WorldWideScience

Sample records for remote signal transmission

  1. Leaky coaxial cable signal transmission for remote facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.F.; Crutcher, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    To develop reliable communications methods to meet the rigorous requirements for nuclear hot cells and similar environments, including control of cranes, transporters, and advanced servomanipulators, the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted extensive tests of numerous technologies to determine their applicability to remote operations. To alleviate the need for large bundles of cables that must accommodate crane/transporter motion relative to the boundaries of the cell, several transmission techniques are available, including slotted-line radio-frequency couplers, infrared beams, fiber-optic cables, free-space microwave, and inductively coupled leaky coaxial cable. This paper discusses the general characteristics, mode of operation, and proposed implementation of leaky coaxial cable technology in a waste-handling facility scheduled to be built in the near future at ORNL. In addition, specific system hardware based around the use of leaky coaxial cable is described in detail. Finally, data from a series of radiation exposure tests conducted by the CFRP on several samples of the basic leaky coaxial cable and associated connectors are presented

  2. The Design of Wireless Data Acquisition and Remote Transmission Interface in Micro-seismic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Huan BIAN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The micro-seismic signal acquisition and transmission is an important key part in geological prospecting. This paper describes a bran-new solution of micro-seismic signal acquisition and remote transmission using Zigbee technique and wireless data transmission technique. The hardware such as front-end data acquisition interface made up by Zigbee wireless networking technique, remote data transmission solution composed of general packet radio service (or GPRS for short technique and interface between Zigbee and GPRS is designed in detail. Meanwhile the corresponding software of the system is given out. The solution solves the numerous practical problems nagged by complex and terrible environment faced using micro-seismic prospecting. The experimental results demonstrate that the method using Zigbee wireless network communication technique GPRS wireless packet switching technique is efficient, reliable and flexible.

  3. Signal processing for remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, CH

    2007-01-01

    Written by leaders in the field, Signal Processing for Remote Sensing explores the data acquisitions segment of remote sensing. Each chapter presents a major research result or the most up to date development of a topic. The book includes a chapter by Dr. Norden Huang, inventor of the Huang-Hilbert transform who, along with and Dr. Steven Long discusses the application of the transform to remote sensing problems. It also contains a chapter by Dr. Enders A. Robinson, who has made major contributions to seismic signal processing for over half a century, on the basic problem of constructing seism

  4. Medical data transmission system for remote healthcare centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, E A; Cagnolo, F J; Olmos, C E; Centeno, C A; Riva, G G; Zerbini, C A

    2007-01-01

    The main motivation of this project is to improve the healthcare centres equipment and human resources efficiency, enabling those centres for transmission of parameters of medical interest. This system facilitates remote consultation, in particular between specialists and remote healthcare centres. Likewise it contributes to the qualification of professionals. The electrocardiographic (ECG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) signals are acquired, processed and then sent, fulfilling the effective norms, for application in the hospital network of Cordoba Province, which has nodes interconnected by phone line. As innovative aspects we emphasized the low cost of development and maintenance, great versatility and handling simplicity with a modular design for interconnection with diverse data transmission media (Wi-Fi, GPRS, etc.). Successfully experiences were obtained during the acquisition of the signals and transmissions on wired LAN networks. As improvements, we can mention: energy consumption optimization and mobile communication systems usage, in order to offer more autonomy

  5. Medical data transmission system for remote healthcare centres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, E A; Cagnolo, F J; Olmos, C E; Centeno, C A; Riva, G G; Zerbini, C A [Clinical Engineering Group, National Technological University, Cordoba Regional Faculty, Maestro M Lopez St and Cruz Roja Argentina St, Cordoba (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    The main motivation of this project is to improve the healthcare centres equipment and human resources efficiency, enabling those centres for transmission of parameters of medical interest. This system facilitates remote consultation, in particular between specialists and remote healthcare centres. Likewise it contributes to the qualification of professionals. The electrocardiographic (ECG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) signals are acquired, processed and then sent, fulfilling the effective norms, for application in the hospital network of Cordoba Province, which has nodes interconnected by phone line. As innovative aspects we emphasized the low cost of development and maintenance, great versatility and handling simplicity with a modular design for interconnection with diverse data transmission media (Wi-Fi, GPRS, etc.). Successfully experiences were obtained during the acquisition of the signals and transmissions on wired LAN networks. As improvements, we can mention: energy consumption optimization and mobile communication systems usage, in order to offer more autonomy.

  6. Remote sensing, imaging, and signal engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brase, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses the Remote Sensing, Imaging, and Signal Engineering (RISE) trust area which has been very active in working to define new directions. Signal and image processing have always been important support for existing programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), but now these technologies are becoming central to the formation of new programs. Exciting new applications such as high-resolution telescopes, radar remote sensing, and advanced medical imaging are allowing us to participate in the development of new programs.

  7. Research on active imaging information transmission technology of satellite borne quantum remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Siwen; Zhen, Ming; Yang, Song; Lin, Xuling; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2017-08-01

    According to the development and application needs of Remote Sensing Science and technology, Prof. Siwen Bi proposed quantum remote sensing. Firstly, the paper gives a brief introduction of the background of quantum remote sensing, the research status and related researches at home and abroad on the theory, information mechanism and imaging experiments of quantum remote sensing and the production of principle prototype.Then, the quantization of pure remote sensing radiation field, the state function and squeezing effect of quantum remote sensing radiation field are emphasized. It also describes the squeezing optical operator of quantum light field in active imaging information transmission experiment and imaging experiments, achieving 2-3 times higher resolution than that of coherent light detection imaging and completing the production of quantum remote sensing imaging prototype. The application of quantum remote sensing technology can significantly improve both the signal-to-noise ratio of information transmission imaging and the spatial resolution of quantum remote sensing .On the above basis, Prof.Bi proposed the technical solution of active imaging information transmission technology of satellite borne quantum remote sensing, launched researches on its system composition and operation principle and on quantum noiseless amplifying devices, providing solutions and technical basis for implementing active imaging information technology of satellite borne Quantum Remote Sensing.

  8. Acquirement and enhancement of remote speech signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Tao; Guo, Jin; Zhang, He-yong; Yan, Chun-hui; Wang, Can-jin

    2017-07-01

    To address the challenges of non-cooperative and remote acoustic detection, an all-fiber laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) is established. The all-fiber LDV system can offer the advantages of smaller size, lightweight design and robust structure, hence it is a better fit for remote speech detection. In order to improve the performance and the efficiency of LDV for long-range hearing, the speech enhancement technology based on optimally modified log-spectral amplitude (OM-LSA) algorithm is used. The experimental results show that the comprehensible speech signals within the range of 150 m can be obtained by the proposed LDV. The signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR) and mean opinion score ( MOS) of the LDV speech signal can be increased by 100% and 27%, respectively, by using the speech enhancement technology. This all-fiber LDV, which combines the speech enhancement technology, can meet the practical demand in engineering.

  9. Measurements on wireless transmission of ECG signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, A.; Lax, I.

    2016-12-01

    The scope of this research is to design an electronic prototype, an operative system as a proof of concept, to transmit and receive biological parameters, in particular electrocardiogram signals, through dedicated wireless circuits. The apparatus features microelectronics chips that were developed for more general biomedical applications, here adapted to deal with cardiac signals. The paper mainly focuses on the electronic aspects, as in this study we do not face medical or clinical aspects of the system. The transmitter circuit uses a commercial instrumentation amplifier and the receiver has been equipped with wide-band amplifiers along with made-in-the-lab band-pass filters centered at the carrier. We have been able to mount the entire system prototype into a preliminary data acquisition chain that reads out the electrocardiogram signal. The prototype allows acquiring the waveform, converting it to a digital pattern and open the transmission through a series of high-frequency packets exploiting the Ultra Wide Band protocol. The sensor value is embedded in the transmission through the rate of the digital packets. In fact, these are sent wireless at a specific packet-frequency that depends on the sensor amplitude and are detected into a receiver circuit that recovers the information.

  10. Asymmetric DSL Technology of Signal Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Kovačević

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric flow of information is the key feature of theADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop technology, i.e.higher data transmission rate towards the user than from theuser towards the network. Characteristic is the short messagesending by the user with a certain request to the se!Ver. These!Ver responds to the request by a significantly longer messageof various electronic forms (data, digitized speech, pictures orvideo. Therefore, this technology is most often used by smalland medium users. ADSL is currently the only commerciallyavailable DSL technology which is still experiencing the breakthroughon the seiVice market. It enables faster access to theInternet, LAN (Local Area Network, videoconferencing, VoD(Video on Demand and interactive multimedia. In order tostandardize such se/Vices, the !TU (International TelecommunicationsUnion G. 992.1 (standardized DMT-discrete multi-tone line coding technology and ANSJ (American NationalStandards Institution Tl.413-95!98 are used for ADSL. DMT(Discrete Multi Tone, as the more popular one, uses the linecoding technique, which splits a certain frequency range intoseveral sub-channels. Most of these sub-channels are used forupstream and downstream transmission of speech and data,whereas some are used as pilot signals or kept in rese/Ve. Suchmodulation technique expands the frequency spectrum, allowingthe usage ofbroadband se/Vices per one pair of wires. In thisway the sharing of speech and data se/Vice transmission is realized.

  11. Joint remote data transmission field trial at Ahaus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekkarinen, J.; Meylemans, P.; Rudolf, K.; Schink, F.J.; Kuribayashi, T.; Leslie, R.F.; Neumann, G.

    2001-05-01

    The international safeguards authorities Euratom Safeguards Office and international atomic energy agency (IAEA) intend to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their inspection efforts in nuclear facilities by replacing unattended remote monitoring technology for on-site inspection activities. In order to study aspects of cost-effectiveness as well as technical feasibility and reliability, a 13-month dedicated field trial was performed at the Ahaus spent fuel storage facility testing the remote retrieval of authenticated and encrypted image data files from a digital multi-camera optical surveillance system (DMOS) with three cameras. Each image data file was released with a delay of 24 hours for remote retrieval via ISDN. Retrieval, reviewing and archiving took place at Euratom headquarters in Luxembourg. Due to the applied distributed data storage concept no loss of data took place. The data reduction principle of front end scene change detection worked reliably, i.e. it was possible to significantly reduce the amount of data to be remotely transmitted and the associated transmission costs. Under the assumption that technically mature safeguards instrumentation is available, the implementation of remote monitoring systems is technically feasible but requires cost-benefit analyses on a case-by-case basis. (orig.) [de

  12. Reconfigurable remote access unit for W-band Radio-over-Fiber transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chorchos, Łukasz; Rommel, Simon; Turkiewicz, Jarosław P.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing demand for cost-effective radio over fibre transmission techniques. In this paper, we propose and realize the reconfigurable remote access unit for radio-over-fiber transmission. The reconfigurable unit is build from the tunable filter and laser as well as remote controller...

  13. Guidelines for Vehicle Robbery Prevention using Remote Blocking Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narong Sangwaranatee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the radio signal remote sensing device was used to control the vehicle door switching control, which was the field trials experiment. The switching "On" and "Off" of the switching signals were used to control the vehicle door and investigated. In application, the blocking signal from the commit the remote vehicle crime in the venerable place can be protected. The results obtained have shown that the signal blocking by using another remote control over 5 meters, 10 meters and 15 meters could be achieved. The proposed models and tested results have shown that the Vehicle Brand A Model No. 1 could be blocked by 83.33 percent, while Brand A Model No.2 by 83.33 percent, Brand B Model No.1 by 40 percent, Brand B Model No.2 by 60 percent, Brand C Model No. 1 by 83.33 percent, Brand C Model No. 2 by 83.33 percent, meanwhile, the remote control for general vehicle are used radio waves with frequency 315 and 433 MHz, where the criminal will use the interference signals to form the blocking (jamming signals, the vehicle can be robbed.

  14. Signal transmissibility in marginal granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Matthew B.; Witten, Thomas A.

    2016-12-01

    We examine the ‘transmissibility’ of a simulated two-dimensional pack of frictionless disks formed by confining dilute disks in a shrinking, periodic box to the point of mechanical stability. Two opposite boundaries are then removed, thus allowing a set of free motions. Small free displacements on one boundary then induce proportional displacements on the opposite boundary. Transmissibility is the ability to distinguish different perturbations by their distant responses. We assess transmissibility by successively identifying free orthonormal modes of motion that have the smallest distant responses. The last modes to be identified in this ‘pessimistic’ basis are the most transmissive. The transmitted amplitudes of these most transmissive modes fall off exponentially with mode number. Similar exponential falloff is seen in a simple elastic medium, though the responsible modes differ greatly in structure in the two systems. Thus the marginal pack’s transmissibility is qualitatively similar to that of a simple elastic medium. We compare our results with recent findings based on the projection of the space of free motion onto interior sites.

  15. Design and construction of system for telephonic transmission of Ecg signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, M. H.; Mazloum, J.

    2001-01-01

    With the growing use of Electrocardiogram signal for detection and diagnosis of heart disorders, the efficient transmission of this signal over telephone lines or mobile radio is becoming more and more important. A specialist in a major hospital can use the system and revive information on a patient in a rural area and send back a plan of treatment specific for that patient. In this article, we present different stage for design and fabricate an intelligent telephonic transmission System with 12-Lead Ecg. This paper includes two sections on hardware and software. The digital hardware circuitry takes benefit of an microprocessor. Microprocessor software takes hospital telephone number and transmit/receive serial data to modem. In software section a real algorithm is used to draw Ecg signal and save this digital data to remote computer hard disk and compression Ecg signal via four algorithms

  16. Frequency modulator. Transmission of meteorological signals in LVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero G, P.T.; Ramirez S, R.; Gonzalez M, J.L.; Rojas N, P.; Celis del Angel, L.

    2007-01-01

    The development of the frequency modulator and demodulator circuit for transmission of meteorological signals by means of fiber optics of the meteorology station to the nuclear reactor unit 1 in the Laguna Verde Central in Veracruz is described. (Author)

  17. Development of remote control software for multiformat test signal generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The multi format test signal generator mentioned in this paper is the video signal generator named TG8000 produced by Tektronix Company. I will introduce the function about remote control for signal generator, how to connect the computer to the instrument, and how to remote control. My topic uses my computer to connect the instrument through the 10/100/1000 BASE-T port on the rear panel of TG8000. Then I write program to transmit SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments to control TG8000. The application is running on the Windows operating system, the programming language is C#, development environment is Microsoft Visual Studio 2010, using the TCP/IP protocol based on Socket. And the method of remote control refers to the application called TGSetup which is developed by Tektronix Company. This paper includes a brief summary of the basic principle, and introduce for details about the process of remote control software development, and how to use my software. In the end, I will talk about the advantages of my software compared with another one.

  18. Autocrine signal transmission with extracellular ligand degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratov, C B; Posta, F; Shvartsman, S Y

    2009-01-01

    Traveling waves of cell signaling in epithelial layers orchestrate a number of important processes in developing and adult tissues. These waves can be mediated by positive feedback autocrine loops, a mode of cell signaling where binding of a diffusible extracellular ligand to a cell surface receptor can lead to further ligand release. We formulate and analyze a biophysical model that accounts for ligand-induced ligand release, extracellular ligand diffusion and ligand–receptor interaction. We focus on the case when the main mode for ligand degradation is extracellular and analyze the problem with the sharp threshold positive feedback nonlinearity. We derive expressions that link the speed of propagation and other characteristics of traveling waves to the parameters of the biophysical processes, such as diffusion rates, receptor expression level, etc. Analyzing the derived expressions we found that traveling waves in such systems can exhibit a number of unusual properties, e.g. non-monotonic dependence of the speed of propagation on ligand diffusivity. Our results for the fully developed traveling fronts can be used to analyze wave initiation from localized perturbations, a scenario that frequently arises in the in vitro models of epithelial wound healing, and guide future modeling studies of cell communication in epithelial layers

  19. Prioritizing Signaling Information Transmission in Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Baraković

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Next generation transport network is characterized by the use of in-band signaling, where Internet Protocol (IP packets carrying signaling or media information are mixed in transmission. Since transport resources are limited, when any segment of access or core network is congested, IP packets carrying signaling information may be discarded. As a consequence, it may be impossible to implement reachability and quality of service (QoS. Since present approaches are insufficient to completely address this problem, a novel approach is proposed, which is based on prioritizing signaling information transmission. To proof the concept, a simulation study was performed using Network Simulator version 2 (ns-2 and independently developed Session Initiation Protocol (SIP module. The obtained results were statistically processed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 15.0. Summarizing our research results, several issues are identified for future work.

  20. Signaling within Allosteric Machines: Signal Transmission Pathways Inside G Protein-Coupled Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartuzi, Damian; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Matosiuk, Dariusz

    2017-07-15

    In recent years, our understanding of function of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has changed from a picture of simple signal relays, transmitting only a particular signal to a particular G protein heterotrimer, to versatile machines, capable of various responses to different stimuli and being modulated by various factors. Some recent reports provide not only the data on ligands/modulators and resultant signals induced by them, but also deeper insights into exact pathways of signal migration and mechanisms of signal transmission through receptor structure. Combination of these computational and experimental data sheds more light on underlying mechanisms of signal transmission and signaling bias in GPCRs. In this review we focus on available clues on allosteric pathways responsible for complex signal processing within GPCRs structures, with particular emphasis on linking compatible in silico- and in vitro-derived data on the most probable allosteric connections.

  1. Automatic remote monitoring utilizing daily transmissions: transmission reliability and implantable cardioverter defibrillator battery longevity in the TRUST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Niraj; Love, Charles J; Schweikert, Robert; Moll, Philip; Michalski, Justin; Epstein, Andrew E

    2017-05-10

    Benefits of automatic remote home monitoring (HM) among implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients may require high transmission frequency. However, transmission reliability and effects on battery longevity remain uncertain. We hypothesized that HM would have high transmission success permitting punctual guideline based follow-up, and improve battery longevity. This was tested in the prospective randomized TRUST trial. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients were randomized post-implant 2:1 to HM (n = 908) (transmit daily) or to Conventional in-person monitoring [conventional management (CM), n = 431 (HM disabled)]. In both groups, five evaluations were scheduled every 3 months for 15 months. Home Monitoring technology performance was assessed by transmissions received vs. total possible, and number of scheduled HM checks failing because of missed transmissions. Battery longevity was compared in HM vs. CM at 15 months, and again in HM 3 years post-implant using continuously transmitted data. Transmission success per patient was 91% (median follow-up of 434 days). Overall, daily HM transmissions were received in 315 795 of a potential 363 450 days (87%). Only 55/3759 (1.46%) of unsuccessful scheduled evaluations in HM were attributed to transmission loss. Shock frequency and pacing percentage were similar in HM vs. CM. Fifteen month battery longevity was 12% greater in HM (93.2 ± 8.8% vs. 83.5 ± 6.0% CM, P battery longevity was 50.9 ± 9.1% (median 52%) at 36 months. Automatic remote HM demonstrated robust transmission reliability. Daily transmission load may be sustained without reducing battery longevity. Home Monitoring conserves battery longevity and tracks long term device performance. ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT00336284.

  2. Biomedical signal acquisition, processing and transmission using smartphone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncagliolo, Pablo; Arredondo, Luis; Gonzalez, AgustIn

    2007-01-01

    This article describes technical aspects involved in the programming of a system of acquisition, processing and transmission of biomedical signals by using mobile devices. This task is aligned with the permanent development of new technologies for the diagnosis and sickness treatment, based on the feasibility of measuring continuously different variables as electrocardiographic signals, blood pressure, oxygen concentration, pulse or simply temperature. The contribution of this technology is settled on its portability and low cost, which allows its massive use. Specifically this work analyzes the feasibility of acquisition and the processing of signals from a standard smartphone. Work results allow to state that nowadays these equipments have enough processing capacity to execute signals acquisition systems. These systems along with external servers make it possible to imagine a near future where the possibility of making continuous measures of biomedical variables will not be restricted only to hospitals but will also begin to be more frequently used in the daily life and at home

  3. Remote diagnosis via a telecommunication satellite--ultrasonic tomographic image transmission experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, I; Inokuchi, S; Tajima, T; Takahashi, T

    1985-04-01

    An experiment to transmit ultrasonic tomographic section images required for remote medical diagnosis and care was conducted using the mobile telecommunication satellite OSCAR-10. The images received showed the intestinal condition of a patient incapable of verbal communication, however the image screen had a fairly coarse particle structure. On the basis of these experiments, were considered as the transmission of ultrasonic tomographic images extremely effective in remote diagnosis.

  4. Biophoton signal transmission and processing in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rendong; Dai, Jiapei

    2014-10-05

    The transmission and processing of neural information in the nervous system plays a key role in neural functions. It is well accepted that neural communication is mediated by bioelectricity and chemical molecules via the processes called bioelectrical and chemical transmission, respectively. Indeed, the traditional theories seem to give valuable explanations for the basic functions of the nervous system, but difficult to construct general accepted concepts or principles to provide reasonable explanations of higher brain functions and mental activities, such as perception, learning and memory, emotion and consciousness. Therefore, many unanswered questions and debates over the neural encoding and mechanisms of neuronal networks remain. Cell to cell communication by biophotons, also called ultra-weak photon emissions, has been demonstrated in several plants, bacteria and certain animal cells. Recently, both experimental evidence and theoretical speculation have suggested that biophotons may play a potential role in neural signal transmission and processing, contributing to the understanding of the high functions of nervous system. In this paper, we review the relevant experimental findings and discuss the possible underlying mechanisms of biophoton signal transmission and processing in the nervous system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radar signal transmission and switching over optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmail, Maged A.; Ragheb, Amr; Seleem, Hussein; Fathallah, Habib; Alshebeili, Saleh

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a radar signal distribution over optical networks. The use of fiber enables us to distribute radar signals to distant sites with a low power loss. Moreover, fiber networks can reduce the radar system cost, by sharing precise and expensive radar signal generation and processing equipment. In order to overcome the bandwidth challenges in electrical switches, a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is used as an all-optical device for wavelength conversion to the desired port (or channel) of a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) network. Moreover, the effect of chromatic dispersion in double sideband (DSB) signals is combated by generating optical single sideband (OSSB) signals. The optimal values of the SOA device parameters required to generate an OSSB with a high sideband suppression ratio (SSR) are determined. We considered various parameters such as injection current, pump power, and probe power. In addition, the effect of signal wavelength conversion and transmission over fiber are studied in terms of signal dynamic range.

  6. Modeling and Validation of Environmental Suitability for Schistosomiasis Transmission Using Remote Sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Walz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is the most widespread water-based disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and human water contact patterns. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. We investigated the potential of remote sensing to characterize habitat conditions of parasite and intermediate host snails and discuss the relevance for public health.We employed high-resolution remote sensing data, environmental field measurements, and ecological data to model environmental suitability for schistosomiasis-related parasite and snail species. The model was developed for Burkina Faso using a habitat suitability index (HSI. The plausibility of remote sensing habitat variables was validated using field measurements. The established model was transferred to different ecological settings in Côte d'Ivoire and validated against readily available survey data from school-aged children.Environmental suitability for schistosomiasis transmission was spatially delineated and quantified by seven habitat variables derived from remote sensing data. The strengths and weaknesses highlighted by the plausibility analysis showed that temporal dynamic water and vegetation measures were particularly useful to model parasite and snail habitat suitability, whereas the measurement of water surface temperature and topographic variables did not perform appropriately. The transferability of the model showed significant relations between the HSI and infection prevalence in study sites of Côte d'Ivoire.A predictive map of environmental suitability for schistosomiasis transmission can support measures to gain and sustain control. This is particularly relevant as emphasis is shifting from morbidity control to interrupting transmission. Further validation of our mechanistic model needs to be complemented by field data of parasite- and

  7. Modeling and Validation of Environmental Suitability for Schistosomiasis Transmission Using Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Yvonne; Wegmann, Martin; Dech, Stefan; Vounatsou, Penelope; Poda, Jean-Noël; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2015-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is the most widespread water-based disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and human water contact patterns. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. We investigated the potential of remote sensing to characterize habitat conditions of parasite and intermediate host snails and discuss the relevance for public health. We employed high-resolution remote sensing data, environmental field measurements, and ecological data to model environmental suitability for schistosomiasis-related parasite and snail species. The model was developed for Burkina Faso using a habitat suitability index (HSI). The plausibility of remote sensing habitat variables was validated using field measurements. The established model was transferred to different ecological settings in Côte d'Ivoire and validated against readily available survey data from school-aged children. Environmental suitability for schistosomiasis transmission was spatially delineated and quantified by seven habitat variables derived from remote sensing data. The strengths and weaknesses highlighted by the plausibility analysis showed that temporal dynamic water and vegetation measures were particularly useful to model parasite and snail habitat suitability, whereas the measurement of water surface temperature and topographic variables did not perform appropriately. The transferability of the model showed significant relations between the HSI and infection prevalence in study sites of Côte d'Ivoire. A predictive map of environmental suitability for schistosomiasis transmission can support measures to gain and sustain control. This is particularly relevant as emphasis is shifting from morbidity control to interrupting transmission. Further validation of our mechanistic model needs to be complemented by field data of parasite- and snail

  8. A 16-channel flex circuit for cryogenic microwave signal transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarey, Patrick; Mani, Hamdi; Wheeler, Caleb; Groppi, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    Heterodyne focal plane arrays used in the terahertz (THz) regime currently require a discrete set of rigid coaxial cables for the transmission of individual intermediate frequency (IF) signals. Consequently, the size of an array is limited to ~10s of pixels due to limited physical space and the complexity of assembly. In order to achieve an array with ~1000 pixels or greater, new interconnections must be developed capable of carrying multiple IF signals on a single carrier which is flexible, robust to noise, and terminated with a high density RF connector. As an intermediate step to the development of a ~1000 pixel heterodyne focal plane array, the Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) has developed a 16 channel IF flex circuit. Initially, design simulations were performed to evaluate various means of high-frequency (1~10 GHz) signal transmission, including microstrip, stripline and coplanar waveguides. The method allowing for the closest signal spacing and greatest resistance to radio frequency interference (RFI) was determined to be stripline. Designs were considered where stripline transitioned to microstrip in order to terminate the signal. As microstrip transmission lines are sensitive to RFI, a design featuring just stripline was evaluated. In both the stripline-to-microstrip and stripline-only designs, a three-layer copper-coated polyimide substrate was used. Signal transitions were accomplished by a signal carrying "hot" via passing through a series of three conductive pads, similar to work by Leib et al. (2010). The transition design essentially mimics a coaxial line, where the radial distance between the pads and the ground plane is optimized in order to achieve desired impedances. In simulation, 50 Ohm impedances were achieved throughout, with crosstalk and return loss limited to -30dB. Terminations are made via an array of Corning Gilbert G3PO blind mate connectors, which are small enough to match the 6mm pixel pitch of the KAPPa focal plane unit

  9. Precise timing signal transmission by a new optical fiber cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shigeru; Murakami, Yasunori; Sato, Yoshihiro; Urakawa, Junji.

    1990-05-01

    For the precise timing signal transmission, a new optical fiber cable system was developed and installed between the 2.5GeV LINAC gun room and the TRISTAN control room. This fiber cable showed the reduced thermal transmission delay change less than 10psec/km in the temperature range from -20 to 30degC (average 0.04ppm/degC), which is 100 times smaller than that of any other existing coaxial cables and conventional optical fiber cables. The developed optical to electrical (O/E) and electrical to optical (E/O) converters also achieved the timing accuracy within 11psec over the temperature range from 10 to 35degC. The installed cable system in KEK eliminated the necessity of adjusting the phase drift of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (AR) RF signal (508MHz), which was required with the former coaxial cable due to the temperature change in a year. Measured full width of jitter over the installed 1600m fiber link was 18.8psec. (author)

  10. A Low-Power Signal Processing Unit for in vivo Monitoring and Transmission of Sensor Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. HAIDER

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A low-power signal processing and telemetry circuit for any generic biosensor applications has been presented. The complete system manifests a potentiostat, a signal processing block and a modulator block. The on-chip potentiostat biases the sensor electrodes for proper extraction of the sensor signals. The signal processing block integrates and buffers the sensor signal to make it a data signal and finally a simple modulator block converts this data signal to an on-off-keying (OOK signal with a high frequency carrier. Package pin of the fabricated circuit is used as an antenna and measurement results demonstrate the successful signal transmission from the chip within a few cm ranges. The entire system has been realized using 0.35 μm CMOS technology that consumes only 400 μW of power and occupies an area of 0.66 mm2. Test results show that this scheme is an effective candidate for low-power sensor applications.

  11. Remote control data via ethernet LAN. Data transmission via IP protocol; Fernwirkdaten ueber Ethernet-LAN. Uebertragung per IP-Protokoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortgies, M.

    2005-03-21

    The German urban utility of Frankfurt (Oder) use remote control systems to control and monitor their supply networks. In order to save future costs for leased lines from the deutsche telekom data transmission was supposed to be carried out across a newly-built ethernet MAN (metropolitan area network) on proprietary lines. One of the challenging issues was the link-up of fixed-line modems by means of RTS signal through port servers. (orig.)

  12. Quantitative Evaluation of Remote Field Eddy Current Defect Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jin Oh; Yi, Jae Kyung; Kim, Hyoung Jean

    2000-01-01

    The remote field eddy current (RFEC) inspection was performed on the ductile cast iron pipes with nominal outer diameter of 100mm, which were machined with various shapes and sizes of defects. Ductile cast iron pipes which are used as water supply pipe have the non-uniform thickness and asymmetric cross section due to relatively high degree of allowable errors during the manufacturing processes. These characteristics of ductile cast in pipes cause the long range background noises in RFEC signals along the pipe. In this study, tile machined defects in pipes were effectively classified by the moving window average (MWA) method which eliminated the long-range noise. The voltage plane polar plots (VPPP) method was used to quantitatively evaluate the depth and circumferential degree of defects. The VPPP signatures showed that the angle between defect signature and the normalized in-phase component on the VPPP is linear to the depth of defects. The nondestructive RFEC technique proved to be capable of quantitatively evaluating the machined defects of underground water supply pipe

  13. Power and signal transmission for mobile teleoperated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, A.C. Jr.; Hamel, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Appropriate means must be furnished for supplying power and for sending controlling commands to mobile teleoperated systems. Because a sizable number of possibilities are available for such applications, methods used in designing both the power and communications systems built into mobile vehicles that serve in radiological emergencies must be carefully selected. This paper describes a number of umbilical, on-board, and wireless systems used in tranmitting power that are available for mobile teleoperator services. The pros and cons of selecting appropriate methods from a list of possible communication systems (wired, fiber optic, and radio frequency) are also examined. Moreover, hybrid systems combining wireless power transmissions with command-information signals are also possible

  14. A study on improvements of inspection efficiency with remote transmission of inspection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    Current information networks technology brought secure and convenient condition of information transmission, so that inspectorates intend to apply such technology to optimize current inspection efforts. IAEA established the Remote Monitoring Project (RMP) in 1996 and started to draft safeguards concepts, and approaches to refer the implementation of remote monitoring technology and to compromise with relationship between current inspection activities and the remote monitoring technologies. Although communications costs and conditions of secured communication should be further investigated, the technologies would have a possibility to reduce current inspection efforts. We would face at the step to study on the several issues such as what measures could be candidate to use, how much cost we needs, what kind of technical risks would be concerned, further improvements could be achieved by comparison with current inspection costs and effectiveness. This paper reports on the expectation points and relevant technical attention points which are related to apply unattended inspection system with remote data transmission to the flows and inventory verification of item and bulk facility, respectively, in order to improve inspection efforts. (author)

  15. Performance Analysis of Long-Reach Coherent Detection OFDM-PON Downstream Transmission Using m-QAM-Mapped OFDM Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaurav; Goel, Aditya

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-passive optical network (PON) downstream transmission is demonstrated over different lengths of fiber at remote node (RN) for different m-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation)-mapped OFDM signal (m=4, 16, 32 and 64) transmission from the central office (CO) for different data rates (10, 20 30 and 40 Gbps) using coherent detection at the user end or optical network unit (ONU). Investigation is performed with different number of subcarriers (32, 64, 128, 512 and 1,024), back-to-back optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) along with transmitted and received constellation diagrams for m-QAM-mapped coherent OFDM downstream transmission at different speeds over different transmission distances. Received optical power is calculated for different bit error rates (BERs) at different speeds using m-QAM-mapped coherent detection OFDM downstream transmission. No dispersion compensation is utilized in between the fiber span. Simulation results suggest the different lengths and data rates that can be used for different m-QAM-mapped coherent detection OFDM downstream transmission, and the proposed system may be implemented in next-generation high-speed PONs (NG-PONs).

  16. 47 CFR 11.51 - EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission... SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.51 EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements. (a... messages and required tests by sending the EAS header codes, Attention Signal, emergency message and End of...

  17. Bi-Static Active Microwave Remote Sensing of Reflected Signals-of-Opportunity Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate the use of these so-called signals-of-opportunity (SOP) to perform bi-static active microwave remote sensing of land surfaces. Specially,...

  18. Secure open cloud in data transmission using reference pattern and identity with enhanced remote privacy checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay Singh, Ran; Agilandeeswari, L.

    2017-11-01

    To handle the large amount of client’s data in open cloud lots of security issues need to be address. Client’s privacy should not be known to other group members without data owner’s valid permission. Sometime clients are fended to have accessing with open cloud servers due to some restrictions. To overcome the security issues and these restrictions related to storing, data sharing in an inter domain network and privacy checking, we propose a model in this paper which is based on an identity based cryptography in data transmission and intermediate entity which have client’s reference with identity that will take control handling of data transmission in an open cloud environment and an extended remote privacy checking technique which will work at admin side. On behalf of data owner’s authority this proposed model will give best options to have secure cryptography in data transmission and remote privacy checking either as private or public or instructed. The hardness of Computational Diffie-Hellman assumption algorithm for key exchange makes this proposed model more secure than existing models which are being used for public cloud environment.

  19. Photonic Ultra-Wideband 781.25-Mb/s Signal Generation and Transmission Incorporating Digital Signal Processing Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    The generation of photonic ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse signals using an uncooled distributed-feedback laser is proposed. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrate bit-for-bit digital signal processing (DSP) bit-error-rate measurements for transmission of a 781.25-Mb/s photonic UWB signal...

  20. An intelligent telecardiology system for offline wireless transmission and remote analysis of ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R; Bera, J N; Mitra, M

    2012-10-01

    This paper illustrates a wireless system developed for offline ECG transmission and its remote processing. At the transmit end, a standalone embedded system collects short duration ECG samples from the source, stores them in a RAM and then encodes these using a customized bi-phase modulation for offline transmission in ISM band. At the receive end, another embedded system extracts ECG data from the demodulated output of the wireless receiver and delivers to a desktop computer using the serial port. An application software stores these samples in a text file. At first, the bit error and packet error are computed from the received dataset. Then, computed ECG wave durations and intervals along with lead data plot are generated on a Graphical User Interface for preliminary level diagnosis. Test results with synthetic ECG from PTB diagnostic ECG database (ptb-db) for short range of communication are reported.

  1. Experimental investigation of transmission properties and label swapping of an orthogonal ASK/FSK labeled signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Nan; Yu, S.Y.; Xu, Lin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental assessment of the transmission performance and all-optical label swapping for an orthogonal amplitude-shift keying-frequency-shift keying (ASK/FSK) labeled signal. Transmission through different dispersion maps with various compensation schemes and fiber types ...... is investigated. All-optical label erasure, reinsertion, and multihop transmission are experimentally demonstrated....

  2. Novel ultra-wideband photonic signal generation and transmission featuring digital signal processing bit error rate measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    We propose the novel generation of photonic ultra-wideband signals using an uncooled DFB laser. For the first time we experimentally demonstrate bit-for-bit DSP BER measurements for transmission of a 781.25 Mbit/s photonic UWB signal.......We propose the novel generation of photonic ultra-wideband signals using an uncooled DFB laser. For the first time we experimentally demonstrate bit-for-bit DSP BER measurements for transmission of a 781.25 Mbit/s photonic UWB signal....

  3. Systems and methods for remote long standoff biometric identification using microwave cardiac signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, William R. (Inventor); Talukder, Ashit (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Systems and methods for remote, long standoff biometric identification using microwave cardiac signals are provided. In one embodiment, the invention relates to a method for remote biometric identification using microwave cardiac signals, the method including generating and directing first microwave energy in a direction of a person, receiving microwave energy reflected from the person, the reflected microwave energy indicative of cardiac characteristics of the person, segmenting a signal indicative of the reflected microwave energy into a waveform including a plurality of heart beats, identifying patterns in the microwave heart beats waveform, and identifying the person based on the identified patterns and a stored microwave heart beats waveform.

  4. Meteorological, environmental remote sensing and neural network analysis of the epidemiology of malaria transmission in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kiang

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In many malarious regions malaria transmission roughly coincides with rainy seasons, which provide for more abundant larval habitats. In addition to precipitation, other meteorological and environmental factors may also influence malaria transmission. These factors can be remotely sensed using earth observing environmental satellites and estimated with seasonal climate forecasts. The use of remote sensing usage as an early warning tool for malaria epidemics have been broadly studied in recent years, especially for Africa, where the majority of the world’s malaria occurs. Although the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS, which includes Thailand and the surrounding countries, is an epicenter of multidrug resistant falciparum malaria, the meteorological and environmental factors affecting malaria transmissions in the GMS have not been examined in detail. In this study, the parasitological data used consisted of the monthly malaria epidemiology data at the provincial level compiled by the Thai Ministry of Public Health. Precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and vegetation index obtained from both climate time series and satellite measurements were used as independent variables to model malaria. We used neural network methods, an artificial-intelligence technique, to model the dependency of malaria transmission on these variables. The average training accuracy of the neural network analysis for three provinces (Kanchanaburi, Mae Hong Son, and Tak which are among the provinces most endemic for malaria, is 72.8% and the average testing accuracy is 62.9% based on the 1994-1999 data. A more complex neural network architecture resulted in higher training accuracy but also lower testing accuracy. Taking into account of the uncertainty regarding reported malaria cases, we divided the malaria cases into bands (classes to compute training accuracy. Using the same neural network architecture on the 19 most endemic provinces for years 1994 to 2000, the

  5. 25 Gbit/s QPSK Hybrid Fiber-Wireless Transmission in the W-Band (75–110 GHz) With Remote Antenna Unit for In-Building Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich

    2012-01-01

    -band radio-over-fiber (RoF) signal is generated and distributed to the remote antenna unit (RAU). One laser carries 12.5 Gbaud optical baseband QPSK data, and the other acts as a carrier frequency generating laser. The two signals are heterodyne mixed at a photodetector in the RAU, and the baseband QPSK...... signal is transparently up-converted to the W-band. After the wireless transmission, the received signal is first down-converted to an intermediate frequency (IF) at 13.5 GHz at an electrical balanced mixer before being sampled and converted to the digital domain. A digital-signal-processing (DSP...

  6. Preliminary Results of BTDF Calibration of Transmissive Solar Diffusers for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.; Thome, Kurt; Cooksey, Catherine; Ding, Leibo

    2016-01-01

    Satellite instruments operating in the reflected solar wavelength region require accurate and precise determination of the optical properties of their diffusers used in pre-flight and post-flight calibrations. The majority of recent and current space instruments use reflective diffusers. As a result, numerous Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) calibration comparisons have been conducted between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and other industry and university-based metrology laboratories. However, based on literature searches and communications with NIST and other laboratories, no Bidirectional Transmittance Distribution Function (BTDF) measurement comparisons have been conducted between National Measurement Laboratories (NMLs) and other metrology laboratories. On the other hand, there is a growing interest in the use of transmissive diffusers in the calibration of satellite, air-borne, and ground-based remote sensing instruments. Current remote sensing instruments employing transmissive diffusers include the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite instrument (OMPS) Limb instrument on the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) platform,, the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) on the Korea Aerospace Research Institute's (KARI) Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura platform, the Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument and the Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS).. This ensemble of instruments requires validated BTDF measurements of their on-board transmissive diffusers from the ultraviolet through the near infrared. This paper presents the preliminary results of a BTDF comparison between the NASA Diffuser Calibration Laboratory (DCL) and NIST on quartz and thin Spectralon samples.

  7. [Research progress on key technology of power and signal transmission in neuroprosthetic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Peng, Chenglin; Liu, Tao; Wang, Rui; Hou, Wensheng; Zheng, Xiaolin; Zheng, Erxin

    2011-10-01

    The power and signal transmission technology is one of the key technologies in neuroprosthetic research. This paper proposes firstly the related theory of power and signal transmission technology in neuroprosthetic, then summarizes the three key aspects of the power and signal transmission technology in neuroprosthetic. After analyzed the development of the inductive wireless power harvesting technology, the wireless telemetry technology and the wireless power harvesting telemetry technology, the emphasis on research contents will be proposed and discussed, which will help accelerate the further research of prosthetic.

  8. Automatic Assessment of Acquisition and Transmission Losses in Indian Remote Sensing Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, D.; Purna Kumari, B.; Manju Sarma, M.; Aparna, N.; Gopal Krishna, B.

    2016-06-01

    The quality of Remote Sensing data is an important parameter that defines the extent of its usability in various applications. The data from Remote Sensing satellites is received as raw data frames at the ground station. This data may be corrupted with data losses due to interferences during data transmission, data acquisition and sensor anomalies. Thus it is important to assess the quality of the raw data before product generation for early anomaly detection, faster corrective actions and product rejection minimization. Manual screening of raw images is a time consuming process and not very accurate. In this paper, an automated process for identification and quantification of losses in raw data like pixel drop out, line loss and data loss due to sensor anomalies is discussed. Quality assessment of raw scenes based on these losses is also explained. This process is introduced in the data pre-processing stage and gives crucial data quality information to users at the time of browsing data for product ordering. It has also improved the product generation workflow by enabling faster and more accurate quality estimation.

  9. Design and Smartphone-Based Implementation of a Chaotic Video Communication Scheme via WAN Remote Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhuosheng; Yu, Simin; Li, Chengqing; Lü, Jinhu; Wang, Qianxue

    This paper proposes a chaotic secure video remote communication scheme that can perform on real WAN networks, and implements it on a smartphone hardware platform. First, a joint encryption and compression scheme is designed by embedding a chaotic encryption scheme into the MJPG-Streamer source codes. Then, multiuser smartphone communications between the sender and the receiver are implemented via WAN remote transmission. Finally, the transmitted video data are received with the given IP address and port in an Android smartphone. It should be noted that, this is the first time that chaotic video encryption schemes are implemented on such a hardware platform. The experimental results demonstrate that the technical challenges on hardware implementation of secure video communication are successfully solved, reaching a balance amongst sufficient security level, real-time processing of massive video data, and utilization of available resources in the hardware environment. The proposed scheme can serve as a good application example of chaotic secure communications for smartphone and other mobile facilities in the future.

  10. Method and apparatus for low-loss signal transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter (Inventor); Yeh, Cavour (Inventor); Shimabukuro, Fred (Inventor); Fraser, Scott (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of radio-frequency (RF) waveguides. More specifically, the present invention pertains to a method and apparatus that provides ultra-low-loss RF waveguide structures targeted between approximately 300 GHz and approximately 30 THz. The RF waveguide includes a hollow core and a flexible honeycomb, periodic-bandgap structure surrounding the hollow core. The flexible honeycomb, periodic-bandgap structure is formed of a plurality of tubes formed of a dielectric material such as of low-loss quartz, polyethylene, or high-resistivity silicon. Using the RF waveguide, a user may attach a terahertz signal source to the waveguide and pass signals through the waveguide, while a terahertz signal receiver receives the signals.

  11. Transmission and transparent wavelength conversion of an optically labeled signal using ASK/DPSK orthogonal modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Nan; Zhang, Jianfeng; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva

    2003-01-01

    We report an experimental investigation of transmission and transparent wavelength conversion properties of a two-level optically labeled signal using amplitude-shift-keying/differential-phase-shift-keying orthogonal modulation. Error-free transmission of a 10-Gb/s payload and 2.5-Gb/s label over...

  12. Training-based Channel Estimation for Signal Equalization and OPM in 16-QAM Optical Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittalà, Fabio; Hauske, Fabian N.; Ye, Yabin

    2012-01-01

    Efficient channel estimation for signal equalization and OPM based on short CAZAC sequences with QPSK and 8PSK constellation formats is demonstrated in a 224-Gb/s PDM 16-QAM optical linear transmission system.......Efficient channel estimation for signal equalization and OPM based on short CAZAC sequences with QPSK and 8PSK constellation formats is demonstrated in a 224-Gb/s PDM 16-QAM optical linear transmission system....

  13. Paired SSB optical OFDM channels for high spectral efficient signal transmission over DWDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, Francisco I.; Ortega, Beatriz; Mora, José

    2016-07-01

    A new high spectral efficient SSB-OOFDM DWDM transmission system has been experimentally demonstrated. The proposed transmitter employs paired optical channels consisting of two SSB modulated OFDM signals using opposite sidebands in order to allow an efficient use of the spectrum with optical carriers separation under 10 GHz. Moreover, different paired channels are multiplexed into the 25 GHz grid DWDM fiber transmission link. Optical carrier spacing of 8.75 GHz in paired channels has been demonstrated allowing 40.8 Gb/s signal transmission rate over a 25 GHz paired channel bandwidth.

  14. Analyzing Influence of the Transmission Medium on Timing Signals Transmitted by Hybrid Optical Transport Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Róka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with synchronization aspects in SDH and Synchronous Ethernet timing networks utilizing optical transmission medium. First, it explains a hierarchical configuration of timing network elements, characterizes transmission features of the optical fiber, particularly its main negative influences influencing transmitted information signals. The main part is dedicated to the evaluation program created for analyzing influences of the optical transmission path on timing signals transmitted by SDH and SyncE transport technologies. At last, resultant values from the introduced evaluation program are presented and evaluated.

  15. Fully Photonic Wireless Link for Transmission of Synchronization Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wilfert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialization and increasing demand of business tools for high-speed communications supports the request for optical communications in free space. Copper cables and related technologies such as cable modems and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL are common in existing networks, but do not meet the bandwidth requirement in the future, which opens the door to optical wireless communication technologies. Research in links for optical wireless communication (Infra Red Line of Sight, IR LOS working in the atmosphere is due to the wide support of its development on the world market. Optical wireless communications research is currently focused on increasing the transmission quality of data links. A promising new trend in data connection through IR LOS includes the transfer of accurate time synchronization pulses (time transmission. The article presents problems of modeling and design of a transmitter and receiver with a fully photonic concept. The analysis of the power levels at the link and drawn a model for determining the connection losses at the receiver caused by optical coupling between a Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope and the receiving optical fiber is shown.

  16. STUDY OF TRANSMISSION LINES EFFECT ON THE SYSTEM OPERATIONON OF CONTINUOUS AUTOMATIC CAB SIGNALLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Hololobova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To conduct an effect research of the electromagnetic field of high-voltage transmission lines (HVTL (750 kV, 50 Hz on the track circuits and continuous automatic cab signalling (CACS with a signal current of 50 Hz in the areas of convergence and intersection with the transmission lines and to propose possible methods to improve noise immunity of CACS. Methodology. The measurements were performed both by means of car-laboratory and directly on rail lines. During the study the electric field strength in the range of industrial frequency directly under the transmission lines and at the distance from it to the railway lines was measured, as well as the time dependence of CACS codes with signal current frequency of 50 Hz directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it in the absence of the train and its passing. Findings. The root causes analysis of CACS faults and failures was carried out. The effect of the electromagnetic field of high-voltage transmission lines (750 kV, 50 Hz on the track circuit and CACS with signal current of 50 Hz in the areas of convergence and intersection with the transmission line was investigated. Possible methods to improve noise immunity of CACS were considered. Originality. The effect research of transmission lines (750 kV on the operation of the automatic cab signalling on spans Prishib-Burchatsk and Privolnoye-Yelizarovo, Pridneprovsk railway in places of oblique railroads crossing and transmission lines (750 kV, 50 Hz was conducted. Electric field strength in the range of industrial frequency directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it to the railway line, as well as the time dependences of ALSN codes with signal current frequency of 50 Hz directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it in the absence of the train and as its passing were measured. It was found that CACS codes in track circuits under transmission lines are strongly distorted, as strength

  17. Bystander effects: intercellular transmission of radiation damage signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B.; Azzam, E.I.; Toledo, S.M. de; Nagasawa, H

    2002-07-01

    Biological effects were examined in confluent cultures of fibroblasts and epithelial cells exposed to very low mean doses of alpha radiation, doses by which only 1-2% of the cells were actually traversed by an alpha particle. Enhanced frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges and HPRT mutations occurred in the non-irradiation, 'bystander' cells associated with a similar increase in the frequency of micronuclei, indicating the induction of DNA damage in these cells. In order to gain information concerning molecular pathways, changes in gene expression were examined in bystander cells by western analysis and in situ immunofluorescence staining. The expression levels of p53, p21 and MDM2 were significantly modulated in bystander cells: the damage signals leading to these changes were transmitted from irradiated to bystander cells by gap junction mediated intracellular communication. The bystander response was suppressed by incubation with superoxide dismutase as well as an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, suggesting the effect may be mediated by oxidative stress. To examine other signalling pathways responsive to oxidative stress, the activation of stress-related kinases and their downstream transcription factors were analysed in bystander cells by western blotting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays: a 2-4 fold increase in the phosphorylation levels of JNK, EPK1/2, p90RSK, Elk-1 and ATF2 was observed. These changes were detected by 15 min after irradiation and persisted for at least 1 h. These findings indicate the activation of multiple signal transduction pathways in bystander cells, involving signals arising from the plasma membrane as well as from DNA damage. (author)

  18. Studies on characterizing the transmission of RF signals over a turbulent FSO link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Pham Tien; Bekkali, Abdemoula; Kazaura, Kamugisha; Wakamori, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Toshiji; Matsumoto, Mitsuji; Higashino, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Katsutoshi; Komaki, Shozo

    2009-05-11

    In this paper, we present an experimental study on transmission of RF signals over turbulent free-space optics (FSO) channel by using off-the-shelf Radio Frequency - FSO (RF-FSO) antennas. The results demonstrate potential of utilizing FSO links for transmission of RF signals and are used as a guideline in the design, prediction and evaluation of an advanced Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) RoFSO system we are developing capable of transmitting multiple RF signals. An analytical modeling of the system is also conducted to identify key parameters in evaluating the performance of RF signal transmission using FSO links. The results confirm that the effect of scintillation on RF-FSO system performance can be estimated by using a simple estimation equation and satisfactory result are obtained from comparing the experimental and theoretical derived data under weak to strong turbulence condition.

  19. Impact of Signal-Conjugate Wavelength Shift on Optical Phase Conjugation-based Transmission of QAM Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Lillieholm, Mads; Yankov, Metodi Plamenov

    2017-01-01

    The impact of signal-conjugate wavelength shift on nonlinearity compensation through optical phase conjugation is investigated for 64- and 256-QAM. Wavelength-shift independent achievable rate improvements between 0.2 and 0.3 bit/symbol are reported for shifts up to 30 nm in 500-km transmission....

  20. Metastable memristive lines for signal transmission and information processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slipko, Valeriy A.; Pershin, Yuriy V.

