporting of suicide are extremely worthwhile.

  16. Water availability change in central Belgium for the late 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Hossein; Taye, Meron Teferi; Willems, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the potential impact of climate change on water availability in central Belgium. Two water balance components being precipitation and potential evapotranspiration are initially projected for the late 21st century (2071-2100) based on 30 Coupled Models Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models relative to a baseline period of 1961-1990, assuming forcing by four representative concentration pathway emission scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, RCP8.5). The future available water is then estimated as the difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration projections. The number of wet days and mean monthly precipitation for summer season is projected to decrease in most of the scenarios, while the projections show an increase in those variables for the winter months. Potential evapotranspiration is expected to increase during both winter and summer seasons. The results show a decrease in water availability for summer and an increase for winter, suggesting drier summers and wetter winters for the late 21st century in central Belgium.

  17. Did Large-Scale Vaccination Drive Changes in the Circulating Rotavirus Population in Belgium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Virginia E.; Bilcke, Joke; Heylen, Elisabeth; Crawford, Forrest W.; Callens, Michael; De Smet, Frank; Van Ranst, Marc; Zeller, Mark; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination can place selective pressures on viral populations, leading to changes in the distribution of strains as viruses evolve to escape immunity from the vaccine. Vaccine-driven strain replacement is a major concern after nationwide rotavirus vaccine introductions. However, the distribution of the predominant rotavirus genotypes varies from year to year in the absence of vaccination, making it difficult to determine what changes can be attributed to the vaccines. To gain insight in the underlying dynamics driving changes in the rotavirus population, we fitted a hierarchy of mathematical models to national and local genotype-specific hospitalization data from Belgium, where large-scale vaccination was introduced in 2006. We estimated that natural- and vaccine-derived immunity was strongest against completely homotypic strains and weakest against fully heterotypic strains, with an intermediate immunity amongst partially heterotypic strains. The predominance of G2P[4] infections in Belgium after vaccine introduction can be explained by a combination of natural genotype fluctuations and weaker natural and vaccine-induced immunity against infection with strains heterotypic to the vaccine, in the absence of significant variation in strain-specific vaccine effectiveness against disease. However, the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis is predicted to remain low despite vaccine-driven changes in the distribution of genotypes. PMID:26687288

  18. Franšīzes attīstības iespējas pakalpojumu sektorā Latvijā

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetkovs, Edgars

    2015-01-01

    Mūsdienās uzņēmējdarbības attīstīšanai arvien biežāk tiek izmantots franšīzes biznesa modelis. Tādējādi uzņēmējiem īsā laika periodā ļaujot attīstīt uzņēmējdarbību. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir noskaidrot Latvijas tirgus pievilcību franšīzes biznesa modeļa realizācijai, no mazo un vidējo uzņēmumu perspektīvas. Bakalaura darbā var iepazīties ar trim nodaļām, kurās detalizēti tiek apskatīta mazo un vidējo uzņēmumu, kā arī franšīzes teorētiskie aspekti un tirgus analīze Latvijā. Nosl...

  19. O Brasil literário na França (1950-2000: internacionalização e estudos da recepção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Lambert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe uma análise da posição das Letras Brasileiras na França. Na verdade, ele é uma continuação dos trabalhos de Pierre Rivas (Rivas, 1976 e Marie-Hélène Torres (Torres, 2001. Sem dúvida, é a eles que devemos a evolução de nossos trabalhos e, ao mesmo tempo, um grande confronto porque parece que a exploração feita por eles das Letras Brasileiras na França merece ser redefinida no tocante à segunda metade do século XX e como um capítulo da globalização das literaturas, especialmente de acordo com os conceitos desenvolvidos por Pascale Casanova (Casanova, 1999. Além da globalização é a “mídia” – ou seja, o papel da televisão cada vez mais central, da internet e de outras novas mídias – que merece, a nosso ver, ser considerada como uma ruptura do monopólio da França na matéria.

  20. “Letter to the King” By Jules Destry: from Separatism to Unitarism in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella V. Ermakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contradictions between the regions of Belgium - Wallonia and Flanders - have a long history associated with uneven political, economic and cultural development of the territories, which in 1830 became parts of an independent state, the Kingdom of Belgium. The "Letter to the King", written by eminent Belgian politician and writer, socialist Jules Destree (1863 - 1936 gg., is one of the most interesting sources on the history of Belgium of this period, It became a kind of manifesto of balance between the ideas of separatism and unitarianism. This article includes excerpts from the "Letter to the King", which were given for the first time in the author's Russian translation and conducted historical criticism of the source. The study is based on a set of scientific methods and approaches, including the principle of scientific objectivity and systematic approach, used in historical research. The main methods are problematic and historical-comparative analysis, classification and comparison of political and historical concepts. An external source of criticism included information about the place and the time of the creation of document, the biography of the author studies; internal critic source recreates the idea of the letter and the background of historical events. Prominent Belgian politician and writer, socialist Jules Destree (1863 - 1936, highly appreciated the personal qualities of King Albert I, appealed to his experience and political vision, describing all the problems Walloons faced in their opposition to the Flemish. Destree in his letter opposed the unequal development of the regions of Belgium and the protectionist policies of the central government in respect to the detriment of Flanders Wallonia. He summarized and formulated the factors that, in his opinion, interfere with the full development of his country. Destree pays great attention to linguistic differences, which were at the heart of conflicts between Walloons and Flemings, and

