WorldWideScience

Sample records for remediation design solution

  1. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  2. Remedial design/remedial action strategy report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieffenbacher, R.G.

    1994-06-30

    This draft Regulatory Compliance Strategy (RCS) report will aid the ER program in developing and implementing Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) projects. The intent of the RCS is to provide guidance for the implementation of project management requirements and to allow the implementation of a flexible, graded approach to design requirements depending on the complexity, magnitude, schedule, risk, and cost for any project. The RCS provides a functional management-level guidance document for the identification, classification, and implementation of the managerial and regulatory aspects of an ER project. The RCS has been written from the perspective of the ER Design Manager and provides guidance for the overall management of design processes and elements. The RCS does not address the project engineering or specification level of detail. Topics such as project initiation, funding, or construction are presented only in the context in which these items are important as sources of information or necessary process elements that relate to the design project phases.

  3. Remediation of sandy soils using surfactant solutions and foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Hudson J B; Massarani, Guilio; Biscaia, Evaristo C; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L

    2009-05-30

    Remediation of sandy soils contaminated with diesel oil was investigated in bench-scale experiments. Surfactant solution, regular foams and colloidal gas aphrons were used as remediation fluids. An experimental design technique was used to investigate the effect of relevant process variables on remediation efficiency. Soils prepared with different average particle sizes (0.04-0.12 cm) and contaminated with different diesel oil contents (40-80 g/kg) were used in experiments conducted with remediation fluids. A mathematical model was proposed allowing for the determination of oil removal rate-constant (k(v)) and oil content remaining in the soil after remediation (C(of)) as well as estimation of the percentage of oil removed. Oil removal efficiencies obtained under the central experimental design conditions were 96%, 88% and 35% for aphrons, regular foams and surfactant solutions, respectively. High removal efficiencies were obtained using regular foams and aphrons, demanding small amounts of surfactant.

  4. Engineering report (conceptual design) PFP solution stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, J.B.

    1997-07-17

    This Engineering Report (Conceptual Design) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  5. Rheological Behavior of Xanthan Gum Solution Related to Shear Thinning Fluid Delivery for Subsurface Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Szecsody, James E.

    2013-01-15

    Xanthan gum, a biopolymer, forms shear thinning fluids which can be used as delivery media to improve the distribution of remedial amendments injected into heterogeneous subsurface environments. The rheological behavior of the shear thinning solution needs to be known to develop an appropriate design for field injection. In this study, the rheological properties of xanthan gum solutions were obtained under various chemical and environmental conditions relevant to delivery of remedial amendments to groundwater. Higher xanthan concentration raised the absolute solution viscosity and increased the degree of shear thinning. Addition of remedial amendments (e.g., phosphate, sodium lactate, ethyl lactate) caused the dynamic viscosity of xanthan gum to decrease, but the solutions maintained shear-thinning properties. Use of simple salt (e.g. Na+, Ca2+) to increase the solution ionic strength also decreased the dynamic viscosity of xanthan and the degree of shear thinning, although the effect is a function of xanthan gum concentration and diminished as the xanthan gum concentration was increased. At high xanthan concentration, addition of salt to the solution increased dynamic viscosity. In the absence of sediments, xanthan gum solutions maintain their viscosity properties for months. However, xanthan gum solutions were shown to lose dynamic viscosity over a period of days to weeks when contacted with saturated site sediment. Loss of viscosity is attributed to physical and biodegradation processes.

  6. Nodal failure index approach to groundwater remediation design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Reeves, H.W.; Dowding, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations often are used to design and to optimize groundwater remediation systems. We present a new computationally efficient approach that calculates the reliability of remedial design at every location in a model domain with a single simulation. The estimated reliability and other model information are used to select a best remedial option for given site conditions, conceptual model, and available data. To evaluate design performance, we introduce the nodal failure index (NFI) to determine the number of nodal locations at which the probability of success is below the design requirement. The strength of the NFI approach is that selected areas of interest can be specified for analysis and the best remedial design determined for this target region. An example application of the NFI approach using a hypothetical model shows how the spatial distribution of reliability can be used for a decision support system in groundwater remediation design. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  7. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shanklin

    2006-06-01

    This Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for defining the remedial design requirements, preparing the design documentation, and defining the remedial actions for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the design developed to support the remediation and disposal activities selected in the Final Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision.

  8. DESCRIPTION OF MODELING ANALYSES IN SUPPORT OF THE 200-ZP-1 REMEDIAL DESIGN/REMEDIAL ACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VONGARGEN BH

    2009-11-03

    The Feasibility Study/or the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (DOE/RL-2007-28) and the Proposed Plan/or Remediation of the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (DOE/RL-2007-33) describe the use of groundwater pump-and-treat technology for the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) as part of an expanded groundwater remedy. During fiscal year 2008 (FY08), a groundwater flow and contaminant transport (flow and transport) model was developed to support remedy design decisions at the 200-ZP-1 OU. This model was developed because the size and influence of the proposed 200-ZP-1 groundwater pump-and-treat remedy will have a larger areal extent than the current interim remedy, and modeling is required to provide estimates of influent concentrations and contaminant mass removal rates to support the design of the aboveground treatment train. The 200 West Area Pre-Conceptual Design/or Final Extraction/Injection Well Network: Modeling Analyses (DOE/RL-2008-56) documents the development of the first version of the MODFLOW/MT3DMS model of the Hanford Site's Central Plateau, as well as the initial application of that model to simulate a potential well field for the 200-ZP-1 remedy (considering only the contaminants carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99). This document focuses on the use of the flow and transport model to identify suitable extraction and injection well locations as part of the 200 West Area 200-ZP-1 Pump-and-Treat Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan (DOEIRL-2008-78). Currently, the model has been developed to the extent necessary to provide approximate results and to lay a foundation for the design basis concentrations that are required in support of the remedial design/remediation action (RD/RA) work plan. The discussion in this document includes the following: (1) Assignment of flow and transport parameters for the model; (2) Definition of initial conditions for the transport model for each simulated contaminant of concern (COC) (i.e., carbon

  9. XML problem, design, solution

    CERN Document Server

    Amiano, Mitch; Ethier, Kay; Thomas, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    Offering a unique approach to learning XML, this book walks readers through the process of building a complete, functional, end-to-end XML solutionFeatured case study is an online business product catalog that includes reports, data input/output, workflow, stylesheet formatting, RSS feeds, and integration with external services like Google, eBay, and AmazonThe format of presenting a problem and working through the design to come up with a solution enables readers to understand how XML markup allows a business to share data across applications internally or with partners or customers even thoug

  10. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2006-09-19

    The remedial design/remedial action for Operable Unit 6-05 (Waste Area Group 6) and Operable Unit 10-04 (Waste Area Group 10) - collectively called Operable Unit 10-04 has been divided into four phases. Phase I consists of developing and implementing institutional controls at Operable Unit 10-04 sites and developing and implementing Idaho National Laboratory-wide plans for both institutional controls and ecological monitoring. Phase II will remediate sites contaminated with trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive. Phase III will remediate lead contamination at a gun range, and Phase IV will remediate hazards from unexploded ordnance. This Phase III remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of lead-contaminated soils found at the Security Training Facility (STF)-02 Gun Range located at the Idaho National Laboratory. Remediation of the STF-02 Gun Range will include excavating contaminated soils; physically separating copper and lead for recycling; returning separated soils below the remediation goal to the site; stabilizing contaminated soils, as required, and disposing of the separated soils that exceed the remediation goal; encapsulating and disposing of creosote-contaminated railroad ties and power poles; removing and disposing of the wooden building and asphalt pads found at the STF-02 Gun Range; sampling and analyzing soil to determine the excavation requirements; and when the remediation goals have been met, backfilling and contouring excavated areas and revegetating the affected area.

  11. Ammonium citrate as enhancement for electrodialytic soil remediation and investigation of soil solution during the process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Seven electrodialytic experiments were conducted using ammonium citrate as enhancing agent to remediate copper and chromium-contaminated soil from a wood-preservation site. The purpose was to investigate the effect of current density (0.2, 1.0 and 1.5 mA cm−2), concentration of enhancing agent (0...... using too high current densities can be a waste of energy. Desorption rate is important and both remediation time and ammonium citrate concentration are relevant parameters. It was possible to collect soil solution samples following an adaptation of the experimental set-up to ensure continuous supply...... of ammonium citrate to the soil in order to keep it saturated during the remediation. Monitoring soil solution gives valuable information on the evolution of remediation and helps deciding when the soil is remediated. Final concentrations in the soil ranged from 220 to 360 mg Cu kg−1 (removals: 78...

  12. Designing Healthcare Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devorah E. Klein

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is generated when designers collaborate with scientists and clinicians. Who are designers? Professionals trained to uncover people’s spoken and unspoken needs (human factors researchers, to generate tangible products and services that address these needs in new and better ways (industrial and graphic designers, and to ensure that the design intent is preserved in the final manufactured form (engineers.

  13. Optimal Design of Groundwater Remediation Problems under Uncertainty Using Probabilistic Multi-objective Evolutionary Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wu, J.

    2011-12-01

    The previous work in the field of multi-objective optimization under uncertainty has concerned with the probabilistic multi-objective algorithm itself, how to effectively evaluate an estimate of uncertain objectives and identify a set of reliable Pareto optimal solutions. However, the design of a robust and reliable groundwater remediation system encounters major difficulties owing to the inherent uncertainty of hydrogeological parameters such as hydraulic conductivity (K). Thus, we need to make reduction of uncertainty associated with the site characteristics of the contaminated aquifers. In this study, we first use the Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGSIM) to generate 1000 conditional realizations of lnK based on the sampled conditioning data acquired by field test. It is worthwhile to note that the cost for field test often weighs heavily upon the remediation cost and must thus be taken into account in the tradeoff between the solution reliability and remedial cost optimality. In this situation, we perform Monte Carlo simulation to make an uncertainty analysis of lnK realizations associated with the different number of conditioning data points. The results indicate that the uncertainty of the site characteristics and the contaminant concentration output from transport model is decreasing and then tends toward stabilization with the increase of conditioning data. This study presents a probabilistic multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (PMOEA) that integrates noisy genetic algorithm (NGA) and probabilistic multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). The evident difference between deterministic MOGA and probabilistic MOGA is the use of probabilistic Pareto domination ranking and niche technique to ensure that each solution found is most reliable and robust. The proposed algorithm is then evaluated through a synthetic pump-and-treat (PAT) groundwater remediation test case. The 1000 lnK realizations generated by SGSIM with appropriate number of conditioning data (30

  14. Design rules for Microfactory Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Arentoft, Mogens;

    2006-01-01

    The current paper will present a classification of issues in microfactory design and setup and present examples of specific microfactory solutions developed at the authors' university.......The current paper will present a classification of issues in microfactory design and setup and present examples of specific microfactory solutions developed at the authors' university....

  15. Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Planning and Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design; these solutions made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Addresses four challenges: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure…

  16. Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Planning and Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design; these solutions made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Addresses four challenges: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure…

  17. A Fuzzy Simulation-Based Optimization Approach for Groundwater Remediation Design at Contaminated Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy simulation-based optimization approach (FSOA is developed for identifying optimal design of a benzene-contaminated groundwater remediation system under uncertainty. FSOA integrates remediation processes (i.e., biodegradation and pump-and-treat, fuzzy simulation, and fuzzy-mean-value-based optimization technique into a general management framework. This approach offers the advantages of (1 considering an integrated remediation alternative, (2 handling simulation and optimization problems under uncertainty, and (3 providing a direct linkage between remediation strategies and remediation performance through proxy models. The results demonstrate that optimal remediation alternatives can be obtained to mitigate benzene concentration to satisfy environmental standards with a minimum system cost.

  18. Urban Blight Remediation as a Cost-Beneficial Solution to Firearm Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Kondo, Michelle C; Murphy, Sean M; South, Eugenia C; Polsky, Daniel; MacDonald, John M

    2016-12-01

    To determine if blight remediation of abandoned buildings and vacant lots can be a cost-beneficial solution to firearm violence in US cities. We performed quasi-experimental analyses of the impacts and economic returns on investment of urban blight remediation programs involving 5112 abandoned buildings and vacant lots on the occurrence of firearm and nonfirearm violence in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from 1999 to 2013. We adjusted before-after percent changes and returns on investment in treated versus control groups for sociodemographic factors. Abandoned building remediation significantly reduced firearm violence -39% (95% confidence interval [CI] = -28%, -50%; P urban residents that may create physical opportunities for violence by sheltering illegal activity and illegal firearms. Urban blight remediation programs can be cost-beneficial strategies that significantly and sustainably reduce firearm violence.