    2017-04-01

    Traditional studies of memristive devices have mainly focused on their applications in nonvolatile information storage and information processing. Here, we demonstrate that the third fundamental component of information technologies—the transfer of information—can also be employed with memristive devices. For this purpose, we introduce a metastable memristive circuit. Combining metastable memristive circuits into a line, one obtains an architecture capable of transferring a signal edge from one space location to another. We emphasize that the suggested metastable memristive lines employ only resistive circuit components. Moreover, their networks (for example, Y-connected lines) have an information processing capability.

  1. Studies on the introduction of remote data transmission in international nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, G.; Richter, B.; Rudolf, K.; Schink, F.J.

    1999-08-01

    In two field tests, the interaction of components and equipment was tested, which had on the one hand been specifically developed for international safeguards and, on the other hand, were commercially available off the shelf. The former included, in particular, the DCM14 digital camera module developed in Germany for IAEA and Euratom, as well as the DCMDispatch software. The latter included, for example, PCs from well-known manufacturers as well as the Windows NT 4.0 server operating system from Microsoft and the public communication services of Deutsche Telekom AG. Particular attention was paid to the remote interrogation of video images since particularly great technical efforts are necessary due to the volume of data involved. The technical demands made on data management, storage and transmission as well as on authentication and encryption were therefore to be clarified and their feasibility demonstrated. Added to this was the requirement of the nuclear industry that the images should be transmitted with a time delay. (orig.) [de

  2. Signal transmission in the catfish retina. V. Sensitivity and circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, H M; Naka, K

    1987-12-01

    1. We analyzed the light-evoked responses of retinal neurons by means of a white-noise technique. Horizontal and bipolar cells produced a modulation response that was linearly related to a modulation of the mean luminance of a large field of light. The first-order kernels were capable of reproducing the cells' modulation response with a fair degree of accuracy. The amplitude as well as the waveform of the kernels changed with the change in the mean luminance. This is a parametric change and is a form of field adaptation. As the time constant of the parametric change was much longer than that of the modulation response (memory), neurons were assumed to be at a dynamic steady state at a given mean luminance. 2. With the presence of a steady annular illumination, the first-order kernel derived from stimulation with a small spot of light became faster in peak response time and larger in amplitude. For horizontal-cell somas and bipolar cells, the surround also linearized their modulation response. This surround enhancement has been seen in all the cone-driven retinal cells except the receptor and horizontal cell axon, in which a steady surround decreased the amplitude of the spot-evoked kernel but shortened the peak response time. 3. A change in the modulation depth did not affect either the amplitude or the wave-form of the first-order kernels from the horizontal and bipolar cells. In the amacrine and ganglion cells, on the other hand, the amplitude of kernels was related inversely to the depth of modulation. These cells were more sensitive to the modulation of a small modulation depth. 4. A static nonlinearity appeared when signals were transmitted to the amacrine cells. The nonlinearity was first produced in the type-C amacrine cells by a process, which could be modeled by squaring the bipolar cell response. A gamut of more complex second-order nonlinearities found in type-N amacrine cells could be modeled by a band-pass filtering of the type-C cell response. Linear

  3. 37 CFR 258.3 - Royalty fee for secondary transmission of analog signals of broadcast stations by satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transmission of analog signals of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.3 Section 258.3 Patents... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.3 Royalty fee for secondary transmission of analog signals of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. (a...

  4. 37 CFR 258.4 - Royalty fee for secondary transmission of digital signals of broadcast stations by satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transmission of digital signals of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.4 Section 258.4 Patents... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.4 Royalty fee for secondary transmission of digital signals of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. (a...

  5. Correlating optical, microwave and thermal remote sensing signals with groundwater head measurement time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanudjaja, E. H.; de Jong, S.; van Geer, F.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    Due to global climate change, population growth and an ever increasing demand for fresh water, monitoring groundwater changes over large areas becomes very important. Current groundwater monitoring still heavily depends on groundwater head data that are often not available for large parts of the non-western world. Consequently, groundwater assessment, especially for large areas comprising several aquifers and basins, is very complex and not very accurate. The main research question of this study is to check whether optical, microwave and thermal remote sensing signals carry information on groundwater levels. The advantage of remote sensing data is that it provides synoptic overview of semi-quantitative maps of surface properties, such as vegetation, surface temperature, and soil moisture signals, where we seek the relation with shallow groundwater tables. In this study, we analyze and compare groundwater head measurement data and various remote sensing signals. Our datasets comprise over 5000 groundwater head measurement points in the Rhine-Meuse basin. These groundwater head data are compared to the signals of soil moisture (AMSR-E and ERS), thermal (MODIS land surface temperature) and vegetation (MODIS NDVI, LAI and FPAR). We investigated the correlation among these variables by performing straightforward statistical analyses, such as scatter-plots, multiple regression techniques and analyses of temporal variability between the variables. Results show that particularly the soil moisture demonstrates significant relations with groundwater depth, specifically for shallow water table depths and areas with sparse vegetation. We argue that remote sensing signals should be considered as important information for groundwater assessment in data-poor environments.

  6. LVDS tester: a systematic test of cable signal transmission at the ALICE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnby, L; Bhasin, A; Evans, D; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanovic, P; Jusko, A; Kour, R; Krivda, M; Lazzeroni, C; Lietava, R; Matthews, Z L; Navin, S; Palaha, A; Petrov, P; Platt, R; Scott, P [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bombara, M [Faculty of Science, P.J. Safarik University, Kosice (Slovakia); Kralik, I; Sandor, L, E-mail: Daniel.Tapia.Takaki@cern.ch [Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia)

    2010-12-15

    In the ALICE experiment, the Low-Voltage Differential Signalling (LVDS) format is used for the transmission of trigger inputs from the detectors to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP), the L0 trigger outputs from Local Trigger Units (LTU) boards back to the detectors and the BUSY inputs from the sub-detectors to the CTP. ALICE has designed a set-up, called the LVDS transmission tester, that aims to measure various transmission quality parameters and the bit-error rate (BER) for long period runs in an automatic way. In this paper, this method is described and the conclusions from these tests for the ALICE LVDS cables are discussed.

  7. LVDS tester: a systematic test of cable signal transmission at the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barnby, L; Bombara, M; Evans, D; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanović, P; Jusko, A; Kour, R; Králik, I; Krivda, M; Lazzeroni, C; Lietava, R; Matthews, Z L; Navin, S; Palaha, A; Petrov, P; Platt, R; Šándor, L; Scott, P; Urbán, J; Villalobos Baillie, O; Tapia Takaki, J D

    2010-01-01

    In the ALICE experiment, the Low-Voltage Differential Signalling (LVDS) format is used for the transmission of trigger inputs from the detectors to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP), the L0 trigger outputs from Local Trigger Units (LTU) boards back to the detectors and the BUSY inputs from the sub-detectors to the CTP. ALICE has designed a set-up, called the LVDS transmission tester, that aims to measure various transmission quality parameters and the bit-error rate (BER) for long period runs in an automatic way. In this paper, this method is described and the conclusions from these tests for the ALICE LVDS cables are discussed

  8. LVDS tester: a systematic test of cable signal transmission at the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnby, L; Bhasin, A; Evans, D; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanovic, P; Jusko, A; Kour, R; Krivda, M; Lazzeroni, C; Lietava, R; Matthews, Z L; Navin, S; Palaha, A; Petrov, P; Platt, R; Scott, P; Bombara, M; Kralik, I; Sandor, L

    2010-01-01

    In the ALICE experiment, the Low-Voltage Differential Signalling (LVDS) format is used for the transmission of trigger inputs from the detectors to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP), the L0 trigger outputs from Local Trigger Units (LTU) boards back to the detectors and the BUSY inputs from the sub-detectors to the CTP. ALICE has designed a set-up, called the LVDS transmission tester, that aims to measure various transmission quality parameters and the bit-error rate (BER) for long period runs in an automatic way. In this paper, this method is described and the conclusions from these tests for the ALICE LVDS cables are discussed.

  9. Demonstration of optical steganography transmission using temporal phase coded optical signals with spectral notch filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xuezhi; Wang, Dawei; Xu, Lei; He, Sailing

    2010-06-07

    A novel approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for optical steganography transmission in WDM networks using temporal phase coded optical signals with spectral notch filtering. A temporal phase coded stealth channel is temporally and spectrally overlaid onto a public WDM channel. Direct detection of the public channel is achieved in the presence of the stealth channel. The interference from the public channel is suppressed by spectral notching before the detection of the optical stealth signal. The approach is shown to have good compatibility and robustness to the existing WDM network for optical steganography transmission.

  10. MIMO signal progressing with RLSCMA algorithm for multi-mode multi-core optical transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuan; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Li-jia; Xin, Xiang-jun; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Yong-jun; Tian, Qing-hua; Tian, Feng; Mao, Ya-ya

    2018-01-01

    In the process of transmitting signals of multi-mode multi-core fiber, there will be mode coupling between modes. The mode dispersion will also occur because each mode has different transmission speed in the link. Mode coupling and mode dispersion will cause damage to the useful signal in the transmission link, so the receiver needs to deal received signal with digital signal processing, and compensate the damage in the link. We first analyzes the influence of mode coupling and mode dispersion in the process of transmitting signals of multi-mode multi-core fiber, then presents the relationship between the coupling coefficient and dispersion coefficient. Then we carry out adaptive signal processing with MIMO equalizers based on recursive least squares constant modulus algorithm (RLSCMA). The MIMO equalization algorithm offers adaptive equalization taps according to the degree of crosstalk in cores or modes, which eliminates the interference among different modes and cores in space division multiplexing(SDM) transmission system. The simulation results show that the distorted signals are restored efficiently with fast convergence speed.

  11. Remote Synchronization Experiments for Quasi-Zenith Satellite System Using Multiple Navigation Signals as Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Iwata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The remote synchronization system for the onboard crystal oscillator (RESSOX is a remote control method that permits synchronization between a ground station atomic clock and Japanese quasi-zenith satellite system (QZSS crystal oscillators. To realize the RESSOX of the QZSS, the utilization of navigation signals of QZSS for feedback control is an important issue. Since QZSS transmits seven navigation signals (L1C/A, L1CP, L1CD, L2CM, L2CL, L5Q, and L5I, all combinations of these signals should be evaluated. First, the RESSOX algorithm will be introduced. Next, experimental performance will be demonstrated. If only a single signal is available, ionospheric delay should be input from external measurements. If multiple frequency signals are available, any combination, except for L2 and L5, gives good performance with synchronization error being within two nanoseconds that of RESSOX. The combination of L1CD and L5Q gives the best synchronization performance (synchronization error within 1.14 ns. Finally, in the discussion, comparisons of long-duration performance, computer simulation, and sampling number used in feedback control are considered. Although experimental results do not correspond to the simulation results, the tendencies are similar. For the overlapping Allan deviation of long duration, the stability of 1.23×10−14 at 100,160 s is obtained.

  12. Microwave vector signal transmission over an optical fiber based on IQ modulation and coherent detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Shao, Tong; Wen, Aijun; Yao, Jianping

    2014-03-15

    A novel approach to transmitting two vector signals using a single optical carrier based on IQ modulation and coherent detection is proposed and demonstrated. In the proposed system, two quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals are IQ modulated on an optical carrier with one polarization state using a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-MZM). The optical carrier with an orthogonal polarization state is not modulated but transmitted with the modulated optical wave. At the receiver, the two orthogonally polarized light waves are separated and sent to a coherent detector, where the two QPSK signals are separated and demodulated. An experiment is performed. The transmission of two QPSK signals at 2 GHz with a data rate of 1 Gbps is implemented over a 25 km single-mode fiber. The performance of the transmission in terms of error vector magnitude is evaluated.

  13. Remote Sensing-Driven Climatic/Environmental Variables for Modelling Malaria Transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebhuoma, Osadolor; Gebreslasie, Michael

    2016-06-14

    Malaria is a serious public health threat in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and its transmission risk varies geographically. Modelling its geographic characteristics is essential for identifying the spatial and temporal risk of malaria transmission. Remote sensing (RS) has been serving as an important tool in providing and assessing a variety of potential climatic/environmental malaria transmission variables in diverse areas. This review focuses on the utilization of RS-driven climatic/environmental variables in determining malaria transmission in SSA. A systematic search on Google Scholar and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge(SM) databases (PubMed, Web of Science and ScienceDirect) was carried out. We identified thirty-five peer-reviewed articles that studied the relationship between remotely-sensed climatic variable(s) and malaria epidemiological data in the SSA sub-regions. The relationship between malaria disease and different climatic/environmental proxies was examined using different statistical methods. Across the SSA sub-region, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from either the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) or Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) satellite sensors was most frequently returned as a statistically-significant variable to model both spatial and temporal malaria transmission. Furthermore, generalized linear models (linear regression, logistic regression and Poisson regression) were the most frequently-employed methods of statistical analysis in determining malaria transmission predictors in East, Southern and West Africa. By contrast, multivariate analysis was used in Central Africa. We stress that the utilization of RS in determining reliable malaria transmission predictors and climatic/environmental monitoring variables would require a tailored approach that will have cognizance of the geographical

  14. Cultural Transmission and Evolution of Melodic Structures in Multi-generational Signaling Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumaca, Massimo; Baggio, Giosuè

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that languages evolve by adapting to the perceptual and cognitive constraints of the human brain, developing, in the course of cultural transmission, structural regularities that maximize or optimize learnability and ease of processing. To what extent would perceptual and cognitive constraints similarly affect the evolution of musical systems? We conducted an experiment on the cultural evolution of artificial melodic systems, using multi-generational signaling games as a laboratory model of cultural transmission. Signaling systems, using five-tone sequences as signals, and basic and compound emotions as meanings, were transmitted from senders to receivers along diffusion chains in which the receiver in each game became the sender in the next game. During transmission, structural regularities accumulated in the signaling systems, following principles of proximity, symmetry, and good continuation. Although the compositionality of signaling systems did not increase significantly across generations, we did observe a significant increase in similarity among signals from the same set. We suggest that our experiment tapped into the cognitive and perceptual constraints operative in the cultural evolution of musical systems, which may differ from the mechanisms at play in language evolution and change.

  15. Analysis of Video Signal Transmission Through DWDM Network Based on a Quality Check Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Markovic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the multiplexed video signal transmission through the Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM network based on a quality check algorithm, which determines where the interruption of the transmission quality starts. On the basis of this algorithm, simulations of transmission for specific values of fiber parameters ​​ are executed. The analysis of the results shows how the BER and Q-factor change depends on the length of the fiber, i.e. on the number of amplifiers, and what kind of an effect the number of multiplexed channels and the flow rate per channel have on a transmited signals. Analysis of DWDM systems is performed in the software package OptiSystem 7.0, which is designed for systems with flow rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s per channel.

  16. Characterization of RF signal transmission using FSO links considering atmospheric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Shah, Alam; Dat, Pham Tien; Kazaura, Kamugisha; Wakamori, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Toshiji; Omae, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Mitsuji; Aburakawa, Yuji; Takahashi, Koichi; Nakamura, Takuya; Higashino, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Katsutoshi; Komaki, Shozo

    2008-02-01

    Radio on Free-Space Optics (RoFSO) communication systems have attracted a considerable attention for a variety of applications where optical fibers are not feasible, especially in rural areas, to provide ubiquitous wireless services quickly and more effectively. RoFSO links can be used to transmit signals like cellular W-CDMA, terrestrial digital TV or WLAN signals. In spite of its potential, such links are highly dependent on the deployment environment characteristics in particular the weather conditions. Severity and duration of the atmospheric effects have direct impact on the availability of the links as well as on the quality of RF signal transmitted over it. Thus, the necessity of investigating the effects of various weather conditions on RF signal transmission using FSO links. In collaboration with several institutions, we are currently developing an advanced Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) RoFSO antenna capable of transporting multiple RF signals. As preliminary work, we are conducting experiments on a 1 km link using an off-the-shelf Radio Frequency - FSO (RF-FSO) antenna, with the objective of obtaining and characterizing performance related parameters of RF-FSO transmission in operational environment. As an example, we examine the influence of atmospheric turbulence on the transmission quality of W-CDMA signal. Among the performance metric of interest is the Adjacent Channel Leakage Power Ratio (ACLR) which will be measured, analyzed and correlated with the weather conditions. An atmospheric fluctuation model for estimating the communication quality of RF signal transmission on FSO links is being developed. Also the obtained results will be used for the deployment environment characterization as well as baseline for the design and performance evaluation of new advanced DWDM RoFSO communication systems we are currently developing.

  17. Analog signals transmission of up to 100 khz though optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremy, C.

    1996-12-01

    Around TJ-II device, potential problems may arise as a consequence of an adverse electromagnetic environment, presence of strong DC and AC currents, motors, coils, power supplies, magnetic fields and so on. Consequently, signal transmission towards monitoring or data acquisition systems may be affected due to induced noise, ground loops and other undesirable effects. Trying to avoid such problems, signals may be translated in a proper way in order to be routed through optical fiber. The present report shows a method to solve the difficulty, by means of a galvanic isolation between the signal source and the measurement circuit. (Author)

  18. Precisely timed signal transmission in neocortical networks with reliable intermediate-range projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Nawrot

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian neocortex has a remarkable ability to precisely reproduce behavioral sequences or to reliably retrieve stored information. In contrast, spiking activity in behaving animals shows a considerable trial-to-trial variability and temporal irregularity. The signal propagation and processing underlying these conflicting observations is based on fundamental neurophysiological processes like synaptic transmission, signal integration within single cells, and spike formation. Each of these steps in the neuronal signaling chain has been studied separately to a great extend, but it has been difficult to judge how they interact and sum up in active sub-networks of neocortical cells. In the present study, we experimentally assessed the precision and reliability of small neocortical networks consisting of trans-columnar, intermediate-range projections (200 – 1000 µm on a millisecond time-scale. Employing photo-uncaging of glutamate in acute slices, we activated a number of distant pre-synaptic cells in a spatiotemporally precisely controlled manner, while monitoring the resulting membrane potential fluctuations of a post-synaptic cell. We found that signal integration in this part of the network is highly reliable and temporally precise. As numerical simulations showed, the residual membrane potential variability can be attributed to amplitude variability in synaptic transmission and may significantly contribute to trial-to-trial output variability of a rate signal. However, it does not impair the temporal accuracy of signal integration. We conclude that signals from intermediate-range projections onto neocortical neurons are propagated and integrated in a highly reliable and precise manner, and may serve as a substrate for temporally precise signal transmission in neocortical networks.

  19. Orexin-A Suppresses Signal Transmission to Dopaminergic Amacrine Cells From Outer and Inner Retinal Photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Sheng-Nan; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Lei-Lei; Zhang, Dao-Qi; Zhong, Yong-Mei

    2017-09-01

    The neuropeptides orexin-A and orexin-B are widely expressed in the vertebrate retina; however, their role in visual function is unclear. This study investigates whether and how orexins modulate signal transmission to dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs) from both outer retinal photoreceptors (rods and cones) and inner retinal photoreceptors (melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells [ipRGCs]). A whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used to record light-induced responses from genetically labeled DACs in flat-mount mouse retinas. Rod and cone signaling to DACs was confirmed pharmacologically (in wild-type retinas), whereas retrograde melanopsin signaling to DACs was isolated either pharmacologically (in wild-type retinas) or by genetic deletion of rod and cone function (in transgenic mice). Orexin-A attenuated rod/cone-mediated light responses in the majority of DACs and inhibited all DACs that exhibited melanopsin-based light responses, suggesting that exogenous orexin suppresses signal transmission from rods, cones, and ipRGCs to DACs. In addition, orexin receptor 1 antagonist SB334867 and orexin receptor 2 antagonist TCS OX229 enhanced melanopsin-based DAC responses, indicating that endogenous orexins inhibit signal transmission from ipRGCs to DACs. We further found that orexin-A inhibits melanopsin-based DAC responses via orexin receptors on DACs, whereas orexin-A may modulate signal transmission from rods and cones to DACs through activation of orexin receptors on DACs and their upstream neurons. Our results suggest that orexins could influence visual function via the dopaminergic system in the mammalian retina.

  20. Remotely supported prehospital ultrasound: A feasibility study of real-time image transmission and expert guidance to aid diagnosis in remote and rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Leila; Mulhern, John; Regan, Luke; Mort, Alasdair; Shannon, Helen; Macaden, Ashish; Wilson, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Our aim is to expedite prehospital assessment of remote and rural patients using remotely-supported ultrasound and satellite/cellular communications. In this paradigm, paramedics are remotely-supported ultrasound operators, guided by hospital-based specialists, to record images before receiving diagnostic advice. Technology can support users in areas with little access to medical imaging and suboptimal communications coverage by connecting to multiple cellular networks and/or satellites to stream live ultrasound and audio-video. Methods An ambulance-based demonstrator system captured standard trauma and novel transcranial ultrasound scans from 10 healthy volunteers at 16 locations across the Scottish Highlands. Volunteers underwent brief scanning training before receiving expert guidance via the communications link. Ultrasound images were streamed with an audio/video feed to reviewers for interpretation. Two sessions were transmitted via satellite and 21 used cellular networks. Reviewers rated image and communication quality, and their utility for diagnosis. Transmission latency and bandwidth were recorded, and effects of scanner and reviewer experience were assessed. Results Appropriate views were provided in 94% of the simulated trauma scans. The mean upload rate was 835/150 kbps and mean latency was 114/2072 ms for cellular and satellite networks, respectively. Scanning experience had a significant impact on time to achieve a diagnostic image, and review of offline scans required significantly less time than live-streamed scans. Discussion This prehospital ultrasound system could facilitate early diagnosis and streamlining of treatment pathways for remote emergency patients, being particularly applicable in rural areas worldwide with poor communications infrastructure and extensive transport times.

  1. Signal Transmission of Biological Reaction-Diffusion System by Using Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular signal transmission in cell is very crucial for information exchange. How to understand its transmission mechanism has attracted many researchers. In this paper, we prove that signal transmission problem between neural tumor molecules and drug molecules can be achieved by synchronous control. To achieve our purpose, we derive the Fokker-Plank equation by using the Langevin equation and theory of random walk, this is a model which can express the concentration change of neural tumor molecules. Second, according to the biological character that vesicles in cell can be combined with cell membrane to release the cargo which plays a role of signal transmission, we preliminarily analyzed the mechanism of tumor-drug molecular interaction. Third, we propose the view of synchronous control which means the process of vesicle docking with their target membrane is a synchronization process, and we can achieve the precise treatment of disease by using synchronous control. We believe this synchronous control mechanism is reasonable and two examples are given to illustrate the correctness of our results obtained in this paper.

  2. Physician evaluation and acceptance of remote transmission of CT, digital subtraction angiography, and US annotated images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskin, M.E.; Robbins, C.; Kohn, M.; Laffey, P.A.; Haskin, P.H.; Teplick, J.G.; Teplick, S.K.; Peyster, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have found annotated images an effective way of communicating the results of imaging studies to referring physicians. Of particular value is the collation of representative images from several modalities. Previously, hard copy of this collation was sent to the referring physician as an integrated imaging report. Recently they developed a computer-based station that transmits annotated images to remote personal computer (PC) terminals via a telephone modem which requires 30 seconds to send each image. This annotated image report can be quickly accessed by the referring physician at the remote PC terminal The prototype system, utility, diagnostic fidelity, and potential of this remote system are described

  3. Remote monitoring of cardiorespiratory signals from a hovering unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naji, Ali; Perera, Asanka G; Chahl, Javaan

    2017-08-08

    Remote physiological measurement might be very useful for biomedical diagnostics and monitoring. This study presents an efficient method for remotely measuring heart rate and respiratory rate from video captured by a hovering unmanned aerial vehicle (UVA). The proposed method estimates heart rate and respiratory rate based on the acquired signals obtained from video-photoplethysmography that are synchronous with cardiorespiratory activity. Since the PPG signal is highly affected by the noise variations (illumination variations, subject's motions and camera movement), we have used advanced signal processing techniques, including complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to remove noise under these assumptions. To evaluate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method, a set of experiments were performed on 15 healthy volunteers in a front-facing position involving motion resulting from both the subject and the UAV under different scenarios and different lighting conditions. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed system with and without the magnification process achieves robust and accurate readings and have significant correlations compared to a standard pulse oximeter and Piezo respiratory belt. Also, the squared correlation coefficient, root mean square error, and mean error rate yielded by the proposed method with and without the magnification process were significantly better than the state-of-the-art methodologies, including independent component analysis (ICA) and principal component analysis (PCA).

  4. No Effect of TETRA Hand Portable Transmission Signals on Human Cognitive Function and Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2010-01-01

    . To investigate this, we conducted a controlled climate chamber study of possible changes in cognitive performance in healthy volunteers exposed to transmission signals from TETRA hand portables (TETRA handsets). The trial deployed a balanced, randomized, double-blinded cross-over design. Performance on different......Current radio frequency radiation exposure guidelines rest on well-established thermal effects. However, recent research into analogue and digital transmission fields at levels covered by the exposure guidelines has indicated possible detrimental effects on human cognitive performance...

  5. Floating microbial fuel cells as energy harvesters for signal transmission from natural water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Colombo, Alessandra; Grattieri, Matteo; Trasatti, Stefano P.; Liberale, Alessandro; Tremolada, Paolo; Pino, Claudio; Cristiani, Pierangela

    2017-02-01

    A new type of floating microbial fuel cell (fMFC) was developed for power supply of remote environmental sensors and data transmission. Ten operating fMFCs generated a cell potential in the range 100-800 mV depending on the external resistance applied. Power production peaked around 3-3.5 mW (power density of 22-28 mW m-2 cathode) after about 20-30 days of start-up period. The average of daily electrical energy harvested ranged between 10 and 35 mWh/d. Long-term performances were ensured in the presence of dense rice plants (Oryza Sativa). A power management system, based on a step-up DC/DC converter and a low-power data transmission system via SIGFOX™ technology, have been set up for the fMFCs. The tested fMFCs systems allowed to: i) harvest produced energy, ii) supply electronic devices (intermittent LED-light and a buzzer); iii) transmit remote data at low speed (three message of 12 bites each, in 6 s). Several 'floating garden' MFCs were set in the context of demonstrative events at EXPO2015 world exposition held in Milan between May-October 2015. Some of the 'floating garden' MFCs were operating for more than one year.

  6. The role of remote sensing and GIS for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, M

    2012-12-01

    There have been several attempts made to the appreciation of remote sensing and GIS for the study of vectors, biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases with respect to space and time. This study was made for reviewing and appraising the potential use of remote sensing and GIS applications for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission. The nature of the presence and the abundance of vectors and vector-borne diseases, disease infection and the disease transmission are not ubiquitous and are confined with geographical, environmental and climatic factors, and are localized. The presence of vectors and vector-borne diseases is most complex in nature, however, it is confined and fueled by the geographical, climatic and environmental factors including man-made factors. The usefulness of the present day availability of the information derived from the satellite data including vegetation indices of canopy cover and its density, soil types, soil moisture, soil texture, soil depth, etc. is integrating the information in the expert GIS engine for the spatial analysis of other geoclimatic and geoenvironmental variables. The present study gives the detailed information on the classical studies of the past and present, and the future role of remote sensing and GIS for the vector-borne diseases control. The ecological modeling directly gives us the relevant information to understand the spatial variation of the vector biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases in association with geoclimatic and the environmental variables. The probability map of the geographical distribution and seasonal variations of horizontal and vertical distribution of vector abundance and its association with vector -borne diseases can be obtained with low cost remote sensing and GIS tool with reliable data and speed.

  7. Transient signals on transmission lines an introduction to non-ideal effects and signal integrity issues in electrical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This lecture provides an introduction to transmission line effects in the time domain. Fundamentals including time of flight, impedance discontinuities, proper termination schemes, nonlinear and reactive loads, and crosstalk are considered. Required prerequisite knowledge is limited to conventional circuit theory. The material is intended to supplement standard textbooks for use with undergraduate students in electrical engineering or computer engineering. The contents should also be of value to practicing engineers with interests in signal integrity and high-speed digital design.Table of Cont

  8. Computational quest for understanding the role of astrocyte signaling in synaptic transmission and plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio eDe Pitta'

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the signaling network that underlies astrocyte-synapse interactions may seem discouraging when tackled from a theoretical perspective. Computational modeling is challenged by the fact that many details remain hitherto unknown and conventional approaches to describe synaptic function are unsuitable to explain experimental observations when astrocytic signaling is taken into account. Supported by experimental evidence is the possibility that astrocytes perform genuine information processing by means of their calcium signaling and are players in the physiological setting of the basal tone of synaptic transmission. Here we consider the plausibility of this scenario from a theoretical perspective, focusing on the modulation of synaptic release probability by the astrocyte and its implications on synaptic plasticity. The analysis of the signaling pathways underlying such modulation refines our notion of the tripartite synapse and has profound implications on our understanding of brain function.

  9. Optical diversity transmission using WDM signal and phase-conjugate lights through multi-core fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Masafumi; Moroi, Mitsuki; Takara, Hidehiko

    2016-05-02

    This paper proposes a maximum-ratio combining (MRC) scheme for a WDM signal and phase-conjugate pair (PCP) diversity transmission to cancel nonlinear phase-shift. A transfer function approximation for nonlinear phase-shift cancellation is formulated. It shows, with the help of a numerical calculation, that span-by-span chromatic dispersion compensation is more effective than the lumped equivalent at the receiver. This is confirmed in a 2-core diversity 5 channel WDM transmission experiment over 3-spans of 60km MCF with 25 Gbit/s-QPSK PCP. The peak Q-value was enhanced by 3.6dB through MRC, resulting in superior bitrate-distance product and optical power density limit, compared to twice the single core transmission.

  10. Bluetooth-based sensor networks for remotely monitoring the physiological signals of a patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Xiao, Hannan

    2009-11-01

    Integrating intelligent medical microsensors into a wireless communication network makes it possible to remotely collect physiological signals of a patient, release the patient from being tethered to monitoring medical instrumentations, and facilitate the patient's early hospital discharge. This can further improve life quality by providing continuous observation without the need of disrupting the patient's normal life, thus reducing the risk of infection significantly, and decreasing the cost of the hospital and the patient. This paper discusses the implementation issues, and describes the overall system architecture of our developed Bluetooth sensor network for patient monitoring and the corresponding heart activity sensors. It also presents our approach to developing the intelligent physiological sensor nodes involving integration of Bluetooth radio technology, hardware and software organization, and our solutions for onboard signal processing.

  11. Transmission of multi-dimensional signals for next generation optical communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Anlin; Yan, Lianshan; Pan, Yan; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Zhiyu; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Over the past several decades, the data-carrying capacity of a single optical fiber have been increased significantly by fully exploring and optimizing physical dimensions of the light. Generally there are five major candidates of dimensions, including time, wavelength, polarization, space and quadrature (phase and amplitude). Multi-dimension, utilizing more than two dimensions of the light simultaneously, is one of the essential characteristics of next generation optical communication systems. We review recent advances in transmission of multi-dimensional signals, and highlight innovative ways of exploring the polarization dimension to further increase the capacity or spectral efficiency of a single optical fiber, a so-called pseudo-polarization-division-multiplexing (PPDM) technique. Related demonstrations include non-orthogonal PDM, PPDM of three and four states (PPDM-3 and PPDM-4). Brief discussions on trends of multi-dimensional signal transmission technologies are also presented.

  12. CMOS mixed-signal MODEM for data transmission and control of electrical household appliances using the low-voltage power line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sara; Dominguez-Matas, Carlos M.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Jose M.; Guerra, Oscar; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Angel

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a CMOS mixed-signal MODEM ASIC for data transmission on the low-voltage power line. The circuit includes all the analog circuitry needed for input interfacing and modulation/demodulation (PLL-based frequency synthesis, slave filter banks with PLL master VCO for tuning, and decision circuitry) plus the logic circuitry needed for control purposes. To allow the communication between the electrical household appliances and a remote unit to control them as well as to reduce the cost, an unique mixed-signal ASIC, made of two parts, one operating at high frequencies and another operating at lower frequencies, has been designed. The High Frequencies Module must allow the connection with the external control systems and, to ensure reasonable robustness, has to be able to send and receive signals using at least two different channels (to avoid local and temporary degradations of the communication). The Low Frequencies Module is needed to manage the indoors communication. This module enables the transmission of signals within distances between 50 and 100 meters with a speed in the order of, but never less than, 100 bits/s. This link should be accomplished by using a frequency range in such a way that a maximum number of channels are disposable to allow the control of as many different in-house devices as possible. Again, to this end, two different tunable channels have to be simultaneously available: one to control the quality of the signal and the other to allow the effective communication.

  13. The short-wave broadband communication device for transmission the analog narrowband signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreyev O.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of information via the radio channel always involves the selection of radio waves modulation and the frequency band occupied by the radio signal. For the narrowband analog signals, the transmission via the radio channels in areas with difficult terrain the short-wave range is widely used. The majority of radio stations use frequency modulation of the transmitter without any message encryption. This gives the opportunity to detect and intercept messages that are transmitted. The use of the voice scramblers allows to hide information that is transmitted via the communication channel, but it is impossible to hide the radiation of the transmitter. The article suggests the use of a broadband signal with a modulation which is not associated with the change of the frequency of the transmitter in accordance with information, which is transmitted. The calculations showed that the proposed communication system can operate in a common frequency band with existing narrowband means of the short-wave range not creating them the substantial interference. The calculated signal/noise ratio on the input of the radio signals monitoring receiver is almost two orders less than for existing narrowband means of the short-wave range.

  14. Analysis of Optical CDMA Signal Transmission: Capacity Limits and Simulation Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence R. Chen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We present performance limits of the optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA networks. In particular, we evaluate the information-theoretical capacity of the OCDMA transmission when single-user detection (SUD is used by the receiver. First, we model the OCDMA transmission as a discrete memoryless channel, evaluate its capacity when binary modulation is used in the interference-limited (noiseless case, and extend this analysis to the case when additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN is corrupting the received signals. Next, we analyze the benefits of using nonbinary signaling for increasing the throughput of optical CDMA transmission. It turns out that up to a fourfold increase in the network throughput can be achieved with practical numbers of modulation levels in comparison to the traditionally considered binary case. Finally, we present BER simulation results for channel coded binary and M-ary OCDMA transmission systems. In particular, we apply turbo codes concatenated with Reed-Solomon codes so that up to several hundred concurrent optical CDMA users can be supported at low target bit error rates. We observe that unlike conventional OCDMA systems, turbo-empowered OCDMA can allow overloading (more active users than is the length of the spreading sequences with good bit error rate system performance.

  15. Analysis of Optical CDMA Signal Transmission: Capacity Limits and Simulation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garba, Aminata A.; Yim, Raymond M. H.; Bajcsy, Jan; Chen, Lawrence R.

    2005-12-01

    We present performance limits of the optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) networks. In particular, we evaluate the information-theoretical capacity of the OCDMA transmission when single-user detection (SUD) is used by the receiver. First, we model the OCDMA transmission as a discrete memoryless channel, evaluate its capacity when binary modulation is used in the interference-limited (noiseless) case, and extend this analysis to the case when additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is corrupting the received signals. Next, we analyze the benefits of using nonbinary signaling for increasing the throughput of optical CDMA transmission. It turns out that up to a fourfold increase in the network throughput can be achieved with practical numbers of modulation levels in comparison to the traditionally considered binary case. Finally, we present BER simulation results for channel coded binary and[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-ary OCDMA transmission systems. In particular, we apply turbo codes concatenated with Reed-Solomon codes so that up to several hundred concurrent optical CDMA users can be supported at low target bit error rates. We observe that unlike conventional OCDMA systems, turbo-empowered OCDMA can allow overloading (more active users than is the length of the spreading sequences) with good bit error rate system performance.

  16. Signal transmission techniques for large-scale nuclear fuel reprocessing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herndon, J.N.; Bible, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The RCE is currently developing a prototypic microwave-based signal transmission system for reprocessing cell applications. This system, being developed for use in the Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS), will operate in the 10-GHz frequency range. Provisions are being made for five real-time video channels, three bidirectional data channels at one megabaud data rate each, and two audio channels. The basic utility of the concept has been proven in a laboratory demonstration using gallium arsenide gunn diode transmitter/receivers with horn antennas. Unidirectional transmission of one real-time video channel over a distance of 200 ft was demonstrated. No evidence of multipath interference was detected even when the transmission path was surrounded by metallic reflectors. The microwave signal transmission system for the AIMS application is in final design. Fabrication in the ORNL instrument shops will begin in October 1985, and the system should be operational in the Maintenance Systems Test Area (MSTA) at ORNL in the latter half of 1986

  17. cAMP-Signalling Regulates Gametocyte-Infected Erythrocyte Deformability Required for Malaria Parasite Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghania Ramdani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Blocking Plasmodium falciparum transmission to mosquitoes has been designated a strategic objective in the global agenda of malaria elimination. Transmission is ensured by gametocyte-infected erythrocytes (GIE that sequester in the bone marrow and at maturation are released into peripheral blood from where they are taken up during a mosquito blood meal. Release into the blood circulation is accompanied by an increase in GIE deformability that allows them to pass through the spleen. Here, we used a microsphere matrix to mimic splenic filtration and investigated the role of cAMP-signalling in regulating GIE deformability. We demonstrated that mature GIE deformability is dependent on reduced cAMP-signalling and on increased phosphodiesterase expression in stage V gametocytes, and that parasite cAMP-dependent kinase activity contributes to the stiffness of immature gametocytes. Importantly, pharmacological agents that raise cAMP levels in transmissible stage V gametocytes render them less deformable and hence less likely to circulate through the spleen. Therefore, phosphodiesterase inhibitors that raise cAMP levels in P. falciparum infected erythrocytes, such as sildenafil, represent new candidate drugs to block transmission of malaria parasites.

  18. Remote Field Eddy Curent Signal Modeling for the Gap Measurement of Neighboring Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H. K.; Lee, D. H.; Lee, Y. S.

    2005-04-01

    The fuel channels in the Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor consist of the coaxial pressure tube (PT) and the calandria tube (CT). The Liquid injection nozzle (LIN) is cross aligned with the fuel channel to control the reactor by injecting poison. For a safe operation, the gap between the LIN and CT should be maintained in order to prevent a contact of the neighboring tubes. The remote field eddy current (RFEC) method was applied to measure the gap between a nonmagnetic Zircaloy-2 liquid injection nozzle (LIN) and a Zircaloy-2 calandria tube. Under the condition of inserting the RFEC probe into the coaxial tubes and of crossing a LIN above or under the CT, the modeling of a LIN signal is needed to check the possibility of a gap measurement. The Volume Integral Code S/W which covers the axi-symmetric 3D configuration has been very rarely applied to obtain a LIN signal. This problem was solved by assuming a LIN as a flaw which can be described as a complete 3D object. This simulated LIN signal was verified by performing the laboratory experiment. The gap between the LIN and CT can be correlated with the amplitude of the LIN signals in the voltage plane. Typical noises in the fuel channel were the relative constriction, the change in the pressure tube diameter (fill-factor), thickness variation, and so on. These noise signals were simulated by using the modeling and were analyzed by considering their dependency on the phase angle and amplitude of the voltage plane in order to separate the gap signal from them. It could be concluded that the voltage plane analysis of the simulated RFEC signals were effective for obtaining the gap measurement of the neighboring tube.

  19. Design and Realization of a New Signal Security System for Multimedia Data Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Chen Chen

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new signal security system and its VLSI architecture for real-time multimedia data transmission applications. We first define two bit-circulation functions for one-dimensional binary array transformation. Then, we exploit a chaotic system in generating a binary sequence to control the bit-circulation functions defined for performing the successive transformation on the input data. Each eight 8-bit data elements is regarded as a set and is fed into an 8×8 binary matrix being transformed on each row and each column of the matrix by these two bit-circulation functions such that the signal can be transformed into completely disordered data. The features of the proposed design include low computational complexity, regular operations suitable for low-cost VLSI implementation, high data security, and high feasibility for easy integration with commercial multimedia storage and transmission applications. We have performed Matlab simulation to verify the functional correctness of the proposed system. In implementing the system, a low-cost VLSI architecture has been designed, verified, and physically realized based on a 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The implementation results show that the proposed signal security system can achieve 117 Mbytes/s data throughput rate that is fast enough for real-time data protection in multimedia transmission applications.

  20. Environmental gamma-ray spectroscopy at remote sites with satellite data transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, C.G.; Latner, N.; Larsen, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    We describe in this paper remote atmospheric measurement systems that are used in the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's (EML) Remote Atmospheric Measurements Program to measure gamma-ray emitting radionuclides that have been collected by drawing air through highly efficient filters. The gamma-ray spectrum is transmitted to polar orbiting ARGOS satellites, transferred to a ground station, and recovered via a telephone link by EML's computer. The recovered NaI gamma-ray spectrum is automatically resolved using a linear least squares program. Over 2000 NaI spectra have been received from these remote sites. These spectra provide information on isotopes of current interest and serve as a data base for the future studies of other radionuclides which may become of interest. (orig.)

  1. Transmission Characteristics of an OFDM signal for Power Line Communication System with High Bit Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akira; Watanabe, Yosuke; Tokuda, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koji

    In this paper, we measured what influence the sinusoidal transmission characteristics of the electric power line with various forms gave to the transmission characteristic of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) signal through PLC (power line communication system) modem. We classified the electric power line transmission line with various forms in a real environment into two basic elements, which are an outlet type branch and a switch type branch. Next, PHY rate (Physical rate) is measured for each basic element connected with the PLC modem. At this time, the transmission characteristics of the electric power line are simulated from measured data. OFDM sending and receiving systems are composed on the computer, and the PHY rate is simulated. By comparing with measured and calculated values, it is revealed that PHY rate of PLC modem is most affected in the case of the power line transmission characteristics having broad band and high level attenuation and group delay variation, and is not affected in the case of that having narrow band attenuation and group delay variation.

  2. Laser Transmission Model, Balloon Experiment, and Satellite Remote Sensing for Thin Cirrus to Support ABL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liou, K. N; Ou, S. C; Takano, Y

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) model has been developed for the transmission and backscattering of a high-energy laser beam through inhomogeneous high-level clouds in plane-parallel and spherical geometries...

  3. Remote sensing of the energetic status of plants and ecosystems: optical and odorous signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuelas, J.; Bartrons, M.; Llusia, J.; Filella, I.

    2016-12-01

    The optical and odorous signals emitted by plants and ecosystems present consistent relationships. They offer promising prospects for continuous local and global monitoring of the energetic status of plants and ecosystems, and therefore of their processing of energy and matter. We will discuss how the energetic status of plants (and ecosystems) resulting from the balance between the supply and demand of reducing power can be assessed biochemically, by the cellular NADPH/NADP ratio, optically, by using the photochemical reflectance index and sun-induced fluorescence as indicators of the dissipation of excess energy and associated physiological processes, and "odorously", by the emission of volatile organic compounds such as isoprenoids, as indicators of an excess of reducing equivalents and also of enhancement of protective converging physiological processes. These signals thus provide information on the energetic status, associated health status, and the functioning of plants and ecosystems. We will present the links among the three signals and will especially discuss the possibility of remotely sense the optical signals linked to carbon uptake and VOCs exchange by plants and ecosystems. These signals and their integration may have multiple applications for environmental and agricultural monitoring, for example, by extending the spatial coverage of carbon-flux and VOCs emission observations to most places and times, and/or for improving the process-based modeling of carbon fixation and isoprenoid emissions from terrestrial vegetation on plant, ecosystemic and global scales. Considerable challenges remain for a wide-scale and routine implementation of these biochemical, optical, and odorous signals for ecosystemic and/or agronomic monitoring and modeling, but its interest for making further steps forward in global ecology, agricultural applications, global carbon cycle, atmospheric science, and earth science warrants further research efforts in this line.

  4. Transmission of a Serial 5.1-Tb/s Data Signal Using 16-QAM and Coherent Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Schmidt-Langhorst, Carsten; Richter, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Generation, transmission and coherent detection of a 640-GBd RZ-16-QAM, polarization-multiplexed OTDM signal is demonstrated. Considering 7% hard decision FEC overhead, error-free transmission of 4.8 Tb/s is achieved over 80-km dispersion-managed fiber.......Generation, transmission and coherent detection of a 640-GBd RZ-16-QAM, polarization-multiplexed OTDM signal is demonstrated. Considering 7% hard decision FEC overhead, error-free transmission of 4.8 Tb/s is achieved over 80-km dispersion-managed fiber....

  5. Purinergic transmission and transglial signaling between neuron somata in the dorsal root ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Gabriela M; Li, Qi; Kim, Hyunhee; Stanley, Elise F

    2013-02-01

    Most dorsal root ganglion neuronal somata (NS) are isolated from their neighbours by a satellite glial cell (SGC) sheath. However, some NS are associated in pairs, separated solely by the membrane septum of a common SGC to form a neuron-glial cell-neuron (NGlN) trimer. We reported that stimulation of one NS evokes a delayed, noisy and long-duration inward current in both itself and its passive partner that was blocked by suramin, a general purinergic antagonist. Here we test the hypothesis that NGlN transmission involves purinergic activation of the SGC. Stimulation of the NS triggered a sustained current noise in the SGC. Block of transmission through the NGlN by reactive blue 2 or thapsigargin, a Ca(2+) store-depletion agent, implicated a Ca(2+) store discharge-linked P2Y receptor. P2Y2 was identified by simulation of the NGlN-like transmission by puffing UTP onto the SGC and by immunocytochemical localization to the SGC membrane septum. Block of the UTP effect by BAPTA, an intracellular Ca(2+) scavenger, supported the involvement of SGC Ca(2+) stores in the signaling pathway. We infer that transmission through the NGlN trimer involves secretion of ATP from the NS and triggering of SGC Ca(2+) store discharge via P2Y2 receptors. Presumably, cytoplasmic Ca(2+) elevation leads to the release of an as-yet unidentified second transmitter from the glial cell to complete transmission. Thus, the two NS of the NGlN trimer communicate via a 'sandwich synapse' transglial pathway, a novel signaling mechanism that may contribute to information transfer in other regions of the nervous system. © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals that transmissible gastroenteritis virus activates the JAK-STAT1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kang; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Wang, Dang; Xie, Lilan; Yang, Jing; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2014-12-05

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a porcine enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes lethal watery diarrhea and severe dehydration in piglets. In this study, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled to isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used to quantitatively identify differentially expressed cellular proteins after TGEV infection in PK-15 cells. In total, 162 differentially expressed cellular proteins were identified, including 60 upregulated proteins and 102 downregulated proteins. These differentially expressed proteins were involved in the cell cycle, cellular growth and proliferation, the innate immune response, etc. Interestingly, many upregulated proteins were associated with interferon signaling, especially signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Immunoblotting and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that TGEV infection induces STAT1 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, as well as ISG expression. This study for the first time reveals that TGEV induces interferon signaling from the point of proteomic analysis.

  7. Optical single sideband millimeter-wave signal generation and transmission using 120° hybrid coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Peng, Miao; Zhou, Hui; Chen, Ming; Jiang, Leyong; Tan, Li; Dai, Xiaoyu; Xiang, Yuanjiang

    2018-03-01

    We propose a novel 60 GHz optical single sideband (OSSB) millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal generation scheme using 120° hybrid coupler based on external integrated Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM). The proposed scheme shows that the bit error ratio (BER) performance is improved by suppressing the +2nd-order sideband. Meanwhile, the transmission distance is extended as only the optical +1st-order sideband is modulated by using 5 Gbit/s baseband signal while the carrier is blank, owing to the elimination of walk-off effect suffered from fiber dispersion. The simulation results demonstrated that the eye diagrams of the generated 60 GHz OSSB signal keep open and clear after 100 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF). In addition, the proposed scheme can achieve 2 dB receiver sensitivity improvements than the conventional 90° hybrid coupler when transmitted over 100 km SSMF at a BER of 10-9.

  8. Heaviside revisited: Distortionless signal transmission through lossy media with application to precision clock synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flake, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    A recently discovered non-sinusoidal, non-periodic electrical signal in the form of an exponentially rising pulse achieves distortionless propagation at constant velocity through lossy, passive transmission media. This unique property is derived theoretically in the framework of the telegrapher's equation analyzed by Heaviside and confirmed experimentally in propagation of such a pulse along serially connected sections of telephone cable. The utility of the distortion-free pulse within the field of time-domain reflectometry is demonstrated in precise time-of-flight measurement of the reflected signal, with the prospect of enhancing the accuracy of protocols for synchronization of spatially separated clocks. - Highlights: • Introduction of rising exponential shape as a distortion-resistant wave pulse (SD signal) in electrical propagation through lossy media. • Derivation of distortion-free and constant-velocity properties of the SD signal based on telegrapher's equation of Oliver Heaviside. • Experimental demonstration of enhanced precision of time-of-flight measurements utilizing SD signals in the e-TDR. • Design of a precision clock-synchronization procedure based on SD signaling and e-TDR.

  9. Remote Control System of the TJ-II Microwave Transmission Lines Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Sanchez, A.; Fernandez, A.; Cappa, A.; Gama, J. de la; Olivares, J.; Garcia, R.; Chamorro, M.

    2007-01-01

    The ECRH system of the TJ-II stellarator has two gyrotrons, which deliver a maximum power of 300 kW each at a frequency of 53.2 GHz. Another 28 GHz gyrotron will be used to heat the plasma by electron Bernstein waves (EBWH). The microwave power is transmitted from the gyrotrons to the vacuum chamber by two quasi-optical transmission lines for ECRH and a corrugated waveguide for EBWH. All transmission lines have an internal movable mirror inside the vacuum chamber to focus the beam and to be able to change the launching angle. The control of the beam polarization is very important and the lines have two corrugated mirrors, which actuate as polarizers. In this report the control system of the position of these three internal mirrors and the polarizers of the EBWH transmission line is described. (Author) 20 refs

  10. Miniaturized Swimming Soft Robot with Complex Movement Actuated and Controlled by Remote Light Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chaolei; Lv, Jiu-An; Tian, Xiaojun; Wang, Yuechao; Yu, Yanlei; Liu, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Powering and communication with micro robots to enable complex functions is a long-standing challenge as the size of robots continues to shrink. Physical connection of wires or components needed for wireless communication are complex and limited by the size of electronic and energy storage devices, making miniaturization of robots difficult. To explore an alternative solution, we designed and fabricated a micro soft swimming robot with both powering and controlling functions provided by remote light, which does not carry any electronic devices and batteries. In this approach, a polymer film containing azobenzene chromophore which is sensitive to ultra-violet (UV) light works as “motor”, and the UV light and visible light work as “power and signal lines”. Periodically flashing UV light and white light drives the robot flagellum periodically to swing to eventually push forward the robot in the glass tube filled with liquid. The gripper on robot head can be opened or closed by lights to grab and carry the load. This kind of remotely light-driven approach realizes complex driving and controlling of micro robotic structures, making it possible to design and fabricate even smaller robots. It will have great potential among applications in the micro machine and robot fields.