  1. Spatial analysis of extreme precipitation deficit as an index for atmospheric drought in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Sepideh; Van De Vyver, Hans; Gobin, Anne

    2014-05-01

    The growing concern among the climate scientists is that the frequency of weather extremes will increase as a result of climate change. European society, for example, is particularly vulnerable to changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events such as heat waves, heavy precipitation, droughts, and wind storms, as seen in recent years [1,2]. A more than 50% of the land is occupied by managed ecosystem (agriculture, forestry) in Belgium. Moreover, among the many extreme weather conditions, drought counts to have a substantial impact on the agriculture and ecosystem of the affected region, because its most immediate consequence is a fall in crop production. Besides the technological advances, a reliable estimation of weather conditions plays a crucial role in improving the agricultural productivity. The above mentioned reasons provide a strong motivation for a research on the drought and its impacts on the economical and agricultural aspects in Belgium. The main purpose of the presented work is to map atmospheric drought Return-Levels (RL), as first insight for agricultural drought, employing spatial modelling approaches. The likelihood of future drought is studied on the basis of precipitation deficit indices for four vegetation types: water (W), grass (G), deciduous (D) and coniferous forests (C) is considered. Extreme Value Theory (EVT) [3,4,5] as a branch of probability and statistics, is dedicated to characterize the behaviour of extreme observations. The tail behaviour of the EVT distributions provide important features about return levels. EVT distributions are applicable in many study areas such as: hydrology, environmental research and meteorology, insurance and finance. Spatial Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distributions, as a branch of EVT, are applied to annual maxima of drought at 13 hydro-meteorological stations across Belgium. Superiority of the spatial GEV model is that a region can be modelled merging the individual time series of

  2. Premature mortality in Belgium in 1993-2009: leading causes, regional disparities and 15 years change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Françoise; Tafforeau, Jean; Deboosere, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Reducing premature mortality is a crucial public health objective. After a long gap in the publication of Belgian mortality statistics, this paper presents the leading causes and the regional disparities in premature mortality in 2008-2009 and the changes since 1993. All deaths occurring in the periods 1993-1999 and 2003-2009, in people aged 1-74 residing in Belgium were included. The cause of death and population data for Belgium were provided by Statistics Belgium , while data for international comparisons were extracted from the WHO mortality database. Age-adjusted mortality rates and Person Year of Life Lost (PYLL) were calculated. The Rate Ratios were computed for regional and international comparisons, using the region or country with the lowest rate as reference; statistical significance was tested assuming a Poisson distribution of the number of deaths. The burden of premature mortality is much higher in men than in women (respectively 42% and 24% of the total number of deaths). The 2008-9 burden of premature mortality in Belgium reaches 6410 and 3440 PYLL per 100,000, respectively in males and females, ranking 4th and 3rd worst within the EU15. The disparities between Belgian regions are substantial: for overall premature mortality, respective excess of 40% and 20% among males, 30% and 20% among females are observed in Wallonia and Brussels as compared to Flanders. Also in cause specific mortality, Wallonia experiences a clear disadvantage compared to Flanders. Brussels shows an intermediate level for natural causes, but ranks differently for external causes, with less road accidents and suicide and more non-transport accidents than in the other regions. Age-adjusted premature mortality rates decreased by 29% among men and by 22% among women over a period of 15 years. Among men, circulatory diseases death rates decreased the fastest (-43.4%), followed by the neoplasms (-26.6%), the other natural causes (-21.0%) and the external causes (-20.8%). The larger

  3. End-of-Life Care and Circumstances of Death in Patients Dying As a Result of Cancer in Belgium and the Netherlands: A Retrospective Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeussen, K.; van den Block, L.; Echteld, M.A.; Boffin, N.; Bilsen, J.; van Casteren, V.; Abarshi-Fatiregun, E.A.B.; Donker, G.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.; Deliens, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine and compare end-of-life care in patients with cancer dying in Belgium and the Netherlands. Patients and Methods: A mortality follow-back study was undertaken in 2008 via representative nationwide sentinel networks of general practitioners (GPs) in Belgium and the Netherlands. By

  4. End-of-life care and circumstances of death in patients dying as a result of cancer in Belgium and the Netherlands: a retrospective comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeussen, K.; Block, L. van den; Echteld, M.A.; Boffin, N.; Bilsen, J.; Casteren, V. van; Abarshi, E.; Donker, G.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.; Deliens, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine and compare end-of-life care in patients with cancer dying in Belgium and the Netherlands. Patients and methods: A mortality follow-back study was undertaken in 2008 via representative nationwide sentinel networks of general practitioners (GPs) in Belgium and the Netherlands. By

