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Sample records for remote steering ech

  1. Analysis of the ITER ECH Upper Port Launcher remote maintenance using virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzendoorn, B.; Baar, M. de; Chavan, R.; Goodman, T.; Heemskerk, C.; Heidinger, R.; Kleefeldt, K.; Koning, J.; Sanders, S.; Späh, P.; Strauss, D.; Verhoeven, T.; Vreede, F. de

    2009-01-01

    All ITER sub-systems of remote handling (RH) classes 1 and 2 have to be remotely maintainable. The maintenance strategy for these components has to ensure system availability after failure or scheduled maintenance. This paper shows how virtual reality (VR) simulation [1] can be used as a tool to ana

  2. Design of a remote steering antenna for ECRH heating in the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaum, B., E-mail: plaum@igvp.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie (IGVP), Univ. Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Lechte, C.; Kasparek, W.; Gaiser, S.; Zeitler, A. [Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie (IGVP), Univ. Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Erckmann, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Weißgerber, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bechtold, A. [NTG Neue Technologie GmbH & Co KG, D-63571 Gelnhausen (Germany); Busch, M.; Szcepaniak, B. [Galvano-T electroplating-electroforming GmbH, D-51570 Windeck-Rosbach (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We report about the design activities for the remote steering antennas for the stellarator W7-X. • The integration into the W7-X system and the manufacturing procedure are described. • Simulations and loss measurements for the waveguide walls were done and are in good agreement. • A method for extending the steering range is presented. • A mechanical deformation analysis showed that the deformation is not critical for the beam quality. - Abstract: For the ECRH heating system of the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X, two remote steering antennas are developed and manufactured. The principle of remote steering antennas is based on the imaging characteristics of corrugated rectangular waveguides, which is well understood and can accurately be simulated. Several details, however, require deeper investigation. The antenna needs a miter-bend and a 24 mm gap. The positions of these elements need to be chosen carefully to reduce losses and stray radiation. The antennas are manufactured from copper by electroforming. This allows to integrate all components, including the corrugated inner walls and the cooling channels, in one vacuum-tight piece. This paper reviews the design process of the remote steering antennas for W7-X as well as technological issues and experimental results from test pieces.

  3. ITER ECH and CD Upper Launcher: Design options and Remote Handling issues of the waveguide assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossetti, G., E-mail: giovanni.grossetti@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Aiello, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Chavan, R. [CRPP, EURATOM – Confédération Suisse, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Geßner, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Goodman, T. [CRPP, EURATOM – Confédération Suisse, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Heemskerk, C. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Merelhof 2, 2172 HZ Sassenheim (Netherlands); Meier, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ronden, D. [FOM Institute DIFFER, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Scherer, T.; Späh, P.; Schreck, S.; Strauß, D.; Vaccaro, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Van Oosterhout, J. [FOM Institute DIFFER, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Paper deals with ITER Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive Upper Launcher. • Design options and Remote Handling issues related to the waveguide assembly have been investigated. • Description of preliminary assessments on the RH compatibility of the sub-assembly is shown. • Assessment on possible replacement procedure and the required tools are presented. - Abstract: The ITER Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive Upper Launcher, developed by the ECHUL-CA Consortium of Euratom Associations (CRPP, CNR, ITER-NL, IPF, IPP, KIT and Politecnico di Milano), is presently in its final design phase. The study presented here deals with design options and Remote Handling issues related to the waveguide assembly, an ensemble of mm-wave transmission line components mounted on a vacuum flange. This flange is part of the primary vacuum boundary of the ITER vessel. This paper describes the preliminary assessment of the RH compatibility of the sub-assembly, and a conceptual description of the maintenance actions to be performed on it. A comparison between two possible configurations for the tapers is reported: a waveguide integrated design, in which tapers are integral part of the in-plug waveguide, and an auxiliary shield integrated design, in which the tapers are integrated into the Auxiliary Shield. An important aspect in the design is to ensure the Remote Handling compatibility. Due to lack of space and limited dexterity of the slave manipulator, the general approach in defining the maintenance strategy is to avoid breaking the interfaces of the different components of the assembly, and to extract it from the Upper Port Plug as a single entity. An assessment on possible replacement procedure and the required tools are presented here.

  4. Analysis of the ITER ECH Upper Port Launcher remote maintenance using virtual reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzendoorn, Ben [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster and ITER-NL, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)], E-mail: ben@rijnh.nl; de Baar, Marco [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster and ITER-NL, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Chavan, Rene; Goodman, Timothy [CRPP, EURATOM - Confederation Suisse, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Heemskerk, Cock [Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Merelhof 2, 2172 HZ Sassenheim (Netherlands)], E-mail: c.heemskerk@heemskerk-innovative.nl; Heidinger, Roland; Kleefeldt, Klaus [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association FZK-Euratom, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Koning, Jarich [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster and ITER-NL, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Sanders, Stephen [OTL, Oxford Technologies Ltd., Abingdon (United Kingdom); Spaeh, Peter; Strauss, Dirk [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association FZK-Euratom, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Verhoeven, Toon [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster and ITER-NL, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Vreede, Fred de [TNO Science and Industry, partner in ITER-NL, PO Box 155, 2600 AD Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    All ITER sub-systems of remote handling (RH) classes 1 and 2 have to be remotely maintainable. The maintenance strategy for these components has to ensure system availability after failure or scheduled maintenance. This paper shows how virtual reality (VR) simulation can be used as a tool to analyze the maintenance process, to predict the mean time to repair and to ensure the RH compatibility of one ITER sub-system, the Upper Port Launcher (UPL) . Special emphasis is put on the development of RH procedures and the identification of tooling requirements. The possibility to simulate RH logistics and repair actions in an early stage of the design process allows for the identification of those maintenance actions that require dedicated tests in the Launcher Handling Test Facility at Karlsruhe. The VR analysis, together with dedicated mock-up tests will demonstrate the RH compatibility of the UPL plug, provide input to the design of the Port Plug maintenance area in the ITER Hot Cell, and support the development of RH maintenance tooling.

  5. Remote-Steering Antennas for 140 GHz Electron Cyclotron Heating of the Stellarator W7-X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lechte C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For electron cyclotron resonance heating of the stellarator W7-X at IPP Greifswald, a 140 GHz/10 MW cw millimeter wave system has been built. Two out of 12 launchers will employ a remote-steering design. This paper describes the overall design of the two launchers, and design issues like input coupling structures, manufacturing of corrugated waveguides, optimization of the steering range, integration of vacuum windows, mitrebends and vacuum valves into the launchers, as well as low power tests of the finished waveguides.

  6. ECH Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-12-24

    Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) is needed for plasma heating, current drive, plasma stability control, and other applications in fusion energy sciences research. The program of fusion energy sciences supported by U. S. DOE, Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences relies on the development of ECH technology to meet the needs of several plasma devices working at the frontier of fusion energy sciences research. The largest operating ECH system in the world is at DIII-D, consisting of six 1 MW, 110 GHz gyrotrons capable of ten second pulsed operation, plus two newer gyrotrons. The ECH Technology Development research program investigated the options for upgrading the DIII-D 110 GHz ECH system. Options included extending present-day 1 MW technology to 1.3 – 1.5 MW power levels or developing an entirely new approach to achieve up to 2 MW of power per gyrotron. The research consisted of theoretical research and designs conducted by Communication and Power Industries of Palo Alto, CA working with MIT. Results of the study would be validated in a later phase by research on short pulse length gyrotrons at MIT and long pulse / cw gyrotrons in industry. This research follows a highly successful program of development that has led to the highly reliable, six megawatt ECH system at the DIII-D tokamak. Eventually, gyrotrons at the 1.5 megawatt to multi-megawatt power level will be needed for heating and current drive in large scale plasmas including ITER and DEMO.

  7. Preliminary design of the ITER ECH Upper Launcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, D., E-mail: dirk.strauss@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Assoc. KIT-EURATOM, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Aiello, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Assoc. KIT-EURATOM, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Chavan, R. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CRPP–EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Cirant, S. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, Euratom Association, 20125 Milano (Italy); Baar, M. de [FOM, Van Vollenhovenlaan 659, 3527 JP, Utrecht (Netherlands); Farina, D. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, Euratom Association, 20125 Milano (Italy); Gantenbein, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Assoc. KIT-EURATOM, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Goodman, T.P. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CRPP–EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Henderson, M.A. [ITER Organization, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kasparek, W. [Institut für Plasmaforschung, IPF, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kleefeldt, K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Assoc. KIT-EURATOM, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Landis, J.-D. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CRPP–EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Meier, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Assoc. KIT-EURATOM, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Moro, A.; Platania, P. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, Euratom Association, 20125 Milano (Italy); Plaum, B. [Institut für Plasmaforschung, IPF, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Poli, E. [Max-Planck-IPP, Euratom Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ramponi, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR, Euratom Association, 20125 Milano (Italy); Ronden, D. [FOM, Van Vollenhovenlaan 659, 3527 JP, Utrecht (Netherlands); Saibene, G. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Front steering mirror design. • Plasma facing blanket shield module/first wall panel design. • Fixed frequency torus CVD diamond window serving as first tritium barrier. • Prototypes and tests of the above key components in the Launcher Handling and Testing Facility. -- Abstract: The design of the ITER electron cyclotron launchers recently reached the preliminary design level - the last major milestone before design finalization. The ITER ECH system contains 24 installed gyrotrons providing a maximum ECH injected power of 20 MW through transmission lines towards the tokamak. There are two EC launcher types both using a front steering mirror; one equatorial launcher (EL) for plasma heating and four upper launchers (UL) for plasma mode stabilization (neoclassical tearing modes and the sawtooth instability). A wide steering angle range of the ULs allows focusing of the beam on magnetic islands which are expected on the rational magnetic flux surfaces q = 1 (sawtooth instability), q = 3/2 and q = 2 (NTMs). In this paper the preliminary design of the ITER ECH UL is presented, including the optical system and the structural components. Highlights of the design include the torus CVD-diamond windows, the frictionless, front steering mechanism and the plasma facing blanket shield module (BSM). Numerical simulations as well as prototype tests are used to verify the design.

  8. Loophole-free quantum steering

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Bernhard; Steinlechner, Fabian; Langford, Nathan K; Brunner, Nicolas; Wiseman, Howard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Tests of the predictions of quantum mechanics for entangled systems have provided increasing evidence against local realistic theories 1-6. However, there still remains the crucial challenge of simultaneously closing all major loopholes - the locality, freedom-of-choice, and detection loopholes - in a single experiment. An important sub-class of local realistic theories can be tested with the concept of "steering". The term steering was introduced by Schr\\"odinger in 1935 for the fact that entanglement would seem to allow an experimenter to remotely steer the state of a distant system 7. Einstein called this "spooky action at a distance" 8. Steering has recently been rigorously formulated as a quantum information task opening it up to new experimental tests 9-11. Here, we present the first loophole-free demonstration of steering by violating three-setting quadratic steering inequality, tested with polarization entangled photons shared between two distant laboratories. Our experiment demonstrates this effect w...

  9. MULTIPLE ECH LAUNCHER CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREEN,M.T; PONCE,D; GRUNLOH,H.J; ELLIS,R.A; GROSNICKLE,W.H; HUMPHREY,R.L

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 The addition of new, high power gyrotrons to the heating and current drive arsenal at DIII-D, required a system upgrade for control of fully steerable ECH Launchers. Each launcher contains two pointing mirrors with two degrees of mechanical freedom. The two flavors of motion are called facet and tilt. Therefore up to four channels of motion per launcher need to be controlled. The system utilizes absolute encoders to indicate mirror position and therefore direction of the microwave beam. The launcher movement is primarily controlled by PLC, but future iterations of design, may require this control to be accomplished by a CPU on fast bus such as Compact PCI. This will be necessary to accomplish real time position control. Safety of equipment and personnel is of primary importance when controlling a system of moving parts. Therefore multiple interlocks and fault status enunciators have been implemented. This paper addresses the design of a Multiple ECH Launcher Control System, and characterizes the flexibility needed to upgrade to a real time position control system in the future.

  10. Quantum coherence of steered states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to ‘steer’ Bob’s reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob’s steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob’s channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation.

  11. EChO - Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Tinetti, G; Henning, T; Meyer, M; Micela, G; Ribas, I; Stam, D; Swain, M; Krause, O; Ollivier, M; Pace, E; Swinyard, B; Aylward, A; van Boekel, R; Coradini, A; Encrenaz, T; Snellen, I; Zapatero-Osorio, M R; Bouwman, J; Cho, J Y-K; Foresto, V Coudé du; Guillot, T; Lopez-Morales, M; Mueller-Wodarg, I; Palle, E; Selsis, F; Sozzetti, A; Ade, P A R; Achilleos, N; Adriani, A; Agnor, C B; Afonso, C; Prieto, C Allende; Bakos, G; Barber, R J; Barlow, M; Bernath, P; Bezard, B; Bordé, P; Brown, L R; Cassan, A; Cavarroc, C; Ciaravella, A; Cockell, C O U; Coustenis, A; Danielski, C; Decin, L; De Kok, R; Demangeon, O; Deroo, P; Doel, P; Drossart, P; Fletcher, L N; Focardi, M; Forget, F; Fossey, S; Fouqué, P; Frith, J; Galand, M; Gaulme, P; Hernández, J I González; Grasset, O; Grassi, D; Grenfell, J L; Griffin, M J; Griffith, C A; Grözinger, U; Guedel, M; Guio, P; Hainaut, O; Hargreaves, R; Hauschildt, P H; Heng, K; Heyrovsky, D; Hueso, R; Irwin, P; Kaltenegger, L; Kervella, P; Kipping, D; Koskinen, T T; Kovács, G; La Barbera, A; Lammer, H; Lellouch, E; Leto, G; Morales, M Lopez; Valverde, M A Lopez; Lopez-Puertas, M; Lovis, C; Maggio, A; Maillard, J P; Prado, J Maldonado; Marquette, J B; Martin-Torres, F J; Maxted, P; Miller, S; Molinari, S; Montes, D; Moro-Martin, A; Moses, J I; Mousis, O; Tuong, N Nguyen; Nelson, R; Orton, G S; Pantin, E; Pascale, E; Pezzuto, S; Pinfield, D; Poretti, E; Prinja, R; Prisinzano, L; Rees, J M; Reiners, A; Samuel, B; Sanchez-Lavega, A; Forcada, J Sanz; Sasselov, D; Savini, G; Sicardy, B; Smith, A; Stixrude, L; Strazzulla, G; Tennyson, J; Tessenyi, M; Vasisht, G; Vinatier, S; Viti, S; Waldmann, I; White, G J; Widemann, T; Wordsworth, R; Yelle, R; Yung, Y; Yurchenko, S N

    2011-01-01

    A dedicated mission to investigate exoplanetary atmospheres represents a major milestone in our quest to understand our place in the universe by placing our Solar System in context and by addressing the suitability of planets for the presence of life. EChO -the Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory- is a mission concept specifically geared for this purpose. EChO will provide simultaneous, multi-wavelength spectroscopic observations on a stable platform that will allow very long exposures. EChO will build on observations by Hubble, Spitzer and groundbased telescopes, which discovered the first molecules and atoms in exoplanetary atmospheres. EChO will simultaneously observe a broad enough spectral region -from the visible to the mid-IR- to constrain from one single spectrum the temperature structure of the atmosphere and the abundances of the major molecular species. The spectral range and resolution are tailored to separate bands belonging to up to 30 molecules to retrieve the composition and temperature str...

  12. Steering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeffer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume presents basic principles as well as advanced concepts of the computational modeling of steering systems. Moreover, the book includes the components and functionalities of modern steering system, which are presented comprehensively and in a practical way. The book is written by more than 15 leading experts from the automotive industry and its components suppliers. The target audience primarily comprises practicing engineers, developers, researchers as well as graduate students who want to specialize in this field.

  13. Overview of recent nuclear analyses for the Upper ECH launcher in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serikov, A., E-mail: serikov@inr.fzk.d [Association FZK-EURATOM, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fischer, U.; Grosse, D.; Heidinger, R.; Kleefeldt, K.; Spaeh, P.; Strauss, D.; Vaccaro, A. [Association FZK-EURATOM, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    An overview is given for the analyses of the nuclear physics characteristics in support of the development of the Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) launcher installed in the ITER upper port. The launcher's Quasi-Optical (QO) system of millimeter-wave guides represents a pathway for the neutron streaming which results in radiation loads on the launcher internals, mainly on the front steering (FS) mirrors and neighboring ITER components, in particular the vacuum vessel (VV) and the superconducting magnets surrounding the launcher. The radiation transport calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 employing the recent MCNP geometry model of ITER called Alite and the FENDL-2.1 nuclear data. A dedicated CAD model of the QO ECH launcher, generated with CATIA V5, was converted at FZK into the MCNP5 geometry representation using the McCad conversion tool. The neutron and photon fluxes and critical nuclear responses, such as nuclear heating, neutron damage, and the helium production rate were calculated in the paper and compared with the ITER nuclear design limits. On the basis of the results obtained from the nuclear analyses, it is concluded that the recent design of the QO ECH launcher satisfies the ITER radiation requirements, and thus, from this point of view, can be operated safely.

  14. Long Pulse ECH Plasma in LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Shimozuma, T.; Igami, H.; Notake, T.; Kumazawa, R.; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Mutoh, T.; LHD Experimental Group

    2005-09-01

    Demonstration of a long pulse or a steady state operation of ECH and sustainment of non-collapsed plasma only by ECH is important in LHD from both the confinement device and the heating system engineering points of view. A gyrotron with a diamond output window is introduced and operated at the power level of 150 kW for more than 1 hour after modification of the cooling and evacuation system of the ECH transmission line. The power of about 110 kW injected into LHD is used to sustain the plasma with the electron density of 1.5 × 1018 m-3 and central temperature of more than 1.0 keV for 3900 sec. The gas puffing rate is carefully controlled so that the plasma density does not exceed the critical value above which the plasma collapsed for given injection power, magnetic configuration and wall condition of LHD. The results of gyrotron operation, transmission system modification for long pulse and optimizations of the magnetic field configuration of LHD and gas puffing for a given injection condition are discussed.

  15. The EChO science case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Drossart, Pierre; Eccleston, Paul; Hartogh, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Linder, Martin; Lovis, Christophe; Micela, Giusi; Ollivier, Marc; Puig, Ludovic; Ribas, Ignasi; Snellen, Ignas; Swinyard, Bruce; Allard, France; Barstow, Joanna; Cho, James; Coustenis, Athena; Cockell, Charles; Correia, Alexandre; Decin, Leen; de Kok, Remco; Deroo, Pieter; Encrenaz, Therese; Forget, Francois; Glasse, Alistair; Griffith, Caitlin; Guillot, Tristan; Koskinen, Tommi; Lammer, Helmut; Leconte, Jeremy; Maxted, Pierre; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Nelson, Richard; North, Chris; Pallé, Enric; Pagano, Isabella; Piccioni, Guseppe; Pinfield, David; Selsis, Franck; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Stixrude, Lars; Tennyson, Jonathan; Turrini, Diego; Zapatero-Osorio, Mariarosa; Beaulieu, Jean-Philippe; Grodent, Denis; Guedel, Manuel; Luz, David; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Ray, Tom; Rickman, Hans; Selig, Avri; Swain, Mark; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Barlow, Mike; Bowles, Neil; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; du Foresto, Vincent Coudé; Gerard, Jean-Claude; Gizon, Laurent; Hornstrup, Allan; Jarchow, Christopher; Kerschbaum, Franz; Kovacs, Géza; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Lim, Tanya; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Pace, Emanuele; Pascale, Enzo; Vandenbussche, Bart; Wright, Gillian; Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Adriani, Alberto; Azzollini, Ruymán; Balado, Ana; Bryson, Ian; Burston, Raymond; Colomé, Josep; Crook, Martin; Di Giorgio, Anna; Griffin, Matt; Hoogeveen, Ruud; Ottensamer, Roland; Irshad, Ranah; Middleton, Kevin; Morgante, Gianluca; Pinsard, Frederic; Rataj, Mirek; Reess, Jean-Michel; Savini, Giorgio; Schrader, Jan-Rutger; Stamper, Richard; Winter, Berend; Abe, L.; Abreu, M.; Achilleos, N.; Ade, P.; Adybekian, V.; Affer, L.; Agnor, C.; Agundez, M.; Alard, C.; Alcala, J.; Allende Prieto, C.; Alonso Floriano, F. J.; Altieri, F.; Alvarez Iglesias, C. A.; Amado, P.; Andersen, A.; Aylward, A.; Baffa, C.; Bakos, G.; Ballerini, P.; Banaszkiewicz, M.; Barber, R. J.; Barrado, D.; Barton, E. J.; Batista, V.; Bellucci, G.; Belmonte Avilés, J. A.; Berry, D.; Bézard, B.; Biondi, D.; Błęcka, M.; Boisse, I.; Bonfond, B.; Bordé, P.; Börner, P.; Bouy, H.; Brown, L.; Buchhave, L.; Budaj, J.; Bulgarelli, A.; Burleigh, M.; Cabral, A.; Capria, M. T.; Cassan, A.; Cavarroc, C.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Cerulli, R.; Chadney, J.; Chamberlain, S.; Charnoz, S.; Christian Jessen, N.; Ciaravella, A.; Claret, A.; Claudi, R.; Coates, A.; Cole, R.; Collura, A.; Cordier, D.; Covino, E.; Danielski, C.; Damasso, M.; Deeg, H. J.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Del Vecchio, C.; Demangeon, O.; De Sio, A.; De Wit, J.; Dobrijévic, M.; Doel, P.; Dominic, C.; Dorfi, E.; Eales, S.; Eiroa, C.; Espinoza Contreras, M.; Esposito, M.; Eymet, V.; Fabrizio, N.; Fernández, M.; Femenía Castella, B.; Figueira, P.; Filacchione, G.; Fletcher, L.; Focardi, M.; Fossey, S.; Fouqué, P.; Frith, J.; Galand, M.; Gambicorti, L.; Gaulme, P.; García López, R. J.; Garcia-Piquer, A.; Gear, W.; Gerard, J.-C.; Gesa, L.; Giani, E.; Gianotti, F.; Gillon, M.; Giro, E.; Giuranna, M.; Gomez, H.; Gomez-Leal, I.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J.; González Merino, B.; Graczyk, R.; Grassi, D.; Guardia, J.; Guio, P.; Gustin, J.; Hargrave, P.; Haigh, J.; Hébrard, E.; Heiter, U.; Heredero, R. L.; Herrero, E.; Hersant, F.; Heyrovsky, D.; Hollis, M.; Hubert, B.; Hueso, R.; Israelian, G.; Iro, N.; Irwin, P.; Jacquemoud, S.; Jones, G.; Jones, H.; Justtanont, K.; Kehoe, T.; Kerschbaum, F.; Kerins, E.; Kervella, P.; Kipping, D.; Koskinen, T.; Krupp, N.; Lahav, O.; Laken, B.; Lanza, N.; Lellouch, E.; Leto, G.; Licandro Goldaracena, J.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.; Liu, S. J.; Lo Cicero, U.; Lodieu, N.; Lognonné, P.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Lundgaard Rasmussen, I.; Luntzer, A.; Machado, P.; MacTavish, C.; Maggio, A.; Maillard, J.-P.; Magnes, W.; Maldonado, J.; Mall, U.; Marquette, J.-B.; Mauskopf, P.; Massi, F.; Maurin, A.-S.; Medvedev, A.; Michaut, C.; Miles-Paez, P.; Montalto, M.; Montañés Rodríguez, P.; Monteiro, M.; Montes, D.; Morais, H.; Morales, J. C.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Morello, G.; Moro Martín, A.; Moses, J.; Moya Bedon, A.; Murgas Alcaino, F.; Oliva, E.; Orton, G.; Palla, F.; Pancrazzi, M.; Pantin, E.; Parmentier, V.; Parviainen, H.; Peña Ramírez, K. Y.; Peralta, J.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Petrov, R.; Pezzuto, S.; Pietrzak, R.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Piskunov, N.; Prinja, R.; Prisinzano, L.; Polichtchouk, I.; Poretti, E.; Radioti, A.; Ramos, A. A.; Rank-Lüftinger, T.; Read, P.; Readorn, K.; Rebolo López, R.; Rebordão, J.; Rengel, M.; Rezac, L.; Rocchetto, M.; Rodler, F.; Sánchez Béjar, V. J.; Sanchez Lavega, A.; Sanromá, E.; Santos, N.; Sanz Forcada, J.; Scandariato, G.; Schmider, F.-X.; Scholz, A.; Scuderi, S.; Sethenadh, J.; Shore, S.; Showman, A.; Sicardy, B.; Sitek, P.; Smith, A.; Soret, L.; Sousa, S.; Stiepen, A.; Stolarski, M.; Strazzulla, G.; Tabernero, H. M.; Tanga, P.; Tecsa, M.; Temple, J.; Terenzi, L.; Tessenyi, M.; Testi, L.; Thompson, S.; Thrastarson, H.; Tingley, B. W.; Trifoglio, M.; Martín Torres, J.; Tozzi, A.; Turrini, D.; Varley, R.; Vakili, F.; de Val-Borro, M.; Valdivieso, M. L.; Venot, O.; Villaver, E.; Vinatier, S.; Viti, S.; Waldmann, I.; Waltham, D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Waters, R.; Watkins, C.; Watson, D.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszk, A.; White, G.; Widemann, T.; Winek, W.; Wiśniowski, T.; Yelle, R.; Yung, Y.; Yurchenko, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of almost two thousand exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. We see gas giants in few-day orbits, whole multi-planet systems within the orbit of Mercury, and new populations of planets with masses between that of the Earth and Neptune—all unknown in the Solar System. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general population of planets in our Milky Way. The key science questions that urgently need addressing are therefore: What are exoplanets made of? Why are planets as they are? How do planetary systems work and what causes the exceptional diversity observed as compared to the Solar System? The EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory) space mission was conceived to take up the challenge to explain this diversity in terms of formation, evolution, internal structure and planet and atmospheric composition. This requires in-depth spectroscopic knowledge of the atmospheres of a large and well-defined planet sample for which precise physical, chemical and dynamical information can be obtained. In order to fulfil this ambitious scientific program, EChO was designed as a dedicated survey mission for transit and eclipse spectroscopy capable of observing a large, diverse and well-defined planet sample within its 4-year mission lifetime. The transit and eclipse spectroscopy method, whereby the signal from the star and planet are differentiated using knowledge of the planetary ephemerides, allows us to measure atmospheric signals from the planet at levels of at least 10-4 relative to the star. This can only be achieved in conjunction with a carefully designed stable payload and satellite platform. It is also necessary to provide broad instantaneous wavelength coverage to detect as many molecular species as possible, to probe the thermal structure of the planetary atmospheres and to correct for the contaminating effects of the stellar photosphere. This requires wavelength

  16. ECH on the Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhone, Jason; Clark, Mike; Collins, Cami; Cooper, Chris; Katz, Noam; Nonn, Paul; Wallace, John; Forest, Cary

    2012-10-01

    The Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment (MPDX) is a 3 meter diameter sphere consisting of 36 axisymmetric rings of samarium cobalt magnets in a ring-cusp configuration. Electrostatic electrodes on the edge will be used to spin the plasma. The purpose of MPDX is to study flow-driven magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. Electron cyclotron heating will be used for the ionization and heating of the plasma. A benefit of the ECH is the plasma will have hot electrons leading to good electrical conduction and high magnetic Reynolds number. In addition, direct heating of the electrons helps to obtain a large ionization fraction and a low neutral density. The ECH system on MPDX will consist of 5 separate lines distributed at various positions around the vacuum vessel. Each line will have a 20 kW magnetron operating in continuous wave mode at 2.45 GHz outputting in WR-340 waveguide. The power will be transferred to the vacuum vessel through WR-284 waveguide. Each line will contain a directional coupler for measuring reflected power. A manual 3-stub tuner will be used for impedance matching. The purpose of these elements is to optimize the efficiency of energy transfer to the plasma.

  17. The EChO science case

    CERN Document Server

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Eccleston, Paul; Hartogh, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Linder, Martin; Lovis, Christophe; Micela, Giusi; Ollivier, Marc; Puig, Ludovic; Ribas, Ignasi; Snellen, Ignas; Allard, Bruce Swinyard France; Barstow, Joanna; Cho, James; Coustenis, Athena; Cockell, Charles; Correia, Alexandre; Decin, Leen; de Kok, Remco; Deroo, Pieter; Encrenaz, Therese; Forget, Francois; Glasse, Alistair; Griffith, Caitlin; Guillot, Tristan; Koskinen, Tommi; Lammer, Helmut; Leconte, Jeremy; Maxted, Pierre; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Nelson, Richard; North, Chris; Pallé, Enric; Pagano, Isabella; Piccioni, Guseppe; Pinfield, David; Selsis, Franck; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Stixrude, Lars; Tennyson, Jonathan; Turrini, Diego; Beaulieu, Mariarosa Zapatero-Osorio Jean-Philippe; Grodent, Denis; Guedel, Manuel; Luz, David; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Ray, Tom; Rickman, Hans; Selig, Avri; Banaszkiewicz, Mark Swain Marek; Barlow, Mike; Bowles, Neil; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Foresto, Vincent Coudé du; Gerard, Jean-Claude; Gizon, Laurent; Hornstrup, Allan; Jarchow, Christopher; Kerschbaum, Franz; Kovacs, Géza; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Lim, Tanya; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Pace, Emanuele; Pascale, Enzo; Vandenbussche, Bart; Wright, Gillian; Adriani, Gonzalo Ramos Zapata Alberto; Azzollini, Ruymán; Balado, Ana; Bryson, Ian; Burston, Raymond; Colomé, Josep; Crook, Martin; Di Giorgio, Anna; Griffin, Matt; Hoogeveen, Ruud; Ottensamer, Roland; Irshad, Ranah; Middleton, Kevin; Morgante, Gianluca; Pinsard, Frederic; Rataj, Mirek; Reess, Jean-Michel; Savini, Giorgio; Schrader, Jan-Rutger; Stamper, Richard; Abe, Berend Winter L; Abreu, M; Achilleos, N; Ade, P; Adybekian, V; Affer, L; Agnor, C; Agundez, M; Alard, C; Alcala, J; Prieto, C Allende; Floriano, F J Alonso; Altieri, F; Iglesias, C A Alvarez; Amado, P; Andersen, A; Aylward, A; Baffa, C; Bakos, G; Ballerini, P; Banaszkiewicz, M; Barber, R J; Barrado, D; Barton, E J; Batista, V; Bellucci, G; Avilés, J A Belmonte; Berry, D; Bézard, B; Biondi, D; Błęcka, M; Boisse, I; Bonfond, B; Bordé, P; Börner, P; Bouy, H; Brown, L; Buchhave, L; Budaj, J; Bulgarelli, A; Burleigh, M; Cabral, A; Capria, M T; Cassan, A; Cavarroc, C; Cecchi-Pestellini, C; Cerulli, R; Chadney, J; Chamberlain, S; Charnoz, S; Jessen, N Christian; Ciaravella, A; Claret, A; Claudi, R; Coates, A; Cole, R; Collura, A; Cordier, D; Covino, E; Danielski, C; Damasso, M; Deeg, H J; Delgado-Mena, E; Del Vecchio, C; Demangeon, O; De Sio, A; De Wit, J; Dobrijévic, M; Doel, P; Dominic, C; Dorfi, E; Eales, S; Eiroa, C; Contreras, M Espinoza; Esposito, M; Eymet, V; Fabrizio, N; Fernández, M; Castella, B Femenía; Figueira, P; Filacchione, G; Fletcher, L; Focardi, M; Fossey, S; Fouqué, P; Frith, J; Galand, M; Gambicorti, L; Gaulme, P; López, R J García; Garcia-Piquer, A; Gear, W; Gerard, J -C; Gesa, L; Giani, E; Gianotti, F; Gillon, M; Giro, E; Giuranna, M; Gomez, H; Gomez-Leal, I; Hernandez, J Gonzalez; Merino, B González; Graczyk, R; Grassi, D; Guardia, J; Guio, P; Gustin, J; Hargrave, P; Haigh, J; Hébrard, E; Heiter, U; Heredero, R L; Herrero, E; Hersant, F; Heyrovsky, D; Hollis, M; Hubert, B; Hueso, R; Israelian, G; Iro, N; Irwin, P; Jacquemoud, S; Jones, G; Jones, H; Justtanont, K; Kehoe, T; Kerschbaum, F; Kerins, E; Kervella, P; Kipping, D; Koskinen, T; Krupp, N; Lahav, O; Laken, B; Lanza, N; Lellouch, E; Leto, G; Goldaracena, J Licandro; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C; Liu, S J; Cicero, U Lo; Lodieu, N; Lognonné, P; Lopez-Puertas, M; Lopez-Valverde, M A; Rasmussen, I Lundgaard; Luntzer, A; Machado, P; MacTavish, C; Maggio, A; Maillard, J -P; Magnes, W; Maldonado, J; Mall, U; Marquette, J -B; Mauskopf, P; Massi, F; Maurin, A -S; Medvedev, A; Michaut, C; Miles-Paez, P; Montalto, M; Rodríguez, P Montañés; Monteiro, M; Montes, D; Morais, H; Morales, J C; Morales-Calderón, M; Morello, G; Martín, A Moro; Moses, J; Bedon, A Moya; Alcaino, F Murgas; Oliva, E; Orton, G; Palla, F; Pancrazzi, M; Pantin, E; Parmentier, V; Parviainen, H; Ramírez, K Y Peña; Peralta, J; Perez-Hoyos, S; Petrov, R; Pezzuto, S; Pietrzak, R; Pilat-Lohinger, E; Piskunov, N; Prinja, R; Prisinzano, L; Polichtchouk, I; Poretti, E; Radioti, A; Ramos, A A; Rank-Lüftinger, T; Read, P; Readorn, K; López, R Rebolo; Rebordão, J; Rengel, M; Rezac, L; Rocchetto, M; Rodler, F; Béjar, V J Sánchez; Lavega, A Sanchez; Sanromá, E; Santos, N; Forcada, J Sanz; Scandariato, G; Schmider, F -X; Scholz, A; Scuderi, S; Sethenadh, J; Shore, S; Showman, A; Sicardy, B; Sitek, P; Smith, A; Soret, L; Sousa, S; Stiepen, A; Stolarski, M; Strazzulla, G; Tabernero, H M; Tanga, P; Tecsa, M; Temple, J; Terenzi, L; Tessenyi, M; Testi, L; Thompson, S; Thrastarson, H; Tingley, B W; Trifoglio, M; Torres, J Martín; Tozzi, A; Turrini, D; Varley, R; Vakili, F; de Val-Borro, M; Valdivieso, M L; Venot, O; Villaver, E; Vinatier, S; Viti, S; Waldmann, I; Waltham, D; Ward-Thompson, D; Waters, R; Watkins, C; Watson, D; Wawer, P; Wawrzaszk, A; White, G; Widemann, T; Winek, W; Wiśniowski, T; Yelle, R; Yung, Y; Yurchenko, S N

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of almost 2000 exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general population of planets in our Milky Way. The key science questions that urgently need addressing are therefore: What are exoplanets made of? Why are planets as they are? What causes the exceptional diversity observed as compared to the Solar System? EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory) has been designed as a dedicated survey mission for transit and eclipse spectroscopy capable of observing a large and diverse planet sample within its four-year mission lifetime. EChO can target the atmospheres of super-Earths, Neptune-like, and Jupiter-like planets, in the very hot to temperate zones (planet temperatures of 300K-3000K) of F to M-type host stars. Over the next ten years, several new ground- and space-based transit surveys will come on-line (e.g. NGTS, CHEOPS, TESS, PLATO), which will specifically focus on find...

  18. Steering Performance, Tactical Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-29

    NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Automotive Instrumentation Division (TEDT-AT-AD-I) U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center 400...characterize the on-center vehicle responses of military vehicles for the purposes of influencing vehicle design and ensuring military truck steering... mechanism attached to the test vehicle’s steering wheel (or replaces the steering wheel) that is strain gaged and calibrated to measure the steering effort

  19. Quantum steering without inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jing-Ling; Wu, Chunfeng; Su, Hong-Yi; Cabello, Adan; Kwek, L C; Oh, C H

    2012-01-01

    We show that, for any two-qubit state, quantum steering can be proven without testing the violation of steering inequalities. We show that steerability is proven if Bob's normalized conditional states after Alice's measurements are pure. This method, which may be seen as the quantum steering analog of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-like tests of Bell nonlocality without Bell inequalities, offers advantages with respect to the existing methods for experimentally testing quantum steering.

  20. EChOSim: The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory software simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Pascale, E; MacTavish, C J; Papageorgiou, A; Amaral-Rogers, A; Varley, R; de Foresto, V Coudé; Griffin, M J; Ollivier, M; Sarkar, S; Spencer, L; Swinyard, B M; Tessenyi, M; Tinetti, G

    2014-01-01

    EChOSim is the end-to-end time-domain simulator of the Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) space mission. EChOSim has been developed to assess the capability EChO has to detect and characterize the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets, and through this revolutionize the knowledge we have of the Milky Way and of our place in the Galaxy. Here we discuss the details of the EChOSim implementation and describe the models used to represent the instrument and to simulate the detection. Software simulators have assumed a central role in the design of new instrumentation and in assessing the level of systematics affecting the measurements of existing experiments. Thanks to its high modularity, EChOSim can simulate basic aspects of several existing and proposed spectrometers for exoplanet transits, including instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer, or ground-based and balloon borne experiments. A discussion of different uses of EChOSim is given, including examples of simulations performed to ass...

  1. ECH Launchers on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, Y. A.; Lohr, J.; Cengher, M.; Ponce, D.; Ellis, R. A.

    2011-10-01

    Three fully articulating dual launchers, which can steer the rf beams poloidally and toroidally through +/-20° in each direction, are installed on DIII-D. All are designed and built by PPPL. Each launcher has a fixed focusing mirror followed by a flat steering mirror. Two of the six focusing mirrors were damaged during the past 2 experimental campaigns on DIII-D. The focusing mirrors were made from stainless steel (SS) with a thin layer of copper (Cu) on the surface. Thermal calculation predicts that these mirrors should withstand pulse lengths up to 10 s with incident rf power of 850 kW from the existing gyrotrons. In 2008 local stress cracking of the Cu surface was found on some focusing mirrors. In some cases, the Cu was melted exposing the SS to the rf beam. Rapid thermal runaway and extensive melting resulted. All focusing mirrors were replaced with ones made from solid Al-15 Glidcop construction in 2011. The new design of steerable mirrors was also installed on all launchers. The steering mirrors are moved by dc electric motors, providing full poloidal scans in ~2 s and improved positioning accuracy compared with the air motors previously installed. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  2. Steering and evasion assist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dang, T.; Desens, J.; Franke, U.; Gavrila, D.; Schäfers, L.; Ziegler, W.; Eskandarian, A.

    2012-01-01

    Steering and evasion assistance defines a new and future class of driver assistance systems to avoid an impending collision with other traffic participants. Dynamic and kinematic considerations reveal that an evasive steering maneuver has high potential for collision avoidance in many driving

  3. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Temporal steering is a form of temporal correlation between the initial and final state of a quantum system. It is a temporal analogue of the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (spatial) steering. We demonstrate, by measuring the photon polarization, that temporal steering allows two parties to verify if they have been interacting with the same particle, even if they have no information about what happened with the particle in between the measurements. This is the first experimental study of temporal steering. We also performed experimental tests, based on the violation of temporal steering inequalities, of the security of two quantum key distribution protocols against individual attacks. Thus, these results can lead to applications for secure quantum communications and quantum engineering. PMID:27901121

  4. Design of the Remote Steerable ECRH launching system for the ITER upper ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeven, A G A [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Elzendoorn, B S Q [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bongers, W A [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)] (and others)

    2005-01-01

    An ECRH (electron-cyclotron resonance heating) launching system for the ITER upper ports is being designed. The aim of the system is to inject Electron Cyclotron Waves (ECW) in the ITER plasma in order to stabilize neoclassical tearing modes (NTM). Each of the four upper-port launchers consists of six mm-wave lines capable of transmitting high power up to 2 MW per line at 170 GHz. In order to exploit the capability of ECW for localized heating and current drive over a range of plasma radii in ITER, the ECH and CD upper port launcher must have a beam steering capability. The Remote Steering (RS) principle has great advantages, because it enables to avoid steerable mirrors with flexible cooling lines at the plasma-facing end of the launcher. The principle consists of a long, corrugated, square waveguide having the steerable optics placed outside of the first confinement boundary of the vacuum vessel. All vulnerable components are far away from the hostile plasma environment. Furthermore, the RS launching system enables to do maintenance on the system during shutdown, without affecting the torus vacuum and the blanket cooling circuits.

  5. Exoplanet atmospheres with EChO: spectral retrievals using EChOSim

    CERN Document Server

    Barstow, Joanna K; Aigrain, Suzanne; Fletcher, Leigh N; Irwin, Patrick G J; Varley, Ryan; Pascale, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of the Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory mission concept for constraining the atmospheric properties of hot and warm gas giants and super Earths. Synthetic primary and secondary transit spectra for a range of planets are passed through EChOSim (Waldmann & Pascale 2014) to obtain the expected level of noise for different observational scenarios; these are then used as inputs for the NEMESIS atmospheric retrieval code and the retrieved atmospheric properties (temperature structure, composition and cloud properties) compared with the known input values, following the method of Barstow et al. (2013a). To correctly retrieve the temperature structure and composition of the atmosphere to within 2 {\\sigma}, we find that we require: a single transit or eclipse of a hot Jupiter orbiting a sun-like (G2) star at 35 pc to constrain the terminator and dayside atmospheres; 20 transits or eclipses of a warm Jupiter orbiting a similar star; 10 transits/eclipses of a hot Neptune orbiti...

  6. Method of steering a vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Della Penna, M.; Van Passen, M.M.; Abbink, D.A.; Mulder, M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle and method of steering such a vehicle, wherein the vehicle has a steering wheel and steerable driving wheels and a transfer system for converting steering wheel actions to a steering angle of the steerable driving wheels, and wherein the transfer system is provided with a predefined stiffnes

  7. Conceptual design of the ECH upper launcher system for ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidinger, R.; Bertizzolo, R.; Bruschi, A.; Chavan, R.; Cirant, S.; Collazos, A.; de M. Baar,; Elzendoorn, B.; Farina, D.; Fischer, U.; Gafert, J.; Gandini, F.; Gantenbein, G.; Goede, A.; Goodman, T.; Hailfinger, G.; Henderson, M.; Kasparek, W.; Kleefeldt, K.; Landis, J. D.; Meier, A.; Moro, A.; Platania, P.; Poli, E.; Ramponi, G.; Saibene, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sauter, O.; Scherer, T.; Serikov, A.; Shidara, H.; Sozzi, C.; Spaeh, P.; Strauss, D.; Udintsev, V.S.; Vaccaro, A.; Zohm, H.; Zucca, C.

    2009-01-01

    The challenge of developing the conceptual design of the ECH Upper Launcher system for MHD control in the ITER plasmas has been tackled by team of European Associations together with the European Domestic Agency ("F4E"). The launcher system has to meet the following requirements: (a) a mm-

  8. Progress of long pulse discharges by ECH in LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Y.; Kasahara, H.; Tokitani, M.; Sakamoto, R.; Ueda, Y.; Ito, S.; Okada, K.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tsujimura, T. I.; Makino, R.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Akiyama, T.; Ashikawa, N.; Masuzaki, S.; Motojima, G.; Shoji, M.; Suzuki, C.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Tsuchiya, H.; Yamada, I.; Goto, Y.; Yamada, H.; Mutoh, T.; Komori, A.; Takeiri, Y.; the LHD Experiment Group

    2016-04-01

    Using ion cyclotron heating and electron cyclotron heating (ECH), or solo ECH, trials of steady state plasma sustainment have been conducted in the superconducting helical/stellarator, large helical device (LHD) (Ida K et al 2015 Nucl. Fusion 55 104018). In recent years, the ECH system has been upgraded by applying newly developed 77 and 154 GHz gyrotrons. A new gas fueling system applied to the steady state operations in the LHD realized precise feedback control of the line average electron density even when the wall condition varied during long pulse discharges. Owing to these improvements in the ECH and the gas fueling systems, a stable 39 min discharge with a line average electron density n e_ave of 1.1  ×  1019 m-3, a central electron temperature T e0 of over 2.5 keV, and a central ion temperature T i0 of 1.0 keV was successfully performed with ~350 kW EC-waves. The parameters are much improved from the previous 65 min discharge with n e_ave of 0.15  ×  1019 m-3 and T e0 of 1.7 keV, and the 30 min discharge with n e_ave of 0.7  ×  1019 m-3 and T e0 of 1.7 keV.

  9. Design of Pneumatic Collapsible Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Nair

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The steering wheel is the important cause of fatal injury for drivers in frontal collision. When frontal collision occurs, due to the kinetic energy of driver or occupant body, it moves forward against steering wheel and wind shield. Actually in a frontal collision forces will be first transmitted through driver’s feet which act as fulcrum so the body will rotate about it. For the taller driver steering works as fulcrum. Driver head & chest hit the steering or windshield which may cause severe injury or death. Considering the injury potential of steering wheel we are presenting a new idea Pneumatic Collapsible Steering Column (PCS.

  10. CCCT - Patient Advocate Steering Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Patient Advocate Steering Committee (PASC) works to ensure advocates involved with the Scientific Steering Committees (SSCs) are completely integrated in the development, implementation, and monitoring of clinical trials within those groups.

  11. 49 CFR 570.60 - Steering system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering system. 570.60 Section 570.60... 10,000 Pounds § 570.60 Steering system. (a) System play. Lash or free play in the steering system... excessive lash or free play in the steering system. Table 2. Steering Wheel Free Play Values Steering...

  12. 49 CFR 570.7 - Steering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering systems. 570.7 Section 570.7... Pounds or Less § 570.7 Steering systems. (a) System play. Lash or free play in the steering system shall... in the steering system. Table 1—Steering System Free Play Values Steering wheel diameter (inches...

  13. Electrical steering of vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg

    2006-01-01

    solutions and still meet strict requirements to functional safety. The paper applies graph-based analysis of functional system structure to find a novel fault-tolerant architecture for an electrical steering where a dedicated AC-motor design and cheap voltage measurements ensure ability to detect all...

  14. Steering Your Mysterious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    Steering the Mysterious Mind, describes a unique, novel concept for a way to gain control of your mind. The five basic elements of human life, that is; Creativity, Content­ment, Confidence, Calmness, and Concentration (C5) have been introduced in my previous book Unlock Your Personalization...

  15. Steering Your Mysterious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    well-being is key for happy and stress free life. Mind has enormous energy. Everyone has access to tre­mendous mental energies; what matters is being aware of this and to work on concentrating your energy into creative work. To achieve mental strength, C5 is a su­preme powerful exercise for the mind......Steering the Mysterious Mind, describes a unique, novel concept for a way to gain control of your mind. The five basic elements of human life, that is; Creativity, Content­ment, Confidence, Calmness, and Concentration (C5) have been introduced in my previous book Unlock Your Personalization....... Compare it with going to the gym where you work on the physical body. In the same way as with arms and legs, the mind is a mus­cle which you exercise through C5 practice. Steering the mind on your personal goal will help you to be creative....

  16. Computational Steering with Reduced Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Butnaru, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Computational Steering increases the understanding of relationships between the output of a simulation and its parametrized input, such as boundary conditions, physical parameters, or domain geometry. Steering relies on a running simulation which delivers results to a visualization system. However, many simulation codes cannot deliver the required interactive results. For the first time, this work investigates the use of surrogate models to augment computational steering approaches. Based...

  17. ECHS1 mutations in Leigh disease: a new inborn error of metabolism affecting valine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Heidi; Buck, Nicole; Wanders, Ronald; Ruiter, Jos; Waterham, Hans; Koster, Janet; Yaplito-Lee, Joy; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Pitt, James

    2014-11-01

    Two siblings with fatal Leigh disease had increased excretion of S-(2-carboxypropyl)cysteine and several other metabolites that are features of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) deficiency, a rare defect in the valine catabolic pathway associated with Leigh-like disease. However, this diagnosis was excluded by HIBCH sequencing and normal enzyme activity. In contrast to HIBCH deficiency, the excretion of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-carnitine was normal in the children, suggesting deficiency of short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1 gene). This mitochondrial enzyme is active in several metabolic pathways involving fatty acids and amino acids, including valine, and is immediately upstream of HIBCH in the valine pathway. Both children were compound heterozygous for a c.473C > A (p.A158D) missense mutation and a c.414+3G>C splicing mutation in ECHS1. ECHS1 activity was markedly decreased in cultured fibroblasts from both siblings, ECHS1 protein was undetectable by immunoblot analysis and transfection of patient cells with wild-type ECHS1 rescued ECHS1 activity. The highly reactive metabolites methacrylyl-CoA and acryloyl-CoA accumulate in deficiencies of both ECHS1 and HIBCH and are probably responsible for the brain pathology in both disorders. Deficiency of ECHS1 or HIBCH should be considered in children with Leigh disease. Urine metabolite testing can detect and distinguish between these two disorders.

  18. Research on the Variable Steering Ratio of Four-Wheel-Steering Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林程; 陈思忠; 任良成

    2004-01-01

    The steering characteristic of a four-wheel-steering vehicle is numerically simulated for in-depth research of the handling stability of four-wheel steering. The research results show that the deteriorating tendency of the steering stability due to the increase of the vehicle speed is improved obviously in the case of four-wheel steering. The approach of variable steering ratio is discussed. The use of the variable steering ratio can not only raise the steering stability of vechicles at high vehicle speed, but also reduce the dicomfort and steering burden of drivers; and hence is helpful for the subjective evaluation of four-wheel steering vehicles.

  19. ECH/EBW Plasma Coupling and Heating Experiments on the Proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Tim; Caughman, John; Caneses, Juan; Diem, Stephanie; Goulding, Richard; Kafle, Nischal; Rapp, Juergen

    2016-10-01

    ECH and EBW have been under development on the Proto-Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment device (Proto-MPEX) to provide additional plasma electron heating. Proto-MPEX has a linear magnetic field configuration and a helicon plasma source that forms a high-density medium-temperature central core plasma of typically 0.08m diameter. A plasma density of up to 6x1019m-3 is generated which is >6 times over-dense for 28 GHz microwave power available from the experiment's gyrotron system. Modeling using Genray-C code has indicated that some heating of the plasma core should be possible at this frequency using the optimum O-X-EBW coupling scheme. Several improvements to the waveguide system have been made to increase the reliable operating power level and launch beam quality. To improve the plasma heating efficiency, work is underway to optimize the beam launch by adding a remotely adjustable launch angle, adding a polarization rotating miter bend, moving the launch point closer to the plasma edge and providing some beam focusing. Preliminary heating experiments have indicated some over-dense heating has been achieved. A launch power of 75 kW has been achieved out of a possible 150 kW. This work was supported by the U.S. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  20. Backwards planning approach for rapid attitude maneuvers steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbin, D.

    Remote sensing satellites are often built with payloads that do not include line of sight steering mechanisms. In cases, when frequent line of sight retargeting is required, there is a need for efficient actuators and control schemes that would support rapid attitude manoeuvring together with adequate pointing accuracy and stability between the manoeuvres. Within this frame, this research develops the Backwards Planning approach as one of the possible control methods for rapid manoeuvring. The method is based on state feedback and combines time efficient together with straight forward computation flow. Novel efficient methods to execute the Backwards Planning Control in the 3D attitude space are proposed here. The methods refer both for the first saturated control phase of the manoeuvre and for the last braking phase. The actuators used for the spacecraft control in this research are either Reaction Wheels (RWs) or Single Gimbal Control Moments Gyros (SGCMGs) or both of them together. The advantage of the SGCMG is in rapid rotational manoeuvring, but their application for high quality pointing requires very accurate gimbal mechanisms. On the other hand, RWs are usually more suitable for accurate pointing, but their torque to power performance is inferior in manoeuvring. It is shown that the coordination of SGCMGs and RWs together enables to draw more performance from the SGCMGs in terms of agility and meet the pointing requirements between manoeuvres where only the RWs are used. Novel SGCMG steering laws are suggested as well. While the steering laws determine the required angular rate for each gimbal, most steering laws are defined in the angular momentum domain and output the gimbals angular rates to produce a given required torque or angular momentum increment. This research however, practices a novel steering law in the gimbal angles domain. While both steering laws turn to be dynamically equivalent for small control signals, as in the steady state, it is shown

  1. Generation of an optimal target list for the Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO)

    CERN Document Server

    Varley, Ryan; Pascale, Enzo; Tessenyi, Marcell; Hollis, Morgan; Morales, Juan Carlos; Tinetti, Giovanna; Swinyard, Bruce; Deroo, Pieter; Ollivier, Marc; Micela, Giusi

    2014-01-01

    The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory EChO is a space mission concept studied by the European Space Agency in the context of the M3 selection process. Through direct measurement of the atmospheric chemical composition of hundreds of exoplanets, EChO would address fundamental questions such as: What are exoplanets made of? How do planets form and evolve? What is the origin of exoplanet diversity? More specifically, EChO is a dedicated survey mission for transit and eclipse spectroscopy capable of observing a large, diverse and well-defined planetary sample within its four to six year mission lifetime. In this paper we use the end-to-end instrument simulator EChOSim to model the currently discovered targets, to gauge which targets are observable and assess the EChO performances obtainable for each observing tier and time. We show that EChO would be capable of observing a large and diverse sample of planets even if it were launched today, and the wealth of optimal targets for EChO expected to be discovered ...

  2. Remote control for motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dale R. (Inventor); Ciciora, John A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A remote controller is disclosed for controlling the throttle, brake and steering mechanism of a conventional motor vehicle, with the remote controller being particularly advantageous for use by severely handicapped individuals. The controller includes a remote manipulator which controls a plurality of actuators through interfacing electronics. The remote manipulator is a two-axis joystick which controls a pair of linear actuators and a rotary actuator, with the actuators being powered by electric motors to effect throttle, brake and steering control of a motor vehicle adapted to include the controller. The controller enables the driver to control the adapted vehicle from anywhere in the vehicle with one hand with minimal control force and range of motion. In addition, even though a conventional vehicle is adapted for use with the remote controller, the vehicle may still be operated in the normal manner.