  19. Design of bioaugmented biobarriers for remediation of a TCE plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, C.; Grant, G.; Konzuk, J.; Bogaart, M.; Duffy, M.; Grinyer, W.; Major, D. [Geosyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States); Le, S.; Tamashiro, P-F. [NAVFAC Southwest, Ventura County, CA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The design of bioaugmented biobarriers for remediation of a trichloroethene (TCE) plume was discussed in this presentation. Specifically, the presentation provided a description of the site and presented the general bioremediation approach. It also discussed microcosm testing, emulsified oil (EVO) pilot testing, modeling, and final design. The biodegradation of TCE was discussed. It was described as having the following steps: sequential reductive dechlorination carried out by dechlorinating bacteria; chlorine replaced by hydrogen atom; hydrogen produced during fermentation of EVO; and dehalococcoides (DHC) bacteria capable of degrading cDCE to ethene. The presentation discussed the bioaugmentation with KB-1 culture, EVO as a long-term electron donor, passive bioremediation approach, and full-scale design objectives. These included the remediation of TCE and daughter products within the plume and source within 50 years; minimizing costs; and determining the number, dimensions, and optimum placement of biobarriers. The microcosm study proved to be useful for determining biodegradation half-lives for bioaugmentation/EVO treatments and that TCE rapidly and completely converted to ethene with KB-1 and EVO addition. In addition, the natural attenuation within the plume was slow. tabs., figs.

  20. Ammonium citrate as enhancement for electrodialytic soil remediation and investigation of soil solution during the process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    .25, 0.5 and 1.0 M) and remediation times (21, 42 and 117 d) for the removal of Cu and Cr from a calcareous soil. To gain insight on metal behavior, soil solution was periodically collected using suction cups. It was seen that current densities higher than 1.0 mA cm−2 did not increase removal and thus...

  1. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. In ge...

  2. Characterization of a Polyacrylamide Solution Used for Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwon Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers are viewed as effective and eco-friendly agents in soil modification. This study focuses on the wettability analysis of polyacrylamide (PAM solutions for soil remediation. The contact angle, surface tension, and viscosity of PAM solutions were experimentally evaluated in air- and decane-biopolymer solution systems. Furthermore, a micromodel was used to investigate the pore-scale displacement phenomena during the injection of the PAM solution in decane and or air saturated pores. The contact angle of the PAM solution linearly increases with increasing concentration in air but not in decane. The surface tension between the PAM solution and air decreases at increasing concentration. The viscosity of the PAM solution is highly dependent on the concentration of the solution, shear rate, and temperature. Low flow rate and low concentration result in a low displacement ratio level, which is defined as the volume ratio between the injected and the defended fluids in the pores. The displacement ratio is higher for PAM solutions than distilled water; however, a higher concentration does not necessarily guarantees a higher displacement ratio. Soil remediation could be conducted cost-efficiently at high flow rates but with moderate concentration levels.

  3. Solution Prototyping with Design Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2014-01-01

    are tried to be broken and Design Thinking advantages are increasingly preferred by man- agement. This case study based paper provides key insights into how DT phases and behavior can be changed for creating synergy across employees, manage- ment and products from which the end-consumer benefits. The Social...... Media for SAP store case study combines a conceptual and product oriented solution deri- vation with Design Thinking....

  4. Solution Prototyping with Design Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    are tried to be broken and Design Thinking advantages are increasingly preferred by man- agement. This case study based paper provides key insights into how DT phases and behavior can be changed for creating synergy across employees, manage- ment and products from which the end-consumer benefits. The Social...... Media for SAP store case study combines a conceptual and product oriented solution deri- vation with Design Thinking....

  5. Solution Prototyping with Design Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    are tried to be broken and Design Thinking advantages are increasingly preferred by man- agement. This case study based paper provides key insights into how DT phases and behavior can be changed for creating synergy across employees, manage- ment and products from which the end-consumer benefits. The Social...... Media for SAP store case study combines a conceptual and product oriented solution deri- vation with Design Thinking....

  6. High Resolution Site Characterization as key element for proper design and cost estimation of groundwater remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Dijkshoorn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Substantial amounts of money are spent each year on cleaning up ground water contaminations that were caused by historical industrial site activities. Too often, however, remedial objectives are not achieved within the anticipated time frame. Moreover, remedial budgets which were estimated prior to the start of remediation turn out to be largely insufficient to meet the remedial objectives. This situation, very common, creates significant troubles for all the stakeholders involved in the remediation project. The reason for not meeting remedial regulatory closure criteria or exceeding remedial budgets is often due to an incomplete conceptual site model. Having conducted high resolution site characterization programs at numerous sites where remediation was previously conducted, ERM has found several recurring themes: • Missed source areas and plumes; • Inadequate understanding of source area and plume architectures (i.e., three-dimensional contaminant distribution; • Inadequate understanding of the effects of site (hydrogeologic conditions on the ability to access contamination (i.e., via remedial additive injections of groundwater/soil gas extraction. This paper explains why remediations often fail and what the alternatives to prevent these failures (and exceeding remedial budgets are. More specifically, it focuses on alternative investigation methods and approaches that help to get to a more complete (high resolution conceptual site model. This more complete conceptual site model in return helps a more focused remedial design with a higher remedial efficiency. As a minimum, it will take away a lot of (financial uncertainty during the decision making when selecting a remedial alternative. Contaminants that have a greater density then water are known to have a greater complexity in terms of both investigation as well as remediation. Therefore, they will be the main focus of this paper.

  7. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2006-11-14

    This Phase IV Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of areas with the potential for UXO at the Idaho National Laboratory. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. Five areas within the Naval Proving Ground that are known to contain UXO include the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, the Mass Detonation Area, the Experimental Field Station, The Rail Car Explosion Area, and the Land Mine Fuze Burn Area. The Phase IV remedial action will be concentrated in these five areas. For other areas, such as the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range, ordnance has largely consisted of sand-filled practice bombs that do not pose an explosion risk. Ordnance encountered in these areas will be addressed under the Phase I Operations and Maintenance Plan that allows for the recovery and disposal of ordnance that poses an imminent risk to human health or the environment.

  8. Effects of initial solute distribution on contaminant availability, desorption modeling, and subsurface remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, Nathan W; Ball, William P; Bouwer, Edward J

    2007-01-01

    Low permeability regions in which solute movement is governed by diffusion reduce the availability of pollutants for remediation and can function as long-term sources of groundwater contamination. The inherent difficulty in understanding mass transfer from these regions of sequestered contamination is further complicated by unknown solute distributions within the low-permeability regions (sequestering regions). When models are calibrated to reproduce temporal histories of solute release from a sequestering region (desorption), the fitted parameter values are used to infer the physical or chemical characteristics of the media; however, the calibrated parameters also reflect the case-specific initial conditions (i.e., the solute distribution within the sequestering region domain at the onset of desorption). This phenomenon is demonstrated using model simulations of solute diffusion from hypothetical solids with characteristics similar to those of the well studied Borden, Ontario aquifer system. Solute release from the solids is simulated using a batch diffusion model under different initial solute distributions within the solids. The results of these model simulations are used to calibrate parameters of a multiple first-order rate desorption model (MRM) to illustrate how the fitted MRM parameters increase or decrease depending on the initial "aging" of the solids. Further numerical simulations are conducted for a one-dimensional flow system under steady-state and variable-rate hydraulic flushing. These simulations show that although aging reduces desorptive mass flux during early stages of flushing, aged sites have greater desorptive mass flux (greater solute availability) than "freshly" contaminated media during the later stages of remediation. Overall, the results demonstrate why the physicochemical meaning of observed desorption rates cannot be accurately deduced without first understanding the initial solute distribution within the media.

  9. Silverlight 4 Problem - Design - Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Lecrenski, Nick

    2010-01-01

    A hands-on guide to Microsoft's latest rich application development technology: Silverlight 4. Silverlight 4 is the newest version of the rich Internet application toolkit that provides support for .NET capabilities over the Internet. With this latest release of Silverlight, Microsoft has revolutionized the way that Web applications can be created. This book uses the popular Problem – DesignSolution strategy to demonstrate how to harness the power and abilities of Silverlight 4 to add value to the overall user experience of a Web site. Using a Web site created by the author as a reference p

  10. Remedial design work plan for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Remedial Design Work Plan (RDWP) for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) Operable Unit (OU) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This remedial action fits into the overall Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) cleanup strategy by addressing contaminated floodplain soil. The objective of this remedial action is to minimize the risk to human health and the environment from contaminated soil in the Lower EFPC floodplain pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (1992). In accordance with the FFA, a remedial investigation (RI) (DOE 1994a) and a feasibility study (DOE 1994b) were conducted to assess contamination of the Lower EFPC and propose remediation alternatives. The remedial investigation determined that the principal contaminant is mercury, which originated from releases during Y-12 Plant operations, primarily between 1953 and 1963. The recommended alternative by the feasibility study was to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated with mercury above the remedial goal option. Following the remedial investigation/feasibility study, and also in accordance with the FFA, a proposed plan was prepared to more fully describe the proposed remedy.

  11. A master-slave parallel hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for groundwater remediation design under general hydrogeological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Yang, Y.; Luo, Q.; Wu, J.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a new hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, the niched Pareto tabu search combined with a genetic algorithm (NPTSGA), whereby the global search ability of niched Pareto tabu search (NPTS) is improved by the diversification of candidate solutions arose from the evolving nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) population. Also, the NPTSGA coupled with the commonly used groundwater flow and transport codes, MODFLOW and MT3DMS, is developed for multi-objective optimal design of groundwater remediation systems. The proposed methodology is then applied to a large-scale field groundwater remediation system for cleanup of large trichloroethylene (TCE) plume at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Furthermore, a master-slave (MS) parallelization scheme based on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) is incorporated into the NPTSGA to implement objective function evaluations in distributed processor environment, which can greatly improve the efficiency of the NPTSGA in finding Pareto-optimal solutions to the real-world application. This study shows that the MS parallel NPTSGA in comparison with the original NPTS and NSGA-II can balance the tradeoff between diversity and optimality of solutions during the search process and is an efficient and effective tool for optimizing the multi-objective design of groundwater remediation systems under complicated hydrogeologic conditions.

  12. Linde FUSRAP Site Remediation: Engineering Challenges and Solutions of Remedial Activities on an Active Industrial Facility - 13506

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beres, Christopher M.; Fort, E. Joseph [Cabrera Services, Inc., 473 Silver Lane, East Hartford, CT 06118 (United States); Boyle, James D. [United States Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo, 1776 Niagara Street, Buffalo, NY 14207 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Linde FUSRAP Site (Linde) is located in Tonawanda, New York at a major research and development facility for Praxair, Inc. (Praxair). Successful remediation activities at Linde combines meeting cleanup objectives of radiological contamination while minimizing impacts to Praxair business operations. The unique use of Praxair's property coupled with an array of active and abandoned utilities poses many engineering and operational challenges; each of which has been overcome during the remedial action at Linde. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District (USACE) and CABRERA SERVICES, INC. (CABRERA) have successfully faced engineering challenges such as relocation of an aboveground structure, structural protection of an active water line, and installation of active mechanical, electrical, and communication utilities to perform remediation. As remediation nears completion, continued success of engineering challenges is critical as remaining activities exist in the vicinity of infrastructure essential to business operations; an electrical substation and duct bank providing power throughout the Praxair facility. Emphasis on engineering and operations through final remediation and into site restoration will allow for the safe and successful completion of the project. (authors)

  13. An economic decision framework using modeling for improving aquifer remediation design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, B.R.; Gwo, J.P.; Toran, L.E.

    1995-11-01

    Reducing cost is a critical challenge facing environmental remediation today. One of the most effective ways of reducing costs is to improve decision-making. This can range from choosing more cost- effective remediation alternatives (for example, determining whether a groundwater contamination plume should be remediated or not) to improving data collection (for example, determining when data collection should stoop). Uncertainty in site conditions presents a major challenge for effective decision-making. We present a framework for increasing the effectiveness of remedial design decision-making at groundwater contamination sites where there is uncertainty in many parameters that affect remediation design. The objective is to provide an easy-to-use economic framework for making remediation decisions. The presented framework is used to 1) select the best remedial design from a suite of possible ones, 2) estimate if additional data collection is cost-effective, and 3) determine the most important parameters to be sampled. The framework is developed by combining elements from Latin-Hypercube simulation of contaminant transport, economic risk-cost-benefit analysis, and Regional Sensitivity Analysis (RSA).

  14. Facility design philosophy: Tank Waste Remediation System Process support and infrastructure definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, C.E.; Galbraith, J.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Grant, P.R.; Francuz, D.J.; Schroeder, P.J. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the current facility design philosophy for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process support and infrastructure definition. The Tank Waste Remediation System Facility Configuration Study (FCS) initially documented the identification and definition of support functions and infrastructure essential to the TWRS processing mission. Since the issuance of the FCS, the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has proceeded to develop information and requirements essential for the technical definition of the TWRS treatment processing programs.