  5. Sistemas de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa en Belgica, Paises Bajos y Francia (Educational Documentation and Information Systems in Belgium, Holland, and France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi Etchelouz, Nelly Yvis

    This booklet describes the working and organization of the information and documentation systems in Belgium, the Netherlands, and France. The discussion begins with a look at the Belgium educational system and how information services operate within that system. The central library, specialized services, and specialized information centers are all…

  6. Information dossier. Return of vitrified wastes from France to Belgium; Dossier d'information. Retour de dechets vitrifies depuis la France vers la Belgique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    Synatom, a daughter company of Electrabel and Tractebel, is in charge of the fuel management of Belgium nuclear power plants. Contracts were signed with Cogema (France) in the 70's for the reprocessing/recycling of spent fuels. The ultimate residual wastes are vitrified at Cogema-La Hague and sent back to Belgium by rail and road transports. This information dossier presents: the power production in Belgium, the management of the fuel cycle in Belgium (recycling, interim storage of spent fuels at Tihange and Doel sites, political choices, financing), the vitrification process (quality assurance, safety), the transport of vitrified wastes from France to Belgium (handling, packaging, TN 28 VT container, regulations, safety evaluation), interim storage, long-term disposal. (J.S.)

  7. O amor cortês pelo avesso: François Villon e o debate sobre o Roman de la rose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Padilha Pacheco da Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Neste artigo, pretende-se discutir a paródia do amor cortês pelos lamentos burlescos do Testament de François Villon, com base nos preceitos e modelos que orientavam a invenção das letras na época. Complementares ao lamento do próprio testador pelo amor louco da sua juventude, os Regrets de la belle heaulmière utilizam como modelo poético o sermão da Velha do Roman de la rose. A imitação de uma das passagens desse poema mais duramente censuradas por Christine de Pisan evidencia que esses lamentos só podem ser compreendidos à luz do debate sobre o Roman de la rose, realizado no início do séc. XV na França. Dessa perspectiva, a paródia deve ser considerada não como uma recusa da tradição cortês no final da Idade Média, como pela crítica contemporânea, mas como um gênero particular da poesia burlesca visando a ridicularização do amor louco. Palavras-chave: François Villon; paródia; amor cortês; debate sobre o Roman de la rose; lamentos burlescos. Abstract: This paper intends to discuss the parody of courtly love performed by the burlesque regrets of François Villon’s Testament, using the poetic precepts and models based on which the writing was invented at the time. Complementary to the regret of the testator himself for the mad love of his youth, the Regrets de la belle heaulmière use as a poetic model the Old Woman’s sermon of the Romance of the rose. The imitation of one of the passages of this poem most harshly criticized by Christine de Pisan shows that those regrets can only be understood in the light of the debate of the Romance of the rose at the beginning of the XVth century in France. From this point of view, his parody must be considered not as a rejection of the courtly tradition in the late Middle Ages, as it is by contemporary criticism, but as a particular genre of burlesque poetry aiming to mock mad love. Keywords: François Villon; parody; courtly love; debate on the Roman de la rose

  8. OBTAINING A PERMIT-TO-FLY FOR A HALE-UAV IN BELGIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Everaerts

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ever since 2000, VITO has been working on the Pegasus project. This involves a solar High Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (HALE-UAV as a stratospheric platform for Earth Observation. This aircraft, called Mercator, is designed to fly for prolonged duration at altitudes up to 20 km. The technology has been proven by the aircraft’s manufacturer, QinetiQ (UK by a series of test flights over the past years, culminating in a world record flight in duration of over 14 days duration. All test flights, however, were conducted in test ranges, where other air traffic does not pose a concern. Pegasus aims to demonstrate the viability of stratospheric Earth Observation in Belgium, as a proof of concept for other areas around the world. The Belgian air space is completely different from a test range. More than 1 million aircraft movements take place over Belgium and Luxembourg every year, with routes to Amsterdam, Paris, Frankfurt, and London. Although Pegasus will usually be flying above this dense traffic, it does interfere with it during ascent and landing, and needs to be monitored during the cruise phase for safety reasons. Air traffic management in Belgium is a shared responsibility of Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs Belgocontrol (civil, ATCC (military and Eurocontrol MUAC (high altitude. In 2010, VITO applied for a permit-to-fly for a test flight of one day duration. Although the Belgian Civil Aviation Authority (CAA had issued a regulation on UAVs in 2007, it was the first application for a permit to fly in controlled airspace. The Belgian CAA decided to use it as a test for the procedures as well. A prerequisite for flying in controlled airspace was that the aircraft has to carry a mode-S transponder and navigation lights. During first half of 2010, the ANSPs collaborated on a Temporary Operations Instruction and studied the safety impact of this flight on their operations. As an outcome, they decided that the Pegasus

  9. Organ donation and transplantation statistics in Belgium for 2012 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desschans, B; Evrard, P