  3. Artificial intelligence for the EChO mission planning tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro; Ribas, Ignasi; Colomé, Josep

    2015-12-01

    The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) has as its main goal the measurement of atmospheres of transiting planets. This requires the observation of two types of events: primary and secondary eclipses. In order to yield measurements of sufficient Signal-to-Noise Ratio to fulfil the mission objectives, the events of each exoplanet have to be observed several times. In addition, several criteria have to be considered to carry out each observation, such as the exoplanet visibility, its event duration, and no overlapping with other tasks. It is expected that a suitable mission plan increases the efficiency of telescope operation, which will represent an important benefit in terms of scientific return and operational costs. Nevertheless, to obtain a long term mission plan becomes unaffordable for human planners due to the complexity of computing the huge number of possible combinations for finding an optimum solution. In this contribution we present a long term mission planning tool based on Genetic Algorithms, which are focused on solving optimization problems such as the planning of several tasks. Specifically, the proposed tool finds a solution that highly optimizes the defined objectives, which are based on the maximization of the time spent on scientific observations and the scientific return (e.g., the coverage of the mission survey). The results obtained on the large experimental set up support that the proposed scheduler technology is robust and can function in a variety of scenarios, offering a competitive performance which does not depend on the collection of exoplanets to be observed. Specifically, the results show that, with the proposed tool, EChO uses 94% of the available time of the mission, so the amount of downtime is small, and it completes 98% of the targets.

  4. Data analysis Pipeline for EChO end-to-end simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Waldmann, Ingo P

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric spectroscopy of extrasolar planets is an intricate business. Atmospheric signatures typically require a photometric precision of $1 \\times 10^{-4}$ in flux over several hours. Such precision demands high instrument stability as well as an understanding of stellar variability and an optimal data reduction and removal of systematic noise. In the context of the EChO mission concept, we here discuss the data reduction and analysis pipeline developed for the EChO end-to-end simulator EChOSim. We present and discuss the step by step procedures required in order to obtain the final exoplanetary spectrum from the EChOSim`raw data' using a simulated observation of the secondary eclipse of the hot-Neptune 55 Cnc e.

  5. Chorus, ECH, and Z mode emissions observed at Jupiter and Saturn and possible electron acceleration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J D Menietti; Y Y Shprits; R B Horne; E E Woodfield; G B Hospodarsky; D A Gurnett

    2012-01-01

      In this paper we compare and contrast chorus, electron cyclotron harmonics (ECH), and Z mode emissions observed at Jupiter and Saturn and relate them to recent work on electron acceleration at Earth...

  6. Frequency Steered Acoustic Transducer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II project is to fabricate, characterize, and verify performance of a new type of frequency steered acoustic transducer...

  7. Quantification of Gaussian quantum steering

    CERN Document Server

    Kogias, Ioannis; Ragy, Sammy; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering incarnates a useful nonclassical correlation which sits in-between entanglement and Bell nonlocality. While a number of qualitative steering criteria exist, very little has been achieved for what concerns quantifying steerability. We introduce a computable measure of steering for arbitrary bipartite Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. For two-mode Gaussian states, the measure reduces to a form of coherent information, which is proven never to exceed entanglement, and to reduce to it on pure states. We provide an operational connection between our measure and the key rate in one-sided device-independent quantum key distribution. We further prove that steering bound entangled Gaussian states by Gaussian measurements is impossible.

  8. STEER Coastal Use Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Use Mapping Project is designed to collect critical information on human activities in and near the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER). The project...

  9. Frequency Steered Acoustic Transducer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is to develop, fabricate, and characterize a novel frequency steered acoustic transducer (FSAT) for the...

  10. STEER Coastal Use Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Use Mapping Project is designed to collect critical information on human activities in and near the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER). The project...

  11. Control of core argon impurity profile by ECH in KSTAR L-mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joohwan; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Juhyung; Seon, C. R.; Lee, S. G.; Park, G. Y.; Lee, K. D.; Henderson, S. S.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, Jae Sun; Jang, Juhyeok; Jang, Siwon; Jeon, Taemin; O'Mullane, M.; Choe, Wonho

    2015-06-01

    Experiments on trace argon impurity transport in L-mode discharges were performed on Korea superconducting tokamak advanced research (KSTAR) with electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH). Ar emission was measured by soft x-ray (SXR) arrays and vacuum UV (VUV) diagnostics. A significant reduction in the core Ar emissivity was observed with core ECH. The reduction was the largest with on-axis heating and became smaller with outward heating positions. The diffusivity and convection velocity of Ar were obtained by analysis of the SXR data with the SANCO impurity transport code for the on-axis ECH and the non-ECH shots. In the on-axis ECH case, both diffusivity and convection velocity increased. Furthermore, the convection changed its direction from inward to outward in the plasma core (r/a < 0.3), resulting in a hollow profile of the total Ar density. Together with the reduction in the SXR signals, the hollow impurity profile in the core and the reversal of the convection velocity consistently confirm that ECH can reduce impurity accumulation in the core region. Neoclassical impurity transport and linear stability of micro-turbulence were calculated and discussed in relation to the possible transport mechanism.

  12. Responder fast steering mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Andrew; Shawki, Islam

    2013-10-01

    Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) has designed, built and tested a 3.3-inch diameter fast steering mirror (FSM) for space application. This 2-axis FSM operates over a large angle (over 10 degree range), has a very high servo bandwidth (over 3.3 Khz closed loop bandwidth), has nanoradian-class noise, and is designed to support microradian class line of sight accuracy. The FSM maintains excellent performance over large temperature ranges (which includes wave front error) and has very high reliability with the help of fully redundant angle sensors and actuator circuits. The FSM is capable of achieving all its design requirements while also being reaction-compensated. The reaction compensation is achieved passively and does not need a separate control loop. The FSM has undergone various environmental testing which include exported forces and torques and thermal vacuum testing that support the FSM design claims. This paper presents the mechanical design and test results of the mechanism which satisfies the rigorous vacuum and space application requirements.

  13. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steering Group, Fermilab; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOvA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the

  14. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beier, Eugene; /Pennsylvania U.; Butler, Joel; /Fermilab; Dawson, Sally; /Brookhaven; Edwards, Helen; /Fermilab; Himel, Thomas; /SLAC; Holmes, Stephen; /Fermilab; Kim, Young-Kee; /Fermilab /Chicago U.; Lankford, Andrew; /UC, Irvine; McGinnis, David; /Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei; /Fermilab; Raubenheimer, Tor; /SLAC /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOVA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the

  15. Multi-Layer Traffic Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Polignano, Michele; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the potentials of traffic steering in the Radio Resource Control (RRC) Idle state by evaluating the Absolute Priorities (AP) framework in a multilayer Long Term Evolution (LTE) macrocell scenario. Frequency priorities are broadcast on the system information and RRC Idle...... users can be steered towards higher priority carriers whenever coverage allows it. However, such an approach may overload the prioritized layers. For that purpose, an enhanced scheme is proposed, where priorities are adjusted on a user basis and are provided to the terminal via the connection release...

  16. Joint Measurability and Temporal Steering

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik, H. S.; Tej, J Prabhu; Devi, A. R. Usha; Rajagopal, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Quintino et. al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 160402 (2014)) and Uola et. al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 160403 (2014)) have recently established an intrinsic relation between non-joint measurability and Einstein-Podolsky- Rosen steering. They showed that a set of measurements is incompatible (i.e., not jointly measurable) if and only if it can be used for the demonstration of steering. In this paper, we prove the temporal analog of this result viz., a set of measurements are incompatible if and only i...

  17. Bulling among yearling feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, R E; Jensen, R; Braddy, P M; Horton, D P; Christie, R M

    1976-09-01

    In a survey to determine the cause of illness and deaths among yearling feedlot cattle, bulling was found to be one of the major problems. During the years 1971-1974, 54,913 (2.88%) steers became bullers and represented an annual loss of around +325,000. Some of the causes of bulling were found to be hormones, either as implants or in the feed. In 1974, from 1,988 necropsies, it was determined that 83 steers died from riding injuries.

  18. Observation of the ECH effect on the impurity accumulation in the LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, N.; Suzuki, C.; Satake, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Nunami, M.; Funaba, H.; Tanaka, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Ida, K.; Sudo, S.

    2017-05-01

    Recent experiments in the Large Helical Device (LHD) clearly show the ability of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) to control accumulation of impurities, as demonstrated by external injection of a tracer-encapsulated solid pellet (TESPEL). The impurity introduced locally into the core region of the LHD plasma by the TESPEL has strongly accumulated in a high-density LHD plasma, as well as an intrinsic impurity, such as a carbon. When a high-power (1.5 MW) ECH is applied just after the TESPEL injection for such a plasma, the accumulation of the impurity injected by the TESPEL was almost completely suppressed. This result indicates that applying ECH enhances the outward radial impurity flux. Although a neoclassical ambipolar radial electric field in stellarators has a stronger impact on the transport, particularly on the impurity transport, than in tokamaks, the sign of the radial electric field measured and calculated is directed to a negative even in the 1.5 MW ECH case, resulting in the inward impurity flux. By revisiting the neoclassical formulation, an increment of ion temperature and its gradient could be one of the candidates for the explanation, since the ion temperature is also increased globally by ECH.

  19. 46 CFR 176.814 - Steering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering systems. 176.814 Section 176.814 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.814 Steering systems. At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to test the steering systems of...

  20. A survey of computational steering environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.D.; Wijk, J.J. van; Liere, R. van

    1998-01-01

    Computational steering is a powerful concept that allows scientists to interactively control a computational process during its execution. In this paper, a survey of computational steering environments for the on-line steering of ongoing scientific and engineering simulations is presented. These env

  1. Objective Evaluation Method of Steering Comfort Based on Movement Quality Evaluation of Driver Steering Maneuver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yiyong; LIU Yahui; WANG Man; JI Run; JI Xuewu

    2014-01-01

    The existing research of steering comfort mainly focuses on the subjective evaluation, aiming at designing and optimizing the steering system. In the development of steering system, especially the evaluation of steering comfort, the objective evaluation methods considered the kinematic characteristics of driver steering maneuver are not proposed, which means that the objective evaluation of steering cannot be conducted with the evaluation of kinematic characteristics of driver in steering maneuver. In order to propose the objective evaluation methods of steering comfort, the evaluation of steering movement quality of driver is developed on the basis of the study of the kinematic characteristics of steering maneuver. First, the steering motion trajectories of the driver in both comfortable and certain extreme uncomfortable operation conditions are detected using the Vicon motion capture system. The operation conditions are under the restrictions of the vertical height and horizontal distance between steering wheel center and the H-point of driver, and the steering resisting torque else. Next, the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver is assessed using twelve kinds of evaluation indices based on the kinematic analyses of the steering motion trajectories to propose an objective evaluation method. Finally, an integrated discomfort index of steering maneuver is proposed on the basis of the regression analysis of subjective evaluation rating and the movement quality evaluation indices, including the Jerk, Discomfort and Joint Torque indices. The test results show that the proposed integrated discomfort index gives a good fitting with the subjective evaluation of discomfort, which means it can be used to evaluate or predict the discomfort level of steering maneuver. This paper proposes an objective evaluation method of steering comfort based on the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver.

  2. Exploration quantum steering, nonlocality and entanglement of two-qubit X-state in structured reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Yang; Wang, Dong; Shi, Jia-Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-02-01

    In this work, there are two parties, Alice on Earth and Bob on the satellite, which initially share an entangled state, and some open problems, which emerge during quantum steering that Alice remotely steers Bob, are investigated. Our analytical results indicate that all entangled pure states and maximally entangled evolution states (EESs) are steerable, and not every entangled evolution state is steerable and some steerable states are only locally correlated. Besides, quantum steering from Alice to Bob experiences a “sudden death” with increasing decoherence strength. However, shortly after that, quantum steering experiences a recovery with the increase of decoherence strength in bit flip (BF) and phase flip (PF) channels. Interestingly, while they initially share an entangled pure state, all EESs are steerable and obey Bell nonlocality in PF and phase damping channels. In BF channels, all steerable states can violate Bell-CHSH inequality, but some EESs are unable to be employed to realize steering. However, when they initially share an entangled mixed state, the outcome is different from that of the pure state. Furthermore, the steerability of entangled mixed states is weaker than that of entangled pure states. Thereby, decoherence can induce the degradation of quantum steering, and the steerability of state is associated with the interaction between quantum systems and reservoirs.

  3. Exploration quantum steering, nonlocality and entanglement of two-qubit X-state in structured reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Yang; Wang, Dong; Shi, Jia-Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-01-01

    In this work, there are two parties, Alice on Earth and Bob on the satellite, which initially share an entangled state, and some open problems, which emerge during quantum steering that Alice remotely steers Bob, are investigated. Our analytical results indicate that all entangled pure states and maximally entangled evolution states (EESs) are steerable, and not every entangled evolution state is steerable and some steerable states are only locally correlated. Besides, quantum steering from Alice to Bob experiences a “sudden death” with increasing decoherence strength. However, shortly after that, quantum steering experiences a recovery with the increase of decoherence strength in bit flip (BF) and phase flip (PF) channels. Interestingly, while they initially share an entangled pure state, all EESs are steerable and obey Bell nonlocality in PF and phase damping channels. In BF channels, all steerable states can violate Bell-CHSH inequality, but some EESs are unable to be employed to realize steering. However, when they initially share an entangled mixed state, the outcome is different from that of the pure state. Furthermore, the steerability of entangled mixed states is weaker than that of entangled pure states. Thereby, decoherence can induce the degradation of quantum steering, and the steerability of state is associated with the interaction between quantum systems and reservoirs. PMID:28145467

  4. Remote control as an aid to safety in underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, M.; Carbonel, P.

    1987-04-01

    Discusses the general concepts of safety and reliability on coal shearers, both with manual and remote control steering, including how the remote-control equipment is protected from electromagnetic disturbance, etc. Describes equipment developed by Cerchar: Telsafe carrier-cable remote control, Telsafe TV remote control, Telsafe CA data transmission system. Concludes by emphasising the need for equipment reliability in order to achieve marketing success.

  5. An integrated payload design for the Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Tennyson, Jonathan; Tessenyi, Marcell

    2012-01-01

    The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) is a space mission dedicated to undertaking spectroscopy of transiting exoplanets over the widest wavelength range possible. It is based around a highly stable space platform with a 1.2 m class telescope. The mission is currently being studied...

  6. HUMAN-SIMULATING VEHICLE STEERING CONTROL ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Youchun; LI Keqiang; CHANG Ming; CHEN Jun

    2006-01-01

    A new vehicle steering control algorithm is presented. Unlike the traditional methods do,the algorithm uses a sigmoid function to describe the principle of the human driver's steering strategy.Based on this function, a human simulating vehicle steering model, human-simulating steering control(HS) algorithm is designed. In order to improve the adaptability to different environments, a parameter adaptive adjustment algorithm is presented. This algorithm can online modify the value of the key parameters of the HS real time. HS controller is used on a vehicle equipped with computer vision system and computer controlled steering actuator system, the result from the automatic vehicle steering experiment shows that the HS algorithm gives good performance at different speed, even at the maximum speed of 172 km/h.

  7. 46 CFR 182.610 - Main steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main steering gear. 182.610 Section 182.610 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.610 Main steering gear. (a) A vessel must be provided with a main steering gear that is: (1) Of adequate strength and capable of steering the vessel at all...

  8. Driver behavior following an automatic steering intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Nicola; Griesche, Stefan; Schieben, Anna; Hesse, Tobias; Baumann, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated driver behavior toward an automatic steering intervention of a collision mitigation system. Forty participants were tested in a driving simulator and confronted with an inevitable collision. They performed a naïve drive and afterwards a repeated exposure in which they were told to hold the steering wheel loosely. In a third drive they experienced a false alarm situation. Data on driving behavior, i.e. steering and braking behavior as well as subjective data was assessed in the scenarios. Results showed that most participants held on to the steering wheel strongly or counter-steered during the system intervention during the first encounter. Moreover, subjective data collected after the first drive showed that the majority of drivers was not aware of the system intervention. Data from the repeated drive in which participants were instructed to hold the steering wheel loosely, led to significantly more participants holding the steering wheel loosely and thus complying with the instruction. This study seems to imply that without knowledge and information of the system about an upcoming intervention, the most prevalent driving behavior is a strong reaction with the steering wheel similar to an automatic steering reflex which decreases the system's effectiveness. Results of the second drive show some potential for countermeasures, such as informing drivers shortly before a system intervention in order to prevent inhibiting reactions.

  9. Development of a Computational Steering Framework for High Performance Computing Environments on Blue Gene/P Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Danani, Bob K.

    2012-07-01

    Computational steering has revolutionized the traditional workflow in high performance computing (HPC) applications. The standard workflow that consists of preparation of an application’s input, running of a simulation, and visualization of simulation results in a post-processing step is now transformed into a real-time interactive workflow that significantly reduces development and testing time. Computational steering provides the capability to direct or re-direct the progress of a simulation application at run-time. It allows modification of application-defined control parameters at run-time using various user-steering applications. In this project, we propose a computational steering framework for HPC environments that provides an innovative solution and easy-to-use platform, which allows users to connect and interact with running application(s) in real-time. This framework uses RealityGrid as the underlying steering library and adds several enhancements to the library to enable steering support for Blue Gene systems. Included in the scope of this project is the development of a scalable and efficient steering relay server that supports many-to-many connectivity between multiple steered applications and multiple steering clients. Steered applications can range from intermediate simulation and physical modeling applications to complex computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications or advanced visualization applications. The Blue Gene supercomputer presents special challenges for remote access because the compute nodes reside on private networks. This thesis presents an implemented solution and demonstrates it on representative applications. Thorough implementation details and application enablement steps are also presented in this thesis to encourage direct usage of this framework.

  10. Strong continuous variable EPR-steering with a detection efficiency above 96%

    CERN Document Server

    Steinlechner, Sebastian; Eberle, Tobias; Schnabel, Roman

    2011-01-01

    In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen reported a gedanken experiment which became famous as the EPR-paradox. In the same year, Schr\\"odinger introduced the terms entanglement and steering in order to describe the underlying effect that a measurement on subsystem A of a certain class of entangled states may apparently allow for a remote steering of the measurement outcome at subsystem B, without the presence of a physical interaction between the subsystems. In this work we report on the observation of unprecedented strong EPR-steering in the gaussian regime, quantified by an EPR co-variance product of about 0.04 < 1, where 1 is the critical value. Together with a high detection efficiency of more than 96%, our result is an important milestone towards applications of gaussian entanglement distribution.

  11. Tumor-induced remote ECM network orientation steers angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balcioglu, H.E.; Water, van de B.; Danen, E.H.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we use automated sequential microprinting of tumor and endothelial cells in extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds to study its mechanical aspects. Quantitative reflection microscopy shows that tumor spheroids induce radial orientation of

  12. Steering control system for a mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolli, Kaylan C.; Hall, Ernest L.

    1997-09-01

    Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) have many potential applications in manufacturing, medicine, space and defense. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of a steering mechanism for an autonomous mobile robot. The steering mechanism replaces a manually turned rack and pinion arrangement with a crank mechanism driven by a linear actuator that in turn is powered by a brushless dc motor. The system was modeled, analyzed, and redesigned to meet the requirements. A 486 computer through a 3-axis motion controller supervises the steering control. The steering motor is a brushless dc motor powered by three phase signals. It is run in current loop mode. The steering control system is supervised by a personal computer through a multi-axis motion controller. Testing of these systems has been done in the lab as well as on an outside test track with positive results.

  13. Wireless traffic steering for green cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces wireless traffic steering as a paradigm to realize green communication in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks. By matching network resources and dynamic mobile traffic demand, traffic steering helps to reduce on-grid power consumption with on-demand services provided. This book reviews existing solutions from the perspectives of energy consumption reduction and renewable energy harvesting. Specifically, it explains how traffic steering can improve energy efficiency through intelligent traffic-resource matching. Several promising traffic steering approaches for dynamic network planning and renewable energy demand-supply balancing are discussed. This book presents an energy-aware traffic steering method for networks with energy harvesting, which optimizes the traffic allocated to each cell based on the renewable energy status. Renewable energy demand-supply balancing is a key factor in energy dynamics, aimed at enhancing renewable energy sustainability to reduce on-grid energy consum...

  14. The Gaia Survey Contribution to EChO Target Selection and Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Sozzetti, A

    2014-01-01

    The scientific output of the proposed EChO mission (in terms of spectroscopic characterization of the atmospheres of transiting extrasolar planets) will be maximized by a careful selection of targets and by a detailed characterization of the main physical parameters (such as masses and radii) of both the planets and their stellar hosts. To achieve this aim, the availability of high-quality data from other space-borne and ground-based programs will play a crucial role. Here we identify and discuss the elements of the Gaia catalogue that will be of utmost relevance for the selection and characterization of transiting planet systems to be observed by the proposed EChO mission.

  15. Density Dependence of Particle Transport in ECH Plasmas of the TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, V. I.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Guasp, J.; Herranz, J.; Estrada, T.; Medina, F.; Ochando, M.A.; Velasco, J.L.; Reynolds, J.M.; Ferreira, J.A.; Tafalla, D.; Castejon, F.; Salas, A.

    2009-05-21

    We present the experimental dependence of particle transport on average density in electron cyclotron heated (ECH) hydrogen plasmas of the TJ-II stellarator. The results are based on: (I) electron density and temperature data from Thomson Scattering and reflectometry diagnostics; (II) a transport model that reproduces the particle density profiles in steady state; and (III) Eirene, a code for neutrals transport that calculates the particle source in the plasma from the particle confinement time and the appropriate geometry of the machine/plasma. After estimating an effective particle diffusivity and the particle confinement time, a threshold density separating qualitatively and quantitatively different plasma transport regimes is found. The poor confinement times found below the threshold are coincident with the presence of ECH-induced fast electron losses and a positive radial electric field all over the plasma. (Author) 40 refs.

  16. Self-consistent electric field effect on electron transport of ECH plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, V.S. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Murakami, S.

    1999-02-01

    An algorithm is proposed which treats the ECH generated potential in a self-consistent way, by extending the Monte-Carlo Fokker-Planck method used by Murakami [S. Murakami et al., Proc. 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Yokohama, 1998 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, in press), paper CN-69/TH2/1]. The additional physics is expected to influence the transport of both thermal and suprathermal electrons in a helical toroidal system. (author)

  17. Preliminary study of the EChO data sampling and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, M.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Focardi, M.; Pace, E.; Micela, G.; Galli, E.; Giusi, G.; Liu, S. J.; Pezzuto, S.

    2014-08-01

    The EChO Payload is an integrated spectrometer with six different channels covering the spectral range from the visible up to the thermal infrared. A common Instrument Control Unit (ICU) implements all the instrument control and health monitoring functionalities as well as all the onboard science data processing. To implement an efficient design of the ICU on board software, separate analysis of the unit requirements are needed for the commanding and housekeeping collection as well as for the data acquisition, sampling and compression. In this work we present the results of the analysis carried out to optimize the EChO data acquisition and processing chain. The HgCdTe detectors used for EChO mission allow for non-destructive readout modes, such that the charge may be read without removing it after reading out. These modes can reduce the equivalent readout noise and the gain in signal to noise ratio can be computed using well known relations based on fundamental principles. In particular, we considered a multiaccumulation approach based on non-destructive reading of detector samples taken at equal time intervals. All detectors are periodically reset after a certain number of samples have been acquired and the length of the reset interval, as well as the number of samples and the sampling rate can be adapted to the brightness of the considered source. The estimation of the best set of parameters for the signal to noise ratio optimization and of the best sampling technique has been done by taking into account also the needs of mitigating the expected radiation effects on the acquired data. Cosmic rays can indeed be one of the major sources of data loss for a space observatory, and the studies made for the JWST mission allowed us to evaluate the actual need of the implementation of a dedicated deglitching procedure on board EChO.

  18. Helicopter downwash measured by continuous-wave Doppler lidars with agile beam steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas; Hansen, Per

    2012-01-01

    A ground-based remote sensing short-range WindScanner with agile beam steering based on a modified ZephIR continuous-wave wind lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) and a double prism arrangement has recently been developed at the Department of Wind Energy at the DTU Risø campus. The WindScanner me......A ground-based remote sensing short-range WindScanner with agile beam steering based on a modified ZephIR continuous-wave wind lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) and a double prism arrangement has recently been developed at the Department of Wind Energy at the DTU Risø campus. The Wind...

  19. Joint measurability and temporal steering [Invited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, H. S.; Prabhu Tej, J.; Usha Devi, A. R.; Rajagopal, A. K.

    2015-04-01

    Quintino et. al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 160402 (2014)) and Uola et. al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 160403 (2014)) have recently established an intrinsic relation between non-joint measurability and Einstein-Podolsky- Rosen steering. They showed that a set of measurements is incompatible (i.e., not jointly measurable) if and only if it can be used for the demonstration of steering. In this paper, we prove the temporal analog of this result viz., a set of measurements are incompatible if and only if it exhibits temporal steering.

  20. 46 CFR 108.641 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 108.641 Section... steering gear. Instructions stating, in order, the different steps to be taken for changing to emergency and secondary steering gear must be posted in the steering gear room and at each secondary...

  1. 46 CFR 169.623 - Power-driven steering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power-driven steering systems. 169.623 Section 169.623 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Steering Systems § 169.623 Power-driven steering systems. (a) Power-driven steering...

  2. Steer-by-wire steering system with enhanced functionality for rear steered vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Dillmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heckgelenkte selbstfahrende Erntemaschinen sind die zentralen Elemente moderner Ernteketten in der Landwirtschaft. Das primär auf Bodenschonung ausgelegte Fahrwerk, die aktuelle Höchstgeschwindigkeit von 40 km/h sowie die systembedingten, fahrdynamischen Nachteile einer heckgelenkten Maschine erschweren jedoch die Fahrzeugführung auf der Straße. Das Spurhalten und Stabilisieren erfordert daher viel Erfahrung und eine hohe Konzentration des Fahrers. Fahrdynamiksysteme können den Fahrzeugführer entlasten und somit das Fahren mit hohen Geschwindigkeiten sicherer und komfortabler gestalten. Im hier vorgestellten Projekt wird in diesem Kontext eine Steer-by-wire-Lenkung mit parametrierbarer Lenkcharakteristik vorgestellt, die auf die unterschiedlichen Vorzüge des Fahrers einstellbar ist und fahrzustandsabhängige Informationen über das Lenkrad an den Bediener übermittelt.

  3. Monitoring and Steering of Large-Scale Distributed Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, G.A.; Kohl, J.A.

    1999-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a state-of-the-art parallel application development system called CUMULVS, which allows scientists to easily incorporate interactive visualization, computational steering and fault tolerance into distributed software applications. The system is a valuable tool for many large scientific applications because it enables the scientist to visually monitor large data fields and remotely control parameters inside a running application. Collaborative monitoring is provided by allowing multiple researchers to simultaneously attach to a simulation, each controlling their own view of the same or different data fields within the simulation. By supporting steering of a simulation while it is running, CUMULVS provides the opportunity to accelerate the process of scientific discovery. CUMULVS also provides a simple mechanism to incorporate automatic checkpointing and heterogeneous task migration into large applications so that simulations can continue to run for weeks unattended. This paper will give an overview of the CUMULVS system and its capabilities, including several case histories. The status of the project is described with instructions on how to obtain the software.

  4. Performance assessment of PEFP steering magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, S. H.; Jeo, Y. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    PEFP LEBT uses two solenoid and two steering magnets for the beam position and angle control at the RFQ match point. The dependence of magnetic field and coil temperature on time was assessed and the linearity was also measured.

  5. CCCT - NCTN Steering Committees - Gynecologic Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gynecologic Cancers Steering Committee evaluates and prioritizes concepts for phase 2 and 3 clinical trials in adult gynecologic cancers. The GCSC is also intent on fostering collaboration with international groups and institutions conducting trials.

  6. Omni rotational driving and steering wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Abstract of WO 2008138346  (A1) There is disclosed a driving and steering wheel (112) module (102) with an omni rotational part (106), the module comprising a flange part (104) fixable on a robot, and the omni rotational part (106) comprises an upper omni rotational part (105) and a driving...... and steering wheel part (108), where the omni rotational part (106) is provided for infinite rotation relative to the flange part (104) by both a drive motor (110) and a steering motor (114) being positionable on the flange part (104), and the driving and steering wheel part (108) is suspended from the upper...... omni rotational part (105) with a suspension (116) such that wheel part (108) can move relatively to the upper omni rotational part (105) in a suspension direction (118), and a reduction gear (120) for gearing the drive torque is provided in the wheel part (108) in order e.g. to assure traction...

  7. CCCT - NCTN Steering Committees - Clinical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clinical Imaging Steering Committee serves as a forum for the extramural imaging and oncology communities to provide strategic input to the NCI regarding its significant investment in imaging activities in clinical trials.

  8. CCCT - NCORP Cancer Control Steering Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Steering Committees review concepts for clinical trials to control cancer symptoms and cancer treatment side effects, and concepts for studies of cancer care delivery.

  9. New steering mechanism for wheeled mobile robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sidibe Marie Bernard; FU Yi-li; XU He; MA Yu-lin

    2007-01-01

    A new castor wheel mechanism for omni-directional mobile platform is presented. A motion of translation is transformed into a rotation to steer the wheel with the help of a helical path fits into a translation joint and three rollers whose axes are connected to the driving shaft of the wheel. When the path moves in translation it acts on the rollers for steering. The path-roller friction transmission, the wheel kinematics and the maneuverability have been analyzed.

  10. Quantum steering in cascaded four-wave mixing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Lv, Shuchao; Jing, Jietai

    2017-07-24

    Quantum steering is used to describe the "spooky action-at-a-distance" nonlocality raised in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox, which is important for understanding entanglement distribution and constructing quantum networks. Here, in this paper, we study an experimentally feasible scheme for generating quantum steering based on cascaded four-wave-mixing (FWM) processes in hot rubidium (Rb) vapor. Quantum steering, including bipartite steering and genuine tripartite steering among the output light fields, is theoretically analyzed. We find the corresponding gain regions in which the bipartite and tripartite steering exist. The results of bipartite steering can be used to establish a hierarchical steering model in which one beam can steer the other two beams in the whole gain region; however, the other two beams cannot steer the first beam simultaneously. Moreover, the other two beams cannot steer with each other in the whole gain region. More importantly, we investigate the gain dependence of the existence of the genuine tripartite steering and we find that the genuine tripartite steering exists in most of the whole gain region in the ideal case. Also we discuss the effect of losses on the genuine tripartite steering. Our results pave the way to experimental demonstration of quantum steering in cascaded FWM process.

  11. Active steering control strategy for articulated vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyong-il KIM; Hsin GUAN; Bo WANG; Rui GUO; Fan LIANG

    2016-01-01

    To improve maneuverability and stability of articulated vehicles, we design an active steering controller, including tractor and trailer controllers, based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) theory. First, a three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) model of the tractor-trailer with steered trailer axles is built. The simulated annealing particle swarm optimization (SAPSO) algorithm is applied to identify the key parameters of the model under specified vehicle speed and steering wheel angle. Thus, the key pa-rameters of the simplified model can be obtained according to the vehicle conditions using an online look-up table and interpola-tion. Simulation results show that vehicle parameter outputs of the simplified model and TruckSim agree well, thus providing the ideal reference yaw rate for the controller. Then the active steering controller of the tractor and trailer based on LQR is designed to follow the desired yaw rate and minimize their side-slip angle of the center of gravity (CG) at the same time. Finally, simulation tests at both low speed and high speed are conducted based on the TruckSim-Simulink program. The results show significant effects on the active steering controller on improving maneuverability at low speed and lateral stability at high speed for the articulated vehicle. The control strategy is applicable for steering not only along gentle curves but also along sharp curves.

  12. Improvement of motor inertia influence of electric power steering; Dendoshiki power steering no motor kansei no eikyo to hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, S.; Sakamoto, K.; Hanamoto, Y. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Noritsugu, T. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Motor inertia of electric power steering affects not only steering characteristics but vehicle dynamics. We have investigated the influence of motor inertia and proposed a feedback strategy to compensate it. Weight of the test vehicle is 1100Kg and the steering system is pinion type electric power steering. By using simulation model and vehicle test, we have realized natural steering maneuvering and stable vehicle dynamics. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  13. QuEChERS-HPLC-DAD method for sulphonamides in chicken breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Caetani Machado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of a QuEChERS-HPLC-DAD method using a Lichrospher 60 RP-Select B column (250 x 4.6 mm x 5 µm at 40ºC, mobile phase constituted by phosphate buffer:acetonitrile (75:25, v/v at a initial flow rate of 0.5 mL min-1, increased by 1.2 mL min-1 and at 265 nm is presented for simultaneous determination of sulphadiazine, sulphametoxipiridazine and sulphamethoxazole in chicken breast samples. QuEchERS is inexpensive, fast and easy, and the extraction of the analytes of the matrix was successfully employed. In addition, the method presented linearity, in the range of 25, 50, 100, 150, 175, and 200 µg kg-1, precision, selectivity and sensitivity. The intraday precision (RSD % for QuEChERS method was between 3.6-10.8 (SDZ, 6.9-14.1 (SPZ and 1.9-10.9 (SMX and interday precision (RSD% was between 1.5-9.7, 1.7-4.1 and 2.1-10.2, respectively. Results of accuracy (bias were in the range of -8.6 to +11.9 %. Therefore, the validated method is clearly useful for the practical residue monitoring of the drugs evaluated in chicken samples, as all the values were within the acceptable criteria used for food safety. Of 6 samples analyzed, none of them showed contamination of the sulphonamides studied at detectable levels.O desenvolvimento de um método QuEChERS-HPLC-DAD usando uma coluna Lichrospher RP-60 Select B (250 x 4,6 mm x 5 µm a 40 ºC, fase móvel constituída por tampão de fosfato: acetonitrila (75:25, v/v a uma vazão inicial de 0,5 mL min-1, aumentando 1,2 mL min-1 e a 265 nm é apresentado para a determinação simultânea de sulfadiazina, sulfametoxipiridazina e sulfametoxazol em amostras de peito de frango. O QuEChERS é barato, rápido e fácil, e a extração dos analitos da matriz foi empregada com sucesso. Além disso, o método apresentou linearidade, na faixa de 25, 50, 100, 150, 175 e 200 µg kg-1, precisão, seletividade e sensibilidade. A precisão intradia (RSD % para o método QuEChERS foi entre 3,6-10,8 (SDZ, 6,9-14,1 (SPZ

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of ech46 endochitinase from Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Salwan, Richa; Sharma, P N; Kanwar, S S

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, endochitinase of T. harzianum isolate-ThHP3 induced against mycelium of F. oxysporum was cloned, sequenced and characterized. The complete nucleotide sequence contained an ORF of 1293bp corresponding to 430 amino acids with 46kDa molecular weight and theoretical pI 5.59. The precursor protein contained 22 amino acids long signal peptide at N terminus. The domain architecture of endochitinase showed low complexity regions, presence of 1W9P domain specific to cyclopentapeptide and lack of carbohydrate binding modules. The ligand binding site of ech46 endochitinase was constituted by 10 amino acids. The cDNA encoding ech46 endochitinase was ligated into pET28a vector and transformed to E. coli BL21. The predicted molecular weight of recombinant endochitinase without signal peptide was 49.4kDa with a theoretical pI 6.67. SDS-PAGE analysis of purified 6xHis tagged protein showed a single band of 49kDa. The refolded enzyme was active under acidic conditions with a temperature and pH optima of 50°C and 4. Km and Vmax for recombinant endochitinase using 4-pNP-(GlcNAc)3 were 315.2±0.36μM and 0.140±0.08μMmin(-1), respectively and the calculated kcat was 6.44min(-1). The RT-qPCR revealed induction of ech46 by phytopathogenic fungi.

  15. Research on Modeling and Active Steering Control Algorithm for Electric Forklift Steer-by-Wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, according to the structure characteristics of steer-by-wire (SBW system for the TFC20 electric forklift, steering dynamics model and two degree of freedom vehicle model are deduced for SBW forklift. Aiming at the free design features of the angular transmission characteristics in the SBW system of electric forklift, the theory of active steering control strategy is studied. After analyzing the influence factors of the angular trans mission ratio of the steering system, the ideal angular transmission ratio is proposed, which is based on the yaw rate gain invariance. Also, the control strategy of the yaw rate feedback and the full state feedback is studied. The simulation results show that the above strategy is effective for the active steering control; it can improve the operating stability and the response speed of the forklift.

  16. No-cloning of quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ching-Yi; Lambert, Neill; Liao, Teh-Lu; Nori, Franco; Li, Che-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering allows two parties to verify their entanglement, even if one party’s measurements are untrusted. This concept has not only provided new insights into the nature of non-local spatial correlations in quantum mechanics, but also serves as a resource for one-sided device-independent quantum information tasks. Here, we investigate how EPR steering behaves when one-half of a maximally entangled pair of qudits (multidimensional quantum systems) is cloned by a universal cloning machine. We find that EPR steering, as verified by a criterion based on the mutual information between qudits, can only be found in one of the copy subsystems but not both. We prove that this is also true for the single-system analogue of EPR steering. We find that this restriction, which we term ‘no-cloning of quantum steering’, elucidates the physical reason why steering can be used to secure sources and channels against cloning-based attacks when implementing quantum communication and quantum computation protocols.

  17. New developments in RF power and polarization measurements on the ECH System on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengher, M.; Lohr, J.; Gorelov, Y.; Moeller, C. P.; Ponce, D.; Torrezan, A.

    2016-10-01

    The rf power injected at the tokamak by the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system is measured and calibrated on a shot to shot basis for the six 110 GHz, 1 MW class gyrotrons. A new technique for ECH power measurement at the tokamak using a 4-port rf monitor was tested. Polarization scans for each system show H-plane and E-plane rf waveforms can be combined to provide a reliable calibrated power signal at the closest access point near the tokamak. Previous attempts to calibrate the power at this end were limited by the pickup of only one polarization angle at the last miter bend. Calorimetric measurements in the relevant gyrotron cooling circuits in conjunction with the 4-port RF monitors with orthomode transducers can be used to calibrate the rf power. Other alternative approaches showing proportionality with the input power like the inline power monitor and in-vessel measurements are discussed. Future plans include mode content measurements at the tokamak end of the transmission line using the 4-port RF monitors and mode sensitive directional couplers. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  18. Research on Torque Ratio Based on the Steering Wheel Torque Characteristic for Steer-by-Wire System

    OpenAIRE

    Yandong Han; Lei He; Xiang Wang; Changfu Zong

    2014-01-01

    Steer-by-wire system can improve the performance of vehicle handling stability. Removing the mechanical linkages between the front wheels and the steering wheel leads to a key technique of force feedback for steer-by-wire system. In view of the characteristic of variable torque transmission ratio for steer-by-wire system, this paper proposes a method for designing torque ratio based on the steering wheel torque characteristic for steer-by-wire system. It converts the torque ratio design into ...

  19. Diode laser lidar wind velocity sensor using a liquid-crystal retarder for non-mechanical beam-steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Iversen, Theis Faber Quist; Hu, Qi;

    2014-01-01

    We extend the functionality of a low-cost CW diode lasercoherent lidar from radial wind speed (scalar) sensing to wind velocity(vector) measurements. Both speed and horizontal direction of the wind at~80 m remote distance are derived from two successive radial speedestimates by alternately steering...... the lidar probe beam in two different lines-of-sight (LOS) with a 60° angular separation. Dual-LOS beam-steering isimplemented optically with no moving parts by means of a controllableliquid-crystal retarder (LCR). The LCR switches the polarization betweentwo orthogonal linear states of the lidar beam so...... steered fromone LOS to the other every half a second is experimentally demonstrated –resulting in 1 Hz rate estimates of wind velocity magnitude and direction atbetter than 0.1 m/s and 1° resolution, respectively...

  20. Tunable beam steering enabled by graphene metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazbayev, B; Beruete, M; Khromova, I

    2016-04-18

    We demonstrate tunable mid-infrared (MIR) beam steering devices based on multilayer graphene-dielectric metamaterials. The effective refractive index of such metamaterials can be manipulated by changing the chemical potential of each graphene layer. This can arbitrarily tailor the spatial distribution of the phase of the transmitted beam, providing mechanisms for active beam steering. Three different beam steerer (BS) designs are discussed: a graded-index (GRIN) graphene-based metamaterial block, an array of metallic waveguides filled with graphene-dielectric metamaterial and an array of planar waveguides created in a graphene-dielectric metamaterial block with a specific spatial profile of graphene sheets doping. The performances of the BSs are numerically analyzed, showing the tunability of the proposed designs for a wide range of output angles (up to approximately 70°). The proposed graphene-based tunable beam steering can be used in tunable transmitter/receiver modules for infrared imaging and sensing.

  1. Steering object-oriented computations with Python

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, T.-Y.B.; Dubois, P.F.; Furnish, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Beazley, D.M. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1996-10-01

    We have described current approaches and future plans for steering C++ application, running Python on parallel platforms, and combination of Tk interface and Python interpreter in steering computations. In addition, there has been significant enhancement in the Gist module. Tk mega widgets has been implemented for a few physics applications. We have also written Python interface to SIJLO, a data storage package used as an interface to a visualization system named MeshTv. Python is being used to control large-scale simulations (molecular dynamics in particular) running on the CM-5 and T3D at LANL as well. A few other code development projects at LLNL are either using or considering Python as their steering shells. In summary, the merits of Python have been appreciated by more and more people in the scientific computation community.

  2. Stability analysis of automobile driver steering control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    In steering an automobile, the driver must basically control the direction of the car's trajectory (heading angle) and the lateral deviation of the car relative to a delineated pathway. A previously published linear control model of driver steering behavior which is analyzed from a stability point of view is considered. A simple approximate expression for a stability parameter, phase margin, is derived in terms of various driver and vehicle control parameters, and boundaries for stability are discussed. A field test study is reviewed that includes the measurement of driver steering control parameters. Phase margins derived for a range of vehicle characteristics are found to be generally consistent with known adaptive properties of the human operator. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of driver adaptive behavior.

  3. Influence of different shoulder-elbow configurations on steering precision and steering velocity in automotive context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    Ergonomic design requirements are needed to develop optimum vehicle interfaces for the driver. The majority of the current specifications consider only anthropometric conditions and subjective evaluations of comfort. This paper examines specific biomechanical aspects to improve the current ergonomic requirements. Therefore, a research which involved 40 subjects was carried out to obtain more knowledge in the field of steering movement while driving a car. Five different shoulder-elbow joint configurations were analyzed using a driving simulator to find optimum posture for driving in respect of steering precision and steering velocity. Therefore, a 20 s precision test and a test to assess maximum steering velocity over a range of 90° steering motion have been conducted. The results show that driving precision, as well as maximum steering velocity, are significantly increased in mid-positions (elbow angles of 95° and 120°) compared to more flexed (70°) or extended (145° and 160°) postures. We conclude that driver safety can be enhanced by implementing these data in the automotive design process because faster and highly precise steering can be important during evasive actions and in accident situations. In addition, subjective comfort rating, analyzed with questionnaires, confirmed experimental results.

  4. Online optimized hysteresis-based steering feel model for steer-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kirli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In rubber-wheeled road vehicles, the mechanical connection between steering wheel and front wheels provides steering-related feedback to the driver. The torque fed back to the driver through the steering linkages and steering wheel, which is called steering feel, helps the driver in controlling the vehicle. The torque feedback is reproduced via artificial methods in steer-by-wire systems due to the lack of mechanical connection. In this work, in order to minimize the physical workload and the lateral acceleration under the consideration of handling performance, optimization of a hysteresis-based steering feel has been studied. A 2-degree-of-freedom bicycle model based on the magic formula tire model has been used for simulations and hardware-in-the-loop experiments. A mathematical model is proposed in order to create an adaptive model-based optimization of the hysteresis parameters simultaneously while driving. A hardware-in-the-loop experimental setup has been used for the driving tests. The weave and the double-lane change tests have been performed with different drivers in order to demonstrate and quantify the optimization methods that are presented in this work.

  5. Self-steering partially coherent beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yahong; Ponomarenko, Sergey A.; Cai, Yangjian

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a class of shape-invariant partially coherent beams with a moving guiding center which we term self-steering partially coherent beams. The guiding center of each such beam evolves along a straight line trajectory which can be engineered to make any angle with the x-axis. We show that the straight line trajectory of the guiding center is the only option in free space due to the linear momentum conservation. We experimentally generate a particular subclass of new beams, self-steering Gaussian Schell beams and argue that they can find applications for mobile target tracing and trapped micro- and/or nanoparticle transport. PMID:28051164

  6. A control theory approach to clock steering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Marcello; Galleani, Lorenzo; Tavella, Patrizia; Bittanti, Sergio

    2010-10-01

    Several clock and time scale steering methods have been developed according to different viewpoints by various time laboratories. By resorting to control theory ideas, we propose a common theoretical framework encompassing these methods. A comparison of the most common steering methodologies, namely, the classical steering approach, the GPS bang-bang method, and the linear quadratic Gaussian technique, is carried out. We believe that the use of control theory methods can potentially lead to a better understanding of clock steering algorithms.

  7. Loophole-free Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment via quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Bernhard; Ramelow, Sven; Steinlechner, Fabian; Langford, Nathan K.; Brunner, Nicolas; Wiseman, Howard M.; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2012-05-01

    Tests of the predictions of quantum mechanics for entangled systems have provided increasing evidence against local realistic theories. However, there remains the crucial challenge of simultaneously closing all major loopholes—the locality, freedom-of-choice and detection loopholes—in a single experiment. An important sub-class of local realistic theories can be tested with the concept of ‘steering’. The term ‘steering’ was introduced by Schrödinger in 1935 for the fact that entanglement would seem to allow an experimenter to remotely steer the state of a distant system as in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument. Einstein called this ‘spooky action at a distance’. EPR-steering has recently been rigorously formulated as a quantum information task opening it up to new experimental tests. Here, we present the first loophole-free demonstration of EPR-steering by violating three-setting quadratic steering inequality, tested with polarization-entangled photons shared between two distant laboratories. Our experiment demonstrates this effect while simultaneously closing all loopholes: both the locality loophole and a specific form of the freedom-of-choice loophole are closed by having a large separation of the parties and using fast quantum random number generators, and the fair-sampling loophole is closed by having high overall detection efficiency. Thereby, we exclude—for the first time loophole-free—an important class of local realistic theories considered by EPR. Besides its foundational importance, loophole-free steering also allows the distribution of quantum entanglement secure event in the presence of an untrusted party.

  8. 46 CFR 58.25-20 - Piping for steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for steering gear. 58.25-20 Section 58.25-20... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-20 Piping for steering gear. (a) Pressure piping must... actuating system including the reservoir. The storage tank must be permanently connected by piping so...

  9. 46 CFR 61.20-1 - Steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear. 61.20-1 Section 61.20-1 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-1 Steering gear. (a) The marine inspector must inspect the steering gear at each inspection for certification for vessels whose Certificate of...

  10. 46 CFR 167.65-25 - Steering gear tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear tests. 167.65-25 Section 167.65-25... SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-25 Steering gear tests. On all nautical school ships making voyages of more than 48 hours' duration, the entire steering gear, the whistle, the means...

  11. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steers and spayed heifers. 78.6... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers. Steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  12. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  13. Working paper on public steering of privately owned sports facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Evald Bundgård

    This short paper discusses how municipalities can steer privately owned sports facilities. Firstly I analyse why steering of privately owned facilities is an interesting subject. Secondly I discuss what the advantages and drawbacks of using different approaches for steering sports facilities are....

  14. Design and Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Controller for Online Computer Controlled Steering System for Navigation of a Teleoperated Agricultural Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prema Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes design, modeling, simulation, control, and implementation of teleoperated agricultural vehicle using intelligent technique. This vehicle can be used for ploughing, sowing, and soil moisture sensing. Online computer controlled steering system for a vehicle utilizing two independent drive wheels can be used to avoid obstacles and to improve the ability to resist external side forces. To control the steer angles of the nondriven wheels, the mathematical relationships between the drive wheel speeds and the steer angles of the nondriven wheels are used. A fuzzy logic controller is designed to change the drive wheel speeds and to achieve the desired steer angles. Online control of the agricultural vehicle is achieved from a remote place by means of Web Publishing Tool in LabVIEW. IR sensors in the vehicle are used to detect and to avoid the obstacles around. The developed steering angle control algorithm and fuzzy logic controller have been implemented in an agricultural vehicle which depicts that the vehicle performs its operation efficiently and reduces the manpower and becomes advantageous.

  15. QuEChERS sample preparation for the determination of pesticides and other organic residues in environmental matrices: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Checchini, Leonardo; De Carlo, Rosa Maria; Orlandini, Serena; Rivoira, Luca; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2014-07-01

    Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) is an extraction and clean-up technique originally developed for recovering pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables. Since its introduction, and until December 2013, about 700 papers have been published using the QuEChERS technique, according to a literature overview carried out using SciFinder, Elsevier SciVerse, and Google search engines. Most of these papers were dedicated to pesticide multiresidue analysis in food matrices, and this topic has been thoroughly reviewed over recent years. The QuEChERS approach is now rapidly developing beyond its original field of application to analytes other than pesticides, and matrices other than food, such as biological fluids and non-edible plants, including Chinese medicinal plants. Recently, the QuEChERS concept has spread to environmental applications by analyzing not only pesticides but also other compounds of environmental concern in soil, sediments, and water. To the best of our knowledge, QuEChERS environmental applications have not been reviewed so far; therefore, in this contribution, after a general discussion on the evolution and changes of the original QuEChERS method, a critical survey of the literature regarding environmental applications of conventional and modified QuEChERS methodology is provided. The overall recoveries obtained with QuEChERS and other extraction approaches (e.g., accelerated solvent extraction, ultrasonic solvent extraction, liquid/solid extraction, and soxhlet extraction) were compared, providing evidence for QuEChERS higher recoveries for various classes of compounds, such as biopesticides, chloroalkanes, phenols, and perfluoroalkyl substances. The role of physicochemical properties of soil (i.e., clay and organic carbon content, as well as cation exchange capacity) and target analytes (i.e., log KOW, water solubility, and vapor pressure) were also evaluated in order to interpret recovery and matrix effect data.

  16. Parametrizable cameras for 3D computational steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.D.; Wijk, J.J. van

    1997-01-01

    We present a method for the definition of multiple views in 3D interfaces for computational steering. The method uses the concept of a point-based parametrizable camera object. This concept enables a user to create and configure multiple views on his custom 3D interface in an intuitive graphical man

  17. Steered wheel for the support and/or steering of a vehicle, particularly hovercraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duell, H.J.; Kirchner, G.

    1977-04-07

    The invention concerns a steered wheel for the support or steering of a hovercraft, whose wheel suspension is provided with an eccentric journal for automatic setting in the direction of travel. So that the vehicle will not leave its track during changes of direction when the wheel is turned around the eccentric axis, according to the invention the wheel is supported on movable bearings at the journal in the direction of the driving axle.

  18. EChO spectra and stellar activity II. The case of dM stars

    CERN Document Server

    Scandariato, G

    2014-01-01

    EChO is a dedicated mission to investigate exoplanetary atmospheres. When extracting the planetary signal, one has to take care of the variability of the hosting star, which introduces spectral distortion that can be mistaken as planetary signal. Magnetic variability is a major deal in particular for M stars. To this purpose, assuming a one spot dominant model for the stellar photosphere, we develop a mixed observational-theoretical tool to extract the spot's parameters from the observed optical spectrum. This method relies on a robust library of spectral M templates, which we derive using the observed spectra of quiet M dwarfs in the SDSS database. Our procedure allows to correct the observed spectra for photospheric activity in most of the analyzed cases, reducing the spectral distortion down to the noise levels. Ongoing refinements of the template library and the algorithm will improve the efficiency of our algorithm.

  19. Interpreting EChO's future data: biological laboratory extimates under M star's planetary surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erculiani, Marco S.; Claudi, Riccardo U.; Giro, Enrico; Galletta, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Maurizio; Farisato, Giancarlo; Lessio, Luigi; Micela, Giuseppina; Billi, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    The EChO Exoplanet Atmosphere Characterization mission will have in the midst of its main targets, planets that orbit M stars in their or very close to their habitable zone. In this framework at the Astronomical Observatory of Padova (INAF) we are going to perform experiments that will give us an idea about the possible modification of the atmosphere by photosynthetic biota present on the planet surface. In the framework of the project "Atmosphere In a Test Tube", planetary environmental conditions are being performed. The bacteria that are being studied are Acaryochloris marina, Chroococcidiopsis sp., Cyanidium Caldarium and Halomicronema hongdechloris and tests are being performed with LISA ambient simulator in the laboratory of the Padova Astronomical Observatory.

  20. Selected highlights of ECH/ECCD physics studies in the TCV tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman T.P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tokamak a Configuration Variable, TCV, has used Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive as its only auxiliary heating system for nearly two decades. In addition to basic plasma heating and current profiling, ECH and ECCD under either feedforward or real-time (feedback control allows control of plasma parameters and MHD behaviour to aid in physics studies and measurements. This paper describes four such studies in which EC control has proved crucial – increased resolution Thomson Scattering measurements in the plasma edge, time-resolved plasma rotation modification during the sawtooth cycle, robust neoclassical tearing mode (NTM suppression, and double pass transmission measurements of EC waves for scattering and polarization studies. The relative merits of feedforward and feedback methods for recent TCV experiments are discussed.

  1. High power testing of water-cooled waveguide for ITER-like ECH transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. P.; Doane, J. L.; Grunloh, H. J.; O'Neill, R. C.; Ikeda, R.; Oda, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Sakamoto, K.

    2017-05-01

    The results of high power testing of new water-cooled ECH waveguide components for ITER are presented. The components are a precision-coupled 4.2 m waveguide assembly, a short expansion joint, and water-cooled waveguide for gyrotron commissioning. The testing was conducted at the QST Naka Fusion Institute using gyrotron pulses of 450 kW at 170 GHz for 300 s. Analysis shows that the power absorbed per unit length for the various waveguide components are dependent on location in the transmission line with respect to high order mode generators, such as miter bends. Additionally, larger-than-expected reflections from the load led to high absorption levels in the transmission line.

  2. Determining organochlorine pesticides in samples of green sea turtles by QuEChERS approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica María Sánchez-Sarmiento

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs can pose numerous adverse effects on biota. Marine turtles face numerous threats, in particular those related to anthropogenic activities. Therefore, development and improvement methodologies for monitoring chemical compounds are a relevant task. In this work, we developed a methodology based on the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe extraction for detection of twelve OCPs, by gas chromatography with electron capture detector, in fat and liver samples of green sea turtles. Quantification limits were lower than 5.3 ng g-1; acceptable recovery rates for most compounds; medium matrix effect; matrix-calibration with linearity at the range from 1.0 to 200 ng g-1. This methodology provides contributions for the study of pesticide residues with adverse effects on sea turtle health, important skills for new directions in conservation issues.