  15. Design of Uranium Solution Critical Experimental Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI; Da-yong; GUO; Zhi-jia; YAO; Cheng-zhi; SHI; Chen-lei

    2012-01-01

    <正>In 2012, Department of reactor engineering design completes the design and mechanical analysis of Uranium solution critical experimental device. According to user’s requirements and nuclear safety regulations, design and analysis mainly involves two sets of core structure, uranium solution loop, water loop and experimental bench, etc. The core which includes a core vessel, reactor core support, safety rods, control rods, and so on, is used for containing uranium solution and fuel element and fulfilling the

  16. An evaluation of different soil washing solutions for remediating arsenic-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; Ma, Fujun; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Changsheng; Wu, Bin; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2017-04-01

    Soil washing is a promising way to remediate arsenic-contaminated soils. Most research has mostly focused on seeking efficient extractants for removing arsenic, but not concerned with any changes in soil properties when using this technique. In this study, the removal of arsenic from a heavily contaminated soil employing different washing solutions including H3PO4, NaOH and dithionite in EDTA was conducted. Subsequently, the changes in soil physicochemical properties and phytotoxicity of each washing technique were evaluated. After washing with 2 M H3PO4, 2 M NaOH or 0.1 M dithionite in 0.1 M EDTA, the soil samples' arsenic content met the clean-up levels stipulated in China's environmental regulations. H3PO4 washing decreased soil pH, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations but increased TN and TP contents. NaOH washing increased soil pH but decreased soil TOC, TN and TP contents. Dithionite in EDTA washing reduced soil TOC, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn and TP contents. A drastic color change was observed when the soil sample was washed with H3PO4 or 0.1 M dithionite in 0.1 M EDTA. After adjusting the soil pH to neutral, wheat planted in the soil sample washed by NaOH evidenced the best growth of all three treated soil samples. These results will help with selecting the best washing solution when remediating arsenic-contaminated soils in future engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the designated disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  18. Engineering Value-Effective Healthcare Solutions: A Systems Design Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patou, François; Maier, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Our modern healthcare systems commonly face an important dilemma. While they depend on innovation to provide continuously greater healthcare value, they also struggle financially with the burden of adopting a continuous flow of new products and services. Although several disruptive healthcare...... models, i.e. decentralised, personalised, pervasive, connected, and stratified, promise to relieve some of this tension, they do not per se guarantee optimal value generation. We argue that systems thinking and engineering design can remedy this limitation. We support this claim by making the case...... of Design for Evolvability and by elaborating on two examples: MRI systems and Point-of-Care in-vitro diagnostics solutions. We specifically argue that Design for Evolvability can realign the agendas of various healthcare stakeholders, serving both individual and national interests. We finally acknowledge...

  19. Design criteria for soil cleaning operations in electrokinetic remediation: hydrodynamic aspects in a cylindrical geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyanader, Mario A; Arce, Pedro; Dzurik, Andrew

    2005-08-01

    The applications of electrokinetics embrace a large family of important industrial, pharmaceutical, biomedical, and environmental applications. Processes such as separation, drug delivery, soil remediation, and others constitute alist of applications where electrical fields are used to induce the movement of solute species. Different transport driving forces participate in the motion of the solute. In the particular case of soil remediation, the electromechanisms may compete with buoyancy and advection, promoting distinct flow regimes. As a rule of thumb, some of the earlier applications of electrokinetic phenomena, mainly in the area of electrophoresis, neglected this competition, and therefore the hydrodynamics of the systems was considered simpler. The nature of the process in soil, a porous media, calls for a different approach and is in need of further analysis of the complete map of collaborating driving forces. The identification and analysis of the characteristic flow regimes may lead to important guidelines for improving the separation, avoiding the mixing, and more efficient cleaning in a given application. In this contribution, using a cylindrical capillary model, the basic aspects of the behavior of the system are captured. A differential model is formulated using simplifying assumptions, maintaining the mathematical aspects to a minimum level, and a solution is presented for the different fields, i.e., the temperature and the velocity. Based on the selection of values of the parameter space, several limiting cases and flow regimes are presented and discussed. Implications for the design of devices and cleaning strategies are also included. Needs for further research are identified. The main idea behind the study is to obtain a qualitative and semiquantitative description of the different flow regimes inside the channel. This information is useful to identify further aspects of the investigation and delineate a systematic approach for a more rigorous

  20. Multi-Objective Optimization with Function Approximation Including Application to Computationally Expensive Groundwater Remediation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, T.; Shoemaker, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    Water Resources design decisions frequently entail trade-offs between conflicting objectives, for instance cost minimization and contaminant(s) concentration minimization. Multi-objective optimization methods (including those based on evolutionary methods) typically require a very large number of simulations to find a solution. Many groundwater remediation problems are modeled by computationally intensive systems of Partial Differential Equations and simulations. Hence it is desirable that these models are calibrated via algorithms that require less number of simulations. A new strategy called Gap Optimized Multi-Objective Optimization using Response Surfaces (GOMORS) is proposed for multi-objective optimization of computationally expensive problems. A multi-objective management framework is devised to analyze the trade-offs between conflicting objectives. We will present applications to test functions and to a groundwater contamination problem. The pumping rates at different well locations and management periods are the decision variables, and cost and contaminant concentration are the objectives to be minimized. The optimization strategy is iterative and makes use of Radial Basic Functions to develop response surfaces as an approximation of the computationally expensive objectives. A novel method called the Gap Optimization method is introduced. The gap optimization method incorporates use of a multi-objective evolutionary optimization (MOEA) method that is applied to select the next point for expensive evaluation and consequent improvement of the surrogate model. In order to provide sound alternatives to the decision makers, the evaluation point selection procedure strives to ensure that the final trade-off curve generated from the algorithm is close to the true Pareto front and includes a diverse set of solutions. After the final iteration, a set of candidate solutions is selected via the iterative Gap Optimization procedure and the last MOEA iteration, and

  1. Designing Hyper-V solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at IT admins, consultants, and architects alike who wish to deploy, manage, and maintain Hyper-V solutions in organizations of various sizes. You are expected to have a working knowledge of managing Windows Server and a fair understanding of networking and storage concepts.

  2. ASCAD: Approved standard corrective action design-an innovative one-step remedial action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, W.D.; Boyter, N.C.; Martin, D.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper will describe an innovative environmental restoration approach being developed at the Savannah River Site to group sites, define characterization parameters, and match those conditions with standard environmental restoration designs. The package is called the Approved Standardized Corrective Action Design (ASCAD). The purpose of developing this package is to obtain regulator approval of standard technologies and designs for any waste site documented as meeting bounded characterization conditions. For instance, the grouping might be labeled {open_quotes}radioactive basins{close_quotes}. The ASCAD package would contain one design for expected (ABC) conditions defined by characterization. A second design also would be included for DEF conditions should they be encountered. The concept is a next generation of the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration, SAFER where limited characterization and technology selections are conducted in parallel with the processes supporting each other. The impact of ASCAD is to reach remediation faster and lower costs on remedial investigation and design.

  3. Bioavailability and ecotoxicity of arsenic species in solution culture and soil system: implications to remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, Nanthi; Mahimairaja, Santiago; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Seshadri, Balaji; Thangarajan, Ramya

    2015-06-01

    In this work, bioavailability and ecotoxicity of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) species were compared between solution culture and soil system. Firstly, the adsorption of As(III) and As(V) was compared using a number of non-allophanic and allophanic soils. Secondly, the bioavailability and ecotoxicity were examined using germination, phytoavailability, earthworm, and soil microbial activity tests. Both As-spiked soils and As-contaminated sheep dip soils were used to test bioavailability and ecotoxicity. The sheep dip soil which contained predominantly As(V) species was subject to flooding to reduce As(V) to As(III) and then used along with the control treatment soil to compare the bioavailability between As species. Adsorption of As(V) was much higher than that of As(III), and the difference in adsorption between these two species was more pronounced in the allophanic than non-allophanic soils. In the solution culture, there was no significant difference in bioavailability and ecotoxicity, as measured by germination and phytoavailability tests, between these two As species. Whereas in the As-spiked soils, the bioavailability and ecotoxicity were higher for As(III) than As(V), and the difference was more pronounced in the allophanic than non-allophanic soils. Bioavailability of As increased with the flooding of the sheep dip soils which may be attributed to the reduction of As(V) to As(III) species. The results in this study have demonstrated that while in solution, the bioavailability and ecotoxicity do not vary between As(III) and As(V), in soils, the latter species is less bioavailable than the former species because As(V) is more strongly retained than As(III). Since the bioavailability and ecotoxicity of As depend on the nature of As species present in the environment, risk-based remediation approach should aim at controlling the dynamics of As transformation.

  4. Electrolytic arsenic removal for recycling of washing solutions in a remediation process of CCA-treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanseu-Njiki, Charles-Péguy; Alonzo, Véronique; Bartak, Duane; Ngameni, Emmanuel; Darchen, André

    2007-10-01

    The remediation of chromated copper arsenate or CCA-treated wood is a challenging problem in many countries. In a wet remediation, the recycling of the washing solutions is the key step for a successful process. Within this goal, owing to its solubility and its toxicity, the removal of arsenic from washing solution is the most difficult process. The efficiency of arsenic removal from As(III) solutions by electrolysis was investigated in view of the recycling of acidic washing solutions usable in the remediation of CCA-treated wood. Electrochemical reduction of As(III) is irreversible and thus difficult to perform at carbon electrodes. However the electrolytic extraction of arsenic can be performed by the concomitant reduction of the cupric cation and arsenite anion. The cathodic deposits obtained by controlled potential electrolysis were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. XRD diffraction data indicated that these deposits were mixtures of copper and copper arsenides Cu(3)As and Cu(5)As(2). Electrolysis was carried out in an undivided cell with graphite cathode and copper anode, under a controlled nitrogen atmosphere. The evolution of arsine gas AsH(3) was not observed under these conditions.

  5. Agglomeration in Stripper Ash Coolers and Its Possible Remedial Solutions: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravi Inder

    2016-04-01

    The bottom ash of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler contains large amounts of physical heat. When low quality coals are used in these types of boilers, the ash content is normally more than 40 % and the physical heat loss is approximately 3 % if the bottom ash is discharged without cooling. Bottom ash cooler (BAC) is often used to treat the high temperature bottom ash to reclaim heat, and to facilitate the easily handling and transportation of ash. The CFB boiler at BLA Power, Newari, MP (India) is facing problems of clinker formation in strip ash coolers of plant since the installation of unit. These clinkers are basically agglomerates, which leads to defluidization of stripper ash cooler (BAC) units. There are two strip ash coolers in unit. Each strip ash cooler is capable of working independently. The proper functioning of both strip coolers is very important as it is going to increase the combustion efficiency of boiler by stripping of fine unburnt coal particles from ash, which are injected into the furnace. In this paper causes, characterization of agglomerates, thermo gravimetric analysis of fuel used, particular size distribution of coal and sand and possible remedial solution to overcome these agglomerates in strip ash coolers has also been presented. High temperature in compact separators, non uniform supply of coal and not removing small agglomerates from stripper ash cooler are among main causes of agglomeration in stripper ash cooler. Control of compact separator temperature, replacing 10-12 % of bed material and cleaning stripper ash cooler periodically will decrease agglomeration in stripper ash cooler of unit.

  6. Dissolved plume attenuation with DNAPL source remediation, aqueous decay and volatilization — Analytical solution, model calibration and prediction uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jack C.; Park, Eungyu; Tang, Guoping

    2008-11-01

    A vertically-integrated analytical model for dissolved phase transport is described that considers a time-dependent DNAPL source based on the upscaled dissolution kinetics model of Parker and Park with extensions to consider time-dependent source zone biodecay, partial source mass reduction, and remediation-enhanced source dissolution kinetics. The model also considers spatial variability in aqueous plume decay, which is treated as the sum of aqueous biodecay and volatilization due to diffusive transport and barometric pumping through the unsaturated zone. The model is implemented in Excel/VBA coupled with (1) an inverse solution that utilizes prior information on model parameters and their uncertainty to condition the solution, and (2) an error analysis module that computes parameter covariances and total prediction uncertainty due to regression error and parameter uncertainty. A hypothetical case study is presented to evaluate the feasibility of calibrating the model from limited noisy field data. The results indicate that prediction uncertainty increases significantly over time following calibration, primarily due to propagation of parameter uncertainty. However, differences between the predicted performance of source zone partial mass reduction and the known true performance were reasonably small. Furthermore, a clear difference is observed between the predicted performance for the remedial action scenario versus that for a no-action scenario, which is consistent with the true system behavior. The results suggest that the model formulation can be effectively utilized to assess monitored natural attenuation and source remediation options if careful attention is given to model calibration and prediction uncertainty issues.

  7. Enhanced Remediation of Toluene in the Vadose Zone via a Nitrate-Rich Nutrient Solution: Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.; Friedel, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of nitrate-rich nutrient solutions and hydrogen peroxide (H202) to enhance in-situ microbial remediation of toluene. Three sand filled plots (2 m2 surface area and 1.5 meters deep) were tested in three phases (each phase lasting approximately 2 weeks). During each phase, toluene (21.6 mol as an emulsion in 50L of water) was applied uniformly via sprinkler irrigation. Passive remediation was allowed to occur during the first (control) phase. A nutrient solution (modified Hoagland), concentrated in 40L of water, was tested during the second phase. The final phase involved addition of 230 moles of H202 in 50L of water to increase the available oxygen needed for aerobic biodegradation. During the first phase, toluene concentrations in soil gas were reduced from 120 ppm to 25 ppm in 14 days. After the addition of nutrients during the second phase, concentrations were reduced from 90 ppm to about 8 ppm within 14 days, and for the third phase (H202), toluene concentrations were about 1 ppm after only five days. Initial results suggest that this method could be an effective means of remediating a contaminated site, directly after a BTEX spill, without the intrusiveness and high cost of other abatement technologies such as bioventing and soil vapor extraction. However, further tests need to be completed to determine the effect of each of the BTEX components.