    2014-11-01

    The 2012 and 2013 solid organ transplantation statistics were presented during the annual meeting of the Belgian Transplant Society. All data presented were collected from Eurotransplant International Foundation and/or from all individual Belgian transplant centers. It was demonstrated that the highest number of deceased donors detected (1310) from which 47.8% were an effective organ donor that corresponded to 29 per million inhabitants (pmi) in 2012 and 27.4 pmi in 2013. Out of 626 effective deceased organ donors, 491 (79%) were donors after brain death (DBD) and 135 (21%) donors after circulatory death (DCD), respectively. The majority (125/135; 93%) of DCD donors were DCD Maastricht category III donors and there were 7 (5%) donations following euthanasia. Family refusal tended to be lower for DCD (10.4%) compared to DBD donors (13.4%). Despite the increasing DCD donation rate, DBD donation remains stable in Belgium. The donor age is still increasing, reaching a median age of 53 years (range 0-90). Spontaneous intracranial bleeding (39.3%) and cranio-cerebral trauma (25%) remained the most frequent reasons of death. The number of living related kidney transplantations (57 in 2012 and 63 in 2013) followed the international trend albeit in Belgium it is still very limited. Nevertheless this activity could explain that the number of patients waiting for kidney transplantation (770) reached an absolute minimum in 2013. Except the reduced waiting list for lung transplantation (from 119 patients in 2011 to 85 in 2013), the waiting list remained stable for the other organs but almost 200 patients still died while on the waiting list. Belgium demonstrated the highest number of effective organ donors that corresponded to 29 per million inhabitants (pmi) in 2012 and 27.4 pmi in 2013. Thus far, and in contrast with other countries, there is no erosion of DBD in the DCD donor organ pool, but it is the important responsibility of all transplant centers and donor hospitals to

  10. Description of cervical cancer mortality in Belgium using Bayesian age-period-cohort models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To correct cervical cancer mortality rates for death cause certification problems in Belgium and to describe the corrected trends (1954-1997) using Bayesian models. Method Cervical cancer (cervix uteri (CVX), corpus uteri (CRP), not otherwise specified (NOS) uterus cancer and other very rare uterus cancer (OTH) mortality data were extracted from the WHO mortality database together with population data for Belgium and the Netherlands. Different ICD (International Classification of Diseases) were used over time for death cause certification. In the Netherlands, the proportion of not-otherwise specified uterine cancer deaths was small over large periods and therefore internal reallocation could be used to estimate the corrected rates cervical cancer mortality. In Belgium, the proportion of improperly defined uterus deaths was high. Therefore, the age-specific proportions of uterus cancer deaths that are probably of cervical origin for the Netherlands was applied to Belgian uterus cancer deaths to estimate the corrected number of cervix cancer deaths (corCVX). A Bayesian loglinear Poisson-regression model was performed to disentangle the separate effects of age, period and cohort. Results The corrected age standardized mortality rate (ASMR) decreased regularly from 9.2/100 000 in the mid 1950s to 2.5/100,000 in the late 1990s. Inclusion of age, period and cohort into the models were required to obtain an adequate fit. Cervical cancer mortality increases with age, declines over calendar period and varied irregularly by cohort. Conclusion Mortality increased with ageing and declined over time in most age-groups, but varied irregularly by birth cohort. In global, with some discrete exceptions, mortality decreased for successive generations up to the cohorts born in the 1930s. This decline stopped for cohorts born in the 1940s and thereafter. For the youngest cohorts, even a tendency of increasing risk of dying from cervical cancer could be observed, reflecting

  11. Lessons learnt in establishing a first national inventory of decommissioning liabilities in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeckeveldt, M.

    2004-01-01

    Like all countries that use nuclear power for producing electricity or have other nuclear activities for peaceful purposes, Belgium is faced with an important challenge: the safe management of all the radioactive materials present in these industries and activities, in both the short and long term. Of course there is a price to pay for this management, which in accordance with the ethical principle of inter-generational fairness should be borne mainly by the generations which benefit from these activities, in other words by current generations. However, it is possible that when the moment has come, the financial resources to cover the costs of decommissioning and remediation of these installations, so that they no longer need to be subject to institutional control, prove to be insufficient or even completely non-existent: this then results in a nuclear liability. This kind of situation can have several causes, such as an underestimation of the actual costs by the operator or the owner of the nuclear installation or by the holder or the owner of the radioactive materials, negligence, transfer of ownership of the nuclear installation or the nuclear site without transfer of the corresponding provisions, a reduction in the operating time, a bankruptcy, as well as ignorance. Because it wishes to avoid the occurrence of new nuclear liabilities, the Belgian legislator, by virtue of article 9 of the programme law of 12 December 1997, charged the 'Nationale instelling voor radioactief afval and verrijkte splijtstoffen' (ONDRAF/NIRAS) [Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials] with collecting all the elements that are necessary in order to examine to which degree the decommissioning and remediation costs can be actually covered when the time comes. After five years collaboration between ONDRAF/NIRAS and the operators of nuclear installations and holders of radioactive substances, the government today has at its disposal a first general overview