  3. Remote Research

    CERN Document Server

    Tulathimutte, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Remote studies allow you to recruit subjects quickly, cheaply, and immediately, and give you the opportunity to observe users as they behave naturally in their own environment. In Remote Research, Nate Bolt and Tony Tulathimutte teach you how to design and conduct remote research studies, top to bottom, with little more than a phone and a laptop.

  4. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering inequalities from entropic uncertainty relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeloch, James; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Walborn, Stephen P.; Cavalcanti, Eric G.; Howell, John C.

    2013-06-01

    We use entropic uncertainty relations to formulate inequalities that witness Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-steering correlations in diverse quantum systems. We then use these inequalities to formulate symmetric EPR-steering inequalities using the mutual information. We explore the differing natures of the correlations captured by one-way and symmetric steering inequalities and examine the possibility of exclusive one-way steerability in two-qubit states. Furthermore, we show that steering inequalities can be extended to generalized positive operator-valued measures, and we also derive hybrid steering inequalities between alternate degrees of freedom.

  5. How relativistic motion affects Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Yang; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-09-01

    In this letter, the dynamic behavior of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering and the redistribution of EPR steering under a relativistic framework are investigated. Specifically, we explore the scenario that particle A held by Alice is in a flat space-time and another particle B held by Bob entangled with A is in a non-inertial framework. The results show that EPR steering from Alice to Bob is dramatically destroyed by the Unruh effect caused by the acceleration of Bob. Besides, EPR steering possess asymmetry, and EPR steering asymmetry increases with growing intensity of the Unruh effect, implying that the Unruh effect can bring about EPR steering asymmetry. Furthermore, the reduced physically accessible EPR steering from Alice to Bob is distributed to the physically inaccessible EPR steering (from Alice to anti-Bob or from Bob to anti-Bob). Notably, unlike entanglement and quantum discord, only one of the EPR steering from Alice to anti-Bob and Bob to anti-Bob experiences a sudden birth with increase in the acceleration parameter, which means that they cannot simultaneously survive. That is, the monogamous relationship of EPR steering is still tenable in such a scenario. Consequently, we believe that EPR steering could also serve as an important information resource within long-distance quantum secure communication under the relativistic framework.

  6. Improving Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen steering inequalities with state information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneeloch, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Broadbent, Curtis J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Rochester Theory Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Howell, John C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We discuss the relationship between entropic Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR)-steering inequalities and their underlying uncertainty relations along with the hypothesis that improved uncertainty relations lead to tighter EPR-steering inequalities. In particular, we discuss how using information about the state of a quantum system affects one's ability to witness EPR-steering. As an example, we consider the recent improvement to the entropic uncertainty relation between pairs of discrete observables (Berta et al., 2010 [10]). By considering the assumptions that enter into the development of a steering inequality, we derive correct steering inequalities from these improved uncertainty relations and find that they are identical to ones already developed (Schneeloch et al., 2013 [9]). In addition, we consider how one can use state information to improve our ability to witness EPR-steering, and develop a new continuous variable symmetric EPR-steering inequality as a result.

  7. Active disturbance rejection control in steering by wire haptic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Angeles, A; Garcia-Antonio, J A

    2014-07-01

    This paper introduces a steering by wired haptic system based on disturbance rejection control techniques. High gain Generalized Proportional Integral (GPI) observers are considered for the estimation of tire and steering wheel dynamic disturbances. These disturbances are on line canceled to ensure tracking between the commanded steering wheel angle and the tire orientation angle. The estimated disturbances at the steering rack are feedback to the steering wheel to provide a haptic interface with the driver. The overall system behaves as a bilateral master-slave system. Very few sensors and minimum knowledge of the dynamic model are required. Experimental results are presented on a prototype platform that consists on: (1) half of the steering rack of a beetle VW vehicle, (2) a steering wheel.

  8. Improving Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering inequalities with state information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeloch, James; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

    2014-02-01

    We discuss the relationship between entropic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-steering inequalities and their underlying uncertainty relations along with the hypothesis that improved uncertainty relations lead to tighter EPR-steering inequalities. In particular, we discuss how using information about the state of a quantum system affects one's ability to witness EPR-steering. As an example, we consider the recent improvement to the entropic uncertainty relation between pairs of discrete observables (Berta et al., 2010 [10]). By considering the assumptions that enter into the development of a steering inequality, we derive correct steering inequalities from these improved uncertainty relations and find that they are identical to ones already developed (Schneeloch et al., 2013 [9]). In addition, we consider how one can use state information to improve our ability to witness EPR-steering, and develop a new continuous variable symmetric EPR-steering inequality as a result.

  9. Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Khorram, Siamak; Koch, Frank H; van der Wiele, Cynthia F

    2012-01-01

    Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.

  10. Annual report for the steering committee of the association Euratom-Belgian State for fusion 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    1999-10-01

    This report is prepared for the annual steering committee meting of the Association Euratom - Belgian State in the area of fusion reactor technology. The Belgian contribution focuses on the assessment of the first wall and blanket materials under radiation and coolant interaction and on developments for the remote handling in maintenance activities. The period October 1998 to September 1999 is reported on.The fusion technology work performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN, the Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering of the Louvain University (Belgium) and S.A. Gradel, a Luxemburg-based organisation, is described.

  11. Improvement of Steering Feel of Electric Power Steering System with Variable Gear Transmission System Using Decoupling Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yoshifumi; Yokoi, Akitoshi; Iwasaki, Makoto; Ukai, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Nobuyuki; Ito, Norihisa; Uryu, Nobuhiko; Mukai, Yasuhiko

    In this paper a new control method of Electric Power Steering (EPS) system with Variable Gear Transmission System (VGTS) is proposed. The control purpose is to achieve the desired steering gear ratio and the desired power assist with good steering feel. The basic idea of controller design is to apply decoupling control to this system and to separately design controllers for two decoupled systems. The angle control system and the torque control system are designed for the decoupled systems. In the angle control system the PID control is used for the desired gear ratio. In the torque control system the PID control is used for the desired assist torque designed so as to achieve good steering feel. In order to evaluate steering feel the Lissajous curve between the steering torque and steering angle is used. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified experimentally.

  12. Research on Torque Ratio Based on the Steering Wheel Torque Characteristic for Steer-by-Wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandong Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Steer-by-wire system can improve the performance of vehicle handling stability. Removing the mechanical linkages between the front wheels and the steering wheel leads to a key technique of force feedback for steer-by-wire system. In view of the characteristic of variable torque transmission ratio for steer-by-wire system, this paper proposes a method for designing torque ratio based on the steering wheel torque characteristic for steer-by-wire system. It converts the torque ratio design into equivalent assist torque design by analyzing their relationship. It achieves the torque ratio design at different conditions based on the negative equivalent assist torque characteristic curve. Simulations and vehicle experiments are conducted by the proposed method, and the results show that the design goal has been achieved and the steering wheel torque characteristic obtained is very similar to that of the reference car.

  13. Conditional steering under the von Neumann scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kaushiki; Paul, Biswajit; Karmakar, Sumana; Sarkar, Debasis; Mukherjee, Amit; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Roy, Arup

    2017-08-01

    In Phys. Lett. A 166, 293 (1992), 10.1016/0375-9601(92)90711-T, Popescu and Rohrlich characterized nonlocality of pure n -partite entangled systems by studying bipartite violation of local realism when n -2 number of parties perform projective measurements on their particles. A pertinent question in this scenario is whether similar characterization is possible for n -partite mixed entangled states also. In the present work we have followed an analogous approach so as to explore whether given a tripartite mixed entangled state the conditional bipartite states obtained by performing projective measurement on the third party demonstrate a weaker form of nonlocality, quantum steering. We also compare this phenomenon of conditional steering with existing notions of tripartite correlations.

  14. SPS Beam Steering for LHC Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab; Bartosik, Hannes [CERN; Cornelis, Karel [CERN; Norderhaug Drøsdal, Lene [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Papaphilippou, Yannis [CERN; Wenninger, Jorg [CERN

    2014-07-01

    The CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerates beams for the Large Hadron Collider to 450 GeV. In addition it produces beams for fixed target facilities which adds complexity to the SPS operation. During the run 2012-2013 drifts of the extracted beam trajectories have been observed and lengthy optimizations in the transfer lines were performed to reduce particle losses in the LHC. The observed trajectory drifts are consistent with the measured SPS orbit drifts at extraction. While extensive studies are going on to understand, and possibly suppress, the source of such SPS orbit drifts the feasibility of an automatic beam steering towards a “golden” orbit at the extraction septa, by means of the interlocked correctors, is also being investigated. The challenges and constraints related to the implementation of such a correction in the SPS are described. Simulation results are presented and a possible operational steering strategy is proposed.

  15. SPS Beam Steering for LHC Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Gianfelice Wendt, E; Cornelis, K; Norderhaug Drosdal, L; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Papaphilippou, Y; Wenninger, J

    2014-01-01

    Beside producing beams for fixed target operation, the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerates beams for injection into the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). During the 2012-2013 run drifts of the extracted beam horizontal trajectories have been observed and lengthy optimizations in the transfer lines were performed to reduce particle losses. The observed trajectory drifts are consistent with the measured SPS orbit drifts at extraction. The feasibility of an automatic beam steering towards a “golden” orbit at the extraction septa, has been therefore investigated. The challenges and constraints related to the implementation of such a correction in the SPS are described. Simulation results are presented and a possible operational steering strategy is proposed. As the observed drift is mainly horizontal, the horizontal plane only will be considered.

  16. ACTIVE FRONT STEERING DURING BRAKING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Deling; CHEN Li; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Yong

    2008-01-01

    An active front steering (AFS) intervention control during braking for vehicle stability is presented. Based on the investigation of AFS mechanism, a simplified model of steering system is established and integrated with vehicle model. Then the AFS control on vehicle handling dynamics during braking is designed. Due to the difficulties associated with the sideslip angle measurement of vehicle, a state observer is designed to provide real time estimation. Thereafter, the controller with the feedback of both sideslip and yaw angle is implemented. To evaluate the system control, the proposed AFS controlled vehicle has been tested in the Hardware-in-the-loop-simulation (HILS) system and compared with that of conventional vehicle. Results show that AFS can improve vehicle lateral stability effectively without reducing the braking performance.

  17. Boundaries can steer active Janus spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sambeeta; Garg, Astha; Campbell, Andrew I.; Howse, Jonathan; Sen, Ayusman; Velegol, Darrell; Golestanian, Ramin; Ebbens, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    The advent of autonomous self-propulsion has instigated research towards making colloidal machines that can deliver mechanical work in the form of transport, and other functions such as sensing and cleaning. While much progress has been made in the last 10 years on various mechanisms to generate self-propulsion, the ability to steer self-propelled colloidal devices has so far been much more limited. A critical barrier in increasing the impact of such motors is in directing their motion against the Brownian rotation, which randomizes particle orientations. In this context, here we report directed motion of a specific class of catalytic motors when moving in close proximity to solid surfaces. This is achieved through active quenching of their Brownian rotation by constraining it in a rotational well, caused not by equilibrium, but by hydrodynamic effects. We demonstrate how combining these geometric constraints can be utilized to steer these active colloids along arbitrary trajectories.

  18. Indexing system for optical beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Mark T.; Cannon, David M.; Debra, Daniel B.; Young, Jeffrey A.; Mansfield, Joseph A.; Carmichael, Roger E.; Lissol, Peter S.; Pryor, G. M.; Miklosy, Les G.; Lee, Jeffrey H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of an indexing system for optical-beam steering. The cryogenic beam-steering mechanism is a 360-degree rotation device capable of discrete, high-precision alignment positions. It uses low-precision components for its rough alignment and kinematic design to meet its stringent repeatability and stability requirements (of about 5 arcsec). The principal advantages of this design include a decoupling of the low-precision, large angular motion from the high-precision alignment, and a power-off alignment position that potentially extends the life or hold time of cryogenic systems. An alternate design, which takes advantage of these attributes while reducing overall motion, is also presented. Preliminary test results show the kinematic mount capable of sub-arc second repeatability.

  19. Self-testing through EPR-steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šupić, Ivan; Hoban, Matty J.

    2016-07-01

    The verification of quantum devices is an important aspect of quantum information, especially with the emergence of more advanced experimental implementations of quantum computation and secure communication. Within this, the theory of device-independent robust self-testing via Bell tests has reached a level of maturity now that many quantum states and measurements can be verified without direct access to the quantum systems: interaction with the devices is solely classical. However, the requirements for this robust level of verification are daunting and require high levels of experimental accuracy. In this paper we discuss the possibility of self-testing where we only have direct access to one part of the quantum device. This motivates the study of self-testing via EPR-steering, an intermediate form of entanglement verification between full state tomography and Bell tests. Quantum non-locality implies EPR-steering so results in the former can apply in the latter, but we ask what advantages may be gleaned from the latter over the former given that one can do partial state tomography? We show that in the case of self-testing a maximally entangled two-qubit state, or ebit, EPR-steering allows for simpler analysis and better error tolerance than in the case of full device-independence. On the other hand, this improvement is only a constant improvement and (up to constants) is the best one can hope for. Finally, we indicate that the main advantage in self-testing based on EPR-steering could be in the case of self-testing multi-partite quantum states and measurements. For example, it may be easier to establish a tensor product structure for a particular party’s Hilbert space even if we do not have access to their part of the global quantum system.

  20. TRANSFERRING OF MOVEMENT FOR STEERING EQUIPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Outhier, Maxime; Rydström, Vilhelm; Sanz, Imanol

    2001-01-01

    This Examination Thesis was done at the Blekinge Institute of Technology of Karlskrona. The work is a part of the education to Bachelor of Science in product development. The task consists of changing the steering wheel transmission of the DYNAPAC CA soil compactor machine made by Svedala Compaction Equipment AB. During the work we have followed the Fredy Olsson product development method. The work is divided in two parts: The Concept phase and The Primary Construction phase. In the Concept p...

  1. Design and Analysis of a Fast Steering Mirror for Precision Laser Beams Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkun ZHOU

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Precision laser beam steering is critical in numerous applications. Also, precise pointing of laser beams is essential in challenging environments. The optical signal may be deflected, drift and wander due to environmental influences. The core problem of steering performances is to deal with the jitter disturbance. Based on the analysis of the beam angle steering system, some important factors to design the structure of a Fast Steering Mirror (FSM and the layout of laser optics steering system are presented. Flexure hinges with compliant mechanisms are used to build the FSM structure. A 4-quadrant detector is used as the sensor for the incoming light. A design of the developed control loop and concepts of the FSM model are discussed. A comparison between the measured gain response and the simulation model of the FSM reveals similarity between the theoretical simulation model and the real system, and offers a way to improve the model to better resemble the real system. A laser beam jitter control test bed is also introduced to improve jitter control techniques.

  2. On the Feasibility of Dynamic Power Steering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Kevin J.; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Anger, Eric A.

    2014-11-16

    While high performance has always been the primary constraint behind large-scale system design, future systems will be built with increasing energy efficiency in mind. Mechanisms such as fine-grained power scaling and gating will provide tools to system-software and application developers to ensure the most efficient use of tightly constrained power budgets. Such approaches to-date have been focused on node level optimizations to impact overall system energy efficiency. In this work we introduce Dynamic Power Steering, in which power can be dynamically routed across a system to resources where it will be of most benefit and away from other resources to maintain a near-constant overall power budget. This, a higher level algorithmic approach to improving energy efficiency, considers the whole extent of a system being used by an application. It can be used for applications in which there is load imbalance that varies over its execution. Using two classes of applications, namely those that contain a wave front type processing, and a particle-in-cell, we quantify the benefit of Dynamic Power Steering for a variety of workload characteristics and derive some insight into the ways in which workload behavior affect Power Steering applicability.

  3. QuEChERS-based method for the determination of carbamate residues in aromatic herbs by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantia, Edouard Akono; Moreno-González, David; Manfo, Faustin P T; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2017-02-01

    A new reliable, fast and highly sensitive method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated for the determination of 28 carbamates in aromatic herbs. A modified QuEChERS-based method was optimized for the extraction of carbamate residues from a wide variety of fresh herbal products. The proposed method allowed recoveries higher than 72%, achieving quantification limits of 2μgkg(-1), therefore below maximum residue limits established for this type of samples. The combination of QuEChERS with UHPLC-MS/MS introduces a high-throughput methodology for the monitoring of these residues in this type of matrices scarcely explored. The analysis of the real samples revealed that several samples sold in the European Union and in the North West region of Cameroon contain pesticides in concentrations below the maximum residue limits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanical and quasi-optical design of ECH/ECCD launcher for JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Takayuki, E-mail: kobayashi.takayuki@jaea.go.jp; Moriyama, Shinichi; Isayama, Akihiko; Hiranai, Shinichi; Yokokura, Kenji; Sawahata, Masayuki; Terakado, Masayuki; Wada, Kenji; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Hinata, Jun; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Takahashi, Koji; Kajiwara, Ken; Oda, Yasuhisa; Ikeda, Ryosuke; Sakamoto, Keishi

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We designed high-power, long-pulse, two-frequency launcher for JT-60SA. • The mirror steering structure was improved for easy maintenance. • A full scale mockup of the steering structure moved smoothly. • It was found that the antenna is suitable for two frequency operations. • The total spillover loss of ∼1% was obtained with LP11even mode of 10%. - Abstract: Mechanical and quasi-optical design of an electron cyclotron heating/current drive launcher for JT-60SA is in progress. A full-scale mock-up of the steering structure, which enables linear and rotation motions of the first mirror of the launcher, has been fabricated for cyclic test of the bellows part. Moreover, an improved design enables easy replacement of the bellows for rotation for maintenance. Quasi-optical characteristics of the antenna mirrors have been studied to evaluate its transmission efficiency and beam focusing property. In calculation, it was found that the antenna is applicable to two frequency operation at 110 GHz and 138 GHz. It was quantitatively shown that the transmission efficiency of ∼99% (not including Ohmic loss) is obtained even with the higher order mode (LP{sub 11}{sup even}) fraction of 10% by optimizations of the shape of the first mirror. These results contribute to optimization/finalization of the launcher design toward fabrication of the launcher for JT-60SA.

  5. Comparison of manual steering and steering via joystick of a flexible rhino endoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckl, R; Gumprecht, J J; Strauss, G; Hofer, M; Dietz, A; Lueth, T C

    2010-01-01

    Flexible endoscopes are used in ENT surgery for examination tasks in cases wherever rigid endoscopes are unsuitable to reach certain positions in the nasal cavity. Until today they are steered by hand and no robotized system has been put into clinical practice. One qualification a robot manipulator system has to fulfill to be accepted is not to create new disadvantages compared to the conventional method in surgery. An important factor is the time needed to steer the new system compared to the time needed to steer the conventional system. In this article a robot manipulator system and an experiment are presented to compare the particular times test persons need to perform a certain task. This approach offers the possibility to benchmark the developed robot manipulator system and future systems for flexible rhino endoscopes.

  6. Oblique incidence effect on steering efficiency of liquid crystal polarization gratings used for optical phased array beam steering amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangjie, Zhao; Jiazhu, Duan; Dayong, Zhang; Cangli, Liu; Yongquan, Luo

    2016-07-01

    A liquid crystal polarization grating (LCPG) is proposed that amplifies the steering angle of a liquid crystal optical phased array for non-mechanical beam steering, taking advantage of its high steering efficiency under normal incidence. However, oblique incidence may play an important role in the overall steering efficiency. The effect of oblique incidence on steering efficiency of a LCPG was analyzed by numerically solving the extended Jones matrix and considering propagation crosstalk. The results indicate that the outgoing laser beam is amplitude-modulated under the effect of oblique incidence and behaves as a sinusoidal-modulated amplitude grating, which diffracts certain energies to non-blazed orders. Over-oblique incidence may even eliminate the steering effect of the incident beam. The modulation depth of the induced amplitude grating was found to be proportional to the product of sinusoidal value of oblique incidence angle and the LC layer thickness, and inversely proportional to the periodic pitch length of the LCPG. Both in-plane incidence and out-of-plane incidence behave similarly to influence the steering efficiency. Finally, the overall steering efficiency for cascaded LCPGs was analyzed and a difference of up to 11 % steering efficiency can be induced between different LCPG configurations, even without considering the over-oblique incidence effect. Both the modulation depth and final steering efficiency can be optimized by varying the LC birefringence and layer thickness.

  7. Oblique incidence effect on steering efficiency of liquid crystal polarization gratings used for optical phased array beam steering amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangjie, Zhao; Jiazhu, Duan; Dayong, Zhang; Cangli, Liu; Yongquan, Luo

    2016-10-01

    A liquid crystal polarization grating (LCPG) is proposed that amplifies the steering angle of a liquid crystal optical phased array for non-mechanical beam steering, taking advantage of its high steering efficiency under normal incidence. However, oblique incidence may play an important role in the overall steering efficiency. The effect of oblique incidence on steering efficiency of a LCPG was analyzed by numerically solving the extended Jones matrix and considering propagation crosstalk. The results indicate that the outgoing laser beam is amplitude-modulated under the effect of oblique incidence and behaves as a sinusoidal-modulated amplitude grating, which diffracts certain energies to non-blazed orders. Over-oblique incidence may even eliminate the steering effect of the incident beam. The modulation depth of the induced amplitude grating was found to be proportional to the product of sinusoidal value of oblique incidence angle and the LC layer thickness, and inversely proportional to the periodic pitch length of the LCPG. Both in-plane incidence and out-of-plane incidence behave similarly to influence the steering efficiency. Finally, the overall steering efficiency for cascaded LCPGs was analyzed and a difference of up to 11 % steering efficiency can be induced between different LCPG configurations, even without considering the over-oblique incidence effect. Both the modulation depth and final steering efficiency can be optimized by varying the LC birefringence and layer thickness.

  8. Characterizing Exoplanets in the Visible and Infrared: A Spectrometer Concept for the EChO Space Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Glauser, A M; Krause, O; Henning, Th; Benneke, B; Bouwman, J; Cubillos, P E; Crossfield, I J M; Detre, Ö H; Ebert, M; Grözinger, U; Güdel, M; Harrington, J; Justtanont, K; Klaas, U; Lenzen, R; Madhusudhan, N; Meyer, M R; Mordasini, C; Müller, F; Ottensamer, R; Plesseria, J -Y; Quanz, S P; Reiners, A; Renotte, E; Rohloff, R -R; Scheithauer, S; Schmid, H M; Schrader, J -R; Seemann, U; Stam, D; Vandenbussche, B; Wehmeier, U

    2013-01-01

    Transit-spectroscopy of exoplanets is one of the key observational techniques to characterize the extrasolar planet and its atmosphere. The observational challenges of these measurements require dedicated instrumentation and only the space environment allows an undisturbed access to earth-like atmospheric features such as water or carbon-dioxide. Therefore, several exoplanet-specific space missions are currently being studied. One of them is EChO, the Exoplanet Characterization Observatory, which is part of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program, and which is one of four candidates for the M3 launch slot in 2024. In this paper we present the results of our assessment study of the EChO spectrometer, the only science instrument onboard this spacecraft. The instrument is a multi-channel all-reflective dispersive spectrometer, covering the wavelength range from 400 nm to 16 microns simultaneously with a moderately low spectral resolution. We illustrate how the key technical challenge of the EChO mission - the high...

  9. Combination of QuEChERS and DLLME for GC-MS determination of pesticide residues in orange samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraščíková, Mária; Hrouzková, Svetlana; Cunha, Sara C

    2013-01-01

    A new method combining QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) and DLLME (dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring (SIM) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 19 pesticides from nine chemical groups exhibiting or suspected to exhibit endocrine-disrupting properties in orange samples. Acetonitrile extract obtained from QuEChERS extraction was used for DLLME as dispersive solvent and carbon tetrachloride as extractive solvent to increase the enrichment factor of the extraction procedure. The effect of several extraction parameters, such as volume extract achieved by the QuEChERS method and subsequently used for DLLME, selection of extractive solvent and its volume, was tested. Under optimum conditions, good linearity, satisfactory recoveries and repeatability were obtained. Limits of quantification (LOQs) achieved (ranging from 0.02 to 47 ng/g) were below the maximum residue limits established by the European Union. The proposed method was applied to the monitoring of pesticide residue levels in oranges commercialised in Portugal.

  10. Fault-tolerant Actuator System for Electrical Steering of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Sandberg; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    Being critical to the safety of vehicles, the steering system is required to maintain the vehicles ability to steer until it is brought to halt, should a fault occur. With electrical steering becoming a cost-effective candidate for electrical powered vehicles, a fault-tolerant architecture...... is needed that meets this requirement. This paper studies the fault-tolerance properties of an electrical steering system. It presents a fault-tolerant architecture where a dedicated AC motor design used in conjunction with cheap voltage measurements can ensure detection of all relevant faults...... in the steering system. The paper shows how active control reconfiguration can accommodate all critical faults. The fault-tolerant abilities of the steering system are demonstrated on the hardware of a warehouse truck....

  11. Gaussian quantum steering and its asymmetry in curved spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jieci; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    We study Gaussian quantum steering and its asymmetry in the background of a Schwarzschild black hole. We present a Gaussian channel description of quantum state evolution under the influence of Hawking radiation. We find that thermal noise introduced by Hawking effect will destroy the steerability between an inertial observer Alice and an accelerated observer Bob who hovers outside an event horizon, while it generates steerability between Bob and a hypothetical observer Anti-Bob inside the event horizon. Besides, unlike entanglement behaviors in curved spacetime, here the steering from Alice to Bob suffers from a ``sudden death" and the steering from Anti-Bob to Bob appears a ``sudden birth" with the increasing of Hawking temperature. We also find that the Gaussian steering is always asymmetric and the maximum steering asymmetry can \\emph{ exceed} $\\ln 2$ in curved spacetime, which is quite different from the flat spacetime case [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 060403 (2015)] where the steering asymmetry can \\emph{neve...

  12. Multipartite Gaussian steering: monogamy constraints and cryptographical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yu; Adesso, Gerardo; He, Qiongyi

    2016-01-01

    We derive laws for the distribution of quantum steering among different parties in multipartite Gaussian states under Gaussian measurements. We prove that a monogamy relation akin to the generalized Coffman-Kundu-Wootters inequality holds quantitatively for a recently introduced measure of Gaussian steering. We then define the residual Gaussian steering, stemming from the monogamy inequality, as an indicator of collective steering-type correlations. For pure three-mode Gaussian states, the residual acts a quantifier of genuine multipartite steering, and is interpreted operationally in terms of the guaranteed key rate in the task of secure quantum secret sharing. Optimal resource states for the latter protocol are identified, and their possible experimental implementation discussed. Our results pin down the role of multipartite steering for quantum communication.

  13. Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)

  14. Multi-axle dynamic steering system of truck-howitzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanliang LI; Xiuhua GAO; Chunqiu ZHANG; Yubo SUN

    2008-01-01

    A two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) steering model of multi-axle vehicle was established. The steering center position, the relationship between the steering angle and the vehicle velocity, and the minimum turn radius were deduced on the basis of the proportional control with a zero sideslip angle. Results indicate that the system stability is decided by the vehicle barycenter position and the lateral stiffness of a tire. Under this control, the steady value of the lateral acceleration is obviously diminished and the yaw angular velocity changes little under any vehicle velocity. The system rapidly responds, the vehicle smoothly steers, and its handling stability is prominently improved.

  15. Analysis of Vehicle Steering and Driving Bifurcation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical method of vehicle steering bifurcation analysis is based on the nonlinear autonomous vehicle model deriving from the classic two degrees of freedom (2DOF linear vehicle model. This method usually neglects the driving effect on steering bifurcation characteristics. However, in the steering and driving combined conditions, the tyre under different driving conditions can provide different lateral force. The steering bifurcation mechanism without the driving effect is not able to fully reveal the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics. Aiming at the aforementioned problem, this paper analyzed the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics with the consideration of driving effect. Based on the 5DOF vehicle system dynamics model with the consideration of driving effect, the 7DOF autonomous system model was established. The vehicle steering and driving bifurcation dynamic characteristics were analyzed with different driving mode and driving torque. Taking the front-wheel-drive system as an example, the dynamic evolution process of steering and driving bifurcation was analyzed by phase space, system state variables, power spectral density, and Lyapunov index. The numerical recognition results of chaos were also provided. The research results show that the driving mode and driving torque have the obvious effect on steering and driving bifurcation characteristics.

  16. Remote medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-29

    The international oil industry, catalyzed by a surge in exploration and production projects in remote regions, is giving health care for its travelers and expatriates a high priority. L.R. Aalund, the Journal`s Managing Editor--Technology, reports on why and how this is happening now. He covers this in articles on: health care in Russia, air ambulance evacuations, and the deployment of remote paramedics. Aalund gathered the information during trips to Finland and Russia and interviews with oil industry personnel, physicians, and other medical professionals in North America, Europe, and Siberia. Titles of the four topics presented in this special section on remote medicine are as follows: Oil companies focus on emergency care for expats in Russia; Air ambulance plan can be critical; Remote paramedics have high level of training; and Other facets of remote medicine.

  17. Operational performance and plans for the ECH system on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, J.; Cengher, M.; Gorelov, Y. A.; Ponce, D.; Torrezan, A.; Ives, L.; Read, M.; Leviness, A.

    2016-10-01

    The ECH system on the DIII-D tokamak currently comprises 6 gyrotrons operating at 110 GHz and injecting 3.5 MW for administratively limited pulse lengths up to 5 sec. A 7th gyrotron generating 1.5 MW at 117.5 GHz is planned for installation late in 2016. Production of this tube was delayed due to issues related to reflected electrons resulting in internal arcs during initial testing. Performance reliability of the individual gyrotrons in the DIII-D complex has exceeded 90% for a wide variety of operational modes, including fast modulation and rapid poloidal sweeping of the rf beams using high speed dc motors and magnetic position encoders. Measures have been taken to reduce the risk of damage to launcher hardware and diagnostics from inadvertent operation of the tokamak at densities such that the right hand cutoff frequency is present in the plasma. The system has occasionally been used in non-fusion applications. The most recent of these has been testing a CVD diamond waveguide blocking window at the Brewster angle. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  18. Mode Conversion Losses in Expansion Units for ITER ECH Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, S. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.; Hanson, G. R.

    2016-01-01

    The ITER electron cyclotron heating transmission lines will consist of 63.5-mm-diameter corrugated waveguides, each carrying 1 MW of 170 GHz microwaves. These transmission lines must include expansion units to accommodate expansion and contraction along the path from the gyrotron microwave sources to the tokamak. A numerical mode matching code has been developed to calculate power losses due to mode conversion of the operating mode, HE11, to higher order modes as a result of the radial discontinuities in a sliding joint. Two expansion unit designs were evaluated, a simple gap expansion unit and a more complex tapered expansion unit. The gap expansion unit demonstrated loss that oscillated rapidly with expansion length, due to trapped modes within the unit. The tapered expansion unit has been shown to effectively suppress these trapped modes at the expense of increased fabrication complexity. In a gap expansion unit, for a waveguide step size of 2.5 mm, loss can be kept below 0.1 % to a maximum expansion length of 17 mm. Expansion units without corrugation on interior walls were also evaluated. Expansion units that lack corrugations are found to increase mode trapping within the units, though not beyond useful application. The mode matching code developed in this paper was also used to estimate mode conversion loss in vacuum pumpouts for the ECH lines; the estimated loss was found to be negligibly small.

  19. Predicting water intake by yearling feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexson, J L; Wagner, J J; Engle, T E; Eickhoff, J

    2012-06-01

    Data from 4 separate beef cattle feedlot experiments, which were conducted at the Southeast Colorado Research Center (SECRC) in Lamar, CO, in 2001, 2003, 2004, and 2007, were utilized in a retrospective longitudinal study investigating possible relationships between daily water consumption (WC), DMI, and weather variables. The data set consisted of 8,209 records from 2001, 2003, 2004, and 2007, with pen based daily WC (L•animal(-1)) and DMI measurements and calculated daily steer BW from April to October in each year. Daily weather data were obtained from the weather station located at Lamar Municipal Airport located approximately 1.9 km from SECRC. Data collected consisted of daily high, low, and mean temperature; high, low, and mean humidity; high, low, and mean sea level pressure; mean wind speed; total precipitation; and average daily wind direction (cosine of radians from due north). Univariate analysis demonstrated that the continuous variables of BW, humidity, and sea level pressure were negatively related (P high temperature squared, high humidity squared, low temperature, low temperature squared, low humidity, average sea level pressure, average wind speed, average daily BW, high sea level pressure, low sea level pressure, high humidity, and low humidity. The generalized R(2) of the parsimonious multivariate model was 0.32. These results indicate that BW and numerous weather factors are related to WC by yearling feedlot steers. Dry matter intake had minimal impact on WC for yearling feedlot steers consuming steam-flaked corn-based high concentrate diets from mid-spring to early fall.

  20. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering and quantum steering ellipsoids: Optimal two-qubit states and projective measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, R.; Ferraro, A.; Paternostro, M.

    2017-01-01

    We identify the families of states that maximize some recently proposed quantifiers of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering and the volume of the quantum steering ellipsoid (QSE). The optimal measurements which maximize genuine EPR steering measures are discussed and we develop a way to find them using the QSE. We thus explore the links between genuine EPR steering and the QSE and introduce states that can be the most useful for one-sided device-independent quantum cryptography for a given amount of noise.

  1. Study on control schemes of flexible steering system of a multi-axle all-wheel-steering robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxia Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that a multi-axle wheeled robot possesses larger load capability and also higher drive performance. However, its steering flexibility is degraded due to the large number of wheels. In order to solve this problem, in this article, we proposed three control schemes based on the center of rotation or the steering angles of both the first- and last-axle wheels. To release these control schemes, steering mode selection and also the left wheel’s steering angle in a specific axle are added approaching a practical application. Thereafter, the remaining wheels’ steering angles can be calculated with the Ackerman steering theorem. In order to verify the control effects, a five-axle all-wheel-steering wheeled robot has been developed with the Bluetooth wireless monitor system. Based on the newly designed robot, validation experiments are carried out, such as lateral movement, situ rotation, and multi-mode steering within a narrow space. The results indicate that the proposed design in this article can ensure a more flexible and faster movement within a narrow space. It shows large potential in obstacle avoidance compared with the conventional partial-wheel steering mode.

  2. Stress indicators in steers at slaughtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zarrilli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the blood modifications of some slaughtering-linked stress hormones in cattle subject to butcher standardized procedures. The blood samples of 20 Limousine 12-13 months old steers have been collected before slaughtering, during lairage, and after stunning by captive bolt gun, during exsanguination. The plasma level of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and beta-endorphin have been assayed by EIA. The data indicate that catecholamines, cortisol and beta-endorphin did not significantly increase after stunning in these animals.

  3. Internal models direct dragonfly interception steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischiati, Matteo; Lin, Huai-Ti; Herold, Paul; Imler, Elliot; Olberg, Robert; Leonardo, Anthony

    2015-01-15

    Sensorimotor control in vertebrates relies on internal models. When extending an arm to reach for an object, the brain uses predictive models of both limb dynamics and target properties. Whether invertebrates use such models remains unclear. Here we examine to what extent prey interception by dragonflies (Plathemis lydia), a behaviour analogous to targeted reaching, requires internal models. By simultaneously tracking the position and orientation of a dragonfly's head and body during flight, we provide evidence that interception steering is driven by forward and inverse models of dragonfly body dynamics and by models of prey motion. Predictive rotations of the dragonfly's head continuously track the prey's angular position. The head-body angles established by prey tracking appear to guide systematic rotations of the dragonfly's body to align it with the prey's flight path. Model-driven control thus underlies the bulk of interception steering manoeuvres, while vision is used for reactions to unexpected prey movements. These findings illuminate the computational sophistication with which insects construct behaviour.

  4. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Wake Steering Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Annoni, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ryan N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fleming, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University

    2017-08-03

    Offsetting turbines' yaw orientations from incoming wind is a powerful tool that may be leveraged to reduce undesirable wake effects on downstream turbines. First, we examine a simple two-turbine case to gain intuition as to how inflow direction uncertainty affects the optimal solution. The turbines are modeled with unidirectional inflow such that one turbine directly wakes the other, using ten rotor diameter spacing. We perform optimization under uncertainty (OUU) via a parameter sweep of the front turbine. The OUU solution generally prefers less steering. We then do this optimization for a 60-turbine wind farm with unidirectional inflow, varying the degree of inflow uncertainty and approaching this OUU problem by nesting a polynomial chaos expansion uncertainty quantification routine within an outer optimization. We examined how different levels of uncertainty in the inflow direction effect the ratio of the expected values of deterministic and OUU solutions for steering strategies in the large wind farm, assuming the directional uncertainty used to reach said OUU solution (this ratio is defined as the value of the stochastic solution or VSS).

  5. The effect of varying path properties in path steering tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Liere, R. van

    2010-01-01

    Path steering is a primitive 3D interaction task that requires the user to navigate through a path of a given length and width. In a previous paper, we have conducted controlled experiments in which users operated a pen input device to steer a cursor through a 3D path subject to fixed path propertie

  6. Robotic needle steering: design, modeling, planning, and image guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowan, Noah J.; Goldberg, Ken; Chirikjian, Gregory S.; Fichtinger, Gabor; Alterovitz, Ron; Reed, Kyle B.; Kallem, Vinutha; Park, Wooram; Misra, Sarthak; Okamura, Allison M.; Rosen, Jacob; Hannaford, Blake; Satava, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes how advances in needle design, modeling, planning, and image guidance make it possible to steer flexible needles from outside the body to reach specified anatomical targets not accessible using traditional needle insertion methods. Steering can be achieved using a variety of m

  7. 3D computational steering with parametrized geometric objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.D.; Wijk, J.J. van

    1996-01-01

    Computational Steering is the ultimate goal of interactive simulation: researchers change parameters of their simulation and immediately receive feedback on the effect. We present a general and flexible graphics tool that is part of an environment for Computational Steering developed at CWI. It enab

  8. Gaussian quantum steering and its asymmetry in curved spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieci; Cao, Haixin; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng

    2016-06-01

    We study Gaussian quantum steering and its asymmetry in the background of a Schwarzschild black hole. We present a Gaussian channel description of quantum state evolution under the influence of Hawking radiation. We find that thermal noise introduced by the Hawking effect will destroy the steerability between an inertial observer Alice and an accelerated observer Bob who hovers outside the event horizon, while it generates steerability between Bob and a hypothetical observer anti-Bob inside the event horizon. Unlike entanglement behaviors in curved spacetime, here the steering from Alice to Bob suffers from a "sudden death" and the steering from anti-Bob to Bob experiences a "sudden birth" with increasing Hawking temperature. We also find that the Gaussian steering is always asymmetric and the maximum steering asymmetry cannot exceed ln 2 , which means the state never evolves to an extremal asymmetry state. Furthermore, we obtain the parameter settings that maximize steering asymmetry and find that (i) s =arccosh cosh/2r 1 -sinh2r is the critical point of steering asymmetry and (ii) the attainment of maximal steering asymmetry indicates the transition between one-way steerability and both-way steerability for the two-mode Gaussian state under the influence of Hawking radiation.

  9. The impact of force feedback level on steering performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, S.; Terken, J.; Hogema, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Steer-by-wire systems provide designers the ability to customize and personalize force feedback on the steering wheel, based on individual preferences. Earlier studies using subjective responses have shown that there are individual differences in preferences for force feedback. It has also been foun

  10. Experimental Study on Antivibration Control of Electrical Power Steering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the antivibration controller design problem for electrical power steering (EPS systems. The EPS system has significant advantages over the traditional hydraulic steering system. However, the improper motor controller design would lead to the steering wheel vibration. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the antivibration control strategy. For the implementation study, we also present the motor driver design and the software design which is used to monitor the sensors and the control signal. Based on the investigation on the regular assistant algorithm, we summarize the difficulties and problems encountered by the regular algorithm. After that, in order to improve the performance of antivibration and the human-like steering feeling, we propose a new assistant strategy for the EPS. The experiment results of the bench test illustrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the proposed control strategy. Compared with the regular controller, the proposed antivibration control reduces the vibration of the steering wheel a lot.

  11. Sidelobe Suppression with Null Steering by Independent Weight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar-Ullah Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A uniform linear array of n antenna elements can steer up to n-1 nulls. In situations where less than n-1 nulls are required to be steered, the existing algorithms have no criterion to utilize the remaining weights for sidelobe suppression. This work combines sidelobe suppression capability with null steering by independent weight control. For this purpose, the array factor is transformed as the product of two polynomials. One of the polynomials is used for null steering by independent weight control, while the second one is for sidelobe suppression whose coefficients or weights are determined by using convex optimization. Finally, a new structure is proposed to incorporate the product of two polynomials such that sidelobe suppression weights are decoupled from those of null steering weights. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  12. Conclusive quantum steering with superconducting transition edge sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Devin H; de Almeida, Marcelo; Branciard, Cyril; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Weinhold, Till J; Lita, Adriana; Calkins, Brice; Gerrits, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo; White, Andrew G

    2011-01-01

    Quantum steering allows two parties to verify shared entanglement even if one measurement device is untrusted. A conclusive demonstration of steering through the violation of a steering inequality is of considerable fundamental interest and opens up applications in quantum communication. To date all experimental tests with single photon states have relied on post-selection, allowing untrusted devices to cheat by hiding unfavorable events in losses. Here we close this "detection loophole" by combining a highly efficient source of entangled photon pairs with superconducting transition edge sensors. We achieve an unprecedented $\\sim$62% conditional detection efficiency of entangled photons and violate a steering inequality with the minimal number of measurement settings by 48 standard deviations. Our results provide a clear path to practical applications of steering and to a photonic loophole-free Bell test.

  13. Study on classification and identification methods of driver steering characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang LI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the vehicle driver's steering characteristic classification and identification, the research method is initially explored based on CarSim simulation platform. The simulation experiment of steering condition is designed and the test data is collected. According to the maximum yaw rate of the vehicle, the driver steering characteristics are classified by K-means clustering algorithm. The driver steering characteristics identification models are established by learning vector quantization (LVQ neural network, BP neural network, and support vector machine (SVM respectively in the environment of Matlab software. The test experiment and comparison are done for the three kinds of approaches, and the results show that all those three kinds of identification approaches have high accuracy, and the SVM method has a certain advantage on driver steering characteristics identification.

  14. High Efficient Extraction of Phthalates in Aquatic Products by a Modified QuEChERS Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-wen; GAO Fu-kai; LI Gui-zhi; LIU Zhen-bo; LIU Yong-ming

    2013-01-01

    A simple,environmentally friendly and high efficient extraction method was proposed for the determination of five phthalates in aquatic products by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS).When this method was adopted,samples were pretreated by modified QuEChERS(quick,easy,cheap,effective,rugged and safe) method.An environmentally friendly extractant(ethanol aqueous solution) replaced toxic acetonitrile for extracting phthalates in the protein-matrix samples.Fluorescence quenching spectra of bovine serum albumin(BSA) with phthalates show that there was a high-affinity interaction between phthalate and protein,decreasing the extraction efficiency of phthalates from fish samples.However,in the 80%(volume fraction,(ψ)) ethanol aqueous solution,a slow but full protein denaturation takes place,which would cause the unfolding of protein and the release of phthalates.Meanwhile,the fat-soluble impurities are extracted less in (ψ)(ethanol) 80% aqueous solution than in either (ψ)(ethanol) 100% or hydrophobic solvents in the liquid-liquid extraction procedure.Therefore the purification steps were greatly simplified.Overall recoveries were 81.77%-90.5% with limits of detection between 2.53 and 9.61 μg/L,and relative standard deviation values at 1.15%-4.85%.The proposed approach was satisfactorily applied to the determination of phthalates in real aquatic products,such as fish,shrimp and oyster.

  15. Development and application of a ray-tracing code integrating with 3D equilibrium mapping in LHD ECH experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, T., Ii; Kubo, S.; Takahashi, H.; Makino, R.; Seki, R.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Ida, K.; Suzuki, C.; Emoto, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Moon, C.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Ejiri, A.; Mutoh, T.

    2015-11-01

    The central electron temperature has successfully reached up to 7.5 keV in large helical device (LHD) plasmas with a central high-ion temperature of 5 keV and a central electron density of 1.3× {{10}19} m-3. This result was obtained by heating with a newly-installed 154 GHz gyrotron and also the optimisation of injection geometry in electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The optimisation was carried out by using the ray-tracing code ‘LHDGauss’, which was upgraded to include the rapid post-processing three-dimensional (3D) equilibrium mapping obtained from experiments. For ray-tracing calculations, LHDGauss can automatically read the relevant data registered in the LHD database after a discharge, such as ECH injection settings (e.g. Gaussian beam parameters, target positions, polarisation and ECH power) and Thomson scattering diagnostic data along with the 3D equilibrium mapping data. The equilibrium map of the electron density and temperature profiles are then extrapolated into the region outside the last closed flux surface. Mode purity, or the ratio between the ordinary mode and the extraordinary mode, is obtained by calculating the 1D full-wave equation along the direction of the rays from the antenna to the absorption target point. Using the virtual magnetic flux surfaces, the effects of the modelled density profiles and the magnetic shear at the peripheral region with a given polarisation are taken into account. Power deposition profiles calculated for each Thomson scattering measurement timing are registered in the LHD database. The adjustment of the injection settings for the desired deposition profile from the feedback provided on a shot-by-shot basis resulted in an effective experimental procedure.

  16. Phase shifter for antenna beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Ravi; Razban, Tchanguiz

    2016-03-01

    Wide band Array Antenna operates in Ku-band (10.7-12.7 GHz) frequency composed of N×N radiating elements. This antenna aims at the reception of television satellite signals. The goal of this research is to provide better possibility of electronic beam control instead of manual or mechanical control, and design compact and low cost phase shifters to be inserted in the feeding network of this antenna. The electronic control of the phase shifter will allow the control of beam steering. The emphasis of this project will be done at the beginning on the design of a good phase shifter in Ku band. The aim of this research is to define, simulate, release and measure a continuous phase shifter. Better reflection loss, low transmission loss, low Cost of array antennas, large range of phase-shifter, phase flatness and bandwidth will be achieved by providing better gain.

  17. Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM) Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Alexander K.; Gostin, Alan B.; Hakun, Claef F.; Haney, Paul G.; Hinkle, Matthew R.; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Lugo, Carlos F.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Morell, Armando; Armani, Nerses V.; Bonafede, Joseph; Jackson, Molly I.; Steigner, Peter J.; Stromsdorfer, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, testing, and lessons learned during the development of the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM). The BSM is a 2 degree-of-freedom tip-tilt mechanism for the purpose of pointing a flat mirror to tightly control the co-alignment of the transmitted laser and the receiver telescope of the ATLAS instrument. High resolution needs of the mission resulted in sub-arcsecond pointing and knowledge requirements, which have been met. Development of methodology to verify performance was a significant effortadvancement. The BSM will fly as part of the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite 2 Mission (ICESat 2), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017. The ICESat 2 primary mission is to map the earths surface topography for the determination of seasonal changes of ice sheet thickness as well as vegetation canopy thickness.

  18. ATLAS Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM) Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Alexander K.; Gosten, Alan B.; Hakun, Claef F.; Haney, Paul G.; Hinkle, Matthew R.; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Lugo, Carlos F.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Morell, Armando; Armani, Nerses V.; Bonafede, Joseph; Jackson, Molly I.; Steigner, Peter J.; Stromsdorfer, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, testing, and lessons learned during the development of the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM). The BSM is a 2 degree-of-freedom tip-tilt mechanism for the purpose of pointing a flat mirror to tightly control the co-alignment of the transmitted laser and the receiver telescope of the ATLAS instrument. The high resolution needs of the mission resulted in sub-arcsecond pointing and knowledge requirements, which have been met. Development of the methodology to verify performance required significant effort. The BSM will fly as part of the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite II Mission (ICESat II), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017. The ICESat II primary mission is to map the Earth's surface topography for the determination of seasonal changes of ice sheet thickness and vegetation canopy thickness to establish long-term trends.

  19. ATLAS Beam Steering Mechanism Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Alexander K.; Gostin, Alan B.; Hakun, Claef F.; Haney, Paul G.; Hinkle, Matthew R.; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Lugo, Carlos F.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Morrell, Armando; Armani, Nerses V.; Bonafede, Joseph; Jackson, Molly I.; Steigner, Peter J.; Stromsdorfer, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, testing, and lessons learned during the development of the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM). The BSM is a 2 degree-of-freedom tip-tilt mechanism for the purpose of pointing a flat mirror to tightly control the co-alignment of the transmitted laser and the receiver telescope of the ATLAS instrument. The high resolution needs of the mission resulted in sub-arcsecond pointing and knowledge requirements, which have been met. Development of the methodology to verify performance required significant effort. The BSM will fly as part of the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite II Mission (ICESat II), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017. The ICESat II primary mission is to map the earth's surface topography for the determination of seasonal changes of ice sheet thickness and vegetation canopy thickness to establish long-term trends.

  20. Phase shifter for antenna beam steering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jindal, Ravi, E-mail: rjindal21@gmail.com [Master’s(MS) in System Electronics and General Electrical, Ecole Polytechnique of university of Nantes France, IETR, Nantes (France); Razban, Tchanguiz, E-mail: tchanguiz.razban-haghighi@univ-nantes.fr [Electronics and Telecommunication Institute of Rennes (IETR-UMR 6164), Ecole Polytechnique of university of Nantes France, IETR, Nantes (France)

    2016-03-09

    Wide band Array Antenna operates in Ku-band (10.7-12.7 GHz) frequency composed of N×N radiating elements. This antenna aims at the reception of television satellite signals. The goal of this research is to provide better possibility of electronic beam control instead of manual or mechanical control, and design compact and low cost phase shifters to be inserted in the feeding network of this antenna. The electronic control of the phase shifter will allow the control of beam steering. The emphasis of this project will be done at the beginning on the design of a good phase shifter in Ku band. The aim of this research is to define, simulate, release and measure a continuous phase shifter. Better reflection loss, low transmission loss, low Cost of array antennas, large range of phase-shifter, phase flatness and bandwidth will be achieved by providing better gain.

  1. On fractional control method for four-wheel-steering vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ning; CHEN Nan; CHEN YanDong

    2009-01-01

    Four-wheel-steering (4WS) system can enhance vehicle cornering ability by steering the rear wheels in accordance with the front wheels steering and vehicle status. With such steering control system, it becomes possible to improve the lateral stability and handling performance, in this paper, a new control method for 4WS vehicle is proposed, its rear wheels steering angle is in accordance with the angle of front wheels steering and vehicle yaw rate, and the effects of front wheels steering angle velocity are considered by adopting the fractional derivative theory. Some design specifications for control law are also given. The effects of the control method are verified by a kind of numerical scheme presented in this paper. The dynamic characteristics such as the side-slip angle and the yaw angle velocity of the vehicle gravity center are compared among three kinds of vehicles with different control methods. And the kinematics characteristics such as turning radius between 4WS and 2WS are also discussed. Nu-merical simulation shows that the control method presented can improve the transient response and reduce the turning radius of 4WS vehicle.

  2. On fractional control method for four-wheel-steering vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Four-wheel-steering (4WS) system can enhance vehicle cornering ability by steering the rear wheels in accordance with the front wheels steering and vehicle status. With such steering control system, it becomes possible to improve the lateral stability and handling performance. In this paper, a new control method for 4WS vehicle is proposed, its rear wheels steering angle is in accordance with the angle of front wheels steering and vehicle yaw rate, and the effects of front wheels steering angle velocity are considered by adopting the fractional derivative theory. Some design specifications for control law are also given. The effects of the control method are verified by a kind of numerical scheme presented in this paper. The dynamic characteristics such as the side-slip angle and the yaw angle velocity of the vehicle gravity center are compared among three kinds of vehicles with different control methods. And the kinematics characteristics such as turning radius between 4WS and 2WS are also discussed. Nu- merical simulation shows that the control method presented can improve the transient response and reduce the turning radius of 4WS vehicle.

  3. Quantum steering: a review with focus on semidefinite programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Skrzypczyk, P.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum steering refers to the non-classical correlations that can be observed between the outcomes of measurements applied on half of an entangled state and the resulting post-measured states that are left with the other party. From an operational point of view, a steering test can be seen as an entanglement test where one of the parties performs uncharacterised measurements. Thus, quantum steering is a form of quantum inseparability that lies in between the well-known notions of Bell nonlocality and entanglement. Moreover, quantum steering is also related to several asymmetric quantum information protocols where some of the parties are considered untrusted. Because of these facts, quantum steering has received a lot of attention both theoretically and experimentally. The main goal of this review is to give an overview of how to characterise quantum steering through semidefinite programming. This characterisation provides efficient numerical methods to address a number of problems, including steering detection, quantification, and applications. We also give a brief overview of some important results that are not directly related to semidefinite programming. Finally, we make available a collection of semidefinite programming codes that can be used to study the topics discussed in this article.

  4. Monkey steering responses reveal rapid visual-motor feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth W Egger

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms underlying primate locomotion are largely unknown. While behavioral and theoretical work has provided a number of ideas of how navigation is controlled, progress will require direct physiolgical tests of the underlying mechanisms. In turn, this will require development of appropriate animal models. We trained three monkeys to track a moving visual target in a simple virtual environment, using a joystick to control their direction. The monkeys learned to quickly and accurately turn to the target, and their steering behavior was quite stereotyped and reliable. Monkeys typically responded to abrupt steps of target direction with a biphasic steering movement, exhibiting modest but transient overshoot. Response latencies averaged approximately 300 ms, and monkeys were typically back on target after about 1 s. We also exploited the variability of responses about the mean to explore the time-course of correlation between target direction and steering response. This analysis revealed a broad peak of correlation spanning approximately 400 ms in the recent past, during which steering errors provoke a compensatory response. This suggests a continuous, visual-motor loop controls steering behavior, even during the epoch surrounding transient inputs. Many results from the human literature also suggest that steering is controlled by such a closed loop. The similarity of our results to those in humans suggests the monkey is a very good animal model for human visually guided steering.