  8. Part 2: A field study of enhanced remediation of Toluene in the vadose zone using a nutrient solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J.A.; Weeks, E.P.; Friedel, M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a nitrate-rich nutrient solution and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to enhance in-situ microbial remediation of toluene in the unsaturated zone. Three sand-filled plots were tested in three phases (each phase lasting approximately 2 weeks). During the control phase, toluene was applied uniformly via sprinkler irrigation. Passive remediation was allowed to occur during this phase. A modified Hoagland nutrient solution, concentrated in 150 L of water, was tested during the second phase. The final phase involved addition of 230 moles of H2O2 in 150 L of water to increase the available oxygen needed for aerobic biodegradation. During the first phase, measured toluene concentrations in soil gas were reduced from 120 ppm to 25 ppm in 14 days. After the addition of nutrients during the second phase, concentrations were reduced from 90 ppm to about 8 ppm within 14 days, and for the third phase (H 2O2), toluene concentrations were about 1 ppm after only 5 days. Initial results suggest that this method could be an effective means of remediating a contaminated site, directly after a BTEX spill, without the intrusiveness and high cost of other abatement technologies such as bioventing or soil-vapor extraction. However, further tests need to be completed to determine the effect of each of the BTEX components. ?? Springer 2005.

  9. Optimal design of active spreading systems to remediate sorbing groundwater contaminants in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, Amy N.; Neupauer, Roseanna M.; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of in situ remediation to treat contaminated aquifers is limited by the degree of contact between the injected treatment chemical and the groundwater contaminant. In this study, candidate designs that actively spread the treatment chemical into the contaminant are generated using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. Design parameters pertaining to the amount of treatment chemical and the duration and rate of its injection are optimized according to objectives established for the remediation - maximizing contaminant degradation while minimizing energy and material requirements. Because groundwater contaminants have different reaction and sorption properties that influence their ability to be degraded with in situ remediation, optimization was conducted for six different combinations of reaction rate coefficients and sorption rates constants to represent remediation of the common groundwater contaminants, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and toluene, using the treatment chemical, permanganate. Results indicate that active spreading for contaminants with low reaction rate coefficients should be conducted by using greater amounts of treatment chemical mass and longer injection durations relative to contaminants with high reaction rate coefficients. For contaminants with slow sorption or contaminants in heterogeneous aquifers, two different design strategies are acceptable - one that injects high concentrations of treatment chemical mass over a short duration or one that injects lower concentrations of treatment chemical mass over a long duration. Thus, decision-makers can select a strategy according to their preference for material or energy use. Finally, for scenarios with high ambient groundwater velocities, the injection rate used for active spreading should be high enough for the groundwater divide to encompass the entire contaminant plume.

  10. MGP remediation using thermal desorption: emerging technology yields a permanent solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umfleet, D.E.; Bachman, S.A.; Highland, E. [Barr Engineering Company, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-12-01

    An investigation of a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) at the site for Northwestern Public Service`s new operations buildings uncovered evidence of MGP residuals in the moist, clay-rich soils. On site-thermal desorption was selected as the remedial method. A low-temperature, counter-flow, direct-fired rotary desorber heats soils up to 1200{degree}F to volatilize organic fractions. Soils containing polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were excavated, treated effectively, and reused at the site as backfill. For the approximately 47,000 tons of soil processed, remediation costs were 82 dollars per ton. Site-specific factors affecting project costs included the volume of soil treated, soil type and condition, inclement weather, and market conditions. Soils were treated to below state-approved performance criterion, and remediation of the site was completed just 18 months after the project began. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Creating by Reusing Learning Design Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Harrer, Andreas; Dodero, Juan Manuel; Asensio-Pérez, Juan; Burgos, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Hernández-Leo, D., Harrer, A., Dodero, J. M., Asension-Pérez, J. I., & Burgos, D. (2006). Creating by reusing Learning Design solutions. Proceedings of 8th Simposo Internacional de Informática Educativa, León, Spain: IEEE Technical Committee on Learning Technology. Retrieved October 3rd, 2006, from

  12. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Remedial Action Selection Report. Preliminary final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This proposed remedial action plan incorporates the results of detailed investigation of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the proposed disposal site. The proposed remedial action will consist of relocating the uranium mill tailings, contaminated vicinity property materials, demolition debris, and windblown/waterborne materials to a permanent repository at the proposed Burro Canyon disposal cell. The proposed disposal site will be geomorphically stable. Seismic design parameters were developed for the geotechnical analyses of the proposed cell. Cell stability was analyzed to ensure long-term performance of the disposal cell in meeting design standards, including slope stability, settlement, and liquefaction potential. The proposed cell cover and erosion protection features were also analyzed and designed to protect the RRM (residual radioactive materials) against surface water and wind erosion. The location of the proposed cell precludes the need for permanent drainage or interceptor ditches. Rock to be used on the cell top-, side-, and toeslopes was sized to withstand probable maximum precipitation events.

  13. Standardization methods for testing photo-catalytic air remediation materials: Problems and solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifang, S.; Gallus, M.; Liedtke, S.; Kurtenbach, R.; Wiesen, P.; Kleffmann, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, problems of different methods used for quantifying the air remediation activity of photo-catalytic active surfaces are described. It is demonstrated that in bed photo-reactors (e.g. ISO), transport limitations can lead to underestimation of the activity, if fast heterogeneous reactions are investigated. In contrast, in stirred tank photo-reactors (e.g. UNI), complex secondary chemistry may lead to an overestimation of the photo-catalytic remediation of NOx, if NO2 is also present. In addition, the quantities, used for ranking the photo-catalytic air remediation activity in the different methods are not independent of the applied experimental conditions, and thus, make any intercomparison between the different methods or the extrapolation to atmospheric conditions very difficult. Furthermore, unrealistic high NOx levels are used, for which the chemical kinetics may already be affected by surface saturation problems. Finally, it is shown that the use of only nitrogen monoxide (NO) will not enable users to judge about the quality and effectiveness of a photo-catalytic surface for improving air quality, since surfaces which are active toward NO may be completely non-reactive toward other important atmospheric pollutants. A modified method for quantifying the air remediation activity of photo-catalytic surfaces is proposed here to overcome these problems.

  14. Abandoned deep mine subsidence investigation and remedial design, Interstate 70, Guernsey County, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, A.G.; Clark, D.M.; Bechtel, T.D.

    1999-07-01

    A two thousand linear foot, undermined section of Interstate 70 in Guernsey County, Ohio experienced settlements due to pothole type subsidence events within the travel lanes, shoulders and adjacent right-of-way areas. Potholes measured approximately ten feet in depth and width. The subsidence occurred after the dewatering of the abandoned deep mine during auger mining operations west of the site. A two-phase emergency investigation was undertaken by the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) and Gannett Fleming Cord dry and Carpenter (GF). The purpose of the investigation was to assess the immediate danger of potholes occurring in the traveled lanes and paved shoulders, to identify the subsidence mechanisms, and to design a remediation program. Phase one investigations involved the review of existing subsurface data, the advancement of shallow borings and the performance of multiple geophysical surveys including ground penetrating radar, seismic refraction and electromagnetic terrain conductivity. The Phase one investigations did not reveal the presence of subsidence voids. Phase two investigations included borings to the mine level and videotaping of mine conditions. The mine was found to be completely flooded. Based upon the collected data, two mechanisms of failure, localized roof fall and piping of overburden soils into the mine void, were identified. Two remedial alternatives, (1) the filling of the mine void, and (2) the reinforcement of the highway using geotextiles, were evaluated, Filling of the mined interval and grouting of overburden bedrock fractures and voids, within a limited area, were selected. Construction plans, specifications and cost estimates were prepared for bidding and award. During the bidding process, a catastrophic, pothole type failure of the I-70 travel lanes occurred. The interstate was closed and the planned remediation activities were performed as an emergency project. The mine interval was grouted and portions of the highway

  15. Wireless device connection problems and design solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji-Won; Norman, Donald; Nam, Tek-Jin; Qin, Shengfeng

    2016-09-01

    Users, especially the non-expert users, commonly experience problems when connecting multiple devices with interoperability. While studies on multiple device connections are mostly concentrated on spontaneous device association techniques with a focus on security aspects, the research on user interaction for device connection is still limited. More research into understanding people is needed for designers to devise usable techniques. This research applies the Research-through-Design method and studies the non-expert users' interactions in establishing wireless connections between devices. The "Learning from Examples" concept is adopted to develop a study focus line by learning from the expert users' interaction with devices. This focus line is then used for guiding researchers to explore the non-expert users' difficulties at each stage of the focus line. Finally, the Research-through-Design approach is used to understand the users' difficulties, gain insights to design problems and suggest usable solutions. When connecting a device, the user is required to manage not only the device's functionality but also the interaction between devices. Based on learning from failures, an important insight is found that the existing design approach to improve single-device interaction issues, such as improvements to graphical user interfaces or computer guidance, cannot help users to handle problems between multiple devices. This study finally proposes a desirable user-device interaction in which images of two devices function together with a system image to provide the user with feedback on the status of the connection, which allows them to infer any required actions.

  16. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Volume 2, Appendices D and E: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the designated disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  17. Novel Design Solutions for Fishing Reel Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOVASZ Erwin-Christian; MODLER Karl-Heinz; NEUMANN Rudolf; GRUESCU Corina Mihaela; PERJU Dan; CIUPE Valentin; MANIU Inocentiu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there are various reels on the market regarding the type of mechanism, which achieves the winding and unwinding of the line. The designers have the purpose of obtaining a linear transmission function, by means of a simple and small-sized mechanism. However, the present solutions are not satisfactory because of large deviations from linearity of the transmission function and complexity of mechanical schema. A novel solution for the reel spool mechanism is proposed. Its kinematic schema and synthesis method are described. The kinematic schema of the chosen mechanism is based on a noncircular gear in series with a scotch-yoke mechanism. The yoke is driven by a stud fixed on the driving noncircular gear. The drawbacks of other models regarding the effects occurring at the ends of the spool are eliminated through achieving an appropriate transmission function of the spool. The linear function approximation with curved end-arches appropriately computed to ensure mathematical continuity is very good. The experimental results on the mechanism model validate the theoretical approach. The developed mechanism solution is recorded under a reel spool mechanism patent.

  18. Sustainable in-well vapor stripping: A design, analytical model, and pilot study for groundwater remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Patrick T; Ginn, Timothy R

    2014-12-15

    A sustainable in-well vapor stripping system is designed as a cost-effective alternative for remediation of shallow chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes. A solar-powered air compressor is used to inject air bubbles into a monitoring well to strip volatile organic compounds from a liquid to vapor phase while simultaneously inducing groundwater circulation around the well screen. An analytical model of the remediation process is developed to estimate contaminant mass flow and removal rates. The model was calibrated based on a one-day pilot study conducted in an existing monitoring well at a former dry cleaning site. According to the model, induced groundwater circulation at the study site increased the contaminant mass flow rate into the well by approximately two orders of magnitude relative to ambient conditions. Modeled estimates for 5h of pulsed air injection per day at the pilot study site indicated that the average effluent concentrations of dissolved tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene can be reduced by over 90% relative to the ambient concentrations. The results indicate that the system could be used cost-effectively as either a single- or multi-well point technology to substantially reduce the mass of dissolved chlorinated solvents in groundwater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Science Letters:Remediation of Cr(Ⅵ) in solution using vitamin C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; XU Xin-hua; HE Ping

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness of vitamin C in treating Cr(Ⅵ)-contaminated water is being evaluated. Cr(Ⅵ) is an identified pollutant of some soils and groundwater. Vitamin C, an important biological reductant in humans and animals, can be used to transform Cr(Ⅵ) to essentially nontoxic Cr(Ⅲ). The removal efficiency was 89% when the mass concentration of vitamin C was 80 mg/L in 60 min, and nearly 100% Cr(Ⅵ) was removed when the mass concentration was 100 mg/L. Our data demonstrated that the removal efficiency was affected by vitamin C concentration, the reaction temperature and the dissolved oxygen concentration.The reaction mechanism of Cr(Ⅵ) by vitamin C was presented. Our study opens the way to use vitamin C to remediate Cr(Ⅵ)-contaminated soils and groundwater.

  20. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Mexican Hat, Utah: Appendix D. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-07-01

    This appendix is an assessment of the present conditions of the inactive uranium mill site near Mexican Hat, Utah. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan. Plan is to characterize the conditions at the mill and tailings site so that the Remedial Action Contractor may complete final designs of the remedial action.