  12. Cross-border reproductive care among French patients: experiences in Greece, Spain and Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozée Gomez, Virginie; de La Rochebrochard, Elise

    2013-11-01

    What are the characteristics, motivation and experience of French patients seeking cross-border reproductive care (CBRC)? French patients seeking CBRC are same-sex couples, single women who are not eligible for assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs) in France and heterosexual couples seeking oocyte donation due to extremely limited access to this technique in France, while their choice of Greece as a destination is influenced by financial issues. CBRC is a new, increasing, complex and poorly understood phenomenon. A few studies have investigated UK, German or Italian CBRC patients, but none have specifically investigated French patients although France is one of the top four countries of origin of CBRC patients in Europe. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010-2012 in three ART centres in Greece, Belgium and Spain in order to investigate French patients treated in these centres. Recruitment was prospective in Greece and Belgium and retrospective in Spain. The overall response rate was 68%, with 128 French patients participating. French patients filled in a questionnaire. Information was collected on their socio-economic characteristics and their search for ART treatment in France and in other countries. In the Belgian centre, 89% of French patients used sperm donation whereas oocyte donation was used by 100% of patients in the Greek centre and 74% of patients in the Spanish centre. The majority (94%) of French patients using sperm donation in Belgium were not legally eligible for access to ART in France as they were same-sex couples or single women, and the main criterion of choice of centre was its geographical proximity (71%). Most of the French patients using oocyte donation in Greece and Spain fulfilled criteria for fully reimbursed oocyte donation treatment in France as they were heterosexual couples (99%) with the woman aged ART centres and these too may not be representative. CBRC among French patients had been thought to reflect mainly law

  13. The complex agenda-setting power of protest: demonstrations, media, parliament, government, and legislation in Belgium, 1993-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walgrave, S.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted pooled time-series analyses to assess how number and size of demonstrations affect the political agenda in Belgium (1993-2000). Taking twenty-five issues into account, this study finds that protest matters for the political agenda setting. This study also advances scholarly

  14. Cultural differences affecting euthanasia practice in Belgium: One law but different attitudes and practices in Flanders and Wallonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, J.; van Wesemael, Y.; Smets, T.; Bilsen, J.; Deliens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2002, Belgium has had a national law legalising euthanasia. The law prescribes several substantive due care requirements and two procedural due care requirements, i.e. consultation with an independent physician and reporting of euthanasia to a Federal Control Committee. A large discrepancy in

  15. Differences in mortality between different groups of older migrants and non-migrants in Belgium, 2001 to 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus-Pons, Matias; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Janssen, Fanny; Kibele, Eva U.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: European societies are rapidly ageing and becoming multicultural, and Belgium is part of the countries ahead in this transition. Differences in mortality between migrants and non-migrants in Europe have been shown to depend on age, sex, socio-economic status, migrant background and

  16. Courts, privacy and data protection in Belgium : Fundamental rights that might as well be struck from the constitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, Paul; Brkan, Maja; Psychogiopoulou, Evangelia

    2017-01-01

    Through critical analysis of case law in Belgium courts, this chapter reveals the significant role courts play in the protection of privacy and personal data within the new technological environment. It addresses the pressing question from a public who are increasingly aware of their privacy rights

  17. 76 FR 66271 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... production facilities, supplier relationships, management, and customer base of Aperam are substantially... facilities; (3) supplier relationships; and (4) customer base. See, e.g., Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire... Belgium N.V. resulted in little or no change in management, production facility, supplier relationships...

  18. How Tracking Structures Attitudes towards Ethnic Out-Groups and Interethnic Interactions in the Classroom: An Ethnographic Study in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Praag, Lore; Boone, Simon; Stevens, Peter A. J.; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the ethnic composition of schools on interethnic relations and attitudes has been studied extensively and has received ample interest from policy makers. However, less attention has been paid to the structures and processes inside schools that organize interethnic relations and attitudes. In Flanders (Belgium), secondary education…

  19. Differentiated Financing of Schools in French-Speaking Belgium: Prospectives for Regulating a School Quasi-Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeuse, Marc; Derobertmasure, Antoine; Friant, Nathanael

    2010-01-01

    The school quasi-market in French-speaking Belgium is characterised by segregation. Efforts to apply measures that encourage greater social mixing have met with stiff resistance. In 2008 and 2009, turbulence was caused by the application of the "social mixing" law influencing the registration procedures. The purpose of this article is to…

  20. Does fish origin matter to European consumers? Insights from a consumer survey in Belgium, Norway and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhonacker, F.; Altintzoglou, T.; Luten, J.B.; Verbeke, W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to gain insights into the relevance and market potential of fish origin (farmed or wild) among consumers in Belgium, Norway and Spain. Design/methodology/approach – Cross-sectional data were collected through a consumer survey (n=1,319), conducted in November-December 2007

  1. A comparative evaluation of low-energy, passive and zero-energy houses in The Netherlands and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Jansen, S.; Schuetze, T.; De Vries, G.