  11. A method of signal transmission path analysis for multivariate random processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Ritsuo

    1984-04-01

    A method for noise analysis called ''STP (signal transmission path) analysis'' is presentd as a tool to identify noise sources and their propagation paths in multivariate random proceses. Basic idea of the analysis is to identify, via time series analysis, effective network for the signal power transmission among variables in the system and to make use of its information to the noise analysis. In the present paper, we accomplish this through two steps of signal processings; first, we estimate, using noise power contribution analysis, variables which have large contribution to the power spectrum of interest, and then evaluate the STPs for each pair of variables to identify STPs which play significant role for the generated noise to transmit to the variable under evaluation. The latter part of the analysis is executed through comparison of partial coherence function and newly introduced partial noise power contribution function. This paper presents the procedure of the STP analysis and demonstrates, using simulation data as well as Borssele PWR noise data, its effectiveness for investigation of noise generation and propagation mechanisms. (author)

  12. Frequency modulator. Transmission of meteorological signals in LVC; Modulador de frecuencia. Transmision de senales meteorologicas en CLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero G, P.T.; Ramirez S, R.; Gonzalez M, J.L.; Rojas N, P.; Celis del Angel, L. [ININ, 52750 La marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The development of the frequency modulator and demodulator circuit for transmission of meteorological signals by means of fiber optics of the meteorology station to the nuclear reactor unit 1 in the Laguna Verde Central in Veracruz is described. (Author)

  13. Outside-In Signal Transmission by Conformational Changes in Integrin Mac-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Craig T.; Hyun, Young-Min; Schultz, Joanne B.; Law, Foon-Yee; Waugh, Richard E.; Knauf, Philip A.; Kim, Minsoo

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular signals associated with or triggered by integrin ligation can control cell survival, differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Despite accumulating evidence that conformational changes regulate integrin affinity to its ligands, how integrin structure regulates signal transmission from the outside to the inside of the cell remains elusive. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we addressed whether conformational changes in integrin Mac-1 are sufficient to transmit outside-in signals in human neutrophils. Mac-1 conformational activation induced by ligand occupancy or activating Ab binding, but not integrin clustering, triggered similar patterns of intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation, including Akt phosphorylation, and inhibited spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis, indicating that global conformational changes are critical for Mac-1-dependent outside-in signal transduction. In neutrophils and myeloid K562 cells, ligand ICAM-1 or activating Ab binding promoted switchblade-like extension of the Mac-1 extracellular domain and separation of the αM and β2 subunit cytoplasmic tails, two structural hallmarks of integrin activation. These data suggest the primacy of global conformational changes in the generation of Mac-1 outside-in signals. PMID:19864611

  14. Transmission experiment by the simulated LMFBR model and propagation analysis of acoustic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kenji; Yasuda, Tsutomu; Araki, Hitoshi.

    1981-01-01

    Acoustic transducers to detect a boiling of sodium may be installed in the upper structure and at the upper position of reactor vessel wall under constricted conditions. A set of the experiments of transmission of acoustic vibration to various points of the vessel was performed utilizing the half scale-hydraulic flow test facility simulating reactor vessel over the frequency range 20 kHz -- 100 kHz. Acoustic signals from an installed sound source in the core were measured at each point by both hydrophones in the vessel and vibration pickups on the vessel wall. In these experiments transmission of signals to each point of detectors were clearly observed to background noise level. These data have been summarized in terms of the transmission loss and furthermore are compared with background noise level of flow to estimate the feasibility of detection of sodium boiling sound. The ratio of signal to noise was obtained to be about 13 dB by hydrophone in the upper structure, 8 dB by accelerometer and 16 dB by AE-sensor at the upper position on the vessel in experiments used the simulation model. Sound waves emanated due to sodium boiling also propagate along the wall of the vessel may be predicted theoretically. The result of analysis suggests a capability of detection at the upper position of the reactor vessel wall. Leaky Lamb waves of the first symmetric (L 1 ) and of the antisymmetric (F 1 ) mode and shear horizontal wave (SH) have been derived in light of the attenuation due to coupling to liquid sodium as the traveling modes over the frequency range 10 kHz -- 100 kHz up to 50 mm in thickness of the vessel wall. Leaky Lamb wave (L 1 ) and (SH) mode have been proposed theoretically on the some assumption to be most available to detect the boiling sound of sodium propagating along the vessel wall. (author)

  15. 32-core Dense SDM Unidirectional Transmission of PDM-16QAM Signals Over 1600 km Using Crosstalk-managed Single-mode Heterogeneous Multicore Transmission Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Shibahara, K.; Ono, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate 32-core dense space-division multiplexed (DSDM) unidirectional transmission of PDM-16QAM 20-WDM signals over 1644.8 km employing a low-crosstalk single-mode heterogeneous 32-core fiber in a partial recirculating-loop system.......We demonstrate 32-core dense space-division multiplexed (DSDM) unidirectional transmission of PDM-16QAM 20-WDM signals over 1644.8 km employing a low-crosstalk single-mode heterogeneous 32-core fiber in a partial recirculating-loop system....

  16. Optimization of Training Signal Transmission for Estimating MIMO Channel under Antenna Mutual Coupling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports investigations on the effect of antenna mutual coupling on performance of training-based Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO channel estimation. The influence of mutual coupling is assessed for two training-based channel estimation methods, Scaled Least Square (SLS and Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE. It is shown that the accuracy of MIMO channel estimation is governed by the sum of eigenvalues of channel correlation matrix which in turn is influenced by the mutual coupling in transmitting and receiving array antennas. A water-filling-based procedure is proposed to optimize the training signal transmission to minimize the MIMO channel estimation errors.

  17. Monitoring of Global Acoustic Transmissions: Signal Processing and Preliminary Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    AD-A246 572 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California 0’ ff - CTE 8 FE8 2 819921 THESIS MONITORING OF GLOBAL ACOUSTIC TRANSMISSIONS: SIGNAL...balanced by the buoyancy from a main subsurface float and approximately half of the 30 " football " floats, spaced 2 meters apart, which isolated the array...from the surface gravity wave field. The main subsurface float was a 37" sphere with 475 lbs. of buoyancy. The football floats measured 7.5" x 15" and

  18. Gigabit Ethernet signal transmission using asynchronous optical code division multiple access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Philip Y; Fok, Mable P; Shastri, Bhavin J; Wu, Ben; Prucnal, Paul R

    2015-12-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel architecture for interfacing and transmitting a Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) signal using asynchronous incoherent optical code division multiple access (OCDMA). This is the first such asynchronous incoherent OCDMA system carrying GbE data being demonstrated to be working among multi-users where each user is operating with an independent clock/data rate and is granted random access to the network. Three major components, the GbE interface, the OCDMA transmitter, and the OCDMA receiver are discussed in detail. The performance of the system is studied and characterized through measuring eye diagrams, bit-error rate and packet loss rate in real-time file transfer. Our Letter also addresses the near-far problem and realizes asynchronous transmission and detection of signal.

  19. Signal processing of high-resolution transmission electron microscope images using Fourier transforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buseck, P.R.; Epelboin, Y.; Rimsky, A.

    1988-11-01

    Interpretation of images obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) can be aided by the use of processed signals. Images are recorded digitally or are digitized from a photograph, and then these data are Fourier transformed and treated. The low- and high-frequency signals are removed, and a variety of circular and elliptical (anisotropic) apertures or screens are applied to explore and highlight features of special interest. A minicomputer can be used to perform such image processing rapidly, interactively, and with high precision. Elliptical filters are of special interest for the examination of linear or planar features such as the distribution of stacking faults or the presence and distribution of superstructures. Some superstructures themselves contain defects, and these can similarly be highlighted and examined. The uses of processing for examining HRTEM images of layering in a complex sheet silicate mineral and dislocation cores in grossular garnet are illustrated.

  20. Remote, mobile telemedicine: the satellite transmission of medical data from Mount Logan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, C; Pipe, A

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate the potential of remote, mobile telemedicine during a four-week, high-altitude mountaineering expedition to Mount Logan, Canada's highest summit. Using a mobile satellite terminal and a laptop computer (both powered by a photovoltaic solar panel), ECG tracings and blood pressure measurements, in addition to colour images, short-segment video and audio clips were transmitted during the course of the ascent. The data were transmitted via a mobile communications satellite to a ground station in Ottawa, a distance of over 4000 km. The data were then transferred to the public switched data network and delivered to the University of Ottawa Heart Institute for analysis. Similarly, data were transmitted from the ground station to the expedition team on Mount Logan throughout the ascent. Using this technique, medical diagnosis and emergency care can be facilitated in extreme and isolated locations lacking a telecommunications infrastructure. Such technology has applications in developing countries, disaster response efforts, remote civilian and military operations, and in space operations.

  1. Assessing recent and remote associative olfactory memory in rats using the social transmission of food preference paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessières, Benjamin; Nicole, Olivier; Bontempi, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    Rats have the ability to learn about potential food sources by sampling their odors on the breath of conspecifics. Although this ethologically based social behavior has been transposed to the laboratory to probe nonspatial associative olfactory memory, only a few studies have taken full advantage of its unique features to examine the organization of recently and remotely acquired information. We provide a set of standardized procedures and technical refinements that are particularly useful in achieving this goal while minimizing confounding factors. These procedures, built upon a three-stage protocol (odor exposure, social interaction and preference test), are designed to optimize performance across variable retention delays, thus enabling the reliable assessment of recent and remote memory, and underlying processes, including encoding, consolidation, retrieval and forgetting. The different variants of the social transmission of food preference paradigm, which take a few days to several weeks to perform, make it an attractive and versatile tool that can be coupled to many applications in CNS research. The paradigm can be easily implemented in a typical rodent facility by personnel with standard animal behavioral expertise.

  2. Multichannel processing for dispersion curves extraction of ultrasonic axial-transmission signals: Comparisons and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kailiang; Ta, Dean; Cassereau, Didier; Hu, Bo; Wang, Weiqi; Laugier, Pascal; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    Some pioneering studies have shown the clinical feasibility of long bones evaluation using ultrasonic guided waves. Such a strategy is typically designed to determine the dispersion information of the guided modes to infer the elastic and structural characteristics of cortical bone. However, there are still some challenges to extract multimode dispersion curves due to many practical limitations, e.g., high spectral density of modes, limited spectral resolution and poor signal-to-noise ratio. Recently, two representative signal processing methods have been proposed to improve the dispersion curves extraction. The first method is based on singular value decomposition (SVD) with advantages of multi-emitter and multi-receiver configuration for enhanced mode extraction; the second one uses linear Radon transform (LRT) with high-resolution imaging of the dispersion curves. To clarify the pros and cons, a face to face comparison was performed between the two methods. The results suggest that the LRT method is suitable to separate the guided modes at low frequency-thickness-product ( fh) range; for multimode signals in broadband fh range, the SVD-based method shows more robust performances for weak mode enhancement and noise filtering. Different methods are valuable to cover the entire fh range for processing ultrasonic axial transmission signals measured in long cortical bones.

  3. PKA-mediated Golgi remodeling during cAMP signal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavillard, Fabiola; Hidalgo, Josefina; Megias, Diego; Levitsky, Kostantin L; Velasco, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is part of the set of signaling proteins that are stably associated to the cytosolic surface of Golgi membranes in mammalian cells. In principle, Golgi-associated PKA could participate in either signal transduction events and/or the coordination of Golgi transport activities. Here, we show data indicating that although Golgi-associated PKA is activated fast and efficiently during cell stimulation by an extracellular ligand it does not contribute significantly to cAMP signal transmission to the nucleus. Instead, most of the PKA catalytic subunits Calphaderived from the Golgi complex remain localized in the perinuclear cytoplasm where they induce changes in Golgi structural organization. Thus, in stimulated cells the Golgi complex appears collapsed, showing increased colocalization of previously segregated markers and exhibiting merging of different proximal cisternae within a single stack. In contrast, the trans-Golgi network remains as a separate compartment. Consequently, the rate of protein transport is increased whereas glycan processing is not severely affected. This remodeling process requires the presence of PKA activity associated to the Golgi membranes. Together these data indicate that Golgi-associated PKA activity is involved in the adaptation of Golgi dynamic organization to extracellular signaling events.

  4. Progressive and Error-Resilient Transmission Strategies for VLC Encoded Signals over Noisy Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillemot Christine

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of robust and progressive transmission of signals (e.g., images, video encoded with variable length codes (VLCs over error-prone channels. This paper first describes bitstream construction methods offering good properties in terms of error resilience and progressivity. In contrast with related algorithms described in the literature, all proposed methods have a linear complexity as the sequence length increases. The applicability of soft-input soft-output (SISO and turbo decoding principles to resulting bitstream structures is investigated. In addition to error resilience, the amenability of the bitstream construction methods to progressive decoding is considered. The problem of code design for achieving good performance in terms of error resilience and progressive decoding with these transmission strategies is then addressed. The VLC code has to be such that the symbol energy is mainly concentrated on the first bits of the symbol representation (i.e., on the first transitions of the corresponding codetree. Simulation results reveal high performance in terms of symbol error rate (SER and mean-square reconstruction error (MSE. These error-resilience and progressivity properties are obtained without any penalty in compression efficiency. Codes with such properties are of strong interest for the binarization of -ary sources in state-of-the-art image, and video coding systems making use of, for example, the EBCOT or CABAC algorithms. A prior statistical analysis of the signal allows the construction of the appropriate binarization code.

  5. Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feihong; Li, Hongjun; Gong, Xiangwu; Liu, Quan; Wang, Jingchao

    2015-09-03

    A typical application scenario of remote wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is identified as an emergency scenario. One of the greatest design challenges for communications in emergency scenarios is energy-efficient transmission, due to scarce electrical energy in large-scale natural and man-made disasters. Integrated high altitude platform (HAP)/satellite networks are expected to optimally meet emergency communication requirements. In this paper, a novel integrated HAP/satellite (IHS) architecture is proposed, and three segments of the architecture are investigated in detail. The concept of link-state advertisement (LSA) is designed in a slow flat Rician fading channel. The LSA is received and processed by the terminal to estimate the link state information, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption at the terminal end. Furthermore, the transmission power requirements of the HAPs and terminals are derived using the gradient descent and differential equation methods. The energy consumption is modeled at both the source and system level. An innovative and adaptive algorithm is given for the energy-efficient path selection. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm can significantly improve energy efficiency when combined with the LSA and the energy consumption estimation.

  6. Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihong Dong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A typical application scenario of remote wireless sensor networks (WSNs is identified as an emergency scenario. One of the greatest design challenges for communications in emergency scenarios is energy-efficient transmission, due to scarce electrical energy in large-scale natural and man-made disasters. Integrated high altitude platform (HAP/satellite networks are expected to optimally meet emergency communication requirements. In this paper, a novel integrated HAP/satellite (IHS architecture is proposed, and three segments of the architecture are investigated in detail. The concept of link-state advertisement (LSA is designed in a slow flat Rician fading channel. The LSA is received and processed by the terminal to estimate the link state information, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption at the terminal end. Furthermore, the transmission power requirements of the HAPs and terminals are derived using the gradient descent and differential equation methods. The energy consumption is modeled at both the source and system level. An innovative and adaptive algorithm is given for the energy-efficient path selection. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm can significantly improve energy efficiency when combined with the LSA and the energy consumption estimation.

  7. Ammonia modifies enteric neuromuscular transmission through glial γ-aminobutyric acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, David E; Watson, Ralph E; Robson, Simon C; Gulbransen, Brian D

    2017-12-01

    Impaired gut motility may contribute, at least in part, to the development of systemic hyperammonemia and systemic neurological disorders in inherited metabolic disorders, or in severe liver and renal disease. It is not known whether enteric neurotransmission regulates intestinal luminal and hence systemic ammonia levels by induced changes in motility. Here, we propose and test the hypothesis that ammonia acts through specific enteric circuits to influence gut motility. We tested our hypothesis by recording the effects of ammonia on neuromuscular transmission in tissue samples from mice, pigs, and humans and investigated specific mechanisms using novel mutant mice, selective drugs, cellular imaging, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Exogenous ammonia increased neurogenic contractions and decreased neurogenic relaxations in segments of mouse, pig, and human intestine. Enteric glial cells responded to ammonia with intracellular Ca 2+ responses. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase and the deletion of glial connexin-43 channels in hGFAP :: Cre ER T2+/- /connexin43 f/f mice potentiated the effects of ammonia on neuromuscular transmission. The effects of ammonia on neuromuscular transmission were blocked by GABA A receptor antagonists, and ammonia drove substantive GABA release as did the selective pharmacological activation of enteric glia in GFAP::hM3Dq transgenic mice. We propose a novel mechanism whereby local ammonia is operational through GABAergic glial signaling to influence enteric neuromuscular circuits that regulate intestinal motility. Therapeutic manipulation of these mechanisms may benefit a number of neurological, hepatic, and renal disorders manifesting hyperammonemia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We propose that local circuits in the enteric nervous system sense and regulate intestinal ammonia. We show that ammonia modifies enteric neuromuscular transmission to increase motility in human, pig, and mouse intestine model systems. The mechanisms underlying the

  8. INFLUENCE OF TRANSMITTER NONLINEARITIES ON DATA TRANSMISSION FROM REMOTELY PILOTED AIR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Grekhov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: 1 to develop a model of a communication channel of an unmanned aerial vehicle "UAV-Ground station" with adaptive modulation and orthogonal frequency division of channels; 2 to calculate the channel parameters with different types of fading for different levels of satellite transponder nonlinearity. Method: MATLAB Simulink software was used to simulate the channel operation. Results: Based on the IEEE 802.16d standard, a realistic model of the communication channel of the unmanned aerial vehicle "UAV-Ground Station" was developed, which is used to estimate the channel parameters. The channel model with adaptive modulation consists of a source of information, a transmitter, a downlink channel with fading, and a terrestrial station receiver. Dependences of the signal-to-noise ratio of the terrestrial receiver on the signal-to-noise ratio in the channel down for different types of nonlinearity of the unmanned aerial transmitter, various modulations (BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM, various types of fading are obtained. The signal constellations of the received signals for different Doppler frequency shifts are compared. Conclusion: The developed model allows determining the conditions under which the channel is "open" for a given type of a modulation and a data rate. The proposed approach can be considered as a method for estimating the parameters of the satellite communication channel of an unmanned aerial vehicle with fading.

  9. Signal Reception for Space-Time Differentially Encoded Transmissions over FIR Rich Multipath Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available With sophisticated signal and information processing algorithms, air interfaces with space-time (ST coding and multiple reception antennas substantially improve the reliability of wireless links. This paper proposes a new receiver algorithm for differential ST coded transmissions over the finite-impulse-response (FIR rich multipath fading channels. The symbol detection introduced in this paper is a deterministic subspace-based approach in a multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO system framework. The receiver (i operates in a blind fashion without estimating the channel or its inverse and (ii is able to work with a small number of signal samples and hence can be applied in the quasistatic channels. The proposed scheme employs multiple antennas at both sides of the transceiver and exploits both the antenna diversity and the multiple constant modulus (MCM characteristics of the signaling. The receiver is able to blindly mitigate the intersymbol interference (ISI in a rich multipath propagation environment, and this has been verified through the extensive Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. Should we build wind farms close to load or invest in transmission to access better wind resources in remote areas? A case study in the MISO region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, Julian V.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês L.; Wiser, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Wind speeds in remote areas are sometimes very high, but transmission costs to access these locations can be prohibitive. We present a conceptual model to estimate the economics of accessing high quality wind resources in remote areas to comply with renewable energy policy targets, and apply the model to the Midwestern grid (MISO) as a case study. We assess the goal of providing 40 TWh of new wind generation while minimizing costs, and include temporal aspects of wind power (variability costs and correlation to market prices) as well as total wind power produced from different farms. We find that building wind farms in North/South Dakota (windiest states) compared to Illinois (less windy, but close to load) would only be economical if the incremental transmission costs to access them were below $360/kW of wind capacity (break-even value). Historically, the incremental transmission costs for wind development in North/South Dakota compared to in Illinois are about twice this value. However, the break-even incremental transmission cost for wind farms in Minnesota/Iowa (also windy states) is $250/kW, which is consistent with historical costs. We conclude that wind development in Minnesota/Iowa is likely more economical to meet MISO renewable targets compared to North/South Dakota or Illinois. - Highlights: •We evaluate the economics of building wind farms in remote areas in MISO. •We present a conceptual wind site selection model to meet 40 TWh of new wind. •We use the model to compare remote windy sites to less windy ones closer to load. •We show break-even transmission costs that would justify remote wind development. •Comparing break-even values to historical costs, MN/IA sites are most economical.

  11. Regulation of ROS in transmissible gastroenteritis virus-activated apoptotic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Zhao, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Hongling; Song, Xiangjun; Zhang, Wenlong; Tong, Dewen

    2013-12-06

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe lethal watery diarrhea and dehydration in piglets. Previous studies indicate that TGEV infection induces cell apoptosis in host cells. In this study, we investigated the roles and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TGEV-activated apoptotic signaling. The results showed that TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation, whereas UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote ROS accumulation. In addition, TGEV infection lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential in PK-15 cell line, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC) and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, the two scavengers significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 and further blocked apoptosis occurrence through suppressing the TGEV-induced Bcl-2 reduction, Bax redistribution, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress pathway might be a key element in TGEV-induced apoptosis and TGEV pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The quaternary architecture of RARβ–RXRα heterodimer facilitates domain–domain signal transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Vikas; Wu, Dalei; Li, Sheng; Potluri, Nalini; Kim, Youngchang; Rastinejad, Fraydoon

    2017-10-11

    Assessing the physical connections and allosteric communications in multi-domain nuclear receptor (NR) polypeptides has remained challenging, with few crystal structures available to show their overall structural organizations. Here we report the quaternary architecture of multi-domain retinoic acid receptor beta-retinoic X receptor alpha (RAR beta-RXR alpha) heterodimer bound to DNA, ligands and coactivator peptides, examined through crystallographic, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, mutagenesis and functional studies. The RAR beta ligand-binding domain (LBD) and DNA-binding domain (DBD) are physically connected to foster allosteric signal transmission between them. Direct comparisons among all the multi-domain NRs studied crystallographically to date show significant variations within their quaternary architectures, rather than a common architecture adhering to strict rules. RXR remains flexible and adaptive by maintaining loosely organized domains, while its hetero-dimerization partners use a surface patch on their LBDs to form domain-domain interactions with DBDs.

  13. Efficient transmission of subthreshold signals in complex networks of spiking neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin J Torres

    Full Text Available We investigate the efficient transmission and processing of weak, subthreshold signals in a realistic neural medium in the presence of different levels of the underlying noise. Assuming Hebbian weights for maximal synaptic conductances--that naturally balances the network with excitatory and inhibitory synapses--and considering short-term synaptic plasticity affecting such conductances, we found different dynamic phases in the system. This includes a memory phase where population of neurons remain synchronized, an oscillatory phase where transitions between different synchronized populations of neurons appears and an asynchronous or noisy phase. When a weak stimulus input is applied to each neuron, increasing the level of noise in the medium we found an efficient transmission of such stimuli around the transition and critical points separating different phases for well-defined different levels of stochasticity in the system. We proved that this intriguing phenomenon is quite robust, as it occurs in different situations including several types of synaptic plasticity, different type and number of stored patterns and diverse network topologies, namely, diluted networks and complex topologies such as scale-free and small-world networks. We conclude that the robustness of the phenomenon in different realistic scenarios, including spiking neurons, short-term synaptic plasticity and complex networks topologies, make very likely that it could also occur in actual neural systems as recent psycho-physical experiments suggest.

  14. Transmission of 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK signals over up to 635 km of multimode optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D; Hurley, Jason E; Kuksenkov, Dmitri V; Lynn, Christopher M; Korolev, Andrey E; Nazarov, Vladimir N

    2011-12-12

    We investigate transmission of 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK signals over 50 μm core diameter OM3 multimode fiber using the center launch approach. We demonstrate successful transmission of 16 DWDM channels over a distance of 635 km for a capacity-distance product of 1016 Tb/s-km. The limiting impairment appears due to mode coupling and multipath interference effects. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  15. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus infection induces cell apoptosis via activation of p53 signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Ding, Li; Li, Zhaocai; Dai, Meiling; Zhao, Xiaomin; Li, Wei; Du, Qian; Xu, Xingang; Tong, Dewen

    2013-08-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infection induced apoptosis in several cell lines in vitro. Our previous studies demonstrated that TGEV could activate FasL- and mitochondria-mediated pathways to induce apoptosis in PK-15 cells. In this study, we investigated the regulation of p53 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signalling pathways in the interaction of TGEV with host cells. We observed that TGEV infection decreased p300/CBP, downregulated MDM2 and promoted p53 phosphorylation at serines 15, 20 and 46, resulting in accumulation and activation of p53 in PK-15 cells. TGEV infection induced the transient activation of p38 MAPK in the early phase of inoculation and constant activation in the later phase of infection. However, UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote the activation of p53 and p38 MAPK in the later phase, whereas it only triggered the transient activation of p38 MAPK in the early phase. Blocking of p53 activation significantly inhibited the occurrence of apoptosis through suppressing the TGEV-induced FasL expression, Bcl-2 reduction, Bax and cytochrome c redistribution, while inhibition of p38 activity moderately blocked apoptosis induction and partly attenuated the accumulation and activation of p53. However, inhibition of p38 and p53 activity had no significant effects on viral gene transcription at 12 and 24 h post-infection. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TGEV infection promoted the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 signalling, and p53 signalling might play a dominant role in the regulation of cell apoptosis. These findings provide new insights into the function of p53 and p38 MAPK in the interaction of TGEV with host cells.

  16. Simultaneous transmission of the IEEE 802.11 radio signal and optical Gbit Ethernet over the multimode fiber link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymiuk, L.; Podziewski, A.

    2015-09-01

    In the paper we present a successful joint transmission of the IEEE 802.11 signal and an optical Gbit Ethernet over a multimode fiber based link. Most importantly, the multiplexation of both signals was performed in the optical domain. Due to the utilization of the multimode fiber the OBI noise was avoided and both channels were able to operate at the same wavelength. We prove that potential RoF link for IEEE 802.11 signal distribution may be used to additionally transmit other signals as Gbit Ethernet and therefore utilize the fiber infrastructure installed more effectively. The qualities of both the IEEE 802.11 and Ethernet transmissions fulfilled the requirements imposed by appropriate standards.

  17. Study on Remote Monitoring System of Crossing and Spanning Tangent Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da-bing; Zhang, Nai-long; Zhang, Meng-ge; Wang, Ze-hua; Zhang, Yan

    2017-05-01

    In order to grasp the vibration state of overhead transmission line and ensure the operational security of transmission line, the remote monitoring system of crossing and spanning tangent tower was studied. By use of this system, the displacement, velocity and acceleration of the tower, and the local weather data are collected automatically, displayed on computer of remote monitoring centre through wireless network, real-time collection and transmission of vibration signals are realized. The applying results show that the system is excellent in reliability and accuracy and so on. The system can be used to remote monitoring of transmission tower of UHV power transmission lines and in large spanning areas.

  18. Experimental Investigation of transmission properties of all-optical label swapping of orthogonal IM/FSK labeled signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva; Chi, Nan; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2003-01-01

    Optically labeled IM/FSK signal saretran smitte dover 50km of SMF under different compensation schemes.All-opticallabel swapping based on MZ-SOA and EAM is presented. Transmission followed by label swapping shows a 2dB overall power penalty....

  19. 400-GHz wireless transmission of 60-Gb/s nyquist-QPSK signals using UTC-PD and heterodyne mixer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Asif, Rameez; Piels, Molly

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an optical network compatible high-speed optoelectronics THz wireless transmission system operating at 400-GHz band. In the experiment, optical Nyquist quadrature phase-shift keying signals in a 12.5-GHz ultradense wavelength-division multiplexing grid is converted...

  20. Use of remote sensing to identify spatial risk factors for malaria in a region of declining transmission: a cross-sectional and longitudinal community survey

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, William J; Hamapumbu, Harry; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Shields, Timothy; Kamanga, Aniset; Clennon, Julie; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Thuma, Philip E; Glass, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The burden of malaria has decreased dramatically within the past several years in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Further malaria control will require targeted control strategies based on evidence of risk. The objective of this study was to identify environmental risk factors for malaria transmission using remote sensing technologies to guide malaria control interventions in a region of declining burden of malaria. Methods Satellite images were used to construct a sampling fr...

  1. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus infection induces NF-κB activation through RLR-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhen; An, Kang; Xie, Lilan; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Ruoxi; Wang, Dang; Fang, Ying; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo; Fang, Liurong

    2017-07-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine enteric coronavirus which causes lethal severe watery diarrhea in piglets. The pathogenesis of TGEV is strongly associated with inflammation. In this study, we found that TGEV infection activates transcription factors NF-κB, IRF3 and AP-1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner in porcine kidney cells. Treatment with the NF-κB-specific inhibitor BAY11-7082 significantly decreased TGEV-induced proinflammatory cytokine production, but did not affect virus replication. Phosphorylation of NF-κB subunit p65 and proinflammatory cytokine production were greatly decreased after knockdown of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) or its adaptors MAVS and STING, while only slight reduction was observed in cells following silencing of Toll-like receptor adaptors, MyD88 and TRIF. Furthermore, TGEV infection significantly upregulated mRNA expression of RIG-I and MDA5. Taken together, our results indicate that the RLR signaling pathway is involved in TGEV-induced inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Regulation of ROS in transmissible gastroenteritis virus-activated apoptotic signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Li [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, Hainan 571158 (China); Zhao, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Hongling; Song, Xiangjun; Zhang, Wenlong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Tong, Dewen, E-mail: dwtong@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation. •ROS accumulation is involved in TGEV-induced mitochondrial integrity impairment. •ROS is associated with p53 activation and apoptosis occurrence in TGEV-infected cells. -- Abstract: Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe lethal watery diarrhea and dehydration in piglets. Previous studies indicate that TGEV infection induces cell apoptosis in host cells. In this study, we investigated the roles and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TGEV-activated apoptotic signaling. The results showed that TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation, whereas UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote ROS accumulation. In addition, TGEV infection lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential in PK-15 cell line, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, the two scavengers significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 and further blocked apoptosis occurrence through suppressing the TGEV-induced Bcl-2 reduction, Bax redistribution, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress pathway might be a key element in TGEV-induced apoptosis and TGEV pathogenesis.

  3. Algorithmic processing of intrinsic signals in affixed transmission speckle analysis (ATSA) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghijsen, Michael T.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2017-03-01

    Affixed Transmission Speckle Analysis (ATSA) is a method recently developed to measure blood flow that is based on laser speckle imaging miniaturized into a clip-on form factor the size of a pulse-oximeter. Measuring at a rate of 250 Hz, ATSA is capable or obtaining the cardiac waveform in blood flow data, referred to as the Speckle-Plethysmogram (SPG). ATSA is also capable of simultaneously measuring the Photoplethysmogram (PPG), a more conventional signal related to light intensity. In this work we present several novel algorithms for extracting physiologically relevant information from the combined SPG-PPG waveform data. First we show that there is a slight time-delay between the SPG and PPG that can be extracted computationally. Second, we present a set of frequency domain algorithms that measure harmonic content on pulse-by-pulse basis for both the SPG and PPG. Finally, we apply these algorithms to data obtained from a set of subjects including healthy controls and individuals with heightened cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that the time-delay and frequency content are correlated with cardiovascular health; specifically with vascular stiffening.

  4. Autonomous sensors. Microsensors without external power supply and with remote signal processing; Energieautarke Sensorik. Mikrosensorik mit autarker Energieversorgung und drahtloser Signaluebertragung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The workshop discussed the development perspectives of future applications and implementation problems of autonomous sensors and microsystems for remote data acquisition and exchange without external power supply. The following subjects were discussed in 14 papers: Wireless power and signal transmission; Integrated power supply; Batteries and battery management; Radiocommunication systems for sensors; Coil-on chip for sensors; Transponder technology and development trends; Small fuel cells for mobile applications; Development trends in fuel cells; The world of nanotechnology; Inductive power and data transmission; Sensor systems for tele-rehabilitation; Self-learning systems in cardiac electrotherapy; Sensor processor for transponder applications in autonomous systems without external power supply; One-chip CMOS pressure sensor system with wireless power and data transmission. [German] Dieser Workshop-Band befasst sich mit den Entwicklungsperspektiven, zukuenftigen Anwendungen und Umsetzungsproblemen der energieautarken Sensor- oder Mikrosysteme, die drahtlos mit minimalem Aufwand Daten erfassen und Informationen austauschen. Die Themen der 14 Beitraege, die teilweise Vortragsfolien enthalten, sind: Drahtlose Energie- und Signaluebertragung (M. Klein); integrierte Energieversorgung (J. Pelka); Batterien und Batterie-Management (A. Jossen); Funksysteme fuer die Sensorik (H. Borkes); Coil-on-Chip fuer die Sensorik (G. Daalmans); Transpondertechnik und Entwicklungstendenzen (A. Miessner); kleine Brennstoffzellen fuer den mobilen Einsatz (A. Heinzel); Entwicklungstendenzen bei Brennstoffzellen (L. Joerissen); die Welt der Nanotechnologie (U. Koenig); induktive Leistungs- und Datenuebertragung (H. Bercher); Sensorsysteme fuer die Tele-Rehabilitation (D. Tietze/K.-U. Schmidt); selbstlernende Systeme in der Elektrotherapie des Herzens (M. Schaldach); Sensorprozessor fuer Transponderanwendungen in energieautarken Systemen (H. Graetz); Ein-Chip CMOS-Drucksensor-System mit

  5. Wavelength reused bidirectional transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in WDM-PONs incorporating SOA and RSOA intensity modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J L; Hugues-Salas, E; Giddings, R P; Jin, X Q; Zheng, X; Mansoor, S; Tang, J M

    2010-05-10

    Detailed numerical investigations are undertaken of wavelength reused bidirectional transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM (AMOOFDM) signals over a single SMF in a colorless WDM-PON incorporating a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) intensity modulator and a reflective SOA (RSOA) intensity modulator in the optical line termination and optical network unit, respectively. A comprehensive theoretical model describing the performance of such network scenarios is, for the first time, developed, taking into account dynamic optical characteristics of SOA and RSOA intensity modulators as well as the effects of Rayleigh backscattering (RB) and residual downstream signal-induced crosstalk. The developed model is rigorously verified experimentally in RSOA-based real-time end-to-end OOFDM systems at 7.5 Gb/s. It is shown that the RB noise and crosstalk effects are dominant factors limiting the maximum achievable downstream and upstream transmission performance. Under optimum SOA and RSOA operating conditions as well as practical downstream and upstream optical launch powers, 10 Gb/s downstream and 6 Gb/s upstream over 40 km SMF transmissions of conventional double sideband AMOOFDM signals are feasible without utilizing in-line optical amplification and chromatic dispersion compensation. In particular, the aforementioned transmission performance can be improved to 23 Gb/s downstream and 8 Gb/s upstream over 40 km SMFs when single sideband subcarrier modulation is adopted in the downstream systems. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  6. Signal transmission in a human body medium-based body sensor network using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong; Hao, Qun; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Jingwen; Jin, Xuefeng; Sun, He

    2012-11-30

    The signal transmission technology based on the human body medium offers significant advantages in Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) used for healthcare and the other related fields. In previous works we have proposed a novel signal transmission method based on the human body medium using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical (EO) sensor. In this paper, we present a signal transmission system based on the proposed method, which consists of a transmitter, a Mach-Zehnder EO sensor and a corresponding receiving circuit. Meanwhile, in order to verify the frequency response properties and determine the suitable parameters of the developed system, in-vivo measurements have been implemented under conditions of different carrier frequencies, baseband frequencies and signal transmission paths. Results indicate that the proposed system will help to achieve reliable and high speed signal transmission of BSN based on the human body medium.

  7. Transmission of Single-Channel 16-QAM Data Signals at Terabaud Symbol Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Thomas; Palushani, Evarist; Schmidt-Langhorst, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    We present latest results for OTDM transmission systems in combination with digital coherent detection achieving record-high serial data rates in a single-wavelength channel. We show serial data transmission of 5.1 Tb/s (640 GBd) over 80-km and 10.2 Tb/s (1.28 TBd) over 29-km dispersion managed f...

  8. Demostration of 520 Gb/s/λ pre-equalized DFT-spread PDM-16QAM-OFDM signal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Yu, Jianjun; Cao, Zizheng; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Junwen; Li, Xinying

    2016-02-08

    In this paper, we successfully transmit 8 × 520 Gb/s pre-equalized DFT-spread PDM-16QAM orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signal over 840 km SMF with BER under 2.4 × 10(-2). We discuss how to obtain accurate tranceivers' response during pre-equalization for DFT-spread OFDM with coherent detection and we find conventional OFDM symbols training sequences (TSs) outperform DFT-spread OFDM symbols TSs in obtaining channel response for pre-equalization and equalization. Additionally, the optimal IFFT/FFT size is explored for the pre-equalized DFT-spread PDM-16QAM-OFDM transmission systems. It is the first time to realize 400 Gb/s/λ net rate OFDM signal transmission.

  9. Remote Synchronization Simulation of Onboard Crystal Oscillator for QZSS Using L1/L2/L5 Signals for Error Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Iwata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new error adjustment method for remote synchronization of the onboard crystal oscillator for the quasi-zenith satellite system (QZSS using three different frequency positioning signals (L1/L2/L5 is proposed. The error adjustment method that uses L1/L2 positioning signals was demonstrated in the past. In both methods, the frequency-dependent part and the frequency-independent part were considered separately, and the total time information delay was estimated. By adopting L1/L2/L5, synchronization was improved by approximately 15% compared with that using L1/L2 and approximately 10% compared with that using L1/L5 and a synchronization error of less than 0.77 nanosecond was realized.

  10. Demonstration of DFT-spread 256QAM-OFDM signal transmission with cost-effective directly modulated laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Yu, Jianjun; Fang, Yuan; Dong, Ze; Li, Xinying; Chen, Lin

    2014-04-07

    We experimentally demonstrated a 256-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (256QAM) direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) transmission system utilizing a cost-effective directly modulated laser (DML). Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging (ISFA) is applied to suppress in-band noise while the channel response estimation and Discrete Fourier Transform-spread (DFT-spread) is used to reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted OFDM signal. The bit-error ratio (BER) of 15-Gbit/s 256QAM-OFDM signal has been measured after 20-km SSMF transmission that is less than 7% forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3) as the launch power into fiber is set at 6dBm. For 11.85-Gbit/s 256QAM-OFDM signal, with the aid of ISFA-based channel estimation and PAPR reduction enabled by DFT-spread, the BER after 20-km SSMF transmission can be improved from 6.4 × 10(-3) to 6.8 × 10(-4) when the received optical power is -6dBm.

  11. Patterns of parallel signal transmission between multiple alpha efferents and multiple Ia afferents in the cat semitendinosus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwestka, R; Windhorst, U; Schaumberg, R

    1981-01-01

    1. Certain features of signal transmission from multiple alpha-axons to multiple Ia fibres via extrafusal muscle tissue were studied by stimulating three ventral root filaments separately and simultaneously and by recording spike trains from three dorsal root filaments. 2. Post-stimulus time histograms (PSTH) revealed widely graded influences of single motor unit contractions on different muscle spindles, thus confirming results of Binder et al. (1976, 1980a). 3. In most instances, the signal transmission from a single motor unit to a single Ia fibre was disturbed to varying degrees by concomitant activity from other motor units. 4. This deterioration of signal transmission can probably be compensated for, at least in part, by correlations between discharge patterns of two or more Ia fibres induced by the "common input" of motor unit activity. 5. These correlations showed a topographical pattern such that a peak in the cross-correlogram (CCH) occurred at zero time for pairs of spindles located virtually in parallel to each other, and was shifted away from zero time as a function of the serial distance between spindles in the longitudinal muscle fibre direction. 6. Fusimotor innervation had complex effects on correlations between Ia fibre discharge patterns. It might de-correlate the latter as well as favour new correlations. 7. The possible role of topographical correlation patterns in the afferent reflex limb for tremor suppression is discussed.

  12. Intercomparison of in-situ and remote sensing δD signals in tropospheric water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Matthias; González, Yenny; Dyroff, Christoph; Christner, Emanuel; García, Omaira; Wiegele, Andreas; Andrey, Javier; Barthlott, Sabine; Blumenstock, Thomas; Guirado, Carmen; Hase, Frank; Ramos, Ramon; Rodríguez, Sergio; Sepúveda, Eliezer

    2014-05-01

    The main mission of the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) is the generation of a quasi-global tropospheric water vapour isototopologue dataset of a good and well-documented quality. We present a first empirical validation of MUSICA's remote sensing δD products (ground-based FTIR within NDACC, Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change, and space-based with IASI, Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, flown on METOP). As reference we use in-situ measurements made on the island of Tenerife at two different altitudes (2370 and 3550 m a.s.l., using two Picarro L2120-i water isotopologue analyzers) and aboard an aircraft (between 200 and 6800 m a.s.l., using the homemade ISOWAT instrument).

  13. Five-level polybinary signaling for 10 Gbps data transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Li, Bomin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a revitalization effort towards exploiting multilevel polybinary signals for spectral efficient data links. Specifically, we present five level polybinary signaling for 10 Gbps signals. By proper coding to avoid error propagation and degeneracy of the bit error rate performance...

  14. Transmission and signal loss in mask designs for a dual neutron and gamma imager applied to mobile standoff detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; Hayward, Jason P.; Ziock, Klaus P.; Blackston, Matthew A.; Fabris, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    In order to design a next-generation, dual neutron and gamma imager for mobile standoff detection which uses coded aperture imaging as its primary detection modality, the following design parameters have been investigated for gamma and neutron radiation incident upon a hybrid, coded mask: (1) transmission through mask elements for various mask materials and thicknesses; and (2) signal attenuation in the mask versus angle of incidence. Each of these parameters directly affects detection significance, as quantified by the signal-to-noise ratio. The hybrid mask consists of two or three layers: organic material for fast neutron attenuation and scattering, Cd for slow neutron absorption (if applied), and one of three of the following photon or photon and slow neutron attenuating materials—Linotype alloy, CLYC, or CZT. In the MCNP model, a line source of gamma rays (100–2500 keV), fast neutrons (1000–10,000 keV) or thermal neutrons was positioned above the hybrid mask. The radiation penetrating the mask was simply tallied at the surface of an ideal detector, which was located below the surface of the last mask layer. The transmission was calculated as the ratio of the particles transmitted through the fixed aperture to the particles passing through the closed mask. In order to determine the performance of the mask considering relative motion between the source and detector, simulations were used to calculate the signal attenuation for incident radiation angles of 0–50°. The results showed that a hybrid mask can be designed to sufficiently reduce both transmission through the mask and signal loss at large angles of incidence, considering both gamma ray and fast neutron radiations. With properly selected material thicknesses, the signal loss of a hybrid mask, which is necessarily thicker than the mask required for either single mode imaging, is not a setback to the system's detection significance

  15. Influence of analyzed signals fiber-optic transmission system on spread function of the diffraction grating spectral device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Vasily I.; Moskaletz, Oleg D.; Paraskun, Arthur S.; Zhdanov, Arseny Yu.

    2017-08-01

    Fiber-optic transmission system of analyzed signal is considered to allow signals transmission from optical sources with either impossible or undesirable contact. Diffraction grating spectral device is chosen as investigation system. It should be noted that diffraction grating operates with transmitted light but not reflected. Influence of optical fiber consists in the distortion of wave front incident on the spectral device. Front distortion leads to a broadening of the device spread function in all diffraction orders, and as a consequence, to a deterioration in the device resolution. In this case, the complex spread function is a reaction of the device to the homogeneous plane monochromatic wave which clearly links the input-output of spectral device. Fiber-optic system influence is determined by introducing a fictitious transparency located directly in front of the diffraction grating. Research of the effect the fiber-optic system has on the spread function of the diffraction grating spectral device is made in two ways. On one hand, mathematical model is proposed to describe the influence of a single-mode optical fiber to a spread function of the diffraction grating spectral device. We performed computer simulations of the analyzed signal transmission from the end of the optical fiber to the photodetector based on the proposed model. The calculations are performed for a single-mode optical fiber with a core diameter of 8 microns. On the other hand, experimental laboratory set up of the diffraction grating spectral device with a fiber optic transmission system is created. Theoretical calculations are compared with the experimental results.

  16. Reconstruction of the signal produced by a directional sound source from remote multi-microphone recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarato, Francesco; Hallam, John; Matsuo, Ikuo

    2011-09-01

    A mathematical method for reconstructing the signal produced by a directional sound source from knowledge of the same signal in the far field, i.e., microphone recordings, is developed. The key idea is to compute inverse filters that compensate for the directional filtering of the signal by the sound source directivity, using a least-square error optimization strategy. Previous work pointed out how the method strongly depends on arrival times of signal in the microphone recordings. Two strategies are used in this paper for calculating the time shifts that are afterward taken as inputs, together with source directivity, for the reconstruction. The method has been tested in a laboratory environment, where ground truth was available, with a Polaroid transducer as source. The reconstructions are similar with both strategies. The performance of the method also depends on source orientation. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  17. Generation and transmission performance of 40Gbit/s polarisation shift keying signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Nan; Xu, Lin; Yu, S.

    2005-01-01

    A novel scheme for generation of a 40 Gbit/s binary polarisation shift keying signal based on a LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed. The signal is successfully transmitted over 50 km standard singlemode fibre with 0.6 dB penalty.......A novel scheme for generation of a 40 Gbit/s binary polarisation shift keying signal based on a LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed. The signal is successfully transmitted over 50 km standard singlemode fibre with 0.6 dB penalty....

  18. Optical frequency upconversion technique for transmission of wireless MIMO-type signals over optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaddad, R Q; Mohammad, A B; Al-Gailani, S A; Al-Hetar, A M

    2014-01-01

    The optical fiber is well adapted to pass multiple wireless signals having different carrier frequencies by using radio-over-fiber (ROF) technique. However, multiple wireless signals which have the same carrier frequency cannot propagate over a single optical fiber, such as wireless multi-input multi-output (MIMO) signals feeding multiple antennas in the fiber wireless (FiWi) system. A novel optical frequency upconversion (OFU) technique is proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, the novel OFU approach is used to transmit three wireless MIMO signals over a 20 km standard single mode fiber (SMF). The OFU technique exploits one optical source to produce multiple wavelengths by delivering it to a LiNbO3 external optical modulator. The wireless MIMO signals are then modulated by LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators separately using the generated optical carriers from the OFU process. These modulators use the optical single-sideband with carrier (OSSB+C) modulation scheme to optimize the system performance against the fiber dispersion effect. Each wireless MIMO signal is with a 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz carrier frequency, 1 Gb/s data rate, and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The crosstalk between the wireless MIMO signals is highly suppressed, since each wireless MIMO signal is carried on a specific optical wavelength.

  19. Optical Frequency Upconversion Technique for Transmission of Wireless MIMO-Type Signals over Optical Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Q. Shaddad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical fiber is well adapted to pass multiple wireless signals having different carrier frequencies by using radio-over-fiber (ROF technique. However, multiple wireless signals which have the same carrier frequency cannot propagate over a single optical fiber, such as wireless multi-input multi-output (MIMO signals feeding multiple antennas in the fiber wireless (FiWi system. A novel optical frequency upconversion (OFU technique is proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, the novel OFU approach is used to transmit three wireless MIMO signals over a 20 km standard single mode fiber (SMF. The OFU technique exploits one optical source to produce multiple wavelengths by delivering it to a LiNbO3 external optical modulator. The wireless MIMO signals are then modulated by LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators separately using the generated optical carriers from the OFU process. These modulators use the optical single-sideband with carrier (OSSB+C modulation scheme to optimize the system performance against the fiber dispersion effect. Each wireless MIMO signal is with a 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz carrier frequency, 1 Gb/s data rate, and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM. The crosstalk between the wireless MIMO signals is highly suppressed, since each wireless MIMO signal is carried on a specific optical wavelength.

  20. Optical Frequency Upconversion Technique for Transmission of Wireless MIMO-Type Signals over Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaddad, R. Q.; Mohammad, A. B.; Al-Gailani, S. A.; Al-Hetar, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The optical fiber is well adapted to pass multiple wireless signals having different carrier frequencies by using radio-over-fiber (ROF) technique. However, multiple wireless signals which have the same carrier frequency cannot propagate over a single optical fiber, such as wireless multi-input multi-output (MIMO) signals feeding multiple antennas in the fiber wireless (FiWi) system. A novel optical frequency upconversion (OFU) technique is proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, the novel OFU approach is used to transmit three wireless MIMO signals over a 20 km standard single mode fiber (SMF). The OFU technique exploits one optical source to produce multiple wavelengths by delivering it to a LiNbO3 external optical modulator. The wireless MIMO signals are then modulated by LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators separately using the generated optical carriers from the OFU process. These modulators use the optical single-sideband with carrier (OSSB+C) modulation scheme to optimize the system performance against the fiber dispersion effect. Each wireless MIMO signal is with a 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz carrier frequency, 1 Gb/s data rate, and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The crosstalk between the wireless MIMO signals is highly suppressed, since each wireless MIMO signal is carried on a specific optical wavelength. PMID:24772009

  1. Performance characterization of the IEEE 802.11 signal transmission over a multimode fiber PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymiuk, L.; Siuzdak, J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper there are presented measurements concerning performance analysis of the IEEE 802.11 signal distribution over multimode fiber based passive optical network. In the paper there are addressed three main sources of impairments: modal noise, frequency response fluctuation of the multimode fiber and non-linear distortion of the signal in the receiver.

  2. Syncrip/hnRNP Q influences synaptic transmission and regulates BMP signaling at the Drosophila neuromuscular synapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Halstead

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity involves the modulation of synaptic connections in response to neuronal activity via multiple pathways. One mechanism modulates synaptic transmission by retrograde signals from the post-synapse that influence the probability of vesicle release in the pre-synapse. Despite its importance, very few factors required for the expression of retrograde signals, and proper synaptic transmission, have been identified. Here, we identify the conserved RNA binding protein Syncrip as a new factor that modulates the efficiency of vesicle release from the motoneuron and is required for correct synapse structure. We show that syncrip is required genetically and its protein product is detected only in the muscle and not in the motoneuron itself. This unexpected non-autonomy is at least partly explained by the fact that Syncrip modulates retrograde BMP signals from the muscle back to the motoneuron. We show that Syncrip influences the levels of the Bone Morphogenic Protein ligand Glass Bottom Boat from the post-synapse and regulates the pre-synapse. Our results highlight the RNA-binding protein Syncrip as a novel regulator of synaptic output. Given its known role in regulating translation, we propose that Syncrip is important for maintaining a balance between the strength of presynaptic vesicle release and postsynaptic translation.

  3. Contribution of rpfB to cell-to-cell signal synthesis, virulence, and vector transmission of Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rodrigo P P; Killiny, Nabil; Newman, Karyn L; Chatterjee, Subhadeep; Ionescu, Michael; Lindow, Steven E

    2012-04-01

    In Xylella fastidiosa the fatty acid signal molecule diffusible signaling factor (DSF) is produced and sensed by components of the regulation of pathogenicity factors (rpf) cluster; lack of DSF production in RpfF mutants results in a non-vector-transmissible phenotype yet cells are hypervirulent to grape. rpfB has not been characterized in Xylella fastidiosa, although its homolog has been suggested to be required for DSF synthesis in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. We show that RpfB is involved in DSF processing in both Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas campestris, affecting the profile of DSF-like fatty acids observed in thin-layer chromatography. Although three fatty acids whose production is dependent on RpfF were detected in Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas campestris wild-type strains, their respective rpfB mutants accumulated primarily one chemical species. Although no quantifiable effect of rpfB on plant colonization by Xylella fastidiosa was found, insect colonization and transmission was reduced. Thus, RpfB apparently is involved in DSF processing, and like Xanthomonas campestris, Xylella fastidiosa also produces multiple DSF molecules. It is possible that Xylella fastidiosa coordinates host vector and plant colonization by varying the proportions of different forms of DSF signals via RpfB.