  1. Do Remedial English Programs Impact First-Year Success in College? An Illustration of the Regression-Discontinuity Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Meg; Lesik, Sally A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an illustration of how the regression-discontinuity design can be used to obtain an unbiased estimate of the causal effect of participating in a university remedial English program on first-year grade point average. First-year grade point averages were collected for 197 first-time, full-time university students, along with the…

  2. Conceptual design and experiments of electrochemistry-flushing technology for the remediation of historically Cr(Ⅵ)-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Sun, Delin; Hu, Siyang; Hu, Jing; Yuan, Xingzhong

    2016-02-01

    A conceptual design and experiments, electrochemistry-flushing (E-flushing), using electrochemistry to enhance flushing efficiency for the remediation of Cr(Ⅵ)-contaminated soil is presented. The rector contained three compartments vertically superposed. The upper was airtight cathode compartment containing an iron-cathode. The middle was soil layer. The bottom was anode compartment containing an iron-anode and connected to a container by circulation pumps. H2 and OH(-) ions were produced at cathode. H2 increased the gas pressure in cathode compartment and drove flushing solution into soil layer forming flushing process. OH(-) ions entered into soil layer by eletromigration and hydraulic flow to enhance the desorption of Cr(Ⅵ). High potential gradient was applied to accelerate the electromigration of desorbed Cr(Ⅵ) ions and produced joule heat to increase soil temperature to enhance Cr(Ⅵ) desorption. In anode compartment, Fe(2+) ions produced at iron-anode reduced the desorbed Cr(Ⅵ) into Cr(3+) ions, which reacted with OH(-) ions forming Cr(OH)3. Experimental results show that Cr(Ⅵ) removal efficiency of E-flushing experiments was more than double of flushing experiments and reached the maximum of removal efficiency determined by desorption kinetics. All electrochemistry processes were positively used in E-flushing technology.

  3. Optimization of biosurfactant production in soybean oil by rhodococcus rhodochrous and its utilization in remediation of cadmium-contaminated solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, Venty; Hastuti, Sri; Andriani, Dewi

    2016-02-01

    Biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus rhodochrous in soybean oil was developed, where the effect of medium composition and fermentation time were evaluated. The optimum condition for biosurfactant production was achieved when a medium containing 30 g/L TSB (tryptic soy broth) and 20% v/v soybean oil was used as media with 7 days of fermentation. Biosurfactant was identified as glycolipids type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 896 mg/L. The biosurfactant had oil in water emulsion type and was able to reduce the surface tension of palm oil about 52% which could stabilize the emulsion up to 12 days. The batch removal of cadmium metal ion by crude and partially purified biosurfactants have been examined from synthetic aqueous solution at pH 6. The results exhibited that the crude biosurfactant had a much better adsorption ability of Cd(II) than that of partially purified biosurfactant. However, it was found that there was no significant difference in the adsorption of Cd(II) with 5 and 10 minutes of contact time. The results indicated that the biosurfactant could be used in remediation of heavy metals from contaminated aqueous solution.

  4. Design requirements for ERD and ISCO: How close and how fast to achieve an effective remediation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Lemming, Gitte; Manoli, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Clayey tills contaminated with chlorinated solvents are a threat to groundwater and are difficult to remediate. Full scale Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination (ERD) and In-Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) are promising remediation technologies for such sites, but the delivery of reactants is challeng...

  5. Soil solution interactions may limit Pb remediation using P amendments in an urban soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrycki, John F; Scheckel, Kirk G; Basta, Nicholas T

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb) contaminated soils are a potential exposure hazard to the public. Amending soils with phosphorus (P) may reduce Pb soil hazards. Soil from Cleveland, OH containing 726 ± 14 mg Pb kg(-1) was amended in a laboratory study with bone meal and triple super phosphate (TSP) at 5:1 P:Pb molar ratios. Soil was acidified, neturalized and re-acidified to encourage Pb phosphate formation. PRSTM-probes were used to evaluate changes in soil solution chemistry. Soil acidification did not decrease in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb using either a pH 1.5, 0.4 M glycine solution or a pH 2.5 solution with organic acids. PRSTM-probe data found soluble Pb increased 10-fold in acidic conditions compared to circumnetural pH conditions. In acidic conditions (p = 3-4), TSP treated soils increased detected P 10-fold over untreated soils. Bone meal application did not increase PRSTM-probe detected P, indicating there may have been insufficient P to react with Pb. X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggested a 10% increase in pyromorphite formation for the TSP treated soil only. Treatments increased soil electrical conductivity above 16 mS cm(-1), potentially causing a new salinity hazard. This study used a novel approach by combining the human ingestion endpoint, PRSTM-probes, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy to evaluate treatment efficacy. PRSTM-probe data indicated potentially excess Ca relative to P across incubation steps that could have competed with Pb for soluble P. More research is needed to characterize soil solutions in Pb contaminated urban soils to identify where P treatments might be effective and when competing cations, such as Ca, Fe, and Zn may limit low rate P applications for treating Pb soils.

  6. Soil solution interactions may limit Pb remediation using P amendments in an urban soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrycki, John F.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Basta, Nicholas T. (OSU); (EPA)

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb) contaminated soils are a potential exposure hazard to the public. Amending soils with phosphorus (P) may reduce Pb soil hazards. Soil from Cleveland, OH containing 726 ± 14 mg Pb kg-1 was amended in a laboratory study with bone meal and triple super phosphate (TSP) at 5:1 P:Pb molar ratios. Soil was acidified, neturalized and re-acidified to encourage Pb phosphate formation. PRSTM-probes were used to evaluate changes in soil solution chemistry. Soil acidification did not decrease in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb using either a pH 1.5, 0.4 M glycine solution or a pH 2.5 solution with organic acids. PRSTM-probe data found soluble Pb increased 10-fold in acidic conditions compared to circumnetural pH conditions. In acidic conditions (p = 3-4), TSP treated soils increased detected P 10-fold over untreated soils. Bone meal application did not increase PRSTM-probe detected P, indicating there may have been insufficient P to react with Pb. X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggested a 10% increase in pyromorphite formation for the TSP treated soil only. Treatments increased soil electrical conductivity above 16 mS cm-1, potentially causing a new salinity hazard. This study used a novel approach by combining the human ingestion endpoint, PRSTM-probes, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy to evaluate treatment efficacy. PRSTM-probe data indicated potentially excess Ca relative to P across incubation steps that could have competed with Pb for soluble P. More research is needed to characterize soil solutions in Pb contaminated urban soils to identify where P treatments might be effective and when competing cations, such as Ca, Fe, and Zn may limit low rate P applications for treating Pb soils.

  7. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for Stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Maybell, Colorado. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, Geology report, Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [m]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (2.1 million cubic meters [m{sup 3}]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd{sup 3} (15,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd{sup 3} (420,000 m{sup 3}). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd{sup 3} (2.58 million m{sup 3}). Information presented in this Final Remedial Action Plan (RAP) and referenced in supporting documents represents the current disposal cell design features and ground water compliance strategy proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the Maybell, Colorado, tailings site. Both the disposal cell design and the ground water compliance strategy have changed from those proposed prior to the preliminary final RAP document as a result of prudent site-specific technical evaluations.

  8. Remediation of methyl iodide in aqueous solution and soils amended with thiourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Papiernik, Sharon K; Guo, Mingxin; Yates, Scott R

    2004-02-15

    Methyl iodide (MeI) is considered a very promising fumigant alternative to methyl bromide (MeBr) for controlling soil-borne pests. Because atmospheric emission of highly volatile fumigants contributes to air pollution, feasible strategies to reduce emissions are urgently needed. In this study, thiourea (a nitrification inhibitor) was shown to accelerate the degradation of MeI in soil and water. In aqueous solution, the reaction between MeI and thiourea was independent of pH, although the rate of MeI hydrolysis increased in alkaline solution. Substantial increases in the rate of MeI dissipation were observed in thiourea-amended soils. Transformation of MeI by thiourea in aqueous solution was by a single chemical reaction process, while MeI degradation in thiourea-amended soil apparently involved a catalytic mechanism. The electron delocalization between the thiourea molecule and the surfaces of soil particles is energetically favorable and would increase the nucleophilic reactivity of the thiono group toward MeI, resulting in an enhancement of the dissipation rate. The soil half-life for MeI was reduced from >300 h for unamended soils to only a few hours in soil or sand amended with thiourea at a 2:1 molar ratio (thiourea:MeI). The MeI transformation rate in thiourea-amended soil increased with increasing soil temperature and decreasing soil moisture. Therefore, spraying thiourea on the soil surface to form a "reactive surface barrier" may be an effective and innovative strategy for controlling fumigant emissions to the atmosphere and for improving environmental protection.

  9. Comparative study of laterite and bentonite based organoclays: implications of hydrophobic compounds remediation from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, Muhammad; Waseem, Amir; Khan, Abdur Rehman

    2013-01-01

    Four cost effective organoclays were synthesized, characterized, and studied for the sorption of hydrophobic compounds (edible oil/grease and hydrocarbon oil) from aqueous solutions. Organoclays were prepared by cation exchange reaction of lattice ions (present onto the surface of laterite and bentonite clay minerals) with two surfactants, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HDTMA-Cl) and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (TDTMA-Br). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of synthesized organoclays. It was found that the amount of surfactant loading and the nature of the surfactant molecules used in the syntheses of organoclay strongly affect the sorption capacity of the clay mineral. Further, it was found that both the laterite and bentonite based organoclays efficiently removed the edible and hydrocarbon oil content from lab prepared emulsions; however, the adsorption capacity of clay mineral was greatly influenced by the nature of hydrophobic compounds as well.

  10. Comparative Study of Laterite and Bentonite Based Organoclays: Implications of Hydrophobic Compounds Remediation from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nafees

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cost effective organoclays were synthesized, characterized, and studied for the sorption of hydrophobic compounds (edible oil/grease and hydrocarbon oil from aqueous solutions. Organoclays were prepared by cation exchange reaction of lattice ions (present onto the surface of laterite and bentonite clay minerals with two surfactants, hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (HDTMA-Cl and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (TDTMA-Br. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of synthesized organoclays. It was found that the amount of surfactant loading and the nature of the surfactant molecules used in the syntheses of organoclay strongly affect the sorption capacity of the clay mineral. Further, it was found that both the laterite and bentonite based organoclays efficiently removed the edible and hydrocarbon oil content from lab prepared emulsions; however, the adsorption capacity of clay mineral was greatly influenced by the nature of hydrophobic compounds as well.

  11. Designing Integrated Product- Service System Solutions in Manufacturing Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Nina; Patrício, Lia; Morelli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing firms are increasingly evolving towards the design of integrated product-service solutions but servitization literature does not provide specific guidance on how to design these integrated solutions. Building upon ProductService System (PSS) and Service Design (SD) approaches...... how it brings new insights to manufacturing companies moving to a service, value cocreation perspective....

  12. Oral treatment of erectile dysfunction: from herbal remedies to designer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, W R

    1998-01-01

    The erect penis has always been a symbol of power, virility, and fertility. Inability to obtain or maintain an erection, known clinically as erectile dysfunction, is a major health problem. It can cause considerable distress, unhappiness, and relationship problems. The search has therefore continued from time immemorial to find an effective safe, and easy to administer treatment for erectile problems. Although a number of these treatments became available in the last two decades, they all had problems with efficacy, safety, or ease of administration. Clinicians in this field often are told at the end of an assessment interview, "I wish you have a magic pill". An effective and safe oral treatment is, no doubt, the most acceptable and easy to use option. Finding such a treatment has always been the dream of many scientists, and many attempts have been made over the years. These ranged from herbal remedies used by native healers, mostly in Eastern countries, to the more sophisticated designer drugs, which are based on a better understanding of the physiological mechanism of erection. This article describes some of these attempts.

  13. Principles underlying the design of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Laurent

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptive game software has been successful in remediation of dyslexia. Here we describe the cognitive and algorithmic principles underlying the development of similar software for dyscalculia. Our software is based on current understanding of the cerebral representation of number and the hypotheses that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in the link between number sense and symbolic number representations. Methods "The Number Race" software trains children on an entertaining numerical comparison task, by presenting problems adapted to the performance level of the individual child. We report full mathematical specifications of the algorithm used, which relies on an internal model of the child's knowledge in a multidimensional "learning space" consisting of three difficulty dimensions: numerical distance, response deadline, and conceptual complexity (from non-symbolic numerosity processing to increasingly complex symbolic operations. Results The performance of the software was evaluated both by mathematical simulations and by five weeks of use by nine children with mathematical learning difficulties. The results indicate that the software adapts well to varying levels of initial knowledge and learning speeds. Feedback from children, parents and teachers was positive. A companion article 1 describes the evolution of number sense and arithmetic scores before and after training. Conclusion The software, open-source and freely available online, is designed for learning disabled children aged 5–8, and may also be useful for general instruction of normal preschool children. The learning algorithm reported is highly general, and may be applied in other domains.