    2011-01-01

    The presented research aims to evaluate highly energy-efficient dwellings, in particular Passive Houses (PH), in Flanders and in The Netherlands, based on end-user experiences. In the introduction the definition of PH in the Benelux countries Belgium and The Netherlands is compared with the Nordic

  2. Cross-Cultural Findings on Community Violence Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology: Comparing Adolescents in the United States, Russia, and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab-Stone, M.; Koposov, R.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Ruchkin, V.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate cross-cultural differences in the relation between community violence and psychopathology. A self-report survey was conducted in a representative sample of 3,309 14-17 year old adolescents from urban communities in the US (N = 1,343), Belgium (N = 946) and Russia (N =

  3. The Paradoxical Visions of Multilingualism in Education: The Ideological Dimension of Discourses on Multilingualism in Belgium and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambye, Philippe; Richards, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we will examine some contrasted discourses on multilingualism that circulate nowadays in the field of education. Focusing on the cases of French-speaking Belgium and of the Franco-Ontarian community in Canada, we will show the existence of two discourses on multilingualism: one that insists on the positive value of multilingualism…

  4. Taxation of Capital Gains in Spanish Tax Treaties: The Belgium-Spain Double Taxation Convention on Income and Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Ribes Ribes, Aurora

    2004-01-01

    This paper is intended to analyse the treatment of capital gains in Spanish tax treaties. In particular, the author focuses on the new provision on the taxation of capital gains as a consequence of the alienation of shares in the Belgium-Spain double tax treaty.

  5. Measuring microbial food safety output and comparing self-checking systems of food business operators in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacxsens, L.; Kirezieva, K.; Luning, P.A.; Ingelrham, J.; Diricks, H.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Belgian food safety authority has provided incentives for food business operators to set-up a certified self-checking system (SCS), based upon good practices and HACCP principles. A selection of food processing companies in Belgium was invited to take part in a self-assessment study to evaluate

  6. The influence of environmental changes on local and regional vegetation patterns at Rieme (NW Belgium): implications for Final Palaeolithic habitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.A.A.; Verbruggen, F.; Engels, S.; Crombé, P.

    2012-01-01

    Late-glacial vegetation changes were studied at Rieme, NW Belgium. Human occupation of this cover sand area occurred from the Final Palaeolithic onwards. The research area is situated on the northern side of a large cover sand ridge in an undulating landscape with small ridges and depressions. The

  7. LAK 2013 : third international conference on learning analytics and knowledge : Leuven, Belgium, April 08-12, 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suthers, D.D.; Verbert, K.; Duval, E.; Ochoa, X.

    2013-01-01

    Welcome to the third edition of the Learning Analytics and Knowledge conference. This year, the medieval and, at the same time, modern city of Leuven, Belgium is the venue where researchers and practitioners of this exciting field come together to discuss current status and future trends. Similar to

  8. Social-cultural factors in end-of-life care in Belgium: A scoping of the research literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrew, E.V.; Cohen, J.; Evans, N.C.; Menaca, A.; Harding, R.; Higginson, I.; Pool, R.; Gysels, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: As end-of-life (EoL) care expands across Europe and the world, service developments are increasingly studied. The sociocultural context in which such changes take place, however, is often neglected in research. Aim: To explore sociocultural factors in EoL care in Belgium as represented

  9. The Leuven Adolescent Perceived Parenting Scale (LAPPS) : Reliability and validity with French-speaking adolescents in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delhaye, M.; Beyers, W.; Klimstra, T.A.; Linkowski, P.; Goossens, L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the reliability and validity of the Leuven Adolescent Perceived Parenting Scale (LAPPS), an instrument initially developed for use with Dutch-speaking adolescents in Belgium, in French-speaking adolescents living in that same country. The instrument was administered to a

  10. Reliability and validity of the Roberts UCLA Loneliness Scale (RULS-8) with Dutch-speaking adolescents in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Luc; Klimstra, Theo; Luyckx, Koen; Vanhalst, Janne; Teppers, Eveline

    2014-01-01

    The internal consistency and construct validity of the RULS-8, a brief measure of loneliness for use with adolescents, was examined in three samples of Dutch-speaking adolescents in Belgium (for a total of N = 6,236). The measure showed high levels of internal consistency (ranging between .80 and

  11. Wither Aut Dedere? The Obligation to Extradite or Prosecute after the ICJ's Judgment in Belgium v. Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollkaemper, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I explore a narrow question that was raised, but not fully addressed, in the Questions relating to the Obligation to Prosecute or Extradite (Belgium v Senegal) case: does a state that has custody over a person who is suspected of the crime of torture, but that is unwilling or unable