  4. Cultural Transmission and Evolution of Melodic Structures in Multi-generational Signaling Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumaca, Massimo; Baggio, G.

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that languages evolve by adapting to the perceptual and cognitive constraints of the human brain, developing, in the course of cultural transmission, structural regularities that maximize or optimize learnability and ease of processing. To what extent would perceptual and cog...

  5. Discrimination techniques employing both reflective and thermal multispectral signals. [for remote sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malila, W. A.; Crane, R. B.; Richardson, W.

    1973-01-01

    Recent improvements in remote sensor technology carry implications for data processing. Multispectral line scanners now exist that can collect data simultaneously and in registration in multiple channels at both reflective and thermal (emissive) wavelengths. Progress in dealing with two resultant recognition processing problems is discussed: (1) More channels mean higher processing costs; to combat these costs, a new and faster procedure for selecting subsets of channels has been developed. (2) Differences between thermal and reflective characteristics influence recognition processing; to illustrate the magnitude of these differences, some explanatory calculations are presented. Also introduced, is a different way to process multispectral scanner data, namely, radiation balance mapping and related procedures. Techniques and potentials are discussed and examples presented.

  6. A novel conserved phosphotyrosine motif in the Drosophila fibroblast growth factor signaling adaptor Dof with a redundant role in signal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszar, Agnes; Vogelsang, Elisabeth; Beug, Hartmut; Leptin, Maria

    2010-04-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signals through adaptors constitutively associated with the receptor. In Drosophila melanogaster, the FGFR-specific adaptor protein Downstream-of-FGFR (Dof) becomes phosphorylated upon receptor activation at several tyrosine residues, one of which recruits Corkscrew (Csw), the Drosophila homolog of SHP2, which provides a molecular link to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. However, the Csw pathway is not the only link from Dof to MAPK. In this study, we identify a novel phosphotyrosine motif present in four copies in Dof and also found in other insect and vertebrate signaling molecules. We show that these motifs are phosphorylated and contribute to FGF signal transduction. They constitute one of three sets of phosphotyrosines that act redundantly in signal transmission: (i) a Csw binding site, (ii) four consensus Grb2 recognition sites, and (iii) four novel tyrosine motifs. We show that Src64B binds to Dof and that Src kinases contribute to FGFR-dependent MAPK activation. Phosphorylation of the novel tyrosine motifs is required for the interaction of Dof with Src64B. Thus, Src64B recruitment to Dof through the novel phosphosites can provide a new link to MAPK activation and other cellular responses. This may give a molecular explanation for the involvement of Src kinases in FGF-dependent developmental events.

  7. MP3 compression and transmission of infrasonic sensor array signals and task-specific metrics for distortion evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Sergio D.; Vidal, Edward, Jr.; Paramanandan, Smitha

    2005-08-01

    Infrasonic sensor arrays are very useful for detecting natural and man-made events. This paper describes part of an ongoing project for compressing and transmitting a set of infrasonic signals that need to be delivered to a remote location for decompression and processing. The project also deals with the evaluation of the effect of the compression distortion on the signals by the use of task-specific distortion metrics. We evaluate the effectiveness of the scheme using one hour worth of signals that were collected during a Space Shuttle launch using a small array of 4 microphones. The approach described here is to combine the 4 signals/channels using a transmultiplexer and to use an off-the-shelf audio compression method, namely the popular MP3 method which is based on subband coding. The transmultiplexer is a 5-channel Cosine-Modulated filterbank from which only the first 4 channels are used.. The codec used in this study is the readily available LAME software package which allows one to choose the output bits per second rate and to turn off the psychoacoustic model. To use an audio coder, the combined signal is first converted to 16 bits per sample and then associated with a 16 KHz. sampling frequency. In the application considered, the microphone signals are used to compute time evolving quantities including: average spectral coherence, beamforming, and phase velocity. These same quantities are used as task-specific metrics that reveal the distortion caused by the application of the MP3 compressor so that the user can evaluate distortion tolerances. From visual evaluation of these metrics we conclude that a compression ratio between 6.4:1 and 8:1 produces negligible distortion in the three task-specific metrics. The beamforming metric is the most sensitive to the compression distortion.

  8. Remote controlled signal conditioner and fiber optic data link system development CPRF (Confinement Physics Research Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrank, L.S.; Caudill, L.D.; Haberstich, A.; Klare, K.A.; Reass, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    The ZTH reversed-field pinch to be installed in the Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) will produce a significant ambient magnetic field. To avoid ground-loop and other electrical problems, the diagnostics in direct or possible contact with the experiment will be accessed through a fiber optic data way. The frequency-modulated analog links developed for this system have a bandwidth of dc to 100 kHz and a signal-to-noise ratio of better than 60 dB. The fiber optic transmitter units include a signal conditioner and a microprocessor controller. The conditioners can be configured as dc-coupled, low-noise differential amplifiers, or as high-gain, low-drift differential integrators with a very long droop time constant. Magnetic field pickup is minimized by balancing sensitive circuit areas to within 5 mm 2 in all three planes of the PC boards. The gain, offset, and integrator reset are controlled and monitored by the microprocessor, and their status is displayed on the front panel of the transmitter unit. The signal conditioner can be controlled locally, or by way of a fiber optic coupled control network. The system allows fast, convenient, noise-immune control of a large number of signal conditioners from a central host computer. By varying the offset, the computer can verify the operational integrity of the data links. 2 refs., 6 figs

  9. notes on an efficient cat trap fitted with a remote signalling device

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Difficulties in collecting feral cats under adverse climatic conditions on Marion Island, prompted construction of live traps fitted with 27 mHz trans- mitters signalling trap release. Construction and application of the apparatus is described and discus- sed. INTRODUCTION. In August 1973, the Mammal Research Institute,.

  10. Re-use of Low Bandwidth Equipment for High Bit Rate Transmission Using Signal Slicing Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Spolitis, S.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    : Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates.......: Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates....

  11. A software controllable modular RF signal generator with multichannel transmission capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Z.; Feilner, W.; Esser, B.; Dickens, J. C.; Neuber, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    A software controllable system which generates and transmits user defined RF signals is discussed. The system is implemented with multiple, modular transmitting channels that allow the user to easily replace parts such as amplifiers or antennas. Each channel is comprised of a data pattern generator (DPG), a digital to analog converter (DAC), a power amplifier, and a transmitting antenna. All channels are controlled through a host PC and synchronized through a master clock signal provided to each DAC by an external clock source. Signals to be transmitted are generated through the DPG control software on the PC or can be created by the user in a numerical computing environment. Three experiments are discussed using a two- and four-channel antenna array incorporating Chebyshev tapered TEM horn antennas. Transmitting distinct sets of nonperiodic bipolar impulses through each of the antennas in the array enabled synthesizing a sinusoidal signal of specific frequency in free space. Opposite to the standard phased array approach, each antenna radiates a distinctly different signal rather than the same signal simply phase shifted. The presented approach may be employed as a physical layer of encryption dependent on the position of the receiving antenna.

  12. Architectures for radio over fiber transmission of high-quality video and data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedev, Alexander

    with a constraint on complexity. For wireless personal area networks distribution, we explore the notion of joint optimization of physical layer parameters of a fiber-wireless link (optical power levels, wireless transmission distance) and the codec parameters (quantization, error-resilience tools) based...... fiber in order to estimate the feasibility of mm-wave wireless video services’ delivery through fiber infrastructure with different nonlinear impairments and dispersion....

  13. Electron dose dependence of signal-to-noise ratio, atom contrast and resolution in transmission electron microscope images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Z.; Rose, H.; Lehtinen, O.; Biskupek, J.; Kaiser, U.

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve the highest resolution in aberration-corrected (AC) high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images, high electron doses are required which only a few samples can withstand. In this paper we perform dose-dependent AC-HRTEM image calculations, and study the dependence of the signal-to-noise ratio, atom contrast and resolution on electron dose and sampling. We introduce dose-dependent contrast, which can be used to evaluate the visibility of objects under different dose conditions. Based on our calculations, we determine optimum samplings for high and low electron dose imaging conditions. - Highlights: • The definition of dose-dependent atom contrast is introduced. • The dependence of the signal-to-noise ratio, atom contrast and specimen resolution on electron dose and sampling is explored. • The optimum sampling can be determined according to different dose conditions

  14. Effects of vagotomy, splanchnic nerve lesion, and fluorocitrate on the transmission of acute hyperosmotic stress signals to the supraoptic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yingfei; Liu, Rui; Xu, Yan; Duan, Li; Cao, Rong; Tu, Lingfeng; Li, Zhuyi; Zhao, Gang; Rao, Zhiren

    2011-02-01

    The response to hyperosmotic stresses in the abdominal cavity is regulated, in part, by vasopressin (VP)-secreting neurons in the supraoptic nucleus (SON). How osmotic stress signals are transmitted to the brain is incompletely understood, and whether the transmission routes for osmotic stress signals differ between acute and chronic stresses is unknown. Here we investigated the role of the vagus, splanchnic nerves, and astrocytes in the SON in transducing acute hyperosmotic-stress signals from the abdominal cavity. We found that acute administration of hyperosmotic saline triggered the activation of neurons as well as astrocytes in the SON and the adjoining ventral glia limitans (SON-VGL). Severing the subdiaphragmatic vagal nerve (SDV) prevented the normal response of cells in the SON to HS treatment and attenuated the release of VP into the bloodstream. Lesioning the splanchnic nerves (SNL) diminished HS-induced release of VP, but to a much lesser extent than SDV. Furthermore, SNL did not significantly affect the up-regulation of Fos in SON neurons or the up-regulation of Fos and GFAP in SON and SON-VGL astrocytes that normally occurred in response to HS and did not affect HS-induced expansion of the SON-VGL. Inhibiting astrocytes with fluorocitrate (FCA) prevented the response of the SON to HS and attenuated the release of VP, similarly to SDV surgery. These results suggest that the vagus is the principle route for the transmission of hyperosmotic signals to the brain and that astrocytes in the SON region are necessary for the activation of SON neurons and the release of VP into the bloodstream. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. AFM Imaging of Hybridization Chain Reaction Mediated Signal Transmission between Two DNA Origami Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, Sarah; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-10-23

    Signal transfer is central to the controlled exchange of information in biology and advanced technologies. Therefore, the development of reliable, long-range signal transfer systems for artificial nanoscale assemblies is of great scientific interest. We have designed such a system for the signal transfer between two connected DNA nanostructures, using the hybridization chain reaction (HCR). Two sets of metastable DNA hairpins, one of which is immobilized at specific points along tracks on DNA origami structures, are polymerized to form a continuous DNA duplex, which is visible using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Upon addition of a designed initiator, the initiation signal is efficiently transferred more than 200 nm from a specific location on one origami structure to an end point on another origami structure. The system shows no significant loss of signal when crossing from one nanostructure to another and, therefore, has the potential to be applied to larger multi-component DNA assemblies. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. {open_quotes}Near field{close_quotes} airborne remote sensing using a laser mapping system on electric transmission line corridor surveys and capacity analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, M.D. [John E. Chance & Associates, Inc., Lafayette, LA (United States); Lynch, O.J. [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The ability to reliably and accurately locate and survey objects without physically occupying them is the key to the productivity of the FLI-MAP{trademark} laser mapping system. This advanced technology system incorporates OTF Kinematic GPS, GPS-aided attitude, and a reflectorless laser range-finding sensor into a complete remote sensing survey platform. The FLI-MAP system is a helicopter-based scanning system capable of collecting up to 8000 geo-referenced data points per second. Key parameters of existing electric transmission lines are calculated based upon the geographic data collected by FLI-MAP, meteorological data, and power flow data collected during the survey. The affect on conductor clearances is analyzed under varying conductor temperatures, power flow, and meteorological conditions to determine the ultimate capacity of the existing transmission line. This paper presents the FLI-MAP system, the technologies it exploits, and the use of such a system for electric transmission line corridor surveys and analyses. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Biochemical signaling by remote ischemic conditioning of the arm versus thigh: Is one raise of the cuff enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Dezfulian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote Ischemic Conditioning (RIC, induced by brief cycles of ischemia and reperfusion, protects vital organs from a prolonged ischemic insult. While several biochemical mediators have been implicated in RIC's mechanism of action, it remains unclear whether the localization or “dose” of RIC affects the extent of protective signaling. In this randomized crossover study of healthy individuals, we tested whether the number of cycles of RIC and its localization (arm versus thigh determines biochemical signaling and cytoprotection. Subjects received either arm or thigh RIC and then were crossed over to receive RIC in the other extremity. Blood flow, tissue perfusion, concentrations of the circulating protective mediator nitrite, and platelet mitochondrial function were measured after each RIC cycle. We found that plasma nitrite concentration peaked after the first RIC cycle and remained elevated throughout RIC. This plasma nitrite conferred cytoprotection in an in vitro myocyte model of hypoxia/reoxygenation. Notably, though plasma nitrite returned to baseline at 24 h, RIC conditioned plasma still mediated protection. Additionally, no difference in endpoints between RIC in thigh versus arm was found. These data demonstrate that localization and “dose” of RIC does not affect cytoprotection and further elucidate the mechanisms by which nitrite contributes to RIC-dependent protection.

  18. A spatial-spectral approach for deriving high signal quality eigenvectors for remote sensing image transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogge, Derek; Bachmann, Martin; Rivard, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    -line surveys, or temporal data sets as computational burden becomes significant. In this paper we present a spatial-spectral approach to deriving high signal quality eigenvectors for image transformations which possess an inherently ability to reduce the effects of noise. The approach applies a spatial...... and spectral subsampling to the data, which is accomplished by deriving a limited set of eigenvectors for spatially contiguous subsets. These subset eigenvectors are compiled together to form a new noise reduced data set, which is subsequently used to derive a set of global orthogonal eigenvectors. Data from...

  19. Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Song, Yuhang; Yu, Xiangyu; Lin, Aobo; Kong, Meiwei; Han, Jun; Deng, Ning

    2016-04-18

    We first study the transmission property of red light in water in terms of extinction coefficient and channel bandwidth via Monte Carlo simulation, with an interesting finding that red light outperforms blue-green light in highly turbid water. We further propose and experimentally demonstrate a broadband underwater wireless optical communication system based on a simple and cost-effective TO56 red-light laser diode. We demonstrate a 1.324-Gb/s transmission at a bit error rate (BER) of 2.02 × 10-3 over a 6-m underwater channel, by using 128-QAM OFDM signals and a low-cost 150-MHz positive-intrinsic-negative photodetector, with a record spectral efficiency higher than 7.32 bits/Hz. By using an avalanche photodetector and 32-QAM OFDM signals, we have achieved a record bit rate of 4.883 Gb/s at a BER of 3.20 × 10-3 over a 6-m underwater channel.

  20. Wavelet-OFDM Signal Transmission Characteristics with High-Speed PLC Modem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kenichi; Tokuda, Masamitsu; Igata, Yuji

    In this paper, we measured the interference immunity characteristics of high-speed PLC system using Wavelet-OFDM when the narrowband conducted interference wave signal was injected. As the results, it was clear that (1) measured PHY rate at the all frequency band hardly decreased in C/I (Carrier to Interference ratio) of above 20dB, but began to decrease rapidly in C/I of below 0dB when the interference signal was injected in the frequency band of high-speed PLC signal, (2) when C/I became from 0dB to -20dB, the measured PHY rate at the frequency existing the notch band were improved around 10Mbps than that at the frequency not existing the notch band, (3) when the narrowband interference wave was injected outside of frequency band of high-speed PLC signal, the measured PHY rate did not decrease than that in each notch band. Therefore, it was revealed that high-speed PLC system using Wavelet-OFDM had good interference immunity characteristics.

  1. Transmission Property of Directly Modulated Signals Enhanced by a Micro-ring Resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Yi; Lorences Riesgo, Abel; Seoane, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    A silicon micro-ring resonator is used to enhance the modulation speed of a 10-Gbit/s directly modulated laser to 40 Gbit/s. The generated signal is transmitted error free over 4.5 km SSMF. Dispersion tolerance is also studied....

  2. Behavioural innovation and cultural transmission of communication signal in black howler monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseño-Jaramillo, M; Estrada, A; Lemasson, A

    2015-08-25

    Social traditions based on communication signals are widespread in birds, cetaceans and humans, but surprisingly rare in nonhuman primates known for having genetically-determined vocal repertoires. This study presents the first description of a singular case of behaviour associated with calling (placing a hand in front of the mouth while vocalizing: HFM) in black howler monkeys. We showed, first, that HFM was found only in a subset of the groups observed, at the same geographical location, and was age- and sex-specific. There was an audience effect on HFM, with highest rates when a neighbouring group was visible. HFM was non-randomly combined with audio-visual signals and always performed while roaring. High HFM rates triggered more vocal responses from group members and male neighbours, and HFM signalers temporally synchronized their behaviour in a predictable way. Finally, the positioning of the hand systematically modified the call's auditory structure. Altogether these results support the idea that HFM is an innovated, culturally transmitted communication signal that may play a role in inter-group competition and intra-group cohesion. This study opens new lines of research about how nonhuman primates developed strategies to overcome their constraints in acoustic plasticity very early in the primate lineage.

  3. Subdural to subgaleal EEG signal transmission: The role of distance, leakage and insulating affectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Jonas; Kjaer, Troels Wesenberg; Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg

    2013-01-01

    significant extracranial coherent signals in an area of approximately 150cm2 although the field of vision was probably only 31cm2 based on spatial averaging of intracranial channels taking into account the influence of the craniotomy and the silastic membrane of intracranial grids. Selecting the best cortical...

  4. Design and Investigation of Photonic Remote Antenna Units for Bidirectional Transmission in the Last Mile Wireless over Fiber System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Łysiuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article three different photonic Remote Antenna Units (RAU in the last mile Wireless over Fiber links are presented. For construction of RAU commercially available optoelectronic devices were used. The solutions differ from each other by the method of ensuring isolation between transmitting and receiving modes of operation. All RAUs were designed, realized and measured in various scenarios. The results prove that all propositions can be successfully applied to uplink and downlink IEEE 802.11b/g wireless LAN systems, employing Wireless over Fiber technique.

  5. 110 km transmission of 160 Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK signals by midspan polarization-insensitive optical phase conjugation in a Ti:PPLN waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Nouroozi, R.; Ludwig, R.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate 160Gbit/s return-to-zero (RZ) differential quarternary phase-shift keying (DQPSK) signal transmission over a 110km single-mode fiber by taking advantage of mid-span optical phase conjugation (OPC). The technique is based on nonlinear wavelength conversion by cascaded second harmonic...... and difference frequency generation in a Ti:PPLN waveguide. Error-free operation with a negligible optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty for the signal after the OPC transmission without and with polarization scrambling was achieved. The results also show the polarization insensitivity of the OPC system using...

  6. 4-Gbit/s visible light communication link based on 16-QAM OFDM transmission over remote phosphor-film converted white light by using blue laser diode

    KAUST Repository

    Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon

    2015-12-21

    Visible Light Communication (VLC) as a new technology for ultrahigh-speed communication is still limited when using slow modulation light-emitting diode (LED). Alternatively, we present a 4-Gbit/s VLC system using coherent blue-laser diode (LD) via 16-quadrature amplitude modulation orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. By changing the composition and the optical-configuration of a remote phosphor-film the generated white light is tuned from cool day to neutral, and the bit error rate is optimized from 1.9 × 10-2 to 2.8 × 10-5 in a blue filter-free link due to enhanced blue light transmission in forward direction. Briefly, blue-LD is an alternative to LED for generating white light and boosting the data rate of VLC. © 2015 Optical Society of America.

  7. Spatial cognition: a geospatial analysis of vector borne disease transmission and the environment, using remote sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Palaniyandi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of geographical distribution of vector borne diseases has been increasingly public health important and challenging problems in more than 100 tropical countries and it has been affecting more than 50% of the population in the world, especially, it is very big problem in India. The change of vector borne disease epidemic transmission in to the endemic situation in the country has been caused by the land use / land cover changes, regional climate changes, increase of sea change population, urban agglomeration, industrial development and the past development of towns, consequently, the disease epidemics have been steadily increased too, and, besides, it has been found ubiquitous, such diseases known as, malaria, filariasis, JE, dengue and chikungunya, as a result, the increase of both mosquito nuisances and disease transmissions has become public health importance and very big challenging problems in India.

  8. [The role of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus in sound signal processing and auditory ascending transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Hua; Luo, Feng; Wang, Xin

    2014-06-25

    The ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL) is an important nucleus in the central auditory pathway which connects the lower brainstem and the midbrain inferior colliculus (IC). Previous studies have demonstrated that neurons in the VNLL could respond to sound signal parameters. Frequency tuning curves (FTCs) of VNLL neurons are generally wider than FTCs of IC neurons, suggesting that the VNLL does not enhance abilities of frequency discrimination and coding. Two types of rate-intensity functions (RIFs) are found in the VNLL: monotonic and non-monotonic RIFs. Intensity-tuning of VNLL neurons are affected by the temporal firing patterns during processing and encoding intensity. There are multiple temporal firing patterns in VNLL neurons. Onset pattern has a precise timing characteristic which is well suited to encode temporal features of stimuli, and also very important to animal behavior including bat's echolocation. The VNLL accepts inputs from lower nuclei, uploads glycine inhibitory outputs to IC, and modulates response characteristics generating and acoustic signal processing of IC neurons. Recent research suggests that fast inhibitory projection from the VNLL may delay the first spike latency of IC neurons, and the delayed inhibitory projection from the VNLL may mediate the temporal firing patterns of IC neurons. But how inhibitory inputs from the VNLL integrate in IC, and how inhibitory inputs from the VNLL enhance the ability of detecting sound signal of IC neurons are not very clear and need more direct evidence at the level of neurons. These questions will help further understand the role of upload during IC processes acoustic signal, which are our research target in the future. This article reviews the current literature regarding the roles of the VNLL in sound signal processing and the auditory ascending transmission, including advances in the relevant research in our laboratory.

  9. Remote sensing and climate data as a key for understanding fasciolosis transmission in the Andes: review and update of an ongoing interdisciplinary project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Màrius V. Fuentes

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica in various South American countries located on the slopes of the Andes has been recognized as an important public health problem. However, the importance of this zoonotic hepatic parasite was neglected until the last decade. Countries such as Peru and Bolivia are considered to be hyperendemic areas for human and animal fasciolosis, and other countries such as Chile, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela are also affected. At the beginning of the 1990s a multidisciplinary project was launched with the aim to shed light on the problems related to this parasitic disease in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. A few years later, a geographic information system (GIS was incorporated into this multidisciplinary project analysing the epidemiology of human and animal fasciolosis in this South American Andean region. Various GIS projects were developed in some Andean regions using climatic data, climatic forecast indices and remote sensing data. Step by step, all these GIS projects concerning the forecast of the fasciolosis transmission risk in the Andean mountain range were revised and in some cases updated taking into account new data. The first of these projects was developed on a regional scale for the central Chilean regions and the proposed model was validated on a local scale in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. This validated mixed model, based on both fasciolosis climatic forecast indices and normalized difference vegetation index values from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer satellite sensor, was extrapolated to other human and/or animal endemic areas of Peru and Ecuador. The resulting fasciolosis risk maps make it possible to show the known human endemic areas of, mainly, the Peruvian Altiplano, Cajamarca and Mantaro Peruvian valleys, and some valleys of the Ecuadorian Cotopaxi province. Nevertheless, more climate and remote sensing data, as well as more accurate epidemiological reports, have to be

  10. Theoretical analysis and simulation of a code division multiple access system (cdma for secure signal transmission in wideband channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan M. Berber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chaotic spreading sequences can increase secrecy and resistance to interception in signal transmission. Chaos-based CDMA systems have been well investigated in the case of flat fading and noise presence in the channel. However, these systems operating in wideband channels, characterized by the frequency selective fading and white Gaussian noise, have not been investigated to the level of understanding their practical applications. This paper presents a detailed mathematical model of a CDMA system based on chaotic spreading sequences. In a theoretical analysis, all signals are represented in the discrete time domain. Using the theory of discrete time stochastic processes, the probability of error expressions are derived in a closed form for a multi-user chaos based CDMA system. For the sake of comparison, the expressions for the probability of error are derived separately for narrowband and wideband channels. The application of the system interleaving technique is investigated in particular, which showed that this technique can substantially improve probability of error in the system.  The system is simulated and the findings of the simulation confirmed theoretically expected results. Possible improvements in the probability of bit error due to multipath channel nature, with and without interleavers, are quantified depending on the random delay and the number of users in the system. In the analyzed system, a simplified version of the wideband channel model, proposed for modern wideband wireless networks, is used. Introduction Over the past years, the demand for wireless communications has increased substantially due to advancements in mobile communication systems and networks. Following these increasing demands, modern communication systems require the ability to handle a large number of users to process and transmit wideband signals through complex frequency selective channels. One of the techniques for transmission of multi-user signals is the

  11. Remote online machine fault diagnostic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min-Chun; Li, Po-Ching

    2004-07-01

    The study aims at implementing a remote online machine fault diagnostic system built up in the architecture of both the BCB software-developing environment and Internet transmission communication. Variant signal-processing computation schemes for signal analysis and pattern recognition purposes are implemented in the BCB graphical user interface. Hence, machine fault diagnostic capability can be extended by using the socket application program interface as the TCP/IP protocol. In the study, the effectiveness of the developed remote diagnostic system is validated by monitoring a transmission-element test rig. A complete monitoring cycle includes data acquisition, signal processing, feature extraction, pattern recognition through the ANNs, and online video monitoring, is demonstrated.

  12. Satellites Seek Gravity Signals for Remote Sensing the Seismotectonic Stresses in Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Chen, J.; Li, J.

    2003-12-01

    The ability of the mantle to withstand stress-difference due to superimposed loads would appear to argue against flow in the Earth's mantle, but the ironic fact is that the satellite determined gravity variations are the evidence of density differences associated with mantle flow. The type of flow which is most likely to be involved concerns convection currents. For the past 4 decades, models of mantle convection have made remarkable advancements. Although a large body of evidence regarding the seafloor depth, heat flow, lithospheric strength and forces of slab-pull and swell-push has been obtained, the global seismotectonic stresses in the Earth are yet to be determined. The problem is that no one has been able to come up with a satisfactory scenario that must characterize the stresses in the Earth which cause earthquakes and create tectonic features. The stress generated by mantle convection under the crust are inferable from high degree (n>=13) spherical harmonics of the geopotential. Therefore, satellite gravity missions may be able to seek the Earth's gravity signals for investigating the seismotectonic effect of these subcrustal stresses. It is well known that subcrustal stress patterns for (137.0 from 1976 to 2000 is also given for reference. The intense seismicity in the subcrustal stress concentration belt (the ring of fire around the Pacific) is expected. A broad band of seismicity extends from southern Europe to southeast Europe to southeast Asia; this is associated with the subcrustal stress concentration belts in Europe, Africa, Arabian, and Asia. These results seem to provide significant insights into the origin of the earthquakes and formation of the world.

  13. Top-down signal transmission and global hyperconnectivity in auditory-visual synesthesia: Evidence from a functional EEG resting-state study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchli, Christian; Elmer, Stefan; Rogenmoser, Lars; Burkhard, Anja; Jäncke, Lutz

    2018-01-01

    Auditory-visual (AV) synesthesia is a rare phenomenon in which an auditory stimulus induces a "concurrent" color sensation. Current neurophysiological models of synesthesia mainly hypothesize "hyperconnected" and "hyperactivated" brains, but differ in the directionality of signal transmission. The two-stage model proposes bottom-up signal transmission from inducer- to concurrent- to higher-order brain areas, whereas the disinhibited feedback model postulates top-down signal transmission from inducer- to higher-order- to concurrent brain areas. To test the different models of synesthesia, we estimated local current density, directed and undirected connectivity patterns in the intracranial space during 2 min of resting-state (RS) EEG in 11 AV synesthetes and 11 nonsynesthetes. AV synesthetes demonstrated increased parietal theta, alpha, and lower beta current density compared to nonsynesthetes. Furthermore, AV synesthetes were characterized by increased top-down signal transmission from the superior parietal lobe to the left color processing area V4 in the upper beta frequency band. Analyses of undirected connectivity revealed a global, synesthesia-specific hyperconnectivity in the alpha frequency band. The involvement of the superior parietal lobe even during rest is a strong indicator for its key role in AV synesthesia. By demonstrating top-down signal transmission in AV synesthetes, we provide direct support for the disinhibited feedback model of synesthesia. Finally, we suggest that synesthesia is a consequence of global hyperconnectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 39:522-531, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cable for the transmission of electrical signals from a neutron detector in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, H.D.

    1976-01-01

    To reduce spurious signals arising from neutron-produced secondary-electrons in coaxial cables sited in a nuclear reactor, materials with low neutron-interaction cross-sections are chosen. In order to minimise the effect of electron currents due to the gamma radiation a double strategy is applied. 1) Electron production in the insulating layer is held low by using a low density material. 2) The electron current from the inner conductor to the outer conductor is made to cancel the current from the opposite direction by using a higher atomic number material for the inner conductor (which has a smaller emission surface) than for the outer conductor (which has a greater emission surface). (RW) [de

  15. Linear and Nonlinear Impairment Compensation in Coherent Optical Transmission with Digital Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson

    Digital signal processing (DSP) has become one of the main enabling technologies for the physical layer of coherent optical communication networks. The DSP subsystems are used to implement several functionalities in the digital domain, from synchronization to channel equalization. Flexibility...... and effectiveness of DSP contribute to reducing costs and increase reliability of optical communications systems. The work presented in this thesis focuses on DSP subsystems for coherent optical communication systems. In particular, the contributions presented in this thesis relate to the following topics: (I) Kerr...... are performed to evaluate the proposed methods. In conclusion, the results presented in this thesis contribute to the state-of-the-art of DSP for coherent optical communication over single-mode fibers (SMFs). The techniques investigated have the potential to improve performance and reliability of such systems...

  16. Differences in spontaneously avoiding or approaching mice reflect differences in CB1-mediated signaling of dorsal striatal transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Laricchiuta

    Full Text Available Approach or avoidance behaviors are accompanied by perceptual vigilance for, affective reactivity to and behavioral predisposition towards rewarding or punitive stimuli, respectively. We detected three subpopulations of C57BL/6J mice that responded with avoiding, balancing or approaching behaviors not induced by any experimental manipulation but spontaneously displayed in an approach/avoidance conflict task. Although the detailed neuronal mechanisms underlying the balancing between approach and avoidance are not fully clarified, there is growing evidence that endocannabinoid system (ECS plays a critical role in the control of these balancing actions. The sensitivity of dorsal striatal synapses to the activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors was investigated in the subpopulations of spontaneously avoiding, balancing or approaching mice. Avoiding animals displayed decreased control of CB1 receptors on GABAergic striatal transmission and in parallel increase of behavioral inhibition. Conversely, approaching animals exhibited increased control of CB1 receptors and in parallel increase of explorative behavior. Balancing animals reacted with balanced responses between approach and avoidance patterns. Treating avoiding animals with URB597 (fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor or approaching animals with AM251 (CB1 receptor inverse agonist reverted their respective behavioral and electrophysiological patterns. Therefore, enhanced or reduced CB1-mediated control on dorsal striatal transmission represents the synaptic hallmark of the approach or avoidance behavior, respectively. Thus, the opposite spontaneous responses to conflicting stimuli are modulated by a different involvement of endocannabinoid signaling of dorsal striatal neurons in the range of temperamental traits related to individual differences.

  17. Identification of the excitation source of the pressure vessel vibration in a Soviet built WWER PWR with signal transmission path analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonopoulos-Domis, M.; Mourtzanos, K.; Por, G.

    1996-01-01

    Signal transmission path analysis via multivariate auto-regressive modelling was applied at signals recorded at a WWER power reactor (Paks reactor, Hungary). The core is equipped with strings of self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs). Each string has seven SPNDs. The signals were high pass filtered with cut-off at 0.03 Hz and low pass-filtered with cut-off at 25 Hz. The analysis suggests that the source of excitation of all signals at 25 Hz is due to main coolant pump vibration. It was confirmed that there is vibration of main coolant pumps at this frequency due to a bearing problem. Signal transmission path analysis also suggests direct paths from outlet coolant to inlet coolant pressure and in-core neutron detectors at the upper part of the core. (author)

  18. Radiation quality dependence of signal transmission and bystander induced cell killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Bertolotti, Alessia; Facoetti, Angelica; Grande, Sveva; Mariotti, Luca; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Ranza, Elena; Simone, Giustina; Sorrentino, Eugenio; Antonella Tabocchini, Maria

    at 20 hours post exposure, whereas IL-8 release was significantly increased at shorter times, i.e. 5-7 hours after irradiation. The expression of their receptors was modulated in both irradiated and bystander cells, although it is not apparently correlated with the relative interleukin re-lease. In order to investigate possible correlation between NRS and cytokines as early and late mediators in the signalling chain leading to bystander induced cell killing, experiments were performed using c-PTIO, a well known scavengers of RNS. In these experiments conditioned medium taken after 1h or 5h from α-particle irradiated cells was used. The results obtained after 5h in the absence of c-PTIO didn't show any further decrease in clonogenic survival of bystander cells. The presence of the scavenger seems to reduce, the bystander induced cell killing indicating that RNS are involved in the transduction of the bystander signal. Experi-ments, performed with both c-PTIO and DMSO, a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals, showed that RNS and ROS play a role in some cytokine pathways (interleukins release and their receptor expression) activated by irradiation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was partially supported by the European Commission (EC Contract FP6-36465, "NOTE")

  19. Astrocytes potentiate GABAergic transmission in the thalamic reticular nucleus via endozepine signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Catherine A.; Huguenard, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) mediates an endogenous benzodiazepine-mimicking (endozepine) effect on synaptic inhibition in the thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT). Here we demonstrate that DBI peptide colocalizes with both astrocytic and neuronal markers in mouse nRT, and investigate the role of astrocytic function in endozepine modulation in this nucleus by testing the effects of the gliotoxin fluorocitrate (FC) on synaptic inhibition and endozepine signaling in the nRT using patch-clamp recordings. FC treatment reduced the effective inhibitory charge of GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in WT mice, indicating that astrocytes enhance GABAAR responses in the nRT. This effect was abolished by both a point mutation that inhibits classical benzodiazepine binding to GABAARs containing the α3 subunit (predominant in the nRT) and a chromosomal deletion that removes the Dbi gene. Thus, astrocytes are required for positive allosteric modulation via the α3 subunit benzodiazepine-binding site by DBI peptide family endozepines. Outside-out sniffer patches pulled from neurons in the adjacent ventrobasal nucleus, which does not contain endozepines, show a potentiated response to laser photostimulation of caged GABA when placed in the nRT. FC treatment blocked the nRT-dependent potentiation of this response, as did the benzodiazepine site antagonist flumazenil. When sniffer patches were placed in the ventrobasal nucleus, however, subsequent treatment with FC led to potentiation of the uncaged GABA response, suggesting nucleus-specific roles for thalamic astrocytes in regulating inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that astrocytes are required for endozepine actions in the nRT, and as such can be positive modulators of synaptic inhibition. PMID:24262146

  20. 12-core x 3-mode Dense Space Division Multiplexed Transmission over 40 km Employing Multi-carrier Signals with Parallel MIMO Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizuno, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Takara, H.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate dense SDM transmission of 20-WDM multi-carrier PDM-32QAM signals over a 40-km 12-core x 3-mode fiber with 247.9-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency. Parallel MIMO equalization enables 21-ns DMD compensation with 61 TDE taps per subcarrier.......We demonstrate dense SDM transmission of 20-WDM multi-carrier PDM-32QAM signals over a 40-km 12-core x 3-mode fiber with 247.9-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency. Parallel MIMO equalization enables 21-ns DMD compensation with 61 TDE taps per subcarrier....

  1. Validation of a mapping and prediction model for human fasciolosis transmission in Andean very high altitude endemic areas using remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, M V; Malone, J B; Mas-Coma, S

    2001-04-27

    The present paper aims to validate the usefulness of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained by satellite remote sensing for the development of local maps of risk and for prediction of human fasciolosis in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. The endemic area, which is located at very high altitudes (3800-4100 m) between Lake Titicaca and the valley of the city of La Paz, presents the highest prevalences and intensities of fasciolosis known in humans. NDVI images of 1.1 km resolution from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) series of environmental satellites appear to provide adequate information for a study area such as that of the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. The predictive value of the remotely sensed map based on NDVI data appears to be better than that from forecast indices based only on climatic data. A close correspondence was observed between real ranges of human fasciolosis prevalence at 13 localities of known prevalence rates and the predicted ranges of fasciolosis prevalence using NDVI maps. However, results based on NDVI map data predicted zones as risk areas where, in fact, field studies have demonstrated the absence of lymnaeid populations during snail surveys, corroborated by the absence of the parasite in humans and livestock. NDVI data maps represent a useful data component in long-term efforts to develop a comprehensive geographical information system control program model that accurately fits real epidemiological and transmission situations of human fasciolosis in high altitude endemic areas in Andean countries.

  2. Signal transmission from motor axons to group Ia muscle spindle afferents: frequency responses and second-order non-linearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhorst, U; Kokkoroyiannis, T; Laouris, Y; Meyer-Lohmann, J

    1994-03-01

    Spinal recurrent inhibition via Renshaw cells and proprioceptive feedback via skeletal muscle and muscle spindle afferents have been hypothesized to constitute a compound feedback system [Windhorst (1989) Afferent Control of Posture and Locomotion; Windhorst (1993) Robots and Biological Systems--Towards a New Bionics]. To assess their detailed functions, it is necessary to know their dynamic characteristics. Previously we have extensively described the properties of signal transmission from motor axons to Renshaw cells using random motor axon stimulation and data analysis methods based thereupon. Using the same methods, we here compare these properties, in the cat, with those between motor axons and group Ia muscle spindle afferents in terms of frequency responses and nonlinear features. The frequency responses depend on the mean rate (carrier rate) of activation of motor axons and on the strength of coupling between motor units and spindles. In general, they are those of a second-order low-pass system with a cut-off at fairly low frequencies. This contrasts with the dynamics of motor axon-Renshaw cell couplings which are those of a much broader band-pass with its peak in the range of c. 2-15 Hz [Christakos (1987) Neuroscience 23, 613-623]. The second-order non-linearities in motor unit-muscle spindle signal lines are much more diverse than those in motor axon-Renshaw cell couplings. Although the average strength of response declines with mean stimulus rate in both subsystems, there is no systematic relationship between the amount of non-linearity and the average response in the former, whilst there is in the latter. The qualitative appearance of motor unit-muscle spindle non-linearities was complicated as was the average response to motor unit twitches. Thus, whilst Renshaw cells appear to dynamically reflect motor output rather faithfully, muscle spindles seem to signal local muscle fibre length changes and their dynamics. This would be consistent with the

  3. Metal Dependence of Signal Transmission through MolecularQuantum-Dot Cellular Automata (QCA: A Theoretical Studyon Fe, Ru, and Os Mixed-Valence Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Tokunaga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic behavior of signal transmission through metal complexes [L5M-BL-ML5]5+ (M=Fe, Ru, Os, BL=pyrazine (py, 4,4’-bipyridine (bpy, L=NH3, which are simplified models of the molecular quantum-dot cellular automata (molecular QCA, is discussed from the viewpoint of one-electron theory, density functional theory. It is found that for py complexes, the signal transmission time (tst is Fe(0.6 fs < Os(0.7 fs < Ru(1.1 fs and the signal amplitude (A is Fe(0.05 e < Os(0.06 e < Ru(0.10 e. For bpy complexes, tst and A are Fe(1.4 fs < Os(1.7 fs < Ru(2.5 fs and Os(0.11 e < Ru(0.12 e signal amplitude, but waste longer time for signal transmission than py complexes. Among all complexes, Fe complex with bpy BL shows the best result. These results are discussed from overlap integral and energy gap of molecular orbitals.

  4. Optical transmission of low-level signals with high dynamic range using the optically-coupled current-mirror architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camin, Daniel V.; Grassi, Valerio; De Donato, Cinzia

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we illustrate the application of a novel circuit architecture, the Optically-Coupled Current-Mirror (OCCM), conceived for the linear transmission of analogue signals via fibre optics. We installed 880 OCCMs in the PMTs of the first two telescopes of the cosmic-ray experiment Pierre Auger. The Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) has been designed to increase the statistics of cosmic-rays with energies above 10 18 eV. Two different techniques have been adopted: the Surface Detector (SD) modules that comprise 1600 tanks spaced each other by 1.5km within an area of 3000km 2 . On the other side there are four buildings, the Optical Stations (OS), in which six telescopes are installed in each one of the four OS, at the periphery of the site, looking inwards. The telescopes are sensitive to the UV light created at the moment a high-energy shower develops in the atmosphere and is within the field-of-view (FOV) of the telescopes. The PAO is located in the Northern Patagonia, not far from the Cordillera de Los Andes, in Argentina. Both detector types, FD telescopes and SD modules, are sensitive to the UV light resulting from the interaction of high-energy particles and the nitrogen molecules in the atmosphere. The UV-sensitive telescopes operate only at night when the sky is completely dark. Otherwise, the light collected by the telescopes may give origin to severe damage in particular if those telescopes point at twilight or to artificial light sources. The duty cycle of the telescope's operation is therefore limited to about 10% or slightly more than that, if data are taken also when there is a partial presence of the Moon. The SD modules establish, independently of the telescopes, the geometry of the event. At the same time a shower reconstruction is performed using the telescope's data, independently of the SD modules. Use of both sets of data, taken by the FD telescopes and by the SD modules, allows the hybrid reconstruction that significantly improves the data

  5. Analog data transmission via fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros, E.L.; Burgueno, G.F.

    1986-10-01

    In the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD), as in most high-energy particle detectors, the electromagnetic noise environment is the limiting factor in electronic readout performance. Front-end electronics are particulary susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and great care has been taken to minimize its effects. The transfer of preprocessed analog signals from the detector environs, to the remote digital processing electronics, by conventional means (via metal conductors), may ultimately limit the performance of the system. Because it is highly impervious to EMI and ground loops, a fiber-optic medium has been chosen for the transmission of these signals. This paper describes several fiber-optic transmission schemes which satisfy the requirements of the SLD analog data transmission

  6. 400Gb/s (4 x 100Gb/s) orthogonal PDM-RZ-QPSK DWDM signal transmission over 1040km SMF-28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianjun; Zhou, Xiang; Huang, Ming-Fang; Qian, Dayou; Ji, Philip N; Wang, Ting; Magill, Peter

    2009-09-28

    We have generated 4 x 100-Gb/s orthogonal WDM optical signal by employing polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) return-to-zero (RZ) QPSK modulation format and tight optical filtering technique. The required optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) at bit error ratio (BER) of 2 x 10(-3) for the 400 Gb/s orthogonal DWDM signal is measured to be approximately 22.8 dB/0.1 nm. After transmission over 1040-km standard single mode fiber (EDFA-only amplification, 80-km amplifier span and fully receiver-side electrical dispersion compensation), the measured BER for all the four orthogonal subchannels are smaller than 2 x 10(-3).

  7. Experimental demonstration of 608Gbit/s short reach transmission employing half-cycle 16QAM Nyquist-SCM signal and direct detection with 25Gbps EML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Kangping; Zhou, Xian; Wang, Yiguang; Wang, Liang; Yuan, Jinhui; Yu, Changyuan; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Lu, Chao

    2016-10-31

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated an IM/DD short reach transmission system with a total capacity of 608Gbit/s (net capacity of 565.4Gbit/s exclude 7% FEC overhead) employing half-cycle 16QAM Nyquist-SCM signal and 25Gbps EML at O band. Direct detection-faster than Nyquist (DD-FTN) technique was employed to compensate channel impairments. Number of taps of DD-LMS and tap coefficient of post filter in DD-FTN were experimentally studied for different baud rates. Single-lane 152Gbit/s transmission over 10km of SSMF was experimentally demonstrated. Employing a 4-lanes LAN-WDM architecture, a total capacity of 608Gbit/s transmission over 2km was successfully achieved with a receiver sensitivity lower than -4dBm. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the highest reported baud rate of half-cycle 16QAM Nyquist-SCM signal and the highest bit rate employing IM/DD and 25Gbps EML in a four lanes LAN-WDM architecture for short reach systems in the O band.

  8. RNA-mediated gene silencing signals are not graft transmissible from the rootstock to the scion in greenhouse-grown apple plants Malus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Tränkner, Conny; Szankowski, Iris; Waidmann, Sascha; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Treutter, Dieter; Fischer, Thilo C

    2012-01-01

    RNA silencing describes the sequence specific degradation of RNA targets. Silencing is a non-cell autonomous event that is graft transmissible in different plant species. The present study is the first report on systemic acquired dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of transgenic and endogenous gene sequences in a woody plant like apple. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing a hairpin gene construct of the gusA reporter gene were produced. These plants were used as rootstocks and grafted with scions of the gusA overexpressing transgenic apple clone T355. After grafting, we observed a reduction of the gusA gene expression in T355 scions in vitro, but not in T355 scions grown in the greenhouse. Similar results were obtained after silencing of the endogenous Mdans gene in apple that is responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Subsequently, we performed grafting experiments with Mdans silenced rootstocks and red leaf scions of TNR31-35 in order to evaluate graft transmitted silencing of the endogenous Mdans. The results obtained suggested a graft transmission of silencing signals in in vitro shoots. In contrast, no graft transmission of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing signals was detectable in greenhouse-grown plants and in plants grown in an insect protection tent.

  9. A multi-channel low-power system-on-chip for single-unit recording and narrowband wireless transmission of neural signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, A; Ceravolo, M; Zambra, G; Gusmeroli, R; Spinelli, A S; Lacaita, A L; Angotzi, G N; Baranauskas, G; Fadiga, L

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a multi-channel neural recording system-on-chip (SoC) with digital data compression and wireless telemetry. The circuit consists of a 16 amplifiers, an analog time division multiplexer, an 8-bit SAR AD converter, a digital signal processor (DSP) and a wireless narrowband 400-MHz binary FSK transmitter. Even though only 16 amplifiers are present in our current die version, the whole system is designed to work with 64 channels demonstrating the feasibility of a digital processing and narrowband wireless transmission of 64 neural recording channels. A digital data compression, based on the detection of action potentials and storage of correspondent waveforms, allows the use of a 1.25-Mbit/s binary FSK wireless transmission. This moderate bit-rate and a low frequency deviation, Manchester-coded modulation are crucial for exploiting a narrowband wireless link and an efficient embeddable antenna. The chip is realized in a 0.35- εm CMOS process with a power consumption of 105 εW per channel (269 εW per channel with an extended transmission range of 4 m) and an area of 3.1 × 2.7 mm(2). The transmitted signal is captured by a digital TV tuner and demodulated by a wideband phase-locked loop (PLL), and then sent to a PC via an FPGA module. The system has been tested for electrical specifications and its functionality verified in in-vivo neural recording experiments.

  10. Experimental Analysis of 60-GHz VCSEL and ECL Photonic Generation and Transmission of Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wideband Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran, Marta; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Llorente, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Optical generation of impulse-radio ultra-wideband (UWB) signals in the 60-GHz band is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. External-cavity laser (ECL) and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is employed for frequency up-conversion by heterodyne mixing with a UWB optical signal...

  11. All-Optical envelope detection and fiber transmission of wireless signals by external injection of a DFB laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2008-01-01

    We outline a novel method for all-optical envelope detection of wireless signals by exploiting cross-gain modulation effects in a distributed feedback laser operating with optical injection. We successfully demonstrate envelope detection of a 20-GHz carrier amplitude-shift-keying modulated signal...

  12. Experimental evaluation of prefiltering for 56 Gbaud DP-QPSK signal transmission in 75 GHz WDM grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; de Carvalho, Luis Henrique H.; Silva, Edson Porto da

    2014-01-01

    We investigate optical prefiltering for 56Gbaud (224Gbit/s) electrical time-division multiplexed (ETDM) dual polarization (DP) quaternary phase shift keying (QPSK) transmission. Different transmitter-side optical filter shapes are tested and their bandwidths are varied. Comparison of studied filt...

  13. A rigorous analysis of digital pre-emphasis and DAC resolution for interleaved DAC Nyquist-WDM signal generation in high-speed coherent optical transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi; Wang, Junyi; He, Xuan; Pan, Zhongqi

    2018-02-01

    The Nyquist spectral shaping techniques facilitate a promising solution to enhance spectral efficiency (SE) and further reduce the cost-per-bit in high-speed wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems. Hypothetically, any Nyquist WDM signals with arbitrary shapes can be generated by the use of the digital signal processing (DSP) based electrical filters (E-filter). Nonetheless, in actual 100G/ 200G coherent systems, the performance as well as DSP complexity are increasingly restricted by cost and power consumption. Henceforward it is indispensable to optimize DSP to accomplish the preferred performance at the least complexity. In this paper, we systematically investigated the minimum requirements and challenges of Nyquist WDM signal generation, particularly for higher-order modulation formats, including 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or 64QAM. A variety of interrelated parameters, such as channel spacing and roll-off factor, have been evaluated to optimize the requirements of the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) resolution and transmitter E-filter bandwidth. The impact of spectral pre-emphasis has been predominantly enhanced via the proposed interleaved DAC architecture by at least 4%, and hence reducing the required optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-3 by over 0.45 dB at a channel spacing of 1.05 symbol rate and an optimized roll-off factor of 0.1. Furthermore, the requirements of sampling rate for different types of super-Gaussian E-filters are discussed for 64QAM Nyquist WDM transmission systems. Finally, the impact of the non-50% duty cycle error between sub-DACs upon the quality of the generated signals for the interleaved DAC structure has been analyzed.

  14. AFM Imaging of Hybridization Chain Reaction-Mediated Signal Transmission Between two DNA Origami Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmig, Sarah Wendelbo; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-01-01

    Signal transfer is central to the controlled exchange of information in biology and advanced technologies. Therefore, the development of reliable, long-ranging signal transfer systems for artificial nanoscale assemblies is of great scientific interest. We have designed such a system for signal...... transfer between two connected DNA nanostructures, using the hybridization chain reaction (HCR). Two sets of metastable DNA hairpins - of which one is immobilized in specific points along tracks on DNA origami structures - are polymerized to form a continuous DNA duplex, which is visible using atomic force......, and therefore has the potential to be applied to larger multi-component DNA assemblies...

  15. Electromagnetic signals generated in the solid Earth by digital transmission of radio-waves as a plausible source for some so-called `seismic electric signals'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, V.-N.; Boyer, D.; Le Mouël, J.-L.; Chouliaras, G.; Stavrakakis, G. N.