  5. Remote viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C

    1988-04-15

    Remote viewing is the supposed faculty which enables a percipient, sited in a closed room, to describe the perceptions of a remote agent visiting an unknown target site. To provide convincing demonstration of such a faculty poses a range of experimental and practical problems, especially if feedback to the percipient is allowed after each trial. The precautions needed are elaborate and troublesome; many potential loopholes have to be plugged and there will be strong temptations to relax standards, requiring exceptional discipline and dedication by the experimenters. Most reports of remote viewing experiments are rather superficial and do not permit assessment of the experimental procedures with confidence; in many cases there is clear evidence of particular loopholes left unclosed. Any serious appraisal of the evidence would have to go beyond the reports. Meanwhile the published evidence is far from compelling, and certainly insufficient to justify overthrow of well-established scientific principles.

  6. Lean color characteristics of bullock and steer beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, S D; Purser, D E; Smith, G C; Griffin, C L; Stiffler, D M; Savell, J W

    1992-02-01

    Twelve young bulls and 12 steers were slaughtered and the carcasses were fabricated at 48 h postmortem. Top rounds, bottom rounds, and rib eyes were vacuum-packaged and stored at 0 degrees C until 21 d postmortem. After subprimal storage, steaks were removed from each cut and displayed under simulated retail conditions for 3 d. Consumer panelists (n = 110) showed little difference in buying preference for top round, bottom round, and rib eye steaks from steers vs bullocks. Also, consumer panelists could not detect color differences between steaks from steers and bullocks. Experienced panelists (n = 6) detected brighter (P less than .05) muscle color for top round and rib eye steaks from steers but detected no difference in muscle color of bottom round steaks from bullocks and steers. Generally, overall desirability scores favored steaks from steer carcasses. This was particularly true of rib eye steaks. Sex-class of carcass did not affect aerobic plate counts of top round, bottom round, or rib eye steaks either before or after 3 d of retail display. Muscle pH was lower for top round and rib eye steaks from steer carcasses; however, the magnitude of this difference was not large enough to affect retail display stability. Muscle pH of bottom round steaks was not affected by sex-class. Although experienced panelists could detect differences in visual appearance of beef retail cuts from steers and bullocks, consumer panelists did not show a clear purchase preference for steer vs bullock beef. These data suggest that beef retail cuts from bullocks are acceptable in visual appearance.

  7. FLOW CHARACTERISTICS FORMATION OF POWER STEERING WITH ROTARY DISTRIBUTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhailov, V; E. Strock

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain an adequate mathematical model of vehicle hydro-mechanical steering which is  equipped with a steering mechanism combined with power steering and a rotary distributor  it is initially   necessary to get current consumption values in the units of hydraulic scheme which are determined by dynamic changes of flow passages of pressure and drain circuits according to turning angle of the distributor. Such characteristics are usually determined experimentally.The paper  proposes  ...

  8. Selection and Simulation of Electric Steering Gear Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For the electric steering gear control systems, the principle of the system is introduced. Specific model and parameters are selected to deduce the optimal combination of control system and choices method of the steering system model is determined. The transfer function of motor according to the parameters is achieved and simulation results are gained based on MATLAB. Simulation results show that this method can meet the performance requirements of electric steering gear, the control method is simple and easy to work to achieve.

  9. Steering Control of Wheeled Armored Vehicle with Brushless DC Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Considering the steering characters of one type of wheeled armored vehicle, a brushless direct current (DC) motor is adapted as the actuator for steering control. After investigating the known algorithms, one kind of algorithm, which combines the fuzzy logic control with the self-adapting PID control and the startup and pre-brake control, is put forward. Then a test-bed is constructed, and an experiment is conducted. The result of experiment confirms the validity of this algorithm in steering control of wheeled armored vehicle with brushless DC motor.

  10. 46 CFR 58.25-10 - Main and auxiliary steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main and auxiliary steering gear. 58.25-10 Section 58.25... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-10 Main and auxiliary steering gear. (a) Power-operated main and auxiliary steering gear must be separate systems that are independent throughout...

  11. 46 CFR 196.37-33 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 196.37-33... steering gear. (a) Instructions in at least 1/2 inch letters and figures shall be posted in the steering engineroom, relating in order, the different steps to be taken in changing to the emergency steering...

  12. Impact of feedback torque level on perceived comfort and control in steer-by-wire systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, S.; Terken, J.; Hogema, J.H.; Martens, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Steer-by-Wire systems enable designers to offer completely personalized steering feel to drivers, unlike existing steering systems that offer limited or no personalization. In this paper we focus on feedback torque level, a significant factor for steering feel. Earlier studies indicate that the pref

  13. Dynamic characteristics of hydraulic power steering system with accumulator in load-haul-dump vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠炯; 何清华; 柳波

    2004-01-01

    Using hydraulic power steering system of model EIMCO 922 load-haul-dump vehicle as a simulation example, the dynamic characteristics of hydraulic power steering system in load-haul-dump vehicle were simulated and discussed with SIMULINK software and hydraulic control theory. The results show that the dynamic characteristics of hydraulic power steering system are improved obviously by using bladder accumulator, the hydraulic power steering system of model EIMCO 922 load-haul-dump vehicle generates vibration at the initial stage under the normal steering condition of pulse input, and its static response time is 0.25 s shorter than that without bladder accumulator. Under the normal steering working condition, the capacity of steering accumulator for absorbing pulse is directly proportional to the cross section area of connecting pipeline, and inversely proportional to the length of connecting pipeline. At the same time, the precharge pressure of nitrogen in steering accumulator should be 60%- 80% of the rated minimum working pressure of hydraulic power steering system. Under the abnormal steering working condition, the steering cylinder piston may obtain higher motion velocity, and the dynamic response velocity of hydraulic power steering system can be increased by reducing the pressure drop of hydraulic pipelines between the accumulator and steering cylinder and by increasing the rated pressure of hydraulic power steering system, but the dynamic characteristics of hydraulic power steering system in load-haul-dump vehicle have nothing to do with the precharge pressure of nitrogen in steering accumulator.

  14. A modification of QuEChERS method to analyse anticoagulant rodenticides using small blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gómez-Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de rodenticidas anticoagulantes es el método más frecuentemente utilizado para el control de plagas de roedores. Debido a sus características físico-químicas y particular mecanismo de acción, la utilización de estos compuestos en zonas rurales puede suponer un riesgo de intoxicación secundaria de sus depredadores. Para evaluar el riesgo a estos compuestos para la fauna silvestre, especialmente en aves rapaces que se alimentan de roedores, se llevan a cabo los programas de biomonitorización. Se ha desarrollado un método rápido, fácil y económico que permita el análisis de pequeños volúmenes de muestra de sangre. En el presente trabajo se han comparado tres diferentes modificaciones de la metodología “QuEChERS”, y posteriormente uno de ellos fue elegido para la detección y cuantificación de estos compuestos. El proceso previo al análisis de los extractos incluye dos pasos sencillos: La muestra es extraída usando un solvente orgánico y una solución salina y, posteriormente, el sobrenadante es purificado usando una técnica de extracción en fase solida dispersiva. La detección y cuantificación de los rodenticidas anticoagulantes se realizó por cromatografía líquida acoplada a un detector de masas Agilent 1100 VL con trampa de iones y fuente de electrospray para ionización. La técnica finalmente elegida permite una recuperación entre 72-134% para los siete rodenticidas objeto de estudio (warfarina, cumatetralilo, difenacoum, clorofacinona, brodifacoum, bromadiolona, difacinona, la cual es superior a la obtenida con otras técnicas que analizan compuestos similares. Además, la sensibilidad de esta técnica es mayor a la que ofrecen otras técnicas. Con el fin de comprobar la utilidad de la técnica validada, se analizaron un total de 50 muestras de sangre de búho real (Bubo bubo capturados en su hábitat natural.

  15. Artificial intelligence for the EChO long-term mission planning tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Piquer, Álvaro; Ribas, Ignasi; Colomé, Josep

    2014-08-01

    The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) was an ESA mission candidate competing for a launch opportunity within the M3 call. Its main aim was to carry out research on the physics and chemistry of atmospheres of transiting planets. This requires the observation of two types of events: primary and secondary eclipses. The events of each exoplanet have to be observed several times in order to obtain measurements with adequate Signal-to-Noise Ratio. Furthermore, several criteria must be considered to perform an observation, among which we can highlight the exoplanet visibility, its event duration, and the avoidance of overlapping with other tasks. It is important to emphasize that, since the communications for transferring data from ground stations to the spacecraft are restricted, it is necessary to compute a long-term plan of observations in order to provide autonomy to the observatory. Thus, a suitable mission plan will increase the efficiency of telescope operation, and this will result in a raise of the scientific return and a reduction of operational costs. Obtaining a long-term mission plan becomes unaffordable for human planners due to the complexity of computing the large amount of possible combinations for finding a near-optimal solution. In this contribution we present a long-term mission planning tool based on Genetic Algorithms, which are focused on solving optimization problems such as the planning of several tasks. Specifically, the proposed tool finds a solution that highly optimizes the objectives defined, which are based on the maximization of the time spent on scientific observations and the scientific return (e.g., the coverage of the mission survey). The results obtained on the large experimental set up support that the proposed scheduler technology is robust and can function in a variety of scenarios, offering a competitive performance which does not depend on the collection of objects to be observed. Finally, it is noteworthy that the

  16. A High Throughput Method for Measuring Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Seafood Using QuEChERS Extraction and SBSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. Pfannkoch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Method NMFS-NWFSC-59 2004 is currently used to quantitatively analyze seafood for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH contamination, especially following events such as the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion that released millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This method has limited throughput capacity; hence, alternative methods are necessary to meet analytical demands after such events. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE is an effective technique to extract trace PAHs in water and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS extraction strategy effectively extracts PAHs from complex food matrices. This study uses SBSE to concentrate PAHs and eliminate matrix interference from QuEChERS extracts of seafood, specifically oysters, fish, and shrimp. This method provides acceptable recovery (65–138% linear calibrations and is sensitive (LOD = 0.02 ppb, LOQ = 0.06 ppb while providing higher throughput and maintaining equivalency between NOAA 2004 as determined by analysis of NIST SRM 1974b mussel tissue.

  17. Application of ECH to the Study of Transport in ITER Baseline Scenario-like Discharges in DIII-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinsker R.I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent DIII-D experiments in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS have shown strong increases in fluctuations and correlated reduction of confinement associated with entering the electron-heating-dominated regime with strong electron cyclotron heating (ECH. The addition of 3.2 MW of 110 GHz EC power deposited at ρ∼0.42 to IBS discharges with ∼3 MW of neutral beam injection causes large increases in low-k and medium-k turbulent density fluctuations observed with Doppler backscatter (DBS, beam emission spectroscopy (BES and phase-contrast imaging (PCI diagnostics, correlated with decreases in the energy, particle, and momentum confinement times. Power balance calculations show the electron heat diffusivity χe increases significantly in the mid-radius region 0.4<ρ<0.8, which is roughly the same region where the DBS and BES diagnostics show the increases in turbulent density fluctuations. Confinement of angular momentum is also reduced during ECH. Studies with the TGYRO transport solver show that the model of turbulent transport embodied in the TGLF code quantitatively reproduces the measured transport in both the neutral beam (NB-only and in the NB plus EC cases. A simple model of the decrease in toroidal rotation with EC power is set forth, which exhibits a bifurcation in the rotational state of the discharge.

  18. [Determination of 16 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables by QuEChERS-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Jiang, Bing; Xu, Yigang; Zhao, Wei; Meng, Xiangrui; Zhou, Yuan; Yu, Jiahui; Zu, Yuangang

    2015-03-01

    A sensitive and convenient liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the determination of 16 pesticides such as imidacloprid, prochloraz, difenoconazole, azoxystrobin, and thiamethoxam in fruits and vegetables. After compared with methanol and acetone-cyclohexane (1:2, v/v), acetonitrile was chosen as the extraction solvent. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile in high-speed homogenization. The extraction solution was cleaned up by liquid-liquid extraction, and the supernatant was collected. In this work, QuEChERS exhibited much higher efficiency than Carbon-NH2 solid-phase extraction in purification. The pigments and organic acids were removed by purge line (150 mg primary secondary amine (PSA) sorbent and 900 mg absolute magnesium sulfate), leading to the decrease of the background interferences. The average recoveries of the 16 pesticides were almost in the range of 75%-111% at the three spiked levels, and the relative standard deviations were less than 16%. The qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis were investigated by LC-MS/MS and matrix-matched calibration curves. The results showed that the method of QuEChERS combined with LC-MS/MS is rapid, accurate and sensitive for the determination of the 16 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.

  19. Application of ECH to the Study of Transport in ITER Baseline Scenario-like Discharges in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, R. I.; Austin, M. E.; Ernst, D. R.; Garofalo, A. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Hosea, J. C.; Luce, T. C.; Marinoni, A.; McKee, G. R.; Perkins, R. J.; Petty, C. C.; Porkolab, M.; Rost, J. C.; Schmitz, L.; Solomon, W. M.; Taylor, G.; Turco, F.

    2015-03-01

    Recent DIII-D experiments in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS) have shown strong increases in fluctuations and correlated reduction of confinement associated with entering the electron-heating-dominated regime with strong electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The addition of 3.2 MW of 110 GHz EC power deposited at ρ˜0.42 to IBS discharges with ˜3 MW of neutral beam injection causes large increases in low-k and medium-k turbulent density fluctuations observed with Doppler backscatter (DBS), beam emission spectroscopy (BES) and phase-contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostics, correlated with decreases in the energy, particle, and momentum confinement times. Power balance calculations show the electron heat diffusivity χe increases significantly in the mid-radius region 0.4<ρ<0.8, which is roughly the same region where the DBS and BES diagnostics show the increases in turbulent density fluctuations. Confinement of angular momentum is also reduced during ECH. Studies with the TGYRO transport solver show that the model of turbulent transport embodied in the TGLF code quantitatively reproduces the measured transport in both the neutral beam (NB)-only and in the NB plus EC cases. A simple model of the decrease in toroidal rotation with EC power is set forth, which exhibits a bifurcation in the rotational state of the discharge.

  20. Roles of HynAB and Ech, the only two hydrogenases found in the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Silva, Fabio O; Santos, Catia I; Rodrigues, Rute; Pereira, Inês A C; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina

    2013-10-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria are characterized by a high number of hydrogenases, which have been proposed to contribute to the overall energy metabolism of the cell, but exactly in what role is not clear. Desulfovibrio spp. can produce or consume H2 when growing on organic or inorganic substrates in the presence or absence of sulfate. Because of the presence of only two hydrogenases encoded in its genome, the periplasmic HynAB and cytoplasmic Ech hydrogenases, Desulfovibrio gigas is an excellent model organism for investigation of the specific function of each of these enzymes during growth. In this study, we analyzed the physiological response to the deletion of the genes that encode the two hydrogenases in D. gigas, through the generation of ΔechBC and ΔhynAB single mutant strains. These strains were analyzed for the ability to grow on different substrates, such as lactate, pyruvate, and hydrogen, under respiratory and fermentative conditions. Furthermore, the expression of both hydrogenase genes in the three strains studied was assessed through quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The results demonstrate that neither hydrogenase is essential for growth on lactate-sulfate, indicating that hydrogen cycling is not indispensable. In addition, the periplasmic HynAB enzyme has a bifunctional activity and is required for growth on H2 or by fermentation of pyruvate. Therefore, this enzyme seems to play a dominant role in D. gigas hydrogen metabolism.

  1. High field side measurements of non-thermal electron cyclotron emission on TCV plasmas with ECH and ECCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, P.; Alberti, S.; Coda, S.; Weisen, H.; Nikkola, P.; Klimanov, I

    2002-07-01

    Measurements of electron cyclotron emission from the high field side of the TCV tokamak have been made on plasmas heated by second and third harmonic X-mode Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) and Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD). Suprathermal Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE), up to a factor of 6 in excess of thermal emission, is detected in the presence of second harmonic X-mode (X2) ECCD and of third harmonic X-mode (X3) ECH. The measured ECE spectra are modelled using a bi-Maxwellian describing the bulk and the suprathermal electron populations. Suprathermal temperatures between 10-50keV and densities in the range 1. 10{sup 1}7 -6. 10{sup 1}8m{sup -3} are obtained, and correspond to 3 -15 bulk temperatures and 1% -20% bulk densities. Good agreement between ECE suprathermal temperatures and energetic photon temperatures, measured by a hard X-ray camera, is found. For optically thin X3 Low Field Side (LFS) injection in presence of X2 CO-ECCD, the suprathermal population partly explains the discrepancy between global and first pass absorption measurements. (author)

  2. Operation experiences of the super conducting magnet for a gyrotron of the JT-60U ECH system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Koichi; Seki, Masami; Shimono, Mitsugu; Terakado, Masayuki; Ishii, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Masami [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The JT-60U electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system can heat plasmas locally and drive a plasma current with four 1 MW-5 sec gyrotrons. The super conducting magnets (SCM) are required for oscillation of the gyrotron at a working frequency of 110 GHz. The SCM provides a high magnetic field of 4.5T at the cavity inside the gyrotron. This SCM system is characterized by 1) operation without liquid Helium owing to a 4K-refrigerator applied to the magnetic coils, 2) easy maintenance. Operational experiences about the SCM system through a long term experiment for a high power gyrotron are very valuable. According to those operational experiences, it is clarified the 4K-refrigerator should be renewed in order to keep low temperature of the SCM. It is also found that 200 hours or less are required for the super conducting condition (<5K) after long stopping time of the refrigerator up to 150 hours. This is useful information for making a plan about ECH experiments. (author)

  3. Remote Voice Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-25

    back to the laser Doppler vibrometer and the digital camera, respectively. Mechanical beam steering mirror modules, such as galvanometer steering...mirror module 43 in accordance with this invention. An appropriate galvanometer -based tracker system has been used for tracking eye motion during laser

  4. Remote BCDGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erastova, L. K.

    2017-07-01

    The remote BCDGs with z>0.05 from the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) are extracted. They are analogs of similar BCDGs in low-z Universe. The properties of these objects are discussed. Definitions of other physical types of active galaxies are considered and also clarified.

  5. FLEXIBLE 2-DOF STEERING MODEL OF MULTI-AXLE HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bo; Wang Xuelin; Hu Yujin; Li Chenggang

    2004-01-01

    A flexible two degrees of freedom (2-DOF) steering model of multi-axle vehicle (MAV) is presented with considering the effect of frame flexibility based on the classic 2-DOF model. A method to calculate the frame flexibility is derived by using three moments equation. The steering stability of MAV is analyzed. The steering performance of MAV is also researched in frequency domain. Simulation results show that the dynamic effects of flexible model are more severe than rigid model and the flexible effect of frame will weaken the steering stability of MAV. Different disposals of steering axles lead to different steering characteristics of MAV. The in-phase steering mode improves the steering characteristics and stability at high speed. The anti-phase steering mode increases the steering mobility at low vehicle speed.

  6. Nonlocality of a single photon: paths to an EPR-steering experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, S J

    2011-01-01

    A single photon incident on a beam splitter produces an entangled field state, and in principle could be used to violate a Bell-inequality, but such an experiment (without post-selection) is beyond the reach of current experiments. Here we consider the somewhat simpler task of demonstrating EPR-steering with a single photon (also without post-selection). That is, of demonstrating that Alice's choice of measurement on her "half" of a single photon can affect the other "half" of the photon in Bob's lab, in a sense rigorously defined by us and Doherty [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402 (2007)]. Previous work by Lvovsky and co-workers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047903 (2004)] has addressed this phenomenon (which they called "remote preparation") experimentally using homodyne measurements on a single photon. Here we show that, unfortunately, their experimental parameters do not meet the bounds necessary for a rigorous demonstration of EPR-steering with a single photon. However, we also show that modest improvements in the ex...

  7. Two-axis Beam Steering Mirror Control system for Precision Pointing and Tracking Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulander, Klaus [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Precision pointing and tracking of laser beams is critical in numerous military and industrial applications. This is particularly true for systems requiring atmospheric beam propagation. Such systems are plagued by environmental influences which cause the optical signal to break up and wander. Example applications include laser communications, precision targeting, active imaging, chemical remote sensing, and laser vibrometry. The goal of this project is to build a beam steering system using a two-axis mirror to maintain precise pointing control. Ultimately, position control to 0.08% accuracy (40 {micro}rad) with a bandwidth of 200 Hz is desired. The work described encompasses evaluation of the instrumentation system and the subsequent design and implementation of an analog electronic controller for a two-axis mirror used to steer the beam. The controller operates over a wide temperature range, through multiple mirror resonances, and is independent of specific mirrors. The design was built and successfully fielded in a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory free-space optics experiment. All measurements and performance parameters are derived from measurements made on actual hardware that was built and field tested. In some cases, specific design details have been omitted that involve proprietary information pertaining to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory patent positions and claims. These omissions in no way impact the general validity of the work or concepts presented in this thesis.

  8. How Insect Flight Steering Muscles Work: e1001822

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hedenstrom, Anders

    2014-01-01

    .... The hinge consists of several hardened and articulated cuticle elements called sclerites. This articulation is controlled by a great number of small steering muscles, whose function has been studied by means of kinematics and muscle activity...

  9. FLOW CHARACTERISTICS FORMATION OF POWER STEERING WITH ROTARY DISTRIBUTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mikhailov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain an adequate mathematical model of vehicle hydro-mechanical steering which is  equipped with a steering mechanism combined with power steering and a rotary distributor  it is initially   necessary to get current consumption values in the units of hydraulic scheme which are determined by dynamic changes of flow passages of pressure and drain circuits according to turning angle of the distributor. Such characteristics are usually determined experimentally.The paper  proposes  a sequence which is recommended for determination of consumption characteristics which is formed with due account of multi-directional kinematic perturbations, mechanical clearance, possible emergence of hydraulic backlash and desired throttling law. The factors account makes it possible to obtain an acceptable mathematical analogue of a hydro-mechanical steering for execution of robust investigations. 

  10. CCCT - NCTN Steering Committees - Pediatric and Adolescent Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pediatric and Adolescent Solid Tumor Steering Committee addresses the design, prioritization and evaluation of concepts for large phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials in extracranial solid tumors of children and youth.

  11. Current focusing and steering: modeling, physiology, and psychophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Ben H; Litvak, Leonid M

    2008-08-01

    Current steering and current focusing are stimulation techniques designed to increase the number of distinct perceptual channels available to cochlear implant (CI) users by adjusting currents applied simultaneously to multiple CI electrodes. Previous studies exploring current steering and current focusing stimulation strategies are reviewed, including results of research using computational models, animal neurophysiology, and human psychophysics. Preliminary results of additional neurophysiological and human psychophysical studies are presented that demonstrate the success of current steering strategies in stimulating auditory nerve regions lying between physical CI electrodes, as well as current focusing strategies that excite regions narrower than those stimulated using monopolar configurations. These results are interpreted in the context of perception and speech reception by CI users. Disparities between results of physiological and psychophysical studies are discussed. The differences in stimulation used for physiological and psychophysical studies are hypothesized to contribute to these disparities. Finally, application of current steering and focusing strategies to other types of auditory prostheses is also discussed.

  12. A control theoretic model of driver steering behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, E.

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative description of driver steering behavior such as a mathematical model is presented. The steering task is divided into two levels: (1) the guidance level involving the perception of the instantaneous and future course of the forcing function provided by the forward view of the road, and the response to it in an anticipatory open-loop control mode; (2) the stabilization level whereby any occuring deviations from the forcing function are compensated for in a closed-loop control mode. This concept of the duality of the driver's steering activity led to a newly developed two-level model of driver steering behavior. Its parameters are identified on the basis of data measured in driving simulator experiments. The parameter estimates of both levels of the model show significant dependence on the experimental situation which can be characterized by variables such as vehicle speed and desired path curvature.

  13. Steering of Solar Sails Using Optical Lift Force Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study seeks to look beyond the use of radiation pressure for thrust, and to explore a means of solar navigation whereby a solar craft would be steered by use...

  14. Improvement for the steering performance of liquid crystal phased array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yan; KONG Ling-jiang; CHEN Jun; ZHU Ying; YANG Jian-yu

    2009-01-01

    Optical phased array technology is introduced and the steering performances of liquid crystal phased array are discussed, several factors affecting the beam steering performances arc analyzed completely, also simple models for some typical factors are developed. Then, a new method based on iterating and modifying the output phase pattern of liquid crystal phase shifters is proposed. Using this method, the modified voltages applied on electrodes of liquid crystal phase shifters can be obtained, after applying the voltages, the influence of factors can be compensated to some extent; the steering angle accu-racy and efficiency with liquid crystal phased array can be improved. Through the simulation for the angle range from 0° to -1°, the error of steering angle can be reduced three orders of magnitude, and the efficiency can be increased almost 30% after several iterations.

  15. An improved constrained steering law for SGCMGs with DPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jin; Shijie Xu

    2009-01-01

    An improved constrained (IC) steering law for single girnbal control moment gyros (SGCMGs) with deformed pyramid configuration (DPC) is proposed. First of all, the original system with five pyramid configuration (FPC) whose two adjacent gyros are in failure state is reconfigured as a degraded system with DPC. Then, the singular angular momentum hypersurfaces of the original and the degraded systems are plotted via the singular angular momentum equation of SGCMGs. Based on singular surfaces, the differences between FPC and DPC in singularity and momentum envelope are obtained directly, which provide an important reference for steering law design of DPC. Finally, an IC steering law is designed and applied to DPC. The simulation results demonstrate that the IC steering law has advantages in simplicity of calculation, avoidance of singularity and exactness of output torque, which endow the degraded system with fine controllability in a restricted workspace.

  16. Electrical power assisted steering for EVs and HEVs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Haibo; Yang Ying

    2011-01-01

    Electrical power assisted steering (EPAS) is one of the key components, especially for electrical vehicle. It has attracted much attention for their advantages with respect to improved fuel economy and has been widely adopted as automotive power-steering equipment in recent years. EPS (electrical power steering) controllers contain MCU (microprocessor control unit) to implement the complex control algorithms. EPS control strategy development is the core technology of the whole system. To achieve the better performance of driving, both mechanical structures and electrical structures are totally designed as a whole. Model-based development is recommended to software design. There are several trends about EPS' future, such as high power EPS development, high voltage EPS development and steering-bywire technology.

  17. 46 CFR 58.25-70 - Steering-gear control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering-gear control systems. 58.25-70 Section 58.25-70... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-70 Steering-gear control systems. (a) Each power-driven steering-gear system must be provided with at least one steering-gear control system. (b) The main...

  18. ProteinShop: A tool for interactive protein manipulation and steering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivelli, Silvia; Kreylos, Oliver; Max, Nelson; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, Wes

    2004-05-25

    We describe ProteinShop, a new visualization tool that streamlines and simplifies the process of determining optimal protein folds. ProteinShop may be used at different stages of a protein structure prediction process. First, it can create protein configurations containing secondary structures specified by the user. Second, it can interactively manipulate protein fragments to achieve desired folds by adjusting the dihedral angles of selected coil regions using an Inverse Kinematics method. Last, it serves as a visual framework to monitor and steer a protein structure prediction process that may be running on a remote machine. ProteinShop was used to create initial configurations for a protein structure prediction method developed by a team that competed in CASP5. ProteinShop's use accelerated the process of generating initial configurations, reducing the time required from days to hours. This paper describes the structure of ProteinShop and discusses its main features.

  19. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Wake Steering Strategies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Annoni, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ryan N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fleming, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University

    2017-05-01

    Wind turbines in a wind power plant experience significant power losses because of aerodynamic interactions between turbines. One control strategy to reduce these losses is known as 'wake steering,' in which upstream turbines are yawed to direct wakes away from downstream turbines. Previous wake steering research has assumed perfect information, however, there can be significant uncertainty in many aspects of the problem, including wind inflow and various turbine measurements. Uncertainty has significant implications for performance of wake steering strategies. Consequently, the authors formulate and solve an optimization under uncertainty (OUU) problem for finding optimal wake steering strategies in the presence of yaw angle uncertainty. The OUU wake steering strategy is demonstrated on a two-turbine test case and on the utility-scale, offshore Princess Amalia Wind Farm. When we accounted for yaw angle uncertainty in the Princess Amalia Wind Farm case, inflow-direction-specific OUU solutions produced between 0% and 1.4% more power than the deterministically optimized steering strategies, resulting in an overall annual average improvement of 0.2%. More importantly, the deterministic optimization is expected to perform worse and with more downside risk than the OUU result when realistic uncertainty is taken into account. Additionally, the OUU solution produces fewer extreme yaw situations than the deterministic solution.

  20. Quantification of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in soils from cocoa plantations using a QuEChERS extraction procedure and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankyi, Enock; Gordon, Christopher; Carboo, Derick

    2014-01-01

    of neonicotinoids in the environment extremely important. The present study was aimed at assessing the levels of five major neonicotinoids in soils from cocoa farmlands in Ghana. Extraction and cleanup of analytes were performed by use of a method based on the original QuEChERS procedure after optimizing salts...

  1. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, N; Eifert, T; Fischer, G; George, S; Haller, J; Höcker, A; Masik, J; Zur Nedden, M; Pérez-Réale, V; Risler, C; Schiavi, C; Stelzer, J; Wu, X; International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2008-01-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider receives events which pass the LVL1 trigger at ~75 kHz and has to reduce the rate to ~200 Hz while retaining the most interesting physics. It is a software trigger and performs the reduction in two stages: the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter (EF). At the heart of the HLT is the Steering software. To minimise processing time and data transfers it implements the novel event selection strategies of seeded, step-wise reconstruction and early rejection. The HLT is seeded by regions of interest identified at LVL1. These and the static configuration determine which algorithms are run to reconstruct event data and test the validity of trigger signatures. The decision to reject the event or continue is based on the valid signatures, taking into account pre-scale and pass-through. After the EF, event classification tags are assigned for streaming purposes. Several powerful new features for commissioning and operation have been added: co...

  2. Development of high voltage power supply for the KSTAR 170 GHz ECH and CD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, J.H., E-mail: jhjeong@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Y.S.; Joung, M.; Kim, H.J.; Park, S.I.; Han, W.S.; Kim, J.S.; Yang, H.L.; Kwak, J.G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sakamoto, K.; Kajiwara, K.; Oda, Y.; Hayashi, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • A 3.6 MW (−66 kV/55 A) gyrotron power supply system was developed for the 170 GHz ECH system in KSTAR. • The main power supply includes a total of 32 PSM based HV power supply modules. • The voltage regulation of individual HV power module and LV power module is 3 kV and 0.5 kV, respectively. • The gyrotron is protected by means of a fast solid-state switch (MOS-FET). • The HV switching system can turn off the 60 kV to the cathode within 3 μs in the event of gyrotron faults. -- Abstract: A 3.6 MW (66 kV/55 A) DC power supply system was developed for the 170 GHz EC H and CD system in KSTAR. The power supply system consists of a cathode power supply (CPS), an anode power supply (APS) and a body power supply (BPS). The cathode power supply is capable of supplying a maximum voltage of −66 kV and a current of 55 A to the cathode with respect to the collector using pulse step modulation (PSM). The high voltage switching system for the cathode is made by a fast MOS-FET solid-state switch which can turn off the high voltage to the cathode within 3 μs in the occurrence of gyrotron faults. The APS is a voltage divider system consisting of a fixed resistor and zener diode units with the capability of 60 kV stand-off voltage. The anode voltage with respect to the cathode is controlled in a range of 0–60 kV by turning the MOS-FET switches connected in parallel to each zener diode on and off. For high frequency current modulation of the gyrotron, the parallel discharge switch is introduced between the cathode and anode in order to clamp the charged voltage in the stray capacitance. The BPS is a DC power supply with the capability of 50 kV/160 mA. The nominal operation parameter of BPS was 23 kV and 10 mA, respectively, and the voltage output is regulated with a stability of 0.025% of the rated voltage. The series MOS-FET solid-state switch is used for on/off modulation in the body voltage sychronizing with anode voltage. The parallel discharge

  3. BEAMLINE-CONTROLLED STEERING OF SOURCE-POINT ANGLE AT THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, L.; Fystro, G.; Shang, H.; Smith, M.

    2017-06-25

    An EPICS-based steering software system has been implemented for beamline personnel to directly steer the angle of the synchrotron radiation sources at the Advanced Photon Source. A script running on a workstation monitors "start steering" beamline EPICS records, and effects a steering given by the value of the "angle request" EPICS record. The new system makes the steering process much faster than before, although the older steering protocols can still be used. The robustness features of the original steering remain. Feedback messages are provided to the beamlines and the accelerator operators. Underpinning this new steering protocol is the recent refinement of the global orbit feedback process whereby feedforward of dipole corrector set points and orbit set points are used to create a local steering bump in a rapid and seamless way.

  4. Multiclass method for pesticides quantification in honey by means of modified QuEChERS and UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tette, Patrícia Amaral Souza; da Silva Oliveira, Fabiano Aurélio; Pereira, Elba Nathália Corrêa; Silva, Gilsara; de Abreu Glória, Maria Beatriz; Fernandes, Christian

    2016-11-15

    Bee products can be produced in an environment contaminated by pesticides that can be transported by honey bees to the hive and incorporated into the honey. Therefore, rapid and modern methods to determine pesticide residues in honey samples are essential to guarantee consumers' health. In this study, a simple multiresidue method for the quantification of 116 pesticides in honey is proposed. It involves the use of a modified QuEChERS procedure followed by UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The method was validated according to the European Union SANCO/12571/2013 guidelines. Acceptable values were obtained for the following parameters: linearity, limit of detection (0.005mg/kg) and limit of quantification (0.010 and 0.025mg/kg), trueness (for the four tested levels the recovery assays values were between 70 and 120%), intermediate precision (RSDhoney samples from five states of Brazil.

  5. Simultaneous Determination of 27 Pesticides in Ginseng by UPLC/MS/MS and Modified QuEChERS Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruoxin; Chen, Qiyong; Li, Shujing; Fan, Guoliang

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple, and rapid method for the quantification of 27 commonly used pesticides in ginseng incorporating a modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) procedure was developed and validated. The pesticides were extracted with 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile and extracts purified by use of the mixed sorbents primary-secondary amine, C18, and graphitized carbon black. Quantitative analysis of all pesticides was performed by ultra-performance LC/MS/MS in the positive ionization mode in a single run due to the fast polarity switching capability of the mass spectrometer. Two precursor-product ion transitions were monitored for each compound in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Quantification was carried out using matrix-matched standards for calibration. Recoveries of the proposed method from the spiked samples were achieved in the range 62.8-108.5%, and RSD ranged from 1.5 to 11.8%.

  6. Analysis of tomato matrix effect in pesticide residue quantification through QuEChERS and single quadrupole GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Domínguez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection of pesticide in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. matrix using Gas Chromatography hyphenated to Mass Spectrometry detector (GC/MS can affect the sensitivity of the analysis by enhancement or suppression of their chromatography response, the percentages of recoveries and leading to errors in the quantification of the pesticides. In this study, the matrix effect was investigated using nine pesticides, and "Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe" (QuEChERS-GC/MS analytical technique was validated for pesticides multiresidue analysis. The matrix effect was determined using not statistical and statistical procedures including ANOVA, with similar results. Strong negative matrix effect was found for the pesticides trifluralin, 4,4'-DDT, and permethrin, resulting in the increment of the chromatogram background and a decrease in their detection responses. Contrary, an enhancement induced by the matrix presence was obtained for carbaryl and azinphos methyl, showing a positive medium matrix effect. While, dimethoate, simazine, 4,4'-DDE, and iprodione did not exhibit matrix effect. The detection limits (LOD obtained, varied from 0.003 to 0.1 mg kg-1. Reproducibility was less than 20% for each pesticide. Recoveries were found to be between 71% and 121%, except for dimethoate, carbaryl, and azinphos methyl which reached values lower than 70%. Recoveries relative standard deviations were less than 22%. QuEChERS-GC/MS technique was used for evaluation of fresh commercial tomatoes samples, detecting carbaryl in all of them, but in concentration levels lower than the maximum residue limits according to regulations of Codex.

  7. QuEChERS: um método moderno de preparo de amostra para determinação multirresíduo de pesticidas em alimentos por métodos cromatográficos acoplados à espectrometria de massas QuEChERS: a modern sample preparation method for pesticide multiresidue determination in food by chromatographic methods coupled to mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar D. Prestes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This review attempts to provide an updated overview of the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Ruged and Safe (QuEChERS multiresidue extraction method, that involves initial extraction in acetonitrile, an extraction/partition step after the addition of salt, and a cleanup step utilizing dispersive solid phase extraction. QuEChERS method is nowadays the most applied extraction method for the determination of pesticide residues in food samples, providing acceptable recoveries for acidic, neutral and basic pesticides. Several applications for various food matrices (fruits, vegetables, cereals and others in combination with chromatographic mass spectrometry analysis were presented.

  8. Remote controlled mover for disposal canister transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suikki, M. [Optimik Oy, Turku (Finland)

    2013-10-15

    This working report is an update for an earlier automatic guided vehicle design (Pietikaeinen 2003). The short horizontal transfers of disposal canisters manufactured in the encapsulation process are conducted with remote controlled movers both in the encapsulation plant and in the underground areas at the canister loading station of the disposal facility. The canister mover is a remote controlled transfer vehicle mobile on wheels. The handling of canisters is conducted with the assistance of transport platforms (pallets). The very small automatic guided vehicle of the earlier design was replaced with a commercial type mover. The most important reasons for this being the increased loadbearing requirement and the simpler, proven technology of the vehicle. The larger size of the vehicle induced changes to the plant layouts and in the principles for dealing with fault conditions. The selected mover is a vehicle, which is normally operated from alongside. In this application, the vehicle steering technology must be remote controlled. In addition, the area utilization must be as efficient as possible. This is why the vehicle was downsized in its outer dimensions and supplemented with certain auxiliary equipment and structures. This enables both remote controlled operation and improves the vehicle in terms of its failure tolerance. Operation of the vehicle was subjected to a risk analysis (PFMEA) and to a separate additional calculation conserning possible canister toppling risks. The total cost estimate, without value added tax for manufacturing the system amounts to 730 000 euros. (orig.)

  9. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej, E-mail: A.Tomczyk@prz.edu.pl [Department of Avionics and Control Systems, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Rzeszów University of Technology, Al. Powstañców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2014-12-10

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  10. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the "ideal" remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  11. Field Test of Wake Steering at an Offshore Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Paul; Annoni, Jennifer; Shah, Jigar J.; Wang, Linpeng; Ananthan, Shreyas; Zhang, Zhijun; Hutchings, Kyle; Wang, Peng; Chen, Weiguo; Chen, Lin

    2017-02-06

    In this paper, a field test of wake steering control is presented. The field test is the result of a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Envision Energy, a smart energy management company and turbine manufacturer. In the campaign, an array of turbines within an operating commercial offshore wind farm in China have the normal yaw controller modified to implement wake steering according to a yaw control strategy. The strategy was designed using NREL wind farm models, including a computational fluid dynamics model, SOWFA, for understanding wake dynamics and an engineering model, FLORIS, for yaw control optimization. Results indicate that, within the certainty afforded by the data, the wake-steering controller was successful in increasing power capture, by amounts similar to those predicted from the models.

  12. Application of H infinite control to ship steering system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Because the general object of ship steering control system is singular, the state of rudder force and the state of disturbance are separated, and the generalized yaw output disturbance is obtained. Furthermore, singular system control problem of ship yaw and sway coupled system is transferred into nonsingular standard control problem. Then according to the linear fractional denoting algorithm of the rational function parameter perturbation system, the Linear Fractional Transform (LFT) model of yaw and sway coupled motion is solved, which is used to design the ship steering robust control system. For the ship steering system with the uncertain parameters, the robust control law is designed based on H∞μ-synthesis. And the robust performance of the system is analyzed and the simulation validation is made. Simulation results show that the designed control system has excellent control effect and robustness.

  13. A Parallel and Distributed Surrogate Model Implementation for Computational Steering

    KAUST Repository

    Butnaru, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the influence of multiple parameters in a complex simulation setting is a difficult task. In the ideal case, the scientist can freely steer such a simulation and is immediately presented with the results for a certain configuration of the input parameters. Such an exploration process is however not possible if the simulation is computationally too expensive. For these cases we present in this paper a scalable computational steering approach utilizing a fast surrogate model as substitute for the time-consuming simulation. The surrogate model we propose is based on the sparse grid technique, and we identify the main computational tasks associated with its evaluation and its extension. We further show how distributed data management combined with the specific use of accelerators allows us to approximate and deliver simulation results to a high-resolution visualization system in real-time. This significantly enhances the steering workflow and facilitates the interactive exploration of large datasets. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Signal Processing Strategies for Cochlear Implants Using Current Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo Nogueira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary cochlear implant systems, the audio signal is decomposed into different frequency bands, each assigned to one electrode. Thus, pitch perception is limited by the number of physical electrodes implanted into the cochlea and by the wide bandwidth assigned to each electrode. The Harmony HiResolution bionic ear (Advanced Bionics LLC, Valencia, CA, USA has the capability of creating virtual spectral channels through simultaneous delivery of current to pairs of adjacent electrodes. By steering the locus of stimulation to sites between the electrodes, additional pitch percepts can be generated. Two new sound processing strategies based on current steering have been designed, SpecRes and SineEx. In a chronic trial, speech intelligibility, pitch perception, and subjective appreciation of sound were compared between the two current steering strategies and standard HiRes strategy in 9 adult Harmony users. There was considerable variability in benefit, and the mean results show similar performance with all three strategies.

  15. Reconfigurable time-steered array-antenna beam former.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, M Y; Esman, R D

    1997-12-10

    We present and analyze a hardware-optimized technique that provides true-time-delay steering for broadband two-dimensional array-antenna applications. The technique improves on previous approaches by the reduction of the two-dimensional beam-former architecture complexity, by the provision of flexibility in time-delay unit selection, and by the potential reduction of optical loss. The technique relies on a one-dimensional bank of time-delay units to form the required time-delay gradient for proper off-broadside angle steering. A reconfigurable optical interconnection fabric is used to reassign dynamically the connections between the time-delay units and individual array elements of a two-dimensional array to effect the proper steering angle along the off-broadside cone.

  16. Current steering effect of GaN nanoporous structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chia-Feng, E-mail: cflin@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Wang, Jing-Hao; Cheng, Po-Fu; Tseng, Wang-Po; Fan, Feng-Hsu; Wu, Kaun-Chun; Lee, Wen-Che [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Han, Jung [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    Current steering effect of InGaN light emitting diode (LED) structure was demonstrated by forming a high resistivity GaN nanoporous structure. Disk-array patterns with current-injection bridge structures were fabricated on InGaN LED devices through a focused ion beam (FIB) system. GaN nanoporous structure was formed around the FIB-drilled holes through a electrochemical (EC) wet-etching process on a n-type GaN:Si layer under the InGaN active layer. High emission intensity and small peak wavelength blueshift phenomenon of the electroluminescence spectra were observed in the EC-treated region compared with the non-treated region. The branch-like nanoporous structure was formed along the lateral etched direction to steer the injection current in 5 μm-width bridge structures. In the FIB-drilled hole structure, high light emission intensity of the central-disk region was observed by enlarging the bridge width to 10 μm, with a 5 μm EC-treated width, that reduced the current steering effect and increased the light scattering effect on the nanoporous structure. The EC-treated GaN:Si nanoporous structure acted as a high light scattering structure and a current steering structure that has potential on the current confinement for vertical cavity surface emitting laser applications. - Highlights: • High resistivity nanoporous-GaN formed in InGaN LED through electrochemical process. • Branch-like nanoporous in 5 μm-width bridge structure can steer the injection current. • Nanoporous GaN acted as s light scattering and current steering structures in InGaN LED.

  17. Improved LTVMPC design for steering control of autonomous vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velhal, Shridhar; Thomas, Susy

    2017-01-01

    An improved linear time varying model predictive control for steering control of autonomous vehicle running on slippery road is presented. Control strategy is designed such that the vehicle will follow the predefined trajectory with highest possible entry speed. In linear time varying model predictive control, nonlinear vehicle model is successively linearized at each sampling instant. This linear time varying model is used to design MPC which will predict the future horizon. By incorporating predicted input horizon in each successive linearization the effectiveness of controller has been improved. The tracking performance using steering with front wheel and braking at four wheels are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Study on Characteristic of Electric Power Assist Steering System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许镇琳; 王豪; 尚喆; 张海华; 王家军

    2003-01-01

    A pinion-type electric power steering (EPS) equipped on a sedan is reached in this paper. A three-freedom dynamic model of this system is created. The variables affecting assist character is analyzed. The formulas of simpled steering resistance force and the relationship between assist gain and vehicle speed are presented for the first time. Assist character is found based on the parameters of a sedan at last. This assist character is fit for the control rule of the EPS system through analyzing this character. The assist character figure offers reference for system design and control. Furthermore, this research method has generality for assist character of different kinds of vehicles.

  19. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, P.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power...... production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental...

  20. Steering of Educational Processes in a Digital Medium Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    by systems theory we outline a more adequate way of teaching in the new medium environment – a teaching that can manage the new situation and use the new possibilities provided by the digital media. The argumentation builds on empirical findings from the action research project Socio Media Education (SME......This paper is about challenges to steering and leadership of educational interaction in classrooms provided by the new medium environment that comes with digital media. In the new medium environment, the old way of steering what is going on in the classroom appears not to work since...

  1. Determination of 17 Phthalate Esters in Food by QuEChERS/High Performance Liquid Chromatography%QuEChERS/高效液相色谱测定食品中17种邻苯二甲酸酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施雅梅; 徐敦明; 周昱; 周爽; 方恩华; 严丽娟; 李文斌; 孔凡霞

    2011-01-01

    A QuEChERS with high performance liquid chromatographic ( HPLC) method was developed for the determination of 17 phthalate esters ( PAEs), e.g. DMEP, DMP, DEEP, DEP, DPhP, BBP, DIBP, DBP, DBEP, DPP, DCHP, BMPP, DHXP, DEHP, DNOP, DINP and DNP, in food samples. The targeted compounds were extracted with acetonitrile, and purified by PSA-based QuEChERS (50 mg PSA and 150 mg MgSO4). The extract were separated on a Ci8 column with mobile phase composed of water and acetonitrile by gradient elution at a flow rate of 1. 0 mL/min. The UV detection wavelength was set at 224 nm. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves of phthalate esters were linear in the ranges of 0. 5 - 10 mg/L for DINP and 0. 05 - 10 mg/L for the others with correlation coefficients ( r ) more than 0. 99. The average recoveries of 17 analytes from 5 kinds of food matrixes were in the range of 70% - 120% with RSDs ( n = 6 ) less than 15% . The detection limits ( LODs, S/N = 3 ) of phthalate esters were 0. 001 - 0. 02 mg/L and the quantitation limits (LOQs, S/N = 10) were 0. 05 - 0. 5 mg/kg. The proposed procedure was applied in the analysis of 432 real samples from Xiamen, Fujian province( China) , in which 18 positive samples were found. The proposed method was simple and accurate, and could be applicable for the routine analysis of monitoring PAEs residues in foodstuffs.%建立了同时检测食品中17种邻苯二甲酸酯类化合物的QuEChERS/高效液相色谱分析方法.样品经乙腈提取,采用含50 mg PSA和150 mg MgSO4填料的净化管进行净化,分析液经C18柱分离,乙腈-水为流动相梯度洗脱,流速1.0 mL/min,紫外检测波长224 nm.在优化色谱条件下,DINP在0.5~10 mg/L范围内,其余16种分析物在0.05 ~ 10 mg/L范围内线性关系良好,仪器检出限(LOD,S/N=3)为0.001 ~0.02mg/L,方法的定量下限(LOQ,S/N=10)为0.05 ~0.5 mg/kg.对调味精粉、葡萄果冻、凤梨酥、鸡蛋面、柚子酱5种食品中17种分

  2. 76 FR 69769 - Annual Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Multimedia Environmental Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... indication of citizenship and affiliation) may be faxed or emailed to: Mark Fuhrmann, Environmental Transport... COMMISSION Annual Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Multimedia Environmental Modeling... the Federal Interagency Steering Committee on Multimedia Environmental Modeling (ISCMEM) will...

  3. Determination of(Z)-and(E)-Chlorfenvinphos in Food by QuEChERS and UPLC-MS/MS%QuEChERS-UPLC-MS/MS法测定食品中(Z)-和(E)-毒虫畏残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈其勇; 王飞; 宓捷波; 吴若昕

    2016-01-01

    建立了食品中农药(Z)-和(E)-毒虫畏残留量的超高压液相色谱-串联质谱(UPLC-MS/MS)测定方法;样品采用QuEChERS法进行前处理;以0.1%甲酸水溶液为流动相,梯度洗脱及正离子源(ESI)电离方式,采用超高压液相色谱-串联质谱仪在选择离子监测模式下进行快速测定,保留时间和离子相对丰度比定性、外标法定量;方法定量下限为0.02 mg/kg;毒虫畏(Z)-和(E)-两种同分异构体得到很好的分离。在大米、小麦2种粮谷类样品,卷心菜、苹果、洋葱、柑橘4种蔬果类样品和猪肉、牛肾2种动物源食品中添加不同浓度的毒虫畏时,其平均添加回收率在72.7%~105.2%之间,相对标准偏差(n=10)小于10%。%A UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of (Z)-and (E)-chlorfenvinphos in food was es-tablished. Chlorfenvinphos in the targeted samples was extracted and cleaned up using QuEChERS. The mobile phase was ultrapure water with 0.1%formic acid in it. Rapid analysis were carried out by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry under electrospray ionization (ESI) and operated in positive mode with gradient elute, qualitative analysis by the retention times and relative intensities of selected ions and quantitation by external standard. Determination limits of this method were 0.02 mg/kg. The mean recoveries ranged from 72.7%-105.2%of fortified samples of 2 grain cereals, which were rice and wheat, and 4 vegeta-bles and fruits, which were cabbage, apple, onion and orange, and 2 animal-derived food, that were pork and beef kidney, with RSD(n=10) less than10%.

  4. Effects of slow-release urea on ruminal digesta characteristics and growth performance in beef steers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Hibbard, G; Kitts, S E

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers.......Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers....

  5. Steering laws analysis of SGCMGs based on singular value decomposition theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-rui

    2008-01-01

    The steering laws of single gimbal control moment gyros (SGCMGs) are analyzed and compared in this paper for a spacecraft attitude control system based on singular value decomposition (SVD) theory. The mechanism of steering laws escaping singularity, especially how the steering laws affect singularity of gimbal configuration and the output torque error, is studied using SVD theory. Performance of various steering laws are analyzed and compared quantitatively by simulation. The obtained results can be used as a reference for designers.

  6. STRIPE: Remote Driving Using Limited Image Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    Driving a vehicle, either directly or remotely, is an inherently visual task. When heavy fog limits visibility, we reduce our car's speed to a slow crawl, even along very familiar roads. In teleoperation systems, an operator's view is limited to images provided by one or more cameras mounted on the remote vehicle. Traditional methods of vehicle teleoperation require that a real time stream of images is transmitted from the vehicle camera to the operator control station, and the operator steers the vehicle accordingly. For this type of teleoperation, the transmission link between the vehicle and operator workstation must be very high bandwidth (because of the high volume of images required) and very low latency (because delayed images can cause operators to steer incorrectly). In many situations, such a high-bandwidth, low-latency communication link is unavailable or even technically impossible to provide. Supervised TeleRobotics using Incremental Polyhedral Earth geometry, or STRIPE, is a teleoperation system for a robot vehicle that allows a human operator to accurately control the remote vehicle across very low bandwidth communication links, and communication links with large delays. In STRIPE, a single image from a camera mounted on the vehicle is transmitted to the operator workstation. The operator uses a mouse to pick a series of 'waypoints' in the image that define a path that the vehicle should follow. These 2D waypoints are then transmitted back to the vehicle, where they are used to compute the appropriate steering commands while the next image is being transmitted. STRIPE requires no advance knowledge of the terrain to be traversed, and can be used by novice operators with only minimal training. STRIPE is a unique combination of computer and human control. The computer must determine the 3D world path designated by the 2D waypoints and then accurately control the vehicle over rugged terrain. The human issues involve accurate path selection, and the

  7. 46 CFR 78.47-55 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 78.47-55... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-55 Instructions for changing steering gear..., relating in order, the different steps to be taken in changing to the emergency steering gear. Each...

  8. 46 CFR 97.37-33 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 97.37-33... steering gear. (a) Instructions in at least 1/2 inch letters and figures shall be posted in the steering... gear. Each clutch, gear, wheel, lever, valve, or switch which is used during the changeover shall...

  9. 46 CFR 130.140 - Steering on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hydraulic-helm steering-system in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Each hydraulic-helm steering-system... the vessel at every service speed without being damaged at maximum astern speed. (2) A hydraulic... stops. (6) Either— (i) Two steering pumps in accordance with § 130.130(c)(3) of this part; or (ii)...

  10. 7 CFR 59.103 - Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers. 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.103 Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers. (a) In general. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each steer...

  11. The Impact of Analog and Bang-Bang Steering Gear Control on Ship's Fuel Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft Thomsen, J. C.; Blanke, Mogens; Reid, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    it is found to be at least equally important regarding steering performance and fuel economy. The paper presents a comprehensive survey of steering gear principles commonly used, including relevant details of three analog steering gear servo principles, which have outperformed conventional designs. Control...

  12. [Determination of 51 carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based on optimization of QuEChERS sample preparation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianzhu; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Ruilong; Lin, Zixu; Chen, Yong; Wang, Dengfei; Lin, Dejuan; Xu, Dunming

    2013-12-01

    The raw extracts of six vegetables (tomato, green bean, shallot, broccoli, ginger and carrot) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in full scan mode combined with NIST library search to confirm main matrix compounds. The effects of cleanup and adsorption mechanisms of primary secondary amine (PSA) , octadecylsilane (C18) and PSA + C18 on co-extractives were studied by the weight of evaporation residue for extracts before and after cleanup. The suitability of the two versions of QuEChERS method for sample preparation was evaluated for the extraction of 51 carbamate pesticides in the six vegetables. One of the QuEChERS methods was the original un-buffered method published in 2003, and the other was AOAC Official Method 2007.01 using acetate buffer. As a result, the best effects were obtained from using the combination of C18 and PSA for extract cleanup in vegetables. The acetate-buffered version was suitable for the determination of all pesticides except dioxacarb. Un-buffered QuEChERS method gave satisfactory results for determining dioxacarb. Based on these results, the suitable QuEChERS sample preparation method and liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry under the optimized conditions were applied to determine the 51 carbamate pesticide residues in six vegetables. The analytes were quantified by matrix-matched standard solution. The recoveries at three levels of 10, 20 and 100 microg/kg spiked in six vegetables ranged from 58.4% to 126% with the relative standard deviations of 3.3%-26%. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N > or = 10) were 0.2-10 microg/kg except that the LOQs of cartap and thiofanox were 50 microg/kg. The method is highly efficient, sensitive and suitable for monitoring the 51 carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables.