  14. Modeling vertical and horizontal solute transport for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.

    1992-11-01

    This technical memorandum presents a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of a contaminant that originates as a liquid release, moves vertically downward through a vadose zone, mixes with initially clean groundwater in an unconfined aquifer, and ends at a downgradient extraction well. Vertical and horizontal segments of the contaminant pathway are coupled by assuming that the breakthrough curve of the contaminant at the water table acts as a contaminant source for the unconfined aquifer. For simplicity, this source is assumed to be a time-shifted unit square wave having an amplitude equal to the peak breakthrough concentration at the water table and a duration equal to the full width of the breakthrough curve at the half-maximum concentration value. The effects of dilution at the water-table interface are evaluated with a simple mass-balance equation. Comparing the model results for the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site near St. Louis, Missouri, and the Envirocare facility located near Salt Lake City, Utah, with those obtained from a solution formulated with the real and imaginary parts of a Fourier series in Laplace space indicates that the model provides a conservative estimate of the contaminant breakthrough curve at the receptor.

  15. Radiation induced environmental remediation of Cr(VI) heavy metal in aerated neutral solution under simulated industrial effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djouider, Fathi; Aljohani, Mohammed S. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2017-08-01

    Cr(VI) compounds are major water contaminants in most industrial effluents, due to their carcinogenicity, while Cr(III) is an important element for human metabolism. In a previous work, we showed that Cr(VI) was radiolytically reduced to Cr(III) by the CO{sub 2}{sup -.} radical at pH 3 N{sub 2}O-saturated solution in the presence of formate. Here in the present work, this removal was investigated by steady state irradiation and pulse radiolysis in aerated solution at neutral pH, which is close to natural conditions in most wastewaters, where the reducing agent is the superoxide radical anion O{sub 2}{sup -.} The degradation of Cr(VI) increased linearly with the absorbed dose and was significantly enhanced by the added formate but not by the radiolitically produced hydrogen peroxide at this pH. The rate constant for this reduction was found to be 1.28 x 10{sup 8} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} and the absorption spectrum of Cr(V) transient species was obtained. A partial recovery of Cr(VI) is observed over a period of ca. 5 ms following a second order kinetics with a rate constant 8.0 x 10{sup 6} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. These outcomes suggest that gamma-irradiation of Cr(VI)-contaminated wastewaters and industrial effluents in presence of formate can be simple, effective and economical means for the remediation of this major contaminant.

  16. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado. Appendix D, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-02-01

    This appendix assesses the present conditions and data gathered about the two designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado, and the proposed disposal site six miles north of Rifle in the area of Estes Gulch. It consolidates available engineering, radiological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological, and other information pertinent to the design of the Remedial Action Plan (RAP). The data characterize conditions at the mill, tailings, and disposal site so that the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) may complete final designs for the remedial actions.

  17. The Solution to Pollution is Distribution: Design Your Own Chaotic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigera, R. G.; Roth, E. J.; Neupauer, R.; Mays, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Plume spreading promotes the molecular mixing that drives chemical reactions in porous media in general, and remediation reactions in groundwater aquifers in particular. Theoretical analysis suggests that engineered injection and extraction, a specific sequence of pumping through wells surrounding a contaminant plume, can improve groundwater remediation through chaotic advection. Selection of an engineered injection and extraction scheme is difficult, however, because the engineer is faced with the difficulty of recommending a pumping scheme for a contaminated site without having any previous knowledge of how the scheme will perform. To address this difficulty, this presentation describes a Graphical User Interface (GUI) designed to help engineers develop, test, and observe pumping schemes as described in previous research (Mays, D.C. and Neupauer, R.M., 2012, Plume spreading in groundwater by stretching and folding, Water Resour. Res., 48, W07501, doi:10.1029/2011WR011567). The inputs allow the user to manipulate the model conditions such as number of wells, plume size, and pumping scheme. Plume evolution is modeled, assuming no diffusion or dispersion, using analytical solutions for injection or extraction through individual wells or pairs or wells (i.e., dipoles). Using the GUI, an engineered injection and extraction scheme can be determined that best fits the remediation needs of the contaminated site. By creating multiple injection and extraction schemes, the user can learn about the plume shapes created from different schemes and, ultimately, recommend a pumping scheme based on some experience of fluid flow as shown in the GUI. The pumping schemes developed through this GUI are expected to guide more advanced modeling and laboratory studies that account for the crucial role of dispersion in groundwater remediation.

  18. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado. Volume 1, Text: Appendices A, B, and C: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-02-01

    This document has been structured to provide a comprehensive understanding of the remedial action proposed for the Rifle sites. That remedial action consists of removing approximately 4,185,000 cubic yards (cy) of tailings and contaminated materials from their current locations, transporting, and stabilizing the tailings material at the Estes Gulch disposal site, approximately six miles north of Rifle. The tailings and contaminated materials are comprised of approximately 597,000 cy from Old Rifle, 3,232,000 cy from New Rifle, and 322,000 cy from vicinity properties and about 34,000 cy from demolition. The remedial action plan includes specific design requirements for the detailed design and construction of the remedial action. An extensive amount of data and supporting information have been generated for this remedial action and cannot all be incorporated into this document. Pertinent information and data are included with reference given to the supporting documents.

  19. Designing Collaborative Manufacturing Solutions for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Bogers, Marcel; Bilberg, Arne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how small manufacturing companies can apply open innovation in the context of process innovation. We present a case study, with embedded action research elements, of a particular set of SMEs that implement a collaborative solution for manufacturing processes. We...

  20. TA-designed vs. research-oriented problem solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Mamudi, William; Henderson, Charles R; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2016-01-01

    In order to study graduate teaching assistants (TAs) beliefs and values about the design of instructor problem solutions, twenty-four TAs were provided with different solutions and asked to discuss their preferences for prominent solution features. TAs preferences for solution features were examined in light of the modeling of expert-like problem solving process as recommended in the literature. Results suggest that while many of the features TAs valued align with expert-like problem solving approaches, they noticed primarily "surface features" of solutions. Moreover, self-reported preferences did not match well with the solutions TAs wrote on their own.

  1. Mobilizing the Courage to Implement Sustainable Design Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Quitzau, Maj-Britt

    2009-01-01

    Within the built environment, stakeholders tend to implement well-known design solutions, even though sustainable alternatives exist. The key question posed in this paper is: what characterizes successful processes of implementing sustainable design solutions? In an attempt to answer the question...... to ensure consideration of sustainable design criteria in the early phases of building projects. In the first case, the public authority succeeds in supporting design managers and other stakeholders to implement sustainable design solutions; in the second case, establishment of new multidisciplinary...... networks and creative work forms constitutes the outset for change. The work is inspired by the actor-network theory, emphasizing the momentum of prevailing practices, and the need to (re)develop networks to support implementation of sustainable design solutions. Conclusions point to the importance...

  2. Mobilizing the Courage to Implement Sustainable Design Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Quitzau, Maj-Britt

    2009-01-01

    networks and creative work forms constitutes the outset for change. The work is inspired by the actor-network theory, emphasizing the momentum of prevailing practices, and the need to (re)develop networks to support implementation of sustainable design solutions. Conclusions point to the importance...... of design managers and others to develop socio-technical networks and storylines to integrate sustainability in the design and building processes. Implementation of sustainable design solutions takes more than courage; it requires key competences in catalysing network changes.......Within the built environment, stakeholders tend to implement well-known design solutions, even though sustainable alternatives exist. The key question posed in this paper is: what characterizes successful processes of implementing sustainable design solutions? In an attempt to answer the question...

  3. Designing Solutions using Response Surface Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COMAN Ovidiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a design of experiments method was used to obtain the most suitable responses. The variables that occur in the optimization are the movement of a dielectric material on Oy and Oz axis of a waveguide and the microwave power. The responses refer to the thermal field distribution, the reflected power, dielectric's temperature and the absorbed power.

  4. Environmental- and health-risk-induced remediation design for benzene-contaminated groundwater under parameter uncertainty: a case study in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, X; He, L; Lu, H W; Li, J

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes an environmental- and health-risk-induced remediation design approach for benzene-contaminated groundwater. It involves exposure frequency and intake rates that are important but difficult to be exactly quantified as breakthrough point. Flexible health-risk control is considered in the simulation and optimization work. The proposed approach is then applied to a petroleum-contaminated site in western Canada. Different situations about remediation durations, public concerns, and satisfactory degrees are addressed by the approach. The relationship between environmental standards and health-risk limits is analyzed, in association with their effect on remediation costs. Insights of three uncertain factors (i.e. exposure frequency, intake rate and health-risk threshold) for the remediation system are also explored, on a basis of understanding their impacts on health risk as well as their importance order. The case study results show that (1) nature attenuation plays a more important role in long-term remediation scheme than the pump-and-treat system; (2) carcinogenic risks have greater impact on total pumping rates than environmental standards for long-term remediation; (3) intake rates are the second important factor affecting the remediation system's performance, followed by exposure frequency; (4) the 10-year remediation scheme is the most robust choice when environmental and health-risk concerns are not well quantified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Formal Validation of Fault Management Design Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Corrina; Karban, Robert; Andolfato, Luigi; Day, John

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this paper describes an approach used to develop SysML modeling patterns to express the behavior of fault protection, test the model's logic by performing fault injection simulations, and verify the fault protection system's logical design via model checking. A representative example, using a subset of the fault protection design for the Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) system, was modeled with SysML State Machines and JavaScript as Action Language. The SysML model captures interactions between relevant system components and system behavior abstractions (mode managers, error monitors, fault protection engine, and devices/switches). Development of a method to implement verifiable and lightweight executable fault protection models enables future missions to have access to larger fault test domains and verifiable design patterns. A tool-chain to transform the SysML model to jpf-Statechart compliant Java code and then verify the generated code via model checking was established. Conclusions and lessons learned from this work are also described, as well as potential avenues for further research and development.

  6. Designing Integrated Product- Service System Solutions in Manufacturing Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Nina; Patrício, Lia; Morelli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing firms are increasingly evolving towards the design of integrated product-service solutions but servitization literature does not provide specific guidance on how to design these integrated solutions. Building upon ProductService System (PSS) and Service Design (SD) approaches......, this paper proposes an integrative method that joins PSS’s systems and network approach with the creative, human-centered, value cocreation approach of SD. The paper also describes the development and application of this method to the creation of integrated solutions for the laboratory industry, highlighting...

  7. Mobilizing the Courage to Implement Sustainable Design Solutions: Danish Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Balslev Nielsen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the built environment, stakeholders tend to implement well-known design solutions, even though sustainable alternatives exist. The key question posed in this paper is: what characterizes successful processes of implementing sustainable design solutions? In an attempt to answer the question, the work focuses on examples of successful implementation in an attempt to understand the competences required. Danish frontrunner projects are described and analysed: one case concerns the implementation of lowenergy houses and another describes innovative planning processes in the water sector in order to ensure consideration of sustainable design criteria in the early phases of building projects. In the first case, the public authority succeeds in supporting design managers and other stakeholders to implement sustainable design solutions; in the second case, establishment of new multidisciplinary networks and creative work forms constitutes the outset for change. The work is inspired by the actor-network theory, emphasizing the momentum of prevailing practices, and the need to (redevelop networks to support implementation of sustainable design solutions. Conclusions point to the importance of design managers and others to develop socio-technical networks and storylines to integrate sustainability in the design and building processes. Implementation of sustainable design solutions takes more than courage; it requires key competences in catalysing network changes DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2009.0906 Published in the Journal AEDM - Volume 5, Number 1, 2009 , pp. 53-61(9

  8. LARM PKM solutions for torso design in humanoid robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Human-like torso features are essential in humanoid robots. In this paper problems for design and operation of solutions for a robotic torso are discussed by referring to experiences and designs that have been developed at Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics (LARM) in Cassino, Italy. A new solution is presented with conceptual views as waist-trunk structure that makes a proper partition of the performance for walking and arm operations as sustained by a torso.

  9. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial Action Selection Report, Appendix B of Attachment 2: Geology report, Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section} 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which describes the proposed remedial action for the Naturita site. An extensive amount of data and supporting information has been generated and evaluated for this remedial action. These data and supporting information are not incorporated into this single document but are included or referenced in the supporting documents. The RAP consists of this RAS and four supporting documents or attachments. This Attachment 2, Geology Report describes the details of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the Dry Flats disposal site.

  10. Improving conditions for reuse of design solutions - by means of a context based solution library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Grothe-Møller, Thorkild; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1997-01-01

    Among the most important reasoning mechanisms in design is reasoning by analogy. One precondition for being able to reason about the properties and functionalitues of a product or subsystem is that the context of the solution is known. This paper presents a computer based solution library where...