    1999-07-01

    Claims by the VAN group [Varotsos, P., Alexopoulos, K., 1984. Physical properties of the variations of the electric field of the earth preceding earthquakes, I. Tectonophysics 110, 73-98, and later works] to have developed a short-term earthquake prediction technique in Greece continue to arouse contentious debates [Claims of success in using geoelectrical precursors to predict earthquakes are criticized and defended, 1998. Letters, Phys. Today 51 (6), 15-100; Great debates in seismology: the VAN method of earthquake prediction, 1998. Eos 79, 573-580]. This is partly because of the unknown origin of the so-called `seismic electric signals' (SES) precursors. Their particular characteristics are not those of the usual electromagnetic noise (cultural noise) or of the natural electromagnetic field (magnetotelluric field). In this paper, we show that transient electric signals looking like SES can be generated by digital transmitters of the radio-telecommunication network. Such signals have been observed in different regions of the world, including Greece and Vietnam. Their characteristics have been analyzed in a broad band of frequencies (10 -3-10 3 Hz) in the Ioannina, Greece, site which is considered as the most `sensitive area' of the VAN network. It is concluded that some of the signals recorded at this site and identified as SES are probably of artificial origin, and that the criteria used by the VAN group are not sufficient to guarantee that the so-called SES are not man-made. Without an extended and thorough study of the ambient electromagnetic noise in a broad band of frequencies and better information about the electrical properties of the deep structure beneath the monitoring station, earthquake predictions issued on the basis of signals recorded by the VAN network are of dubious significance.

  16. Remote Whispering Applying Time Reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Brian Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-16

    The purpose of this project was to explore the use of time reversal technologies as a means for communication to a targeted individual or location. The idea is to have the privacy of whispering in one’s ear, but to do this remotely from loudspeakers not located near the target. Applications of this work include communicating with hostages and survivors in rescue operations, communicating imaging and operational conditions in deep drilling operations, monitoring storage of spent nuclear fuel in storage casks without wires, or clandestine activities requiring signaling between specific points. This technology provides a solution in any application where wires and radio communications are not possible or not desired. It also may be configured to self calibrate on a regular basis to adjust for changing conditions. These communications allow two people to converse with one another in real time, converse in an inaudible frequency range or medium (i.e. using ultrasonic frequencies and/or sending vibrations through a structure), or send information for a system to interpret (even allowing remote control of a system using sound). The time reversal process allows one to focus energy to a specific location in space and to send a clean transmission of a selected signal only to that location. In order for the time reversal process to work, a calibration signal must be obtained. This signal may be obtained experimentally using an impulsive sound, a known chirp signal, or other known signals. It may also be determined from a numerical model of a known environment in which the focusing is desired or from passive listening over time to ambient noise.

  17. Generation of Flattened Multicarrier Signals from a Single Laser Source for 330 Gbps WDM-PON Transmission over 25 km SSMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sibghat; Liu, Bo; Ullah, Rahat; Ahmad, Muhammad; Wang, Fu; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Memon, Kamran Ali; Khalid, Hafiz Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    A novel technique is proposed for optical frequency comb generation with a budget friendly system. A Mach-Zehnder modulator is used in connectivity with continuous wave optical signal which is filtered by rectangle optical filter and the signal is then amplified by erbium-doped fiber amplifier. With a frequency spacing of 10 GHz 33 useable OFC lines were generated with good tone to noise ratio which is quite impressive for such a cost effective setup. Each generated carrier carries differential phase shift keying based data of 10 Gbps. A total of 330 Gbps multiplexed data is successfully transmitted through a standard single mode fiber length of 25-km. During the downlink transmission the power penalties are observed to be negligible. The resulted eye diagrams are wide and promises to be a good system for wavelength division multiplexed-passive optical network.

  18. A novel optical single-sideband frequency translation technique for transmission of wireless MIMO signals over fiber-wireless system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaddad, Redhwan Q.; Mohammad, Abu Bakar; Al-Hetar, Abdulaziz M.; Al-Gailani, Samir A.

    2013-04-01

    The fiber-wireless (FiWi) access network is a powerful hybrid architecture of optical backhaul and wireless front-end to support high data rates and throughput with minimal time delay. By using radio over fiber (ROF) technique, the optical fiber is well adapted to propagate multiple wireless services having different carrier frequencies. However, multiple wireless signals which have the same carrier frequency cannot propagate over a single optical fiber on the same wavelength, such as multi-input multi-output (MIMO) signals. A novel optical single-sideband frequency translation technique is designed and simulated to solve this problem. 240 Mb/s 802.11n MIMO signals are proposed to transport over FiWi system using the proposed approach at 2.4 GHz and 5.0 GHz carrier frequencies. The crosstalk between MIMO signals with the same carrier frequency is excluded, since each MIMO signal is carried on a specific optical wavelength. Error vector magnitude (EVM) values of -29.83 dB (for 2.4 GHz) and -28.41 dB (for 5.0 GHz) have been achieved for bit error rate (BER) 10-5 in the proposed FiWi system.

  19. Game Changing Usage of High-Voltage Power Transmission Systems as Extremely Large Antennas for Space Physical and Geophysical Remote Imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We use the US high-voltage power transmission system as an extremely large antenna to extract unprecedented spatiotemporal space physical and geological information...

  20. Game Changing Usage of High-Voltage Power Transmission Systems as Extremely Large Antennas for Space Physical and Geophysical Remote Imaging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to use the US high-voltage power transmission system as an extremely large antenna to extract unprecedented spatiotemporal space physical and geological...

  1. The remote control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansweijer, P.P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The remote-control system is applied in order to control various signals in the car of the spectrometer at distance. The construction (hardware and software) as well as the operation of the system is described. (author). 20 figs

  2. AFM Imaging of Hybridization Chain Reaction-Mediated Signal Transmission Between two DNA Origami Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmig, Sarah Wendelbo; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-01-01

    transfer between two connected DNA nanostructures, using the hybridization chain reaction (HCR). Two sets of metastable DNA hairpins - of which one is immobilized in specific points along tracks on DNA origami structures - are polymerized to form a continuous DNA duplex, which is visible using atomic force...... microscopy (AFM). Upon addition of a designed initiator, the initiation signal is efficiently transferred >200 nm from a specific location on one origami structure to an end point on another origami structure. The system shows no significant loss of signal when crossing from one nanostructure to another...

  3. All-fiber incoherent frequency-to-time mapping method for microwave signal generation with baseband transmission and multicasting support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Company Torres, Victor; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Lancis, Jesus

    2008-01-01

    resembles the shape of the incoherent source. The photodetected signal contains both the baseband data and an up-frequency converted copy with central wavelength for the microwave carrier into the ultra-wideband range and tuning capability by selection of the fiber length. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights...

  4. Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Fysarakis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management applied against important fruit fly pests, including Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Widemann), Diptera of the Tephritidae family, which effect a crop-loss/per year calculated in billions of euros worldwide. Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term ‘insect biometrics’ in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat) that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency. PMID:26544845

  5. Insect Biometrics: Optoacoustic Signal Processing and Its Applications to Remote Monitoring of McPhail Type Traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    Full Text Available Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management applied against important fruit fly pests, including Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin and Ceratitis capitata (Widemann, Diptera of the Tephritidae family, which effect a crop-loss/per year calculated in billions of euros worldwide. Pests can be controlled with ground pesticide sprays, the efficiency of which depends on knowing the time, location and extent of infestations as early as possible. Trap inspection is currently carried out manually, using the McPhail trap, and the mass spraying is decided based on a decision protocol. We introduce the term 'insect biometrics' in the context of entomology as a measure of a characteristic of the insect (in our case, the spectrum of its wingbeat that allows us to identify its species and make devices to help face old enemies with modern means. We modify a McPhail type trap into becoming electronic by installing an array of photoreceptors coupled to an infrared emitter, guarding the entrance of the trap. The beating wings of insects flying in the trap intercept the light and the light fluctuation is turned to a recording. Custom-made electronics are developed that are placed as an external add-on kit, without altering the internal space of the trap. Counts from the trap are transmitted using a mobile communication network. This trap introduces a new automated remote-monitoring method different to audio and vision-based systems. We evaluate our trap in large number of insects in the laboratory by enclosing the electronic trap in insectary cages. Our experiments assess the potential of delivering reliable data that can be used to initialize reliably the spraying process at large scales but to also monitor the impact of the spraying process as it eliminates the time-lag between acquiring and delivering insect counts to a central agency.

  6. Local neuropeptide signaling modulates serotonergic transmission to shape the temporal organization of C. elegans egg-laying behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navonil Banerjee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal behaviors are often composed of distinct alternating behavioral states. Neuromodulatory signals are thought to be critical for establishing stable behavioral states and for orchestrating transitions between them. However, we have only a limited understanding of how neuromodulatory systems act in vivo to alter circuit performance and shape behavior. To address these questions, we have investigated neuromodulatory signaling in the context of Caenorhabditis elegans egg-laying. Egg-laying activity cycles between discrete states-short bursts of egg deposition (active phases that alternate with prolonged quiescent periods (inactive phases. Here using genetic, pharmacological and optogenetic approaches for cell-specific activation and inhibition, we show that a group of neurosecretory cells (uv1 located in close spatial proximity to the egg-laying neuromusculature direct the temporal organization of egg-laying by prolonging the duration of inactive phases. We demonstrate that the modulatory effects of the uv1 cells are mediated by peptides encoded by the nlp-7 and flp-11 genes that act locally to inhibit circuit activity, primarily by inhibiting vesicular release of serotonin from HSN motor neurons. This peptidergic inhibition is achieved, at least in part, by reducing synaptic vesicle abundance in the HSN motor neurons. By linking the in vivo actions of specific neuropeptide signaling systems with the generation of stable behavioral outcomes, our study reveals how cycles of neuromodulation emanating from non-neuronal cells can fundamentally shape the organization of a behavioral program.

  7. The neurotoxic effects of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea on the electrophysiological property and visual signal transmission of rat's retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Ye; Chen, Tao; Liu, Bei; Yang, Guo Qing; Peng, Guanghua; Zhang, Hua; Huang, Yi Fei

    2015-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) on the inner retinal neurons and related visual signal circuits have not been described in any animal models or human, despite ample morphological evidences about the MNU induced photoreceptor (PR) degeneration. With the helping of MEA (multielectrode array) recording system, we gained the opportunity to systemically explore the neural activities and visual signal pathways of MNU administrated rats. Our MEA research identified remarkable alterations in the electrophysiological properties and firstly provided instructive information about the neurotoxicity of MNU that affects the signal transmission in the inner retina. Moreover, the spatial electrophysiological functions of retina were monitored and found that the focal PRs had different vulnerabilities to the MNU. The MNU-induced PR dysfunction exhibited a distinct spatial- and time-dependent progression. In contrast, the spiking activities of both central and peripheral RGCs altered synchronously in response to the MNU administration. Pharmacological tests suggested that gap junctions played a pivotal role in this homogeneous response of RGCs. SNR analysis of MNU treated retina suggested that the signaling efficiency and fidelity of inner retinal circuits have been ruined by this toxicant, although the microstructure of the inner retina seemed relatively consolidated. The present study provided an appropriate example of MEA investigations on the toxicant induced pathological models and the effects of the pharmacological compounds on neuron activities. The positional MEA information would enrich our knowledge about the pathology of MNU induced RP models, and eventually be instrumental for elucidating the underlying mechanism of human RP. - Highlights: • We systemically explored the neural activities and visual signal pathways of MNU administrated retinas. • The focal photoreceptors had different vulnerabilities to the MNU administration.

  8. The neurotoxic effects of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea on the electrophysiological property and visual signal transmission of rat's retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Ye [Department of Ophthalmology, General Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing 100853 (China); Chen, Tao [Department of Clinical Aerospace Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Liu, Bei [Department of Neurosurgery and Institute for Functional Brain Disorders, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Yang, Guo Qing [Department of Clinical Aerospace Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Peng, Guanghua [Department of Ophthalmology, General Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing 100853 (China); Zhang, Hua [Department of Neurosurgery and Institute for Functional Brain Disorders, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Huang, Yi Fei [Department of Ophthalmology, General Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2015-07-01

    The neurotoxic effects of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) on the inner retinal neurons and related visual signal circuits have not been described in any animal models or human, despite ample morphological evidences about the MNU induced photoreceptor (PR) degeneration. With the helping of MEA (multielectrode array) recording system, we gained the opportunity to systemically explore the neural activities and visual signal pathways of MNU administrated rats. Our MEA research identified remarkable alterations in the electrophysiological properties and firstly provided instructive information about the neurotoxicity of MNU that affects the signal transmission in the inner retina. Moreover, the spatial electrophysiological functions of retina were monitored and found that the focal PRs had different vulnerabilities to the MNU. The MNU-induced PR dysfunction exhibited a distinct spatial- and time-dependent progression. In contrast, the spiking activities of both central and peripheral RGCs altered synchronously in response to the MNU administration. Pharmacological tests suggested that gap junctions played a pivotal role in this homogeneous response of RGCs. SNR analysis of MNU treated retina suggested that the signaling efficiency and fidelity of inner retinal circuits have been ruined by this toxicant, although the microstructure of the inner retina seemed relatively consolidated. The present study provided an appropriate example of MEA investigations on the toxicant induced pathological models and the effects of the pharmacological compounds on neuron activities. The positional MEA information would enrich our knowledge about the pathology of MNU induced RP models, and eventually be instrumental for elucidating the underlying mechanism of human RP. - Highlights: • We systemically explored the neural activities and visual signal pathways of MNU administrated retinas. • The focal photoreceptors had different vulnerabilities to the MNU administration.

  9. Inhibition of excitatory synaptic transmission in the trigeminal motor nucleus by the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pose, Inés; Silveira, Valentina; Morales, Francisco R

    2011-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) suppressed glutamatergic synaptic transmission to trigeminal motoneurons in brain stem slices of neonatal rats. Histological studies showed guanylate cyclase (GC) containing fibers in the trigeminal motor pool. Glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded from neonatal trigeminal motoneurons in response to stimulation of the supratrigeminal nucleus (SuV). The NO donors DETA/NONOate (DETA/NO), at a concentration which released 275.1 nM of NO, and Spermine/NONOate (Sper/NO) reduced the amplitude of the EPSC to 52.7±0.6% and 60.1±10.8% of control values, respectively. These actions were not blocked by the GC inhibitors, ODQ or NS-2028. However, in the presence of YC-1 or BAY41-2272, modulators of GC that act as NO sensitizers, lower and otherwise ineffective concentrations of DETA/NO induced a reduction of the EPSC to 60.6±5.2%. Moreover, NO effects were mimicked by 8BrcGMP and by Zaprinast, an inhibitor of Phosphodiesterase 5. Glutamatergic currents evoked by exogenous glutamate were not reduced by DETA/NO nor 8BrcGMP. Paired-pulse facilitation was increased by NO donors. Under "minimal stimulation" conditions NO donors and cGMP increased the failure rate of evoked EPSCs. Protein kinase inhibitors antagonized cGMP effects. The results suggest that NO, through the synthesis of cGMP, presynaptically inhibits glutamatergic synaptic transmission on trigeminal motoneurons. We propose that NO has complex actions on motor pools; specific studies are needed to elucidate their physiological significance in the behaving animal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus Genome Packaging Signal Is Located at the 5′ End of the Genome and Promotes Viral RNA Incorporation into Virions in a Replication-Independent Process

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Lucia; Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A.; Capiscol, Carmen; del Palacio, Lorena; Enjuanes, Luis; Sola, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Preferential RNA packaging in coronaviruses involves the recognition of viral genomic RNA, a crucial process for viral particle morphogenesis mediated by RNA-specific sequences, known as packaging signals. An essential packaging signal component of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) has been further delimited to the first 598 nucleotides (nt) from the 5′ end of its RNA genome, by using recombinant viruses transcribing subgenomic mRNA that included potential packaging signals. Th...

  11. Capacity-Approaching Modulation Formats for Optical Transmission Systems: Signal shaping and advanced de/muxing for efficient resource exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel

    Aiming for efficient fiber-optic data transport, this thesis addresses three scenario-specific modulation and/or multiplexing techniques which, leveraging digital signal processing, can further exploit the available resources.The considered environments are: (i) (ultra) long-haul networks, where we...... focus on improving the receiver sensitivity; (ii) metropolitan area networks, where the target is providing spectral and rate adaptability with fine granularity and easy reconfigurability; and (iii) short-haul networks, where facilitating more affordable throughput scaling is pursued. Functioning...

  12. OTU3 transmission with 43-Gbit/s-CS-RZ signals over installed G.652 fiber infrastructure and accelerated PMD outage evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiershausen, Werner; Leppla, Ralph; Leminger, Ottokar; Rumpf, Frank; Herber, Ralf; Mattheus, Arnold; Gladisch, Andreas; Hirano, Akira; Kisaka, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Kuwahara, Shoichiro; Yoneyama, Mikio; Tomizawa, Masahito

    2004-10-01

    A joint field trial on 40G transmission was conducted, where Deutsche Telekom's and NTT's R&D groups got involved. 43-Gbit/s/ch CS-RZ signals of the NTT G.709-OTN system were transmitted over selected high-PMD fiber links in DT's actual field environment. The advantage of CS-RZ modulation format was confirmed in comparison with conventional NRZ against all-order (first- and higher-order) PMD. Moreover, we introduced a new scheme for an accelerated determination of outage probability due to PMD that is adapted to practical field conditions in an operated fiber network with buried fibers and in-line operational optical elements.

  13. Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus genome packaging signal is located at the 5' end of the genome and promotes viral RNA incorporation into virions in a replication-independent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lucia; Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A; Capiscol, Carmen; del Palacio, Lorena; Enjuanes, Luis; Sola, Isabel

    2013-11-01

    Preferential RNA packaging in coronaviruses involves the recognition of viral genomic RNA, a crucial process for viral particle morphogenesis mediated by RNA-specific sequences, known as packaging signals. An essential packaging signal component of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) has been further delimited to the first 598 nucleotides (nt) from the 5' end of its RNA genome, by using recombinant viruses transcribing subgenomic mRNA that included potential packaging signals. The integrity of the entire sequence domain was necessary because deletion of any of the five structural motifs defined within this region abrogated specific packaging of this viral RNA. One of these RNA motifs was the stem-loop SL5, a highly conserved motif in coronaviruses located at nucleotide positions 106 to 136. Partial deletion or point mutations within this motif also abrogated packaging. Using TGEV-derived defective minigenomes replicated in trans by a helper virus, we have shown that TGEV RNA packaging is a replication-independent process. Furthermore, the last 494 nt of the genomic 3' end were not essential for packaging, although this region increased packaging efficiency. TGEV RNA sequences identified as necessary for viral genome packaging were not sufficient to direct packaging of a heterologous sequence derived from the green fluorescent protein gene. These results indicated that TGEV genome packaging is a complex process involving many factors in addition to the identified RNA packaging signal. The identification of well-defined RNA motifs within the TGEV RNA genome that are essential for packaging will be useful for designing packaging-deficient biosafe coronavirus-derived vectors and providing new targets for antiviral therapies.

  14. ECG acquisition and automated remote processing

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Rajarshi; Bera, Jitendranath

    2014-01-01

    The book is focused on the area of remote processing of ECG in the context of telecardiology, an emerging area in the field of Biomedical Engineering Application. Considering the poor infrastructure and inadequate numbers of physicians in rural healthcare clinics in India and other developing nations, telemedicine services assume special importance. Telecardiology, a specialized area of telemedicine, is taken up in this book considering the importance of cardiac diseases, which is prevalent in the population under discussion. The main focus of this book is to discuss different aspects of ECG acquisition, its remote transmission and computerized ECG signal analysis for feature extraction. It also discusses ECG compression and application of standalone embedded systems, to develop a cost effective solution of a telecardiology system.

  15. A remote-control datalogger for large-scale resistivity surveys and robust processing of its signals using a software lock-in approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppermann, Frank; Günther, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    We present a new versatile datalogger that can be used for a wide range of possible applications in geosciences. It is adjustable in signal strength and sampling frequency, battery saving and can remotely be controlled over a Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) connection so that it saves running costs, particularly in monitoring experiments. The internet connection allows for checking functionality, controlling schedules and optimizing pre-amplification. We mainly use it for large-scale electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), where it independently registers voltage time series on three channels, while a square-wave current is injected. For the analysis of this time series we present a new approach that is based on the lock-in (LI) method, mainly known from electronic circuits. The method searches the working point (phase) using three different functions based on a mask signal, and determines the amplitude using a direct current (DC) correlation function. We use synthetic data with different types of noise to compare the new method with existing approaches, i.e. selective stacking and a modified fast Fourier transformation (FFT)-based approach that assumes a 1/f noise characteristics. All methods give comparable results, but the LI is better than the well-established stacking method. The FFT approach can be even better but only if the noise strictly follows the assumed characteristics. If overshoots are present in the data, which is typical in the field, FFT performs worse even with good data, which is why we conclude that the new LI approach is the most robust solution. This is also proved by a field data set from a long 2-D ERT profile.

  16. Single-lane 180  Gbit/s PAM-4 signal transmission over 2  km SSMF for short-reach applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Stojanovic, Nebojsa; Prodaniuc, Cristian; Xie, Changsong; Koenigsmann, Michael; Laskowski, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the generation and transmission of a single-lane 180  Gbit/s (90 GBaud) four-level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM-4) signal in an intensity-modulation direct-detection system with a 7.5 GHz 3 dB bandwidth. The generated signal is transmitted over a 2 km standard single-mode fiber with, to the best of our knowledge, the highest reported net data rate in the C-band: 150  Gbit/s. A net data rate of 168  Gbit/s is also reachable with 1 km reach. The PAM-4 and duobinary (DB) PAM-4 modulation schemes are compared; the obtained results show that DB-PAM-4 significantly outperforms PAM-4 in the considered strong bandwidth-constrained system. Both a feed-forward equalizer and a maximum-likelihood sequence estimator are investigated for data recovery.

  17. Hepacivirus NS3/4A Proteases Interfere with MAVS Signaling in both Their Cognate Animal Hosts and Humans: Implications for Zoonotic Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggakusuma; Brown, Richard J P; Banda, Dominic H; Todt, Daniel; Vieyres, Gabrielle; Steinmann, Eike; Pietschmann, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Multiple novel members of the genus Hepacivirus have recently been discovered in diverse mammalian species. However, to date, their replication mechanisms and zoonotic potential have not been explored in detail. The NS3/4A serine protease of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is critical for cleavage of the viral polyprotein. It also cleaves the cellular innate immune adaptor MAVS, thus decreasing interferon (IFN) production and contributing to HCV persistence in the human host. To investigate the conservation of fundamental aspects of the hepaciviral life cycle, we explored if MAVS cleavage and suppression of innate immune signaling represent a common mechanism employed across different clades of the genus Hepacivirus to enhance viral replication. To estimate the zoonotic potential of these nonhuman hepaciviruses, we assessed if their NS3/4A proteases were capable of cleaving human MAVS. NS3/4A proteases of viruses infecting colobus monkeys, rodents, horses, and cows cleaved the MAVS proteins of their cognate hosts and interfered with the ability of MAVS to induce the IFN-β promoter. All NS3/4A proteases from nonhuman viruses readily cleaved human MAVS. Thus, NS3/4A-dependent cleavage of MAVS is a conserved replication strategy across multiple clades within the genus Hepacivirus Human MAVS is susceptible to cleavage by these nonhuman viral proteases, indicating that it does not pose a barrier for zoonotic transmission of these viruses to humans. Virus infection is recognized by cellular sensor proteins triggering innate immune signaling and antiviral defenses. While viruses have evolved strategies to thwart these antiviral programs in their cognate host species, these evasion mechanisms are often ineffective in a novel host, thus limiting viral transmission across species. HCV, the best-characterized member of the genus Hepacivirus within the family Flaviviridae, uses its NS3/4A protease to disrupt innate immune signaling by cleaving the cellular adaptor protein MAVS

  18. Reviews Book: SEP Communications: Transmitting and Receiving Signals Book: Gliding for Gold Book: Radioactivity: A History of a Mysterious Science Book: The New Quantum Age Books: The Art of Science and The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing Equipment: SEP Analogue/digital transmission unit Equipment: SEP Optical signal transmission set Book: Stars and their Spectra Book: Voicebox: The Physics and Evolution of Speech Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Transmitting and Receiving Signals SEP booklet transmits knowledge The New Quantum Age Understanding modern quantum theory The Art of Science and The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing Anthologies bring science to life SEP Analogue/digital transmission unit Kit transmits signal between two points SEP Optical signal transmission set Optical kit shows light transmission Stars and their Spectra New book for teaching astrophysics WORTH A LOOK Gliding for Gold Take a journey through the physics of winter sports Radioactivity: A History of a Mysterious Science Book looks at history of radioactivity Voicebox: The Physics and Evolution of Speech TExploring the evolution of the voice WEB WATCH An interactive program with promise?

  19. Modeling Transmembrane Domain Dimers/Trimers of Plexin Receptors: Implications for Mechanisms of Signal Transmission across the Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqun; Polyansky, Anton; Buck, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Single-pass transmembrane (TM) receptors transmit signals across lipid bilayers by helix association or by configurational changes within preformed dimers. The structure determination for such TM regions is challenging and has mostly been accomplished by NMR spectroscopy. Recently, the computational prediction of TM dimer structures is becoming recognized for providing models, including alternate conformational states, which are important for receptor regulation. Here we pursued a strategy to predict helix oligomers that is based on packing considerations (using the PREDDIMER webserver) and is followed by a refinement of structures, utilizing microsecond all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We applied this method to plexin TM receptors, a family of 9 human proteins, involved in the regulation of cell guidance and motility. The predicted models show that, overall, the preferences identified by PREDDIMER are preserved in the unrestrained simulations and that TM structures are likely to be diverse across the plexin family. Plexin-B1 and –B3 TM helices are regular and tend to associate, whereas plexin-A1, -A2, –A3, -A4, -C1 and –D1 contain sequence elements, such as poly-Glycine or aromatic residues that distort helix conformation and association. Plexin-B2 does not form stable dimers due to the presence of TM prolines. No experimental structural information on the TM region is available for these proteins, except for plexin-C1 dimeric and plexin-B1 – trimeric structures inferred from X-ray crystal structures of the intracellular regions. Plexin-B1 TM trimers utilize Ser and Thr sidechains for interhelical contacts. We also modeled the juxta-membrane (JM) region of plexin-C1 and plexin-B1 and show that it synergizes with the TM structures. The structure and dynamics of the JM region and TM-JM junction provide determinants for the distance and distribution of the intracellular domains, and for their binding partners relative to the membrane. The structures

  20. Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing p. A Ngie, F Ahmed, K Abutaleb ...

  1. Drivers of Tuberculosis Transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathema, Barun; Andrews, Jason R.; Cohen, Ted; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Behr, Marcel; Glynn, Judith R.; Rustomjee, Roxana; Silk, Benjamin J.; Wood, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Measuring tuberculosis transmission is exceedingly difficult, given the remarkable variability in the timing of clinical disease after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; incident disease can result from either a recent (ie, weeks to months) or a remote (ie, several years to decades) infection

  2. Short Range Inter-Datacenter Transmission with Carrier Delivery and Remote Modulation for 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Echeverri, Santiago; Morales Vicente, Alvaro; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    The increasing demand for bandwidth in datacenter interconnect links is currently driving a transition towards four level pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM-4) as the de facto modulation format. Nevertheless, other schemes with even higher spectral efficiency will be required in the future given...

  3. Dynamical Mapping of Anopheles darlingi Densities in a Residual Malaria Transmission Area of French Guiana by Using Remote Sensing and Meteorological Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Adde

    Full Text Available Local variation in the density of Anopheles mosquitoes and the risk of exposure to bites are essential to explain the spatial and temporal heterogeneities in the transmission of malaria. Vector distribution is driven by environmental factors. Based on variables derived from satellite imagery and meteorological observations, this study aimed to dynamically model and map the densities of Anopheles darlingi in the municipality of Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock (French Guiana. Longitudinal sampling sessions of An. darlingi densities were conducted between September 2012 and October 2014. Landscape and meteorological data were collected and processed to extract a panel of variables that were potentially related to An. darlingi ecology. Based on these data, a robust methodology was formed to estimate a statistical predictive model of the spatial-temporal variations in the densities of An. darlingi in Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock. The final cross-validated model integrated two landscape variables-dense forest surface and built surface-together with four meteorological variables related to rainfall, evapotranspiration, and the minimal and maximal temperatures. Extrapolation of the model allowed the generation of predictive weekly maps of An. darlingi densities at a resolution of 10-m. Our results supported the use of satellite imagery and meteorological data to predict malaria vector densities. Such fine-scale modeling approach might be a useful tool for health authorities to plan control strategies and social communication in a cost-effective, targeted, and timely manner.

  4. Variations between the photosynthetic properties of elite and landrace Chinese rice cultivars revealed by simultaneous measurements of 820 nm transmission signal and chlorophyll a fluorescence induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Saber; Qu, Mingnan; Xin, Chang-Peng; Li, Ming; Chu, Chengcai; Govindjee; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2015-04-01

    The difference between the photosynthetic properties of elite and landrace Chinese rice cultivars was studied, using chlorophyll a fluorescence induction (mostly a monitor of Photosystem II activity) and I820 transmission signal (mostly a monitor of Photosystem I activity) to identify potential photosynthetic features differentiating these two groups, which show different degrees of artificial selection and grain yields. A higher fluorescence (related to PSII) IP rise phase and a lower P700(+) (related to PSI) accumulation were observed in the elite cultivars as compared to the landraces. Using these data, together with simulation data from a kinetic model of fluorescence induction, we show that the high IP rise phase and the low P700(+) accumulation can be a result of transient block on electron transfer and traffic jam on the electron acceptor side of PSI under a high [NADPH]/[NADP(+)] ratio. Considering that the ferredoxin NADP(+) reductase (FNR) transcript levels of XS134 (a representative elite cultivars) remains unaffected during the first few minutes of light/dark transition compared to Q4145 (a representative landrace cultivars), which shows a strong decline during the same time range, we propose that the FNR of elite cultivars may take more time to be inactivated in darkness. During this time the FNR enzyme can continue to reduce NADP(+) molecules, leading to initially high [NADPH]/[NADP(+)] ratio during OJIP transient. These data suggested a potential artificial selection of FNR during the breeding process of these examined elite rice cultivars. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. A new telemetry-based system for assessing cardiovascular function in group-housed large animals. Taking the 3Rs to a new level with the evaluation of remote measurement via cloud data transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, Michael; Trautmann, Thomas; Krause, Florian; Cioaga, Marius; Mouriot, Sebastien; Wetzel, Miriam; Guth, Brian D

    2018-03-26

    A newly developed total implant telemetry system for cardiovascular (CV), electrophysiological and body temperature measurement was evaluated. A cloud-based transmission of the physiological signals allowed an assessment of the quality of the physiological signals despite the physical separation between the instrumented animals and the evaluating home laboratory. The new system is intended to be used for safety pharmacological evaluations of drug candidates in various species. Two female minipigs, 6 Labrador-mixed breed dogs and 4 female Cynomolgus monkeys were instrumented with a newly developed total implant system (TSE SYSTEMS). The implants feature a microprocessor, internal memory (1 GB), 2 solid state pressure-tipped catheters, amplifiers and a radio transmitter. Sampling rates for each measurement can be selected within a range between 0.1 and 1 kHz. Biological signals are selected in a programmable fashion on a session-by-session basis according to a user-defined protocol. The pressure sensors are at the tip of an electrical lead having a length customized to each species. Core temperature measurement and activity monitoring (3D accelerometer) are included in the system. Digital transmission range using a single antenna is 5 m with up to 16 animals held together and monitored simultaneously. The range can be expanded with more antennas in an array coupled to a single receiver. The antenna/receiver station consists of a single USB powered mobile unit connected to a PC or laptop. The battery life provides 110 days of continuous recording. The dogs and minipigs were instrumented and monitored in Germany. A novel cloud-based data transmission system was developed to monitor the physiological signals in real-time from the Cynomolgus monkeys, still kept in Mauritius, from the data evaluation laboratory in Germany. After recovery from the surgical implantation, aortic pressure (AP), left ventricular pressure (LVP), ECG and body temperature were recorded

  6. Remote possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, J.

    1995-01-01

    The impact that wireless communications has had for gas and oil producers was discussed. Wireless communication, which has been replacing the traditional formats of radio and telephone data networks, has proved to be cheaper, smaller, and faster than creating privately owned communication networks. With highly developed supervisory control and data acquisition systems - combined with cellular or satellite technology - information from drill sites can be online at the corporate headquarters instantaneously. Eighty percent of Canada's land mass is beyond reach of traditional wireline and wireless services. Research into advanced communications, including telecommunication and mobile applications, yielded lucrative results for service providers such as BCTel, SaskTel, Bell Mobility and AGT. The latest data transmission technology is the cellular digital packet data (CDPD) which will operate over existing cellular networks. However, unlike circuit-switched cellular, CDPD technology provides an airlink where data is secure. It will be available to the marketplace over the course of the coming year. Among other advantages, CDPD will allow producers to remotely monitor production information and downtime alarms from wells and compressor stations. It will also provide fleet operators with the means to monitor operating vital signs on rolling stock

  7. Signal Transmission on Power Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1997-01-01

    In the analysis of power-line networks over a large frequency span, the time-domain method used in programs like EMTP (Electromagnetic Time domain Program) can not be used. A more rigorous analysis method must be employed. The correct analysis method (assuming TEM-mode propagation) for multiple...

  8. Automated manual transmission controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Bernier, David R.

    1999-12-28

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  9. Remote Research

    CERN Document Server

    Tulathimutte, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Remote studies allow you to recruit subjects quickly, cheaply, and immediately, and give you the opportunity to observe users as they behave naturally in their own environment. In Remote Research, Nate Bolt and Tony Tulathimutte teach you how to design and conduct remote research studies, top to bottom, with little more than a phone and a laptop.

  10. Remote Sensing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    netic radiation as a medium of interaction. Space borne remote sensing is fast emerging as a front running provider of information on natural resources in a spatial format. This article briefly discusses the physical basis of remote sensing, how information is extracted from images and various applications of remote sensing.

  11. Drivers of Tuberculosis Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathema, Barun; Andrews, Jason R; Cohen, Ted; Borgdorff, Martien W; Behr, Marcel; Glynn, Judith R; Rustomjee, Roxana; Silk, Benjamin J; Wood, Robin

    2017-11-03

    Measuring tuberculosis transmission is exceedingly difficult, given the remarkable variability in the timing of clinical disease after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; incident disease can result from either a recent (ie, weeks to months) or a remote (ie, several years to decades) infection event. Although we cannot identify with certainty the timing and location of tuberculosis transmission for individuals, approaches for estimating the individual probability of recent transmission and for estimating the fraction of tuberculosis cases due to recent transmission in populations have been developed. Data used to estimate the probable burden of recent transmission include tuberculosis case notifications in young children and trends in tuberculin skin test and interferon γ-release assays. More recently, M. tuberculosis whole-genome sequencing has been used to estimate population levels of recent transmission, identify the distribution of specific strains within communities, and decipher chains of transmission among culture-positive tuberculosis cases. The factors that drive the transmission of tuberculosis in communities depend on the burden of prevalent tuberculosis; the ways in which individuals live, work, and interact (eg, congregate settings); and the capacity of healthcare and public health systems to identify and effectively treat individuals with infectious forms of tuberculosis. Here we provide an overview of these factors, describe tools for measurement of ongoing transmission, and highlight knowledge gaps that must be addressed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  12. Remote diagnosis server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Somnath (Inventor); Ghoshal, Sudipto (Inventor); Malepati, Venkata N. (Inventor); Kleinman, David L. (Inventor); Cavanaugh, Kevin F. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A network-based diagnosis server for monitoring and diagnosing a system, the server being remote from the system it is observing, comprises a sensor for generating signals indicative of a characteristic of a component of the system, a network-interfaced sensor agent coupled to the sensor for receiving signals therefrom, a broker module coupled to the network for sending signals to and receiving signals from the sensor agent, a handler application connected to the broker module for transmitting signals to and receiving signals therefrom, a reasoner application in communication with the handler application for processing, and responding to signals received from the handler application, wherein the sensor agent, broker module, handler application, and reasoner applications operate simultaneously relative to each other, such that the present invention diagnosis server performs continuous monitoring and diagnosing of said components of the system in real time. The diagnosis server is readily adaptable to various different systems.

  13. Remote monitoring demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, Susan; Olsen, John

    2006-01-01

    The recently upgraded remote monitoring system at the Joyo Experimental Reactor uses a DCM-14 camera module and GEMINI software. The final data is compatible both with the IAEA-approved GARS review software and the ALIS software that was used for this demonstration. Features of the remote monitoring upgrade emphasized compatibility with IAEA practice. This presentation gives particular attention to the selection process for meeting network security considerations at the O'arai site. The Joyo system is different from the NNCA's ACPF system, in that it emphasizes use of IAEA standard camera technology and data acquisition and transmission software. In the demonstration itself, a temporary virtual private network (VPN) between the meeting room and the server at Sandia in Albuquerque allowed attendees to observe data stored from routine transmissions from the Joyo Fresh Fuel Storage to Sandia. Image files from a fuel movement earlier in the month showed Joyo workers and IAEA inspectors carrying out a transfer. (author)

  14. Medical image transmission via communication satellite: evaluation of ultrasonographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Horikoshi, H; Shiba, H; Shimamoto, S

    1996-01-01

    As compared with terrestrial circuits, communication satellites possess superior characteristics such as wide area coverage, broadcasting functions, high capacity, and resistance to disasters. Utilizing the narrow band channel (64 kbps) of the stationary communication satellite JCSAT1 located at an altitude of 36,000 km above the equator, we investigated satelliterelayed dynamic medical images transmitted by video signals, using hepatic ultrasonography as a model. We conclude that the "variable playing speed transmission scheme" proposed by us is effective for the transmission of dynamic images in the narrow band channel. This promises to permit diverse utilization and applications for purposes such as the transmission of other types of ultrasonic images as well as remotely directed medical diagnosis and treatment.

  15. A novel transmission line protection using DOST and SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jaya Bharata Reddy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a smart fault detection, classification and location (SFDCL methodology for transmission systems with multi-generators using discrete orthogonal Stockwell transform (DOST. The methodology is based on synchronized current measurements from remote telemetry units (RTUs installed at both ends of the transmission line. The energy coefficients extracted from the transient current signals due to occurrence of different types of faults using DOST are being utilized for real-time fault detection and classification. Support vector machine (SVM has been deployed for locating the fault distance using the extracted coefficients. A comparative study is performed for establishing the superiority of SVM over other popular computational intelligence methods, such as adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS and artificial neural network (ANN, for more precise and reliable estimation of fault distance. The results corroborate the effectiveness of the suggested SFDCL algorithm for real-time transmission line fault detection, classification and localization.

  16. The silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment at FAIR. Development of microstrip sensors and signal transmission lines for a low-mass, low-noise system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singla, Minni

    2014-01-01

    construction of the silicon microstrip sensors. For the evaluation of the performance of the silicon microstrip sensors in the harsh radiation environment during experimental operation, a radiation damage model has been included. It reproduces the behavior of the irradiated CBM prototype sensors. In addition to the static characteristics, the interstrip parameters relevant to understand strip isolation and cross-talk issues have been extracted. The transient simulations have been performed to estimate the charge collection performance of the irradiated sensors. The signal transmission in the readout cables has been evaluated with the finite element simulation tool RAPHAEL. Based on the performance of the front-end electronics used for early prototyping in the CBM experiment, capacitive and resistive noise contributions from the silicon microstrip sensors and multi-line readout cables have been extracted. To validate the aforementioned simulations, numerous tests have been performed both on the multi-line readout cables and silicon microstrip sensors. Characterizations of multi-line readout cables and silicon microstrip sensors in laboratory conditions have been found to agree reasonably well with the simulations. Considering the expected radiation environment the behavior of silicon microstrip sensors have been studied especially in terms of noise and charge collection efficiency. scan of the silicon microstrip sensors using 241 Am is presented. In order to test a first system of detector stations including the data acquisition system, slow control and online monitoring software and for track reconstruction, in-beam tests have been performed at the COSY synchrotron of the Research Center Juelich, Germany. Further, different design parameters have been suggested to improve the sensor and readout cable design on the basis of the simulations and the measurements. Many of these parameters have been implemented in the new prototypes under production. These new prototypes were

  17. Remote radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures

  18. Remote sensing image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Garzelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis of more than ten years of experience, Remote Sensing Image Fusion covers methods specifically designed for remote sensing imagery. The authors supply a comprehensive classification system and rigorous mathematical description of advanced and state-of-the-art methods for pansharpening of multispectral images, fusion of hyperspectral and panchromatic images, and fusion of data from heterogeneous sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and integration of thermal and visible/near-infrared images. They also explore new trends of signal/image processing, such as

  19. Remote Sensing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rangnath R Navalgund, after working for more than two decades at the. Space Applications. Centre (ISRO),. Ahmedabad has moved over to the National. Remote Sensing Agency,. Department of Space,. Hyderabad, as its. Director since May 2001. Definition of Indian spacebome remote sensing missions and formulation of ...

  20. Signal Propagation Delay as a Barrier to Control Applications in WAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Patel, A.; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    With the advent in WAN of delay sensitive technical applications, such as remote control, signal propagation delay becomes a major problem. The extent of the problem is analysed by lower bounding the delay in relation to different transmission media. Requirements for reliability and bandwidth are...... are considered. The consequences of this bounding for communication network planning and provisioning are discussed in relation to mitigating the effects of signal propagation delay as a barrier to the penetration of control applications into WAN......With the advent in WAN of delay sensitive technical applications, such as remote control, signal propagation delay becomes a major problem. The extent of the problem is analysed by lower bounding the delay in relation to different transmission media. Requirements for reliability and bandwidth...

  1. Transmission issues in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levson, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlined the major issues and concerns facing users of the transmission system in Alberta. They include congestion management issues that make investors uncertain about power generation. It is necessary to know the difference between which transmission price signals will be faced by low cost cogeneration at Fort McMurray and Cold Lake coal-fired generation near Edmonton compared to combined cycle gas generation near Calgary. Import and export policy tariffs are another concern. Most new generation opportunities in Alberta require access to export markets, but transmission facilities for export need policy support and appropriate tariffs. It was noted that the past actions of Alberta's Transmission Administrator and balancing pool may be distorting market signals for ancillary service markets, and that loss studies and calculations need upgrading

  2. Fiber Wireless Transmission of 8.3 Gb/s/ch QPSK-OFDM Signals in 75-110 GHz Band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Lei; Beltrán Ramírez, Marta; Pang, Xiaodan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a scalable high speed Wband (75-110 GHz) fiber wireless communication system. By using an optical frequency comb generator, 3-channel 8.3 Gb/s/ch optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) baseband signals in a 15 GHz bandwidth are seamlessly translated...... from the optical to the wireless domain. The W-band wireless carrier is generated from heterodyne mixing the OOFDM baseband signal with a free-running laser. A W-band electronic down-converter and a digital signal processing (DSP) based receiver is used. 3-channel QPSK-OFDM W-band wireless signals...

  3. Cubesat Compatible Digital Back-End and Low-Noise Front-End for P-band Signals of Opportunity Remote Sensing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The effort proposed will serve to develop a technology and science algorithm to enable measurements of root zone soil moisture (RZSM) using P-band signals of...

  4. All-VCSEL Transmitters With Remote Optical Injection for WDM-OFDM-PON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Lei; Zhao, Ying; Pang, Xiaodan

    2014-01-01

    are used as low-cost, directly modulated upstream and downstream transmitters. The slave VCSEL at the optical network unit is remotely injection-locked by modulated downstream signals, and no need for additional injection-locking optical sources and external modulators. In our experiment, bidirectional...... transmission of 1.25 Gb/s 4-quadrature amplitude modulation (4QAM)-OFDM signal over 26-km single mode fiber has been successfully demonstrated. Moreover, we investigate the residual amplitude modulation (RAM) caused by the conversion of injected AM into slave AM. In addition, the experimental results show...

  5. Remote Ischemic Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusch, Gerd; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Przyklenk, Karin; Redington, Andrew; Yellon, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) brief, reversible episodes of ischemia with reperfusion in one vascular bed, tissue or organ confer a global protective phenotype and render remote tissues and organs resistant to ischemia/reperfusion injury. The peripheral stimulus can be chemical, mechanical or electrical and involves activation of peripheral sensory nerves. The signal transfer to the heart or other organs is through neuronal and humoral communications. Protection can be transferred, even across species, with plasma-derived dialysate and involves nitric oxide, stromal derived factor-1α, microRNA-144, but also other, not yet identified factors. Intracardiac signal transduction involves: adenosine, bradykinin, cytokines, and chemokines, which activate specific receptors; intracellular kinases; and mitochondrial function. RIC by repeated brief inflation/deflation of a blood pressure cuff protects against endothelial dysfunction and myocardial injury in percutaneous coronary interventions, coronary artery bypass grafting and reperfused acute myocardial infarction. RIC is safe and effective, noninvasive, easily feasible and inexpensive. PMID:25593060

  6. On the possibility of developing incoherent fibre-optic data transmission systems based on signal spectral coding with matched acousto-optical filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proklov, Valerii V; Byshevski-Konopko, O A; Grigorievski, V I

    2013-01-01

    The scheme is suggested for developing the optical communication line based on the principle of code division of multiple access with matched acousto-optical filters and a 16-bit long Walsh sequence. Results of modelling show that such a line can operate if adjacent spectral lines are separated by at least double the Rayleigh criterion. (optical information transmission)

  7. W-Band Real-Time Transmission Utilizing a Reconfigurable RAU for NG-PON Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chorchos, Łukasz; Turkiewicz, Jarosław P.; Rommel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we propose and test a reconfigurable Remote Access Unit (RAU) to interface optical and W-band wireless communication links (75–110 GHz), utilizing optical heterodyne signal upconversion. The RAU is composed of a tunable local oscillator, narrow optical filter and a control unit....... The RAU can be software-reconfigured to select a specific dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) channel. Real-time tests with 100 GHz spaced DWDM signals have been performed. Real-time 2.5 Gbit/s error free radio transmission in the 75 GHz to 95 GHz range of the W-band was achieved after 15 km...

  8. Hybrid opto-digital signal processing in 112 Gbit/s DP-16QAM and DP-QDB transmission for long-haul large-Aeff pure-silica-core fiber links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Rameez; Ahmad, Ramshah; Basir, Rabeea

    2016-01-01

    By means of numerical simulations, we demonstrated that all-optical signal processing methods (XPM-suppressor module and in-line nonlinear equalization) significantly increase the system performance of digital nonlinear compensation (digital backward propagation) and improve the system performance...... in five-channel 112 Gbit/s DP-16QAM and DP-QDB transmission over 2400 km large- effective-area pure-silica-core fiber ((Formula presented.)-PSCF). The system performance is quantified with the help of Q-factor (dB) for both dispersion-managed and nondispersion-managed fiber links....

  9. Automated slice-specific simultaneous z-shim method for reducing B1 inhomogeneity and susceptibility-induced signal loss with parallel transmission at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rainer; Boada, Fernando; Haueisen, Jens; Pfeuffer, Josef

    2015-10-01

    Through-plane susceptibility-induced signal loss in gradient recalled echo (GRE)-based sequences can considerably impair both the clinical diagnosis and functional analysis of certain brain areas. In this work, a fully automated simultaneous z-shim approach is proposed on the basis of parallel transmit (pTX) to reduce those signal dropouts at 3T. The approach uses coil-specific time-delayed excitations to impose a z-shim phase. It was extended toward B1 inhomogeneity mitigation and adequate slice-specific signal-dephasing cancellation on the basis of the prevailing B0 and B1 spatial information. Local signal recovery level and image quality preservation were analyzed using multi-slice FLASH experiments in humans and compared to the standard excitation. Spatial blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activation coverage was further compared in breath-hold functional MRI. The pTX z-shim approach recovered approximately 47% of brain areas affected by signal loss in standard excitation images across all subjects. At the same time, B1 shading effects could be substantially reduced. In these areas, BOLD activation coverage could be also increased by approximately 57%. The proposed fully automated pTX z-shim method enables time-efficient and robust signal recovery in GRE-based sequences on a clinical scanner using two standard whole-body transmit coils. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Experimental Demonstration of an Electro-Absorption Modulated Laser for High-Speed Transmissions at 1.55-μm Window Using Digital Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Karinou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigate the transmission performance of 56 Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4 over 30-km standard single mode fiber (SMF using a C-band EML for low-cost metro and short-reach wavelength division multiplexing (WDM applications. Bit error rate (BER performance below the HD-FEC threshold is achieved for up to 30-km maximum reported distance without employing dispersion compensation fiber (DCF in the link.

  11. Remote Monitoring of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Christopher C; Deyell, Marc W

    2018-01-08

    Over the past decade, technological advancements have transformed the delivery of care for arrhythmia patients. From early transtelephonic monitoring to new devices capable of wireless and cellular transmission, remote monitoring has revolutionized device care. In this article, we review the current evolution and evidence for remote monitoring in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices. From passive transmission of device diagnostics, to active transmission of patient- and device-triggered alerts, remote monitoring can shorten the time to diagnosis and treatment. Studies have shown that remote monitoring can reduce hospitalization and emergency room visits, and improve survival. Remote monitoring can also reduce the health care costs, while providing increased access to patients living in rural or marginalized communities. Unfortunately, as many as two-thirds of patients with remote monitoring-capable devices do not use, or are not offered, this feature. Current guidelines recommend remote monitoring and interrogation, combined with annual in-person evaluation in all cardiac device patients. Remote monitoring should be considered in all eligible device patients and should be considered standard of care. Copyright © 2018 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Remote auscultatory patient monitoring during magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Hök, B; Wiklund, L

    1992-01-01

    A system for patient monitoring during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. The system is based on remote auscultation of heart sounds and respiratory sounds using specially developed pickup heads that are positioned on the precordium or at the nostrils and connected to microphones via...... polymer tubing. The microphones operate in a differential mode outside the strong magnetic field to reduce various sources of interference from the MRI equipment. After amplification, the signal is transmitted as infrared light to a small, battery-operated receiver and a headphone set. Thus, the patient...... tubing having a diameter of approximately 2 mm can be used for efficient sound transmission. Recordings in situ show satisfactory detection of both heart sounds and respiratory sounds, although the signal is somewhat masked by noise during imaging. A clinical test incorporating 17 sedated or anesthetized...