  13. Multiple node remote messaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Ohmacht, Martin (Yorktown Heights, NY); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard (Esslingen, DE); Vranas, Pavlos (Danville, CA)

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  14. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck Martijn J.R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  15. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Martijn J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D) imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  16. Diffuse auroral electron scattering by electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves and electromagnetic whistler-mode chorus in the inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, B.; Thorne, R. M.; Horne, R. B.; Meredith, N. P.; Shprits, Y.; Chen, L.

    2009-12-01

    The diffuse aurora constitutes one of the most important loss processes of plasma sheet electrons, supplying the majority of ionizing energy input into the high-latitude region during conditions of both low and high solar wind driving. It is generally agreed that wave-particle interactions, including scattering losses by electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves and electromagnetic whistler-mode chorus waves, play an essential role in the occurrence of the diffuse aurora. However, the precise role of each wave mode has remained a source of controversy for many years. To quantify the scattering effects of these two wave modes, we have improved the methodology for computation of quasi-linear diffusion coefficients and adopted statistical wave models based on the survey of ECH waves and chorus using the entire CRRES database. Our results demonstrate that, whistler-mode chorus is the dominant mechanism for loss of injected plasma sheet electrons from the inner magnetosphere (4 1 keV, suggesting rather minor contributions from ECH waves to the diffuse auroral precipitation. Our results also show that the scattering effects on plasma sheet electrons by the waves are strongly dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity.

  17. QuEChERS sample preparation prior to LC-MS/MS determination of opiates, amphetamines, and cocaine metabolites in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaurent, Sylvain; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Poncelet, Lauranne; Gaulier, Jean-Michel; Marquet, Pierre; Saint-Marcoux, Franck

    2016-02-01

    Modern LC-MS/MS instruments have sensitivity and scanning velocity high enough to analyze many different compounds in single runs. Consequently, the sample preparation procedure has become the bottleneck for developing efficient, rapid, and cheap multi-compound methods. Here, we examined one-step sample preparation based on quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) salts to set up and validate a LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of 35 drugs of abuse and their metabolites in whole blood. Despite large differences in physicochemical properties, this simplified QuEChERS extraction method yielded satisfactory recoveries (until 96%) for the 35 molecules. The amounts of QuEChERS salts had no influence on extraction yield. Chromatographic separation was obtained in less than 6 min. LLOD and LLOQ were 3 and 5 ng/mL, respectively. The procedure was successfully validated and then applied to 253 cases of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID), collected over a 6-month period.

  18. Simultaneous analysis of 70 pesticides using HPlc/MS/MS: a comparison of the multiresidue method of Klein and Alder and the QuEChERS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Melanie; Speer, Karl; Stuke, Sven; Schmeer, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Since 2003, two new multipesticide residue methods for screening crops for a large number of pesticides, developed by Klein and Alder and Anastassiades et al. (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe; QuEChERS), have been published. Our intention was to compare these two important methods on the basis of their extraction efficiency, reproducibility, ruggedness, ease of use, and speed. In total, 70 pesticides belonging to numerous different substance classes were analyzed at two concentration levels by applying both methods, using five different representative matrixes. In the case of the QuEChERS method, the results of the three sample preparation steps (crude extract, extract after SPE, and extract after SPE and acidification) were compared with each other and with the results obtained with the Klein and Alder method. The extraction efficiencies of the QuEChERS method were far higher, and the sample preparation was much quicker when the last two steps were omitted. In most cases, the extraction efficiencies after the first step were approximately 100%. With extraction efficiencies of mostly less than 70%, the Klein and Alder method did not compare favorably. Some analytes caused problems during evaluation, mostly due to matrix influences.

  19. Proportional directional valve based automatic steering system for tractors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-yi LIU; Jing-quan TAN; En-rong MAO; Zheng-he SONG; Zhong-xiang ZHU‡

    2016-01-01

    Most automatic steering systems for large tractors are designed with hydraulic systems that run on either constant flow or constant pressure. Such designs are limited in adaptability and applicability. Moreover, their control valves can unload in the neutral position and eventually lead to serious hydraulic leakage over long operation periods. In response to the problems noted above, a multifunctional automatic hydraulic steering circuit is presented. The system design is composed of a 5-way-3-position proportional directional valve, two pilot-controlled check valves, a pressure-compensated directional valve, a pressure-compensated flow regulator valve, a load shuttle valve, and a check valve, among other components. It is adaptable to most open-center systems with constant flow supply and closed-center systems with load feedback. The design maintains the lowest pressure under load feedback and stays at the neutral position during unloading, thus meeting the requirements for steering. The steering controller is based on proportional-integral-derivative (PID) running on a 51-microcontroller-unit master control chip. An experimental platform is developed to establish the basic characteristics of the system subject to stepwise inputs and sinusoi-dal tracking. Test results show that the system design demonstrates excellent control accuracy, fast response, and negligible leak during long operation periods.

  20. Steering gameplay behavior in the interactive tag playground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van Robby; Moreno, Alejandro; Poppe, Ronald; Reidsma, Dennis; Heylen, Dirk; Aarts, Emile; Ruyter, de Boris; Markopoulos, Panos; Loenen, van Evert; Wichert, Reiner; Schouten, Ben; Terken, Jacques; Kranenburg, van Rob; Ouden, den Elke; O'Hare, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with steering player behavior in the Interactive Tag Playground (ITP). The ITP, an ambient environment instrumented with contact-free sensor technology and ambient display capabilities, enhances the traditional game of tag by determining when a valid tag has been made and visualisin

  1. Steering Gameplay Behavior in the Interactive Tag Playground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Delden, Robby; Moreno, Alejandro; Poppe, Ronald; Reidsma, Dennis; Heylen, Dirk K J

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with steering player behavior in the Interactive Tag Playground (ITP). The ITP, an ambient environment instrumented with contact-free sensor technology and ambient display capabilities, enhances the traditional game of tag by determining when a valid tag has been made and visualisin

  2. Complex Education Systems: From Steering Change to Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The theories and approaches of steering/monitoring a process of change within education systems have evolved over the last 20 years or so as a result of many factors such as globalisation and decentralisation, a faster pace of change, increasing expectations and demands from various stakeholders (parents, employers, teacher unions, etc.) and the…

  3. Analytic Steering: Inserting Context into the Information Dialog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Shawn J.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Brown, Shyretha D.; Nakamura, Grant C.

    2011-10-23

    An analyst’s intrinsic domain knowledge is a primary asset in almost any analysis task. Unstructured text analysis systems that apply un-supervised content analysis approaches can be more effective if they can leverage this domain knowledge in a manner that augments the information discovery process without obfuscating new or unexpected content. Current unsupervised approaches rely upon the prowess of the analyst to submit the right queries or observe generalized document and term relationships from ranked or visual results. We propose a new approach which allows the user to control or steer the analytic view within the unsupervised space. This process is controlled through the data characterization process via user supplied context in the form of a collection of key terms. We show that steering with an appropriate choice of key terms can provide better relevance to the analytic domain and still enable the analyst to uncover un-expected relationships; this paper discusses cases where various analytic steering approaches can provide enhanced analysis results and cases where analytic steering can have a negative impact on the analysis process.

  4. Threats and protection for electronically-steered array radars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.P.B.; Monni, S.; Maas, A.P.M.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2008-01-01

    Front-end power overload protection is a vital issue in any electro-magnetic sensor. The issues around active electronically-steered arrays are more recent and pose new threats. Different categories of threats can damage the sensitive electronics in the phased-array radar, like hostile high power

  5. Image Processing In Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, James R.; Ansari, Homayoon; Chen, Chien-Chung; Russell, Donald W.

    1996-01-01

    Conceptual design of image-processing circuitry developed for proposed tracking apparatus described in "Beam-Steering Subsystem For Laser Communication" (NPO-19069). In proposed system, desired frame rate achieved by "windowed" readout scheme in which only pixels containing and surrounding two spots read out and others skipped without being read. Image data processed rapidly and efficiently to achieve high frequency response.

  6. DSPIC BASED POWER ASSISTED STEERING USING BRUSHLESS DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R.P. Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrates the Electrically Assisted power Steering (EAS using BLDC motor for a vehicle. Earlier the Electrically Assisted power Steering (EAS was implemented with DSP. This study shows the usage of a dsPIC to control the BLDC motor with an encoder. The BLDC motor here is driven by dsPIC through a three phase inverter system. IRAMS type of inverter is used which is cost efficient and space efficient. The dsPIC supplied with the input of the steering. In its higher capacity the vehicles speed controller acts as the assistance level controller for steering effort. At the lower capacity, the torque controller gives the effort level control. In reality this can be realized as torque sensor and vehicle sensor interfaced in the dsPIC. For actual implementation in the system, a dsPIC-based BLDC motor controller with three-phase inverter module is used with Hall-effect sensor feedback. It is designed in such a way that the driver assistance can be varied at any time without any difficulty.

  7. The Analysis of The Fault of Electrical Power Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis the common fault types of primary Electrical Power Steering system, meanwhile classify every fault. It provides the basis for further troubleshooting and maintenance. At the same time this paper propose a practical working principle of fault-tolerant, in order to make the EPS system more security and durability.

  8. Mechanisms of ovipositor insertion and steering of a parasitic wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerkvenik, Uroš; van de Straat, Bram; Gussekloo, Sander W S; van Leeuwen, Johan L

    2017-09-12

    Drilling into solid substrates with slender beam-like structures is a mechanical challenge, but is regularly done by female parasitic wasps. The wasp inserts her ovipositor into solid substrates to deposit eggs in hosts, and even seems capable of steering the ovipositor while drilling. The ovipositor generally consists of three longitudinally connected valves that can slide along each other. Alternative valve movements have been hypothesized to be involved in ovipositor damage avoidance and steering during drilling. However, none of the hypotheses have been tested in vivo. We used 3D and 2D motion analysis to quantify the probing behavior of the fruit-fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Braconidae) at the levels of the ovipositor and its individual valves. We show that the wasps can steer and curve their ovipositors in any direction relative to their body axis. In a soft substrate, the ovipositors can be inserted without reciprocal motion of the valves. In a stiff substrate, such motions were always observed. This is in agreement with the damage avoidance hypothesis of insertion, as they presumably limit the overall net pushing force. Steering can be achieved by varying the asymmetry of the distal part of the ovipositor by protracting one valve set with respect to the other. Tip asymmetry is enhanced by curving of ventral elements in the absence of an opposing force, possibly due to pretension. Our findings deepen the knowledge of the functioning and evolution of the ovipositor in hymenopterans and may help to improve man-made steerable probes.

  9. Multifunctional Converter Drive for Automotive Electric Power Steering Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackner, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis it is shown that in the case of an automotive electric power steering system, critical pulse power loads can be decoupled from the power net with a storage element and a multifunctional converter. A multifunctional converter system is proposed because it uses the motor drive system as

  10. Interagency Advanced Power Group -- Steering group meeting minutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-18

    This document contains the draft meeting minutes of the Steering Group of the Interagency Advanced Power Group. Included are the discussions resulting from the presentation of working group reports and the results of a discussion of IAPG policies and procedures. In the appendix are the reports of the following working groups: Electrical, Mechanical, Solar, and Systems.

  11. Threats and protection for electronically-steered array radars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.P.B.; Monni, S.; Maas, A.P.M.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2008-01-01

    Front-end power overload protection is a vital issue in any electro-magnetic sensor. The issues around active electronically-steered arrays are more recent and pose new threats. Different categories of threats can damage the sensitive electronics in the phased-array radar, like hostile high power el

  12. CLOSED FORM OF THE STEERED ELONGATED HERMITE-GAUSS WAVELETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papari, Giuseppe; Campisi, Patrizio; Petkov, Nicolai

    2010-01-01

    We provide a closed form, both in the spatial and in the frequency domain, of a family of wavelets which arise from steering elongated Hermite-Gauss filters. These wavelets have interesting mathematical properties, as they form new dyadic families of eigenfunctions of the 2D Fourier transform, and

  13. The value of theoretical multiplicity for steering transitions towards sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewulf, A.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Pot, W.D.; Werkman, R.A.; Breeman, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Transition management, as a theory of directing structural societal changes towards sustainable system innovations, has become a major topic in scientific research over the last years. In this paper we focus on the question how transitions towards sustainability can be steered, governed or managed,

  14. Mechanics of Flexible Needles Robotically Steered through Soft Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misra, S.; Reed, K.B.; Schafer, B.W.; Ramesh, K.T.; Okamura, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The tip asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. This enables robotic needle steering, which can be used in medical procedures to reach subsurface targets inaccessible by straight-line trajectories. However, accurate path planning

  15. Advanced launcher design options for electron cyclotron current drive on ITER based on remote steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graswinckel, M. R.; Bongers, W. A.; M.R. de Baar,; van den Berg, M. A.; Denisov, G.; Donne, A. J. H.; Elzendoorn, B. S. Q.; Goede, A. P. H.; Heidinger, R.; Kuzikov, S.; Kruijt, O. G.; Kruizinga, B.; Moro, A.; Poli, E.; Ronden, D. M. S.; Saibene, G.; Thoen, D. J.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron current drive will become the main scheme on ITER for the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) and the control of sawtooth oscillations. The effectiveness of this scheme forms the basis for the requirements of the ITER Upper Port Launcher. These requirements include

  16. Measurement of the Electron Bernstein Wave Emission with One of the Power Transmission Lines for ECH in LHD%Measurement of the Electron Bernstein Wave Emission with One of the Power Transmission Lines for ECH in LHD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroe IGAMI; Hiroshi IDEI; Shin KUBO; Yasuo YOSHIMURA; Takashi SHIMOZUMA; Hiromi TAKAHASHI

    2011-01-01

    Possibility of the measurement of radiated waves derived from the thermally emitted electron Bernstein wave (EBW) is numerically investigated based on the assumption of the super dense core (SDC) plasma generated in LHD. EBW that is thermally emitted in the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) layer may couple with the electromagnetic wave and be emitted to the vacuum via the EBW-extraordinary-ordinary (B-X-O) mode conversion process. We consider the use of one of the transmission lines for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in LHD as a receiving system of the emission. It is derived that the waves in the fundamental cyclotron frequency range are emitted as the EBW near their upper hybrid resonance (UHR) layer outside the last close flux surface (LCFS). On the other hand, waves in the second harmonics cyclotron frequency range are emitted in the core region. It means that successful measurement of waves of the second harmonic frequency range emitted from extremely high dense core plasma with setting an aim angle for receiving indicates a possibility of the second harmonic ECH by EBW in the core region with setting the same aim angle and the same polarization for launching.

  17. Lunar articulated remote transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The students of the Florida A&M/Florida State University College of Engineering continued their design from 1988 to 1989 on a first generation lunar transportation vehicle for use on the surface of the Moon between the years 2010 and 2020. Attention is focused on specific design details on all components of the Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS). The Lunar ARTS will be a three-cart, six-wheeled articulated vehicle. Its purpose will be the transportation of astronauts and/or materials for excavation purposes at a short distance from the base (37.5 km). The power system includes fuel cells for both the primary system and the back-up system. The vehicle has the option of being operated in a manned or unmanned mode. The unmanned mode includes stereo imaging with signal processing for navigation. For manned missions the display console is a digital readout displayed on the inside of the astronaut's helmet. A microprocessor is also on board the vehicle. Other components of the vehicle include a double wishbone/flexible hemispherical wheel suspension; chassis; a steering system; motors; seat retraints; heat rejection systems; solar flare protection; dust protection; and meteoroid protection. A one-quarter scale dynamic model has been built to study the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The dynamic model closely captures the mechanical and electrical details of the total design.

  18. Chemometric-assisted QuEChERS extraction method for post-harvest pesticide determination in fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minmin; Dai, Chao; Wang, Fengzhong; Kong, Zhiqiang; He, Yan; Huang, Ya Tao; Fan, Bei

    2017-02-01

    An effective analysis method was developed based on a chemometric tool for the simultaneous quantification of five different post-harvest pesticides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), carbendazim, thiabendazole, iprodione, and prochloraz) in fruits and vegetables. In the modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method, the factors and responses for optimization of the extraction and cleanup analyses were compared using the Plackett–Burman (P–B) screening design. Furthermore, the significant factors (toluene percentage, hydrochloric acid (HCl) percentage, and graphitized carbon black (GCB) amount) were optimized using a central composite design (CCD) combined with Derringer’s desirability function (DF). The limits of quantification (LOQs) were estimated to be 1.0 μg/kg for 2,4-D, carbendazim, thiabendazole, and prochloraz, and 1.5 μg/kg for iprodione in food matrices. The mean recoveries were in the range of 70.4–113.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 16.9% at three spiking levels. The measurement uncertainty of the analytical method was determined using the bottom-up approach, which yielded an average value of 7.6%. Carbendazim was most frequently found in real samples analyzed using the developed method. Consequently, the analytical method can serve as an advantageous and rapid tool for determination of five preservative pesticides in fruits and vegetables.

  19. Dissipation of four insecticides in tomato fruit using high performance liquid chromatography and QuEChERS methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomaa Ramadan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Insecticides play an important role in increasing agricultural production, but their extensive use has led to environmental problems including health hazards to humans. The present study was carried out to investigate the residual levels and dissipation behavior of four insecticides, namely abamectin, thiamethoxam, spinosad, and chlorpyrifos, in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. fruits under Egyptian field condition. The insecticide residues were determined after application of insecticides for three times at recommended rates. The extraction of insecticide residues was carried out by using QuEChERS method. The determination of residual levels was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD. Recoveries were between 85% and 130%, with relative standard deviations from 1.8% to 17.0% at two fortified levels. The dissipation rates of insecticides followed first-order kinetics (Ct = 0.2627 e-0.17t, Ct = 3.7183 e-0.275t, Ct = 0.1778 e-0.407t, Ct = 0.6074 e-0.11t for abamectin, chlorpyrifos, spinosad and thiamethoxam, respectively. The values of half-life of insecticides were 4.1, 2.5, 1.7, and 6.3 d for abamectin, chlorpyrifos, spinosad and thiamethoxam, respectively. The results indicated that tomato fruits could be safely consumed after 7, 15, < 1 and 10 d of application at recommended rates for abamectin, chlorpyrifos, spinosad and thiamethoxam, respectively, according to the recommended EU maximum residue limits (MRLs.

  20. Determination of Mycotoxins in Brown Rice Using QuEChERS Sample Preparation and UHPLC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jettanajit, Adisorn; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2016-01-01

    QuEChERS sample preparation was optimized and validated using solvent extraction with 10% (v/v) acetic acid-containing acetonitrile in the presence of four salts (anh. MgSO4, NaCl, sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate and sodium citrate dibasic sesquihydrate) and dispersive solid-phase extraction with mixed sorbents (octadecylsilane, primary and secondary amine and silica sorbents) for an ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric determination of nine mycotoxins in brown rice: aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone (ZON). Our developed method allows for the determination of trace levels of mycotoxins with method detection limits in the range of 1.4-25 µg/kg, below the maximum limits of EU regulations, and with an acceptable accuracy and precision, and recoveries in the range of 81-101% with relative standard deviations of 5-19% over a mycotoxin concentration range of 5.0-1,000 µg/kg. Six out of fourteen real samples of brown rice were found to be contaminated with at least one of these mycotoxins, ranging from 2.49-5.41 µg/kg of FB1, 4.33 ± 0.04 µg/kg of FB2 and 6.10-14.88 µg/kg of ZON.

  1. Multiresidue method to quantify pesticides in fish muscle by QuEChERS-based extraction and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazartigues, Angélique; Wiest, Laure; Baudot, Robert; Thomas, Marielle; Feidt, Cyril; Cren-Olivé, Cécile

    2011-06-01

    Pesticide residues in fish muscle are an environmental and a health safety concern which requires analytical methods presenting high sensitivity and low limits of quantification. In this study, adapted QuEChERS method, coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (Scheduled MRM-5500 QTRAP), was developed to quantify 13 pesticides (azoxystrobin, clomazone, diflufenican, dimethachlor, carbendazim, iprodion, isoproturon, mesosulfuron-methyl, metazachlor, napropamid, quizalofop and thifensulfuron-methyl) in muscle of fish. Quantification limits were below 1 ng g(-1) except for clomazone (1.8 ng g(-1)) and quizalofop (7.4 ng g(-1)). Best recoveries were observed for perch (>80%) and roach (>68%), except for thifensulfuron-methyl. Lower recoveries had been observed for carp (6% to 86%). Relative standard deviation was lower than 28% for intra-day and 29% for inter-day analysis, respectively. This method was successfully tested on three fish species, naturally or orally exposed: roach (Rutilus rutilus), perch (Perca fluviatilis) and carp (Cyprinus carpio). Few levels were observed in fish naturally exposed, but carp and perch orally contaminated showed measurable levels in their muscles.

  2. Determination of Nine Fungicides in Grape and Wine Using QuEChERS Extraction and LC/MS/MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Gracia; Morales, Ascensión; Maestro, Alba; Cermeño, Sandra; Oliva, José; Barba, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    An analytic procedure was developed for the determination of the fungicides ametoctradin, boscalid, cyazofamid, dimethomorph, fenhexamid, kresoxim-methyl, mepanipyrim, metrafenone, and pyraclostrobin in grape and wine. A modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) procedure was used for the extraction. Analysis of the extract was performed by LC/triple quadrupole-MS/MS. A Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column was used with a programmed gradient mobile phase consisting of (A) acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid and (B) water containing 0.1% formic acid and 2 mM ammonium formate. The acceptance criteria for the method were those proposed in the SANCO guide. The method was linear for the range of concentration studied (5-100 μg/L), and R2 values were higher than 0.998 and RSD values below 18%. Recovery was over 73.2% in grape and 76.7% in wines, and there was no case of more than 100% recovery. The recovery RSDs in reproducibility conditions were below 17.13% in grape and 15.6% in wines.

  3. Study on a New Steering Mechanism for Point-the-Bit Rotary Steerable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhi Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel steering mechanism embedded in a point-the-bit rotary steerable system (RSS for oilfield exploitation. The new steering mechanism adopts a set of universal joints to alleviate the high alternative strain on drilling mandrel and employs a specially designed planetary gear small tooth number difference (PGSTD to achieve directional steering. Its principle and characteristics are explained and examined through a series of analyses. First, the eccentric displacement vector of the offset point on the drilling mandrel is formulated and kinematic solutions are established. Next, structural design for the new steering mechanism is addressed. Then, procedures and program architectures for simulating offset state of the drilling mandrel and motion trajectory of the whole steering mechanism are presented. After that, steering motion simulations of the new steering mechanism for both 2D and 3D well trajectories are then performed by combining LabVIEW and SolidWorks. Finally, experiments on the steering motion control of the new steering mechanism prototype are carried out. The simulations and experiments reveal that the steering performance of the new steering mechanism is satisfied. The research can provide good guidance for further research and engineering application of the point-the-bit RSS.

  4. Development of active rear steer actuator. Development of four wheel steer actuator for active safety; Active rear steer actuator no kaihatsu. Yobo anzen ni muketa 4WS actuator no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, T. [Aisin Seiki Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Recently, ecology, energy saving and safety have become important issues. And Active Safety is spotlighted in vehicle control area. Many researches and developments on four wheel steer system have been done to improve vehicle stability. We have developed the Active Rear Steer system with electromechanical Actuator, which is mass-productive, compact, and high response and durable. 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Time of daily supplementation for steers grazing dormant intermediate wheatgrass pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, R K; Krysl, L J; Judkins, M B; Holcombe, D W; Broesder, J T; Gunter, S A; Beam, S W

    1992-02-01

    To compare the effects of time of daily protein supplementation on grazing behavior, forage intake, digesta kinetics, ruminal fermentation, and serum hormones and metabolites, 12 ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (449 and 378 kg average initial and final BW, respectively) were allotted to three groups. Treatments consisted of CON = no supplement, AM = cottonseed meal (.25% of BW) at 0600, and PM = cottonseed meal (.25% of BW) at 1200. Steers grazed a dormant (1.1% N) intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium Host) pasture. Sampling trials occurred in December, January, and February. Supplementation altered (P = .01) time spent grazing; CON steers grazed approximately 1.5 h longer than supplemented steers. Supplemented steers lost less (P = .02) BW (-40 kg) than CON steers (-75 kg) did. Supplementation did not alter (P greater than .15) forage OM intake; however, total OM intake was greater (P = .01) for supplemented steers (22.3 g/kg of BW) than for CON (18.4 g/kg of BW) steers. Supplementation did not affect (P greater than .15) digesta kinetics. Extent of in situ NDF (96 h) and rate (%/h) of disappearance for supplemented steers was greater (P = .01) than for CON steers. Across all periods, ruminal NH3 N and total VFA concentrations were lower (P = .01) for CON steers than for supplemented steers. Serum insulin (ng/mL) concentration was lower (P = .03) and concentration of serum growth hormone (ng/mL) was higher (P = .02) for CON steers than for supplemented steers. Cottonseed meal supplementation enhanced utilization of intermediate wheatgrass; however, supplementation time had minimal effects on the variables measured.

  6. QuEChERS-HPLC-MS/MS 在动物源食品兽药多残留检测中的研究进展%The Developments of QuEChERS in Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis of Animal-origin Foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何江; 罗先锟; 张建宇; 李斌

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the food safety problem of animal-origin foods increasingly becomes one of the focus of the government and the society.The drug residue of animal-origin foods seriously has impaired the environment and human health, and the existing methods of veterinary drug residues have the disadvantages of pretreatment complexity, time-consuming and detecting singleness, low sensitivity.QuEChERS is quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for pesticide multi-residue analysis based on dispersive solid phase extraction, combined with high sensitivity and selectivity of high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry ( HPLC/MS/MS ) , has been widely applied in the veterinary drug residues in animal food detection.The principle, characteristics, the basic step of QuEChERS method, and the application progress of QuEChERS-HPLC-MS/MS in the field of veterinary drug residue analysis were described.%近年来动物源食品安全问题日益成为社会和政府关注的焦点之一。动物源食品兽药残留严重危害环境和人体健康,同时现有的兽药多残留检测方法存在前处理复杂、耗时,检测种类单一,灵敏度较低等弊端。 QuEChERS是基于分散固相萃取(DSPE)建立起来的一种农药多残留快速(quick)、简单(easy)、便宜(cheap)、高效(effective)、耐用(rugged)和安全(safe)的分析方法,并结合高灵敏度和高选择性的超高效液相色谱串联质谱( HPLC-MS/MS),已经广泛应用于动物性食品中兽药残留检测。本文阐述了QuEChERS方法的原理、特点和基本步骤,以及我国近年来QuEChERS-HPLC-MS/MS在动物源性食品兽药多残留检测中的应用进展。

  7. QuEChERS-HPLC快速测定食品中七种食用合成色素%QuEChERS-high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of synthetic colorants in food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 吴青; 林凤英; 邝敏华

    2013-01-01

    建立了一种同时测定豆制品和肉制品中7种食用合成色素(柠檬黄、日落黄、胭脂红、苋菜红、亮蓝、偶氮玉红、诱惑红)的QuEChERS-HPLC方法.样品采用乙醇-氨水-水(7∶2∶1)超声提取,混合使用C18和乙二胺-N-丙基硅烷(PSA)两种基质分散净化剂净化,浓缩后采用SunFireTMC18色谱柱(250mm×4.6mm,5μm)分离.以甲醇-20mmol/L乙酸铵水溶液为流动相,梯度洗脱,流速为1mL/min,测定波长410nm和520nm.实验通过空白基质溶液稀释标准品建立校正的标准曲线,以消除基质效应.结果表明,7种食用合成色素在0.5~10μg/mL线性范围内具有良好的线性关系(相关系数0.9971~0.9999),样品加标回收率为83.01%~ 108.84%,相对标准偏差为4.53%~15.23%,方法的检出限在0.1~0.3mg/L之间,定量限在0.3~0.4mg/kg之间.方法操作简便、快速、准确,可满足豆制品和肉制品中食用合成色素的分析要求.%A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 7 synthetic colours such as tartrazine,sunset yellow,ponceau 4R,amaranth,brilliant blue,carmoisine,allura red in bean and meat products.The analytes were extracted from the samples by ethanol-ammonia-water (volume ratio 7∶2∶1),and purified by a modified QuEChERS (quick,easy,cheap,effective,rigged,and safe)method,and then separated by a SunFireTM C18(250mmx4.6mm,5μm) after concentrating.Methanol-20mmol/L ammonium acetate was used as mobile phase with a gradient elution at the rate of 1mL/min and the detection wavelength was 410nm and 520nm.The interference of matrix was reduced by the matrix-matched calibration standard curves.The linear range was 0.5~10μg/mL with correlation coefficients from 0.9971 to 0.9999.When 0.5~10μg/mL standard solutions were added to blank samples,the average recoveries were 83.01%~108.84%and the relative standard deviations ranged from 4.53%~15.23%.The limits of detection

  8. Steering of Educational Processes in a Digital Medium Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about challenges to steering and leadership of educational interaction in classrooms provided by the new medium environment that comes with digital media. In the new medium environment, the old way of steering what is going on in the classroom appears not to work since...... it was developed in the image of the industrial society and based on a closed classroom. Now with the digital media and wireless networks the classroom is opened and the old way of organizing teaching has become inadequate: The students are disturbed by the new media, instead of learning through them. Inspired...... by systems theory we outline a more adequate way of teaching in the new medium environment – a teaching that can manage the new situation and use the new possibilities provided by the digital media. The argumentation builds on empirical findings from the action research project Socio Media Education (SME...

  9. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, P.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.; Clifton, A.; Schreck, S.; Johnson, K.; Wright, A.; Gebraad, P.; Annoni, J.; Naughton, B.; Berg, J.; Herges, T.; White, J.; Mikkelsen, T.; Sjöholm, M.; Angelou, N.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental design and setup. All data collected as part of this field experiment will be archived and made available to the public via the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmosphere to Electrons Data Archive and Portal.

  10. Mechanics of Thin Strip Steering in Hot Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhengyi; Tieu, Kiet A.

    2004-06-01

    The hot rolling of thin strip can result in several problems in hot rolling, for instance, the control of strip steering, strip shape and flatness and surface roughness etc. Therefore, the hot rolling of thin strip brings out a requirement of innovative technologies such as the extended control of shape and flatness, steering control and reduction of load by roll gap lubrication. In this paper, the authors focus on the analysis of thin strip snaking movement, as well as solve the related problems such as the shape and flatness due to a larger reduction applied when the strip is thinner. A finite element method was used to simulate this nonsymmetricity rolling considering the non-uniform reduction along the strip width. The calculated spread is compared with the measured values obtained from the rolling mill in laboratory and the friction effect is also discussed.

  11. Robust autopilot with wave filter for ship steering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-zhou; XU Han-zhen

    2006-01-01

    Research was done to overcome traditional problems associated with automatic steering systems of a ship in a seaway. A ship's dynamic model with wave disturbances was built and a wave filter was designed by means of an extended states observer (ESO). The model estimated the low frequency motion component from a heading measurement corrupted by colorednoise, so back-and-forth steering caused by high frequency wave disturbances was avoided. At the same time, a robust autopilot system,designed by variable structure control theory, was presented. Simulation results achieved in dangerous sea status show that the wave filter works very well and the autopilot has strong robustness to environmental disturbances and model perturbation, and more importantly, the frequency of rudder adjustments is reduced noticeably.

  12. Predictive control and identification: Applications to steering dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela

    1996-01-01

    The main objective of the present thesis is to enhance insight into predictive controller design and identification in connection with steering dynamics. In Chapter 2, the dynamics of ship steering are reviewed. Models of different complexity, suitable for control systems design are presented....... The influence of wind, waves and currents on the chip motions are also discussed. Chapter 3 deals with the model reduction problem. Some basic concepts are explained, due to their role in the reduction of the dynamic models. Two model reductions techniques, based on singular values, are described....... The theoretical properties of these methods are studied and their performance is examined via simulation on a stochastic linear Mariner Class Vessel model. In Chapter 4, the attention is focused on the derivation of an extended GPC. This extended strategy implies a generalization of the model structure...

  13. Steering of Educational Processes in a Digital Medium Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael Eric

    2016-01-01

    it was developed in the image of the industrial society and based on a closed classroom. Now with the digital media and wireless networks the classroom is opened and the old way of organizing teaching has become inadequate: The students are disturbed by the new media, instead of learning through them. Inspired......This paper is about challenges to steering and leadership of educational interaction in classrooms provided by the new medium environment that comes with digital media. In the new medium environment, the old way of steering what is going on in the classroom appears not to work since...... by systems theory we outline a more adequate way of teaching in the new medium environment – a teaching that can manage the new situation and use the new possibilities provided by the digital media. The argumentation builds on empirical findings from the action research project Socio Media Education (SME...

  14. Planning analysis and political steering with New Public Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sager, Tore Øivin; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2011-01-01

    of interviews sheds light on the apparent paradox that parliamentarians accept delegation of highway investment decisions despite their profound scepticism to the cost-benefit analyses and impact calculations that are essential to management by objectives and results, which was to give them continued political...... by the Government. The political concentration on strategic steering, the concomitant delegation, and management by objectives and results are central components of New Public Management....

  15. Low-Absorption Liquid Crystals for Infrared Beam Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    absorption coefficient and d is the LC layer thickness . Let us take a~!0/cm as an example. For a 10-|j,m- thick LC layer, ad=0.01 and the transmittance...remains 99%. However, if the LC layer thickness (or effective optical path length) increases, then the absorption will increase exponentially, as Eq. (1...weight-and-power, 2) increasing mean-time-between- failure, and 3) reducing system complexity. Beam steering based on liquid crystal ( LC ) optical phase

  16. Quadrupole Law and Steering Options in the Linac4 DTL

    CERN Document Server

    Stovall, J

    2009-01-01

    The Linac4 drift-tube linac (DTL) reference design has been modified to reduce the power consumption in tank 1 by adjusting the accelerating field and phase laws. In this note we investigate three options for the transverse focusing lattice, quadrupole law, and two options for beam steering. We use acceptance, sensitivity to alignment errors and the probabiity of beam loss as figures of merit for evaluating each option.

  17. Modeling the behavior of the helmsman steering a ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuyzen, W.; Stassen, H. G.

    1973-01-01

    A supertanker is considered as a nonlinear system which responds very slowly to changes in the rudder position. Moreover this type of ship is often unstable in loaded condition. In order to model the helmsman's behavior, a number of tests were performed using a ship maneuvering simulator. The trained subjects had to steer a 200,000 tons tanker along a varying course. The results obtained from these trials are presented.

  18. Planning analysis and political steering with New Public Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sager, Tore Øivin; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2011-01-01

    of interviews sheds light on the apparent paradox that parliamentarians accept delegation of highway investment decisions despite their profound scepticism to the cost-benefit analyses and impact calculations that are essential to management by objectives and results, which was to give them continued political...... by the Government. The political concentration on strategic steering, the concomitant delegation, and management by objectives and results are central components of New Public Management....

  19. Erasmus Darwin's improved design for steering carriages and cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Hele, Desmond

    2002-01-01

    Carriage journeys in England during the eighteenth century were notoriously dangerous. Rutted and pot-holed roads exacerbated the deficiencies in steering, springing and stability. In 1758 the young Dr. Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802; F. R. S. 1761) was travelling about 10,000 miles a year in visits to patients from his house at Lichfield. To alleviate the danger and discomfort of his journey, he developed a design for improved carriage steering and stability, which he road-tested over 20,000 miles on two carriages. In 1765 Richard Lovell Edgeworth (1744-1817; F. R. S. 1718) heard about Darwin's design, urged the Society of Arts to enquire about it, and then visited Darwin himself. With the aid of manuscripts from the Archive of the Royal Society of Arts and elsewhere, I offer a reconstruction of Darwin's improved method of steering, which relies on four jointed rods, initially in the form of an isosceles trapezium. The mechanism was reinvented more than 50 years later, and came to be used widely in early modern cars.

  20. Optimization of Steering Elements in the RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    SchnirmanLessner, Eliane; Ostroumov, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The driver linac of the projected RIA facility is a versatile accelerator, a 1.4-GV, CW superconducting linac designed to simultaneously accelerate several heavy-ion charge states, providing beams from protons at about 1 GeV to uranium at 400 MeV/u at power levels at a minimum of 100 kW and up to 400 kW for most beams. Acceleration of multiple-charge-state uranium beams places stringent requirements on the linac design. A steering algorithm was derived that fulfilled the driver’s real estate requirements, such as placement of steering dipole coils on SC solenoids and of beam position monitors outside cryostats, and beam-dynamics requirements, such as coupling effects induced by the focusing solenoids.* The algorithm has been fully integrated in the tracking code TRACK** and is used to study and optimize the number and position of steering elements that minimize the multiple-beam centroid oscillations and preserve the beam emittance under misalignments of accelerating and transverse focusing elements...

  1. Volume monogamy of quantum steering ellipsoids for multiqubit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuming; Milne, Antony; Hall, Michael J. W.; Wiseman, Howard M.

    2016-10-01

    The quantum steering ellipsoid can be used to visualize 2-qubit states, and thus provides a generalization of the Bloch picture for the single qubit. Recently, a monogamy relation for the volumes of steering ellipsoids has been derived for pure 3-qubit states and shown to be stronger than the celebrated Coffman-Kundu-Wootters inequality. We first demonstrate the close connection between this volume monogamy relation and the classification of pure 3-qubit states under stochastic local operations and classical communication. We then show that this monogamy relation does not hold for general mixed 3-qubit states and derive a weaker monogamy relation that does hold for such states. We also prove a volume monogamy relation for pure 4-qubit states (further conjectured to hold for the mixed case), and generalize our 3-qubit inequality to n qubits. Finally, we study the effect of noise on the quantum steering ellipsoid and find that the volume of any 2-qubit state is nonincreasing when the state is exposed to arbitrary local noise. This implies that any volume monogamy relation for a given class of multiqubit states remains valid under the addition of local noise. We investigate this quantitatively for the experimentally relevant example of isotropic noise.

  2. Imperfection Insensitivity Analyses of Advanced Composite Tow-Steered Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Farrokh, Babak; Stanford, Bret K.; Weaver, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Two advanced composite tow-steered shells, one with tow overlaps and another without overlaps, were previously designed, fabricated and tested in end compression, both without cutouts, and with small and large cutouts. In each case, good agreement was observed between experimental buckling loads and supporting linear bifurcation buckling analyses. However, previous buckling tests and analyses have shown historically poor correlation, perhaps due to the presence of geometric imperfections that serve as failure initiators. For the tow-steered shells, their circumferential variation in axial stiffness may have suppressed this sensitivity to imperfections, leading to the agreement noted between tests and analyses. To investigate this further, a numerical investigation was performed in this study using geometric imperfections measured from both shells. Finite element models of both shells were analyzed first without, and then, with measured imperfections that were then, superposed in different orientations around the shell longitudinal axis. Small variations in both the axial prebuckling stiffness and global buckling load were observed for the range of imperfections studied here, which suggests that the tow steering, and resulting circumferentially varying axial stiffness, may result in the test-analysis correlation observed for these shells.

  3. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AZIMUTH ELECTRONIC BEAM STEERING MODE SPACEBORNE SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Xiaodong; Xu Wei; Han Xiaolei

    2013-01-01

    Pointing angle and pattern of the antenna can be changed swiftly to actualize the azimuth beam scanning by using electronic beam steering,which makes the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)system more flexible and achieve a high resolution or cover a long strip within short time span.When the pointing angle is steered away from boresight,some aberrations may appear on the antenna pattern,e.g.,the grating lobe appears,the main lobe gain decrease,and antenna pattern broadens,e.g.,the aberrations result in the worsening of system performance,and complicate the corresponding performance analysis method.Conventional computation methods of performance parameters do not account for the rapid change of the antenna pattern.It introduces remarkable errors when the scanning angle is large.In this paper,a method of calculating performance parameters is proposed for the beam steering mode,which achieves the parameters by the energy accumulation in time domain.Actually,the proposed method simulates the working process of SAR and obtains accurate performance parameters.Furthermore,we analyze the effects of the grating lobe on the Azimuth Ambiguity to Signal Ratio (AASR),and present the generic Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) choosing principle which can also prevent the ambiguous area from weighting by the grating lobe.Finally,the effect of the antenna configuration on the performance parameters is analyzed by a system example.

  4. Visual-Motor Control of Steering and Awareness of Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callum Mole

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to carry out skilled, visually guided actions, humans need to be able to use feedback to monitor and adjust performance. Such feedback can be relatively low level, with some motor commands being recalibrated rapidly based on visual feedback with little cognitive awareness (eg, Mon-Williams and Murray 2000. In tasks such as driving, however, awareness of performance could be important for making strategic adjustments in order to respond to road conditions. To investigate whether participants could accurately gauge steering performance, we used a simulated driving scenario. Participants (n=30 were required to steer around a series of bends and stay within a central marked zone. In order to alter the task demands, the speed of travel (fast/slow and the width of the zone (narrow/wide were manipulated. After each bend the participants made an explicit percentage judgment of time spent within the required zone. The mean group steering results showed that performance was worst for faster speeds and narrower zones, and this pattern was matched in the awareness judgements. Closer inspection of the data, however, showed that at an individual level these judgements often failed to capture trial performance and were often merely influenced by the visible task characteristics (eg, fast and narrow trial. This suggests that participants may erroneously rely on salient cues about task characteristics to assess performance if direct feedback is weak. This has important implications for driving since individuals may be failing to respond to situation characteristics that actually make performance worse.

  5. Validation of a QuEChERS-based gas chromatographic method for analysis of pesticide residues in Cassia angustifolia (senna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Vandana; Saha, Ajoy; Patel, Dilipkumar J; Basak, B B; Shah, Paresh G; Kumar, Jitendra

    2016-08-01

    A simple multi-residue method based on modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach was established for the determination of 17 organochlorine (OC), 15 organophosphorous (OP) and 7 synthetic pyrethroid (SP) pesticides in an economically important medicinal plant of India, Senna (Cassia angustifolia), by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture and flame thermionic detectors (GC/ECD/FTD) and confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The developed method was validated by testing the following parameters: linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), matrix effect, accuracy-precision and measurement uncertainty; the validation study clearly demonstrated the suitability of the method for its intended application. All pesticides showed good linearity in the range 0.01-1.0 μg mL(-1) for OCs and OPs and 0.05-2.5 μg mL(-1) for SPs with correlation coefficients higher than 0.98. The method gave good recoveries for most of the pesticides (70-120%) with intra-day and inter-day precision < 20% in most of the cases. The limits of detection varied from 0.003 to 0.03 mg kg(-1), and the LOQs were determined as 0.01-0.049 mg kg(-1). The expanded uncertainties were <30%, which was distinctively less than a maximum default value of ±50%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine pesticide residues in 12 commercial market samples obtained from different locations in India.

  6. Quantification of pesticides in food crops using QuEChERS approaches and GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jimi; Lee, Jonghwa; Lim, Chai-Uk; Ahn, Jongsung

    2016-12-01

    The analysis of pesticides in food products requires accurate measurements for which standardised protocols have been developed. This paper reports the validation of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe)-based methods applied to three different food samples (brown rice, red pepper and mandarin orange) analysed using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The validation of the analytical methods used to measure 113 pesticides, including various insecticides, fungicides and herbicides, was conducted in three food matrices and at three spiking levels by three different laboratories. The set of validated results was interpreted, statistically analysed and visualised using principal component analysis (PCA). Notably, the matrix effects in GC-MS analysis for most of the tested pesticides from different matrices were lowered to practical values (less than 30%) appropriate for routine analysis. This allowed for the quantification of pesticides in the samples using standard and analyte protectants (APs) in the reagent method blank as a screening measure, providing an alternative to matrix-matched calibration. Alternatively, the use of only one standardised calibration (grape matrix) in combination with APs also allowed for the qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of pesticides in different matrices. The inclusion of APs reduced the differences in the matrix-induced enhancement effects of various samples. The use of an internal standard (IS) to correct the matrix effects was also noted. The normalisation of the analyte peak with triphenyl phosphate (TPP) as an IS resulted in a slight improvement of validation values such as precision and linearity in only one laboratory, but it lowered the value of matrix effects in all three laboratories.

  7. Way-point navigation for a skid-steer vehicle in unknown environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiyi; Das, Arun; Mukherjee, Prasenjit; Waslander, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) allow people to remotely access and perform tasks in dangerous or inconvenient locations more effectively. They have been successfully used for practical applications such as mine detection, sample retrieval, and exploration and mapping. One of the fundamental requirements for the autonomous operation of any vehicle is the capability to traverse its environment safely. To accomplish this, UGVs rely on the data from their on-board sensors to solve the problems of localization, mapping, path planning, and controls. This paper proposes a combined mapping, path planning, and controls solution that will allow a skidsteer UGV to navigate safely through unknown environments and reach a goal location. The mapping algorithm generates 2D maps of the traversable environment, the path planner uses these maps to find kinodynamically feasible paths to the goal, and the tracking controller ensures that the vehicle stays on the generated path during traversal. All of the algorithms are computationally efficient enough to run onboard the robot in real-time, and the proposed solution has been experimentally verified on a custom built skid-steer vehicle allowing it to navigate to desired GPS waypoints through a variety of unknown environments.

  8. Postweaning performance and carcass merit of F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, D E

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons were made among F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds of bulls for feedlot and carcass traits when steers were produced from Angus- and Hereford-type dams. Brahman-derivative breeds included Brangus, Beefmaster, and Santa Gertrudis. Brangus- and Beefmaster-sired steers weighed less at slaughter, whereas carcasses of Brangus- and Santa Gertrudis-sired steers had more marbling than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area than carcasses of Santa Gertrudis-sired steers. Other Zebu breeds compared to Brahman were Boran, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, Red Brahman, and Sahiwal. Steers by Brahman sires had higher slaughter weights than steers by Boran, Gir, Nellore, or Sahiwal sires. Hot carcass weights of Brahman-sired steers were also higher than those of Boran- and Sahiwal-sired steers. Steer carcasses by Brahman sires had greater longissimus muscle area than those of steers by Sahiwal sires. Non-Zebu breeds included Tuli and Senepol. Steers by Tuli sires grew slower, had lower slaughter weights, and their carcasses weighed less than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area but less marbling than carcasses of Tuli-sired steers. These data suggest that steers by Brahman sires have an advantage for slaughter weight over steers by Brangus, Beefmaster, Boran, Gir, Nellore, Sahiwal, and Tuli sires, but their carcasses are at a disadvantage for marbling score compared with those by Brangus, Boran, Nellore, and Tuli sires.

  9. Data transfer through beam steering using agile lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad Assad; Reza, Syed Azer; Muhammad, Ahsan

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a data transfer scheme using multi-focus tunable lenses. The design involves the use of a standard laser source and a variable focus agile lens to steer to the laser beam that passes through the lens. In our proposed system, the beam steer angle depends on an input electrical signal which drives the tunable lens. Therefore the beam steer angle is made to follow the variations in the input electrical drive signal. This is extremely interesting for data transfer applications as the data signal can be used as the input drive signal to the lens. The laser beam is steered according to the input data voltage levels and when the beam is incident on a photo-detector of a finite size, only a fraction of its total incident optical power is received by the photo-detector. This power contribution is proportional to the fraction of the total number of photons per unit area which are incident on the active area of the detector. The remaining photons which are not incident on the photo-detector do not contribute to the received power at the photo-detector. We present the theory of beam steering through a tunable lens and present a theoretical framework which governs data transfer through the proposed method. We also present the transfer function of the proposed system which helps us to calculate its essential theoretical performance parameters such as modulation depth and bit error rates. We also present experimental results to demonstrate efficient data transfer through the proposed method. As tunable lenses are primarily deployed in motion-free multi-focus cameras hence most of the modern portable devices such as cellphones and tablets use these lenses to operate the in-built variable focus cameras that are part of these devices. Because tunable lenses are commonly present in several different portable devices, the proposed method of data transfer between two devices is highly promising as it expands the use of the already deployed tunable lenses with

  10. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Cracknell, Arthur P

    2007-01-01

    Addressing the need for updated information in remote sensing, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Second Edition provides a full and authoritative introduction for scientists who need to know the scope, potential, and limitations in the field. The authors discuss the physical principles of common remote sensing systems and examine the processing, interpretation, and applications of data. This new edition features updated and expanded material, including greater coverage of applications from across earth, environmental, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences. Illustrated with remotely sensed colo

  11. Rapid analysis of multi-pesticide residues in lotus seeds by a modified QuEChERS-based extraction and GC-ECD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qing; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Shihai; Yang, Meihua

    2013-05-01

    A modified quick, easy, cheap, efficient, rugged and safe method (QuEChERS) coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was developed for rapid extraction and simultaneous determination of 36 pesticides in lotus seeds. The extraction solvent (acetone, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile, n-hexane and n-hexane in combination with ethyl acetate) and purifying agent (neutral alumina, primary secondary amine, graphite carbon block and florisil) for QuEChERS extraction were optimized. The GC-ECD method was in-house validated in terms of linearity, selectivity, reproducibility, stability and recovery. The limits of detection (LODs) of the developed GC-ECD method for all investigated pesticides ranged from 0.01 to 3.0μgL(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQs) from 0.05 to 10.0μgL(-1). The satisfactory data demonstrated the good reproducibility and stability of the method with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 15%. Recoveries for spiked lotus seed samples were from 60.84% to 119.91% with RSDs lower than 13.06%. Two out of 24 batches of lotus seeds collected in China were found to be contaminated with trans-chlordane, which were below LOQ. This is the first attempt in China using QuEChERS to GC-ECD to determine 36 major pesticides with differences in physio-chemical properties in lotus seeds. The method described here was found to be practicable in the routine residue analysis of pesticides in lotus seeds.

  12. Multiobjective Optimization of Steering Mechanism for Rotary Steering System Using Modified NSGA-II and Fuzzy Set Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complicated design process of gear train, optimization is a significant approach to improve design efficiency. However, the design of gear train is a complex multiobjective optimization with mixed continuous-discrete variables under numerous nonlinear constraints, and conventional optimization algorithms are not suitable to deal with such optimization problems. In this paper, based on the established dynamic model of steering mechanism for rotary steering system, the key component of which is a planetary gear set with teeth number difference, the optimization problem of steering mechanism is formulated to achieve minimum dynamic responses and outer diameter by optimizing structural parameters under geometric, kinematic, and strength constraints. An optimization procedure based on modified NSGA-II by incorporating dynamic crowding distance strategies and fuzzy set theory is applied to the multiobjective optimization. For comparative purpose, NSGA-II is also employed to obtain Pareto optimal set, and dynamic responses of original and optimized designs are compared. The results show the optimized design has better dynamic responses with minimum outer diameter and the response decay decreases faster. The optimization procedure is feasible to the design of gear train, and this study can provide guidance for designer at the preliminary design phase of mechanical structures with gear train.

  13. Effects of saponin extracts on air emissions from steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Powers, W

    2012-11-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to quantify the effects of saponin extracts from Quillaja saponaria Molina (QS), Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies (YS), and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (TS) on gaseous emissions from steers (Bos taurus). During Exp. 1, a control diet [C1, corn (Zea mays L.) and corn silage basal diet] was compared with YS1 (C1 + 0.64% dietary DM of YS) and QS1 (C1 + 1.5% dietary DM of QS), with 4 replicates per treatment. During Exp. 2, the control diet (C2, corn and corn silage basal diet) was compared with TS2 (C2 + 0.25% dietary DM of TS). Product inclusion levels were established to provide the same concentration of saponin compounds across studies for Exp. 1 and 2. Experiment 3 compared C3 (corn and corn silage basal diet), QS3 (C3 + 1.5% QS), YS3 (C3 + 1.5% YS), and TS3 (C3 + 0.5% TS). Holstein steers (n = 12) at initial BW of 354 ± 10 kg (Exp. 1), 429 ± 10 kg (Exp. 2), 382 ± 16 kg (Period 1, Exp. 3) and 400 ± 12 kg (Period 2, Exp. 3) were individually housed in environmental rooms for 22 d per study. Gaseous emissions including methane (CH(4)), ammonia (NH(3)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) were monitored in room exhaust air. No differences in DMI (7.54 ± 0.09 kg) and ADG (1.16 ± 0.19 kg) were observed in Exp. 1 (P > 0.05). Adding TS2 to the diet improved DMI in Exp. 2 (8.94 kg in TS2 vs. 8.53 in C2; P < 0.01), whereas ADG was not affected by diet. During Exp. 3, steers fed the TS3 diet ate less (6.36 kg/d) and gained less BW (0.31 kg/d) compared with the other 3 treatments. Saponin inclusion did not alter daily CH(4) emission per unit DMI (13.17, 10.90, and 13.21 g/kg DMI, for Exp. 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Emissions of NH(3) per unit N intake were not affected by diets in Exp. 1 (134.89 mg/g N consumed) and Exp. 3 (134.99 mg/g N consumed). Feeding TS2 reduced NH(3) emission per unit of N consumed by 30% compared with C2 (P < 0.01). Feeding up to 0.5% of TS failed to reduce CH(4) emissions without impairing steer growth. Nitrous

  14. Electronic differential control of 2WD electric vehicle considering steering stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yiding; Jiang, Haobin; Geng, Guoqing

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the steering wheel differential steering control technology of rear wheel independent driving electric wheel, considering the assisting effect of electronic differential control on vehicle steering, based on the high speed steering characteristic of electric wheel car, the electronic differential speed of auxiliary wheel steering is also studied. A yaw moment control strategy is applied to the vehicle at high speed. Based on the vehicle stability reference value, yaw rate is used to design the fuzzy controller to distribute the driving wheel torque. The simulation results show that the basic electronic differential speed function is realized based on the yaw moment control strategy, while the vehicle stability control is improved and the driving safety is enhanced. On the other hand, the torque control strategy can also assist steering of vehicle.

  15. Robust Adaptive Beamforming Based on Steering Vector Estimation via Semidefinite Programming Relaxation

    CERN Document Server

    Khabbazibasmenj, Arash; Hassanien, Aboulnasr

    2010-01-01

    We develop a new approach to robust adaptive beamforming in the presence of signal steering vector errors. Since the signal steering vector is known imprecisely, its presumed (prior) value is used to find a more accurate estimate of the actual steering vector, which then is used for obtaining the optimal beamforming weight vector. The objective for finding such an estimate of the actual signal steering vector is the maximization of the beamformer output power, while the constraints are the normalization condition and the requirement that the estimate of the steering vector does not converge to an interference steering vector. Our objective and constraints are free of any design parameters of non-unique choice. The resulting optimization problem is a non-convex quadratically constrained quadratic program, which is NP hard in general. However, for our problem we show that an efficient solution can be found using the semi-definite relaxation technique. Moreover, the strong duality holds for the proposed problem ...