  12. Wither Aut Dedere? The Obligation to Extradite or Prosecute after the ICJ's Judgment in Belgium v Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollkaemper, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I explore a narrow question that was raised, but not fully addressed, in the Questions relating to the Obligation to Prosecute or Extradite (Belgium v Senegal) case: does a state that has custody over a person who is suspected of the crime of torture, but that is unwilling or unable

  13. Sobre a vulnerabilidade socioeconômica e civil: Estados Unidos, França e Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowarick Lúcio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a evolução do debate acerca da vulnerabilidade socioeconômica nos Estados Unidos e na França, com comentários finais sobre a atualidade brasileira. No caso norte-americano, a discussão é abertamente política-ideológica - culpar ou não as vítimas por sua situação de marginalização e anomia - e centra-se em torno do conceito de underclass, o que leva alguns autores a responsabilizar os programas de bem-estar no fomento da ociosidade e desorganização familiar. No caso francês, ao contrário, seguindo a tradição republicana, os diagnósticos e as propostas enfatizam a necessidade de uma forte presença estatal, que deve fornecer os meios de (re inserção dos grupos marginalizados. A polêmica se dá em torno dos conceitos de exclusão social e desafiliação. O ensaio não visa realizar um balanço crítico da literatura, mas, a partir de obras seminais, mostrar os parâmetros que essa problemática teórica e empírica adquire em função das especificidades de cada ambiente político nacional; daí as observações finais sobre a sociedade brasileira.

  14. Fran Ridge horizontal coring summary report hole UE-25h No. 1, Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, A.E.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Merson, T.J.

    1986-10-01

    Hole UE-25h No. 1 was core drilled during December 1982 and January 1983 within several degrees of due west, 400 ft horizontally into the southeast slope of Fran Ridge at an altitude of 3409 ft. The purpose of the hole was to obtain data pertinent for radionuclide transport studies in the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff. This unit had been selected previously as the host rock for the potential underground nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, adjacent to the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site. The hole was core drilled first with air, then with air mist, and finally with air, soap, and water. Many problems were encountered, including sloughing of tuff into the uncased hole, vibration of the drill rods, high rates of bit wear, and lost circulation of drilling fluids. On the basis of experience gained in drilling this hole, ways to improve horizontal coring with air are suggested in this report. All of the recovered core, except those pieces that were wrapped and waxed, were examined for lithophysal content, for fractures, and for fracture-fill mineralization. The results of this examination are given in this report. Core recovery greater than 80% at between 209 and 388 ft permitted a fracture frequency analysis. The results are similar to the fracture frequencies observed in densely welded nonlithophysal tuff from holes USW GU-3 and USW G-4. The fractures in core from UE-25h No. 1 were found to be smooth and nonmineralized or coated with calcite, silica, or manganese oxide. Open fractures with caliche (porous, nonsparry calcite) were not observed beyond 83.5 ft, which corresponds to an overburden depth of 30 ft

  15. Le passif en français et le statut référentiel du sujet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalenques Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nous proposons de reprendre l’analyse du passif en français, appelé parfois passif périphrastique. Nous réexaminerons cet objet linguistique à partir de données généralement marginalisées dans son analyse, à savoir les lacunes distributionnelles par rapport à l’actif, comme : Cécile parle couramment l’anglais / ?? L’anglais est parlé couramment par Cécile ; Marie a regardé la télé toute la soirée / ?? la télé a été regardée par Marie toute la soirée. Nous partirons de l’analyse proposée par P. Jalenques (2015 permettant de ramener ces contraintes à un principe régulier et expliquant ce dernier à partir de l’hypothèse que être n’est pas un simple auxiliaire mais correspond au verbe attributif. Nous montrerons que cette analyse est cependant incomplète et rend difficilement compte de lacunes comme les ouvriers ont cessé le travail / ?? le travail a été cessé par les ouvriers. En reprenant l’étude des contraintes sur les relations anaphoriques au passif, nous verrons qu’un second principe explicatif, tiré d’une hypothèse de E. Keenan (1976, vient compléter l’analyse de Jalenques (2015 et permet de rendre compte de la plupart des lacunes distributionnelles au passif.

  16. Indéfinis épistémiques en français et en japonais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneko Makoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude vise à approfondir nos connaissances sur les indéfinis épistémiques (ceux qui expriment la lecture d’ignorance et manifestent une propriété sémantique "variation modale" à travers l’examen du “quelque” au singulier en français et l’indéfini prénominal en japonais. Les études précédentes sur les indéfinis épistémiques dans les autres langues montrent que certains d’entre eux transmettent aussi la lecture de polarité négative et/ou celle de libre choix dans les environnements différents, et proposent, afin de rendre compte d’une telle divergence, soit 1 une approche pragmatique qui consiste à analyser, en réduisant la sémantique d’un indéfini à celle de la disjonction d’alternatives, les différentes lectures comme des implicatures conversationnelles dérivées de la disjonction, soit 2 une approche sémantique qui les traite comme des implicatures conventionnelles. Après avoir montré qu’aucune des deux approches n’explique pas pleinement toute seule les distributions des indéfinis épistémiques en japonais et en français, il est d’abord soutenu, pour l’indéfini prénominal du japonais, qu’en raison des facteurs diachroniques, il reçoit deux interprétations dans les différents environnements, parallèlement à l’ambiguïté d’une particule (interrogative ou disjonctive qui en fait partie : i interprétation de la question indirecte parenthétique, qui entraîne, dans une phrase épisodique ou avec la modalité épistémique, la lecture d’ignorance comme une implicature conventionnelle ; ii interprétation de la disjonction d’alternatives, qui dérive, avec la modalité déontique, la lecture de libre choix comme une implicature conversationnelle. La lecture de polarité négative n’est véhiculée par aucune des deux interprétations, étant donné i l’incongruité de demander l’identité du référent dont l’existence est niée et ii la portée n