  13. A novel signal compression method based on optimal ensemble empirical mode decomposition for bearing vibration signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Tse, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Today, remote machine condition monitoring is popular due to the continuous advancement in wireless communication. Bearing is the most frequently and easily failed component in many rotating machines. To accurately identify the type of bearing fault, large amounts of vibration data need to be collected. However, the volume of transmitted data cannot be too high because the bandwidth of wireless communication is limited. To solve this problem, the data are usually compressed before transmitting to a remote maintenance center. This paper proposes a novel signal compression method that can substantially reduce the amount of data that need to be transmitted without sacrificing the accuracy of fault identification. The proposed signal compression method is based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), which is an effective method for adaptively decomposing the vibration signal into different bands of signal components, termed intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). An optimization method was designed to automatically select appropriate EEMD parameters for the analyzed signal, and in particular to select the appropriate level of the added white noise in the EEMD method. An index termed the relative root-mean-square error was used to evaluate the decomposition performances under different noise levels to find the optimal level. After applying the optimal EEMD method to a vibration signal, the IMF relating to the bearing fault can be extracted from the original vibration signal. Compressing this signal component obtains a much smaller proportion of data samples to be retained for transmission and further reconstruction. The proposed compression method were also compared with the popular wavelet compression method. Experimental results demonstrate that the optimization of EEMD parameters can automatically find appropriate EEMD parameters for the analyzed signals, and the IMF-based compression method provides a higher compression ratio, while retaining the bearing defect

  14. Autonomous sensors. Microsensors without external power supply and with remote signal processing. Proceedings; Energieautarke Sensorik. Mikrosensorik mit autarker Energieversorgung und drahtloser Signaluebertragung. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the 5th GMM Workshop 'Autonomous sensors' at 12th to 13th November, 2008, in Duesseldorf (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) A market and research overview of inductive vibration transducers (D. Spreemann, B. Folkmer); (2) Capacitive energy harvesters (H. Kloub); (3) Miniaturized piezoelectrical transducer (I. Kuehne, A. Frey, D. Marinkovic, H. Seidel); (4) Microstructured energy harvesters for energy autonomous sensors (D. Hohlfeld, T. Kamel, G. Altena, J. Su, R. Vullers, R. van Schaijk); (5) Development of micro fuel cells for autonomous sensors (R. Hahn, S. Wagner, H. Reichl); (6) Thermoelectric thin film generators (J. Nurnus, B. Habbe); (7) Sensor systems for context recognition in wearable computing (M. Lawo); (8) EnOcean Dolphin: the standardized platform for energy harvesting radio sensors and radio actors of the second generation (F. Schmidt, W. Heller); (9) Power management of an autonomous approximation sensor (J. Rupp, M. Glaenzer); (10) Generation of electric power by means of short piezoelectric bending transducer in flow media (S. Pobering); (11) Low-Power electronics in utonomous systems (D. Maurath, C. Peters, T. Hehn, N. Lotze, S. Mohamed, D. Mintenbeck, P. Becker); (12) Outcome based data acquisition in wireless sensor networks for structure monitoring (M. Krueger, C. Grosse); (13) Wireless SAW technology for high temperature applications (D. Eisele, T. Jaeger, I. Shrena, E. Mayer); (14) Automation technology unplugged: The project EnAS (F. Tonner, B. Kaercher); (15) Solar power supply of electronic small consumers (H. Haupt); (16) Textiles for sensoric and actoric applications (W. Scheibner, C. Rotsch, S. Gimpel); (17) Micro implants in medicine technology with wireless data transmission and power transmission (H.K. Trieu, T. Goettsche, P. Osypka, M. Goeertz).

  15. Multi-channel nonlinearity compensation of PDM-QPSK signals in dispersion-managed transmission using dispersion-folded digital backward propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Cen; Liu, Xiang; Chandrasekhar, S; Fontaine, N K; Zhu, Likai; Li, G

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate nonlinearity compensation of 37.5-GHz-spaced 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signals using dispersion-folded digital-backward-propagation and a spectrally-sliced receiver that simultaneously receives three WDM signals, showing mitigation of intra-channel and inter-channel nonlinear effects in a 2560-km dispersion-managed TWRS-fiber link. Intra-channel and adjacent inter-channel nonlinear compensation gains when WDM channels are fully populated in the C-band are estimated based on the GN-model.

  16. Dominant distortion classification for pre-processing of vowels in remote biomedical voice analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alavijeh, Amir Hossein Poorjam; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Little, Max A

    2017-01-01

    Advances in speech signal analysis facilitate the development of techniques for remote biomedical voice assessment. However, the performance of these techniques is affected by noise and distortion in signals. In this paper, we focus on the vowel /a/ as the most widely-used voice signal for pathol......Advances in speech signal analysis facilitate the development of techniques for remote biomedical voice assessment. However, the performance of these techniques is affected by noise and distortion in signals. In this paper, we focus on the vowel /a/ as the most widely-used voice signal...... for pathological voice assessments and investigate the impact of four major types of distortion that are commonly present during recording or transmission in voice analysis, namely: background noise, reverberation, clipping and compression, on Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) – the most widely......-used features in biomedical voice analysis. Then, we propose a new distortion classification approach to detect the most dominant distortion in such voice signals. The proposed method involves MFCCs as frame-level features and a support vector machine as classifier to detect the presence and type of distortion...

  17. Experimental demonstration of all-optical 781.25-Mb/s binary phase-coded UWB Signal Generation and Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, an all-optical incoherent scheme for generation of binary phase-coded ultra-wideband (UWB) impulse radio signals is proposed. The generated UWB pulses utilize relaxation oscillations of an optically injected distributed feedback laser that are binary phase encoded (0 and ) and meet...

  18. Remote repair appliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heumann, F.K.; Wilkinson, J.C.; Wooding, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a work site on a substantially circular bore of a work piece and for providing video signals of the work site to a remote monitor comprises: a base plate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the base plate and positioned to roll against the bore of the work piece when the base plate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the base plate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the base plate; a camera for providing video signals of the work site to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the base plate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris. 5 figs

  19. Remote Sensing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    application area. RS data in conjunction with collateral data has greatly facilitated integrated development of land and water resources on watershed basis leading to sustainable develop- ment. Disaster monitoring, damage assessment and mitigation has been a main beneficiary of spaceborne remote sensing. Sequen-.

  20. Transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.; Wilson, L.; Thon, S.; Millar, N.

    2005-01-01

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  1. Remote inspection system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, K.; Fujii, M.; Doi, A.; Harima, T.

    1977-01-01

    A remote inspection system for nuclear power plants was constructed based on an analysis of inspections performed by an operator on patrol. This system consists of an operator's console and a remote station. The remote station, equipped with five kinds of sensors, is steered along the inspection route by a photoelectric guiding system or may be manually controlled from an operator's console in a main control room. Signals for control and inspection data are multiplexed and transmitted through a coaxial cable

  2. Remote Sensing and Reflectance Profiling in Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Elliott, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing describes the characterization of the status of objects and/or the classification of their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be benchtop based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolution, or airborne at lower spatial resolution to cover large areas. Despite important challenges, airborne remote sensing technologies will undoubtedly be of major importance in optimized management of agricultural systems in the twenty-first century. Benchtop remote sensing applications are becoming important in insect systematics and in phenomics studies of insect behavior and physiology. This review highlights how remote sensing influences entomological research by enabling scientists to nondestructively monitor how individual insects respond to treatments and ambient conditions. Furthermore, novel remote sensing technologies are creating intriguing interdisciplinary bridges between entomology and disciplines such as informatics and electrical engineering.

  3. Remote detection of methane with a 1.66-microm diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, K; Tai, H

    1992-02-20

    High-sensitivity real-time remote detection of methane in air with a 1.66-microm distributed-feedback diode laser operating at room temperature is demonstrated by laboratory simulations. The laser current was modulated at a high frequency of ~5 MHz, and the laser-center frequency was locked onto a methane-absorption line. The laser light directed toward the probed region was received after one-way transmission or further reflection from a topographic target. The methane absorption was detected by the second-harmonic component in the optical-power variation. The minimum-detectable concentration-path-length product in the transmission scheme was 0.3 part in 10(6) m for a signal averaging time of 1.3 s. In the reflection scheme, the amount of methane could be measured from the ratio of the fundamental and second-harmonic signal intensities independently of the received power.

  4. Proteasomal degradation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1α is mediated by Homer-3 via the proteasomal S8 ATPase: Signal transduction and synaptic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Khosrow; Baalman, Kelli; Teng, Yanfen; Mee, Maureen P; Dawson, Simon P; Wang, Hongmin; De Biasi, Mariella; Mayer, R John

    2012-07-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) fine-tune the efficacy of synaptic transmission. This unique feature makes mGluRs potential targets for the treatment of various CNS disorders. There is ample evidence to show that the ubiquitin proteasome system mediates changes in synaptic strength leading to multiple forms of synaptic plasticity. The present study describes a novel interaction between post-synaptic adaptors, long Homer-3 proteins, and one of the 26S proteasome regulatory subunits, the S8 ATPase, that influences the degradation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1α (mGluR1α). We have shown that the two human long Homer-3 proteins specifically interact with human proteasomal S8 ATPase. We identified that mGluR1α and long Homer-3s immunoprecipitate with the 26S proteasome both in vitro and in vivo. We further found that the mGluR1α receptor can be ubiquitinated and degraded by the 26S proteasome and that Homer-3A facilitates this process. Furthermore, the siRNA mediated silencing of Homer-3 led to increased levels of total and plasma membrane-associated mGluR1α receptors. These results suggest that long Homer-3 proteins control the degradation of mGluR1α receptors by shuttling ubiquitinated mGluR-1α receptors to the 26S proteasome via the S8 ATPase which may modulate synaptic transmission. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Development of an early-warning system for monitoring remote volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sauvage

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Many andesitic volcanoes are quiescent for long time periods: usually (but not always an increase in seismic activity and in deformation precedes an eruption by a few months or a few days. A UNESCO panel has put forward the concept of an early warning system for monitoring dormant volcanoes in remote regions. Simple seismic or deformation measuring devices can in principle be built for monitoring remote volcanoes. These instruments are composed of two units: 1 a processor that measures the baseline «activity» of the volcano and decides when the activity increases above a certain threshold; 2 a transmitter for long distance communication. For slow parameters like tilt or extensometry, the signal can be transmitted every few minutes or hours. For seismology, signals include a large quantity of data and therefore they are usually not transmitted. The processing unit is not easy to design because a single seismic station can record noises that are very similar to «volcanic events». Average noise level on a given time interval, event detection counters and high amplitude ground motion counters are a simple (but not exhaustive way to summarize seismic activity. The transmission of data from the field to a monitoring center is feasible by present and future satellite telemetry. We present our attempt to develop an early warning system for remote volcano monitoring with data transmission by satellite.

  6. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  7. Kerr Nonlinearity Mitigation: Mid-Link Spectral Inversion Versus Digital Backpropagation in 5×28-GBd PDM 16-QAM Signal Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sackey, Isaac; Da Ros, Francesco; Karl Fischer, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    a dual-pump polarization-independent fiber-optic parametric amplifier and compared to digital backpropagation (DBP) compensation over up to 800-km in a dispersion-managed link. In the single-channel case, the use of the DBP algorithm outperformed the OPC with a Q-factor improvement of 0.9 dB after 800-km......We experimentally investigate Kerr nonlinearity mitigation of a 28-GBd polarization-multiplexed 16-QAM signal in a five-channel 50-GHz spaced wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) system. Optical phase conjugation (OPC) employing the mid-link spectral inversion technique is implemented by using...

  8. Quantifying Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhouse, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Transmissibility is the defining characteristic of infectious diseases. Quantifying transmission matters for understanding infectious disease epidemiology and designing evidence-based disease control programs. Tracing individual transmission events can be achieved by epidemiological investigation coupled with pathogen typing or genome sequencing. Individual infectiousness can be estimated by measuring pathogen loads, but few studies have directly estimated the ability of infected hosts to transmit to uninfected hosts. Individuals' opportunities to transmit infection are dependent on behavioral and other risk factors relevant given the transmission route of the pathogen concerned. Transmission at the population level can be quantified through knowledge of risk factors in the population or phylogeographic analysis of pathogen sequence data. Mathematical model-based approaches require estimation of the per capita transmission rate and basic reproduction number, obtained by fitting models to case data and/or analysis of pathogen sequence data. Heterogeneities in infectiousness, contact behavior, and susceptibility can have substantial effects on the epidemiology of an infectious disease, so estimates of only mean values may be insufficient. For some pathogens, super-shedders (infected individuals who are highly infectious) and super-spreaders (individuals with more opportunities to transmit infection) may be important. Future work on quantifying transmission should involve integrated analyses of multiple data sources.

  9. Transmission Line Series Compensation for Wind Energy Transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, C; Wong, Y C

    2015-01-01

    Wind energy has demonstrated to be a clean, copious and absolutely renewable source of energy, and the large penetration of it into the power grid indicates that wind energy is considered an effective means of power generation, Transmission of wind energy from remote locations to load centers necessitates long transmission lines. Series compensation is a proven and economical transmission solution to address system power transfer strength, grid stability, and voltage profile issues of long transmission lines. In this paper, a programmable approach to determine the capacitive reactance of series capacitor and optimum location for its placement to achieve maximum power transfer gas been presented. The respective program with sample solutions has been provided for real-time applications. (paper)

  10. Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus Genome Packaging Signal Is Located at the 5′ End of the Genome and Promotes Viral RNA Incorporation into Virions in a Replication-Independent Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lucia; Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A.; Capiscol, Carmen; del Palacio, Lorena; Sola, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Preferential RNA packaging in coronaviruses involves the recognition of viral genomic RNA, a crucial process for viral particle morphogenesis mediated by RNA-specific sequences, known as packaging signals. An essential packaging signal component of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) has been further delimited to the first 598 nucleotides (nt) from the 5′ end of its RNA genome, by using recombinant viruses transcribing subgenomic mRNA that included potential packaging signals. The integrity of the entire sequence domain was necessary because deletion of any of the five structural motifs defined within this region abrogated specific packaging of this viral RNA. One of these RNA motifs was the stem-loop SL5, a highly conserved motif in coronaviruses located at nucleotide positions 106 to 136. Partial deletion or point mutations within this motif also abrogated packaging. Using TGEV-derived defective minigenomes replicated in trans by a helper virus, we have shown that TGEV RNA packaging is a replication-independent process. Furthermore, the last 494 nt of the genomic 3′ end were not essential for packaging, although this region increased packaging efficiency. TGEV RNA sequences identified as necessary for viral genome packaging were not sufficient to direct packaging of a heterologous sequence derived from the green fluorescent protein gene. These results indicated that TGEV genome packaging is a complex process involving many factors in addition to the identified RNA packaging signal. The identification of well-defined RNA motifs within the TGEV RNA genome that are essential for packaging will be useful for designing packaging-deficient biosafe coronavirus-derived vectors and providing new targets for antiviral therapies. PMID:23966403

  11. Remote tuning of NMR probe circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodibagkar, V D; Conradi, M S

    2000-05-01

    There are many circumstances in which the probe tuning adjustments cannot be located near the rf NMR coil. These may occur in high-temperature NMR, low-temperature NMR, and in the use of magnets with small diameter access bores. We address here circuitry for connecting a fixed-tuned probe circuit by a transmission line to a remotely located tuning network. In particular, the bandwidth over which the probe may be remotely tuned while keeping the losses in the transmission line acceptably low is considered. The results show that for all resonant circuit geometries (series, parallel, series-parallel), overcoupling of the line to the tuned circuit is key to obtaining a large tuning bandwidth. At equivalent extents of overcoupling, all resonant circuit geometries have nearly equal remote tuning bandwidths. Particularly for the case of low-loss transmission line, the tuning bandwidth can be many times the tuned circuit's bandwidth, f(o)/Q. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Data transmission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tugal, Dogan A; Tugal, Osman

    1989-01-01

    This updated second edition provides working answers to today's critical questions about designing and managing all types of data transmission systems and features a new chapter on local area networks (LANs...

  13. Shingles Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Shingles Home About Shingles Overview Signs & Symptoms Transmission Complications ...

  14. Remote Control System of the TJ-II Microwave Transmission Lines Mirrors; Sistema de Control Remoto de los Espejos de las Lineas de Transmision de Microondas del TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Sanchez, A.; Fernandez, A.; Cappa, A.; Gama, J. de la; Olivares, J.; Garcia, R.; Chamorro, M.

    2007-09-27

    The ECRH system of the TJ-II stellarator has two gyrotrons, which deliver a maximum power of 300 kW each at a frequency of 53.2 GHz. Another 28 GHz gyrotron will be used to heat the plasma by electron Bernstein waves (EBWH). The microwave power is transmitted from the gyrotrons to the vacuum chamber by two quasi-optical transmission lines for ECRH and a corrugated waveguide for EBWH. All transmission lines have an internal movable mirror inside the vacuum chamber to focus the beam and to be able to change the launching angle. The control of the beam polarization is very important and the lines have two corrugated mirrors, which actuate as polarizers. In this report the control system of the position of these three internal mirrors and the polarizers of the EBWH transmission line is described. (Author) 20 refs.

  15. Coaxial transmission line - Equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnerue, J.L.; Fremont, Jacques; Haubtmann, Jack; Pillon, Gerard.

    1981-09-01

    The transmission of electrical signal through a coaxial line is not perfect and signal distortions are increased as much as the frequency spectrum is extended. We have designed and achieved passive filters (named equalizers) with transfer functions which are inverse of coaxial transfer functions. Doing so our attempt is to avoid definitive loss of information in the recorded data. The main feature of our equalization method lies in the fact it could be either an electrical or a numerical correction or both of them. Some examples in the use of this technique are also proposed [fr

  16. System for a displaying at a remote station data generated at a central station and for powering the remote station from the central station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. C. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A system for displaying at a remote station data generated at a central station and for powering the remote station from the central station is presented. A power signal is generated at the central station and time multiplexed with the data and then transmitted to the remote station. An energy storage device at the remote station is responsive to the transmitted power signal to provide energizing power for the circuits at the remote station during the time interval data is being transmitted to the remote station. Energizing power for the circuits at the remote station is provided by the power signal itself during the time this signal is transmitted. Preferably the energy storage device is a capacitor which is charged by the power signal during the time the power is transmitted and is slightly discharged during the time the data is transmitted to energize the circuits at the remote station.

  17. Packet based serial link realized in FPGA dedicated for high resolution infrared image transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieszczad, Grzegorz

    2015-05-01

    In article the external digital interface specially designed for thermographic camera built in Military University of Technology is described. The aim of article is to illustrate challenges encountered during design process of thermal vision camera especially related to infrared data processing and transmission. Article explains main requirements for interface to transfer Infra-Red or Video digital data and describes the solution which we elaborated based on Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) physical layer and signaling scheme. Elaborated link for image transmission is built using FPGA integrated circuit with built-in high speed serial transceivers achieving up to 2500Gbps throughput. Image transmission is realized using proprietary packet protocol. Transmission protocol engine was described in VHDL language and tested in FPGA hardware. The link is able to transmit 1280x1024@60Hz 24bit video data using one signal pair. Link was tested to transmit thermal-vision camera picture to remote monitor. Construction of dedicated video link allows to reduce power consumption compared to solutions with ASIC based encoders and decoders realizing video links like DVI or packed based Display Port, with simultaneous reduction of wires needed to establish link to one pair. Article describes functions of modules integrated in FPGA design realizing several functions like: synchronization to video source, video stream packeting, interfacing transceiver module and dynamic clock generation for video standard conversion.

  18. Remote monitoring for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    Remote monitoring is not a new technology, and its application to safeguards-relevant activities has been examined for a number of years. On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy and international partners, remote monitoring systems have been emplaced in nuclear facilities and laboratories in various parts of the world. The experience gained from these Geld trials of remote monitoring systems has shown the viability of the concept of using integrated monitoring systems. Although a wide variety of sensors has been used in the remote monitoring field trials conducted to date, the possible range of instrumentation that might be used has scarcely been touched. As the technology becomes widespread, large amounts of data will become available to inspectors responsible for safeguards activities at the sites. Effective use of remote monitoring will require processing, archiving, presenting, and assessing of these data. To provide reasonable efficiency in the application of this technology, data processing should be done in a careful and organized manner. The problem will be not an issue of poring over scant records but of surviving under a deluge of information made possible by modern technology Fortunately, modem technology, which created the problem of the data glut, is available to come to the assistance of those inundated by data. Apart from the technological problems, one of the most important aspects of remote monitoring is the potential constraint related to the transmission of data out of a facility or beyond national borders. Remote monitoring across national borders can be seriously considered only in the context of a comprehensive, transparent, and open implementation regime. (author)

  19. Deep mRNA sequencing of the Tritonia diomedea brain transcriptome provides access to gene homologues for neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission and peptidergic signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Senatore

    Full Text Available The sea slug Tritonia diomedea (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia, has a simple and highly accessible nervous system, making it useful for studying neuronal and synaptic mechanisms underlying behavior. Although many important contributions have been made using Tritonia, until now, a lack of genetic information has impeded exploration at the molecular level.We performed Illumina sequencing of central nervous system mRNAs from Tritonia, generating 133.1 million 100 base pair, paired-end reads. De novo reconstruction of the RNA-Seq data yielded a total of 185,546 contigs, which partitioned into 123,154 non-redundant gene clusters (unigenes. BLAST comparison with RefSeq and Swiss-Prot protein databases, as well as mRNA data from other invertebrates (gastropod molluscs: Aplysia californica, Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria glabrata; cnidarian: Nematostella vectensis revealed that up to 76,292 unigenes in the Tritonia transcriptome have putative homologues in other databases, 18,246 of which are below a more stringent E-value cut-off of 1x10-6. In silico prediction of secreted proteins from the Tritonia transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA produced a database of 579 unique sequences of secreted proteins, which also exhibited markedly higher expression levels compared to other genes in the TSA.Our efforts greatly expand the availability of gene sequences available for Tritonia diomedea. We were able to extract full length protein sequences for most queried genes, including those involved in electrical excitability, synaptic vesicle release and neurotransmission, thus confirming that the transcriptome will serve as a useful tool for probing the molecular correlates of behavior in this species. We also generated a neurosecretome database that will serve as a useful tool for probing peptidergic signalling systems in the Tritonia brain.

  20. [Remote Slit Lamp Microscope Consultation System Based on Web].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junfa; Zhuo, Yong; Liu, Zuguo; Chen, Yanping

    2015-11-01

    To realize the remote operation of the slit lamp microscope for department of ophthalmology consultation, and visual display the real-time status of remote slit lamp microscope, a remote slit lamp microscope consultation system based on B/S structure is designed and implemented. Through framing the slit lamp microscope on the website system, the realtime acquisition and transmission of remote control and image data is realized. The three dimensional model of the slit lamp microscope is established and rendered on the web by using WebGL technology. The practical application results can well show the real-time interactive of the remote consultation system.

  1. Remote auscultatory patient monitoring during magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Hök, B; Wiklund, L

    1992-01-01

    can be simultaneously auscultated both inside and outside the shielded MRI room by infrared transmission through a metal mesh window. Bench tests of the system show that common mode acoustic noise is suppressed by approximately 30 dB in the frequency region of interest (100-1,000 Hz), and that polymer......A system for patient monitoring during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. The system is based on remote auscultation of heart sounds and respiratory sounds using specially developed pickup heads that are positioned on the precordium or at the nostrils and connected to microphones via...... polymer tubing. The microphones operate in a differential mode outside the strong magnetic field to reduce various sources of interference from the MRI equipment. After amplification, the signal is transmitted as infrared light to a small, battery-operated receiver and a headphone set. Thus, the patient...

  2. Remote Control and Testing of the Interactive TV-Decoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vlcek

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with assembling and application of a complex sequential circuit VHDL (VHSIC (Very High-Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language model. The circuit model is a core of a cryptographic device for the signal encoding and decoding of discreet transmissions by TV-cable net. The cryptographic algorithm is changable according to the user's wishes. The principles of creation and example implementations are presented in the article. The behavioural model is used to minimize mistakes in the ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits. The circuit implementation uses the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array technology. The diagnostics of the circuit is based on remote testing by the IEEE Std 1149.1-1990. The VHDL model of diagnostic subsystem is created as an orthogonal model in relation to the cryptographic circuit VHDL model.

  3. Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Svoboda

    2011-04-01

    The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

  4. HIV Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ...

  5. Remote ischemic postconditioning protects against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by activation of T-LAK-cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK)/PTEN/Akt signaling pathway mediated anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Sumin; Zhu, Yi; Li, Haobo; Xia, Zhengyuan; Wu, Qingping; Yao, Shanglong; Wang, Tingting; Yuan, Shiying

    2016-09-01

    Recent clinical and animal studies suggested that remote limb ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) can invoke potent cardioprotection or neuroprotection. However, the effect and mechanism of RIPostC against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) are poorly understood. T-LAK-cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) is crucial for the proliferation and migration of tumor cells. However, the function of TOPK and the molecular mechanism underlying renal protection remain unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the role of TOPK in renoprotection induced by RIPostC. The renal IRI model was induced by left renal pedicle clamping for 45min followed by 24h reperfusion and right nephrectomy. All mice were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle, TOPK inhibitor HI-TOPK-032 or Akt inhibitor LY294002. After 24h reperfusion, renal histology, function, and inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress were assessed. The proteins were measured by Western blotting. The results showed that RIPostC significantly protected the kidneys against IRI. The protective effects were accompanied by the attenuation of renal dysfunction, tubular damage, inflammation and oxidative stress. In addition, RIPostC increased the phosphorylation of TOPK, PTEN, Akt, GSK3β and the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and decreased the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. However, all of the above renoprotective effects of RIPostC were eliminated either by the inhibition of TOPK or Akt with HI-TOPK-032 or LY294002. The current data reveal that RIPostC protects against renal IRI via activation of TOPK/PTEN/Akt signaling pathway mediated anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radio and line transmission 2

    CERN Document Server

    Roddy, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Radio and Line Transmission, Volume 2 gives a detailed treatment of the subject as well as an introduction to additional advanced subject matter. Organized into 14 chapters, this book begins by explaining the radio wave propagation, signal frequencies, and bandwidth. Subsequent chapters describe the transmission lines and cables; the aerials; tuned and coupled circuits; bipolar transistor amplifiers; field-effect transistors and circuits; thermionic valve amplifiers; LC oscillators; the diode detectors and modulators; and the superheterodyne receiver. Other chapters explore noise and interfere

  7. Daily remote monitoring of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindricks, Gerhard; Varma, Niraj; Kacet, Salem

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Remote monitoring of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators may improve clinical outcome. A recent meta-analysis of three randomized controlled trials (TRUST, ECOST, IN-TIME) using a specific remote monitoring system with daily transmissions [Biotronik Home Monitoring (HM)] demonstrated...

  8. Multiple node remote messaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Ohmacht, Martin (Yorktown Heights, NY); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard (Esslingen, DE); Vranas, Pavlos (Danville, CA)

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  9. Application of the remote-sensing communication model to a time-sensitive wildfire remote-sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. Lippitt; Douglas A. Stow; Philip J. Riggan

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing for hazard response requires a priori identification of sensor, transmission, processing, and distribution methods to permit the extraction of relevant information in timescales sufficient to allow managers to make a given time-sensitive decision. This study applies and demonstrates the utility of the Remote Sensing Communication...

  10. Detection of Transient Signals in Doppler Spectra

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Signal processing is used to detect transient signals in the presence of noise. Two embodiments are disclosed. In both embodiments, the time series from a remote...

  11. Development of nuclear power plant automated remote patrol system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, R.; Kubo, K.; Sato, K.; Taguchi, J.

    1984-01-01

    An Automated Remote Patrol System was developed for a remote inspection, observation and monitoring of nuclear power plant's components. This automated remote patrol system consists of; a vehicle moving along a monorail; three rails mounted in a monorail for data transmission and for power supply; an image fiber connected to a TV camera; an arm type mechanism (manipulator) for moving image fiber; a computer for control and data processing and operator's console. Special features of this Automated Remote Patrol System are as follows: The inspection vehicle runs along horizontal and vertical (up/down) monorails. The arm type mechanism (manipulator) on the vehicle is used to move image fiber. Slide type electric collectors are used for data transmission and power supply. Time-division multiplexing is adapted for data transmission. Voice communication is used for controlling mechanisms. Pattern recognition is used for data processing. The experience that has been obtained from a series of various tests is summarized. (author)

  12. Technology of remote nuclear activity monitoring for national safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwack, Eun Ho; Kim, B. K.; Kim, J. S.; Yoon, W. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. S.; Cha, H. R.; Na, W. W.; Choi, Y. M.

    2001-07-01

    This project mainly focused on technical development on remote monitoring. It covers optical fiber scintillator to be used as NDA sensor to targets to be applied. Optical fiber scintillator was tested at the high radioactive environment. It is the first try in its kind for spent fuel measurement. It is confirmed that optical fiber sensor can be used for safeguards verification. Its feasibility for spent fuel storage silo at Wolsong reactor was studied. And to optimize remote transmission cost which can be regarded as a major barrier, virtual private network was studied for possible application for safeguards purpose. It can drastically reduce transmission cost and upgrade information surety. As target for remote monitoring, light water reactor and heavy water reactor were feasibly studied. Especially heavy water reactor has much potential for reduction of inspection efforts if remote monitoring is introduced. In overall remote monitoring can play a pivotal role to streamline safeguards inspection

  13. Transcending Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Trittin, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Extant research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication primarily relies on a transmission model of communication that treats organizations and communication as distinct phenomena. This approach has been criticized for neglecting the formative role of communication...... in the emergence of organizations. This paper seeks to propose to reconceptualize CSR communication by drawing on the “communication constitutes organizations” (CCO) perspective. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper that explores the implications of switching from an instrumental...... are stabilized by various non-human entities that “act” on their behalf. Accordingly, CSR communication should also take into account non-human agency and responsibility. Originality/value – This paper links the literature on CSR communication to broader debates in organizational communication studies and...

  14. Reduced bandwidth video for remote vehicle operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noell, T.E.; DePiero, F.W.

    1993-08-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory staff have developed a video compression system for low-bandwidth remote operations. The objective is to provide real-time video at data rates comparable to available tactical radio links, typically 16 to 64 thousand bits per second (kbps), while maintaining sufficient quality to achieve mission objectives. The system supports both continuous lossy transmission of black and white (gray scale) video for remote driving and progressive lossless transmission of black and white images for remote automatic target acquisition. The average data rate of the resulting bit stream is 64 kbps. This system has been demonstrated to provide video of sufficient quality to allow remote driving of a High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle at speeds up to 15 mph (24.1 kph) on a moguled dirt track. The nominal driving configuration provides a frame rate of 4 Hz, a compression per frame of 125:1, and a resulting latency of {approximately}1s. This paper reviews the system approach and implementation, and further describes some of our experiences when using the system to support remote driving.

  15. Measurement of Low-Altitude Infrared Transmission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeisse, C

    1999-01-01

    Infrared propagation at low altitudes is determined by extinction caused by molecules, aerosol particles, and ray bending by refraction, three effects that control the mean value of the signal (the transmission...

  16. Adaptive coded spreading OFDM signal for dynamic-λ optical access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes and experimentally demonstrates a novel adaptive coded spreading (ACS) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal for dynamic distributed optical ring-based access network. The wavelength can be assigned to different remote nodes (RNs) according to the traffic demand of optical network unit (ONU). The ACS can provide dynamic spreading gain to different signals according to the split ratio or transmission length, which offers flexible power budget for the network. A 10×13.12 Gb/s OFDM access with ACS is successfully demonstrated over two RNs and 120 km transmission in the experiment. The demonstrated method may be viewed as one promising for future optical metro access network.

  17. Remote direct memory access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  18. Optoelectronic analogue signal transfer for LHC detectors, 1991

    CERN Document Server

    Dowell, John D; Homer, R J; Jovanovic, P; Kenyon, I; Staley, R; Webster, K; Da Via, C; Feyt, J; Nappey, P; Stefanini, G; Dwir, B; Reinhart, F K; Davies, J; Green, N; Stewart, W; Young, T; Hall, G; Akesson, T; Jarlskog, G; Kröll, S; Nickerson, R; Jaroslawski, S; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1991-01-01

    We propose to study and develop opto-electronic analogue front-ends based on electro-optic intensity modulators. These devices translate the detector electrical analogue signals into optical signals which are then transferred via optical fibres to photodetector receivers at the remote readout. In comparison with conventional solutions based on copper cables, this technique offers the advantages of high speed, very low power dissipation and transmission losses, compactness and immunity to electromagnetic interference. The linearity and dynamic range that can be obtained are more than adequate for central tracking detectors, and the proposed devices have considerable radiation- hardness capabilities. The large bandwidth and short transit times offer possibilities for improved triggering schemes. The proposed R&D programme is aimed at producing multi-channel "demonstrator" units for evaluation both in laboratory and beam tests. This will allow the choice of the most effective technology. A detailed study wil...

  19. Pre-Hospital ECG E-Transmission for Patients with Suspected Myocardial Infarction in the Highlands of Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon F. Rushworth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI require prompt treatment, best done by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI. However, for patients unable to receive PPCI, immediate pre-hospital thrombolysis (PHT is the best alternative. Evidence indicates that diagnostic and management support for staff increases the use of PHT. This study aimed to describe the patient demographics and management of patients, to determine any potential inter-area differences in referral rates to the ECG e-transmission service and to explore the views and experiences of key staff involved in ECG e-transmission within NHS Highland. Data from 2,025 patient episodes of ECG e-transmission identified a statistically significant geographical variation in ECG e-transmission and PHT delivery. Scottish Ambulance Service (SAS staff were more likely than GPs to deliver PHT overall, however, GPs were more likely to deliver in remote areas. Interviews with six Cardiac Care Unit (CCU nurses and six SAS staff highlighted their positive views of ECG e-transmission, citing perceived benefits to patients and interprofessional relationships. Poor access to network signal was noted to be a barrier to engaging in the system. This study has demonstrated that a specialist triage service based on e-transmission of ECGs in patients with suspected STEMI can be implemented in a diverse geographical setting. Work is needed to ensure equity of the service for all patients.

  20. Neuroglial Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Vidar; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Bergersen, Linda Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    Neuroglia, the “glue” that fills the space between neurons in the central nervous system, takes active part in nerve cell signaling. Neuroglial cells, astroglia, oligodendroglia, and microglia, are together about as numerous as neurons in the brain as a whole, and in the cerebral cortex grey matter......, but the proportion varies widely among brain regions. Glial volume, however, is less than one-fifth of the tissue volume in grey matter. When stimulated by neurons or other cells, neuroglial cells release gliotransmitters by exocytosis, similar to neurotransmitter release from nerve endings, or by carrier...

  1. Optoelectronic line transmission an introduction to fibre optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Raymond L

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronic Line Transmission: An Introduction to Fibre Optics presents a basic introduction as well as a background reference manual on fiber optic transmission. The book discusses the basic principles of optical line transmission; the advantages and disadvantages of optical fibers and optoelectronic signalling; the practical applications of optoelectronics; and the future of optoelectronics. The text also describes the theories of optical line transmission; fibers and cables for optical transmission; transmitters including light-emitting diodes and lasers; and receivers including photodi

  2. Investment in Electricity Transmission and Ancillary Environmental Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Burtraw, Dallas; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Bloyd, Cary

    2002-01-01

    Planning of the electricity transmission system generally focuses on the pros and cons of providing generation close to the source of the power demand versus remote generation linked via the transmission system. Recent electricity supply problems in the western United States have renewed interest in the role of transmission in assuring the reliability of electricity supply. Recently, the Western Governors’ Association led the development of a planning exercise that examined the tradeoffs over...

  3. Remote detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; France, S.W.; Garcia, C.; Hastings, R.D.

    1981-05-01

    A newly designed remote detection system has been developed at Los Alamos that allows the collection of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra and neutron data from a remote location. The system consists of the remote unit and a command unit. The remote unit collects data in a potentially hostile environment while the operator controls the unit by either radio or wire link from a safe position. Both units are battery powered and are housed in metal carrying cases

  4. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Cracknell, Arthur P

    2007-01-01

    Addressing the need for updated information in remote sensing, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Second Edition provides a full and authoritative introduction for scientists who need to know the scope, potential, and limitations in the field. The authors discuss the physical principles of common remote sensing systems and examine the processing, interpretation, and applications of data. This new edition features updated and expanded material, including greater coverage of applications from across earth, environmental, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences. Illustrated with remotely sensed colo

  5. Transmission analysis in WDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a computer-based simulator for transmission analysis in optical wavelength division multiplexing networks. A great part of the work concerns fundamental optical network simulator issues. Among these issues are identification of the versatility and user...... of the onlinear Schrödinger equation. Adaptive step size split-step methods and a modified split-step method adapted for optical signals represented by several equivalent lowpass signals are developed. The work on the receiver model includes a fast method for computation of the time varying variance of the signal......-friendliness demands which such a simulator must meet, development of the "spectral window representation" for representation of the optical signals and finding an effective way of handling the optical signals in the computer memory. One important issue more is the rules for the determination of the order in which...

  6. Remote Control Software for Rohde and Schwarz Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Shejbal; Matej Petkov; Tomas Zalabsky; Jan Pidanic; Zdenek Nemec

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes software for remote control and measuring with new Graphical User Interface for Rohde & Schwarz instruments. Software allows remote control through Ethernet and supports basic and advanced functions for control various type of instruments like network and spectrum analyzers, power meters, signal generators and oscilloscopes. Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments (SCPI) and Virtual Instrument Software Architecture (VISA) are used for remote control and setup of ins...

  7. Conceptual design analyses for Hanford Site deployable remote spectroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp, B.L.; Reich, F.R.

    1994-09-01

    This document identifies potential remote, NIR spectroscopic waste surface moisture monitoring system design alternatives to be operated inside one of the Hanford Site, high level, nuclear waste storage tanks. Potential tank waste moisture data impacts from the remote NIR signal transfer through high humidity vapor space is evaluated

  8. High efficient optical remote sensing images acquisition for nano-satellite: reconstruction algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Feng; Xin, Lei; Fu, Jie; Huang, Puming

    2017-10-01

    Large amount of data is one of the most obvious features in satellite based remote sensing systems, which is also a burden for data processing and transmission. The theory of compressive sensing(CS) has been proposed for almost a decade, and massive experiments show that CS has favorable performance in data compression and recovery, so we apply CS theory to remote sensing images acquisition. In CS, the construction of classical sensing matrix for all sparse signals has to satisfy the Restricted Isometry Property (RIP) strictly, which limits applying CS in practical in image compression. While for remote sensing images, we know some inherent characteristics such as non-negative, smoothness and etc.. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to present a novel measurement matrix that breaks RIP. The new sensing matrix consists of two parts: the standard Nyquist sampling matrix for thumbnails and the conventional CS sampling matrix. Since most of sun-synchronous based satellites fly around the earth 90 minutes and the revisit cycle is also short, lots of previously captured remote sensing images of the same place are available in advance. This drives us to reconstruct remote sensing images through a deep learning approach with those measurements from the new framework. Therefore, we propose a novel deep convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture which takes in undersampsing measurements as input and outputs an intermediate reconstruction image. It is well known that the training procedure to the network costs long time, luckily, the training step can be done only once, which makes the approach attractive for a host of sparse recovery problems.

  9. Remote Sensing and Quantization of Analog Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Karl F.

    2011-01-01

    This method enables sensing and quantization of analog strain gauges. By manufacturing a piezoelectric sensor stack in parallel (physical) with a piezoelectric actuator stack, the capacitance of the sensor stack varies in exact proportion to the exertion applied by the actuator stack. This, in turn, varies the output frequency of the local sensor oscillator. The output, F(sub out), is fed to a phase detector, which is driven by a stable reference, F(sub ref). The output of the phase detector is a square waveform, D(sub out), whose duty cycle, t(sub W), varies in exact proportion according to whether F(sub out) is higher or lower than F(sub ref). In this design, should F(sub out) be precisely equal to F(sub ref), then the waveform has an exact 50/50 duty cycle. The waveform, D(sub out), is of generally very low frequency suitable for safe transmission over long distances without corruption. The active portion of the waveform, t(sub W), gates a remotely located counter, which is driven by a stable oscillator (source) of such frequency as to give sufficient digitization of t(sub W) to the resolution required by the application. The advantage to this scheme is that it negates the most-common, present method of sending either very low level signals (viz. direct output from the sensors) across great distances (anything over one-half meter) or the need to transmit widely varying higher frequencies over significant distances thereby eliminating interference [both in terms of beat frequency generation and in-situ EMI (electromagnetic interference)] caused by ineffective shielding. It also results in a significant reduction in shielding mass.

  10. Broadband transmission EPR spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred R Hagen

    Full Text Available EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9-10 GHz range. Most (biomolecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin - nuclear spin interactions and electron spin - electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8-2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed.

  11. Method of transmission of dynamic multibit digital images from micro-unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, E. P.; Kharina, N. L.

    2018-01-01

    In connection with successful usage of nanotechnologies in remote sensing great attention is paid to the systems in micro-unmanned aerial vehicles (MUAVs) capable to provide high spatial resolution of dynamic multibit digital images (MDI). Limited energy resources on board the MUAV do not allow transferring a large amount of video information in the shortest possible time. It keeps back the broad development of MUAV. The search for methods to shorten the transmission time of dynamic MDIs from MUAV over the radio channel leads to the methods of MDI compression without computational operations onboard the MUAV. The known compression codecs of video information can not be applied because of the limited energy resources. In this paper we propose a method for reducing the transmission time of dynamic MDIs without computational operations and distortions onboard the MUAV. To develop the method a mathematical apparatus of the theory of conditional Markov processes with discrete arguments was used. On its basis a mathematical model for the transformation of the MDI represented by binary images (BI) in the MDI, consisting of groups of neighboring BIs (GBI) transmitted by multiphase (MP) signals, is constructed. The algorithm for multidimensional nonlinear filtering of MP signals is synthesized, realizing the statistical redundancy of the MDI to compensate for the noise stability losses caused by the use of MP signals.

  12. 47 CFR 73.682 - TV transmission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV transmission standards. 73.682 Section 73... BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.682 TV transmission standards. (a) Transmission... individual components. Cue and control signals shall be related to the operation of the TV broadcast station...

  13. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  14. Wireless sensor networks for monitoring physiological signals of multiple patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmaghani, R S; Bobarshad, H; Ghavami, M; Choobkar, S; Wolfe, C

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents the design of a novel wireless sensor network structure to monitor patients with chronic diseases in their own homes through a remote monitoring system of physiological signals. Currently, most of the monitoring systems send patients' data to a hospital with the aid of personal computers (PC) located in the patients' home. Here, we present a new design which eliminates the need for a PC. The proposed remote monitoring system is a wireless sensor network with the nodes of the network installed in the patients' homes. These nodes are then connected to a central node located at a hospital through an Internet connection. The nodes of the proposed wireless sensor network are created by using a combination of ECG sensors, MSP430 microcontrollers, a CC2500 low-power wireless radio, and a network protocol called the SimpliciTI protocol. ECG signals are first sampled by a small portable device which each patient carries. The captured signals are then wirelessly transmitted to an access point located within the patients' home. This connectivity is based on wireless data transmission at 2.4-GHz frequency. The access point is also a small box attached to the Internet through a home asynchronous digital subscriber line router. Afterwards, the data are sent to the hospital via the Internet in real time for analysis and/or storage. The benefits of this remote monitoring are wide ranging: the patients can continue their normal lives, they do not need a PC all of the time, their risk of infection is reduced, costs significantly decrease for the hospital, and clinicians can check data in a short time.

  15. Optical remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Saurabh; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    Optical remote sensing relies on exploiting multispectral and hyper spectral imagery possessing high spatial and spectral resolutions respectively. These modalities, although useful for most remote sensing tasks, often present challenges that must be addressed for their effective exploitation. This book presents current state-of-the-art algorithms that address the following key challenges encountered in representation and analysis of such optical remotely sensed data: challenges in pre-processing images, storing and representing high dimensional data, fusing different sensor modalities, patter

  16. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  17. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  18. Remote Maintenance Monitoring System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Remote Maintenance and Monitoring System (RMMS) is a collection of subsystems that includes telecommunication components, hardware, and software, which serve to...

  19. Remote docking apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, T.H.; Sumpman, W.C.; Wilhelm, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The remote docking apparatus comprises a support plate with locking devices mounted thereon. The locking devices are capable of being inserted into tubular members for suspending the support plate therefrom. A vertical member is attached to the support plate with an attachment mechanism attached to the vertical member. A remote access manipulator is capable of being attached to the attachment mechanism so that the vertical member can position the remote access manipulator so that the remote access manipulator can be initially attached to the tubular members in a well defined manner

  20. Remote monitoring of implantable cardiac devices: current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeshan, Raj; Enriquez, Alan D; Freeman, James V

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated substantial benefits associated with remote monitoring of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), and treatment guidelines have endorsed the use of remote monitoring. Familiarity with the features of remote monitoring systems and the data supporting its use are vital for physicians' care for patients with CEIDs. Remote monitoring remains underutilized, but its use is expanding including in new practice settings including emergency departments. Patient experience and outcomes are positive, with earlier detection of clinical events such as atrial fibrillation, reductions in inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks and potentially a decrease in mortality with frequent remote monitoring utilizaiton. Rates of hospitalization are reduced among remote monitoring users, and the replacement of outpatient follow-up visits with remote monitoring transmissions has been shown to be well tolerated. In addition, health resource utilization is lower and remote monitoring has been associated with considerable cost savings. A dose relationship exists between use of remote monitoring and patient outcomes, and those with early and high transmission rates have superior outcomes. Remote monitoring provides clinicians with the ability to provide comprehensive follow-up care for patients with CIEDs. Patient outcomes are improved, and resource utilization is decreased with appropriate use of remote monitoring. Future efforts must focus on improving the utilization and efficiency of remote monitoring.

  1. An intelligent remote control system for ECEI on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongxu; Zhu, Yilun; Zhao, Zhenling; Qu, Chengming; Liao, Wang; Xie, Jinlin; Liu, Wandong

    2017-08-01

    An intelligent remote control system based on a power distribution unit (PDU) and Arduino has been designed for the electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) system on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). This intelligent system has three major functions: ECEI system reboot, measurement region adjustment and signal amplitude optimization. The observation region of ECEI can be modified for different physics proposals by remotely tuning the optical and electronics systems. Via the remote adjustment of the attenuation level, the ECEI intermediate frequency signal amplitude can be efficiently optimized. The remote control system provides a feasible and reliable solution for the improvement of signal quality and the efficiency of the ECEI diagnostic system, which is also valuable for other diagnostic systems.

  2. International remote monitoring project Argentina Nuclear Power Station Spent Fuel Transfer Remote Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; Lucero, R.; Glidewell, D. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Autoridad Regulataria Nuclear (ARN) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) are cooperating on the development of a Remote Monitoring System for nuclear nonproliferation efforts. A Remote Monitoring System for spent fuel transfer will be installed at the Argentina Nuclear Power Station in Embalse, Argentina. The system has been designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) providing gamma and neutron sensors. This project will test and evaluate the fundamental design and implementation of the Remote Monitoring System in its application to regional and international safeguards efficiency. This paper provides a description of the monitoring system and its functions. The Remote Monitoring System consists of gamma and neutron radiation sensors, RF systems, and video systems integrated into a coherent functioning whole. All sensor data communicate over an Echelon LonWorks Network to a single data logger. The Neumann DCM 14 video module is integrated into the Remote Monitoring System. All sensor and image data are stored on a Data Acquisition System (DAS) and archived and reviewed on a Data and Image Review Station (DIRS). Conventional phone lines are used as the telecommunications link to transmit on-site collected data and images to remote locations. The data and images are authenticated before transmission. Data review stations will be installed at ARN in Buenos Aires, Argentina, ABACC in Rio De Janeiro, IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, and Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Digital signal processing for fiber nonlinearities [Invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartledge, John C.; Guiomar, Fernando P.; Kschischang, Frank R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews digital signal processing techniques that compensate, mitigate, and exploit fiber nonlinearities in coherent optical fiber transmission systems......This paper reviews digital signal processing techniques that compensate, mitigate, and exploit fiber nonlinearities in coherent optical fiber transmission systems...

  4. Remote actuated valve implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E.; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Kenneth J.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S.; Wilgen, John B.; Evans, Boyd Mccutchen

    2016-05-10

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  5. Hyperspectral remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Eismann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications that builds on the principles of material spectroscopy, radiative transfer, imaging spectrometry, and hyperspectral data processing. This book provides a holistic treatment that captures its multidisciplinary nature, emphasizing the physical principles of hyperspectral remote sensing.

  6. Accessing Remote Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maskell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    awareness (what remote knowledge is needed?) and source awareness (where does this knowledge reside?) the article explores the relative merits and inherent limitations of pipelines, listening posts, crowdsourcing and trade fairs to acquire knowledge and solutions from geographically and relationally remote...

  7. Remote actuated valve implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Timothy E; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Jr., Kenneth J; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S; Wilgen, John B; Evans, III, Boyd McCutchen

    2014-02-25

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  8. Remote vehicle survey tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.; Wagner, D.G.; Ward, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Remote Vehicle Survey Tool (RVS7) is a color graphical display tool for viewing remotely acquired scientific data. The RVST displays the data in the form of a color two-dimensional world model map. The world model map allows movement of the remote vehicle to be tracked by the operator and the data from sensors to be graphically depicted in the interface. Linear and logarithmic meters, dual channel oscilloscopes, and directional compasses are used to display sensor information. The RVST is user-configurable by the use of ASCII text files. The operator can configure the RVST to work with any remote data acquisition system and teleoperated or autonomous vehicle. The modular design of the RVST and its ability to be quickly configured for varying system requirements make the RVST ideal for remote scientific data display in all environmental restoration and waste management programs

  9. Remote handling at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental area A at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) encompasses a large area. Presently there are four experimental target cells along the main proton beam line that have become highly radioactive, thus dictating that all maintenance be performed remotely. The Monitor remote handling system was developed to perform in situ maintenance at any location within area A. Due to the complexity of experimental systems and confined space, conventional remote handling methods based upon hot cell and/or hot bay concepts are not workable. Contrary to conventional remote handling which require special tooling for each specifically planned operation, the Monitor concept is aimed at providing a totally flexible system capable of remotely performing general mechanical and electrical maintenance operations using standard tools. The Monitor system is described

  10. Remote Access Unit for Optic-to-Wireless Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chorchos, Łukasz; Rommel, Simon; Turkiewicz, J. P.

    In this paper we propose a design of a reconfigurable Remote Access Unit (RAU) interfacing optical dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) networks with radio communication links. To generate a radio signal the device utilizes a principles of incoherent heterodyne signal upconversion...

  11. 47 CFR 73.57 - Remote reading antenna and common point ammeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.57 Remote reading antenna and common.... (5) Using transmission line current meter at transmitter as remote reading ammeter. See paragraph (c... elements, shall be located at the same point as, but below (transmitter side) the associated main ammeter...

  12. Design, development and implementation of the IR signaling techniques for monitoring ambient and body temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baqai, A.