  16. Método QuEChERS para determinação de ocratoxina a e citrinina em arroz e farelo de arroz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen C. dos S. Hackbart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to establish the optimal conditions for performing ochratoxin A (OTA and citrinin (CIT extraction using the QuEChERS method in rice. Employing the factorial experimental design, variables that significantly influenced the extraction stages were determined. The following variables were analyzed: addition of water, acidification of acetonitrile with glacial acetic acid, as well as amounts of magnesium sulfate, sodium acetate, sodium citrate and diatomaceous earth. The best combining procedure resulted in a predictive model using more water and less diatomaceous earth. Recoveries of CIT and OTA were 78-105%.

  17. Remote robot manipulator coupled with remote-controlled guide vehicle for soil sampling in hazardous waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiho

    The important initial step for remediation of hazardous waste is contaminant analysis since the cleanup operation can not begin until the contaminants in hazardous waste sites have been clearly identified. Ames Laboratory, one of the U.S. Department of Energy sites, has developed a robotic sampling system for automation of real-time contaminant analysis in situ which will provide the advantage of lowering the cost per sample, eliminating personnel exposure to hazardous environments, and allowing quicker results. Successful accomplishment of real-time contaminant analysis will require a remote manipulator to perform the sampling tasks in remote and unstructured surroundings, and a remote-controlled guide vehicle to move a remote manipulator into the desired sampling location. This thesis focuses on the design and construction of a remote-controlled guide vehicle to move the robotic sampling system into the contaminated field to obtain soil samples at the desired locations, the development of an integrated dynamic model of a remote manipulator, the identification of dynamic parameters in the integrated dynamic model, and the design of a mobile robotic sampling system. A four-wheeled vehicle prototype has been constructed and its performance tested manually in the field to verify the design requirements. To remotely control the vehicle, mechanical requirements to activate the brake, throttle, transmission, and steering linkages were determined based on experimental results. A teleoperated control utilizing hundred feet long umbilical cords was first employed to remotely control the vehicle. Next, the vehicle was modified to remotely operate in the field by radio control without the aid of long umbilical cords, satisfying all the design specifications. To reduce modeling error in the robotic system, the integrated dynamic system comprised of a remote manipulator (located on a trailer pulled by the remote-controlled guide vehicle) and its drive system has been modeled

  18. Repositioning and steering laser beam power via coherent combination of multiple Airy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ze; Ye, Zhuoyi; Song, Daohong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Zhigang

    2013-12-10

    We study numerically and experimentally laser coherent combination (LCC) with multiple one- or two-dimensional Airy beams. It is shown that the method of LCC using Airy beams leads to a higher combining efficiency and a better feature of propagation than that using conventional Gaussian beams. Based on such coherent Airy beams combination, we propose a laser steering approach that could achieve large-angle beam steering (over 0.6°) without the need of using any mechanical steering component.

  19. Cycling around a curve: the effect of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Vansteenkiste

    Full Text Available Although it is generally accepted that visual information guides steering, it is still unclear whether a curvature matching strategy or a 'look where you are going' strategy is used while steering through a curved road. The current experiment investigated to what extent the existing models for curve driving also apply to cycling around a curve, and tested the influence of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior. Twenty-five participants were asked to cycle through a semicircular lane three consecutive times at three different speeds while staying in the center of the lane. The observed steering behavior suggests that an anticipatory steering strategy was used at curve entrance and a compensatory strategy was used to steer through the actual bend of the curve. A shift of gaze from the center to the inside edge of the lane indicates that at low cycling speed, the 'look where you are going' strategy was preferred, while at higher cycling speeds participants seemed to prefer the curvature matching strategy. Authors suggest that visual information from both steering strategies contributes to the steering system and can be used in a flexible way. Based on a familiarization effect, it can be assumed that steering is not only guided by vision but that a short-term learning component should also be taken into account.

  20. Cycling around a curve: the effect of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Van Hamme, David; Veelaert, Peter; Philippaerts, Renaat; Cardon, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that visual information guides steering, it is still unclear whether a curvature matching strategy or a 'look where you are going' strategy is used while steering through a curved road. The current experiment investigated to what extent the existing models for curve driving also apply to cycling around a curve, and tested the influence of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior. Twenty-five participants were asked to cycle through a semicircular lane three consecutive times at three different speeds while staying in the center of the lane. The observed steering behavior suggests that an anticipatory steering strategy was used at curve entrance and a compensatory strategy was used to steer through the actual bend of the curve. A shift of gaze from the center to the inside edge of the lane indicates that at low cycling speed, the 'look where you are going' strategy was preferred, while at higher cycling speeds participants seemed to prefer the curvature matching strategy. Authors suggest that visual information from both steering strategies contributes to the steering system and can be used in a flexible way. Based on a familiarization effect, it can be assumed that steering is not only guided by vision but that a short-term learning component should also be taken into account.

  1. Theoretical modeling on the laser induced effect of liquid crystal optical phased beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoxian; Wang, Xiangru; Wu, Liang; Tan, Qinggui; Li, Man; Shang, Jiyang; Wu, Shuanghong; Huang, Ziqiang

    2017-01-01

    Non-mechanical laser beam steering has been reported previously in liquid crystal array devices. To be one of the most promising candidates to be practical non-mechanical laser deflector, its laser induced effect still has few theoretical model. In this paper, we propose a theoretical model to analyze this laser induced effect of LC-OPA to evaluate the deterioration on phased beam steering. The model has three parts: laser induced thermal distribution; temperature dependence of material parameters and beam steering deterioration. After these three steps, the far field of laser beam is obtained to demonstrate the steering performance with the respect to the incident laser beam power and beam waist.

  2. Modeling, Validation, and Control of Electronically Actuated Pitman Arm Steering for Armored Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Rau Aparow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 2 DOF mathematical models of Pitman arm steering system are derived using Newton’s law of motion and modeled in MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The developed steering model is included with a DC motor model which is directly attached to the steering column. The Pitman arm steering model is then validated with actual Pitman arm steering test rig using various lateral inputs such as double lane change, step steer, and slalom test. Meanwhile, a position tracking control method has been used in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the validated model to be implemented in active safety system of a heavy vehicle. The similar method has been used to test the actual Pitman arm steering mechanism using hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS technique. Additional friction compensation is added in the HILS technique in order to minimize the frictional effects that occur in the mechanical configuration of the DC motor and Pitman arm steering. The performance of the electronically actuated Pitman arm steering system can be used to develop a firing-on-the-move actuator (FOMA for an armored vehicle. The FOMA can be used as an active safety system to reject unwanted yaw motion due to the firing force.

  3. EVALUATION OF A CONCEPTUAL VEHICLE STEERING SYSTEM FOR INDEPENDENT WHEEL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard BUCHALIK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief description of an unconventional steering system involving electronic stability control and its influence on vehicle motion. The proposed configuration enables individual changes in steering angle for each single wheel, in contrast to the mechanical linkage solution. An analysis of vehicle behaviour during emergency braking on a heterogeneous surface is conducted, especially with regard to the undesirable rotation of the vehicle body. The benefits of using this active steering system, implemented in the steer-by-wire mode, are characterized, while the problems for further consideration and the potential benefits of such a solution are described.

  4. Architectural evaluation of beam-steered shuffle optical interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdocca, Miles J.; Batchu, Ravi V.; Dennison, Michael

    1996-06-01

    We report on a reconfigurable optical interconnection approach in which static communication graphs are extracted from high level programs and are mapped onto a two stage optical beam-steered/perfect shuffle interconnect. An array of processing elements (PEs) is partitioned into functional units of equal size that are served by one optical input/output (I/O) port per PE. PEs within a functional unit can use any of the optical I/O ports served by that functional unit. An optical beam-steering mechanism in conjunction with an optical perfect shuffle interconnects the functional units. At the highest level, computer programs are written in the Id dataflow programming language. At the next level, dataflow graphs (communication graphs that represent the natural parallelism in a computation) are automatically extracted from the high-level programs. At the lowest level, the dataflow graphs are mapped onto the optical beam-steered/perfect shuffle interconnect. This mapping step is facilitated by a mechanism that redirects optical beams to that the physical interconnect takes the form of the dataflow graph. An intended application is to create low latency realizations of specialized hardware on-the-fly, such as for rapid prototyping. An advantage of this approach over competing all-electronic or static free-space optical interconnection approaches is that the optical interconnect has low depth (two stages) with low fan-out (typically 1 to 3). In previous work, the behaviors of the mappings are studied for randomly generated dataflow graphs. In the work reported here, the behaviors of the mappings are studied for extracted dataflow graphs. We conclude that this interconnection approach is effective for extracted dataflow graphs, using only a single pass through the network, if the interconnect is augmented with a small crossbar within each functional unit.

  5. Multi-residue analysis of free and conjugated hormones and endocrine disruptors in rat testis by QuEChERS-based extraction and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouech, Charlène; Tournier, Mikaël; Quignot, Nadia; Kiss, Agneta; Wiest, Laure; Lafay, Florent; Flament-Waton, Marie-Magdeleine; Lemazurier, Emmanuel; Cren-Olivé, Cécile

    2012-03-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are suspected to be responsible for many disorders of the human reproductive system. To establish a causality relationship between exposure to endocrine disruptors and disease, experiments on animals must be performed with improved or new analytical tools. Therefore, a simple, rapid, and effective multi-residue method was developed for the determination of four steroid hormones (i.e., testosterone, androstenedione, estrone, and estradiol), glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of estrone and estradiol and four endocrine disruptors in rat testis (i.e., bisphenol A, atrazine, and active metabolites of methoxychlor and vinclozolin). The sample preparation procedure was based on the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) approach. An analytical method was then developed to quantify these compounds at ultra-trace levels by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The QuEChERS extraction was optimized with regard to the acetonitrile/water ratio used in the extraction step, the choice of the cleanup method and the acetonitrile/hexane ratio used in the cleanup step. The optimized extraction method exhibited recoveries between 89% and 108% for all tested compounds except the conjugates (31% to 58%). The detection limits of all compounds were below 20 ng g(-1) of wet weight of testis. The method was subsequently applied to determine the levels of hormones and EDCs in seven rat testis samples.

  6. Evaluation of various QuEChERS based methods for the analysis of herbicides and other commonly used pesticides in polished rice by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Cesio, Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2011-02-15

    Four different extraction and clean-up protocols based on the QuEChERS method were compared for the development of an optimized sample preparation procedure for the multiresidue analysis of 16 commonly applied herbicides in rice crops using LC-QqQ/MS. Additionally the methods were evaluated for the analysis of 26 insecticides and fungicides currently used in rice crops. The methods comprise, in general, the hydratation of the sample with water followed by the extraction with acetonitrile, phase separation with the addition of different salts and finally a clean-up step with various sorbents. Matrix effects were evaluated for the 4 studied methods using LC-QqQ/MS. Additionally LC-TOF/MS was used to compare the co-extractants obtained with the four assayed methodologies. Thirty-six pesticides presented good performance with recoveries in the range 70-120% and relative standard deviations below 20% using 7.5 g of milled polished rice and the buffered acetate QuEChERS method without clean-up at both fortification levels: 10 and 300 μg kg(-1). The other six pesticides presented low recovery rates, nevertheless all these analytes could be analyzed with at least one of the other three studied procedures. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. QuEChERS Purification Combined with Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Simultaneous Quantification of 25 Mycotoxins in Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Juan; Li, Weixi; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Xuexu; Wu, Li; Wang, Bujun

    2016-01-01

    A method based on the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) purification combined with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS), was optimized for the simultaneous quantification of 25 mycotoxins in cereals. Samples were extracted with a solution containing 80% acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid, and purified with QuEChERS before being separated by a C18 column. The mass spectrometry was conducted by using positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) models. The method gave good linear relations with regression coefficients ranging from 0.9950 to 0.9999. The detection limits ranged from 0.03 to 15.0 µg·kg−1, and the average recovery at three different concentrations ranged from 60.2% to 115.8%, with relative standard deviations (RSD%) varying from 0.7% to 19.6% for the 25 mycotoxins. The method is simple, rapid, accurate, and an improvement compared with the existing methods published so far. PMID:27983693

  8. Simultaneous extraction and cleanup of high-lipid organs from white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) for multiple legacy and emerging organic contaminants using QuEChERS sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shane A; Sieve, Kristal K; Ratajczak, Robert E; Bringolf, Robert B; Belden, Jason B

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to utilize the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method to extract a broad range of persistent organic pollutants from sturgeon organs (liver and gonad) as indicators of exposure. The analyte list was prioritized to include carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most commonly occurring polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals (PBTs), and emergent contaminants of concern (ECCs) as indicators of human sewage exposure. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for this study to support a larger ecotoxicological study to monitor contaminants as an assessment of fish health. Organ tissues contained high lipid content with percentages of 15% and 34% for liver and gonad, respectively. Overall recoveries from fortified sturgeon tissues were high, 71-98% for PAHs, 60-107% for PBDEs and PCBs, 86-107% for PBT chemicals, and 88-107% for ECCs with the exception of octinoxate (28%) from liver tissues. Analyte recovery trends decreased as analyte lipophilicity and molecular weight increased. These recoveries demonstrate that extraction using QuEChERS can be used for screening of the most common bioaccumulating organic compounds in high lipid fish tissue using a single extraction and analysis.

  9. The Rapid Measurement of Benzodiazepines in a Milk-Based Alcoholic Beverage Using QuEChERS Extraction and GC-MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglini, Giorgio; Capriotti, Fabiana; Palma, Pierangela; Termopoli, Veronica; Cappiello, Achille

    2015-05-01

    Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are widely used as tranquilizers and anti-depressive drugs in common clinical practice. However, their ready availability and their synergistic effects with alcohol make them attractive for criminal intentions. To prove criminal action for legal reasons, it is often necessary to analyze beverage residues from a crime scene. Milk-based alcoholic drinks (whiskey creams) are gaining popularity due to their lower alcohol content pleasant taste. However, the complexity of this sample, containing proteins and fatty acids, can mask the presence of drugs or other substances in standard analysis methods. These characteristics make whiskey creams highly suitable for illicit purposes. In this study, eight BDZs, including diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clobazam, flunitrazepam, bromazepam, flurazepam, nitrazepam and clonazepam, were extracted from whiskey cream using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method and analyzed using GC-MS. The QuEChERS protocol can efficiently separate most of the matrix from the target compounds while maintaining acceptable recoveries. The presented method is simple and rapid and has been validated in terms of precision, accuracy and recoveries. Limits of detection and limits of quantitation were in the range of 0.02-0.1 and 0.1-0.5 µg/mL, respectively. Whiskey cream beverages, fortified with commercial drugs at 20 µg/mL, were extracted and analyzed demonstrating the applicability of the method in forensic analysis.

  10. Application of the QuEChERS method for the determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in Brazilian fruit pulps by GC-ECD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Mário; Correia-Sá, Luísa; Vidal, Carla B; Becker, Helena; Longhinotti, Elisane; Domingues, Valentina F; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2017-01-02

    The Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method was applied to the extraction of 14 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues from commercial fruit pulps available in supermarkets in Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil. The analyses were carried out by gas chromatography (GC), coupled to an electron-capture detector (ECD), and were confirmed by GC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS). The parameters of the analytical method, such as accuracy, precision, linear range, limits of detection and quantification, were determined for each pesticide. The results showed good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9916) and the overall average recoveries were considered satisfactory obtaining values between 69 and 110%, RSD of 2-15 %, except for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in açai, acerola and guava pulp samples. The OCPs were detected in guava (α-HCH; lindane) and soursop (α, β-HCH isomers) samples. The QuEChERS method and GC-ECD were successfully used to analyze OCPs in commercially available Brazilian fruit pulps and can be applied in routine analytical laboratories.

  11. Optimization of a Modified QuEChERS Method for Multiresidue Analysis of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Sewage and Surface Water by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachhawaha, Akanksha S; Nagarnaik, Pranav M; Jadhav, Manjusha; Pudale, Anjali; Labhasetwar, Pawan K; Banerjee, Kaushik

    2017-05-01

    A quick, sensitive multiresidue method was developed for the analysis of 19 multiclass pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface water and sewage water. The proposed modified QuEChERS method involved the extraction of water samples (10 mL) with acetonitrile (10 mL) after the addition of 1% acetic acid, 4 g magnesium sulfate, and 0.2 g ammonium acetate, and was validated in distilled water, surface water, and sewage water with respect to linearity, LOD and LOQ, precision, and accuracy. The LOD and LOQ varied within the ranges of 0.001-0.167 and 0.002-0.25 ng/mL, respectively. Recoveries of the target compounds ranged from 73 to 125%, with precision RSD values <27%. The method provided a precise estimation of PPCPs in field samples, and acetaminophen, atenolol, metformin, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, methylparaben, and triclosan were detected in concentrations ranging from 0.10 to 1.40 and 0.10 to 3.4 ng/mL in surface water and sewage water, respectively. This is an innovative application of the QuEChERS approach for estimation of PPCPs from aqueous matrixes. The method provides significantly higher output (preparation of 25-30 samples a day) compared to conventional SPE-based methods (<10 samples a day).

  12. Pesticide residue evaluation in major staple food items of Ethiopia using the QuEChERS method: a case study from the Jimma Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2014-06-01

    Samples of maize, teff, red pepper, and coffee (green bean and coffee bean with pulp) were collected from a local market in the Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, DTT and its metabolites, and endosulfan (α, β). In the analytical procedure, the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction methodology with dispersive solid phase extraction clean up (d-SPE) technique was applied. Validation of the QuEChERS method was satisfactory. Recovery percentages of most pesticides were in the range of 70% to 120%, with good repeatability (%relative standard deviation coffee bean. Residues of DDT in coffee pulp significantly differed (p < 0.01) from other food items except for red pepper. The concentration of pesticides in the food items varied from 0.011 mg/kg to 1.115 mg/kg. All food items contained 1 or more pesticides. Two-thirds of the samples had residues below corresponding maximum residue limits, and the remaining one-third of samples were above the maximum residue limits. These results indicate the need for a good pesticide monitoring program to evaluate consumer risk for the Ethiopian people.

  13. APPLICATION OF QuEChERS METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PHENYLUREA HERBICIDES IN BEETROOT BY HPLC WITH UV-VIS DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Surma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenylurea herbicides are an important group of herbicides utilized in weed control. They have been on sale since the 1950s and are still in common use throughout the world from pre- and post-emergence control of many annual and perennial broad-leaved weeds. The aim of this work was to evaluate the utility of the QuEChERS method for the determination of phenylurea pesticides (chlortoluron, isoproturon, linuron, metobromuron, metoxuron, monolinuron in beetroot by HPLC with UV/Vis detection. Different types of sorbents (PSA, C18, SAX and NH2 and solvents (hexane, ethyl acetate were applied. The obtained results showed that the best recovery ratios were received for the method with PSA and GCB sorbents and using acetonitrile as an extraction solvent with RSD lower than 15% for most compounds. The linearity of calibration curves was higher than 0.98 for all target analytes. The results show that the QuEChERS method can be successfully applied for the determination of phenylurea herbicides in beetroot.

  14. Development of a readily applied method to quantify ractopamine residue in meat and bone meal by QuEChERS-LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressler, Vanessa; Franzen, Angélica R L; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Tavernari, Fernando C; Dalla Costa, Osmar A; Feddern, Vivian

    2016-03-15

    A QuEChERS method of ractopamine (RCT) residue detection in swine meat and bone meal (MBM) samples was demonstrated. Samples were hydrolyzed with protease and β-glucuronidase prior to QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction and clean-up. Samples were analyzed in a Liquid Chromatography (equipped with ACE 5 C18 column under gradient elution) coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive electrospray ionization mode (using multiple reaction monitoring, MRM). The method was validated for its specificity, decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), recovery, repeatability, reproducibility, linearity, limits of detection (LODs), quantification (LOQs), and stability according to international guidelines (European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC). Recoveries ranged from 96.3 to 107.0%. Repeatability and reproducibility showed both RSD<5.7% and 3.1%, respectively. LODs and LOQs were 1.91 and 6.36 ppb, respectively. CCα and CCβ values were 1.91 and 2.37 ppb, respectively. RCT showed good stability for spiked samples and real samples when the concentration was higher, otherwise at lower concentration stability was lower. The proposed method can be successfully applied on a regular basis for the determination of RCT in MBM, demonstrating the usefulness of the method as a tool for compliance monitoring in regulatory laboratories.

  15. Frequency-dependent optical steering from subwavelength plasmonic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalalian-Assl, A; Gómez, D E; Roberts, A; Davis, T J

    2012-10-15

    We show theoretically and with numerical simulations that the direction of the in-plane scattering from a subwavelength optical antenna system can be controlled by the frequency of the incident light. This optical steering effect does not rely on propagation phase shifts or diffraction but arises from phase shifts in the localized surface plasmon modes of the antenna. An analytical model is developed to optimize the parameters for the configuration, showing good agreement with a rigorous numerical simulation. The simulation predicts a 25° angular shift in the direction of the light scattered from two gold nanorods for a wavelength change of 12 nm.

  16. Hierarchical Visual Analysis and Steering Framework for Astrophysical Simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖健; 张加万; 原野; 周鑫; 纪丽; 孙济洲

    2015-01-01

    A framework for accelerating modern long-running astrophysical simulations is presented, which is based on a hierarchical architecture where computational steering in the high-resolution run is performed under the guide of knowledge obtained in the gradually refined ensemble analyses. Several visualization schemes for facilitating ensem-ble management, error analysis, parameter grouping and tuning are also integrated owing to the pluggable modular design. The proposed approach is prototyped based on the Flash code, and it can be extended by introducing user-defined visualization for specific requirements. Two real-world simulations, i.e., stellar wind and supernova remnant, are carried out to verify the proposed approach.

  17. AN ALGORITHM FOR STEERING CONTROL WITH SIMULATION RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Apeksha V. Sakhare,; Prof. Dr. V. M. Thakare; Prof. R. V. Dharaskar

    2010-01-01

    The idea behind the paper was channelization of human thoughts to automated realization. It is decided to implement the theme of automatic maneuvering of vehicles and the unanimous choice of sensor was touch screen. It was started with the thought of being able to replace the steering of a car completely by a touch screen. It is drawn on the experience of driving to reach at the choice of touch screen as a drive interface. Another innovation was the touch screen controller being wireless. The...

  18. Adaptive feedback linearization applied to steering of ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of feedback linearization to automatic steering of ships. The flexibility of the design procedure allows the autopilot to be optimized for both course-keeping and course-changing manoeuvres. Direct adaptive versions of both the course-keeping and turning controller are derived. The advantages of the adaptive controllers are improved performance and reduced fuel consumption. The application of nonlinear control theory also allows the designer in a systematic manner to compensate for nonlinearities in the control design.

  19. Correlation steering in the angularly multimode Raman atomic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazelanik, Mateusz; Dąbrowski, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2016-09-19

    We present the possibility of steering the direction of correlations between the off-resonant Raman scattered photons from the angularly multimode atomic memory based on warm rubidium vapors. Using acousto-optic deflectors (AOD) driven by different modulation frequencies, we experimentally change the angle of incidence of the laser beams on the atomic ensemble. By performing correlation measurements for various deflection angles, we verify that we can choose the anti-Stokes light propagation direction independently of the correlated Stokes scattered light in a continuous way. As a result we can select the spatial mode of photons retrieved from the memory, which may be important for future development of quantum information processing.

  20. Superdirective dielectric nanoantennas with effect of light steering

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnok, Alexander; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey; Simovski, Constantin; Belov, Pavel; Kivshar, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel concept of superdirective antennas based on the generation of higher-order optically-induced magnetic multipole modes. All-dielectric nanoantenna can be realized as an optically small spherical dielectric nanoparticle with a notch excited by a point source (e.g. a quantum dot) located in the notch. The superdirectivity effect is not associated with high dissipative losses. For these dielectric nanoantennas we predict the effect of the beam steering at the nanoscale characterized by a subwavelength sensitivity of the beam radiation direction to the source position. We confirm the predicted effects experimentally through the scaling to the microwave frequency range.

  1. Growth, carcass characteristics, and profitability of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Dicostanzo, A; Chester-Jones, H

    2014-03-01

    Bull calves (n=49), born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris) between March and May 2011, were used to compare growth measurements and profitability of conventional and organic dairy steers. Calves were assigned to 1 of 3 replicated groups at birth: conventional (CONV; n=16), organic (pasture and concentrate; ORG; n=16), or organic grass only (GRS; n=17), and analysis of variables was on a pen basis. Breed groups of calves were Holstein (HO; n=9); Holsteins (n=11) maintained at 1964 breed average level; crossbreds (n=19) including combinations of HO, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red; and crossbreds (n=10) including combinations of HO, Jersey, Swedish Red, and Normande. The CONV steers were fed a diet of 80% concentrate and 20% forage. The ORG steers were fed a diet of organic corn, organic corn silage, and at least 30% of their diet consisted of organic pasture during the grazing season. The GRS steers grazed pasture during the grazing season and were fed high-quality hay or hay silage during the nongrazing season. Intakes of a total mixed ration were recorded daily with herd management software. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for beef value, feed intake, pasture intake, health cost, and yardage. The GRS (358.6 kg) steers had lesser total gains from birth to slaughter than ORG (429.6 kg) and CONV (534.5 kg) steers. Furthermore, the GRS (0.61 kg/d) steers had lesser average daily gain from birth compared with ORG (0.81 kg/d) and CONV (1.1 kg/d) steers. The GRS and ORG steers had smaller rib eye area (49.5 and 65.8 cm(2), respectively) compared with CONV (75.4 cm(2)) steers. For profitability, GRS steers had 43% greater profit than CONV steers due to organic beef price premiums and lower feed costs. On the other hand, ORG steers had substantially less profit than CONV steers. The higher cost of production for the ORG steers is due to the extreme high value of organic corn. The results of the

  2. Evaluation of Potential Usage of Incremental-Type Rotary Encoder Application for Angle Sensing in Steering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarto Kaleg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main target of a steering system is that the driver can change vehicle trajectory in accordance with the desired direction.  Power steering has become a standard feature in automobile.  It provides assisting power when the driver turns the steering wheel. The well-known power steering types include; Hydraulic Power Steering (HPS, Electro - Hydraulic Power Steering (EHPS, and Electric Power Steering (EPS. EHPS or EPS uses an Electronic Control Unit (ECU which is specific for each vehicle. The ECU should be able to regulate power of electric motor to provide corresponding assisting power for the steering wheel. Therefore ECU requires input signals, one of which is vehicle wheel angle that can be indicated from the vehicle steering wheel angle. Incremental type of Rotary Encoder (RE is used in steering angle sensor on a minibus. RE specification used was 60 pulses per rotation and the minibus steering transmission specification is 3.5 round of right wheel off angle to the left wheel off angle. So we get the RE angular resolution 6ºper pulse and 105 number of pulses to half of the steering transmission ratio. Repeatability then tested against to a steering angle counter module. Testing is done with a test cycle consisting of 3 repetitions: condition center of the steering wheel, the steering wheel is turned to full right, then to the full left, then back to the right up to the steering wheel center. The results obtained 2 pulses deviation, or equivalent to 12º of steering angle.

  3. Optical remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Saurabh; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    Optical remote sensing relies on exploiting multispectral and hyper spectral imagery possessing high spatial and spectral resolutions respectively. These modalities, although useful for most remote sensing tasks, often present challenges that must be addressed for their effective exploitation. This book presents current state-of-the-art algorithms that address the following key challenges encountered in representation and analysis of such optical remotely sensed data: challenges in pre-processing images, storing and representing high dimensional data, fusing different sensor modalities, patter

  4. REMOTE SENSING IN OCEANOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing from satellites. Sensing of oceanographic variables from aircraft began with the photographing of waves and ice. Since then remote measurement of sea surface temperatures and wave heights have become routine. Sensors tested for oceanographic applications include multi-band color cameras, radar scatterometers, infrared spectrometers and scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and radar imagers. Remote sensing has found its greatest application in providing rapid coverage of large oceanographic areas for synoptic and analysis and

  5. Feeding behavior of steers fed a complete mixed ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, L E; Wangsness, P J; Baumgardt, B R

    1976-11-01

    Feeding behavior of five Holstein steers fed a complete mixed ration was studied by use of individual, electronically controlled feeding behavior units. Both individual meal and daily behavioral parameters were measured. Number of meals, size of each individual meal, time spent eating, and intervals between meals were measured. Eating rates were then calculated. Diurnal feeding patterns were observed with 60.9% of the meals occurring between 0600 and 1800 h. For individual meals, body weight accounted for less than 30% of the variation in meal size. Average meal size was 414.5 g. Respective means for overall meal duration, actual meal duration, overall eating rate, and actual eating rate were 20.3 min, 13.7 min, 23.1 g/min, and 30.0 g/min. Meal size per body weight (g/kg or g/kg.75) was relatively constant during observation. Both increased eating rate and increased meal length were associated with larger meals. However, eating rate tended to plateau while meal length continued to increase with larger meals. Steers consumed 10.01 meals per day while total daily overall meal duration and actual meal duration were 220.9 and 156.4 min.

  6. Stability Simulation of a Vehicle with Wheel Active Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabec Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the possibility of increasing the vehicle driving stability at a higher speed. One of the ways how to achieve higher stability is using the 4WS system. Mathematical description of vehicle general movement is a very complex task. For simulation, models which are aptly simplified are used. For the first approach, so-called single-truck vehicle model (often linear is usually used. For the simulation, we have chosen to extend the model into a two-truck one, which includes the possibility to input more vehicle parameters. Considering the 4WS system, it is possible to use a number of potential regulations. In our simulation model, the regulation system with compound coupling was used. This type of regulation turns the rear wheels depending on the input parameters of the system (steering angle of the front wheels and depending on the output moving quantities of the vehicle, most frequently the yaw rate. Criterion for compensation of lateral deflection centre of gravity angle is its zero value, or more precisely the zero value of its first-order derivative. Parameters and set-up of the simulation model were done in conjunction with the dSAPACE software. Reference performances of the vehicle simulation model were made through the defined manoeuvres. But the simulation results indicate that the rear-wheels steering can have a positive effect on the vehicle movement stability, especially when changing the driving direction at high speed.

  7. Needle Steering in 3-D Via Rapid Replanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sachin; Burgner, Jessica; Webster, Robert J; Alterovitz, Ron

    2014-08-01

    Steerable needles have the potential to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures such as biopsy and drug delivery by improving targeting accuracy and reaching previously inaccessible targets that are behind sensitive or impenetrable anatomical regions. We present a new needle steering system capable of automatically reaching targets in 3-D environments while avoiding obstacles and compensating for real-world uncertainties. Given a specification of anatomical obstacles and a clinical target (e.g., from preoperative medical images), our system plans and controls needle motion in a closed-loop fashion under sensory feedback to optimize a clinical metric. We unify planning and control using a new fast algorithm that continuously replans the needle motion. Our rapid replanning approach is enabled by an efficient sampling-based rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) planner that achieves orders-of-magnitude reduction in computation time compared with prior 3-D approaches by incorporating variable curvature kinematics and a novel distance metric for planning. Our system uses an electromagnetic tracking system to sense the state of the needle tip during the procedure. We experimentally evaluate our needle steering system using tissue phantoms and animal tissue ex vivo. We demonstrate that our rapid replanning strategy successfully guides the needle around obstacles to desired 3-D targets with an average error of less than 3 mm.

  8. Reducing supplementation frequency for Nellore beef steers grazing tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carrilho Canesin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduced supplementation frequency is a broadly applied management practice. Ruminants consuming low quality forages/pastures, supplemented less than once daily are able to maintain body weight gain (BWG, efficiency of use of dry matter, nitrogen and other nutrients, as compared with animals supplemented once daily. We evaluated the feeding behavior, dry matter intake (DMI, dry matter and organic matter digestibility (DMD and OMD, BWG, Longissimus muscle area and backfat depth of Nellore steers raised on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season, with different supplementation patterns. Thirty six animals (338 ± 40.7 kg were distributed over nine paddocks according to a completely randomized design. Treatments were based on supplementation frequency: once daily (OD, once daily except Saturdays and Sundays (SS, or on alternate days (AD, at 1.0 %, 1.4 % and 2.0 % BW, respectively. Average total DMI accounted for 1.6 % BW day-1, with no effect of supplementation frequency. Supplementation frequency had no effect on BWG or grazing time during the day. There was no difference in Longissimus muscle area animals supplemented daily, SS and AD. The backfat depth was thinner in animals supplemented AD, but even in this case, it was within the standards considered satisfactory for a finishing steer. Reducing supplementation frequency seems a good option to lower labor costs without affecting feed efficiency or carcass quality in beef cattle grazing tropical pastures.

  9. Research on the Steering Strategy for Hydrogen Maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, D. S.; Zhao, S. H.; Gao, Y. P.

    2016-07-01

    In the master clock system, the local standard time UTC(k) with a better short-term stability will be generated, if the hydrogen maser is set as a frequency source of the master clock. But the hydrogen maser always exhibits an apparent frequency drift, thus its long-term stability gets poor with time, therefore the stability and accuracy of UTC(k) become worse. To solve this problem, we compare the performance of hydrogen maser with cesium clocks, and modify the time scale algorithm when the hydrogen maser is involved, we also propose a new steering strategy when hydrogen maser is used as the frequency source of master clock. We set up an experiment system and write programs, and finally the new steering strategy is testified with the laboratory data. Results show that when the hydrogen maser is involved in the atomic time scale calculation, the short-term frequency stability of reference time scale will be improved. Meanwhile, the local time UTC(k) has a better short-term frequency stability when the frequency source of the master clock uses hydrogen maser instead of cesium clock.

  10. Needle Steering in 3-D Via Rapid Replanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sachin; Burgner, Jessica; Webster, Robert J.; Alterovitz, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Steerable needles have the potential to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures such as biopsy and drug delivery by improving targeting accuracy and reaching previously inaccessible targets that are behind sensitive or impenetrable anatomical regions. We present a new needle steering system capable of automatically reaching targets in 3-D environments while avoiding obstacles and compensating for real-world uncertainties. Given a specification of anatomical obstacles and a clinical target (e.g., from preoperative medical images), our system plans and controls needle motion in a closed-loop fashion under sensory feedback to optimize a clinical metric. We unify planning and control using a new fast algorithm that continuously replans the needle motion. Our rapid replanning approach is enabled by an efficient sampling-based rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) planner that achieves orders-of-magnitude reduction in computation time compared with prior 3-D approaches by incorporating variable curvature kinematics and a novel distance metric for planning. Our system uses an electromagnetic tracking system to sense the state of the needle tip during the procedure. We experimentally evaluate our needle steering system using tissue phantoms and animal tissue ex vivo. We demonstrate that our rapid replanning strategy successfully guides the needle around obstacles to desired 3-D targets with an average error of less than 3 mm. PMID:25435829

  11. Electronically-Controlled Beam-Steering through Vanadium Dioxide Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammed Reza M.; Yang, Shang-Hua; Wang, Tongyu; Sepúlveda, Nelson; Jarrahi, Mona

    2016-10-01

    Engineered metamaterials offer unique functionalities for manipulating the spectral and spatial properties of electromagnetic waves in unconventional ways. Here, we report a novel approach for making reconfigurable metasurfaces capable of deflecting electromagnetic waves in an electronically controllable fashion. This is accomplished by tilting the phase front of waves through a two-dimensional array of resonant metasurface unit-cells with electronically-controlled phase-change materials embedded inside. Such metasurfaces can be placed at the output facet of any electromagnetic radiation source to deflect electromagnetic waves at a desired frequency, ranging from millimeter-wave to far-infrared frequencies. Our design does not use any mechanical elements, external light sources, or reflectarrays, creating, for the first time, a highly robust and fully-integrated beam-steering device solution. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept beam-steering metasurface optimized for operation at 100 GHz, offering up to 44° beam deflection in both horizontal and vertical directions. Dynamic control of electromagnetic wave propagation direction through this unique platform could be transformative for various imaging, sensing, and communication applications, among others.

  12. Electronically-Controlled Beam-Steering through Vanadium Dioxide Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammed Reza M.; Yang, Shang-Hua; Wang, Tongyu; Sepúlveda, Nelson; Jarrahi, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Engineered metamaterials offer unique functionalities for manipulating the spectral and spatial properties of electromagnetic waves in unconventional ways. Here, we report a novel approach for making reconfigurable metasurfaces capable of deflecting electromagnetic waves in an electronically controllable fashion. This is accomplished by tilting the phase front of waves through a two-dimensional array of resonant metasurface unit-cells with electronically-controlled phase-change materials embedded inside. Such metasurfaces can be placed at the output facet of any electromagnetic radiation source to deflect electromagnetic waves at a desired frequency, ranging from millimeter-wave to far-infrared frequencies. Our design does not use any mechanical elements, external light sources, or reflectarrays, creating, for the first time, a highly robust and fully-integrated beam-steering device solution. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept beam-steering metasurface optimized for operation at 100 GHz, offering up to 44° beam deflection in both horizontal and vertical directions. Dynamic control of electromagnetic wave propagation direction through this unique platform could be transformative for various imaging, sensing, and communication applications, among others. PMID:27739471

  13. Aeronautical satellite antenna steering using magnetic field sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydor, John; Dufour, Martial

    1993-01-01

    Designers of aeronautical satellite terminals are often faced with the problem of steering a directive antenna from an airplane or helicopter. This problem is usually solved by using aircraft orientation information derived from inertial sensors on-board the aircraft in combination with satellite ephemeris information calculated from geographic coordinates. This procedure works well but relies heavily on avionics that are external to the terminal. For the majority of small aircraft and helicopters which will form the bulk of future aeronautical satcom users, such avionics either do not exist or are difficult for the satellite terminal to interface with. At the Communications Research Center (CRC), work has been undertaken to develop techniques that use the geomagnetic field and satellite antenna pointing vectors (both of which are stationary in a local geographical area) to track the position of a satellite relative to a moving platform such as an aircraft. The performance of this technique is examined and a mathematical steering transformation is developed within this paper. Details are given regarding the experimental program that will be undertaken to test the concepts proposed herein.

  14. Motion Synthesis of a Self-Steered Mobile Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseborrough, Michael; Phillips, Keith

    1987-02-01

    Until the late 1950's there was an almost exclusive use of graphical methods in the kinematic analysis and synthesis of mechanisms. With the increasing availability of high-speed digital computers there was a major reawakening of interest in a field con-sidered by many to be mature and dormant. Today the birth of advanced robotic systems has heightened the interest in applications of kinematic analysis and synthesis. This paper discusses the application of kinematics to the path planning model of a three wheeled, self-steering, mobile robot. The problem is formulated through a kinematic analysis of the path curvature and the synthesis of a set of equivalent linkages. The equivalent linkages facilitate a direct relationship between the path and the robot steering control mechanism. This is accomplished through the kinematic param-eters displacement, velocity and acceleration. The mathematical model is presented in a generalized format with the robot represented as a rigid body. Examples are shown which solve the problem of moving the robot through a crowded environment and arriving at its destination in a predetermined orientation.

  15. Defining Value in Cancer Care: AVBCC 2013 Steering Committee Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigenhaft, Burt; Bosserman, Linda; Kenney, James T; Lawless, Grant D; Marsland, Thomas A; Deligdish, Craig K; Burgoyne, Douglas S; Knopf, Kevin B; Long, Douglas M; McKercher, Patrick; Owens, Gary M; Hennessy, John E; Lang, James R; Malin, Jennifer; Natelson, Leonard; Palmgren, Matthew C; Slotnik, Jayson; Shockney, Lillie D; Vogenberg, F Randy

    2013-07-01

    The AVBCC Annual Meeting experiences exponential growth in attendance and participation as oncologists, payers, employers, managed care executives, patient advocates, and drug manufacturers convened in Hollywood, FL, on May 2-5, 2013, for the Third Annual Conference of the Association for Value-Based Cancer Care (AVBCC). The conference presented an all-inclusive open forum for stakeholder dialogue and integration across the cancer care continuum, facilitating an open dialogue among the various healthcare stakeholders to align their perspectives around the urgent need to address value in cancer care, costs, patient education, safety, outcomes, and quality. The AVBCC 2013 Steering Committee was held on the first day of the conference to define value in cancer care. The committee was divided into 7 groups, each representing a key stakeholder in oncology. The goal of the Steering Committee was to define value from the particular point of view of each of the stakeholder groups and to suggest how that particular perspective can contribute to the value proposition in oncology, by balancing cost, quality, and access to care to improve overall patient outcomes. The following summary highlights the major points addressed by each group.

  16. Biogas production from steer manures in Vietnam: Effects of feed supplements and tannin contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cuong H; Saggar, Surinder; Vu, Cuong C; Tate, Kevin R; Tran, Thao T T; Luu, Thi T; Ha, Hanh T; Nguyen, Huong L T; Sommer, Sven G

    2017-08-05

    In developing countries, the simple biogas digesters installed underground without heating or stirring are seen as a 'green' technology to convert animal waste into biogas, a source of bio-energy. However, quantitative estimates of biogas production of manures from steers fed local feed diets at actual incubation temperatures have yet to be carried out. The aim of this study was to determine the methane (CH4) production potential of manures from steers in Vietnam offered traditional feed rations or supplemental diets. Biochemical CH4 production (BMP) was measured in batch tests at 30°C using manures collected from two different experiments of steers fed diets containing feed supplements. BMP was 110.1 (NLkg(-1)VS) for manure from steers receiving a control diet, significantly lower 79.0 (NL kg(-1)VS) for manure from steers fed a diet containing 0.3% tannin (%DM), but then showed an increasing trend to 90.9 and 91.2 (NL kg(-1)VS) for manures from steers receiving 0.4 and 0.5% tannin (%DM) supplements, respectively. Similarly, the CH4 production (NL kg(-1)VS) of manure from steers was 174 for control, 142 for control supplemented concentrate (C), 143 for control added rice straw treated with urea (R), and 127 for control supplemented C and R. Our results show there was a decrease in CH4 emissions from steer manures through using supplemented rations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic effects on carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits in straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this work were to estimate heterosis and breed genetic effects for carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits of steers (Bos spp.) produced from matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle. Steers (n = 464) were weaned at 7 mo of age and transported to the Southern G...

  18. Application of washed rumen technique for rapid determination of fasting heat production in steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a washed rumen technique as an alternative approach for determining fasting HP in cattle. In Exp. 1, 8 Holstein steers (322±30 kg) were adapted to a cubed alfalfa-based diet (1.5xNEm) for 10 d. After which steers were placed into individual hea...

  19. Two dimensional thermo-optic beam steering using a silicon photonic optical phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Rita; Preussner, Marcel W.; Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Kozak, Dmitry A.; Ferraro, Mike S.; Murphy, James L.

    2016-03-01

    Components for free space optical communication terminals such as lasers, amplifiers, and receivers have all seen substantial reduction in both size and power consumption over the past several decades. However, pointing systems, such as fast steering mirrors and gimbals, have remained large, slow and power-hungry. Optical phased arrays provide a possible solution for non-mechanical beam steering devices that can be compact and lower in power. Silicon photonics is a promising technology for phased arrays because it has the potential to scale to many elements and may be compatible with CMOS technology thereby enabling batch fabrication. For most free space optical communication applications, two-dimensional beam steering is needed. To date, silicon photonic phased arrays have achieved two-dimensional steering by combining thermo-optic steering, in-plane, with wavelength tuning by means of an output grating to give angular tuning, out-of-plane. While this architecture might work for certain static communication links, it would be difficult to implement for moving platforms. Other approaches have required N2 controls for an NxN element phased array, which leads to complexity. Hence, in this work we demonstrate steering using the thermo-optic effect for both dimensions with a simplified steering mechanism requiring only two control signals, one for each steering dimension.

  20. Design and Development of Labview Based Steering Wheel Angle Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony George

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional angle sensors can measure only 360°,but passenger car steering wheel turns through +/-720o (a total of 4 complete turns. In this paper we describe iGMR based steering wheel angle sensor implementation which can be used as a rotation sensor to measure +/- 720°.

  1. Does pedalling on a recumbent bicycle influence the cyclist’s steering behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, K.M.; Klap, P.; Van Lanen, J.A.; Letsoin, G.J.; Jansen, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the answer to the question how pedalling on a specific recumbent bicycle, such as the VeloX3, influences a cyclist’s ability to steer the bicycle. The research aims to find the correlation between pedalling and the undesired steering movements it creates. To test this assumption a

  2. Alteration in gene expression in the jejunum mucosa of Angus steers with divergent ADG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of differentially expressed genes in the jejunum of steers with average DMI and high or low ADG. Feed intake and growth were measured in a cohort of 144 commercial Angus steers consuming a finishing ration containing (on a DM basis) 67.8% ...

  3. Reducing Digging Losses by Using Automated Steering to Plant and Invert Peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Vellidis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available GPS guidance of farm machinery has been increasingly adopted by farmers because of the perceived gains in efficiency that it provides. In the southeastern USA one of the reasons farmers adopt GPS guidance, and specifically automated steering (auto-steer, is that it can theoretically result in large yield gains when used to plant and invert peanuts—one of the region’s most important crops. The goal of our study was to quantify the yield benefit of using real time kinematic (RTK-based auto-steer to plant and invert peanuts under a variety of terrain conditions. Yield benefits result from reduced digging losses. The study was conducted for two consecutive years (2010 and 2011 on a private farm in Georgia, USA. When all data are grouped together, auto-steer outperformed conventional by 579 kg/ha in 2010 and 451 kg/ha in 2011. We also evaluated the performance of auto-steer under different curvature conditions using low, medium, and high curvature rows. The results showed that auto-steer outperformed conventional under all curvature by a minimum of 338 kg/ha. Finally, we evaluated passive implement guidance in combination with auto-steer and found that it holds tremendous potential for further reducing digging losses. In many cases, auto-steer will pay for itself within a year.

  4. Integrating deflection models and image feedback for real-time flexible needle steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abayazid, Momen; Roesthuis, Roy; Reilink, Rob; Misra, Sarthak

    2013-01-01

    Needle insertion procedures are commonly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In this paper, an image- guided control system is developed to robotically steer flexible nee- dles with an asymmetric tip. Knowledge about needle deflection is required for accurate steering. Two different models

  5. Integrating deflection models and image feedback for real-time flexible needle steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abayazid, Momen; Roesthuis, Roy J.; Reilink, Rob; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    Needle insertion procedures are commonly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In this paper, an image- guided control system is developed to robotically steer flexible nee- dles with an asymmetric tip. Knowledge about needle deflection is required for accurate steering. Two different models

  6. Dynamic Modeling of Hydraulic Power Steering System with Variable Ratio Rack and Pinion Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nong; Wang, Miao

    A comprehensive mathematical model of a typical hydraulic power steering system equipped with variable ratio rack and pinion gear is developed. The steering system’s dynamic characteristics are investigated and its forced vibrations are compared with those obtained from a counterpart system with a constant ratio rack and pinion gear. The modeling details of the mechanism subsystem, hydraulic supply lines subsystem and the rotary spool valve subsystem are provided and included in the integrated steering system model. The numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the dynamics of the nonlinear parametric steering system. From the comparison between simulated results and the experimental ones, it is shown that the model accurately integrates the boost characteristics of the rotary spool valve which is the key component of hydraulic power steering system. The variable ratio rack-pinion gear behaviors significantly differently from its constant ratio counterpart does. It significantly affects not only the system natural frequencies but also reduces vibrations under constant rate and ramp torque steering inputs. The developed steering model produces valid predictions of the system’s behavior and therfore could assist engineers in the design and analysis of integrated steering systems.

  7. Modulation of the acute phase response in feedlot steers supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of supplementing feedlot steers with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1079 (SC) on the acute phase response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Steers (n = 18; 266 ± 4 kilograms body weight) were separated into three treatment groups (n = 6/treatm...

  8. Relationship of leptin concentrations with feed intake, growth, and efficiency in finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of serum leptin concentrations with production measures including DMI, ADG, G:F as well as carcass characteristics in genetically diverse finishing beef steers. Three cohorts of steers (n = 473 total) were individually fed a finishin...

  9. Differential acute phase immune responses by Angus and Romosinuano steers following an endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our primary objective was to evaluate potential genetic differences between two diverse Bos taurus breeds (Angus (AG) and Romosinuano (RO)) in response to an endotoxin. The RO is a tropically adaptive Bos taurus breed developed in the Sinú valley of northern Colombia. Eighteen steers (n = 9 steers/b...

  10. Exogenous administration of lipids to steers alters aspects of the innate immune response to endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limitations in energy availability are known to impede the efficiency of the immune response to endotoxemia. Therefore, this study examined the effects of increasing energy availability on the pro-inflammatory response to LPS in Holstein steers. Steers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups (n = 7 ...

  11. Effects of clay on fat necrosis and carcass characteristics in Japanese Black steers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oka, Akio; Iwamoto, Eiji; Tatsuda, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Twenty 10‐month‐old J apanese B lack steers were used to evaluate the effects of clay on fat necrosis and carcass characteristics. Ten steers ( C lay group) were fed the clay (50 g/day) during 10–30 months of age...

  12. Effects of steering demand on lane keeping behaviour, self-reports, and physiology : A simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Chris; Brookhuis, Karel A.; De Waard, Dick

    2011-01-01

    In this study a driving simulator was used to determine changes in mental effort in response to manipulations of steering demand. Changes in mental effort were assessed by using subjective effort ratings, physiology, and the standard deviation of the lateral position. Steering demand was increased b

  13. 46 CFR 130.130 - Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must be installed in the pilothouse to indicate operation of the power units. (e) The auxiliary means... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. 130.130... VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Vessel Control § 130.130 Steering on OSVs of...

  14. Beam steering for circular switched parasitic arrays using a combinational approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mofolo, ROM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present a method of electronic beam steering for circular switched parasitic array (SPA) antennas. In circular SPA antennas, one achieves azimuth beam steering by open-circuiting and short-circuiting different parasitic...

  15. Optimized detection of steering via linear criteria for arbitrary-dimensional states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Lin; Zhen, Yi-Zheng; Cao, Wen-Fei; Li, Li; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Liu, Nai-Le; Chen, Kai

    2017-03-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering, as a new form of nonlocality, stands between entanglement and Bell nonlocality, implying promising applications for quantum information tasks. The problem of detecting EPR steering plays an important role in characterization of quantum nonlocality. Despite some significant progress, one still faces a practical issue: how to detect EPR steering in an experimentally friendly fashion. Resorting to an EPR steering inequality, one is required to apply a strategy as efficiently as possible for any selected measurement settings on the two subsystems, one of which may not be trusted. Inspired by the recent powerful linear criteria proposed by Saunders et al. [D. J. Saunders, S. J. Jones, H. M. Wiseman, and G. J. Pryde, Nat. Phys. 6, 845 (2010)., 10.1038/nphys1766], we present an optimized method of certifying steering for an arbitrary-dimensional state in a cost-effective manner. We provide a practical way to signify steering via only a few settings to optimally violate the steering inequality. Our method leads to steering detections in a highly efficient way, and can be performed with any number of settings, for an arbitrary bipartite mixed state, which can reduce experimental overheads significantly.

  16. Carcass characteristics and composition of Brahman, angus and Brahman x Angus steers fed for different times-on-feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, D K; Smith, G C; Murphey, C E; Savell, J W; Carpenter, Z L; Petersen, H D

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five steers of each of three breedtypes (Angus, Brahman and F(1) Brahman x Angus) were sorted by frame size and muscle thickness, assigned to groups (five steers of each breedtype) to be fed for 0, 56, 112, 168 or 224 days, slaughtered and compared for various carcass traits. Steers of each breedtype had similar dressing percentages. Carcasses from all three breedtypes merited similar USDA quality and yield grades; breedtypes differences in quality grade were slight. Differences were found in the fat deposition patterns exhibited by the three breedtypes. Brahman steers tended to deposit more of their total fat as subcutaneous fat early in the feeding period. Angus steers had more (P carcass weight at all five feeding periods and more (P Brahman steers. Brahman steers had a higher percentage of their separable lean in the muscles of the round than did steers of the other breedtypes.

  17. Remote Maintenance Monitoring System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Remote Maintenance and Monitoring System (RMMS) is a collection of subsystems that includes telecommunication components, hardware, and software, which serve to...

  18. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  19. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  20. Comparative stress responses to short transport and related events in Hereford and Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R; Leite-Browning, M L

    2013-02-01

    Three summer experiments compared responses to transportation-related events in 2- to 4-yr-old Brahman (Bos indicus) and Hereford (B. taurus) steers. In Exp. 1, steers were hauled round-trip (4 h) or fasted in holding pens. Transport transiently increased (P Brahman across treatments. Steers in Exp. 2 were hauled to a new farm for a 1-wk relocation period or hauled round-trip an equal time (0.67 h) and returned to the home station. Both treatments similarly experienced transport-day BW shrink and increased (P Brahman. Relocation did not elicit (P Brahman steers were not more sensitive than Herefords. Hereford steers were susceptible to greater transport BW shrink than Brahman under the summer conditions.

  1. The Design of a Controller for the Steer-by-Wire System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se-Wook; Chae, Ho-Chol; Yun, Seok-Chan; Han, Chang-Soo

    Drive-by-Wire (DBW) technologies improve conventional vehicle performance and a Steer-by-Wire (SBW) system is one of the DBW technologies. The control algorithm of the SBW system was designed in this paper. To verify the control algorithm, the SBW system is modeled using the bond graph method. The first aim of the control algorithm is controlling the steering wheel assist motor to make the real vehicle's steering feel and for a vehicle designer to adjust the steering feel as he finds necessary. Therefore, torque map is designed to determine the steering wheel reactive torque. The second aim is controlling the front wheel assist motor to improve vehicle's maneuverability and stability by using understeer and oversteer propensity of a vehicle. Furthermore, high performance control algorithm is proposed in this paper and Active Roll Stability Control (ARSC) method is designed as one of the high performance control algorithm.

  2. Robust PID Steering Control in Parameter Space for Highly Automated Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mümin Tolga Emirler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is on the design of a parameter space based robust PID steering controller. This controller is used for automated steering in automated path following of a midsized sedan. Linear and nonlinear models of this midsized sedan are presented in the paper. Experimental results are used to validate the longitudinal and lateral dynamic models of this vehicle. This paper is on automated steering control and concentrates on the lateral direction of motion. The linear model is used to design a PID steering controller in parameter space that satisfies D-stability. The PID steering controller that is designed is used in a simulation study to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Simulation results for a circular trajectory and for a curved trajectory are presented and discussed in detail. This study is part of a larger research effort aimed at implementing highly automated driving in a midsized sedan.