  11. REVIEW REPORT: BUILDING C-400 THERMAL TREATMENT 90 PERCENT REMEDIAL DESIGN REPORT AND SITE INVESTIGATION, PGDP, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B; Jed Costanza, J; Eva Davis, E; Joe Rossabi, J; Lloyd (Bo) Stewart, L; Hans Stroo, H

    2007-08-15

    On 9 April 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Office of Soil and Groundwater Remediation (EM-22) initiated an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of the 90% Remedial Design Report (RDR) and Site Investigation (RDSI) for thermal treatment of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the soil and groundwater in the vicinity of Building C-400 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The general ITR goals were to assess the technical adequacy of the 90% RDSI and provide recommendations sufficient for DOE to determine if modifications are warranted pertaining to the design, schedule, or cost of implementing the proposed design. The ultimate goal of the effort was to assist the DOE Paducah/Portsmouth Project Office (PPPO) and their contractor team in ''removing'' the TCE source zone located near the C-400 Building. This report provides the ITR findings and recommendations and supporting evaluations as needed to facilitate use of the recommendations. The ITR team supports the remedial action objective (RAO) at C-400 to reduce the TCE source area via subsurface Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH). Further, the ITR team commends PPPO, their contractor team, regulators, and stakeholders for the significant efforts taken in preparing the 90% RDR. To maximize TCE removal at the target source area, several themes emerge from the review which the ITR team believes should be considered and addressed before implementing the thermal treatment. These themes include the need for: (1) Accurate and site-specific models as the basis to verify the ERH design for full-scale implementation for this challenging hydrogeologic setting; (2) Flexible project implementation and operation to allow the project team to respond to observations and data collected during construction and operation; (3) Defensible performance metrics and monitoring, appropriate for ERH, to ensure sufficient and efficient clean-up; and (4) Comprehensive (creative and diverse) contingencies

  12. Case study on the strategy and application of enhancement solutions to improve remediation of soils contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn by means of electrodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.;

    2005-01-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted with electrochemical removal of heavy metals from spiked kaolinite. Meanwhile, when moving from kaolinite to real soils, new factors must be taken into account-factors influencing, e.g., the buffering capacity of the soil against acidification and the adsorption...... soil, ammonia may be used as enhancement solution, due to the formation of charged complexes between ammonia and Cu. Thus, Cu is mobile at high pH when ammonia is added and Cu can be removed without dissolving the calcareous parts. Zn is also mobilized by ammonia, but to a lesser extent than Cu....... In the case of Cu, Zn and Pb at the same time, alkaline ammonium citrate may be a solution. It was shown that this enhancement solution could mobilize these three pollutants, but optimization of concentration and pH of the ammonium citrate is still needed. When choosing a remediation scheme...

  13. Design as co-evolution of problem, solution, and audience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halstrøm, Per Liljenberg; Galle, Per

    2014-01-01

    The meaning of ‘design’ can be captured in a general way by a good definition, but even the best definition cannot provide an understanding sufficiently deep to guide the professional designer or the student of design in the intricate deliberations of doing design in practice. Therefore we explore...... design beyond the level of definitions, reviewing canonical theories about design as a professional enterprise. We find that the well-established theoretical notion of ‘co-evolution’ of problem and solution in design has its merits in regard to understanding design deliberations; but also that existing...... conceptual resources for conceiving of design in terms of such triple co-evolution. For example, many design products may be thought of as offering an audience a ‘subject position’ that hint at whom they should become. In support of the case we make for thinking in terms of constitutive rhetoric in design...

  14. ADVANCED DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR HIGH-PRECISION WOODWORKING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lucisano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the aim at performing the highest precision during woodworking, a mix of alternative approaches, fruitfully integrated in a common design strategy, is essential. This paper represents an overview of technical solutions, recently developed by authors, in design of machine tools and their final effects on manufacturing. The most advanced solutions in machine design are reported side by side with common practices or little everyday expedients. These design actions are directly or indirectly related to the rational use of materials, sometimes very uncommon, as in the case of magnetorheological fluids chosen to implement an active control in speed and force on the electro-spindle, and permitting to improve the quality of wood machining. Other actions are less unusual, as in the case of the adoption of innovative anti-vibration supports for basement. Tradition or innovation, all these technical solutions contribute to the final result: the highest precision in wood machining.

  15. Lessons Learned During Solutions of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Suna N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Optimization research at NASA Glenn Research Center has addressed the design of structures, aircraft and airbreathing propulsion engines. During solution of the multidisciplinary problems several issues were encountered. This paper lists four issues and discusses the strategies adapted for their resolution: (1) The optimization process can lead to an inefficient local solution. This deficiency was encountered during design of an engine component. The limitation was overcome through an augmentation of animation into optimization. (2) Optimum solutions obtained were infeasible for aircraft and air-breathing propulsion engine problems. Alleviation of this deficiency required a cascading of multiple algorithms. (3) Profile optimization of a beam produced an irregular shape. Engineering intuition restored the regular shape for the beam. (4) The solution obtained for a cylindrical shell by a subproblem strategy converged to a design that can be difficult to manufacture. Resolution of this issue remains a challenge. The issues and resolutions are illustrated through six problems: (1) design of an engine component, (2) synthesis of a subsonic aircraft, (3) operation optimization of a supersonic engine, (4) design of a wave-rotor-topping device, (5) profile optimization of a cantilever beam, and (6) design of a cvlindrical shell. The combined effort of designers and researchers can bring the optimization method from academia to industry.

  16. Android design patterns interaction design solutions for developers

    CERN Document Server

    Nudelman, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Master the challenges of Android user interface development with these sample patterns With Android 4, Google brings the full power of its Android OS to both smartphone and tablet computing. Designing effective user interfaces that work on multiple Android devices is extremely challenging. This book provides more than 75 patterns that you can use to create versatile user interfaces for both smartphones and tablets, saving countless hours of development time. Patterns cover the most common and yet difficult types of user interactions, and each is supported with richly illustrate

  17. Designing and defining dynamic protein cage nanoassemblies in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yen-Ting; Hura, Greg L; Dyer, Kevin N; Tang, Henry Y H; Tainer, John A; Yeates, Todd O

    2016-12-01

    Central challenges in the design of large and dynamic macromolecular assemblies for synthetic biology lie in developing effective methods for testing design strategies and their outcomes, including comprehensive assessments of solution behavior. We created and validated an advanced design of a 600-kDa protein homododecamer that self-assembles into a symmetric tetrahedral cage. The monomeric unit is composed of a trimerizing apex-forming domain genetically linked to an edge-forming dimerizing domain. Enhancing the crystallographic results, high-throughput small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) comprehensively contrasted our modifications under diverse solution conditions. To generate a phase diagram associating structure and assembly, we developed force plots that measure dissimilarity among multiple SAXS data sets. These new tools, which provided effective feedback on experimental constructs relative to design, have general applicability in analyzing the solution behavior of heterogeneous nanosystems and have been made available as a web-based application. Specifically, our results probed the influence of solution conditions and symmetry on stability and structural adaptability, identifying the dimeric interface as the weak point in the assembly. Force plots comparing SAXS data sets further reveal more complex and controllable behavior in solution than captured by our crystal structures. These methods for objectively and comprehensively comparing SAXS profiles for systems critically affected by solvent conditions and structural heterogeneity provide an enabling technology for advancing the design and bioengineering of nanoscale biological materials.

  18. Design Requirements, Epistemic Uncertainty and Solution Development Strategies in Software Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, Linden J.; Onarheim, Balder; Christensen, Bo Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential involvement of “epistemic uncertainty” in mediating between complex design requirements and strategic switches in software design strategies. The analysis revealed that the designers produced an initial “first-pass” solution to the given design brief in a bre......This paper investigates the potential involvement of “epistemic uncertainty” in mediating between complex design requirements and strategic switches in software design strategies. The analysis revealed that the designers produced an initial “first-pass” solution to the given design brief...... a view of software design as involving a mixed breadth-first and depth-first solution development approach, with strategic switching to depth-first design being triggered by requirement complexity and being mediated by associated feelings of uncertainty....

  19. Efficient electrochemical remediation of microcystin-LR in tap water using designer TiO2@carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Lobón, Germán; Yepez, Alfonso; Garcia, Luane Ferreira; Morais, Ruiter Lima; Vaz, Boniek Gontijo; Carvalho, Veronica Vale; de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Luque, Rafael; Gil, Eric de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) is the most abundant and toxic secondary metabolite produced by freshwater cyanobacteria. This toxin has a high potential hazard health due to potential interactions with liver, kidney and the nervous system. The aim of this work was the design of a simple and environmentally friendly electrochemical system based on highly efficient nanostructured electrodes for the removal of MC-LR in tap water. Titania nanoparticles were deposited on carbon (graphite) under a simple and efficient microwave assisted approach for the design of the electrode, further utilized in the electrochemical remediation assays. Parameters including the applied voltage, time of removal and pH (natural tap water or alkaline condition) were investigated in the process, with results pointing to a high removal efficiency for MC-LR (60% in tap water and 90% in alkaline media experiments, under optimized conditions). PMID:28145477

  20. Efficient electrochemical remediation of microcystin-LR in tap water using designer TiO2@carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Lobón, Germán; Yepez, Alfonso; Garcia, Luane Ferreira; Morais, Ruiter Lima; Vaz, Boniek Gontijo; Carvalho, Veronica Vale; de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Luque, Rafael; Gil, Eric De Souza

    2017-02-01

    Microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) is the most abundant and toxic secondary metabolite produced by freshwater cyanobacteria. This toxin has a high potential hazard health due to potential interactions with liver, kidney and the nervous system. The aim of this work was the design of a simple and environmentally friendly electrochemical system based on highly efficient nanostructured electrodes for the removal of MC-LR in tap water. Titania nanoparticles were deposited on carbon (graphite) under a simple and efficient microwave assisted approach for the design of the electrode, further utilized in the electrochemical remediation assays. Parameters including the applied voltage, time of removal and pH (natural tap water or alkaline condition) were investigated in the process, with results pointing to a high removal efficiency for MC-LR (60% in tap water and 90% in alkaline media experiments, under optimized conditions).

  1. Interim measure conceptual design for remediation at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility at Centralia, Kansas : pilot test and remedy implementation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-09

    This document presents an Interim Measure Work Plan/Design for the short-term, field-scale pilot testing and subsequent implementation of a non-emergency Interim Measure (IM) at the site of the former grain storage facility operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in Centralia, Kansas. The IM is recommended to mitigate both (1) localized carbon tetrachloride contamination in the vadose zone soils beneath the former facility and (2) present (and potentially future) carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the shallow groundwater beneath and in the immediate vicinity of the former CCC/USDA facility. Investigations conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory have demonstrated that groundwater at the Centralia site is contaminated with carbon tetrachloride at levels that exceed the Kansas Tier 2 Risk-Based Screening Level (RBSL) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. Groundwater sampling and analyses conducted by Argonne under a monitoring program approved by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) indicated that the carbon tetrachloride levels at several locations in the groundwater plume have increased since twice yearly monitoring of the site began in September 2005. The identified groundwater contamination currently poses no unacceptable health risks, in view of the absence of potential human receptors in the vicinity of the former CCC/USDA facility. Carbon tetrachloride contamination has also been identified at Centralia in subsurface soils at concentrations on the order of the Kansas Tier 2 RBSL of 200 {micro}g/kg in soil for the soil-to-groundwater protection pathway. Soils contaminated at this level might pose some risk as a potential source of carbon tetrachloride contamination to groundwater. To mitigate the existing contaminant levels and decrease the potential future concentrations of

  2. Urban gardens: lead exposure, recontamination mechanisms, and implications for remediation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather F; Hausladen, Debra M; Brabander, Daniel J

    2008-07-01

    Environmental lead contamination is prevalent in urban areas where soil represents a significant sink and pathway of exposure. This study characterizes the speciation of lead that is relevant to local recontamination and to human exposure in the backyard gardens of Roxbury and Dorchester, MA, USA. One hundred forty-one backyard gardens were tested by X-ray fluorescence, and 81% of gardens have lead levels above the US EPA action limit of 400 microg/g. Raised gardening beds are the in situ exposure reduction method used in the communities to promote urban gardening. Raised beds were tested for lead and the results showed that the lead concentration increased from an initial range of 150+/-40 microg/g to an average of 336 microg/g over 4 years. The percent distribution of lead in the fine grain soil (gardens and raised gardening beds is characteristic of lead-based paint. This study demonstrates that raised beds are a limited exposure reduction method and require maintenance to achieve exposure reduction goals. An exposure model was developed based on a suite of parameters that combine relevant values from the literature with site-specific quantification of exposure pathways. This model suggests that consumption of homegrown produce accounts for only 3% of children's daily exposure of lead while ingestion of fine grained soil (<100 microm) accounts for 82% of the daily exposure. This study indicates that urban lead remediation on a yard-by-yard scale requires constant maintenance and that remediation may need to occur on a neighborhood-wide scale.

  3. Complex remedial actions in case of land pollution - problems and solutions; Ausfuehrung komplexer Altlastensanierungen - Aufgaben und Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelting, K.J. [BAUER und MOURIK Umwelttechnik GmbH and Co, Schrobenhausen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    BAUER und MOURIK Umwelttechnik have implemented special deep-level techniques for water, air and soil pollution. This includes safeguarding techniques (sheet piling walls and other special sealing walls, full-scale immobilisation, horizontal sealing systems), and remediation techniques (in situ - reactive wall, drainage wall, funnel and gate system), (off-site - exchange boreholes, conditioning of dirt removed from sites, stabilisation and sealing measures for open pits during dirt removal). Special deep-level techniques are customized techniques as a rule. Four interesting projects are presented, i.e. immobilisation by means of low-pressure injection, funnel and gate system, drainage wall, and exchange boreholes. (orig.)