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare systems such as hospitals, homecare, telemedicine, and physical rehabilitation are expected to be revolutionized by WBAN (Wireless Body Area Networks). This research work aims to investigate, design, optimize, and demonstrate the applications of IR (Infra-Red) communication systems in WBAN. It is aimed to establish a prototype WBAN system capable of measuring Ambient and Body Temperature using LM35 as temperature sensor and transmitting and receiving the data using optical signals. The corresponding technical challenges that have to be faced are also discussed in this paper. Investigations are carried out to efficiently design the hardware using low-cost and low power optical transceivers. The experimental results reveal the successful transmission and reception of Ambient and Body Temperatures over short ranges i.e. up to 3-4 meters. A simple IR transceiver with an LED (Light Emitting Diodes), TV remote control IC and Arduino microcontroller is designed to perform the transmission with sufficient accuracy and ease. Experiments are also performed to avoid interference from other sources like AC and TV remote control signals by implementing IR tags. (author)

  13. Microwave transmission measurements in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segui, J.L.; Giruzzi, G.

    1991-01-01

    A microwave transmission diagnostic system below the electron gyrofrequency is now operating on Tore-Supra. In low density Lower-Hybrid current drive discharges the refraction effects are weak and the measurement of the wave transmission coefficient provides an estimate of the non inductive current. For higher densities, the signal is modulated by refraction effects related to sawteeth and MHD modes. In this case, more elaborated computational techniques are required in order to isolate the absorption effect from the apparent wave attenuation due to refraction. Conversely, at frequencies low enough to avoid cyclotron absorption, microwave transmission can be used as a diagnostic of sawteeth and MHD activity

  14. Development of remote monitoring for unattended mode NDA in PFPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Hajime; Asano, Takashi; Takahashi, Saburou; Namekawa, Masaru; Abhold, M.E.; Harker, W.C.; Buck, S.E.; Sweet, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Remote transmission of safeguards data has been identified in Program 93+2 as a possible development area that could improve the efficiency of safeguards. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has developed various kinds of unattended mode Nondestructive Assay (NDA) systems in the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) since 1989 in cooperation with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for international safeguards. JNC and LANL have initiated the development of a remote monitoring system for unattended mode NDA at PFPF in 1997 in a joint study program in order to demonstrate hardware and software functionality and procedures for remote transmission of NDA data. In November 1997, the Phase I system demonstrated the capability for data transmission, authentication and encryption using simulated NDA data. In June 1999, the Phase II system was introduced into the plutonium storage area in PFPF, and demonstration of hardware and software was carried out by using actual NDA data. Now, the field trial of this system is being carried out in order to demonstrate and consider how much efficiency and effectiveness was obtained through implementation of the remote monitoring system. This paper describes the outline of the Phase I and II remote monitoring system and future plans. (author)

  15. Relay selection in underlay cognitive networks with fixed transmission power nodes

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Syed Imtiaz

    2013-07-31

    Underlay cognitive networks operate simultaneously with primary networks satisfying stringent interference constraints, which reduces their transmission power and coverage area. To reach remote destinations, secondary sources use relaying techniques. Selecting the best relay among the available ones is a well known technique. Recently, selective cooperation is investigated in cognitive networks where the secondary nodes can adapt their transmission power to always satisfy the interference threshold. In this paper, we investigate a situation where the secondary nodes have a fixed transmission power and may violate the interference threshold. We present two relay selection schemes; the first one excludes the relays not satisfying the interference constraint and then picks up a relay from the remaining ones that can provide the maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The other scheme uses a quotient of the relay link SNR and the interference from the relay to the primary user and optimizes it to maximise the relay link SNR. We derive closed form expressions for outage probability, bit error rate, channel capacity and diversity of the system for both schemes by using tight approximations. We also study mutual effects of interference. Simulation results confirm the analytical results and reveal that the relay selection is feasible at low SNRs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Advantages of ISDN for High-Speed Remote Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Mark; Hauf, Al

    1997-01-01

    Explains why ISDN (integrated services digital network) is the most practical solution for high-speed remote access, including reliability, cost, flexibility, scaleability, standards, and manageability. Other data transmission options are discussed, including asymmetric digital subscriber lines (ADSL), high-speed digital subscriber lines (HDSL),…

  17. Remote Communication Engineering Experiments Through Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Gogoi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In technical education, laboratory components comprise an essential and integral part without which engineering education remains incomplete. Experiments conducted on laboratory equipments lend a practical touch to the theoretical knowledge acquired by the students. However, setting up a specialized laboratory consisting of sophisticated and expensive equipments such as Digital Storage Oscilloscope, Signal Generator, Spectrum Analyzer and Network Analyzer is an expensive and unaffordable proposition for many universities and engineering colleges. Sophisticated technologies incorporated in recent models of such high-end equipments enable remote access through Internet to the instruments. This concept of accessing these expensive instruments over the Internet can be exploited by setting up a Remote Laboratory. This remote laboratory system aims at not only providing an opportunity to students from distant places to conduct hardware experiments but also to take the corresponding measurements. In this work, real-time hardware experiments have been designed and implemented. These are based on modulation techniques widely employed in Communication Engineering. An interactive Graphical User Interface (GUI environment has also been developed using Microsoft Visual Basic. This GUI is provided at the user end to facilitate the remote control and access of various instruments and experiment setups. It has been specifically designed and optimized for a low-bandwidth remote access link. The above mentioned system, as a whole, uses real-time capture of images and data from the instruments to perform experiment-related measurements.

  18. Remote maintenance system for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Masafumi

    1993-01-01

    In the facilities related to atomic energy, from the viewpoint of the reduction of radiation exposure of workers and the heightening of the rate of operation of the facilities, the development of remote maintenance system is regarded as important. Meidensha Electric Manufacturing Co., Ltd. developed the bilateral control type manipulator, BILARM-83, in 1979, and has developed high performance manipulator systems. As the design of the plant that realizes the remote operation maintenance of process machinery and equipment during plant operation, the remote maintenance system by canyon cell techniques, which was adopted in Savannah River plant, USA, and has been operated for nearly 50 years, has been known. The concept of the full remote maintenance system by large scale cell techniques was shown and has been developed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. In order to realize the remote maintenance of such large scale cells, Meidensha is developing the both arm type bilateral servo manipulator, the single arm type power manipulator, the transport system for moving them, the power and signal system and so on. Those systems were adopted for the glass solidification facilities. (K.I.)

  19. Rapid Prototyping Modules for Remote Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Henke

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes the concept and implementation for an integration of microcontroller and FPGA based Rapid Prototyping modules into a Remote Lab system. This implementation enables a Web-based access to electro-mechanical models. A student uploads a source file implementation to the Remote Lab server in order to test an implementation directly within a hardware environment. The Remote Lab server offers the interfaces to integrate specific project and hardware plug-ins. These plug-ins access a hardware specific software environment to automatically compile and program the resulting firmware. To stimulate this design, the Remote Lab server exchanges digital signals via a serial interface. To allow the student to compare architectures of different designs using the same hardware model, a specific controller (using the Remote Lab interface can be selected. For this, an IP-based multiplexer provides the control connection between the respective controller and the hardware model. In our contribution we would like to give examples of such a complex design task and how the students can use different tools during several design steps.

  20. A medical-grade wireless architecture for remote electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyungtae; Park, Kyung-Joon; Song, Jae-Jin; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Sha, Lui

    2011-03-01

    In telecardiology, electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from a patient are acquired by sensors and transmitted in real time to medical personnel across a wireless network. The use of IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs (WLANs), which are already deployed in many hospitals, can provide ubiquitous connectivity and thus allow cardiology patients greater mobility. However, engineering issues, including the error-prone nature of wireless channels and the unpredictable delay and jitter due to the nondeterministic nature of access to the wireless medium, need to be addressed before telecardiology can be safely realized. We propose a medical-grade WLAN architecture for remote ECG monitoring, which employs the point-coordination function (PCF) for medium access control and Reed-Solomon coding for error control. Realistic simulations with uncompressed two-lead ECG data from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database demonstrate reliable wireless ECG monitoring; the reliability of ECG transmission exceeds 99.99% with the initial buffering delay of only 2.4 s.

  1. Characterization of a 300-GHz Transmission System for Digital Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudlička, Martin; Salhi, Mohammed; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Schrader, Thorsten

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents the characterization of a 300-GHz transmission system for modern digital communications. The quality of the modulated signal at the output of the system (error vector magnitude, EVM) is measured using a vector signal analyzer. A method using a digital real-time oscilloscope and consecutive mathematical processing in a computer is shown for analysis of signals with bandwidths exceeding that of state-of-the-art vector signal analyzers. The uncertainty of EVM measured using the real-time oscilloscope is open to analysis. Behaviour of the 300-GHz transmission system is studied with respect to various modulation schemes and different signal symbol rates.

  2. Remote handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.

    1984-01-01

    After a definition of intervention, problems encountered for working in an adverse environment are briefly analyzed for development of various remote handling equipments. Some examples of existing equipments are given [fr

  3. Hyperspectral remote sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eismann, Michael Theodore

    2012-01-01

    ..., and hyperspectral data processing. While there are many resources that suitably cover these areas individually and focus on specific aspects of the hyperspectral remote sensing field, this book provides a holistic treatment...

  4. Remote Sensing Information Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote Sensing Information Gateway, a tool that allows scientists, researchers and decision makers to access a variety of multi-terabyte, environmental datasets and to subset the data and obtain only needed variables, greatly improving the download time.

  5. An Ultra-Low Power Turning Angle Based Biomedical Signal Compression Engine with Adaptive Threshold Tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent sensing is drastically changing our everyday life including healthcare by biomedical signal monitoring, collection, and analytics. However, long-term healthcare monitoring generates tremendous data volume and demands significant wireless transmission power, which imposes a big challenge for wearable healthcare sensors usually powered by batteries. Efficient compression engine design to reduce wireless transmission data rate with ultra-low power consumption is essential for wearable miniaturized healthcare sensor systems. This paper presents an ultra-low power biomedical signal compression engine for healthcare data sensing and analytics in the era of big data and sensor intelligence. It extracts the feature points of the biomedical signal by window-based turning angle detection. The proposed approach has low complexity and thus low power consumption while achieving a large compression ratio (CR and good quality of reconstructed signal. Near-threshold design technique is adopted to further reduce the power consumption on the circuit level. Besides, the angle threshold for compression can be adaptively tuned according to the error between the original signal and reconstructed signal to address the variation of signal characteristics from person to person or from channel to channel to meet the required signal quality with optimal CR. For demonstration, the proposed biomedical compression engine has been used and evaluated for ECG compression. It achieves an average (CR of 71.08% and percentage root-mean-square difference (PRD of 5.87% while consuming only 39 nW. Compared to several state-of-the-art ECG compression engines, the proposed design has significantly lower power consumption while achieving similar CRD and PRD, making it suitable for long-term wearable miniaturized sensor systems to sense and collect healthcare data for remote data analytics.

  6. Optimal reliability enhancement for multi-state transmission networks with fixed transmission times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    Multi-state acyclic transmission networks (MATNs) consist of a number of positions in which independent multi-state elements (MEs) capable of receiving and/or sending a signal are allocated. Each network has a root position where the signal source is located, a number of terminal positions that can only receive a signal, and a number of intermediate positions containing MEs that retransmit the received signal to some other positions. The signal propagation is allowed only in direction of the terminal nodes, which avoids cycles in the network. Each ME that is located in a nonterminal node can have different states determined by a set of nodes receiving the signal directly from this ME. The probability of each state is assumed to be known for each ME. The signal transmission process is associated with delays. The system fails if the signal generated at the first position (source) cannot reach the terminal nodes within a specified time. Rapid changes in digital network technology provides increase of transmission speed of communication lines. Replacement of old lines with the new high performance ones can considerably reduce the signal delivery time in MATN. Subject to budget limitations a question arises which lines should be replaced to obtain the desired reliability improvement effect. An algorithm for solving the minimal cost MATN enhancement problem subject to reliability constraint is presented in the paper. The algorithm is based on an extended universal generating function technique used for MATN reliability evaluation and on a genetic algorithm used as an optimization engine

  7. Remote maintenance development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, C.R.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of remote maintenance as it pertains to nuclear fuel fabrication facilities is quite unique. The future may require completely remote facilities where maintenance will be performed by hybrid manipulators/robots. These units will be capable of being preprogrammed for automatic operation or manually operated with the operator becoming a part of the closed loop control system. These robots will mesh television, computer control, and direct force feedback manual control in a usable new concept of robotics

  8. Thermal Remote Anemometer Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Heath, D. Michele; Winfree, William P.; Miller, William E.; Welch, Christopher S.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal Remote Anemometer Device developed for remote, noncontacting, passive measurement of thermal properties of sample. Model heated locally by scanning laser beam and cooled by wind in tunnel. Thermal image of model analyzed to deduce pattern of airflow around model. For materials applications, system used for evaluation of thin films and determination of thermal diffusivity and adhesive-layer contact. For medical applications, measures perfusion through skin to characterize blood flow and used to determine viabilities of grafts and to characterize tissues.

  9. An Overview of GNSS Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    vital information for studies of deep-ocean circulation and boundary currents, the mid-ocean gyres, tsunamis and ocean currents on synoptic to global...tracks associated with four GPS satellites, colourised by reflected signal power. The picture was generated by Google Earth and GPS Visualizer. Yu et al...not from satellite plat- forms. There are no geodetic services producing GNSS remote sensing products on a continuous, synoptic basis. From the IAG’s

  10. Birdsong and sound transmission : The benefits of reverberations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slabbekoorn, Hans; Ellers, Jacintha; Smith, Thomas B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal vocalizations used for long-distance communication are shaped by acoustic properties of the environment. Studies of the relationship between signal design and sound transmission typically focus on habitat-induced limitations due to signal attenuation and degradation. However, signal design

  11. Design and Construction of a Remote Controlled Fan Regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmud Shehu AHMED; Abubakar Sadiq MOHAMMED; Temitope George ONIMOLE; Paul Obafemi ATTAH

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a simple design and implementation of a remote controlled fan regulator. It enables the user to operate a fan regulator from approximately 10 meters away. The remote transmits a tone using an infrared light-emitting diode. This tone is decoded by a receiver, since the receiver only switches when the tone is received. The system was broken down into simpler functional blocks namely; infra-red transmitter, infra-red sensor, signal amplifier, control logic, sampler, control st...

  12. The automotive transmission book

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert; Jürgens, Gunter; Najork, Rolf; Pollak, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    This book presents essential information on systems and interactions in automotive transmission technology and outlines the methodologies used to analyze and develop transmission concepts and designs. Functions of and interactions between components and subassemblies of transmissions are introduced, providing a basis for designing transmission systems and for determining their potentials and properties in vehicle-specific applications: passenger cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and motorcycles. With these fundamentals the presentation provides universal resources for both state-of-the-art and future transmission technologies, including systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  13. Multiscale Signal Analysis and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Zayed, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Multiscale Signal Analysis and Modeling presents recent advances in multiscale analysis and modeling using wavelets and other systems. This book also presents applications in digital signal processing using sampling theory and techniques from various function spaces, filter design, feature extraction and classification, signal and image representation/transmission, coding, nonparametric statistical signal processing, and statistical learning theory. This book also: Discusses recently developed signal modeling techniques, such as the multiscale method for complex time series modeling, multiscale positive density estimations, Bayesian Shrinkage Strategies, and algorithms for data adaptive statistics Introduces new sampling algorithms for multidimensional signal processing Provides comprehensive coverage of wavelets with presentations on waveform design and modeling, wavelet analysis of ECG signals and wavelet filters Reviews features extraction and classification algorithms for multiscale signal and image proce...

  14. Advanced remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator concept is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, reliability, radiation tolerance, and corrosion resistance. The advanced servomanipulator is uniquely subdivided into remotely replaceable modules which will permit in situ manipulator repair by spare module replacement. Manipulator modularization and increased reliability are accomplished through a force transmission system that uses gears and torque tubes. Digital control algorithms and mechanical precision are used to offset the increased backlash, friction, and inertia resulting from the gear drives. This results in the first remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator in the world. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  15. IAEA perspective on remote monitoring development and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparo, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA has made rapid progress in exploiting remote monitoring in 84 systems and 302 cameras, which are spread over 15 states and Taiwan. The increased use, since 2003, of remote monitoring of VACOSS electronic seals is a new feature. Successful use of remote monitoring to spot potential breakdowns through state-of-health diagnostics on 14 occasions is also an important motivation for further implementation. This paper gave detailed descriptions of installed systems for data acquisition and transmission, particularly the SDIS (up to six cameras) and DMOS (up to 16 cameras). IAEA policy for data security and data sharing raise important issues that are relevant to cooperation in transparency that might be based on sharing of data from safeguards systems. Implementation of new remote monitoring systems may utilize satellite links, as under testing now in cooperation between the IAEA and the European Space Agency (ESA). (author)

  16. Force transmission in epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Martin, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    In epithelial tissues, cells constantly generate and transmit forces between each other. Forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton regulate tissue shape and structure and also provide signals that influence cells' decisions to divide, die, or differentiate. Forces are transmitted across epithelia because cells are mechanically linked through junctional complexes, and forces can propagate through the cell cytoplasm. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for force generation, with a specific focus on the actomyosin cortex and adherens junctions. We then discuss evidence for how these mechanisms promote cell shape changes and force transmission in tissues. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. NASA Fluid Lensing & MiDAR: Next-Generation Remote Sensing Technologies for Aquatic Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirayath, Ved

    2018-01-01

    We present two recent instrument technology developments at NASA, Fluid Lensing and MiDAR, and their application to remote sensing of Earth's aquatic systems. Fluid Lensing is the first remote sensing technology capable of imaging through ocean waves in 3D at sub-cm resolutions. MiDAR is a next-generation active hyperspectral remote sensing and optical communications instrument capable of active fluid lensing. Fluid Lensing has been used to provide 3D multispectral imagery of shallow marine systems from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, or drones), including coral reefs in American Samoa and stromatolite reefs in Hamelin Pool, Western Australia. MiDAR is being deployed on aircraft and underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to enable a new method for remote sensing of living and nonliving structures in extreme environments. MiDAR images targets with high-intensity narrowband structured optical radiation to measure an objectâ€"TM"s non-linear spectral reflectance, image through fluid interfaces such as ocean waves with active fluid lensing, and simultaneously transmit high-bandwidth data. As an active instrument, MiDAR is capable of remotely sensing reflectance at the centimeter (cm) spatial scale with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) multiple orders of magnitude higher than passive airborne and spaceborne remote sensing systems with significantly reduced integration time. This allows for rapid video-frame-rate hyperspectral sensing into the far ultraviolet and VNIR wavelengths. Previously, MiDAR was developed into a TRL 2 laboratory instrument capable of imaging in thirty-two narrowband channels across the VNIR spectrum (400-950nm). Recently, MiDAR UV was raised to TRL4 and expanded to include five ultraviolet bands from 280-400nm, permitting UV remote sensing capabilities in UV A, B, and C bands and enabling mineral identification and stimulated fluorescence measurements of organic proteins and compounds, such as green fluorescent proteins in terrestrial and

  18. Retrograde signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleine, Tatjana; Leister, Dario Michael

    2016-01-01

    The term retrograde signaling refers to the fact that chloroplasts and mitochondria utilize specific signaling molecules to convey information on their developmental and physiological states to the nucleus and modulate the expression of nuclear genes accordingly. Signals emanating from plastids...... of retrograde signaling has since been extended and revised. Elements of several 'operational' signaling circuits have come to light, including metabolites, signaling cascades in the cytosol and transcription factors. Here, we review recent advances in the identification and characterization of retrograde...

  19. 47 CFR 73.1400 - Transmission system monitoring and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... monitoring and control. The licensee of an AM, FM, TV or Class A TV station is responsible for assuring that... person at the transmitter site; or (ii) Remote control of the transmission system by a person at the main... operate the station's transmitter and maintain technical parameters within licensed values. (3) A hybrid...

  20. Monitoring in vivo load transmission through an external fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasa, J; Gómez-Benito, M J; González-Torres, L A; Asiaín, D; Quero, F; García-Aznar, J M

    2010-03-01

    This work presents a portable non-invasive external fixator to assess and monitor fracture healing in real time. To evaluate the potential of this fixator, a transverse osteotomy was performed in the tibia of six adult sheep (mean age 3+/-0.5 years and weight 63+/-5 kg). The fractures were stabilized by a specially designed unilateral external fixator, which was instrumented by means of a set of strain gauges. Strains in the external surface of the fixator were monitored during all the healing process. A wireless, remote monitoring of the implant was developed through a specially designed external telemetric device. The strain gauges were arranged in two different half-bridge Wheatstone configurations, allowing easy post-processing of the signal. Thus, bending loads were measured in two planes of the external fixator acting as a load cell. The load through the fixator was evaluated for the gait cycle during all the healing process. Full weight bearing of the injured leg was observed from the beginning. The load transmission mechanism in the fixator was quite similar in all operated tibias and radiographic images showed a successful healing in all animals. Although the fixator has only been tested in an animal model, after further testing this system may have clinical potential.

  1. A Remote Health Monitoring System for the Elderly Based on Smart Home Gateway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Kai; Shao, Minggang; Wu, Shuicai

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposed a remote health monitoring system for the elderly based on smart home gateway. The proposed system consists of three parts: the smart clothing, the smart home gateway, and the health care server. The smart clothing collects the elderly's electrocardiogram (ECG) and motion signals. The home gateway is used for data transmission. The health care server provides services of data storage and user information management; it is constructed on the Windows-Apache-MySQL-PHP (WAMP) platform and is tested on the Ali Cloud platform. To resolve the issues of data overload and network congestion of the home gateway, an ECG compression algorithm is applied. System demonstration shows that the ECG signals and motion signals of the elderly can be monitored. Evaluation of the compression algorithm shows that it has a high compression ratio and low distortion and consumes little time, which is suitable for home gateways. The proposed system has good scalability, and it is simple to operate. It has the potential to provide long-term and continuous home health monitoring services for the elderly.

  2. Encrypted Signal Processing for Privacy Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavallaro, A.; Lagendijk, R. (Inald) L.; Erkin, Zekeriya; Erkin, Zekeriya; Kwasinski, A.; Barni, Mauro

    In recent years, signal processing applications that deal with user-related data have aroused privacy concerns. For instance, face recognition and personalized recommendations rely on privacy-sensitive information that can be abused if the signal processing is executed on remote servers or in the

  3. Propagation behaviour of overhead transmission lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-02-27

    Feb 27, 2004 ... leading to low Signal to Noise Ratios (SNR) and consequent reduced propagation conditions require specific transmission and reception conditions over .... the ambient temperature and wind velocity, intensity of solar radiation, conditions of conductor surface and the conductor resistance. This temperature ...

  4. Remote Monitoring for Chronic Disease Management: Atrial Fibrillation and Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Maki; Varma, Niraj

    2018-03-01

    This review aims to cover the latest evidence of remote monitoring of cardiac implantable electronic devices for the management of atrial fibrillation and heart failure. Remote monitoring is useful for early detection for device-detected atrial fibrillation, which increases the risk of thromboembolic events. Early anticoagulation based on remote monitoring potentially reduces the risk of stroke, but optimal alert setting needs to be clarified. Multiparameter monitoring with automatic transmission is useful for heart failure management. Improved adherence to remote monitoring and an optimal algorithm for transmitted alerts and their management are warranted in the management of heart failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. New receiving line for the remote-steering antenna of the 140 GHz CTS diagnostics in the FTU Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcangelo, O.; Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; Cappelli, M.; Fanale, F.; Gittini, G.; Pallotta, F.; Rocchi, G.; Tudisco, O.; Garavaglia, S.; Granucci, G.; Moro, A.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    A new receiving antenna for collecting signals of the Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostics in FTU Tokamak has been recently installed. The squared corrugated section and the precisely defined length make it possible to receive from different directions by remotely steering the receiving mirrors. This type of Remote-Steering (RS) antennas, being studied on FTU for the DEMO Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) system launch, is already installed on the W7- X stellarator and will be tested in the next campaign. The transmission of the signal from the antenna in the tokamak hall to the CTS diagnostics hall will be mainly realized by means of oversized circular corrugated waveguides carrying the hybrid HE11 (quasi-gaussian) waveguide mode, with inclusion of a special smooth-waveguide section and a short run of reduced-size square-corrugated waveguide through the tokamak bio-shield. The coupling between different waveguide types is made with ellipsoidal focusing mirrors, using quasi-optical matching formulas between the gaussian-shaped beams in input and output to the waveguides. In this work, after a complete study of feasibility of the overall line, a design for the receiving line will be proposed, in order to realize an executive layout to be used as a guideline for the commissioning phase.

  6. Remote monitoring and its implication in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki; Kim, Jong Soo; Kim, Jung Soo; An, Jin Soo; Kwack, Eun Ho

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Remote monitoring can provide technical advantages such as reductions in inspection labor hours and exposures in radiation, as well as less intrusiveness to facility operators, while maintaining continuity of knowledge through timely inspection and cost effectiveness if it is used properly. But it has also drawbacks such as possible loss of information surety, and heavy initial investment and transmission cost. In Korea remote monitoring has been operating as a part of enhanced cooperation with the IAEA to reduce safeguards efforts in PWRs, by the recommendation of the working group of the IAEA and Korea since August 2000. Before then, as a task of Korean support program one reactor was operating with remote monitoring. At this moment six reactors are under operation of remote monitoring. And by May 2001 it will be extended to twelve reactors, all PWRs in Korea. It is implemented to combine existing digital surveillance and seals with connection of transmission lines, based on assumption without much additional cost that the member state can bear. Remote monitoring becomes a backbone of safeguards implementation to the IAEA and Korea safeguards as a solution to seek more efficient and effective ways of safeguards implementation on PWRs, where the Korea assumes routine inspections, while the IAEA takes PIV and random inspections. Enhanced cooperation is based on share of data and transfer through remote monitoring. Field trials show that there are some difficulties in hardware and cost. Hardware failures are being fixed. And As regards transmission cost, there are two methods considered such as introduction of a new technology, VPN (Virtual Private Network), and data amount reduction. VPN that uses public networks may be an ultimate solution in the point of cost reduction that may needs more tests. It is under development as a test of Korean support program. Another approach is to elongate PTI (Picture Taking Interval) of surveillance camera within

  7. NET remote workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinemann, K.

    1990-10-01

    The goal of this NET study was to define the functionality of a remote handling workstation and its hardware and software architecture. The remote handling workstation has to fulfill two basic functions: (1) to provide the man-machine interface (MMI), that means the interface to the control system of the maintenance equipment and to the working environment (telepresence) and (2) to provide high level (task level) supporting functions (software tools) during the maintenance work and in the preparation phase. Concerning the man-machine interface, an important module of the remote handling workstation besides the standard components of man-machine interfacing is a module for graphical scene presentation supplementing viewing by TV. The technique of integrated viewing is well known from JET BOOM and TARM control using the GBsim and KISMET software. For integration of equipment dependent MMI functions the remote handling workstation provides a special software module interface. Task level support of the operator is based on (1) spatial (geometric/kinematic) models, (2) remote handling procedure models, and (3) functional models of the equipment. These models and the related simulation modules are used for planning, programming, execution monitoring, and training. The workstation provides an intelligent handbook guiding the operator through planned procedures illustrated by animated graphical sequences. For unplanned situations decision aids are available. A central point of the architectural design was to guarantee a high flexibility with respect to hardware and software. Therefore the remote handling workstation is designed as an open system based on widely accepted standards allowing the stepwise integration of the various modules starting with the basic MMI and the spatial simulation as standard components. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Remote entanglement of transmon qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatridge, M.; Sliwa, K.; Narla, A.; Shankar, S.; Leghtas, Z.; Mirrahimi, M.; Girvin, S. M.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

    2014-03-01

    An open challenge in quantum information processing with superconducting circuits is to entangle distant (non-nearest neighbor) qubits. This can be accomplished by entangling the qubits with flying microwave oscillators (traveling pulses), and then performing joint operations on a pair of these oscillators. Remarkably, such a process is embedded in the act of phase-preserving amplification, which transforms two input modes (termed signal and idler) into a two-mode squeezed output state. For an ideal system, this process generates heralded, perfectly entangled states between remote qubits with a fifty percent success rate. For an imperfect system, the loss of information from the flying states degrades the purity of the entanglement. We show data on such a protocol involving two transmon qubits imbedded in superconducting cavities connected to the signal and idler inputs of a Josephson Parametric Converter (JPC) operated as a nearly-quantum limited phase-preserving amplifier. Strategies for optimizing performance will also be discussed. Work supported by: IARPA, ARO, and NSF.

  9. Image quality of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the liver using dual-source parallel radiofrequency transmission technology: Comparison with the post-processing correction method for B1 inhomogeneity-induced signal loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Yukihisa, E-mail: ytaka@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nishie, Akihiro, E-mail: anishie@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Asayama, Yoshiki, E-mail: asayama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ishigami, Kousei, E-mail: Ishigamikousei@aol.com [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kakihara, Daisuke, E-mail: kakky@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nakayama, Tomohiro, E-mail: tomo.n@maple.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yoshiura, Takashi, E-mail: tyoshiu@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Obara, Makoto, E-mail: makoto.obara@philips.com [Philips Electronics Japan, Kounan 2-13-37, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8507 (Japan); Hirakawa, Masakazu, E-mail: mahira@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Beppu Hospital, 4546 Tsurumihara, Beppu, Oita 874-0838 (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi, E-mail: honda@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of the dual-source parallel radiofrequency system (DS system) for gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-EOB-MRI). Materials and methods: Twenty-six subjects with liver diseases underwent hepatobiliary phase imaging of Gd-EOB-MRI using either the DS system or a single-source radiofrequency system with or without body-tuned CLEAR, which is a post-processing correction method of B1 inhomogeneity-induced signal loss (SSBTC+ and SSBTC-, respectively). The left and right lobes of the liver were separately assessed. Qualitatively, the homogeneity of signal intensity distribution was scored using a 3-point scale. Quantitatively, lesion-to-liver and spleen-to-liver contrast ratios (CRs) were calculated. The scores and CRs were compared among the three techniques by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference post hoc test. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant for each analysis. Results: The DS system showed a significantly better score in the left lobe of the liver, and higher lesion-to-liver and spleen-to-liver CRs in the left and right lobes of the liver, compared with SSBTC+ or SSBTC- (p < 0.05). The DS system and SSBTC- showed no significant differences in scores in the right lobe of the liver but they showed significantly better scores than SSBTC+ (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The DS system is more advantageous to improve the homogeneity of signal intensity distribution and tissue contrast of Gd-EOB-MRI than the post-processing correction method independently of the site.

  10. Remote electrochemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.; Larson, D.

    1997-10-14

    An electrochemical sensor is described for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis. 21 figs.

  11. Remote Reactor Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dazeley, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dobie, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marleau, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brennan, Jim [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gerling, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sumner, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweany, Melinda [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-21

    The overall goal of the WATCHMAN project is to experimentally demonstrate the potential of water Cerenkov antineutrino detectors as a tool for remote monitoring of nuclear reactors. In particular, the project seeks to field a large prototype gadolinium-doped, water-based antineutrino detector to demonstrate sensitivity to a power reactor at ~10 kilometer standoff using a kiloton scale detector. The technology under development, when fully realized at large scale, could provide remote near-real-time information about reactor existence and operational status for small operating nuclear reactors out to distances of many hundreds of kilometers.

  12. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, James B

    2012-01-01

    A leading text for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses, this book introduces widely used forms of remote sensing imagery and their applications in plant sciences, hydrology, earth sciences, and land use analysis. The text provides comprehensive coverage of principal topics and serves as a framework for organizing the vast amount of remote sensing information available on the Web. Including case studies and review questions, the book's four sections and 21 chapters are carefully designed as independent units that instructors can select from as needed for their courses. Illustrations in

  13. Spacecraft TT&C and information transmission theory and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiaxing

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft TT&C and Information Transmission Theory and Technologies introduces the basic theory of spacecraft TT&C (telemetry, track and command) and information transmission. Combining TT&C and information transmission, the book presents several technologies for continuous wave radar including measurements for range, range rate and angle, analog and digital information transmissions, telecommand, telemetry, remote sensing and spread spectrum TT&C. For special problems occurred in the channels for TT&C and information transmission, the book represents radio propagation features and its impact on orbit measurement accuracy, and the effects caused by rain attenuation, atmospheric attenuation and multi-path effect, and polarization composition technology. This book can benefit researchers and engineers in the field of spacecraft TT&C and communication systems. Liu Jiaxing is a professor at The 10th Institute of China Electronics Technology Group Corporation.

  14. Wireless remote monitoring system for sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Sleep plays the important role of rejuvenating the body, especially the central nervous system. However, more than thirty million people suffer from sleep disorders and sleep deprivation. That can cause serious health consequences by increasing the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart attack and so on. Apart from the physical health risk, sleep disorders can lead to social problems when sleep disorders are not diagnosed and treated. Currently, sleep disorders are diagnosed through sleep study in a sleep laboratory overnight. This involves large expenses in addition to the inconvenience of overnight hospitalization and disruption of daily life activities. Although some systems provide home based diagnosis, most of systems record the sleep data in a memory card, the patient has to face the inconvenience of sending the memory card to a doctor for diagnosis. To solve the problem, we propose a wireless sensor system for sleep apnea, which enables remote monitoring while the patient is at home. The system has 5 channels to measure ECG, Nasal airflow, body position, abdominal/chest efforts and oxygen saturation. A wireless transmitter unit transmits signals with Zigbee and a receiver unit which has two RF modules, Zigbee and Wi-Fi, receives signals from the transmitter unit and retransmits signals to the remote monitoring system with Zigbee and Wi-Fi, respectively. By using both Zigbee and Wi-Fi, the wireless sensor system can achieve a low power consumption and wide range coverage. The system's features are presented, as well as continuous monitoring results of vital signals.

  15. Measuring signal generators theory & design

    CERN Document Server

    Rybin, Yuriy K

    2014-01-01

    The book brings together the following issues: Theory of deterministic, random and discrete signals reproducible in oscillatory systems of generators; Generation of periodic signals with a specified spectrum, harmonic distortion factor and random signals with specified probability density function and spectral density; Synthesis of oscillatory system structures; Analysis of oscillatory systems with non-linear elements and oscillation amplitude stabilization systems; It considers the conditions and criteria of steady-state modes in signal generators on active four-pole elements with unidirectional and bidirectional transmission of signals and on two-pole elements; analogues of Barkhausen criteria; Optimization of oscillatory system structures by harmonic distortion level, minimization of a frequency error and set-up time of the steady state mode; Theory of construction of random signal generators; Construction of discrete and digital signal generators; Practical design of main units of generators; Practical bl...

  16. Image quality of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the liver using dual-source parallel radiofrequency transmission technology: Comparison with the post-processing correction method for B1 inhomogeneity-induced signal loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Yukihisa; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Ishigami, Kousei; Kakihara, Daisuke; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Yoshiura, Takashi; Obara, Makoto; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the dual-source parallel radiofrequency system (DS system) for gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-EOB-MRI). Twenty-six subjects with liver diseases underwent hepatobiliary phase imaging of Gd-EOB-MRI using either the DS system or a single-source radiofrequency system with or without body-tuned CLEAR, which is a post-processing correction method of B1 inhomogeneity-induced signal loss (SSBTC+ and SSBTC-, respectively). The left and right lobes of the liver were separately assessed. Qualitatively, the homogeneity of signal intensity distribution was scored using a 3-point scale. Quantitatively, lesion-to-liver and spleen-to-liver contrast ratios (CRs) were calculated. The scores and CRs were compared among the three techniques by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference post hoc test. Values of ppost-processing correction method independently of the site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... modulation levels apply: (i) When a signal exists in only one channel of a two channel (biphonic) sound... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission...

  18. Characterisation of random DFB Raman laser amplifier for WDM transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Paweł; Rizzelli, Giuseppe; Tan, Mingming; Harper, Paul; Ania-Castañόn, Juan Diego

    2015-11-02

    We perform a full numerical characterisation of half-open cavity random DFB Raman fibre laser amplifier schemes for WDM transmission in terms of signal power variation, noise and nonlinear impairments, showcasing the excellent potential of this scheme to provide amplification for DWDM transmission with very low gain variation.

  19. HDTV codec for high rate transmission on fiber optic links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antkowiak, Jochen

    1993-11-01

    The transmission of HDTV picture signals is usually carried out by bit rate reduced coding. The compression factor must be kept low for contribution quality. An HDTV codec based on DPCM processing was built to feed high performance video links including the transmission of audio channels. The data rate at the codec output is 648 Mbit/s.

  20. In-service crosstalk monitoring for dense space division multiplexed multi-core fiber transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizuno, T.; Isoda, A.; Shibahara, K.

    2017-01-01

    We present in-service inter-core crosstalk monitoring for MCF transmission systems. We transmit 54-WDM PDM-16QAM signals over 111.6-km 32-core DSDM transmission line incorporating cladding-pumped 32-core MC-EYDFA, and demonstrate -30 dB crosstalk monitoring without affecting transmission performa......We present in-service inter-core crosstalk monitoring for MCF transmission systems. We transmit 54-WDM PDM-16QAM signals over 111.6-km 32-core DSDM transmission line incorporating cladding-pumped 32-core MC-EYDFA, and demonstrate -30 dB crosstalk monitoring without affecting transmission...

  1. Bidirectional regulation of thermotaxis by glutamate transmissions in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnishi, Noriyuki; Kuhara, Atsushi; Nakamura, Fumiya; Okochi, Yoshifumi; Mori, Ikue

    2011-01-01

    In complex neural circuits of the brain, massive information is processed with neuronal communication through synaptic transmissions. It is thus fundamental to delineate information flows encoded by various kinds of transmissions. Here, we show that glutamate signals from two distinct sensory neurons bidirectionally affect the same postsynaptic interneuron, thereby producing the opposite behaviours. EAT-4/VGLUT (vesicular glutamate transporter)-dependent glutamate signals from AFD thermosenso...

  2. Design, Development and Implementation of the IR Signalling Techniques for Monitoring Ambient and Body Temperature in WBANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiya Baqai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare systems such as hospitals, homecare, telemedicine, and physical rehabilitation are expected to be revolutionized by WBAN (Wireless Body Area Networks. This research work aims to investigate, design, optimize, and demonstrate the applications of IR (Infra-Red communication systems in WBAN. It is aimed to establish a prototype WBAN system capable of measuring Ambient and Body Temperature using LM35 as temperature sensor and transmitting and receiving the data using optical signals. The corresponding technical challenges that have to be faced are also discussed in this paper. Investigations are carried out to efficiently design the hardware using low-cost and low power optical transceivers. The experimental results reveal the successful transmission and reception of Ambient and Body Temperatures over short ranges i.e. up to 3-4 meters. A simple IR transceiver with an LED (Light Emitting Diodes, TV remote control IC and Arduino microcontroller is designed to perform the transmission with sufficient accuracy and ease. Experiments are also performed to avoid interference from other sources like AC and TV remote control signals by implementing IR tags

  3. Remote counseling using HyperMirror quasi space-sharing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Sayuri; Morikawa, Osamu; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Maesako, Takanori

    2008-08-01

    In the modern information society, networks are getting faster, costs are getting lower, and displays are getting clearer. Today, just about anyone can easily use precise, dynamic, image distribution systems in their everyday life. Now, the question is how to give the benefits of network systems to the local community, as well as to each individual.This study was designed to use communication with realistic sensations to examine the effectiveness of remote individual counseling intervention in reducing depression, anxiety and stress in child-rearing mothers. Three child-rearing mothers residing in the city of Osaka each received one session of remote counseling intervention. The results showed an alleviation of stress related to child-rearing, i.e., the reduction in state anxiety, depression and subjective stress related to child-rearing. Moreover, an experimental demonstration employed a HyperMirror system capable of presenting visual and auditory images similar to reality, in order to provide the counselees with realistic sensations. While the voice communication environment was poor, the remote counseling allowed for the communication of sensory information, i.e., skinship that communicated information related to assurance/peace of mind, and auditory information, i.e., a whispering voices in which signals of affection were transmitted; the realistic sensation contributed to a reduction in stress levels. The positive effects of the intervention were confirmed through a pre and post intervention study. The results suggested the need to conduct future studies to confirm the mid- and long-term improvements caused by the intervention, as well as the need to improve the voice transmission environment.

  4. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system

  5. Department of Remote

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-11-10

    Nov 10, 2016 ... Department of Remote Sensing and Geoscience Information System, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. 2. Regional Centre for Training in Aerospace Surveys (RECTAS), Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Abstract. This study explored the use of geospatial techniques to assess land use change within.

  6. Section summary: Remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinda Arunarwati Margono

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing is an important data source for monitoring the change of forest cover, in terms of both total removal of forest cover (deforestation), and change of canopy cover, structure and forest ecosystem services that result in forest degradation. In the context of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), forest degradation monitoring requires information...

  7. Django Remote Submission

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner C. Hobson; Mathieu Doucet; Ricardo M. Ferraz Leal

    2017-01-01

    The Django Remote Submission is a Django application to manage long running job submission, including starting the job, saving logs, and storing results. It is an independent project available as a standalone pypi package. It can be easily integrated in any Django project.

  8. Design of Remote GPRS-based Gas Data Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiyue; Yang, Jianhua; Lu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of remote data transmission of gas flowmeter, and realize unattended operation on the spot, an unattended remote monitoring system based on GPRS for gas data is designed in this paper. The slave computer of this system adopts embedded microprocessor to read data of gas flowmeter through rs-232 bus and transfers it to the host computer through DTU. In the host computer, the VB program dynamically binds the Winsock control to receive and parse data. By using dynamic data exchange, the Kingview configuration software realizes history trend curve, real time trend curve, alarm, print, web browsing and other functions.

  9. Time-sensitive remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lippitt, Christopher; Coulter, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    This book documents the state of the art in the use of remote sensing to address time-sensitive information requirements. Specifically, it brings together a group of authors who are both researchers and practitioners, who work toward or are currently using remote sensing to address time-sensitive information requirements with the goal of advancing the effective use of remote sensing to supply time-sensitive information. The book addresses the theoretical implications of time-sensitivity on the remote sensing process, assessments or descriptions of methods for expediting the delivery and improving the quality of information derived from remote sensing, and describes and analyzes time-sensitive remote sensing applications, with an emphasis on lessons learned. This book is intended for remote sensing scientists, practitioners (e.g., emergency responders or administrators of emergency response agencies), and students, but will also be of use to those seeking to understand the potential of remote sensing to addres...

  10. Signal integrity characterization techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bogatin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    "Signal Integrity Characterization Techniques" addresses the gap between traditional digital and microwave curricula all while focusing on a practical and intuitive understanding of signal integrity effects within the data transmission channel. High-speed interconnects such as connectors, PCBs, cables, IC packages, and backplanes are critical elements of differential channels that must be designed using today's most powerful analysis and characterization tools.Both measurements and simulation must be done on the device under test, and both activities must yield data that correlates with each other. Most of this book focuses on real-world applications of signal integrity measurements - from backplane for design challenges to error correction techniques to jitter measurement technologies. The authors' approach wisely addresses some of these new high-speed technologies, and it also provides valuable insight into its future direction and will teach the reader valuable lessons on the industry.

  11. Cultural Transmission of Civicness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the intergeneration transmission of civicness by studying second generation immigrants in 29 European countries with ancestry in 83 nations. There is significant transmission of civicness both on the mother’s and the father’s side. The estimates are quantitatively significant...

  12. Cultural Transmission of Civicness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    This paper estimates the intergeneration transmission of civicness by studying second generation immigrants in 29 European countries with ancestry in 83 nations. There is significant transmission of civicness both on the mother’s and the father’s side. The estimates are quantitatively significant...

  13. Evaluation of remote monitoring at the Oak Ridge HEU storage vault -- First thoughts and final application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, K.B.; Whitaker, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Remote monitoring provides a more timely and comprehensive way to meet national and international requirements for monitoring nuclear material inventories. Unattended monitoring technologies could be used to meet national needs for nuclear material safety, protection, control and accountability. Unattended systems possessing a remote data transmission capability could be used to meet international requirements for nuclear material safeguards and transparency. Even though more enhancements are required to improve system reliability, remote monitoring''s future potential seems great. The key questions are: (1) how will remote monitoring systems be used (configuration and operation); (2) how effective will the system be (vs. current activities); and (3) how much will it cost. This paper provides preliminary answers to these questions based on the experience gained from a joint IAEA-United States Support Program (USSP) task to evaluate remote monitoring at the Oak Ridge HEU Storage vault. This paper also draws on experience gained from US involvement in other remote monitoring projects

  14. Influence of a remote microphone on localization with hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selby, Johan G.; Weisser, Adam; MacDonald, Ewen

    2017-01-01

    When used with hearing aids (HA), the addition of a remote microphone (RM) may alter the spatial perception of the listener. First, the RM signal is presented diotically from the HAs. Second, the processing in the HA often delays the RM signal relative to the HA microphone signals. Finally......, the level of the RM signal is independent of the distance from the RM to HA. The present study investigated localization performance of 15 normal-hearing and 9 hearing-impaired listeners under conditions simulating the use of an RM with a behind the ear (BTE) HA. Minimum audible angle discrimination around...

  15. Remote Sensing and the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, Craig A.; And Others

    This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…

  16. Multiresolution Source/Filter Model for Low Bitrate Coding of Spot Microphone Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Tsakalides

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A multiresolution source/filter model for coding of audio source signals (spot recordings is proposed. Spot recordings are a subset of the multimicrophone recordings of a music performance, before the mixing process is applied for producing the final multichannel audio mix. The technique enables low bitrate coding of spot signals with good audio quality (above 3.0 perceptual grade compared to the original. It is demonstrated that this particular model separates the various microphone recordings of a multimicrophone recording into a part that mainly characterizes a specific microphone signal and a part that is common to all signals of the same recording (and can thus be omitted during transmission. Our interest in low bitrate coding of spot recordings is related to applications such as remote mixing and real-time collaboration of musicians who are geographically distributed. Using the proposed approach, it is shown that it is possible to encode a multimicrophone audio recording using a single audio channel only, with additional information for each spot microphone signal in the order of 5 kbps, for good-quality resynthesis. This is verified by employing both objective and subjective measures of performance.

  17. Multiresolution Source/Filter Model for Low Bitrate Coding of Spot Microphone Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouchtaris Athanasios

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiresolution source/filter model for coding of audio source signals (spot recordings is proposed. Spot recordings are a subset of the multimicrophone recordings of a music performance, before the mixing process is applied for producing the final multichannel audio mix. The technique enables low bitrate coding of spot signals with good audio quality (above 3.0 perceptual grade compared to the original. It is demonstrated that this particular model separates the various microphone recordings of a multimicrophone recording into a part that mainly characterizes a specific microphone signal and a part that is common to all signals of the same recording (and can thus be omitted during transmission. Our interest in low bitrate coding of spot recordings is related to applications such as remote mixing and real-time collaboration of musicians who are geographically distributed. Using the proposed approach, it is shown that it is possible to encode a multimicrophone audio recording using a single audio channel only, with additional information for each spot microphone signal in the order of 5 kbps, for good-quality resynthesis. This is verified by employing both objective and subjective measures of performance.

  18. EMG amplifier with wireless data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Grzegorz; Wildner, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    Wireless medical diagnostics is a trend in modern technology used in medicine. This paper presents a concept of realization, architecture of hardware and software implementation of an elecromyography signal (EMG) amplifier with wireless data transmission. This amplifier consists of three components: analogue processing of bioelectric signal module, micro-controller circuit and an application enabling data acquisition via a personal computer. The analogue bioelectric signal processing circuit receives electromyography signals from the skin surface, followed by initial analogue processing and preparation of the signals for further digital processing. The second module is a micro-controller circuit designed to wirelessly transmit the electromyography signals from the analogue signal converter to a personal computer. Its purpose is to eliminate the need for wired connections between the patient and the data logging device. The third block is a computer application designed to display the transmitted electromyography signals, as well as data capture and analysis. Its purpose is to provide a graphical representation of the collected data. The entire device has been thoroughly tested to ensure proper functioning. In use, the device displayed the captured electromyography signal from the arm of the patient. Amplitude- frequency characteristics were set in order to investigate the bandwidth and the overall gain of the device.

  19. Power requirements and battery life measurement for wireless transmission between two nodes in different mediums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radouane Karli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important roles of the wireless sensor networks (WSN is to avoid wiring costs, be self-sustainable and be able to function for several years. However, due to the slow progress in battery technology, power continues to be a limited resource in wireless sensor communication and electric energy storage remains to be an important issue. On the other hand, if batteries must be replaced often, many remote sensing applications may become impractical. Therefore, batteries with long life on the order of several years are needed. This paper is an extension of work originally presented in The 5th International Conference on Electronic Devices, Systems and Applications to investigate further the power requirements for wireless data transfer between two nodes using batteries with different capacities (55 mAh, 550 mAh and 5500 mAh. In particular, the effect of a propagation medium such as air, distilled water and engine oil on the wireless communication inside a one meter long metallic pipe was investigated. Our first result shows a successful transmission of wireless signal through air, distilled water and oil medium with very low transmission losses. The second result shows that an increase in the battery capacity will increase the two-node wireless sensor operation time even in different propagation medium. This result can be used to determine the required battery capacity for extending the WSN operation time.

  20. Remote maintenance development for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Eisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes the overall ITER remote maintenance design concept developed mainly for in-vessel components such as diverters and blankets, and outlines the ITER R and D program to develop remote handling equipment and radiation hard components. Reactor structures inside the ITER cryostat must be maintained remotely due to DT operation, making remote handling technology basic to reactor design. The overall maintenance scenario and design concepts have been developed, and maintenance design feasibility, including fabrication and testing of full-scale in-vessel remote maintenance handling equipment and tool, is being verified. (author)

  1. The Ultimate Hacker: SETI Signals May Need to Be Decontaminated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.

    2004-06-01

    Biological contamination from space is a remote but recognized possibility. SETI signals might also contain harmful information. Some argue that a SETI signal could not contaminate a terrestrial computer because the idiosyncratic computer logic and code constitute an impenetrable firewall. Suggestions are given below on how to probe these arguments and decontaminate SETI signals.

  2. Steganography in arrhythmic electrocardiogram signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Jero, S; Ramu, Palaniappan; Ramakrishnan, S

    2015-08-01

    Security and privacy of patient data is a vital requirement during exchange/storage of medical information over communication network. Steganography method hides patient data into a cover signal to prevent unauthenticated accesses during data transfer. This study evaluates the performance of ECG steganography to ensure secured transmission of patient data where an abnormal ECG signal is used as cover signal. The novelty of this work is to hide patient data into two dimensional matrix of an abnormal ECG signal using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Singular Value Decomposition based steganography method. A 2D ECG is constructed according to Tompkins QRS detection algorithm. The missed R peaks are computed using RR interval during 2D conversion. The abnormal ECG signals are obtained from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. Metrics such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Percentage Residual Difference, Kullback-Leibler distance and Bit Error Rate are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach.

  3. Remote handling in ZEPHYR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Lackner, E.; Ulrich, M.; Weber, G.; Schilling, H.B.

    1982-04-01

    A conceptual design of the ZEPHYR building is described. The listed radiation data show that remote handling devices will be necessary in most areas of the building. For difficult repair and maintenance works it is intended to transfer complete units from the experimental hall to a hot cell which provides better working conditions. The necessary crane systems and other transport means are summarized as well as suitable commercially available manipulators and observation devices. The conept of automatic devices for cutting and welding and other operations inside the vacuum vessel and the belonging position control system is sketched. Guidelines for the design of passive components are set up in order to facilitate remote operation. (orig.)