  17. Les recompositions politiques du mouvement féministe français au regard du hijab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Dot-Pouillard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available L’exclusion d’un lycée public de deux jeunes filles voilées, en septembre 2004, et l’adoption de la loi relative à l’interdiction des signes religieux dans le primaire et secondaire de février 2005, ont posé la question de l’apparition de l’islam dans l’espace public. Mais la question du voile a débordé son objet premier, et a au final posé un certain nombre de questions relatives à la nature des liens entre l’espace public, l’État et la religion, à l’héritage et à l’impensé colonial, à ses conséquences sur les perceptions et les imaginaires collectifs. Ces problématiques ont littéralement déchiré le mouvement féministe français, et, au- delà, une large partie de la gauche française. C’est ainsi que le mouvement féministe français s’est vu littéralement coupé en trois positions : un nouveau féminisme républicain, fondé sur le paradigme assimilationiste et sur l’idée d’un espace public lisse et homogène, condition d’une véritable égalité ; un courant féministe historique, critiquant tout à la fois le voile comme instrument réactionnaire et la loi sur les signes religieux comme répressive et contre-productive ; un féminisme métisse enfin, dénonçant la vision coloniale de l’islam en France, et prêt à créer une transversalité entre féminisme occidental et féminisme musulman émergent.The exclusion from a French public college of two veiled girls, in September 2004, and the adoption of the law relating to the prohibition of the religious signs in the primary education and secondary of February 2005, raised the question of the appearance of Islam in public space. But the question of the veil overflowed its object first, and with final posed a certain number of questions relating to the nature of the bonds between public space, the State and the religion, with the heritage and impensé colonial, its consequences about perceptions and the imaginary collectives. These

  18. The 39th CERN School of Computing goes to Belgium: apply now!

    CERN Multimedia

    Alberto Pace, CSC Director

    2016-01-01

    Applications are now open for CERN’s 39th School of Computing. The CSC:2016 (see here) will take place from 28 August to 10 September 2016 in Mol, Belgium, in collaboration with SCK•CEN and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel.   The two-week programme consists of more than 50 hours of lectures and hands-on exercises, all on advanced, interesting and challenging computing topics. It covers three main themes: data technologies, base technologies and physics computing. In particular, we will explore: Many-core performance optimisation Concurrent programming Key aspects of multi-threading Writing code for tomorrow’s hardware today Storage technologies, reliability and performance Cryptography, authentication, authorisation and accounting Data replication, caching, monitoring, alarms and quota Writing secure software Observing software with an attacker's eyes Software engineering for physics computing Statistical methods and pr...

  19. Sensitive but Sane: Male Visionaries and their Emotional Display in Interwar Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Van Osselaer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available When a wave of Marian apparitions swept over Belgium in 1932-1935 many ‘visionaries’ (c. 200, among them a remarkably high number of men, claimed to encounter the divine. Focusing on these male visionaries and their emotional expressivity, this article aims not only at contributing to a better understanding of Catholic constructions of masculinity, it also accords with the increased attention for the historicity of emotions and, more specifically, for men’s emotional comportment. The male visionaries present a particularly interesting case since they had to live up to multiple expectations about their emotions. Whereas their visibility and trustworthiness as visionaries were founded on their capacity to display their emotions (in accordance with a tradition of emotional mysticism, these men also had to show ‘masculine’ rationality and coolness in order to provethat their experiences were not triggered by exaggerated piety or neurosis.

  20. Radium contamination of the Laak river banks as a consequence of phosphate industry in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridaens, J.; Vanmarcke, H.

    2002-01-01

    For over half a century, phosphate ores of marine origin, containing 226 Ra have been processed in Belgium to produce calcium phosphate for use in cattle food. As a result, the wastewaters contained 226 Ra, which was discharged into two little rivers, one of which is the Laak. The purpose of this study was to chart the radium contamination of the river banks, and of some areas that are regularly flooded by the river. It was seen that enhanced concentration of 226 Ra do occur along the river banks, but that the contaminated area is mostly confined to a 10 m strip on both sides of the river, even in the flooding zones. At present, no dwellings are present on top of the contamination, and no crops for direct human consumption are grown there, so there is no immediate threat to the population. (author)