  3. Analysis of Steering Knuckle of All Terrain Vehicles (ATV) Using Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusane, S. V.; Dipke, M. K.; Kumbhalkar, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    Steering knuckle is the most stress sustaining and critical component of All Terrain Vehicle (ATV). Steering knuckle is the pivot point of the steering and suspension system, which allows the front wheels to turn and also allow the movement of suspension arms motion. The light weight and high strength component is always in demanding for racecar application. Lightweight and optimized design of steering knuckle is proposed to use for a BAJA SAE INDIA off road racecar. Due to the failure in knuckle in terrain vehicle after some instances, it has to be modified for better performance. The 3D CAD model created by using CATIA V5 and static as well as model analysis carried out in ANSYS 12 to understand its behavior under operating conditions. All test for frame was carried out on aluminum alloys 6061-T6 & for spindle EN8. The paper discusses the FE analysis of existing and modified Steering Knuckle.

  4. High speed, high power one-dimensional beam steering from a 6-element optical phased array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W Ronny; Montoya, Juan; Kansky, Jan E; Redmond, Shawn M; Turner, George W; Sanchez-Rubio, Antonio

    2012-07-30

    Beam steering at high speed and high power is demonstrated from a 6-element optical phased array using coherent beam combining (CBC) techniques. The steering speed, defined as the inverse of the time to required to sweep the beam across the steering range, is 40 MHz and the total power is 396 mW. The measured central lobe FWHM width is 565 μrad. High on-axis intensity is maintained periodically by phase-locking the array via a stochastic-parallel-gradient-descent (SPGD) algorithm. A master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration is used where the amplifier array elements are semiconductor slab-coupled-optical-waveguide-amplifiers (SCOWAs). The beam steering is achieved by LiNbO(3) phase modulators; the phase-locking occurs by current adjustment of the SCOWAs. The system can be readily scaled to GHz steering speed and multiwatt-class output.

  5. One-way steering of optical fields via dissipation of an atomic reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shi; Hu, Xiangming; Li, Lingchao; Xu, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering as a form of quantum correlation lies between entanglement and Bell nonlocality and exhibits an inherent asymmetry between two observers. We study EPR steering of two fields, which are generated via four-wave mixing processes and are entangled with each other due to the dissipation of the atomic reservoir. It is shown that the one-way steering happens from one mode to the other for different cavity decay rates and not too small cooperation parameters. Depending on the adiabatic and nonadiabatic conditions, the one-way steering occurs in a different detuning region when the cooperation parameters are relatively small. An increase in the cooperation parameters leads to an increase both in the parameter region and in the degree for the one-way steering. Finally we generalize the present scheme to the cases of the bright and/or collective fields.

  6. Effect of abomasal infusion of aspartate on nitrogen balance and plasma amino acids in Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, R H; Titgemeyer, E C

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effect of abomasally infused aspartate (Asp) on N balance and plasma amino acids in steers. Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (180 kg) housed in metabolism crates were used in an experiment designed as a 4 x 3 Youden square. Steers received continuous abomasal infusions of water or water containing 40 or 80 g Asp/d. Steers were fed twice daily a diet containing 473 g/kg corn, 463 g/kg alfalfa hay and 52 g/kg soybean meal at levels near ad libitum intake. Abomasally infused Asp had no effect on N balance. Infusion of 80 g Asp/d increased (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of Asp, glutamate and alanine. Metabolism of Asp by gut tissues probably prevented the large change in plasma concentration of Asp that seems necessary to trigger hormonal responses. We conclude that abomasal supplementation of steers with up to 80 g/d of Asp does not enhance performance.

  7. Performance Analyses of the Radio Orbital Angular Momentum Steering Technique Based on Ka-Band Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingtuan Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The misalignment in the orbital angular momentum- (OAM- based system would distort the radiation patterns of twisted beams carrying OAM, consequently making the OAM-based communication infeasible. To tackle the misalignment problem, a radio OAM steering technique based on a uniform circular array (UCA is illustrated. Subsequently, simulations are conducted to explore the influence of the OAM steering on the OAM mode quality and transmission performance. Furthermore, UCAs working at Ka-band with formulated feeding networks are designed and fabricated to analyze the performance of the OAM steering. The influences of OAM steering on mode quality and orthogonality are then evaluated in the experiment. Overall, the analyses of OAM steering technique are beneficial for the development of radio OAM study.

  8. Determination of six parabens residues in fresh-cut vegetables using QuEChERS with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, an optimized QuEChERS sample preparation method was developed to analyze residues of six parabens: methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, isopropyl-, n-butyl-, and isobutyl-paraben in five fresh-cut vegetables (potato, broccoli, carrot, celery and cabbage) with high performance liquid chromatogr...

  9. Postgraze assessment of toxicosis symptoms for steers grazed on toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G E; Klotz, J L; Johnson, J M; Strickland, J R; Schrick, F N

    2013-12-01

    A 2-yr pen experiment was conducted using 12 different crossbred Angus steers each year to determine if short-term changes in prolactin concentrations, body temperature, and vasoconstriction reflect recovery from fescue toxicosis after steers that previously grazed toxic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected Kentucky 31 tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] are placed on nontoxic feed. Groups of 6 steers from toxic endophyte-infected and endophyte-free tall fescue grazing treatments were blocked by BW for assignment to pens as a randomized complete block design with 2 replications. Two environments were implemented by initiating the experiment on 18 August in yr 1 and on 8 September in yr 2 for durations of 30 and 21 d, respectively. Rectal temperatures were recorded, jugular blood was collected for assaying serum prolactin, and cross sections of the caudal artery were ultrasonically imaged at selected time points to evaluate temporal changes in the response variables. Rectal temperatures in steers on the toxic endophyte pasture treatment declined (P 0.10) to those on endophyte-free treatment on d 30 in yr 1 and by d 15 in yr 2. Prolactin concentrations in steers on the toxic endophyte pasture treatment showed curvilinear increases (P 0.10) to steers on the endophyte-free treatment by d 15 in yr 1 and by d 10 in yr 2. Luminal areas of the caudal artery in toxic endophyte steers were less (P endophyte-free steers across all dates in both years. Results indicated that rectal temperatures in steers after they are removed from toxic fescue may decrease over time, but temporal changes in rectal temperatures could be affected more by prevailing ambient temperatures than by actual mitigation of fescue toxicosis. Prolactin concentrations in steers after they are removed from toxic endophyte tall fescue can increase and stabilize in less than 2 wk, but alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction that causes a vulnerability to severe heat stress is not

  10. Effect of temporal organization of the visuo-locomotor coupling on the predictive steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Philippe Rybarczyk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the direction of a driver’s gaze while taking a bend show that the individual looks towards the tangent-point of the inside curve. Mathematically, the direction of this point in relation to the car enables the driver to predict the curvature of the road. In the same way, when a person walking in the street makes a turn at the corner, his/her gaze anticipates the rotation of the body. A current explanation for the visuo-motor anticipation over the locomotion would be that the brain, involved in a steering behaviour, executes an internal model of the trajectory that anticipates the path completion, and not the contrary. This paper proposes to test this hypothesis by studying the effect of an artificial manipulation of the visuo-locomotor coupling on the trajectory prediction. In this experiment, subjects remotely control a mobile robot with a pan-tilt camera. This experimental paradigm is chosen to easily and precisely manipulate the temporal organization of the visuo-locomotor coupling. Results show that only the visuo-locomotor coupling organized from the visual sensor to the locomotor organs enables i a significant smoothness of the trajectory and ii a velocity-curvature relationship that follows the 2/3 Power Law. These findings are consistent with the theory of an anticipatory construction of an internal model of the trajectory. This mental representation used by the brain as a forward prediction of the path formation seems conditioned by the motor program. The overall results are discussed in terms of the sensorimotor scheme bases of the predictive coding.

  11. A calibration concept for passive MW imaging using beam steering by frequency shift and aperture synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Eric; Peichl, Markus; Jirousek, Matthias

    2013-10-01

    Passive microwave (MW) remote sensing is used in Earth observation missions for example to estimate the salinity of oceans or the soil moisture of landscapes. In these cases the absolute brightness temperature numbers are important for sufficient accuracy of the estimated geo-physical parameters. Consequently a suitable system calibration network is required. At DLR a radiometric demonstrator for fully-electronic MW imaging was set up at Ka-band, which is based on a combination of beam steering by frequency shift using a broadband slotted-waveguide antenna for one scanning direction, and the application of aperture synthesis for the other direction. Aperture synthesis is well known from radio astronomy, but it is still a new imaging principle for Earth observation or security applications. Hence as well new calibration techniques have to be developed for this kind of scanning mechanism. In this paper a novel approach for a noise-source based calibration method taking into account the antenna losses will be introduced. When using aperture synthesis techniques to determine the absolute brightness temperature values, it is very important, among other things, to know the exact phase transfer function of the system in order to achieve the desired radiometric resolution. Consequently our approach enables phase calibration as well. The paper outlines a proof of concept for this calibration method using a two-element interferometer called VESAS (Voll Elektronischer Scanner mit AperturSynthese) as a demonstrator. The functionality of the demonstrator and the proof of concept of the imaging principle mentioned before are written in detail in [1].

  12. Hyperspectral remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Eismann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications that builds on the principles of material spectroscopy, radiative transfer, imaging spectrometry, and hyperspectral data processing. This book provides a holistic treatment that captures its multidisciplinary nature, emphasizing the physical principles of hyperspectral remote sensing.

  13. Remote actuated valve implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E.; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Kenneth J.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S.; Wilgen, John B.; Evans, Boyd Mccutchen

    2016-05-10

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  14. Growth hormone secretion and clearance rates in growing beef steers implanted with estrogenic anabolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, R; Kitts, W D

    1984-01-01

    The effect of estrogenic anabolic compounds on the kinetic parameters of metabolism of growth hormone (GH) was studied in growing beef steers. Twenty-four beef steers were randomly placed into four groups and assigned to one of the following four treatment groups: zeranol, diethylstilbestrol (DES), Synovex-S and an unimplanted control. GH metabolism was studied from eight steers on day 20 following the implantation of anabolic compounds. The animals were rapidly injected with a solution of bGH (NIH-GH-B18) and the disappearance of injected GH from the plasma was monitored up to 120 min following the injection. The plasma GH disappearance curve displayed an initial rapid phase lasting 5 min and a slow disappearance phase lasting 42 min; the fractional turnover rate from the two compartments were 0.167 and 0.017 min-1, respectively. The average volume of distribution of GH in steers was 6% of the body weight. Mean values of metabolic clearance and secretion rates of GH in steers were 21 liters/h and 252 micrograms/h or 74.5 ml/kg/h and 0.91 microgram/kg/h, respectively. Steers implanted with anabolic compounds gained more rapidly (P less than 0.05) than the controls. Plasma basal GH concentration appeared to be higher in all the implanted than in the control steers. The secretion rate of GH was increased (P less than 0.05) in steers implanted with anabolic compounds when compared to control steers. The secretion rate (microgram/kg/h) was about 96% (P less than 0.05), 107% (P less than 0.05) and 81% (P less than 0.05) higher in steers implanted with DES, zeranol and Synovex-S, respectively, than in the control steers. All the compounds studied were equally effective in increasing the secretion of GH on day 20 following their implantation. Metabolic clearance rate of GH was not affected by anabolic compound implantation in steers. There was, however, a slight reduction in metabolic clearance rate due to DES and a slight elevation due to zeranol and Synovex-S when

  15. Development of a full scale remote steerable ECRH mm-wave launching system test set-up for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzendoorn, B.S.Q. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands)], E-mail: ben@rijnh.nl; Bongers, W.A.; Graswinckel, M.F. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Jamar, J. [TNO Science and Industry, Business Unit Design and Manufacturing, Eindhoven, P.O. Box 6235, 5600 HE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kruijt, O.G.; Lamers, B.; Ronden, D.M.S. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Verhoeven, A.G.A

    2007-10-15

    FOM is developing a full-scale mock-up of the mm-wave upper-port launching system for electron cyclotron resonance heating in ITER. The test set-up foresees in most of the typical ITER operation conditions, e.g. primary vacuum and the secondary vacuum, blanket cooling and component cooling conditions. All relevant operational ITER conditions except neutron radiation can be simulated, including baking conditions. The fabrication of the launching system mock-up will be the last step in the development phase, which will be characterized by the fabrication of test samples and mm-wave tests and calculations. The parameterized modeling of mm-wave beam propagation in CATIA [D.M.S. Ronden, et al., Parameterized modeling of mm-wave beam propagation of the ITER ECRH remote steering upper port launcher in CATIA, this conference] (8th figure in this article) the test and calculation results will be used for the built to print design of the remote steering ECRH launcher for the ITER upper ports [A.G.A. Verhoeven, et al., Design of the Remote Steering ITER ECRH Upper Port Launcher, this conference].

  16. Acoustic Prism for Continuous Beam Steering Based on Piezoelectric Metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiawen

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates an acoustic prism for continuous acoustic beam steering by a simple frequency sweep. This idea takes advantages of acoustic wave velocity shifting in metamaterials in the vicinity of local resonance. We apply this concept into the piezoelectric metamaterial consisting of host medium and piezoelectric LC shunt. Theoretical modeling and FEM simulations are carried out. It is shown that the phase velocity of acoustic wave changes dramatically in the vicinity of local resonance. The directions of acoustic wave can be adjusted continuously between 2 to 16 degrees by a simple sweep of the excitation frequency. Such an electro-mechanical coupling system has a feature of adjusting local resonance without altering the mechanical part of the system.

  17. Lightweight computational steering of very large scale molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beazley, D.M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Lomdahl, P.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    We present a computational steering approach for controlling, analyzing, and visualizing very large scale molecular dynamics simulations involving tens to hundreds of millions of atoms. Our approach relies on extensible scripting languages and an easy to use tool for building extensions and modules. The system is extremely easy to modify, works with existing C code, is memory efficient, and can be used from inexpensive workstations and networks. We demonstrate how we have used this system to manipulate data from production MD simulations involving as many as 104 million atoms running on the CM-5 and Cray T3D. We also show how this approach can be used to build systems that integrate common scripting languages (including Tcl/Tk, Perl, and Python), simulation code, user extensions, and commercial data analysis packages.

  18. Laser beam steering approaches for microstructuring of copper layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mur, Jaka; Podobnik, Boštjan; Poberaj, Igor

    2017-02-01

    We have investigated the process of copper layer ablation with a tightly focused Q-switched 532 nm laser. Focusing 40 ns long laser pulses to a micrometer-sized spot results in high energy density and gives rise to ablation phenomena not seen during laser processing with larger beam diameters. Use of acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) enabled us to test different laser beam steering approaches in terms of choosing the position for each laser pulse independently of the previous pulses. Random addressing of desired positions across a microstructure proved to be the most efficient method compared to various scanning approaches. Assigning a random order to the spatial sequence of laser pulses resulted in the fastest microstructuring process and featured lowest residual heating of the substrate.

  19. Steering artificial nanoscale swimmers using teardrop shaped posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies Wykes, Megan; Zhong, Xiao; Adachi, Takiji; Liu, Yanpeng; Tong, Jiajun; Ristroph, Leif; Ward, Michael; Zhang, Jun; Shelley, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Microorganisms use various strategies to bias their swimming to achieve long-time directed motion against a flow, against gravity, or up a chemical gradient. To make use of artificial swimmers for transporting cargo, to separate swimming particles from diffusing ones, or to concentrate a solution of motile particles, ways of steering such swimmers are required. We make use of the attraction of artificial bi-metallic swimmers to vertical walls to direct their long-time motion. We will describe how these swimmers are attracted to the surface of teardrop-shaped posts and leave preferentially at regions of higher curvature. We use this understanding to interpret their behavior when interacting with arrays of teardrop-shaped posts. This work was supported partially by the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) program of the National Science Foundation under Award Number DMR-1420073.

  20. Sugar transport across lactose permease probed by steered molecular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Yin, Ying; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli lactose permease (LacY) transports sugar across the inner membrane of the bacterium using the proton motive force to accumulate sugar in the cytosol. We have probed lactose conduction across LacY using steered molecular dynamics, permitting us to follow molecular and energetic......, forcing it to interact with channel lining residues. Lactose forms a multitude of direct sugar-channel hydrogen bonds, predominantly with residues of the flexible N-domain, which is known to contribute a major part of LacY's affinity for lactose. In the periplasmic half-channel lactose predominantly...... interacts with hydrophobic channel lining residues, whereas in the cytoplasmic half-channel key protein-substrate interactions are mediated by ionic residues. A major energy barrier against transport is found within a tight segment of the periplasmic half-channel where sugar hydration is minimal and protein-sugar...

  1. DYNAMICS BASED CONTROL OF A SKID STEERING MOBILE ROBOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Elshazly

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, development of a reduced order, augmented dynamics-drive model that combines both the dynamics and drive subsystems of the skid steering mobile robot (SSMR is presented. A Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR control algorithm with feed-forward compensation of the disturbances part included in the reduced order augmented dynamics-drive model is designed. The proposed controller has many advantages such as its simplicity in terms of design and implementation in comparison with complex nonlinear control schemes that are usually designed for this system. Moreover, the good performance is also provided by the controller for the SSMR comparable with a nonlinear controller based on the inverse dynamics which depends on the availability of an accurate model describing the system. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness and enhancement provided by the proposed controller.

  2. Application of Support Vector Machine to Ship Steering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Wei-lin; ZOU Zao-jian; LI Tie-shan

    2009-01-01

    System identification is an effective way for modeling ship manoeuvring motion and ship manoeuvrability prediction. Support vector machine is proposed to identify the manoeuvring indices in four different response models of ship steering motion, including the first order linear, the first order nonlinear, the second order linear and the second order nonlinear models. Predictions of manoeuvres including trained samples by using the identified parameters are compared with the results of free-running model tests. It is discussed that the different four categories are consistent with each other both analytically and numerically. The generalization of the identified model is verified by predicting different untrained manoeuvres. The simulations and comparisons demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  3. A self-steering close-talking microphone array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Ke; YANG Xinfeng; XU Boling

    2005-01-01

    For communication in extremely noisy environments, close-talking microphone arrays are useful. Differential microphone array systems possessing excellent nearfield directivity and strong farfield-noise reduction capability are very suitable for close-talking situations. In order to improve the focusing effect at the desired bearing in the nearfield, we propose a novel self-steering system of closetalking arrays with the first-order differential sub-arrays in this paper. Calculations of directivity patterns and directivity factors show that when a kind of optimized beamforming technique is adopted even small arrays with a focusing configuration will exhibit a satisfactory nearfield directivity which is electronically steerable within a specific range. The superiority of the proposed array system is verified by experiments with real acoustic data.

  4. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of protein-ligand interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Yechun; SHEN; Jianhua; LUO; Xiaomin; SHEN; Xu; CHEN; Ka

    2004-01-01

    Studies of protein-ligand interactions are helpful to elucidating the mechanisms of ligands, providing clues for rational drug design. The currently developed steered molecular dynamics (SMD) is a complementary approach to experimental techniques in investigating the biochemical processes occurring at microsecond or second time scale, thus SMD may provide dynamical and kinetic processes of ligand-receptor binding and unbinding, which cannot be accessed by the experimental methods. In this article, the methodology of SMD is described, and the applications of SMD simulations for obtaining dynamic insights into protein-ligand interactions are illustrated through two of our own examples. One is associated with the simulations of binding and unbinding processes between huperzine A and acetylcholinesterase, and the other is concerned with the unbinding process of α-APA from HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

  5. Beam steering and impedance matching of plasmonic horn nanoantennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Adeel; Kocabaş, Şükrü Ekin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study a plasmonic horn nanoantenna on a metal-backed substrate. The horn nanoantenna structure consists of a two-wire transmission line (TWTL) flared at the end. We analyze the effect of the substrate thickness on the nanoantenna's radiation pattern, and demonstrate beam steering in a broad range of elevation angles. Furthermore, we analyze the effect of the ground plane on the impedance matching between the antenna and the TWTL, and observe that the ground plane increases the back reflection into the waveguide. To reduce the reflection, we develop a transmission line model to design an impedance matching section which leads to 99.75% power transmission to the nanoantenna.

  6. Steering optical comb frequency by rotating polarization state

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y; Zhang, X F; Zhang, L; Han, W; Guo, W; Jiang, H; Zhang, S

    2016-01-01

    Optical frequency combs, with precise control of repetition rate and carrier-envelope-offset frequency, have revolutionized many fields, such as fine optical spectroscopy, optical frequency standards, ultra-fast science research, ultra-stable microwave generation and precise ranging measurement. However, existing high bandwidth frequency control methods have small dynamic range, requiring complex hybrid control techniques. To overcome this limitation, we develop a new approach, where a home-made intra-cavity electro-optic modulator tunes polarization state of laser signal rather than only optical length of the cavity, to steer frequencies of a nonlinear-polarization-rotation mode-locked laser. By taking advantage of birefringence of the whole cavity, this approach results in not only broadband but also relative large-dynamic frequency control. Experimental results show that frequency control dynamic range increase at least one order in comparison with the traditional intra-cavity electro-optic modulator techn...

  7. Steering Law Controlling the Constant Speeds of Control Moment Gyros

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOYASAKO, Y.; TAKAHASHI, M.

    2016-09-01

    To enable the agile control of satellites, using control moment gyros (CMGs) has become increasingly necessary because of their ability to generate large amounts of torque. However, CMGs have a singularity problem whereby the torque by the CMGs degenerates from three dimensions to two dimensions, affecting spacecraft attitude control performance. This study proposes a new steering control law for CMGs by controlling the constant speed of a CMG. The proposed method enables agile attitude changes, according to the required task, by managing the total angular momentum of the CMGs by considering the distance to external singularities. In the proposed method, the total angular momentum is biased in a specific direction and the angular momentum envelope is extended. The design method can increase the net angular momentum of CMGs which can be exchanged with the satellite. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  8. On steering a sailing ship in a wearing maneuver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    Compared to more conventional ships, little attention was given to nonlinear control design for ships sailing by the wind. Following our previous work, this paper addresses the issue of trajectory and reference input generation for a model that imitates the general behavior of sailing vessels. Sp....... Specifically, we consider the generation of paths to perform a wearing maneuver. A feedforward controller scheme is then introduced to steer the modeled vehicle along this maneuver, and simulation results are presented as an illustration.......Compared to more conventional ships, little attention was given to nonlinear control design for ships sailing by the wind. Following our previous work, this paper addresses the issue of trajectory and reference input generation for a model that imitates the general behavior of sailing vessels...

  9. A Novel Microwave Beam Steering Technique Using Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardakis, Peter; Borg, Gerard G.; Harris, Jeffrey H.; Martin, Noel M.

    2002-10-01

    At frequencies above the plasma frequency, electromagnetic waves propagate through plasma with a wavelength longer than the free space wavelength. As a result, a plasma with a centrally peaked density profile can deflect rather than focus electromagnetic waves. We present a plasma device designed specifically to deflect a microwave beam as an alternative to conventional beam deflectors based on antenna arrays. A 22^rc deflection of Ka band microwave has been achieved using a laboratory plasma, with no detrimental effect on the beamwidth or side-lode level and structure. The use of a simple WKB model shows agreement and that the deflection can be increased with appropriate design. Results indicate the potential for increases in dynamic range, in power handling (for example from a gyrotron) and for the reduction of insertion losses over current beam steering systems. A ``plasma lens'' demonstrator device has also been designed to test practical performance aspects such as phase noise and to test optimization parameters.

  10. Beam steering and impedance matching of plasmonic horn nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    Afridi, Adeel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study a plasmonic horn nanoantenna on a metal-backed substrate. The horn nanoantenna structure consists of a two-wire transmission line (TWTL) flared at the end. We analyze the effect of the substrate thickness on the nanoantenna's radiation pattern, and demonstrate beam steering in a broad range of elevation angles. Furthermore, we analyze the effect of the ground plane on the impedance matching between the antenna and the TWTL, and observe that the ground plane increases the back reflection into the waveguide. To reduce the reflection, we develop a transmission line model to design an impedance matching section which leads to 99.75% power transmission to the nanoantenna.

  11. 'Parabolic' trapped modes and steered Dirac cones in platonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, R C; Movchan, A B; Movchan, N V; Brun, M; Smith, M J A

    2015-05-08

    This paper discusses the properties of flexural waves governed by the biharmonic operator, and propagating in a thin plate pinned at doubly periodic sets of points. The emphases are on the design of dispersion surfaces having the Dirac cone topology, and on the related topic of trapped modes in plates for a finite set (cluster) of pinned points. The Dirac cone topologies we exhibit have at least two cones touching at a point in the reciprocal lattice, augmented by another band passing through the point. We show that these Dirac cones can be steered along symmetry lines in the Brillouin zone by varying the aspect ratio of rectangular lattices of pins, and that, as the cones are moved, the involved band surfaces tilt. We link Dirac points with a parabolic profile in their neighbourhood, and the characteristic of this parabolic profile decides the direction of propagation of the trapped mode in finite clusters.

  12. Determination of pesticides in coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) water and pulp using modified QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jordana Alves; Ferreira, Joana Maria Santos; Talamini, Viviane; Facco, Janice de Fátima; Rizzetti, Tiele Medianeira; Prestes, Osmar Damian; Adaime, Martha Bohrer; Zanella, Renato; Bottoli, Carla Beatriz Grespan

    2016-12-15

    The use of pesticides is directly linked to improvements in productivity and to the preservation of coconut palms. However pesticide analysis is necessary to determine whether pesticide residues in the food products containing coconut are within the maximum residue limits (MRLs), ensuring the quality of these products. This work aimed to develop a method for multiresidue determination of ten pesticides in coconut water and pulp using QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS. The method was effective in terms of selectivity, linearity, matrix effect, accuracy and precision, providing LOD of 3μgkg(-1), LOQ of 10μgkg(-1) and recoveries between 70 and 120% with RSD lower than 20%. The developed method was applied to 36 samples in which residues of carbendazim, carbofuran, cyproconazole and thiabendazole were found below the LOQ in coconut water and pulp.

  13. Optimization of a QuEChERS based method by means of central composite design for pesticide multiresidue determination in orange juice by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzetti, Tiele M; Kemmerich, Magali; Martins, Manoel L; Prestes, Osmar D; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

    2016-04-01

    In this study, different extraction procedures based on the QuEChERS method were compared for the multiresidue determination of pesticides in orange juice by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). After choosing preliminary conditions, an experimental design was carried out with the variables C18, PSA, NaOH and CH3COONa to optimize the sample preparation step. The validation results of the validation were satisfactory, since the method presented recoveries between 70% and 118%, with RSD lower than 19% for spike levels between 10 and 100 μg L(-1). The method limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 3.0 to 7.6 μg L(-1) and from 4.9 to 26 μg L(-1), respectively. The method developed was adequate for the determination of 74 pesticide residues in orange juice.

  14. Multiresidue method for the determination of pesticides in Oolong tea using QuEChERS by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chang

    2017-08-15

    We propose a simple, rapid analytical method for determination of 89 pesticides in Oolong tea by GC/MS/MS. Samples were extracted via QuEChERS. The limits of detection and quantification range of the 89 pesticides were 1-25μgL(-1) and 10-50μgL(-1), respectively. Good separation was attained in less than 36min. A wide linear range of 1-250μgL(-1) was observed with r(2) values from 0.9955 to 0.9998. Pesticide-free tea powder spiked at 50 and 100μgL(-1). Recovery ranges of the 86 (50μgL(-1)) and 83 (100μgL(-1)) pesticides were from 60% to 120%. Relative standard deviations were less than 20%. The laboratory proficiency test (FAPAS, 2014) shows satisfactory (|z|pesticides in Oolong tea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of an analytical methodology using QuEChERS and GC-SQ/MS for the investigation of the level of pesticide residues in Brazilian melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Sousa, Jonas; de Castro, Rubens Carius; de Albuquerque Andrade, Gilliane; Lima, Cleidiane Gomes; Lima, Lucélia Kátia; Milhome, Maria Aparecida Liberato; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    A multiresidue method based on the sample preparation by modified QuEChERS and detection by gas chromatography coupled to single quadruple mass spectrometers (GC-SQ/MS) was used for the analysis of 35 multiclass pesticides in melons (Cucumis melo inodorus) produced in Ceara-Brazil. The rates of recovery for pesticides studied were satisfactory (except for the etridiazole), ranging from 85% to 117% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 15%, at concentrations between 0.05 and 0.20 mg kg(-1). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for most compounds was below the MRLs established in Brazil. The combined relative uncertainty (Uc) and expanded uncertainty (Ue) was determined using repeatability, recovery and calibration curves data for each pesticide. Analysis of commercial melons samples revealed the presence of pesticides bifenthrin and imazalil at levels below the MRLs established by ANVISA, EU and USEPA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. DSP-based electric power assisted steering using BLDC motor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Murugan; S Nandakumar; M S Mohiyadeen

    2008-10-01

    This paper introduces a design and implementation of electrically assisted power steering (EAS) using BLDC motor for a vehicle. The control architecture consists of two layers of control, namely the vehicle speed associated control and the torque assist control. In the higher level of control architecture, the vehicle speed controller works as an assistance level controller for the steering effort. In the lower level, the torque controller gives the effort level control. This has been realized by torque sensor and vehicle sensor interfaced in the DSP. For implementing in the system, a DSP-based BLDC motor controller with three-phase inverter module is specially designed using Hall-effect sensor feedback and a single dc-link current sensor. This work is implemented in a Light Commercial Vehicle having a recirculating ball type gear. This is for the first time (EAS) being implemented for this type of vehicle any where in the world. Generally, EAS having clutch to disconnect the motor in high speed or abnormal conditions from the gear box. In this implementation the motor is directly coupled to gearbox without clutch and all abnormalities are handled by the processor. This is implemented without modifying the vehicle supply system like changing the existing alternator or rating of the battery and using the existing sensors. The design is such a way that the feel of the driver assistance can be varied easily at any time. The performance of the control system is experimentally verified and it is tested in one of the Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV).

  17. Dynamic steering beams for efficient force measurement in optical manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaocong Yuan; Yuquan Zhang; Rui Cao; Xing Zhao; Jing Bu; Siwei Zhu

    2011-01-01

    @@ An efficient and inexpensive method that uses a glass plate mounted onto a motorized rotating stage as a beam-steering device for the generation of dynamic optical traps is reported.Force analysis reveals that there are drag and trapping forces imposed on the bead in the opposite directions, respectively, in a viscous medium.The trapped bead will be rotated following the beam's motion before it reaches the critical escape velocity when the drag force is equal to the optical trapping force.The equilibrium condition facilitates the experimental measurement of the drag force with potential extensions to the determination of the viscosity of the medium or the refractive index of the bead.The proposed technique can easily be integrated into conventional optical microscopic systems with minimum modifications.%An efficient and inexpensive method that uses a glass plate mounted onto a motorized rotating stage as a beam-steering device for the generation of dynamic optical traps is reported. Force analysis reveals that there are drag and trapping forces imposed on the bead in the opposite directions, respectively, in a viscous medium. The trapped bead will be rotated following the beam's motion before it reaches the critical escape velocity when the drag force is equal to the optical trapping force. The equilibrium condition facilitates the experimental measurement of the drag force with potential extensions to the determination of the viscosity of the medium or the refractive index of the bead. The proposed technique can easily be integrated into conventional optical microscopic systems with minimum modifications.

  18. Test of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering based on the all-versus-nothing proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfeng; Chen, Jing-Ling; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Su, Hong-Yi; Deng, Dong-Ling; Wang, Zhenghan; Oh, C H

    2014-03-06

    In comparison with entanglement and Bell nonlocality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is a newly emerged research topic and in its incipient stage. Although Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering has been explored via violations of steering inequalities both theoretically and experimentally, the known inequalities in the literatures are far from well-developed. As a result, it is not yet possible to observe Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering for some steerable mixed states. Recently, a simple approach was presented to identify Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering based on all-versus-nothing argument, offering a strong condition to witness the steerability of a family of two-qubit (pure or mixed) entangled states. In this work, we show that the all-versus-nothing proof of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering can be tested by measuring the projective probabilities. Through the bound of probabilities imposed by local-hidden-state model, the proposed test shows that steering can be detected by the all-versus-nothing argument experimentally even in the presence of imprecision and errors. Our test can be implemented in many physical systems and we discuss the possible realizations of our scheme with non-Abelian anyons and trapped ions.

  19. All-versus-nothing proof of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Ling; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Wu, Chunfeng; Su, Hong-Yi; Cabello, Adán; Kwek, L C; Oh, C H

    2013-01-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is a form of quantum nonlocality intermediate between entanglement and Bell nonlocality. Although Schrödinger already mooted the idea in 1935, steering still defies a complete understanding. In analogy to "all-versus-nothing" proofs of Bell nonlocality, here we present a proof of steering without inequalities rendering the detection of correlations leading to a violation of steering inequalities unnecessary. We show that, given any two-qubit entangled state, the existence of certain projective measurement by Alice so that Bob's normalized conditional states can be regarded as two different pure states provides a criterion for Alice-to-Bob steerability. A steering inequality equivalent to the all-versus-nothing proof is also obtained. Our result clearly demonstrates that there exist many quantum states which do not violate any previously known steering inequality but are indeed steerable. Our method offers advantages over the existing methods for experimentally testing steerability, and sheds new light on the asymmetric steering problem.

  20. Feedlot performance of Brahman x Angus versus Angus steers during cold weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, S L; Riley, J G

    1991-07-01

    Ten Angus and 10 Brahman x Angus F1 steers were used in a 184-d trial to compare feedlot performance during cold weather (-9 to 26 degrees C). Both groups of steers were exposed to the same environment for the same amount of time. All steers were fed for the same number of days regardless of frame score to avoid frame score x environment interactions. Brahman x Angus steers were 30.7 kg heavier (P less than .05) than Angus steers at the start of the trial. Differences in age (Brahman x Angus 40 d younger) for the two breed groups did not affect final live weight or carcass weight. Brahman x Angus steers consumed .2% less feed (P less than .05) as a percentage of BW than Angus steers; however, there was no difference in overall feed efficiency. Angus steers had a higher yield grade, more fat at the 12th rib (P less than .05), and graded 90% Choice; only 10% of the Brahman x Angus were graded Choice. Brahman x Angus steers were taller at the hip (P less than .05) and longer from first rib to aitch bone (P less than .05) and from thoracic vertebrae (T12/T13) to point of hock (P less than .05). Hide thickness determined at the neck, belly, and rump was found to be similar (7.7 mm) between the two groups. Sample hair weight and diameter did not differ between groups. Fiber, fat, protein, and DM digestibility coefficients were similar between groups but Brahman x Angus feces had a higher DM content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C

    1995-12-01

    Short-yearling steer of known genotypes-straightbred Hereford (100H, n = 80) 75% Hereford x 25% Brahman (75H:25B, n = 80), and 50% Hereford x 50% Brahman (50H:50B, n = 80) were sampled serially at four time-on-feed endpoints (84, 98, 112, 126 d) to compare feedlot performance and carcass and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers. After slaughter, USDA yield grade and quality grade factors were recorded, and a portion of the longissimus muscle was removed from the left side of each carcass and fabricated into four 2.54-cm steaks for palatability analyses. Paired steaks from each carcass were aged (6 and 18 d after death), and sensory panel and shear force evaluations were performed. At a constant live weight, 100H steers had higher ADG and produced less mature carcasses with smaller longissimus muscle areas and higher marbling scores than did 75H:25B and 50H:50B steers. The 50H:50B steers had the highest (P Brahman breeding increased. EXtending the postmortem aging period from 6 to 18 d improved shear force values by 20% and panel tenderness ratings by approximately 14%. Beef from steers of the three breeds responded similarly to aging. When Certified Hereford Beef (CHB) specifications were applied, steaks from 100H steers and 75H:25B steers had similar shear force values, suggesting that beef from quarter-blood Brahman crossbred steers could be included in the CHB Program without detrimental effects on product tenderness.

  2. Throughput-Based Traffic Steering in LTE-Advanced HetNet Deployments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Kovacs, Istvan Z.; Wigard, Jeroen;

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose traffic steering solutions that aim at optimizing the end-user throughput. Two different implementations of an active mode throughput-based traffic steering algorithm for Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet) are introduced. One that always forces handover...... slightly lower traffic steering gains at a considerably lower cost in terms of number of handovers. The gain in terms of increased average session throughput for the second option equals 32% at low-load, 18% at medium-load, and 7% at high-load conditions. The gain in the fifth percentile user session...

  3. The Influence Of The Ship's Steering Machine Over Yaw And Roll Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel NICOLAU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The steering machine is a nonlinear system, with two important limitations: the maximum rudder angle and rudder rate. Therefore, the commands from yaw and rudder-roll control systems are modified and the expected effect is not always the optimum one. It is important to know the influence of the steering machine, trying to avoid the limitations or to include them into the control law. The goal of this paper is to analyze the steering machine limitations and their influence over yaw and roll motions of the ship. Also, some expert rules are generated, which can be used to implement more efficient control laws.

  4. Three-Dimensional Acoustic Source Mapping with Different Beamforming Steering Vector Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennes Sarradj

    2012-01-01

    are governed by the steering vectors, four different steering vector formulations from the literature are examined, and their theoretical background is discussed. It is found that none of the formulations provide both the correct location and source strength. As a practical example the CLEAN-SC deconvolution methodology is applied to simulated data for a three-source scenario. It is shown that the different steering vector formulations are not equally well suited for three-dimensional application. The two preferred formulations enable the correct estimation of the source location at the cost of a negligible error in the estimated source strength.

  5. A new generation of IC based beam steering devices for free-space optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Vijit

    Free Space Optical (FSO) communication has tremendously advanced within the last decade to meet the ever increasing demand for higher communication bandwidth. Advancement in laser technology since its invention in the 1960's [1] attracted them to be the dominant source in FSO communication modules. The future of FSO systems lay in implementing semiconductor lasers due to their small size, power efficiency and mass fabrication abilities. In the near future, these systems are very likely to be used in space and ground based applications and revolutionary beam steering technologies will be required for distant communications in free-space. The highly directional characteristic inherent to a laser beam challenges and calls for new beam pointing and steering technologies for such type of communication. In this dissertation, research is done on a novel FSO communication device based on semiconductor lasers for high bandwidth communication. The "Fly eye transceiver" is an extremely wide steering bandwidth, completely non-mechanical FSO laser communication device primarily designed to replace traditional mechanical beam steering optical systems. This non-mechanical FSO device possesses a full spherical steering range and a very high tracking bandwidth. Inspired by the evolutionary model of a fly's eye, the full spherical steering range is assured by electronically controlled switching of its sub-eyes. Non mechanical technologies used in the past for beam steering such as acousto-optic Bragg cells, liquid crystal arrays or piezoelectric elements offer the wide steering bandwidth and fast response time, but are limited in their angular steering range. Mechanical gimbals offer a much greater steering range but face a much slower response time or steering bandwidth problem and often require intelligent adaptive controls with bulky driver amplifiers to feed their actuators. As a solution to feed both the fast and full spherical steering, the Fly-eye transceiver is studied as

  6. QuEChERS-超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定荨麻提取物中17种氨基甲酸酯类农药残留量%Determination of 17 carbamate pesticide residues in nettle extract using QuEChERS coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何强; 张璐; 张亚莉; 孔祥虹; 刘开; 邹阳; 付骋宇; 李莹

    2016-01-01

    采用QuEChERS-起高液相色谱-串联质谱技术,建立了荨麻提取物中17种常见的氨基甲酸酯类农药残留量的检测方法.样品用含1%甲酸的乙腈提取,QuEChERS法净化,电喷雾正离子(ESI+)模式电离,多反应监测模式检测,基质匹配标准曲线法定量.17种氨基甲酸酯农药在2.5~ 50 μg/L线性关系良好,相关系数均大于0.9920,加标浓度为10,20,50μg/kg,平均回收率在65.3%~119.2%,相对标准偏差(RSD)均低于11%,检出限在0.12 ~ 1.7 μg/kg.方法适用于荨麻等植物提取物中氨基甲酸酯类农药残留量的测定.

  7. Remote Sensing Information Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote Sensing Information Gateway, a tool that allows scientists, researchers and decision makers to access a variety of multi-terabyte, environmental datasets and to subset the data and obtain only needed variables, greatly improving the download time.

  8. Remote Control Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Helen

    1995-01-01

    Explains how students who have difficulty remembering what they have read may be taught how to reread sections of text by suggesting to them that reading is analogous to watching a video with the remote control in hand. (TB)

  9. QuEChERS-液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定果蔬中16种农药残留%Determination of 16 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables by QuEChERS-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴岩; 姜冰; 徐义刚; 赵伟; 孟祥瑞; 周原; 于佳会; 祖元刚

    2015-01-01

    建立了果蔬中吡虫啉、咪鲜胺、苯醚甲环唑、嘧菌酯、噻虫嗪等16种常见农药多残留的液相色谱-串联质谱( LC-MS/MS)分析方法。以乙腈为提取剂,样品经高速匀浆方法提取后,提取液采用液-液萃取静置分层,取上清液进行净化处理。比较了石墨化碳-氨基复合固相萃取与 QuEChERS 两种不同净化技术的净化效果,最终确定采用QuEChERS方法为净化手段。即提取液经装有150 mg N-丙基乙二胺( PSA)填料、900 mg无水硫酸镁的净化管净化,除去样品中大部分的色素及有机酸等干扰基质,再经 LC-MS/MS分析,有效地降低了样品中的复杂基质所带来的背景干扰。加标水平为5、10、20μg/kg时,16种农药的平均回收率为75%~111%,相对标准偏差小于16%。16种农药的检出限为0.2~5μg/kg。采用 LC-MS/MS定性分析、基质匹配标准曲线法定量分析,线性关系和回收率结果均令人满意。实验证明,建立的 QuEChERS净化与 LC-MS/MS 相结合的检测方法具有快速、准确、灵敏度高等优点,能够准确测定果蔬中16种农药残留。%A sensitive and convenient liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric meth-od was developed for the determination of 16 pesticides such as imidacloprid,prochloraz, difenoconazole,azoxystrobin,and thiamethoxam in fruits and vegetables. After compared with methanol and acetone-cyclohexane(1:2,v/v),acetonitrile was chosen as the extraction sol-vent. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile in high-speed homogenization. The extraction solution was cleaned up by liquid-liquid extraction,and the supernatant was collected. In this work,QuEChERS exhibited much higher efficiency than Carbon-NH 2 solid-phase extraction in purification. The pigments and organic acids were removed by purge line(150 mg primary sec-ondary amine( PSA)sorbent and 900 mg absolute magnesium sulfate),leading to the decrease of the

  10. Interventional procedure based on nanorobots propelled and steered by flagellated magnetotactic bacteria for direct targeting of tumors in the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Sylvain; Felfoul, Ouajdi; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Mathieu, Jean-Baptiste

    2008-01-01

    Flagellated bacteria used as bio-actuators may prove to be efficient propulsion mechanisms for future hybrid medical nanorobots when operating in the microvasculature. Here, we briefly describe a medical interventional procedure where flagellated bacteria and more specifically MC-1 Magnetotactic Bacteria (MTB) can be used to propel and steer micro-devices and nanorobots under computer control to reach remote locations in the human body. In particular, we show through experimental results the potential of using MTB-tagged robots to deliver therapeutic agents to tumors even the ones located in deep regions of the human body. We also show that such bacterial nanorobots can be tracked inside the human body for enhanced targeting under computer guidance using MRI as imaging modality. MTB can not only be guided and controlled directly towards a specific target, but we also show experimentally that these flagellated bacterial nanorobots can be propelled and steered in vivo deeply through the interstitial region of a tumor. The targeting efficacy is increased when combined with larger ferromagnetic micro-carriers being propelled by magnetic gradients generated by a MRI platform to carry and release nanorobots propelled by a single flagellated bacterium near the arteriocapillar entry. Based on the experimental data obtained and the experience gathered during several experiments conducted in vivo with this new approach, a general medical interventional procedure is briefly described here in a biomedical engineering context.

  11. EPR-Steering measure for two-mode continuous variable states

    CERN Document Server

    Kogias, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Steering is a manifestation of quantum correlations that embodies the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox. While there have been recent attempts to quantify steering, continuous variable systems remained elusive. We introduce a steering measure for two-mode continuous variable systems that is valid for arbitrary states. The measure is based on the violation of an optimized variance test for the EPR paradox, and admits a computable and experimentally friendly lower bound only depending on the second moments of the state, which reduces to a recently proposed quantifier of steerability by Gaussian measurements. We further show that Gaussian states are extremal with respect to our measure, minimizing it among all continuous variable states with fixed second moments. As a byproduct of our analysis, we generalize and relate well-known EPR-steering criteria. Finally an operational interpretation is provided, as the proposed measure is shown to quantify the optimal guaranteed key rate in semi-device independent qua...

  12. Quantum Steering Inequality with Tolerance for Measurement-Setting Errors: Experimentally Feasible Signature of Unbounded Violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Adam; Buraczewski, Adam; Horodecki, Paweł; Stobińska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Quantum steering is a relatively simple test for proving that the values of quantum-mechanical measurement outcomes come into being only in the act of measurement. By exploiting quantum correlations, Alice can influence—steer—Bob's physical system in a way that is impossible in classical mechanics, as shown by the violation of steering inequalities. Demonstrating this and similar quantum effects for systems of increasing size, approaching even the classical limit, is a long-standing challenging problem. Here, we prove an experimentally feasible unbounded violation of a steering inequality. We derive its universal form where tolerance for measurement-setting errors is explicitly built in by means of the Deutsch-Maassen-Uffink entropic uncertainty relation. Then, generalizing the mutual unbiasedness, we apply the inequality to the multisinglet and multiparticle bipartite Bell state. However, the method is general and opens the possibility of employing multiparticle bipartite steering for randomness certification and development of quantum technologies, e.g., random access codes.

  13. Violation of Continuous-Variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering with Discrete Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeloch, James; Dixon, P. Ben; Howland, Gregory A.; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

    2013-03-01

    In this Letter, we derive an entropic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering inequality for continuous-variable systems using only experimentally measured discrete probability distributions and details of the measurement apparatus. We use this inequality to witness EPR steering between the positions and momenta of photon pairs generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion. We examine the asymmetry between parties in this inequality, and show that this asymmetry can be used to reduce the technical requirements of experimental setups intended to demonstrate the EPR paradox. Furthermore, we develop a more stringent steering inequality that is symmetric between parties, and use it to show that the down-converted photon pairs also exhibit symmetric EPR steering.

  14. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this effort was to characterize the extent and magnitude of chemical contamination in the St. Thomas East End Reserves or STEER, as part of a larger...

  15. Modelling driver behaviour in the case of failures in a steer-by-wire system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogema, J.; Wewerinke, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    In dit artikel wordt een bestuurdersmodel gepresenteerd dat weergeeft hoe een bestuurder reagerrtt op systeemfouten in een steer-by-wire tuursysteem. Calibratie en validatie vond plaats aan de hand van data van een rijsimulator experiment

  16. Fatty acid composition differences between adipose depot sites in dairy and beef steer breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Lei, Z M; Wu, J P; Brown, M A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study was to compare fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi (LD) and kidney fat (KF) in Holstein steers (HS), Simmental steers (SS) and Chinese LongDong Yellow Cattle steers (CLD). All steers received the same nutrition and management but in different locations. Cattle were harvested at approximately 550 kg and fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi and kidney fat was analyzed in samples taken after 3 days of aging. There was evidence (P fatty acids were greater in LD than KF for all breeds (P fatty acids (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and a greater ratio of n6:n3 PUFAs compared to the KF in each breed (P fatty acid percentages generally differed between longissimus dorsi fat and kidney fat. Further, there was some indication that some of these differences between fatty acid deposition sites were not consistent across breed group.

  17. Practicability study on the suitability of artificial, neural networks for the approximation of unknown steering torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ende, K. T. R.; Schaare, D.; Kaste, J.; Küçükay, F.; Henze, R.; Kallmeyer, F. K.

    2016-10-01

    For steer-by-wire systems, the steering feedback must be generated artificially due to the system characteristics. Classical control concepts require operating-point driven optimisations as well as increased calibration efforts in order to adequately simulate the steering torque in all driving states. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are an innovative control concept; they are capable of learning arbitrary non-linear correlations without complex knowledge of physical dependencies. The present study investigates the suitability of neural networks for approximating unknown steering torques. To ensure robust processing of arbitrary data, network training with a sufficient volume of training data is required, that represents the relation between the input and target values in a wide range. The data were recorded in the course of various test drives. In this research, a variety of network topologies were trained, analysed and evaluated. Though the fundamental suitability of ANNs for the present control task was demonstrated.

  18. Temporal steering and security of quantum key distribution with mutually unbiased bases against individual attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco

    2016-06-01

    Temporal steering, which is a temporal analog of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, refers to temporal quantum correlations between the initial and final state of a quantum system. Our analysis of temporal steering inequalities in relation to the average quantum bit error rates reveals the interplay between temporal steering and quantum cloning, which guarantees the security of quantum key distribution based on mutually unbiased bases against individual attacks. The key distributions analyzed here include the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol and the six-state 1998 protocol by Bruss. Moreover, we define a temporal steerable weight, which enables us to identify a kind of monogamy of temporal correlation that is essential to quantum cryptography and useful for analyzing various scenarios of quantum causality.

  19. Fault Risk Assessment of Underwater Vehicle Steering System Based on Virtual Prototyping and Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Deyu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the risks of steering system faults in underwater vehicles is a human-machine-environment (HME systematic safety field that studies faults in the steering system itself, the driver’s human reliability (HR and various environmental conditions. This paper proposed a fault risk assessment method for an underwater vehicle steering system based on virtual prototyping and Monte Carlo simulation. A virtual steering system prototype was established and validated to rectify a lack of historic fault data. Fault injection and simulation were conducted to acquire fault simulation data. A Monte Carlo simulation was adopted that integrated randomness due to the human operator and environment. Randomness and uncertainty of the human, machine and environment were integrated in the method to obtain a probabilistic risk indicator. To verify the proposed method, a case of stuck rudder fault (SRF risk assessment was studied. This method may provide a novel solution for fault risk assessment of a vehicle or other general HME system.

  20. Characteristics of Hand Transmitted Vibration through Steering Wheel of Tractor during Ploughing Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zakaullah Zaka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the transmission of vibrations through the steering wheel of the tractor during the ploughing field. The measurements of vibration were carried out on the tractor randomly chosen. An investigation was conducted to determine the transmission of vibration from the steering wheel of the tractor to the wrists and upper arms of the operator under actual field conditions during ploughing field. The vibrations transmitted through the steering wheel of the tractor to the hand of the operator was measured and the frequency spectra for the chosen working conditions were obtained. The maximum transmissibility of vibration were observed in the first two frequency interval (in Hz i.e. 1-20 and 20-40. The vibration, which is transmitted from the steering wheel of the tractor to the wrists, arms and shoulders causes discomfort to the operator and results in early fatigue.

  1. Dynamic Steering for Improved Sensor Autonomy and Catalogue Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, T.; Gordon, N.; Clarkson, I.; Rutten, M.; Bessell, T.

    A number of international agencies endeavour to maintain catalogues of the man-made resident space objects (RSOs) currently orbiting the Earth. Such catalogues are primarily created to anticipate and avoid destructive collisions involving important space assets such as manned missions and active satellites. An agencys ability to achieve this objective is dependent on the accuracy, reliability and timeliness of the information used to update its catalogue. A primary means for gathering this information is by regularly making direct observations of the tens-of-thousands of currently detectable RSOs via networks of space surveillance sensors. But operational constraints sometimes prevent accurate and timely reacquisition of all known RSOs, which can cause them to become lost to the tracking system. Furthermore, when comprehensive acquisition of new objects does not occur, these objects, in addition to the lost RSOs, result in uncorrelated detections when next observed. Due to the rising number of space-missions and the introduction of newer, more capable space-sensors, the number of uncorrelated targets is at an all-time high. The process of differentiating uncorrelated detections caused by once-acquired now-lost RSOs from newly detected RSOs is a difficult and often labour intensive task. Current methods for overcoming this challenge focus on advancements in orbit propagation and object characterisation to improve prediction accuracy and target identification. In this paper, we describe a complementary approach that incorporates increased awareness of error and failed observations into the RSO tracking solution. Our methodology employs a technique called dynamic steering to improve the autonomy and capability of a space surveillance networks steerable sensors. By co-situating each sensor with a low-cost high-performance computer, the steerable sensor can quickly and intelligently decide how to steer itself. The sensor-system uses a dedicated parallel

  2. Effect of automobile operating condition on the subjective equivalence of steering wheel vibration and sound

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    For the manufacturers of automobiles, automobile components and fuels, subjective equivalence relationships between vibration and sound can be used as a reference against which to plot the results from simulations or tests of specific operational conditions. The research described here was performed to define curves of subjective equivalence between steering wheel rotational vibration and sound using stimuli from different automobile operating conditions. The steering wheel acceleration stimu...

  3. Optical steering of thermally generated microbubbles in a liquid for targeted metallic nanoparticle delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnappa, Arjun; Abeywickrema, Ujitha; Banerjee, Partha

    2016-09-01

    A novel mathematical model is developed to investigate the behavior of thermally generated microbubbles in the presence of optical radiation to understand the mechanism of their steering. Forces acting on a bubble are studied in detail using a general force model. It has been proposed that these microbubbles with agglomerated metallic nanoparticles can be used for targeted drug delivery. The model can be extended to include the steering of bubbles with agglomerated silver or gold nanoparticles on their surface.

  4. Trip report, Interagency Manufacturing Operations Group (IMOG) Steering Committee meeting, November 29, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterworth, R.R.

    1989-12-06

    As the Subgroup Chairman for the Process Automation Control Technology Subgroup of IMOG, I was requested to attend the annual Steering Committee Meeting held this year at the Allied-Signal Kansas City Plant and summarize the past year's activities of the Subgroup. The next IMOG Steering Committee Meeting will be held November 14 and 15, 1990 in Los Alamos. The next Process Automation Control Technology Subgroup Meeting will be held in June, 1990 in Rocky Flats.