  4. TFTR remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanos, P.; Lontai, L.

    1977-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is the first tokamak designed to utilize tritium plasmas and achieve significant neutron yields. Tritium operations are scheduled for the early 1980's at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Complex operations of unprecedented scale must be performed remotely. The design of TFTR and the maintenance system supporting it are developing in parallel. The nature of the problem and a proposed set of maintenance tools are described

  5. Remote entanglement distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.C.; Gour, G.; Meyer, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Shared bipartite entanglement is a crucial shared resource for many quantum information tasks such as teleportation, entanglement swapping, and remote state preparation. In general different nodes of a quantum network share an entanglement resource, such as ebits, that are consumed during the task. In practice, generating entangled states is expensive, but here we establish a protocol by which a quantum network requires only a single supplier of entanglement to all nodes who, by judicious measurements and classical communication, provides the nodes with a unique pair wise entangled state independent of the measurement outcome. Furthermore, we extend this result to a chain of suppliers and nodes, which enables an operational interpretation of concurrence. In the special case that the supplier shares bipartite states with two nodes, and such states are pure and maximally entangled, our protocol corresponds to entanglement swapping. However, in the practical case that initial shared entanglement between suppliers and nodes involves partially entangled or mixed states, we show that general local operations and classical communication by all parties (suppliers and nodes) yields distributions of entangled states between nodes. In general a distribution of bipartite entangled states between any two nodes will include states that do not have the same entanglement; thus we name this general process remote entanglement distribution. In our terminology entanglement swapping with partially entangled states is a particular class of remote entanglement distribution protocols. Here we identify which distributions of states that can or cannot be created by remote entanglement distribution. In particular we prove a powerful theorem that establishes an upper bound on the entanglement of formation that can be produced between two qubit nodes. We extend this result to the case of a linear chain of parties that play the roles of suppliers and nodes; this extension provides

  6. Remote maintenance development for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Eisuke; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    1997-01-01

    This paper both describes the overall design concept of the ITER remote maintenance system, which has been developed mainly for use with in-vessel components such as divertor and blanket, and outlines of the ITER R and D program, which has been established to develop remote handling equipment/tools and radiation hard components. In ITER, the reactor structures inside cryostat have to be maintained remotely because of activation due to DT operation. Therefore, remote-handling technology is fundamental, and the reactor-structure design must be made consistent with remote maintainability. The overall maintenance scenario and design concepts of the required remote handling equipment/tools have been developed according to their maintenance classification. Technologies are also being developed to verify the feasibility of the maintenance design and include fabrication and testing of a fullscale remote-handling equipment/tools for in-vessel maintenance. (author)

  7. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  8. Remote instrument telemaintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugier, A; Allahwerdi, N; Baudin, J; Gaffney, P; Grimson, W; Groth, T; Schilders, L

    1996-07-01

    In the past decade, great technological progress has been made in telemaintenance of mainframe and mini computers. As hardware technology is now available at an acceptable cost, computer aided trouble-shooting can be adapted to laboratory instrumentation in order to significantly improve repair time, avoid instrument downtime by taking advantage of predictive methods, and provide general diagnostic assistance. Depending on the size of the instrument, the telemaintenance facility can be dedicated to a single instrument or alternatively a telemaintenance server can manage multiple distributed small instruments through a Local Area Network. As complex failures can occur, the local diagnosis capabilities may be exceeded and automatic dialing for connection to computerized Remote Maintenance Centers is needed. The main advantages of such a centre, as compared to local diagnosis systems, are the increased access to more information and experience of failures from instrument installations, and consequently the provision of training data updates for Artificial Neural Networks and Knowledge Based Systems in general. When an abnormal situation is detected or anticipated by a diagnosis module, an automatic alert is given to the user, local diagnosis is activated, and for simple solutions, instructions are given to the operator. In the last resort, a human expert can be alerted who, with remote control tools, can attend to the failures. For both local and remote trouble-shooting, the data provided by the instrument and connected workstation is of paramount importance for the efficiency and accuracy of the diagnosis. Equally, the importance of standardization of telemaintenance communication protocols is addressed.

  9. Modular remote radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Fabio; Farias, Marcos S.; Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Oliveira, Mauro V.

    2013-01-01

    The Modular Remote Radiation Monitor (MRRM) is a novel radiation monitor suitable for monitoring environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. It is a portable compact-size low-power microprocessor-based electronic device which provides its monitoring data to other electronic systems, physically distant from it, by means of an electronic communication channel, which can be wired or wireless according to the requirements of each application. Besides its low-power highly-integrated circuit design, the Modular Remote Radiation Monitor is presented in a modular architecture, which promotes full compliance to the technical requirements of different applications while minimizing cost, size and power consumption. Its communication capability also supports the implementation of a network of multiple radiation monitors connected to a supervisory system, capable of remotely controlling each monitor independently as well as visualizing the radiation levels from all monitors. A prototype of the MRRM, functionally equivalent to the MRA-7027 radiation monitor, was implemented and connected to a wired MODBUS network of MRA-7027 monitors, responsible for monitoring ionizing radiation inside Argonauta reactor room at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear. Based on the highly positive experimental results obtained, further design is currently underway in order to produce a consumer version of the MRRM. (author)

  10. The influence of bubble populations generated under windy conditions on the blue-green light transmission in the upper ocean: An exploratory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengan; Tan, Jianyu; Lai, Qingzhi

    2016-12-01

    The “blue-green window” in the ocean plays an important role in functions such as communication between vessels, underwater target identification, and remote sensing. In this study, the transmission process of blue-green light in the upper ocean is analyzed numerically using the Monte Carlo method. First, the effect of total number of photons on the numerical results is evaluated, and the most favorable number is chosen to ensure accuracy without excessive costs for calculation. Then, the physical and mathematical models are constructed. The rough sea surface is generated under windy conditions and the transmission signals are measured in the far field. Therefore, it can be conceptualized as a 1D slab with a rough boundary surface. Under windy conditions, these bubbles form layers that are horizontally homogeneous and decay exponentially with depth under the influence of gravity. The effects of bubble populations on the process of blue-green light transmission at different wind speeds, wavelengths, angle of incidence and chlorophyll-a concentrations are studied for both air-incident and water-incident cases. The results of this study indicate that the transmission process of blue-green light is significantly influenced by bubbles under high wind-speed conditions.

  11. High bit rate optical transmission using midspan spectral inversion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    also known under (Optical Phase. Conjugation "OPC") compensates at the same time the chromatic dispersion and the. SPM [8-13]. The principle of MSSI is the spectral inversion of the spectrum of optical signal, and it is placed in the middle of the transmission span [7-8]. In the first half of the span, the signal disperses, thus.

  12. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the international VDI congress 'Gears in vehicles 2010' of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 22nd and 23rd June, 2010, in Friedrichshafen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) 8HP70H - The moldhybrid transmission from ZF - Cjallenges and achievements (P. Gutmann); (2) GETRAG boosted range extender - A highly flexible electric powertrain for maximum CO{sub 2} reduction (S. Huepkes); (3) E-Transmission between full-hybrid and E-drive (P. Tenberge); (4) Reducing NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in electrified drivelines (R. Kuberczyk); (5) Simulation aided HEV and EV development: from the component to the whole powertrain (A. Gacometti); (6) Investigations on operating behaviour of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehn); (7) Customer-oriented dimensioning of electrified drivetrains (M. Eghtessad); (8) Decentralized optimal control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (A. Frenkel); (9) The new generation 6-speed automatic transmission AF40 (G. Bednarek); (10) Customized mechatronic solutions for integrated transmission control units (M. Wieczorek); (11) The optimal automatic transmission for front-transverse applications - Planetary transmissions or dual clutch transmissions? (G. Gumpoltsberger); (12) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Requirements and concept (T. Guttenbergere); (13) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Realization (A. Giefer); (14) Fuel-efficient transmissions of the future: Calculation of the efficiency factor for vehicle transmissions (B. Volpert); (15) HT-ACM: A new polymer generation for static and dynamic gearbox sealing solutions (E. Osen); (16) 'Energy efficiency equipped solutions by SKF' for power train applications - A contribution to CO{sub 2} - emission reduction and sustainability (T. Bobke); (17) 6-Ratio planetary shift transmission controlled by 4 external brakes, and design

  13. Autonomous Coral Reef Survey in Support of Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G. Ackleson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An autonomous surface vehicle instrumented with optical and acoustical sensors was deployed in Kane'ohe Bay, HI, U.S.A., to provide high-resolution, in situ observations of coral reef reflectance with minimal human presence. The data represented a wide range in bottom type, water depth, and illumination and supported more thorough investigations of remote sensing methods for identifying and mapping shallow reef features. The in situ data were used to compute spectral bottom reflectance and remote sensing reflectance, Rrs,λ, as a function of water depth and benthic features. The signals were used to distinguish between live coral and uncolonized sediment within the depth range of the measurements (2.5–5 m. In situRrs, λ were found to compare well with remotely sensed measurements from an imaging spectrometer, the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS, deployed on an aircraft at high altitude. Cloud cover and in situ sensor orientation were found to have minimal impact on in situRrs, λ, suggesting that valid reflectance data may be collected using autonomous surveys even when atmospheric conditions are not favorable for remote sensing operations. The use of reflectance in the red and near infrared portions of the spectrum, expressed as the red edge height, REHλ, was investigated for detecting live aquatic vegetative biomass, including coral symbionts and turf algae. The REHλ signal from live coral was detected in Kane'ohe Bay to a depth of approximately 4 m with in situ measurements. A remote sensing algorithm based on the REHλ signal was defined and applied to AVIRIS imagery of the entire bay and was found to reveal areas of shallow, dense coral and algal cover. The peak wavelength of REHλ decreased with increasing water depth, indicating that a more complete examination of the red edge signal may potentially yield a remote sensing approach to simultaneously estimate vegetative biomass and bathymetry in shallow water.

  14. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Within the last decade we have experienced deregulation of several industries, such as airlines, telecommunications and the electric utility industry, the last-mentioned being the focus of this work. Both the telecommunications and the electricity sector depend on network facilities, some of which are still considered as natural monopolies. In these industries, open network access is regarded as crucial in order to achieve the gains from increased competition, and transmission tariffs are important in implementing this. Based on the Energy Act that was introduced in 1991, Norway was among the first countries to restructure its electricity sector. On the supply side there are a large number of competing firms, almost exclusively hydro plants, with a combined capacity of about 23000 MW, producing 105-125 TWh per year, depending on the availability of water. Hydro plants are characterized by low variable costs of operation, however since water may be stored in dams, water has an opportunity cost, generally known as the water value, which is the shadow price of water when solving the generator's inter temporal profit maximization problem. Water values are the main factor of the producers' short run marginal cost. Total consumption amounts to 112-117 TWh a year, and consumers, even households, may choose their electricity supplier independent of the local distributor to which the customer is connected. In fact, approximately 10% of the households have actually changed supplier. The web-site www.konkurransetilsynet.no indicates available contracts, and www.dinside.no provides an ''energy-calculator'' where one can check whether it is profitable to switch supplier. If a customer buys energy from a remote supplier, the local distributor only provides transportation facilities for the energy and is compensated accordingly. Transmission and distribution have remained monopolized and regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy

  15. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Within the last decade we have experienced deregulation of several industries, such as airlines, telecommunications and the electric utility industry, the last-mentioned being the focus of this work. Both the telecommunications and the electricity sector depend on network facilities, some of which are still considered as natural monopolies. In these industries, open network access is regarded as crucial in order to achieve the gains from increased competition, and transmission tariffs are important in implementing this. Based on the Energy Act that was introduced in 1991, Norway was among the first countries to restructure its electricity sector. On the supply side there are a large number of competing firms, almost exclusively hydro plants, with a combined capacity of about 23000 MW, producing 105-125 TWh per year, depending on the availability of water. Hydro plants are characterized by low variable costs of operation, however since water may be stored in dams, water has an opportunity cost, generally known as the water value, which is the shadow price of water when solving the generator's inter temporal profit maximization problem. Water values are the main factor of the producers' short run marginal cost. Total consumption amounts to 112-117 TWh a year, and consumers, even households, may choose their electricity supplier independent of the local distributor to which the customer is connected. In fact, approximately 10% of the households have actually changed supplier. The web-site www.konkurransetilsynet.no indicates available contracts, and www.dinside.no provides an ''energy-calculator'' where one can check whether it is profitable to switch supplier. If a customer buys energy from a remote supplier, the local distributor only provides transportation facilities for the energy and is compensated accordingly. Transmission and distribution have remained monopolized and regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE). To prevent cross

  16. Topics in Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Within the last decade we have experienced deregulation of several industries, such as airlines, telecommunications and the electric utility industry, the last-mentioned being the focus of this work. Both the telecommunications and the electricity sector depend on network facilities, some of which are still considered as natural monopolies. In these industries, open network access is regarded as crucial in order to achieve the gains from increased competition, and transmission tariffs are important in implementing this. Based on the Energy Act that was introduced in 1991, Norway was among the first countries to restructure its electricity sector. On the supply side there are a large number of competing firms, almost exclusively hydro plants, with a combined capacity of about 23000 MW, producing 105-125 TWh per year, depending on the availability of water. Hydro plants are characterized by low variable costs of operation, however since water may be stored in dams, water has an opportunity cost, generally known as the water value, which is the shadow price of water when solving the generator's inter temporal profit maximization problem. Water values are the main factor of the producers' short run marginal cost. Total consumption amounts to 112-117 TWh a year, and consumers, even households, may choose their electricity supplier independent of the local distributor to which the customer is connected. In fact, approximately 10% of the households have actually changed supplier. The web-site www.konkurransetilsynet.no indicates available contracts, and www.dinside.no provides an ''energy-calculator'' where one can check whether it is profitable to switch supplier. If a customer buys energy from a remote supplier, the local distributor only provides transportation facilities for the energy and is compensated accordingly. Transmission and distribution have remained monopolized and regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy

  17. An Algebraic Approach to Signaling Cascades with n Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Knudsen, Michael; Andersen, Lars Nørvang

    2011-01-01

    Posttranslational modification of proteins is key in transmission of signals in cells. Many signaling pathways contain several layers of modification cycles that mediate and change the signal through the pathway. Here, we study a simple signaling cascade consisting of n layers of modification...

  18. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  19. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  20. Watching Handball Transmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    The current article presents a qualitative study of Danish television viewer’s reception of Danish handball transmissions. The overall aim of the study has been to contribute to a more nuanced understanding of televised sport as a specific kind of television entertainment. The analysis shows that......, due to the dramaturgic structure of handball transmissions, viewers consider such transmissions particularly reliable and effective sources of entertainment. The transmissions’ entertainment value derives from their specific ability to give the viewers a complex experience of feeling autonomous...... and competent when mastering the game and in relation to others. The study shows that entertainment concerns both affective involvement and identity formation, as social and cultural meaning seem to be at the root of involvement. Even though both men and women find great joy in the transmissions, their viewing...

  1. Detection of Noise in Composite Step Signal Pattern by Visualizing Signal Waveforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaman Verma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Step Composite Signals is the combination of vital informative signals that are compressed and coded to produce a predefined test image on a display device. It carries the desired sequence of information from source to destination. This information may be transmitted as digital signal, video information or data signal required as an input for the destination module. For testing of display panels, Composite Test Signals are the most important attribute of test signal transmission system. In the current research paper we present an approach for the noise detection in Composite Step Signal by analysing Composite Step Signal waveforms. The analysis of the signal waveforms reveals that the noise affected components of the signal and subsequently noise reduction process is initiated which targets noisy signal component only. Thus the quality of signal is not compromised during noise reduction process.

  2. Remote-sensing satellite ground station evaluation using QPSK emulator with test pattern and PRBS generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, R.; Nithyanandan, L.; Umadevi, G.; Padmavathi, C. S.; Nayani, Radha

    2015-12-01

    In order to validate the performance of X-band (8000-8400 MHz) remote-sensing satellite receive chain, when the satellite is not in the vicinity of ground station, local loop end-end evaluation tests are mandatory to certify the RF downlink and base band receive chain performance. A customised test patterns compatible to IRS satellite series and PRBS sequence are generated, which are modulated using QPSK emulator to check and verify the satellite downlink chain performance. The design and implementation are done using novel digital techniques, and QPSK modulator is integrated with Test pattern and PRBS generator using state-of-art FPGAs. The QPSK emulator output is connected to high-speed fibre optic link which transfers the signal to near field bore-site antenna system. The test signal is thus up converted from 2557.5 MHz (S-band) frequency to required satellite carrier frequency of 8212.5 MHz; the emulated test signal is radiated from bore-site antenna, which simulates real-time satellite data transmission from space. Thus, the signal received by the parabolic dish antenna is down converted to 720 MHz, demodulated, bit synchronized, clock recovered, and frame synchronized. The evaluation of frame sync errors is done for good video data quality check. Also in the QPSK emulator, there is option of PRBS mode. Hence, using this option, the RF downlink and receive chain are evaluated for good Bit error rate (BER). The BER requirement is 1 error (tolerable) in 106 Million bits. The QPSK emulator has the provision to support different frequencies and data rates corresponding to all IRS satellite missions.

  3. Microwave power - An energy transmission alternative for the year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalos, E.; Sperber, R.

    1980-01-01

    Recent technological advances related to the feasibility of efficient RF-dc rectification make it likely that by the year 2000 the transmission of power through space will have become a practical reality. Proposals have been made to power helicopters, aircraft, balloons, and rockets remotely. Other proposals consider the transfer of power from point to point on earth via relay through space or a transmission of power from large power sources in space. Attention has also been given to possibilities regarding the transmission of power between various points in the solar system. An outline is provided of the microwave power transmission system envisaged for the solar power satellite, taking into account the transmitting antenna, the receiver on earth, aspects of beam formation and control, transmitter options, the receiving antenna design, and cost and efficiency considerations.

  4. Research on Image Transmission System Based on 3G Communication Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Zang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A wireless image real-time transmission system is designed by using 3G wireless communication platform and ARM + DSP embedded system. In the environment of 3G networks, the embedded equipment has realized the functions of coding, acquisition, network transmission, decoding and playing. It is realized for real-time video of intelligent control and video compression, storage and playback in the 3G embedded image transmission system. It is especially suitable for remote location or irregular cable network transmission conditions applications. It is shown that in the 3G network video files are transferred quickly. The real-time transmission of H.264 video is broadcasted smoothly, and color distortion is less. The server can control client by remote intelligent units.

  5. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-26

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  6. Distributed generation: remote power systems with advanced storage technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Woodrow; Isherwood, William

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses derived from an earlier hypothetical study of remote villiages. It considers the policy implications for communities who have their own local power resources rather than those distributed through transmission from distant sources such as dams, coal power plants or even renewables generation from wind farms, solar thermal or other resources. The issues today, post 911 and the energy crises in California, Northeast North America and Europe, signal the need for a new and different approach to energy supply(s), reliability and dissemination. Distributed generation (DG) as explored in the earlier paper appears to be one such approach that allows for local communities to become energy self-sufficient. Along with energy conservation, efficiency, and on-site generation, local power sources provide concrete definitions and understandings for heretofore ill defined concepts such as sustainability and eco-systems. The end result for any region and nation-state are 'agile energy systems' which use flexible DG, on-site generation and conservation systems meeting the needs of local communities. Now the challenge is to demonstrate and provide economic and policy structures for implementing new advanced technologies for local communities. For institutionalizing economically viable and sound environmental technologies then new finance mechanisms must be established that better reflect the true costs of clean energy distributed in local communities. For example, the aggregation of procurement contracts for on-site solar systems is far more cost effective than for each business owner, public building or household to purchase its own separate units. Thus mass purchasing contracts that are link technologies as hybrids can dramatically reduce costs. In short public-private partnerships can implement the once costly clean energy technologies into local DG systems

  7. National transmission grid study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Spencer [USDOE Office of the Secretary of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  8. High Capacity Radio over Fiber Transmission Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    , it was the highest bitrate reported of a wireless signal, with complex modulation format, detected using photonic means. I have developed an analytical model to support the experimental results and performed a linearity characterization to establish engineering design rules for this type of links. The results...... confirmed that this configuration provides high linear end-to-end transmission links and is capable of transparent transport of high spectral efficient modulation formats. Furthermore, this thesis introduces a novel approach for the generation and detection of high speed wireless signals in mm......This thesis expands the state-of-the-art on the detection of high speed wireless signals using optics. Signal detection at speeds over 1 Gbps at carrier Radio Frequency (RF) ranging from 5 GHz to 100 GHz have been achieved by applying novel concepts on optical digital coherent receivers...

  9. Lactation Biology Symposium: Lactocrine signaling and developmental programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactocrine signaling is defined as transmission of bioactive factors from mother to offspring as a consequence of nursing. Lactocrine transmission of signaling molecules may be an evolutionarily conserved process through which bioactive factors necessary for support of neonatal development are deliv...

  10. Astrocytes optimize the synaptic transmission of information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhita Nadkarni

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical synapses transmit information via the release of neurotransmitter-filled vesicles from the presynaptic terminal. Using computational modeling, we predict that the limited availability of neurotransmitter resources in combination with the spontaneous release of vesicles limits the maximum degree of enhancement of synaptic transmission. This gives rise to an optimal tuning that depends on the number of active zones. There is strong experimental evidence that astrocytes that enwrap synapses can modulate the probabilities of vesicle release through bidirectional signaling and hence regulate synaptic transmission. For low-fidelity hippocampal synapses, which typically have only one or two active zones, the predicted optimal values lie close to those determined by experimentally measured astrocytic feedback, suggesting that astrocytes optimize synaptic transmission of information.

  11. Bidirectional regulation of thermotaxis by glutamate transmissions in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Noriyuki; Kuhara, Atsushi; Nakamura, Fumiya; Okochi, Yoshifumi; Mori, Ikue

    2011-04-06

    In complex neural circuits of the brain, massive information is processed with neuronal communication through synaptic transmissions. It is thus fundamental to delineate information flows encoded by various kinds of transmissions. Here, we show that glutamate signals from two distinct sensory neurons bidirectionally affect the same postsynaptic interneuron, thereby producing the opposite behaviours. EAT-4/VGLUT (vesicular glutamate transporter)-dependent glutamate signals from AFD thermosensory neurons inhibit the postsynaptic AIY interneurons through activation of GLC-3/GluCl inhibitory glutamate receptor and behaviourally drive migration towards colder temperature. By contrast, EAT-4-dependent glutamate signals from AWC thermosensory neurons stimulate the AIY neurons to induce migration towards warmer temperature. Alteration of the strength of AFD and AWC signals led to significant changes of AIY activity, resulting in drastic modulation of behaviour. We thus provide an important insight on information processing, in which two glutamate transmissions encoding opposite information flows regulate neural activities to produce a large spectrum of behavioural outputs.

  12. Fiber-optic data-transmission system for borehole logging. Final report. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, G.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the system is to provide signal transmission media for transmission of digital data from a borehole logging probe (and associated processor-electronics) to a borehole logging truck at the surface. This fiber optic transmission system is specifically designed for use on the Bendix Field Engineering Corp. (BFEC) R and D logging truck

  13. Remotely Accessed Vehicle Traffic Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Raida

    2010-06-01

    The ever increasing number of vehicles in most metropolitan cities around the world and the limitation in altering the transportation infrastructure, led to serious traffic congestion and an increase in the travelling time. In this work we exploit the emergence of novel technologies such as the internet, to design an intelligent Traffic Management System (TMS) that can remotely monitor and control a network of traffic light controllers located at different sites. The system is based on utilizing Embedded Web Servers (EWS) technology to design a web-based TMS. The EWS located at each intersection uses IP technology for communicating remotely with a Central Traffic Management Unit (CTMU) located at the traffic department authority. Friendly GUI software installed at the CTMU will be able to monitor the sequence of operation of the traffic lights and the presence of traffic at each intersection as well as remotely controlling the operation of the signals. The system has been validated by constructing a prototype that resembles the real application.

  14. Remote Sensing and Geosciences for Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodato Tapete

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological remote sensing is not a novel discipline. Indeed, there is already a suite of geoscientific techniques that are regularly used by practitioners in the field, according to standards and best practice guidelines. However, (i the technological development of sensors for data capture; (ii the accessibility of new remote sensing and Earth Observation data; and (iii the awareness that a combination of different techniques can lead to retrieval of diverse and complementary information to characterize landscapes and objects of archaeological value and significance, are currently three triggers stimulating advances in methodologies for data acquisition, signal processing, and the integration and fusion of extracted information. The Special Issue “Remote Sensing and Geosciences for Archaeology” therefore presents a collection of scientific contributions that provides a sample of the state-of-the-art and forefront research in this field. Site discovery, understanding of cultural landscapes, augmented knowledge of heritage, condition assessment, and conservation are the main research and practice targets that the papers published in this Special Issue aim to address.

  15. 15Gbit/s Duobinary Transmission Over a W-Band Radio-over-Fiber Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the transmission of a 15Gbit/s duobinary signal over a W-band hybrid photonic wireless link is demonstrated experimentally. The radio-over-fiber link consists of 10km SMF and a wireless distance of 50m, utilizing RF carriers at 83–87GHz. Transmission of a 15Gbit/s duobinary signal...

  16. Neural dynamics underlying emotional transmissions between individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Golland, Yulia; Levit-Binnun, Nava; Hendler, Talma; Lerner, Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Emotional experiences are frequently shaped by the emotional responses of co-present others. Research has shown that people constantly monitor and adapt to the incoming social–emotional signals, even without face-to-face interaction. And yet, the neural processes underlying such emotional transmissions have not been directly studied. Here, we investigated how the human brain processes emotional cues which arrive from another, co-attending individual. We presented continuous emotional...

  17. Remotely controllable liquid marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2012-07-26

    Liquid droplets encapsulated by self-organized hydrophobic particles at the liquid/air interface - liquid marbles - are prepared by encapsulating water droplets with novel core/shell-structured responsive magnetic particles, consisting of a responsive block copolymer-grafted mesoporous silica shell and magnetite core (see figure; P2VP-b-PDMS: poly(2-vinylpyridine-b- dimethylsiloxane)). Desirable properties of the liquid marbles include that they rupture upon ultraviolet illumination and can be remotely manipulated by an external magnetic field. 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. PresenceRemote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Svensson, Marcus Sanchez

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on our early experiences with the design of Social TV for senior citizens. Even though there seems to be a straight forward match between new interactive TV technologies on the rise and the notion of supporting social interaction amongst elderly TV viewers it is not at all clea...... for unarticulated intentions of use in our design of Social TV. The ‘PresenceRemote’ is an enhanced TV remote control making it possible for you to notice others and be noticed by peers within your local neighborhood as you watch TV....

  19. Remote sensing prospection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Bennett

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the Capo Mannu Project 2011 fieldwork season, three separate sites were selected for remote sensing prospection: Su Pallosu (Beachfront and Upper Platform, Sa Rocca Tunda (Beachfront and Serra Is Araus. These areas have in common the presence of buried structures and/or ceramic deposits, and represent the favourite candidates for future excavations in the area. The level of success attained across the sites was not very high, which awkward topography and/or unusual geological circumstances hindering the usually reliant magnetometer survey method.

  20. Applications of Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacha, Charlene

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing is one of the best ways to be able to monitor and see changes in the Earth. The use of satellite images in the classroom can be a practical way to help students understand the importance and use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It is essential in helping students to understand that underlying individual data points are converted to a broad spatial form. The use of actual remote sensing data makes this more understandable to the students e.g. an online map of recent earthquake events, geologic maps, satellite imagery. For change detection, images of years ten or twenty years apart of the same area can be compared and observations recorded. Satellite images of different places can be available on the Internet or from the local space agency. In groups of mixed abilities, students can observe changes in land use over time and also give possible reasons and explanations to those changes. Students should answer essential questions like, how does satellite imagery offer valuable information to different faculties e.g. military, weather, environmental departments and others. Before and after images on disasters for example, volcanoes, floods and earthquakes should be obtained and observed. Key questions would be; how can scientists use these images to predict, or to change the future outcomes over time. How to manage disasters and how the archived images can assist developers in planning land use around that area in the future. Other material that would be useful includes maps and aerial photographs of the area. A flight should be organized over the area for students to acquire aerial photographs of their own; this further enhances their understanding of the concept "remote sensing". Environmental issues such as air, water and land pollution can also be identified on satellite images. Key questions for students would include causes, effects and possible solutions to the problem. Conducting a fieldwork exercise around the area would

  1. Evaluation of routine telephone transmission of nuclear medicine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlin, J.A.; Tal, I.; Parker, J.A.; Front, D.; Israel, O.; Kolodny, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    Rapid and reliable transmission of nuclear medicine studies using conventional telephone lines and commercially available modems and computer systems has been accomplished through use of software developed within the authors' hospital. Original digital images of all-night and weekend studies, acquired on any of the acquisition computers from different manufacturers, are now routinely sent for remote reading at the physician's home. Data, software, and letters are routinely exchanged using modems and standard telephone lines with a sister institution in Haifa, Israel. The software has been designed to achieve no loss data compression and minimal turnaround time loss. Thus, an average lung perfusion image or gallbladder study requires about 1-3 minutes of transmission time. Full analysis and display software is available on the remote computer

  2. Remote shock sensing and notification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Britton, Charles L.; Pearce, James; Jagadish, Usha; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2008-11-11

    A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interference circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitting with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.

  3. Fiber optic transmission line stabilization apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, G. F., Jr.; Lau, K. Y. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A reference signal of RF frequency modulates a 0.85 micrometer wavelength optical transmitter. The output of which passes through a first optical filter and a voltage-controller phase shifter. The output of the phase shifter is provided to the fiber optic transmission line. At the receiving end of the transmission line, the signal is demodulated and used to modulate a 1.06 micrometer optical transmitter. The signal from the transmitter is provided to the fiber optic transmission line and passes through the voltage-controlled phase shifter to a phase error detector. The phase of the modulation of the 1.06 micrometer wavelength signal is compared to the phase of the reference signal by the phase error detector. A phase control signal related to the phase difference is provided to the voltage controlled phase shifter which alters the phase of both optical signals until a predetermined phase relationship between modulation on the 1.06 micrometer signal and the reference signal is obtained.

  4. Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John A.; Jia, Xiuping

    Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis provides the non-specialist with an introduction to quantitative evaluation of satellite and aircraft derived remotely retrieved data. Each chapter covers the pros and cons of digital remotely sensed data, without detailed mathematical treatment of computer based algorithms, but in a manner conductive to an understanding of their capabilities and limitations. Problems conclude each chapter. This fourth edition has been developed to reflect the changes that have occurred in this area over the past several years.

  5. Remote Laser Laboratory: First Demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Titov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote Laser Laboratory (RLL is hosted at Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU, Russia. Local laser engineering lab can be classified as complex, expensive and dangerous facility. Potentially it poses risks both for students and for laboratory itself when operated by unskilled users. This paper presents arguably the most optimal solution fitting great in both e-learning and safe remote operation paradigms: Remote Laser Laboratory. The emphasis here is placed on software part but hardware solutions are also described.

  6. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy Compendium provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind this compendium began in year 2008 at Risø DTU during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus......-of-the-art compendium available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  7. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Lange, Julia

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  8. RPAS ADS-B AND TRAJECTORY CONTROL DATA TRANSMISSION VIA SATELLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Grekhov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop a model of the satellite communication channel for an remotely piloted air system with adaptive modulation and orthogonal frequency division of channels; 2 to calculate the channel parameters with Rayleigh fading and various types of satellite transponder nonlinearity; 3 analyze the effect of fading and the type of nonlinearity on the parameters of the satellite communication channel. Method: MATLAB Simulink software was used to simulate the channel operation. Results: For the first time, based on the IEEE 802.16d standard, a realistic model of the satellite communication channel of an unmanned aerial vehicle was developed, which is used to estimate the channel parameters. The created model takes into account the Rayleigh fading in the downlink and the nonlinearity of the satellite transponder amplifier. Dependences of the signal-to-noise ratio in the terrestrial receiver on the signal-to-noise ratio in the downlink for various types of modulation (BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM and data transmission rates are obtained. The nonlinearity of satellite amplifiers was analyzed on the basis of a linear model, a cubic polynomial model, a hyperbolic tangential model, the Gorbani model, and the Rapp model. The results for the cubic polynomial model and the hyperbolic tangential model are similar to the linear model, but differ significantly from the Gorbani model and the Rapp model. For the Gorbani and Rapp models, very low values of the signal-to-noise ratio in the receiver are observed. Conclusion: The proposed approach can be considered as a method of estimating the parameters of the satellite communication channel of an unmanned aerial vehicle with fading. It is shown how the type of modulation varies depending on the level of the signal-to-noise ratio and the type of fading. The developed model allows to predict the operation of the channel with Rayleigh fading and can be useful for the design of communication systems.

  9. Building-transmission factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolson, W.A.; Marcum, J.; Scott, W.H.; Staggs, V.E.

    1982-01-01

    Parametric representations (called the nine-parameter formula) of the measurements of the radiation transmission through Japanese house models at the BREN reactor and 60 Co experiments are used to correct the free-in-air (FIA) T65 dose values for buildings shielding in the built-up residential areas at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The accuracy of transmission factors derived from the nine-parameter formula impact the accuracy of the final-exposure dose estimates in the same manner as the accuracy of weapon yield and FIA radiation transport. A preliminary investigation of the accuracy of these transmission factors, sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency, has focused primarily on the adequacy of the Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada (BREN) radiation environments for producing transmission factor data relevant to the situations at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In addition, the radiation equivalency of house models used at BREN to Japanese house models and the physical basis for the nine-parameter formula have been studied. This investigation has concluded that the average gamma-ray transmission factors based on the nine-parameter formula are probably too high by about a factor of 2. The large discrepancy between the nine-parameter formula and recent estimates results from the apparent failure to properly account for the large gamma-ray dose component caused by capture gamma rays produced in the house walls by the large neutron flux present at BREN

  10. Remotely Triggered Solar Blind Signaling Using Deep Ultraviolet (UV) LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    resistance is held constant, the voltage drop across the resistor is also proportional to the amount of light detected. This voltage was measured...distance from the LED to the photodiode was not held constant. To avoid the output voltage limit on the opamp , the intensity of the four HS LEDs was...period for driving voltages up to 8.0 volts. As before, a GaP photodiode was used in conjunction with an opamp , but the output voltage was read with an

  11. Study on the photoacoustic spectroscopy capabilities with remote detection for monitoring of actinide species in nuclear fuel reprocessing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkov, S.I.; Kihara, Takehiro; Fujine, Sachio; Maeda, Mitsuru

    1995-03-01

    A LIPAS (Laser Induced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy) system has been developed for remote analysis of weakly absorbing species in solution. A number of photoacoustic cells of various configurations have been examined in remote arrangement of PA spectrometer with application of an optical fiber for the laser light transmission to PA cell. A microscope objective was tested in optical fiber launching arrangement to collimate laser beam after the fiber. It has been shown that short optical pathlengh cuvette type cells in combination with a disk type piezoelectric transducer (PZT) are superior to previously used cylindrical PA cell with a tube type PZT as regards more effective elimination of scattered and reflected light contribution to PZT response. This allows to improve the linearity of calibration curve and to lower the detection limit absorptivity down to 4.2x10 -5 cm -1 , which has been evaluated using an absorption band of Nd at 511.4 nm. The newly designed PA cell has been applied for investigation of PAS capabilities to detection of Pu(III), Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) simulated species in uranium containing solutions relevant to the nuclear fuel reprocessing technology. It has been shown that the proper selection of plutonium absorption band for each oxidation state allows to reduce high background contribution from U(VI) ions to the analytical PA signal and to keep detection limit absorptivity within a 1-3x10 -5 cm -1 range in the 525-562 nm wavelength region. (author)

  12. Signal detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholomier, M.

    1985-01-01

    In a scanning electron microscope, whatever is the measured signal, the same set is found: incident beam, sample, signal detection, signal amplification. The resulting signal is used to control the spot luminosity with the observer cathodoscope. This is synchronized with the beam scanning on the sample; on the cathodoscope, the image in secondary electrons, backscattered electrons,... of the sample surface is reconstituted. The best compromise must be found between a register time low enough to remove eventual variations (under the incident beam) of the nature of the observed phenomenon, and a good spatial resolution of the image and a signal-to-noise ratio high enough. The noise is one of the basic limitations of the scanning electron microscope performance. The whose measurement line must be optimized to reduce it [fr

  13. Remote handling maintenance of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haange, R.

    1999-01-01

    The remote maintenance strategy and the associated component design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) have reached a high degree of completeness, especially with respect to those components that are expected to require frequent or occasional remote maintenance. Large-scale test stands, to demonstrate the principle feasibility of the remote maintenance procedures and to develop the required equipment and tools, were operational at the end of the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) phase. The initial results are highly encouraging: major remote equipment deployment and component replacement operations have been successfully demonstrated. (author)

  14. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm 2 , of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90 Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined

  15. Geotechnical assessments of upgrading power transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Andrew [Coffey Geotechnics Ltd., Harrogate (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    One of the consequences of increasing demand for energy is a corresponding requirement for increased energy distribution. This trend is likely to be magnified by the current tendency to generate power in locations remote from centres of population. New power transmission routes are expensive and awkward to develop, and there are therefore benefits to be gained by upgrading existing routes. However, this in turn raises problems of a different nature. The re-use of any structure must necessarily imply the acceptance of unknowns. The upgrading of transmission lines is no exception to this, particularly when assessing foundations, which in their nature are not visible. A risk-based approach is therefore used. This paper describes some of the geotechnical aspects of the assessment of electric power transmission lines for upgrading. It briefly describes the background, then discusses some of the problems encountered and the methods used to address them. These methods are based mainly on information obtained from desk studies and walkover surveys, with a limited amount of intrusive investigation. (orig.)

  16. Geological remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Charlotte; Rivard, Benoit; de Souza Filho, Carlos; van der Meer, Freek

    2018-02-01

    Geology is defined as the 'study of the planet Earth - the materials of which it is made, the processes that act on these materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and its life forms since its origin' (Bates and Jackson, 1976). Remote sensing has seen a number of variable definitions such as those by Sabins and Lillesand and Kiefer in their respective textbooks (Sabins, 1996; Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000). Floyd Sabins (Sabins, 1996) defined it as 'the science of acquiring, processing and interpreting images that record the interaction between electromagnetic energy and matter' while Lillesand and Kiefer (Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000) defined it as 'the science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon under investigation'. Thus Geological Remote Sensing can be considered the study of, not just Earth given the breadth of work undertaken in planetary science, geological features and surfaces and their interaction with the electromagnetic spectrum using technology that is not in direct contact with the features of interest.

  17. Wireless Remote Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Tigauan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a wireless remote control system based on the ZigBee communication protocol. Gathering data from sensors or performing control tasks through wireless communication is advantageous in situations in which the use of cables is impractical. An Atmega328 microcontroller (from slave device is used for gathering data from the sensors and transmitting it to a coordinator device with the help of the XBee modules. The ZigBee standard is suitable for low-cost, low-data-rate and low-power wireless networks implementations. The XBee-PRO module, designed to meet ZigBee standards, requires minimal power for reliable data exchange between devices over a distance of up to 1600m outdoors. A key component of the ZigBee protocol is the ability to support networking and this can be used in a wireless remote control system. This system may be employed e.g. to control temperature and humidity (SHT11 sensor and light intensity (TSL230 sensor levels inside a commercial greenhouse.

  18. User Authentication Mechanisms for Remote Education Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Yurievna Gourina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Systems of remote education (RE are now widespread. These systems are convenient in terms of simplicity, efficiency of education, costs, opportunities to study with a teacher when you are in different parts of the globe, to attend online lectures and seminars. The information circulating in this system is a source of making money for its owner, which of course does not want the system (and the information in it to be used by not authorized users. In this article methods of authentication in such systems is discussed, because you can put a firewall, encrypt data transmissions, etc., but if there will be free access to the server, where all the information is held — it will all be useless.

  19. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1981-01-01

    The testing of a Mercury Lynx automatic transmission is reported. The transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-ninety percent range both for drive performance test and coast performance tests. The torque, speed, and efficiency curves are presented, which provide the complete performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx automatic transmission.

  20. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Mekibib

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses.

  1. Poverty and price transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation...... in these estimates is so far largely unexplored. This paper proposes a model which explains a country's domestic price response to world market shocks in terms of its demand structure. The model delivers two testable predictions; price transmission is increasing in per capita food expenditure and in income...... inequality. The empirical analysis of price changes during the food crises confirms these predictions with a caveat. I find significant inverse U-shaped relationships between domestic food price growth in 2007-8 and 2010-11 and per capita food expenditure. Unequal countries also experienced higher price...

  2. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-05-23

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013-2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses.

  3. Probabilistic transmission system planning

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenyuan

    2011-01-01

    "The book is composed of 12 chapters and three appendices, and can be divided into four parts. The first part includes Chapters 2 to 7, which discuss the concepts, models, methods and data in probabilistic transmission planning. The second part, Chapters 8 to 11, addresses four essential issues in probabilistic transmission planning applications using actual utility systems as examples. Chapter 12, as the third part, focuses on a special issue, i.e. how to deal with uncertainty of data in probabilistic transmission planning. The fourth part consists of three appendices, which provide the basic knowledge in mathematics for probabilistic planning. Please refer to the attached table of contents which is given in a very detailed manner"--

  4. Energy Remote Sensing Applications Projects at the NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, S. D.; Likens, W. C.; Mouat, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center is active in energy projects primarily in the role of providing assistance to users in the solution of a number of problems related to energy. Data bases were produced which can be used, in combination with other sources of information, to solve spatially related energy problems. Six project activities at Ames are described which relate to energy and remote sensing. Two projects involve power demand forecasting and estimations using remote sensing and geographic information systems; two others involve transmission line routing and corridor analysis; one involves a synfuel user needs assessment through remote sensing; and the sixth involves the siting of energy facilities.

  5. Design of MAGLEV Information Transmission System by Radio Inductive Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang Kweun [Taejon National University of Technology (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seok Ha; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Yang Mo [Chungnam National University (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Soo [ACE Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the information transmission between on-board and ground-site in MAGLEV Considering safety and high speed operation and density operation and density operation information, transmission between them is necessary. Therefore it is necessary for transmission system to ensure high speed transmission, low error rate, massive information, and reliability of information. To provide above conditions, 1.1km signal line assembly was constructed and Frequency Shift Keying(FSK) modulation and Open System Interconnection(OSI) based high-level data link control(HDLC) protocol are applied, To modulate digital signal for transmission from ground-site to on-board, carrier frequency of 70khz is used and 90khz is used for transmission from on-board to ground-site. Transmission speed is 2400bps for consideration of train speed, quantity of information, and data error rate. And this paper introduces information monitoring considering user interface and presents the method for an effective data transmission in MAGLEV which is now being tested and intends to provide for an intelligent train operation in future. (author). 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Power transmission line fault location based on current traveling waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhaffar, A.M.

    2008-07-01

    Transmission lines are designed to transfer electric power from source locations to distribution networks. However, their lengths are exposed to various faults. Protective relay and fault recorder systems, based on fundamental power frequency signals, are installed to isolate and the faulty line and provide the fault position. However, the error is high especially in transmission lines. This thesis investigates the problem of fault localization using traveling wave current signals obtained at a single-end of a transmission line and/or at multi-ends of a transmission network. A review of various signal processing techniques is presented. The wavelet transform is found to be more accurate than conventional signal processing techniques for extracting the traveling wave signals from field measurements. In this thesis, an optimization method has been developed to select the best wavelet candidate from several mother wavelets. The optimum mother wavelet was selected and used to analyze the fault signal at different details' levels. The best details' level, which carries the fault features, was selected according to its energy content. From the line and network data, the traveling wave speed is calculated for each line using the optimum mother wavelet at different detail levels. Accurate determination fault location depends on the proper details wavelet level as well as the propagation speed. A high frequency current transformer model has been verified experimentally using impulse current signals at the high voltage laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology. Single-end method has been studied for several transmission line configurations, including lines equipped with/without overhead ground wires, counterpoises, or overhead ground wires and counterpoises. The time difference between the aerial and ground mode has also been investigated for these line configurations. Multi-ended method, using recordings sparsely located in the transmission network, has been

  7. Design and Construction of a Remote Controlled Fan Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Shehu AHMED

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a simple design and implementation of a remote controlled fan regulator. It enables the user to operate a fan regulator from approximately 10 meters away. The remote transmits a tone using an infrared light-emitting diode. This tone is decoded by a receiver, since the receiver only switches when the tone is received. The system was broken down into simpler functional blocks namely; infra-red transmitter, infra-red sensor, signal amplifier, control logic, sampler, control stepper, output control logic, load and display unit. Details of each subunit are described in the paper.

  8. Smart Remote for the Setup Box Using Gesture Control

    OpenAIRE

    Surepally Uday Kumar; K. Shamini

    2016-01-01

    The basic purpose of this project is to provide a means to control a set top box (capable of infrared communication), in this case Hathway using hand gestures. Thus, this system will act like a remote control for operating set top box, but this will be achieved through hand gestures instead of pushing buttons. To send and receive remote control signals, this project uses an infrared LED as Transmitter. Using an infrared receiver, an Arduino can detect the bits being sent by a remo...

  9. Phosphoinositide signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Wendy F; Im, Yang Ju

    2012-01-01

    "All things flow and change…even in the stillest matter there is unseen flux and movement." Attributed to Heraclitus (530-470 BC), from The Story of Philosophy by Will Durant. Heraclitus, a Greek philosopher, was thinking on a much larger scale than molecular signaling; however, his visionary comments are an important reminder for those studying signaling today. Even in unstimulated cells, signaling pathways are in constant metabolic flux and provide basal signals that travel throughout the organism. In addition, negatively charged phospholipids, such as the polyphosphorylated inositol phospholipids, provide a circuit board of on/off switches for attracting or repelling proteins that define the membranes of the cell. This template of charged phospholipids is sensitive to discrete changes and metabolic fluxes-e.g., in pH and cations-which contribute to the oscillating signals in the cell. The inherent complexities of a constantly fluctuating system make understanding how plants integrate and process signals challenging. In this review we discuss one aspect of lipid signaling: the inositol family of negatively charged phospholipids and their functions as molecular sensors and regulators of metabolic flux in plants.

  10. Transmission positron microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyama, Masao; Kogure, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Miyoshi; Kurihara, Toshikazu; Yoshiie, Toshimasa; Oshima, Ryuichiro; Matsuya, Miyuki

    2006-01-01

    Immediate and near-future plans for transmission positron microscopes being built at KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, are described. The characteristic feature of this project is remolding a commercial electron microscope to a positron microscope. A point source of electrons kept at a negative high voltage is changed to a point source of positrons kept at a high positive voltage. Positional resolution of transmission microscopes should be theoretically the same as electron microscopes. Positron microscopes utilizing trapping of positrons have always positional ambiguity due to the diffusion of positrons

  11. Transmission grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Haarla, Liisa; Hirvonen, Ritva; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing importance of power system security and reliability, ""Transmission Grid Security"" proposes a systematic and probabilistic approach for transmission grid security analysis. The analysis presented uses probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and takes into account the power system dynamics after severe faults. In the method shown in this book the power system states (stable, not stable, system breakdown, etc.) are connected with the substation reliability model. In this way it is possible to: estimate the system-wide consequences of grid faults; identify a chain of eve

  12. Sensitive Infrared Signal Detection by Upconversion Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Teh-Hwa; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin; Johnson, William; Chen, Songsheng; Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated upconversion assisted detection of a 2.05-micron signal by sum frequency generation to generate a 700-nm light using a bulk periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. The achieved 94% intrinsic upconversion efficiency and 22.58% overall detection efficiency at a pW level of 2.05 micron pave the path to detect extremely weak infrared (IR) signals for remote sensing applications.

  13. Cancelable remote quantum fingerprint templates protection scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Qin; Guo Ying; Huang Duan

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of fingerprint identification technology, its security and privacy have been paid much attention. Only the security and privacy of biological information are insured, the biological technology can be better accepted and used by the public. In this paper, we propose a novel quantum bit (qbit)-based scheme to solve the security and privacy problem existing in the traditional fingerprint identification system. By exploiting the properties of quantm mechanics, our proposed scheme, cancelable remote quantum fingerprint templates protection scheme, can achieve the unconditional security guaranteed in an information-theoretical sense. Moreover, this novel quantum scheme can invalidate most of the attacks aimed at the fingerprint identification system. In addition, the proposed scheme is applicable to the requirement of remote communication with no need to worry about its security and privacy during the transmission. This is an absolute advantage when comparing with other traditional methods. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme can effectively ensure the communication security and the privacy of users’ information for the fingerprint identification. (paper)

  14. Predation on transmission stages reduces parasitism: sea anemones consume transmission stages of a barnacle parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Caitlin R; Kuris, Armand M

    2017-06-01

    While parasites serve as prey, it is unclear how the spatial distribution of parasite predators provides transmission control and influences patterns of parasitism. Because many of its organisms are sessile, the rocky intertidal zone is a valuable but little used system to understand spatial patterns of parasitism and elucidate the underlying mechanisms driving these patterns. Sea anemones and barnacles are important space competitors in the rocky intertidal zone along the Pacific coast of North America. Anemones are voracious, indiscriminate predators; thus, they may intercept infectious stages of parasites before they reach a host. We investigate whether a sea anemone protects an associated barnacle from parasitism by Hemioniscus balani, an isopod parasitic castrator. At Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara, California USA, 29% of barnacles were within 1 cm from an anemone at the surveyed tidal height. Barnacles associated with anemones had reduced parasite prevalence and higher reproductive productivity than those remote from sea anemones. In the laboratory, anemones readily consumed the transmission stage of the parasite. Hence, anemone consumption of parasite transmission stages may provide a mechanism by which community context regulates parasite prevalence at a local scale. Our results suggest predation may be an important process providing parasite transmission control.

  15. Astrocytes in endocannabinoid signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Marta; Díez, Adolfo; Araque, Alfonso

    2014-10-19

    Astrocytes are emerging as integral functional components of synapses, responding to synaptically released neurotransmitters and regulating synaptic transmission and plasticity. Thus, they functionally interact with neurons establishing tripartite synapses: a functional concept that refers to the existence of communication between astrocytes and neurons and its crucial role in synaptic function. Here, we discuss recent evidence showing that astrocytes are involved in the endocannabinoid (ECB) system, responding to exogenous cannabinoids as well as ECBs through activation of type 1 cannabinoid receptors, which increase intracellular calcium and stimulate the release of glutamate that modulates synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also discuss the consequences of ECB signalling in tripartite synapses on the astrocyte-mediated regulation of synaptic function, which reveal novel properties of synaptic regulation by ECBs, such as the spatially controlled dual effect on synaptic strength and the lateral potentiation of synaptic efficacy. Finally, we discuss the potential implications of ECB signalling for astrocytes in brain pathology and animal behaviour. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Remote Testing of Timed Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius

    2013-01-01

    We present a study and a testing framework on black box remote testing of real-time systems using UPPAAL TIGA. One of the essential challenges of remote testing is the communication latency between the Tester and the System Under Test (IUT) that may lead to interleaving of inputs and outputs...

  17. 4-PAM Dispersion-Uncompensated Transmission with Micro-Ring Resonator Enhanced 1.55-µm DML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Cristofori, Valentina; Ozolins, Oskars

    2017-01-01

    Real-time transmission of 14-GBd 4-PAM signal is demonstrated by combining a commercial 1.55-µm DML with a silicon MRR. BER below the HD-FEC threshold is measured after 26-km SSMF transmission without offline digital signal processing.......Real-time transmission of 14-GBd 4-PAM signal is demonstrated by combining a commercial 1.55-µm DML with a silicon MRR. BER below the HD-FEC threshold is measured after 26-km SSMF transmission without offline digital signal processing....

  18. Intergenerational Transmission of Volunteering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I investigate the strength of intergenerational transmission of volunteering for non-profit associations in The Netherlands. Data from the Family Survey of the Dutch Population 2000 reveal that there are significant relations between current volunteering and parental volunteering in

  19. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the

  20. Open access to transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    For the past 12 to 15 years, the US electric power and energy industry and its federal regulators have been going through a prolonged exercise leading to opening up the national interconnected transmission grid for all qualified wholesale users to have open and equal access. The debates have been painful in a sense that not all parties - especially some of the transmission system owning utilities - believe that the concept of Open Access is achievable, due to technical constraints on the systems. The present Open Access activity is limited to wholesales transaction under the federal jurisdiction, but several states are either experimenting with or considering retail wheeling. In fact, the FERC - Federal Energy Regulatory Commission - has already expanded its view to embrace retail transmission, if the retail transaction involves the use of the interstate transmission systems which are under FERC's jurisdiction. This paper delves into some of the results of the technical cost and pricing analysis for open access. The statutes and resulting regulations are not addressed herein. (author). 1 fig