  5. Perspectives of Ethical Identity in Ng's Steer toward Rock and Jen's Mona in the Promised Land

    OpenAIRE

    Su,Hui

    2015-01-01

    In her article "Perspectives of Ethical Identity in Ng's Steer toward Rock and Jen's Mona in the Promised Land" Hui Su examines Fae Myenne Ng's and Gish Jen's novels. In the novels, the protagonists make different decisions: in Steer Toward Rock Jack after displacement in China adopts US-American identity and in Mona in the Promised Land Mona, a second generation Chinese American, selects Jewish identity. Owing to their different situations, the two protagonists reflect challenges of identity...

  6. LIDAR and atmosphere remote sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venkataraman, S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available and to consist of theory and practical exercises • Theory: Remote sensing process, Photogrammetry, introduction to multispectral, remote sensing systems, Thermal infra-red remote sensing, Active and passive remote sensing, LIDAR, Application of remotely... Aerosol measurements and cloud characteristics head2right Water vapour measurements in the lower troposphere region up to 8 km head2right Ozone measurements in the troposphere regions up to 18 km Slide 22 © CSIR 2008 www...

  7. Interactive steering of supercomputing simulation for aerodynamic noise radiated from square cylinder; Supercomputer wo mochiita steering system ni yoru kakuchu kara hoshasareru kurikion no suchi kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokono, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, H. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Precision Engineering Lab.

    1995-03-25

    This paper describes extensive computer simulation for aerodynamic noise radiated from a square cylinder using an interactive steering supercomputing simulation system. The unsteady incompressible three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite volume method using a steering system which can visualize the numerical process during calculation and alter the numerical parameter. Using the fluctuating surface pressure of the square cylinder, the farfield sound pressure is calculated based on Lighthill-Curle`s equation. The results are compared with those of low noise wind tunnel experiments, and good agreement is observed for the peak spectrum frequency of the sound pressure level. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  8. 3-D ultrasound-guided robotic needle steering in biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebar, Troy K; Fletcher, Ashley E; Okamura, Allison M

    2014-12-01

    Robotic needle steering systems have the potential to greatly improve medical interventions, but they require new methods for medical image guidance. Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound is a widely available, low-cost imaging modality that may be used to provide real-time feedback to needle steering robots. Unfortunately, the poor visibility of steerable needles in standard grayscale ultrasound makes automatic segmentation of the needles impractical. A new imaging approach is proposed, in which high-frequency vibration of a steerable needle makes it visible in ultrasound Doppler images. Experiments demonstrate that segmentation from this Doppler data is accurate to within 1-2 mm. An image-guided control algorithm that incorporates the segmentation data as feedback is also described. In experimental tests in ex vivo bovine liver tissue, a robotic needle steering system implementing this control scheme was able to consistently steer a needle tip to a simulated target with an average error of 1.57 mm. Implementation of 3-D ultrasound-guided needle steering in biological tissue represents a significant step toward the clinical application of robotic needle steering.

  9. Image reconstruction using projections from a few views by discrete steering combined with DART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Junghyun; Song, Samuel M.; Kauke, Brian; Boyd, Douglas P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) based discrete tomography method to reconstruct an image accurately using projections from a few views. We specifically consider the problem of reconstructing an image of bottles filled with various types of liquids from X-ray projections. By exploiting the fact that bottles are usually filled with homogeneous material, we show that it is possible to obtain accurate reconstruction with only a few projections by an ART based algorithm. In order to deal with various types of liquids in our problem, we first introduce our discrete steering method which is a generalization of the binary steering approach for our proposed multi-valued discrete reconstruction. The main idea of the steering approach is to use slowly varying thresholds instead of fixed thresholds. We further improve reconstruction accuracy by reducing the number of variables in ART by combining our discrete steering with the discrete ART (DART) that fixes the values of interior pixels of segmented regions considered as reliable. By simulation studies, we show that our proposed discrete steering combined with DART yields superior reconstruction than both discrete steering only and DART only cases. The resulting reconstructions are quite accurate even with projections using only four views.

  10. Need for airbag and seatbelt to reduce orbital injuries from steering wheel knob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Joo Ho

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study are to report a blowout fracture of the orbital floor and medial wall caused by being struck by a steering wheel knob of an automobile and to discuss the use of airbags and seatbelts as a preventive measure for orbital injuries. A 58-year-old man was struck in the left eye by a steering wheel. His car hit a telephone pole, and he had a frontal collision injury. In this frontal impact, his left eye was hit by a Brodie knob attached to the steering wheel. At the time of injury, the speed of the car was about 65 km/h. He was not wearing a seatbelt, and the airbag had not deployed. Swelling and ecchymosis were observed at the left periorbital area, and he had diplopia on a left-side gaze. A CT revealed fractures in the medial and inferior wall of the left orbit. Entrapped soft tissues were reduced, and the medial wall and floor were reconstructed with a resorbable sheet. His diplopia disappeared 12 days after surgery. To prevent the injury from the steering wheel knob, an airbag should be installed in any vehicle, which has a steering wheel knob. Legislation mandating the use of airbags as well as seatbelts in vehicles with attached steering wheel knobs should be made.

  11. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control Method Based on Nonlinear Integral Sliding Surface for Agricultural Vehicle Steering Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taochang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic steering control is the key factor and essential condition in the realization of the automatic navigation control of agricultural vehicles. In order to get satisfactory steering control performance, an adaptive sliding mode control method based on a nonlinear integral sliding surface is proposed in this paper for agricultural vehicle steering control. First, the vehicle steering system is modeled as a second-order mathematic model; the system uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics as well as the external disturbances are regarded as the equivalent disturbances satisfying a certain boundary. Second, a transient process of the desired system response is constructed in each navigation control period. Based on the transient process, a nonlinear integral sliding surface is designed. Then the corresponding sliding mode control law is proposed to guarantee the fast response characteristics with no overshoot in the closed-loop steering control system. Meanwhile, the switching gain of sliding mode control is adaptively adjusted to alleviate the control input chattering by using the fuzzy control method. Finally, the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method are verified by a series of simulation and actual steering control experiments.

  12. Robust H2/H∞ Control for the Electrohydraulic Steering System of a Four-Wheel Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To shorten the steer diameter and to improve the maneuverability flexibility of a construction vehicle, four wheels’ steering system is presented. This steering system consists of mechanical-electrical-hydraulic assemblies. Its diagram and principle are depicted in detail. Then the mathematical models are derived step by step, including the whole vehicle model and the hydraulic route model. Considering the nonlinear and time-varying uncertainty of the steering system, robust H2/H∞ controller is put forward to guarantee both the system performance and the robust stability. The H∞ norm of the sensitive function from the parameter perturbation of the hydraulic system to the yaw velocity of the vehicle is taken as the evaluating index of the robustness and the H2 norm of the transfer function from the external disturbance to the steering angle of the wheel as the index of linear quadratic Gaussian. The experimental results showed that the proposed scheme was superior to classical PID controller and can guarantee both the control performance and the robustness of the steering system.

  13. On Optimizing Steering Performance of Multi-axle Vehicle Based on Driving Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Zhicheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The steering performance of multi-axle vehicle with independent driving system is affected by the distribution of the wheel driving force. A nonlinear vehicle dynamics model including magic formula tire model for describing 11 DoF four-axle vehicle with dual-front-axle-steering (DFAS system was presented. The influence of different driving force distribution scheme on the steering performance of the vehicle was analyzed. A control strategy for improving the steady response and transient response of the vehicle steering is proposed. The results show: For the steady response, setting different drive force for internal and external wheels according to the actual steering characteristics of the vehicle can effectively improve its steering characteristics; For the transient response, adopting the zero sideslip angle control strategy and using the PID control algorithm to control the driving force of the outside wheel of tear-two-axle, under angle step input, the vehicle sideslip angle can quickly stabilize to 0 and yaw rate also significantly decreases.

  14. Determination of ten pyrethroids in various fruit juices: comparison of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction sample preparation and QuEChERS method combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaohai; Zhang, Xuelian; Jiao, Bining

    2014-09-15

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) sample preparation and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method combined with DLLME were developed and compared for the analysis of ten pyrethroids in various fruit juices using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). QuEChERS-DLLME method has found its widespread applications to all the fruit juices including those samples with more complex matrices (orange, lemon, kiwi and mango) while DLLME was confined to the fruit juices with simpler matrices (apple, pear, grape and peach). The two methods provided acceptable recoveries and repeatability. In addition, the applicabilities of two methods were demonstrated with the real samples and further confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

  15. Development of the fast steering secondary mirror assembly of GMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungho; Cho, Myung K.; Park, Chan; Han, Jeong-Yeol; Jeong, Ueejeong; Yoon, Yang-noh; Song, Je Heon; Park, Byeong-Gon; Dribusch, Christoph; Park, Won Hyun; Jun, Youra; Yang, Ho-Soon; Moon, Il-Kwon; Oh, Chang Jin; Kim, Ho-Sang; Lee, Kyoung-Don; Bernier, Robert; Alongi, Chris; Rakich, Andrew; Gardner, Paul; Dettmann, Lee; Rosenthal, Wylie

    2016-07-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will be featured with two Gregorian secondary mirrors, an adaptive secondary mirror (ASM) and a fast-steering secondary mirror (FSM). The FSM has an effective diameter of 3.2 m and built as seven 1.1 m diameter circular segments, which are conjugated 1:1 to the seven 8.4m segments of the primary. Each FSM segment contains a tip-tilt capability for fine co-alignment of the telescope sub-apertures and fast guiding to attenuate telescope wind shake and mount control jitter. This tip-tilt capability thus enhances performance of the telescope in the seeing limited observation mode. As the first stage of the FSM development, Phase 0 study was conducted to develop a program plan detailing the design and manufacturing process for the seven FSM segments. The FSM development plan has been matured through an internal review by the GMTO-KASI team in May 2016 and fully assessed by an external review in June 2016. In this paper, we present the technical aspects of the FSM development plan.

  16. Enteric listeriosis in grazing steers supplemented with spoiled silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Juan A; Micheloud, Juan F; Campero, Carlos M; Morrell, Eleonora L; Odriozola, Ernesto R; Moreira, Ana R

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of enteric listeriosis in steers that were fed spoiled silage is reported. The outbreak started 2 days after ~200 animals in a single paddock were given a supplement of spoiled silage. Forty animals (20%) were affected, and 13 (6.5%) died over a period of 10 days. Affected animals were recumbent, depressed, and had diarrhea with mucus and fibrin. Gross and microscopic findings in 3 animals that were subjected to autopsy included excess peritoneal fluid, congestion and edema of abomasum, suppurative enteritis and colitis, and suppurative mesenteric lymphadenitis. Two strains of Listeria monocytogenes were isolated, one of serotype 1/2c from the gallbladder and one of serotype 1/2b from the spoiled silage. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in the mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal wall of 1 animal by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Clinical history and signs, gross and microscopic findings, bacterial isolation, and IHC results confirmed a diagnosis of enteric listeriosis. The source of infection was likely the spoiled silage.

  17. Modeling of miner track system during steering motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 韩庆珏

    2015-01-01

    Equipment for deep sea mining has risen from a position of virtual non-existence to a major industrial significance and in deep sea bed mining, the miner is the key equipment of the whole system that charges with the most complex and dangerous task. Evaluation of trafficability for tracked vehicles for deep sea mining is essential. Rare earth elements (REEs) are used in a wide range of modern applications. These applications are highly specific and substitutes are inferior or unknown. One possible source of the REE could be the poly-metallic nodule, at present explored in the tropical part of the Pacific Ocean. In developing miners of high performance, dynamic behaviour should be investigated under various traveling conditions. The mechanics of tracked vehicles is of continuing interest to organizations and agencies that specify design and operate tracked vehicles. Most works done are on the complete track vehicle system but in this work the research activity is aimed only at the track system with the basic aim of optimizing the track system design so that it can be manufactured by using the minimum resources. Equations and models are developed for the track system of a miner during steering motion. These equations and models could further be used for design optimization of the track system.

  18. Process independent automated sizing methodology for current steering DAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, R. A.; Kahraman, N.; Erkmen, B.; Yildirim, T.

    2015-10-01

    This study introduces a process independent automated sizing methodology based on general regression neural network (GRNN) for current steering complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) digital-to-analog converter (DAC) circuit. The aim is to utilise circuit structures designed with previous process technologies and to synthesise circuit structures for novel process technologies in contrast to other modelling researches that consider a particular process technology. The simulations were performed using ON SEMI 1.5 µm, ON SEMI 0.5 µm and TSMC 0.35 µm technology process parameters. Eventually, a high-dimensional database was developed consisting of transistor sizes of DAC designs and corresponded static specification errors obtained from simulation results. The key point is that the GRNN was trained with the data set including the simulation results of ON-SEMI 1.5 µm and 0.5 µm technology parameters and the test data were constituted with only the simulation results of TSMC 0.35 µm technology parameters that had not been applied to GRNN for training beforehand. The proposed methodology provides the channel lengths and widths of all transistors for a newer technology when the designer sets the numeric values of DAC static output specifications as Differential Non-linearity error, Integral Non-linearity error, monotonicity and gain error as the inputs of the network.

  19. Movement decoupling control for two-axis fast steering mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Qiao, Yongming; Lv, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Based on flexure hinge and piezoelectric actuator of two-axis fast steering mirror is a complex system with time varying, uncertain and strong coupling. It is extremely difficult to achieve high precision decoupling control with the traditional PID control method. The feedback error learning method was established an inverse hysteresis model which was based inner product dynamic neural network nonlinear and no-smooth for piezo-ceramic. In order to improve the actuator high precision, a method was proposed, which was based piezo-ceramic inverse model of two dynamic neural network adaptive control. The experiment result indicated that, compared with two neural network adaptive movement decoupling control algorithm, static relative error is reduced from 4.44% to 0.30% and coupling degree is reduced from 12.71% to 0.60%, while dynamic relative error is reduced from 13.92% to 2.85% and coupling degree is reduced from 2.63% to 1.17%.

  20. Attosecond Steering of Electrons with Optimised Strong Field Waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Haessler, S; Fan, G; Witting, T; Squibb, R; Chipperfield, L; Zaïr, A; Andriukaitis, G; Pugžlys, A; Tisch, J W G; Marangos, J P; Baltuška, A

    2013-01-01

    Quasi-free field driven electron trajectories are a key element of strong-field dynamics. Upon recollision with the parent ion, the energy transferred from the field to the electron may be released as attosecond duration XUV emission1,2 in the process of high harmonic generation (HHG). The conventional sinusoidal driver fields set limitations on the maximum value of this energy transfer, and it has been predicted that this limit can be significantly exceeded by an appropriately ramped-up cycle-shape3.Here, we present an experimental realization of such cycle-shaped waveforms and demonstrate control of the HHG process on the single-atom quantum level via attosecond steering of the electron trajectories. With our optimized optical cycles, we boost the field-ionization launching the electron trajectories, increase the subsequent field-to-electron energy transfer, and reduce the trajectory duration, to obtain greatly enhanced HHG efficiency as well as spectral extension compared to sinusoidal drivers. This applic...

  1. Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) can steer by the stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Björn; Gläser, Nele; Schlosser, Wolfhard; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2008-10-01

    Offshore orientation in marine mammals is still a mystery. For visual orientation during night-time foraging and travelling in the open seas, seals cannot rely on distant terrestrial landmarks, and thus might use celestial cues as repeatedly shown for nocturnally migrating birds. Although seals detect enough stars to probably allow for astronavigation, it was unclear whether they can orient by the night sky. The widely accepted cognitive mechanism for bird night-time orientation by celestial cues is a time-independent star compass with learned geometrical star configurations used to pinpoint north as the rotational centre of the starry sky while there is no conclusive evidence for a time-compensated star compass or true star navigation. Here, we present results for two harbour seals orienting in a custom made swimming planetarium. Both seals learned to highly accurately identify a lodestar out of a pseudo-randomly oriented, realistic projection of the northern hemisphere night sky. Providing the first evidence for star orientation capability in a marine mammal, our seals' outstanding directional precision would allow them to steer by following lodestars of learned star courses, a celestial orientation mechanism that has been known to be used by Polynesian navigators but has not been considered for animals yet.

  2. Obstacles and Drivers in Steering IBS towards Green and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Meysam Khoshnava

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigating IBS potential solution for achieving its prospective in the area of green construction and sustainability. Malaysia has embarked on initiatives for sustainable development consistent with global concerns on the environment and sustaining the world resources for the future generations. The issues of sustainability and green construction have been duly highlighted in the Construction Industry Master Plan (2005-2015 as being of significant importance for the Malaysian construction industry. In this regard, industrialized construction has the unique characteristics to respond well to the sustainability challenge facing the construction industry. Industrialized construction assist adopters in term of cost and time certainty, attaining better construction quality and productivity, reducing risk related to occupational safety and health. But, despite all those capabilities most of the construction work in Malaysia is still applying conventional methods which are not often sustainable. Thus, this study tries to explore obstacles and drivers in steering IBS towards the agenda of green and sustainability.

  3. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Configuration and Steering

    CERN Document Server

    Stelzer, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    In March 2010 the four LHC experiments saw the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV. Still within the year a collision rate of nearly 10 MHz is expected. At ATLAS, events of potential interest for ATLAS physics are selected by a three level trigger system, with a final recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first level (L1) is implemented in customized hardware, the two levels of the high level trigger (HLT) are software triggers. Within the ATLAS physics program more than 500 trigger signatures are defined. The HLT tests each signature on each L1-accepted event, the test outcome is recorded for later analysis. The HLT-Steering is responsible for this. It foremost ensures the independent test of each signature, guarantying unbiased trigger decisions. Yet, to minimize data readout and execution time, cached detector data and once-calculated trigger objects are reused to form the decision. Some signature tests are performed only on a scaled-down fraction of candidate events, in order to reduce the output rate a...

  4. Digital mock-up design of the remote steerable ITER ECRH launching system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronden, D.M.S. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)]. E-mail: ronden@rijnh.nl; Bruschi, A. [Instituto di Fisica del Plasma, Association EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milan (Italy); Danilov, I. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association EURATOM-FZK, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Elzendoorn, B.S.Q. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Graswinckel, M.F. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Heidinger, R. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association EURATOM-FZK, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ramponi, G. [Instituto di Fisica del Plasma, Association EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milan (Italy); Verhoeven, A.G.A. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2005-11-15

    A 3D model is of vital interest to the entire development process of the remote steering (RS) electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) top launcher. The aim is to have a digital model that continuously incorporates the latest developments of the overall design. This paper will present the results of the effort put in creating this 3D model and will discuss details about parameterized computer aided design (CAD), which enables the designer to integrate newly acquired insights on a much shorter timescale. Also, the detailed design of the steerable mirror mechanism will be presented.

  5. Determination of bisphenol A and bisphenol B in canned seafood combining QuEChERS extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, S C; Cunha, C; Ferreira, A R; Fernandes, J O

    2012-11-01

    A new simple and reliable method combining an acetonitrile partitioning extractive procedure followed by dispersive solid-phase cleanup (QuEChERS) with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and further gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis was developed for the simultaneous determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol B (BPB) in canned seafood samples. Besides the great enrichment factor provided, the final DLLME extractive step was designed in order to allow the simultaneous acetylation of the compounds required for their gas chromatographic analysis. Tetrachloroethylene was used as extractive solvent, while the acetonitrile extract obtained from QuEChERS was used as dispersive solvent, and anhydride acetic as derivatizing reagent. The main factors influencing QuEChERS and DLLME efficiency including nature of QuEChERS dispersive-SPE sorbents, amount of DLLME extractive and dispersive solvents and nature and amount of derivatizing reagent were evaluated. DLLME procedure provides an effective enrichment of the extract, allowing the required sensitivity even using a single quadropole MS as detector. The optimized method showed to be accurate (>68 % recovery), reproducible (<21 % relative standard deviation) and sensitive for the target analytes (method detection limits of 0.2 μg/kg for BPA and 0.4 μg/kg for BPB). The screening of several canned seafood samples commercialized in Portugal (total = 47) revealed the presence of BPA in more than 83 % of the samples with levels ranging from 1.0 to 99.9 μg/kg, while BPB was found in only one sample at a level of 21.8 μg/kg.

  6. Use of ammonium formate in QuEChERS for high-throughput analysis of pesticides in food by fast, low-pressure gas chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Curbelo, Miguel Ángel; Lehotay, Steven J; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Ángel

    2014-09-01

    The "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" (QuEChERS) approach to sample preparation is widely applied in pesticide residue analysis, but the use of magnesium sulfate and other nonvolatile compounds for salting out in the method is not ideal for mass spectrometry. In this study, we developed and evaluated three new different versions of the QuEChERS method using more volatile salts (ammonium chloride and ammonium formate and acetate buffers) to induce phase separation and extraction of 43 representative pesticide analytes of different classes. Fast low-pressure gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS were used for analysis. The QuEChERS AOAC Official Method 2007.01 was also tested for comparison purposes. Of the studied methods, formate buffering using 7.5g of ammonium formate and 15mL of 5% (v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile for the extraction of 15g of sample (5g for wheat grain) provided the best performance and practical considerations. Method validation was carried out with and without the use of dispersive solid-phase extraction for cleanup, and no significant differences were observed for the majority of pesticides. The method was demonstrated in quantitative analysis for GC- and LC-amenable pesticides in 4 representative food matrices (apple, lemon, lettuce, and wheat grain). With the typical exceptions of certain pH-dependent and labile pesticides, 90-110% recoveries and food applications.

  7. Simultaneous Analysis of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Asian Style Sauces Using QuEChERS Extraction and Gas Chromatography–Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susan; Nyman, Patricia; DeJager, Lowri

    2017-01-01

    Acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein (aHVP) is used for flavoring a wide variety of foods and also in the production of nonfermented soy sauce. During the production of aHVP, chloropropanols including 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 1,3 dichloropropane-2-ol (1,3-DCP) can be formed through the reaction of the hydrochloric acid catalyst and residual fat and the reaction of 3-MCPD with acetic acid, respectively. 3-MCPD is a carcinogen, and 1,3-DCP has been classified as a genotoxic carcinogen. The European Union (EU) has set a maximum concentration of 0.02 mg/kg of 3-MCPD in aHVP, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) set a guidance limit of 1 mg/kg of 3-MCPD in aHVP. 1,3-DCP is not an approved food additive, and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JEFCA) has set a limit at 0.005 mg/kg, which is close to the estimated method detection limit. Currently there are few analytical methods for the simultaneous determination of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP without derivatization due to differences in their physical chemical properties and reactivity. A new method was developed using QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) with direct analysis of the extract without derivatization using gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQ). Additionally, a market sampling of 60 soy sauce samples was performed in 2015 to determine if concentrations have changed since the FDA limit was set in 2008. The sampling results were compared between the new QuEChERS method and a method using phenylboronic acid (PBA) as a derivatizing agent for 3-MCPD analysis. The concentrations of 3-MCPD detected in soy sauce samples collected in 2015 (

  8. Simplified planar model of a car steering system with rack and pinion and McPherson suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapczyk, J.; Kucybała, P.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents the analysis and optimization of steering system with rack and pinion and McPherson suspension using spatial model and equivalent simplified planar model. The dimension of the steering linkage that give minimum steering error can be estimated using planar model. The steering error is defined as the difference between the actual angle made by the outer front wheel during steering manoeuvers and the calculated angle for the same wheel based on the Ackerman principle. For a given linear rack displacement, a specified steering arms angular displacements are determined while simultaneously ensuring best transmission angle characteristics (i) without and (ii) with imposing linear correlation between input and output. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the proposed method.

  9. Remote Nanodiamond Magnetometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, Yinlan; Jeske, Jan; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Lau, Desmond W M; Ji, Hong; Johnson, Brett C; Ohshima, Takeshi; V., Shahraam Afshar; Hollenberg, Lloyd; Greentree, Andrew D; Monro, Tanya M; Gibson, Brant C

    2016-01-01

    Optical fibres have transformed the way people interact with the world and now permeate many areas of science. Optical fibres are traditionally thought of as insensitive to magnetic fields, however many application areas from mining to biomedicine would benefit from fibre-based remote magnetometry devices. In this work, we realise such a device by embedding nanoscale magnetic sensors into tellurite glass fibres. Remote magnetometry is performed on magnetically active defect centres in nanodiamonds embedded into the glass matrix. Standard optical magnetometry techniques are applied to initialize and detect local magnetic field changes with a measured sensitivity of 26 micron Tesla/square root(Hz). Our approach utilizes straight-forward optical excitation, simple focusing elements, and low power components. We demonstrate remote magnetometry by direct reporting of the magnetic ground states of nitrogen-vacancy defect centres in the optical fibres. In addition, we present and describe theoretically an all-optica...

  10. Effects of roughage inclusion and particle size on performance and rumination behavior of finishing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, W W; Weiss, C P; Meredith, C M; McCollum, F T; Cole, N A; Jennings, J S

    2016-11-01

    Roughage is typically mechanically processed to increase digestibility and improve handling and mixing characteristics in beef cattle finishing diets. Roughage is fed to promote ruminal health and decrease digestive upset, but inclusion in finishing diets is limited due to the cost per unit of energy. Rumination behavior may be a means to standardize roughage in beef cattle finishing diets, and increasing particle size of roughage may allow a decrease in roughage inclusion without sacrificing animal performance. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to quantify rumination time for a finishing beef animal and to evaluate the effects of corn stalk (CS) inclusion rate and particle size on rumination behavior, animal performance, and carcass characteristics. Fifty-one individually fed steers (385 ± 3.6 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design feeding study. Corn stalks were passed through a tub grinder equipped with a 7.62-cm screen once to generate long-grind CS (LG-CS) or twice to generate short-grind CS (SG-CS). Dietary treatments were based on steam-flaked corn and included, on a DM basis, 30% wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) with 5% SG-CS (5SG), 30% WCGF with 5% LG-CS (5LG), and 25% WCGF with 10% SG-CS (10SG). The Penn State Particle Separator was used to separate ingredients and treatment diets and to estimate physically effective NDF (peNDF). On d 70, each steer was fitted with a collar (HR Tag; SCR Dairy, Netanya, Isreal), which continuously measured rumination minutes via a sensory microphone. Long-grind CS contained more ( < 0.01) peNDF than SG-CS, and the 10SG diet contained more ( = 0.03) peNDF than the 5LG and 5SG diets. Dry matter intake was greatest ( = 0.03) for steers consuming 5LG and least for steers consuming 10SG, with cattle consuming 5SG being intermediate. Carcass-adjusted ADG and G:F were greatest ( ≤ 0.03) for steers consuming 5LG and 5SG compared with steers consuming 10SG. Hot carcass weight tended ( = 0.10) to be

  11. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, James B

    2012-01-01

    A leading text for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses, this book introduces widely used forms of remote sensing imagery and their applications in plant sciences, hydrology, earth sciences, and land use analysis. The text provides comprehensive coverage of principal topics and serves as a framework for organizing the vast amount of remote sensing information available on the Web. Including case studies and review questions, the book's four sections and 21 chapters are carefully designed as independent units that instructors can select from as needed for their courses. Illustrations in

  12. Remote sensing image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Garzelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis of more than ten years of experience, Remote Sensing Image Fusion covers methods specifically designed for remote sensing imagery. The authors supply a comprehensive classification system and rigorous mathematical description of advanced and state-of-the-art methods for pansharpening of multispectral images, fusion of hyperspectral and panchromatic images, and fusion of data from heterogeneous sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and integration of thermal and visible/near-infrared images. They also explore new trends of signal/image processing, such as

  13. Experimental model and analytic solution for real-time observation of vehicle's additional steer angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Li, Liang; Pan, Deng; Cao, Chengmao; Song, Jian

    2014-03-01

    The current research of real-time observation for vehicle roll steer angle and compliance steer angle(both of them comprehensively referred as the additional steer angle in this paper) mainly employs the linear vehicle dynamic model, in which only the lateral acceleration of vehicle body is considered. The observation accuracy resorting to this method cannot meet the requirements of vehicle real-time stability control, especially under extreme driving conditions. The paper explores the solution resorting to experimental method. Firstly, a multi-body dynamic model of a passenger car is built based on the ADAMS/Car software, whose dynamic accuracy is verified by the same vehicle's roadway test data of steady static circular test. Based on this simulation platform, several influencing factors of additional steer angle under different driving conditions are quantitatively analyzed. Then ɛ-SVR algorithm is employed to build the additional steer angle prediction model, whose input vectors mainly include the sensor information of standard electronic stability control system(ESC). The method of typical slalom tests and FMVSS 126 tests are adopted to make simulation, train model and test model's generalization performance. The test result shows that the influence of lateral acceleration on additional steer angle is maximal (the magnitude up to 1°), followed by the longitudinal acceleration-deceleration and the road wave amplitude (the magnitude up to 0.3°). Moreover, both the prediction accuracy and the calculation real-time of the model can meet the control requirements of ESC. This research expands the accurate observation methods of the additional steer angle under extreme driving conditions.

  14. Toxicokinetics and pathology of plant-associated acute selenium toxicosis in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T Zane; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Panter, Kip E; Cook, Daniel; Gardner, Dale R; Hall, Jeffery O

    2012-03-01

    Sixteen of approximately 500 yearling steers died of acute selenium (Se) toxicosis after grazing on a Se-contaminated range for only a few days. Field studies and chemical analyses identified the predominant toxic plant as western aster (Symphyotrichum ascendens, previously Aster ascendens), which contained over 4,000 ppm Se (dry weight). Several dead animals that were necropsied had acute severe myocardial necrosis characterized by edema and myocyte swelling, with hypereosinophilia, clumping, and coagulation of myocardial proteins. Whole blood from 36 surviving steers was collected and analyzed, and 10 steers with elevated Se concentrations were selected for close monitoring and clinical evaluations. Each steer was weighed, and serum, blood, liver, skeletal muscle, and hair were regularly collected after removal from the Se-contaminated range. One animal that died 18 days after exposure was necropsied and exhibited severe multifocal myocardial fibrosis with extensive hepatic congestion, degeneration, and hemosiderosis. At 180 days postexposure, 2 of the 10 steers were euthanized, and tissue samples were collected. Both steers had rare, small fibrotic foci in their hearts. The Se elimination half-lives from serum, whole blood, liver, and muscle of the recovering steers were 40.5 ± 8.2, 115.6 ± 25.1, 38.2 ± 5.0, and 98.5 ± 19.1 days, respectively. The Se concentration in hair reached a peak of 11.5 ± 5.3 ppm at 22 days postexposure. The findings indicate that cattle are sensitive to acute Se toxicosis caused by ingestion of Se-accumulator plants, with myocardial necrosis as the primary lesion. Some poisoned animals may develop congestive heart failure weeks after the toxic exposure, and in the current study, Se was slowly excreted requiring a relatively long withdrawal time.

  15. Desenvolvimento e validação do método QuEChERS na determinação de resíduos de medicamentos veterinários em leite e carne de búfalo Development and validation of the QuEChERS method for the determination of veterinary drug residues in buffalo milk and meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia H. G. Brondi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods were developed and validated to determine residues of veterinary drugs in buffalo milk and meat, using the QuEChERS method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both milk and meat, at 2 g of sample, 4 mL of acetonitrile, 0.8 g of MgSO4 and 0.2 g of NaCl, were used in the liquid-liquid partition, whereas 50 mg of C18, 50 mg of PSA and 150 mg of MgSO4 were employed in the dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE. The methods showed sensitivity, precision and accuracy. The quantitation limits were in agreement with the maximum residue limit established by the Codex Alimentarius, FAO and WHO.

  16. Determination of 31 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables using a on - line GPC - GC -MS system combined with modified QuEChERS%改进的QuEChERS方法配合GPC-GC-MS在线联用系统测定果蔬中31种农药残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琰; 蔡跃; 杨胜琴; 绪红霞; 仓书华; 黄向荣; 计文芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method for determination of 31 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.Methods:Modified QuEChERS pretreatment method and a on - line GPC - GC - MS system were used for the rapid determination of 31 pesticide residues including organophosphorus, organochlorine, carbamate and pyrethroid etc.Results: The 31 pesticides were well separated and the detection limits of the method were 0.01 μg/kg ~0.83 μg/kg, the recoveries were 72% ~ 110% and the relative standard deviations were 1.6% ~10%.Conclusion: The good sensitivity , precision , accuracy, simple operation and short analytical period of this method could satisfy the requirement of simultaneous determination of various pesticide residues.%目的:建立果蔬中31种农药残留的快速分析方法.方法:采用改进的QuEChERS前处理方法和GPC-GC-MS在线联用系统,快速测定果蔬中有机磷、氨基甲酸酯、拟除虫菊酯、有机氯等共31种农药的残留量.结果:31种农药分离效果较好;方法检出限(S/N≥3)为0.01μg/kg~0.83 μg/kg;平均同收率为72%~110%;相对标准偏差为1.6%~10%.结论:该方法具有灵敏度高、精密度好、准确度高、操作便捷、分析周期短的优点,可以满足同时测定蔬菜水果中多种农药残留的检测要求.

  17. Computed tomography (CT)-compatible remote center of motion needle steering robot : Fusing CT images and electromagnetic sensor data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahriari, Navid; Heerink, Wout; van Katwijk, Tim; Hekman, Edsko E. G.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Misra, Sarthak

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death, and early detection can reduce the mortality rate. Patients with lung nodules greater than 10 mm usually undergo a computed tomography (CT) guided biopsy. However, aligning the needle with the target is difficult and the needle tends to

  18. Computed tomography (CT)-compatible remote center of motion needle steering robot : Fusing CT images and electromagnetic sensor data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahriari, Navid; Heerink, Wout; van Katwijk, Tim; Hekman, Edsko E. G.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Misra, Sarthak

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death, and early detection can reduce the mortality rate. Patients with lung nodules greater than 10 mm usually undergo a computed tomography (CT) guided biopsy. However, aligning the needle with the target is difficult and the needle tends to d

  19. Computed tomography (CT)-compatible remote center of motion needle steering robot: Fusing CT images and electromagnetic sensor data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahriari, Navid; Heerink, Wout; van Katwijk, Tim; Hekman, Edsko E.G.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Misra, Sarthak

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death, and early detection can reduce the mortality rate. Patients with lung nodules greater than 10 mm usually undergo a computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy. However, aligning the needle with the target is difficult and the needle tends to d

  20. Rapid modified QuEChERS method for pesticides detection in honey by high-performance liquid chromatography UV-visible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Bonerba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of pesticides in agriculture plays an important role in bees die-off and allows the presence of residues in hive products, particularly in honey. An accurate and reliable analytical method, based on QuEChERS extractive technique, has been developed for the quantitative determination by high-performance liquid chromatography UV-visible detector of 5 pesticides (Deltamethrin, Dimethoate, Imidacloprid, Acetamiprid, Chlorfenvinphos in honey. The method, according to Commission Directive 2002/63/EC and Regulation 882/2004/EC, provided excellent results with respect to linearity (correlation coefficient up to 0.993, limits of detection and quantification (0.005 and 0.01 μg/mL for Dimethoate, Deltamethrin and Chlorfenvinphos; 0.02 and 0.05 μg/mL for Acetamiprid and Imidacloprid, recovery values (86.4 to 96.3%, precision and relative expanded uncertainty of a measurement, demonstrating the conformity of the this method with the European directives. The proposed method was applied to 23 samples of Apulian honey. None of the investigated pesticides was detected in these samples.

  1. Rapid and reliable QuEChERS-based LC-MS/MS method for determination of acrylamide in potato chips and roasted coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, S.; Đorđevic, V.; Jelušić, V.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to verify the performance characteristics and fitness for purpose of rapid and simple QuEChERS-based LC-MS/MS method for determination of acrylamide in potato chips and coffee. LC-MS/MS is by far the most suitable analytical technique for acrylamide measurements given its inherent sensitivity and selectivity, as well as capability of analyzing underivatized molecule. Acrylamide in roasted coffee and potato chips wasextracted with water:acetonitrile mixture using NaCl and MgSO4. Cleanup was carried out with MgSO4 and PSA. Obtained results were satisfactory. Recoveries were in the range of 85-112%, interlaboratory reproducibility (Cv) was 5.8-7.6% and linearity (R2) was in the range of 0.995-0.999. LoQ was 35 μg kg‑1 for coffee and 20 μg kg‑1 for potato chips. Performance characteristic of the method are compliant with criteria for analytical methods validation. Presented method for quantitative determination of acrylamide in roasted coffee and potato chips is fit for purposes of self-control in food industry as well as regulatory controls carried out by the governmental agencies.

  2. QuEChERS Method Followed by Solid Phase Extraction Method for Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Khorshid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GCMS method was developed and validated for determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in fish using modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS method for extraction and solid phase extraction for sample cleanup to remove most of the coextract combined with GCMS for determination of low concentration of selected group of PAHs in homogenized fish samples. PAHs were separated on a GCMS with HP-5ms Ultra Inert GC Column (30 m, 0.25 mm, and 0.25 µm. Mean recovery ranged from 56 to 115%. The extraction efficiency was consistent over the entire range where indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene and benzo(g,h,iperylene showed recovery (65, 69%, respectively, at 2 µg/kg. No significant dispersion of results was observed for the other remaining PAHs and recovery did not differ substantially, and at the lowest and the highest concentrations mean recovery and RSD% showed that most of PAHs were between 70% and 120% with RSD less than 10%. The measurement uncertainty is expressed as expanded uncertainty and in terms of relative standard deviation (at 95% confidence level is ±12%. This method is suitable for laboratories engaged daily in routine analysis of a large number of samples.

  3. Analysis of Nitrosamines in Cooked Bacon by QuEChERS Sample Preparation and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Backflushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotay, Steven J; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Han, Lijun; Johnston, John J

    2015-12-02

    Nitrites are added as a preservative to a variety of cured meats, including bacon, to kill bacteria, extend shelf life, and improve quality. During cooking, nitrites in the meat can be converted to carcinogenic nitrosamines (NAs), the formation of which is mitigated by the addition of antioxidants. In the past, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) monitored NAs in pan-fried bacon, but FSIS terminated monitoring of NAs in the 1990s due to the very low levels found. FSIS recently chose to conduct a risk assessment of NAs in cooked bacon to determine if current levels warrant routine monitoring of NAs again. To meet FSIS needs, we developed, validated, and implemented a new method of sample preparation and analysis to test cooked bacon for five NAs of most concern, which consist of N-nitroso-dimethylamine, -diethylamine, -dibutylamine, -piperidine, and -pyrrolidine. Sample preparation was based on the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) approach and analysis by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ruggedness was improved markedly in the analysis of the complex fatty extracts by backflushing the guard column, injection liner, and half of the analytical column after every injection. Validation results were acceptable with recoveries of 70-120% and bacon gave slightly lower concentrations overall compared to pan-frying.

  4. Residue and dissipation kinetics of thiamethoxam in a vegetable-field ecosystem using QuEChERS methodology combined with HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H

    2014-09-15

    The dissipation kinetics and residual levels of thiamethoxam in potato and soil under field ecosystem were determined using a QuEChERS method with HPLC-DAD. At fortification levels of 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mg kg(-1), it was shown recovery was 99.4% (95.3-103.5%) for potato tubers, and 88.5% (86-91%) for soil with coefficient variation of the method (CV%) was less than 4% in potato tubers, and in soil less than 11%. For repeatability ranged from 1.27% to 4.77%. The LOD and LOQ were estimated to be 0.02 and 0.06 mg kg(-1), respectively. The half-lives were 2.92 and 1.4 days, respectively. The terminal residues of thiamethoxam were below the maximum residue limit (MRL 0.2 mg kg(-1)) after 6 days, which considered to be safe for human beings. These results contribute to establishing the scientific basis of the dosage of thiamethoxam for use in vegetable-field ecosystems.

  5. UHPLC/MS-MS Analysis of Six Neonicotinoids in Honey by Modified QuEChERS: Method Development, Validation, and Uncertainty Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Proietto Galeano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and reliable multiresidue analytical methods were developed and validated for the determination of 6 neonicotinoids pesticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam in honey. A modified QuEChERS method has allowed a very rapid and efficient single-step extraction, while the detection was performed by UHPLC/MS-MS. The recovery studies were carried out by spiking the samples at two concentration levels (10 and 40 μg/kg. The methods were subjected to a thorough validation procedure. The mean recovery was in the range of 75 to 114% with repeatability below 20%. The limits of detection were below 2.5 μg/kg, while the limits of quantification did not exceed 4.0 μg/kg. The total uncertainty was evaluated taking the main independent uncertainty sources under consideration. The expanded uncertainty did not exceed 49% for the 10 μg/kg concentration level and was in the range of 16–19% for the 40 μg/kg fortification level.

  6. QuEChERS Method for the Determination of Pesticide Residues in Indonesian Green Coffee Beans using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmoko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A method using QuEChERS sample preparation followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESIMS/MS was developed for quantitative determination of 14 pesticide residues in Indonesian green coffee beans. The European Standard Method EN 15662:2008 was modified to obtain an appropriate extraction and clean-up procedure for green coffee bean samples. Homogenous slurry samples were extracted with 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile and the extracts were cleaned up by a high pigment dispersive SPE. LC-ESI-MS/MS was operated in the MRM mode for two specific precursor-product ion transitions per target compound to obtain 4 identification points. Representative matrix-matched calibration curves were applied to compensate matrix effects. This method was validated according to the requirements of SANCO/12495/2011. Limits of detection (LODs and limits of quantification (LOQs were obtained in the ranges of 0.2-2.9 μg kg-1 and 0.8-9.7 μg kg-1 respectively, showing lower values than the maximum residu limits (MRLs set by importing countries. The method was applied to determine 14 pesticide residues in 181 Indonesian green coffee bean samples that were taken from different regions. Some pesticide residues were found in these samples and detected to be higher than the MRLs.

  7. Chemometric-assisted QuEChERS extraction method for the residual analysis of thiacloprid, spirotetramat and spirotetramat's four metabolites in pepper: Application of their dissipation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shasha; Liu, Xingang; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Xu, Hanqing; Hu, Mingfeng; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-02-01

    Chemometric tools equipped with a Plackett-Burman (P-B) design, a central composite design (CCD) and a desirability profile were employed to optimise the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method for the quantification of thiacloprid, spirotetramat and spirotetramat's four metabolites in pepper. The average recoveries were in the range of 71.6-119.5%, with relative standard deviations ⩽ 12.1%. The limit of quantification for the method was less than 0.01 mg/kg. The method was applied to field samples to evaluate the residual characteristics of thiacloprid and spirotetramat. The data showed that the first+first-order model is a better fit than the first order model for the dissipation of thiacloprid and spirotetramat in pepper. The half-lives of thiacloprid and spirotetramat in pepper are 0.81 and 1.21 days, respectively. The final residues were between 0.016 mg/kg and 0.13 mg/kg for thiacloprid and 0.08 mg/kg and 0.12 mg/kg for spirotetramat.

  8. Analysis of estrogens in wastewater using solid-phase extraction, QuEChERS cleanup, and liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunatilake, Sameera R; Craver, Shelby; Kwon, Jeong-Wook; Xia, Kang; Armbrust, Kevin; Rodriguez, Jose M; Mlsna, Todd E

    2013-01-01

    We present an improved method for trace level quantification of five estrogens including estriol, estrone, 17alpha-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol, and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol in wastewaters. Our method includes sample preparation using SPE followed by a Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) cleanup step, a derivatization, and LC/MS/MS determination. Sample extraction was carried out using Oasis HLB cartridges and a dispersive solid-phase cleanup pack containing MgSO4 and primary-secondary amine and C18 sorbents. The resulting extract was derivatized with dansyl chloride. Separation was achieved on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C18, Narrow Bore RR 2.1 x 100 mm, 3.5 pm column; quantification was accomplished in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring. The cleanup method is quick, efficient, inexpensive, and requires only 200 mL of water. Reliable linearities were obtained for all calibration curves (r2 > 0.995). Matrix effects calculated were less than 12% for all analytes, and, hence, matrix matched calibration curves were not needed. The recoveries for the estrogens ranged from 81-103%, with a high repeatability (n = 3, RSD < or = 9%) and low LOQs (0.6-0.9 ng/L). The method was used to analyze effluent and influent wastewaters in Mississippi wastewater treatment plants, but it is broadly applicable for the determination of trace estrogens in any municipal wastewater samples.

  9. Determination of quinolones of veterinary use in bee products by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a QuEChERS extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo-Agüí, Manuel; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; Cruces-Blanco, Carmen

    2012-05-15

    A reliable and rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the determination of the eight quinolones of veterinary use regulated by European Union (marbofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, difloxacin, flumequine and oxolinic acid). Chromatographic conditions were optimized in order to increase sample throughput and sensitivity. The antibiotics were detected by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and MS/MS conditions were optimized in order to increase selectivity, selecting the corresponding product ions for quantification and identification. The separation was achieved in 3 min, using a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column (50 mm × 2.1mm, 1.8 μm), with a mobile phase of 0.02% aqueous formic acid solution and acetonitrile. A dispersive solid phase extraction methodology, often referred to as the "QuEChERS" (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method, was optimized for extraction of the quinolones from honey and also it was evaluated for other bee products such as royal jelly and propolis. The method was validated for each matrix in terms of linearity, trueness, precision, limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQ). LODs ranged between 0.2 and 4.1 μg kg(-1) with precision lower than 12% and satisfactory recoveries in most cases. The method was also applied for studying the occurrence of these antibiotics in several market samples.

  10. Multi-mycotoxins analysis in Pheretima using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based on a modified QuEChERS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sisi; Lu, Jiwei; Wang, Shaomin; Mao, Dan; Miao, Shui; Ji, Shen

    2016-11-01

    A sensitive and high-throughput method was established and validated for the simultaneous determination of 22 mycotoxins in Pheretima aspergillum (E.Perrier) and Pheretima guillelmi (Michaelsen). A modified Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method was used for sample preparation with recoveries ranging from 73% to 105% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) 0.99. In all cases, the intra- and inter-day precisions were lower than 6% and 10%, respectively. Matrix-matched calibration was utilized for quantification purposes to compensate for the matrix effects. Furthermore, the established method was successfully applied in 17 batches of normal real samples collected from different areas of China and 2 batches of moldy samples due to improper storage, only mold-contaminated samples were confirmed to have fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) contamination at 2.54-3.78μgkg(-1). The constructed method could serve as a practical application of the UHPLC-MS/MS method for the trace analysis of multiple mycotoxins in complex matrixes, especially for those with high lipid contents.

  11. A quick method for analysis of heterocyclic amines in meat by QuEChERS coupled with LC-DAD-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Han-Yin; Chen, Bing Huei; Kao, Tsai Hua

    2017-10-03

    The traditional way to analyze heterocyclic amines (HAs) is time-consuming and uses large amounts of solvents. The objective of this study is to develop a quick and simultaneous analysis method for multiple types of HAs contained in meat products. Results showed that 20 HAs and 1 internal standard (4,7,8-TriMeIQx) can be separated within 30 min using an Inspire C18 column and a gradient solvent system containing a 10-mM ammonium acetate (pH 2.9) and acetonitrile. This process resulted in a high degree of separation. Using acetonitrile with 1% acetic acid as extraction solvent, followed PSA, MgSO4, and C18EC as purified reagent, is highly suitable for extracting HAs using QuEChERS. Tandem mass spectrometry with selected reaction monitoring mode were used for analysis, which indicated reasonable recovery (58.9-117.4%) for all 20 types of HAs along with limits of detection and quantification in the range of 0.003-0.05 ng/g and 0.01-0.05 ng/g, respectively.

  12. Evaluation of a modified QuEChERS extraction of multiple classes of pesticides from a rice paddy soil by LC-APCI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Sergiane S; Bolzan, Cátia M; Cerqueira, Maristela B; Tomasini, Débora; Furlong, Eliana B; Fagundes, Carlos; Primel, Ednei G

    2011-11-23

    A new method for the determination of clomazone, fipronil, tebuconazole, propiconazole, and azoxystrobin in samples of rice paddy soil is presented. The extraction of the pesticides from soil samples was performed by using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. Some extraction conditions such as salt addition, sample acidification, use of buffer, and cleanup step were evaluated. The optimized method dealt with a single extraction of the compounds under study with acidified acetonitrile, followed by the addition of MgSO(4) and NaCl prior to the final determination by liquid chromatography-atmospheric chemical pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Validation studies were carried out in soil samples. Recoveries of the spiked samples ranged between 70.3 and 120% with relative standard deviation lower than 18.2%. The limits of quantification were between 10 and 50 μg kg(-1). The method was applied to the analysis of real samples of soils where rice is cultivated.

  13. QuEChERS-based method for the multiresidue analysis of pesticides in beeswax by LC-MS/MS and GC×GC-TOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niell, Silvina; Cesio, Verónica; Hepperle, Julia; Doerk, Daniela; Kirsch, Larissa; Kolberg, Diana; Scherbaum, Ellen; Anastassiades, Michelangelo; Heinzen, Horacio

    2014-04-30

    The validation of an analytical procedure for the determination of pesticide residues in beeswax, an interesting matrix for environmental pollution monitoring, is presented. Using the QuEChERS template, the impacts of wax particle size, sample amount, and cleanup procedure (water addition, dispersive solid phase extraction, freeze-out, and combinations thereof) on extraction yield and coextractive load were studied. Sample preparation through liquid-liquid partitioning between acetonitrile and melted wax (∼80 °C), followed by freeze-out and primary-secondary amine dispersive cleanup, was performed on incurred and pesticide-free samples for 51 residues. Determinations were made through LC-MS/MS and GC×GC-TOF, and the whole procedure was validated. Matrix effects were evaluated, with recoveries between 70 and 120% and RSDs below 20% in almost all cases. LC-MS/MS LOQs ranged from 0.01 to 0.1 mg/kg for most pesticides, but for GC-amenable pesticides, GC×GC-TOF sensitivity was lower (0.1-0.2 mg/kg). This methodology can be applied for routine analysis of pesticide residues in beeswax.

  14. Performance and matrix effect observed in QuEChERS extraction and tandem mass spectrometry analyses of pesticide residues in different target crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, Luigi; Molinari, Gian Pietro

    2011-10-01

    The method performance and matrix effect related to quantitative determination of pesticide residues was assessed after QuEChERS extraction and LC-MS-MS analysis. Dicloran, phosmet and phosmet-oxon, pirimiphos-methyl, and BNOA were analyzed in peach, apple, melon, cereals, tomato, and strawberry. The matrix effects, as well as recovery and process efficiencies, were determined for a fungicide, two insecticides, and a plant growth regulator. Crop samples were spiked either pre- or post-extraction, then the peak area was compared with the peak area in neat solvent. The mean recovery ranged from 73% to 98%, and repeatability (as RSD) was between 3% and 16%, depending on the compound and spiking level. The matrix effect occurred as ionic suppression and was found in the range of 5% to 22% depending on the compound. Recovery efficiencies were good and substantially comparable, being in the range of 93-96%. Although the suppression observed still appears to be acceptable considering the overall process efficiency, it seems evident that the matrix effect is important when a reliable quantitative method must be applied.

  15. UHPLC-MS/MS Determination of Ochratoxin A and Fumonisins in Coffee Using QuEChERS Extraction Combined with Mixed-Mode SPE Purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ngemela, Archard Ferdinand; Jensen, Lene Bai

    2015-01-01

    A method was developed for simultaneous determination of the mycotoxins: ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins B2 (FB2), B4 (FB4), and B6 (FB6) in green, roasted, and instant coffee. Extraction was performed by QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) under acidic conditions followed...... system increased the signal intensity by 50% and decreased the ion-suppression with 50−75% in roasted coffee samples. About half of the roasted coffee samples (n = 57, from 9 countries) contained detectable levels of OTA, however, with only 5 samples above the EU regulatory limit of 5 μg....../kg and the highest with 21 μg/kg. None of the 25 instant coffee samples contained OTA above the EU regulatory level of 10 μg/kg. Nonetheless, the toxin could be detected in 56% of the analyzed instant coffee samples. Fumonisins were not detected in any of the roasted or instant coffee samples (n = 82). However...

  16. The QuEChERS analytical method combined with low density solvent based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for quantitative extraction of multiclass pesticide residues in cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bedassa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a combination QuEChERS and low density solvent based DLLME was developed for extraction and preconcentration of five multiclass pesticide residues including atrazine, ametryn, terbutryn, carbaryl and chlorothalonil, from selected cereals: Teff, barley and maize samples. Liquid chromatography with variable wavelength detector (VWD was used for quantitative determination of the pesticides. Various experimental parameters affecting the extraction and the preconcentration efficiencies were optimized. Calibration curves constructed using Teff samples were linear over wide ranges, 7.1-200 μg kg-1 with R2 ≥ 0.990. LODs of the method were ≤ 8.9 μg kg-1, below the MRLs of EU for maize and barley. The RSDs were in the range of 2.3–9.5%. The method has also been applied to different cereal samples and satisfactory average recoveries ranging 69.0–117% were obtained for the spiked cereal samples at two concentration levels. Therefore, the developed method can be successfully utilized as a simple alternative for the analysis of multiclass pesticide residues in cereals and other related samples.

  17. Determination of acrylamide in dried fruits and edible seeds using QuEChERS extraction and LC separation with MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paola, Eleonora Laura; Montevecchi, Giuseppe; Masino, Francesca; Garbini, Davide; Barbanera, Martino; Antonelli, Andrea

    2017-02-15

    Acrylamide is a carcinogenic and neurotoxic process contaminant that is generated from food components during heat treatment, while it is absent in raw foodstuffs. Its level in food arouses great concern. A method for acrylamide extraction and determination in dried fruits (dried prunes and raisins) and edible seeds (almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) using a QuEChERS-LC-ESI-MS-Triple Quadrupole approach was set up. Linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the method were satisfactory. Dried prunes and peanuts were the only samples appreciably contaminated, 14.7-124.3 and 10.0-42.9μg/kg, respectively, as a consequence of the drying process. In fact, prunes are dried at 70-80°C for a quite long time (24-36h), while peanuts undergo a roasting process at 160-180°C for 25-30min. The relative standard deviations, accuracy, LOD, and LOQ show that the method provides a reliable approach to acrylamide determination in different matrices.

  18. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system in

  19. Remote Inspection Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to remotely inspect equipment of an aging infrastructure is becoming of major interest to many industries. Often the ability to just get a look at a piece of critical equipment can yield very important information. With millions of miles of piping installed throughout the United States, this vast network is critical to oil, natural…

  20. EPA REMOTE SENSING RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2006 transgenic corn imaging research campaign has been greatly assisted through a cooperative effort with several Illinois growers who provided planting area and crop composition. This research effort was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of remote sensed imagery of var...