  4. Managing soil remediation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okx, J P; Hordijk, L; Stein, A

    1996-12-01

    Soil remediation has only a short history but the problem addressed is a significant one. Cost estimates for the clean-up of contaminated sites in the European Union and the United States are in the order of magnitude of 1,400 billion ECU. Such an enormous operation deserves the best management it can get. Reliable cost estimations per contaminated site are an important prerequisite. This paper addresses the problems related to site-wise estimations.When solving soil remediation problems, we have to deal with a large number of scientific disciplines. Too often solutions are presented from the viewpoint of only one discipline. In order to benefit from the combined disciplinary knowledge and experience, we think that it is necessary to describe the interrelations between these disciplines. This can be realized by developing an adequate model of the desired process which enables to consider and evaluate the essential factors as interdependent components of the total system.The resulting model provides a binding paradigm to the contributing disciplines which will result in improved efficiency and effectivity of the decision and the cost estimation process. In the near future, we will release the "Biosparging and Bioventing Expert Support System", an expert support system for problem owners, consultants and authorities dealing with the design and operation of a biosparging and/or a bioventing system.

  5. PFP solution stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aftanas, B.L.

    1996-04-30

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  6. A Design and Implementation of Multicrypt Solution for DVB Receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jun(陈君); Sun Peng; Zeng Xuewen; Hou Ziqiang

    2004-01-01

    Conditional Access (CA) System is the essential basis of a Pay-TV System to charge the subscribers. This paper first introduces the standards and mechanisms for a Set-Top-Box(STB)to receive programs scrambled by different CA systems. Then, according to DVB multicrypt solution, a design in detail for such a DVB receiver, I.e. STB is presented. Decoder manufacturers provide STBs with the standard DVB common interface and CA system providers provide detachable CA modules to plug into the STBs through Common Interface. This solution allows broadcasters and customers to change CA system without replacing the STB. Such a design has been implemented in a decoder based on LSI SC2000, and is proved to be an open and secure solution for conditional access.

  7. Substrate roughening improves swimming performance in two small-bodied riverine fishes: implications for culvert remediation and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Essie M; Heaslip, Breeana M; Cramp, Rebecca L; Riches, Marcus; Gordos, Matthew A; Franklin, Craig E

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide declines in riverine fish abundance and diversity have been linked to the fragmentation of aquatic habitats through the installation of instream structures (e.g. culverts, dams, weirs and barrages). Restoring riverine connectivity can be achieved by remediating structures impeding fish movements by, for example, replacing smooth substrates of pipe culverts with naturalistic substrates (i.e. river stones; culvert roughening). However, empirical evaluations of the efficacy of such remediation efforts are often lacking despite the high economic cost. We assessed the effectiveness of substrate roughening in improving fish swimming performance and linked this to estimates of upstream passage success. Critical swimming speeds (Ucrit) of two small-bodied fish, purple-spotted gudgeon (Mogurnda adspersa; 7.7-11.6 cm total length, BL) and crimson-spotted rainbowfish (Melanotaenia duboulayi; 4.2-8.7 cm BL) were examined. Swimming trials were conducted in a hydraulic flume fitted with either a smooth acrylic substrate (control) or a rough substrate with fixed river stones. Swimming performance was improved on the rough compared to the smooth substrate, with Mo. adspersa (Ucrit-smooth = 0.28 ± 0.0 m s(-1), 2.89 ± 0.1 BL s(-1), Ucrit-rough = 0.36 ± 0.02 m s(-1), 3.66 ± 0.22 BL s(-1), mean ± s.e) and Me. duboulayi (Ucrit-smooth = 0.46 ± 0.01 m s(-1), 7.79 ± 0.33 BL s(-1); Ucrit-rough = = 0.55 ± 0.03 m s(-1), 9.83 ± 0.67 BL s(-1), mean ± s.e.) both experiencing a 26% increase in relative Ucrit. Traversable water velocity models predicted maximum water speeds allowing successful upstream passage of both species to substantially increase following roughening remediation. Together these findings suggest culvert roughening may be a solution which allows hydraulic efficiency goals to be met, without compromising fish passage.

  8. Improving conditions for reuse of design solutions - by means of a context based solution library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Grothe-Møller, Thorkild; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1997-01-01

    Among the most important reasoning mechanisms in design is reasoning by analogy. One precondition for being able to reason about the properties and functionalitues of a product or subsystem is that the context of the solution is known. This paper presents a computer based solution library where...... solutions have context. The library has aluminium technology as application area and has been developed in co-operation between the Technical University of Denmark, SkanAluminium and leading aluminium companies within Scandinavia. The library has been tested in a number of companies and good results have...... been obtained. So fare more than 400 companies, universities and engineering academies have decided to utilise the solution library...

  9. Design Solutions for Reducing the Cogging Torque of PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUDORACHE, T.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes design solutions able to reduce the Cogging Torque (CT amplitude of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSMs. The common point of these solutions is the particular constructions of the stator magnetic core from two concentric steel lamination stacks that leads to a closed stator slots structure in the air-gap region. The efficiency of the studied solutions is evaluated by Finite Element (FE analysis for two different types of PMSMs: the first one with Surface Permanent Magnets (SPMs and the second one with Interior Permanent Magnets (IPMs. The influence of the special stator constructions on the performances of the two types of machines is emphasized also in the paper, with positive and negative effects. This study proves that a PMSM whose stator magnetic core is designed as shown, leads to an important decrease of CT amplitude in comparison with a classical machine. Moreover, the studied design solutions may be mixed with other CT reduction methods so as to optimize the overall PMSM performance. A part of the numerical model results were experimentally validated.

  10. Optimality criteria solution strategies in multiple constraint design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R.; Parzynski, W.

    1981-01-01

    Procedures and solution strategies are described to solve the conventional structural optimization problem using the Lagrange multiplier technique. The multipliers, obtained through solution of an auxiliary nonlinear optimization problem, lead to optimality criteria to determine the design variables. It is shown that this procedure is essentially equivalent to an alternative formulation using a dual method Lagrangian function objective. Although mathematical formulations are straight-forward, successful applications and computational efficiency depend upon execution procedure strategies. Strategies examined, with application examples, include selection of active constraints, move limits, line search procedures, and side constraint boundaries.

  11. Optimal Design Solutions for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU, M.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents optimal design solutions for reducing the cogging torque of permanent magnets synchronous machines. A first solution proposed in the paper consists in using closed stator slots that determines a nearly isotropic magnetic structure of the stator core, reducing the mutual attraction between permanent magnets and the slotted armature. To avoid complications in the windings manufacture technology the stator slots are closed using wedges made of soft magnetic composite materials. The second solution consists in properly choosing the combination of pole number and stator slots number that typically leads to a winding with fractional number of slots/pole/phase. The proposed measures for cogging torque reduction are analyzed by means of 2D/3D finite element models developed using the professional Flux software package. Numerical results are discussed and compared with experimental ones obtained by testing a PMSM prototype.

  12. DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR NOISE PROTECTION OF THE POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasineva M. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the solution of actual problems of protection of the population from noise production facilities. It shows the various fundamental technological approaches to the implementation of noise protection measures. This work conducts a comparative assessment of technical solutions aimed at reducing the levels of radiated noise, providing increased noise impact on the territory, from the gas distribution station (GDS. Production facilities everywhere are equipped with noisy equipment. If the noise level from the object in a residential area exceeds the permissible levels (RC, they sound events. The most common design decisions noise protection for today are: sound design; noise screens and barriers; insulating housings; sound cab. The article discusses the insulating properties of different coatings, composition and device of acoustic screens. It describes the course of the design work noise-reducing measures aimed at reducing noise levels in a residential area adjacent to the territory of one of the gas distribution stations (GDS. The description of the algorithm calculations, selection of materials for the implementation of activities, the combination of technical solutions that have practical novelty. The article is an exploratory in nature. At each stage of the embodiment of the design decisions were changes in the level of noise and the sound spectrum in the frequency range of 31.5 to 8000 Hz, evaluation of the effectiveness of the protective measures and the analysis of the influence of acoustic impact on the population. The results were presented for the year of research. The results of the research indicated graphically demonstrate the advantages of the proposed solutions for reducing noise levels in a residential area

  13. Design requirements for ERD in diffusion-dominated media: how do injection interval, bioactive zones and reaction kinetics affect remediation performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Lemming, Gitte; Manoli, Gabriele

    Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination (ERD) has been successfully used in high permeability media, such as sand aquifers, and is considered to be a promising technology for low permeability settings. Pilot and full-scale applications of ERD at several sites in Denmark have shown that the main challenge...... transport processes, and this affects the timeframes for the remediation. Due to the limited ERD applications and the complex transport and reactive processes occurring in low-permeability media, design guidelines are currently not available for ERD in such settings, and remediation performance assessments...... are limited. The objective of this study is to combine existing knowledge from several sites with numerical modeling to assess the effect of the injection interval, development of bioactive zones and reaction kinetics on the remediation efficiency for ERD in diffusion-dominated media. A numerical model...

  14. The potential for solubilizing agents to enhance the remediation of hydrophobic organic solutes in soil-water suspensions. [Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laha, S.; Liu, Z.; Edwards, D.; Luthy, R.G.

    1991-02-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility for use of surfactant solubilizing agents to enhance the solubility and the rate of microbial degradation of hydrophobic organic solutes in soil-water suspensions. Hydrophobic organic contaminants are strongly sorbed to soil or sediment material, and as a consequence the rate of microbial degradation may depend greatly on the desorption of the sorbed-phase contaminant and the accessibility of the contaminant to soil microorganisms. Chemical solubilizing agents may enhance the rate of hydrophobic organic solute degradation by increasing the rate of solute desorption from soil and the extent of solute partitioning to the aqueous phase. The presentation will review on-going research on: surfactant solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in clean water, and in soil-water suspensions; and experiments to assess if the addition of surfactant to soil-water suspension results in faster rate of mineralization of PAH compounds in soil.

  15. The potential for solubilizing agents to enhance the remediation of hydrophobic organic solutes in soil-water suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laha, S.; Liu, Z.; Edwards, D.; Luthy, R.G.

    1991-02-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility for use of surfactant solubilizing agents to enhance the solubility and the rate of microbial degradation of hydrophobic organic solutes in soil-water suspensions. Hydrophobic organic contaminants are strongly sorbed to soil or sediment material, and as a consequence the rate of microbial degradation may depend greatly on the desorption of the sorbed-phase contaminant and the accessibility of the contaminant to soil microorganisms. Chemical solubilizing agents may enhance the rate of hydrophobic organic solute degradation by increasing the rate of solute desorption from soil and the extent of solute partitioning to the aqueous phase. The presentation will review on-going research on: surfactant solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in clean water, and in soil-water suspensions; and experiments to assess if the addition of surfactant to soil-water suspension results in faster rate of mineralization of PAH compounds in soil.

  16. DESIGN OF AQUIFER REMEDIATION SYSTEMS: (2) Estimating site-specific performance and benefits of partial source removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Lagrangian stochastic model is proposed as a tool that can be utilized in forecasting remedial performance and estimating the benefits (in terms of flux and mass reduction) derived from a source zone remedial effort. The stochastic functional relationships that describe the hyd...

  17. Soil remediation : a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil remediation has only a short history, but the problem addressed is a significant one. When solving soil remediation problems we have to deal with a large number of scientific disciplines, however solutions are often presented from the viewpoint of just one discipline. In order to

  18. Genealogy Remediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2007-01-01

    Genealogical websites are becoming an increasingly popular genre on the Web. This chapter will examine how remediation is used creatively in the construction of family history. While remediation of different kinds of old memory materials is essential in genealogy, digital technology opens new...... and technological competences, which helps to anchor the owner within the genealogical community....

  19. Efficacy of Designer Biochars with or without Lime Application for Remediating Heavy Metals in Mine Spoil Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigua, Gilbert C.; Novak, Jeffrey; Johnson, Mark; Ippolito, James; Spokas, Kurt; Ducey, Thomas; Trippe, Kristin

    2017-04-01

    A multitude of research investigations have confirmed that biochars can increase soil carbon sequestration, improve critical plant nutrient concentrations, and improve the fertility, chemical, and physical properties of degraded agricultural soils. Recently, biochars ability to sequester metals has caught the attention of the mine reclamation sector. It is proposed that biochar is a suitable amendment to remediate heavy metals in mine spoils, as well as improve chemical conditions for enhanced plant growth. Better plant growth will improve phytostabilization, increase containment of metal-laden sediment, while also reducing potential metal uptake by plants. As such, utilization of a biochar with appropriate chemical and physical characteristics is crucial for effective binding of heavy metals while also improving plant growth conditions in mine spoils. Using two different mine spoils, we conducted laboratory and greenhouse experiments to determine the ability of designer biochar with or without lime application to favorably improve soil pH, reduce heavy metal bioavailability, and improve grass (e.g., wild blue rye) plant nutrient uptake. Preliminary results showed that our designer biochars did increase pH of acid mine spoils significantly (pplant nutrients (e.g., phosphorus, potassium and calcium), and significantly (pnickel, zinc, manganese, copper and cadmium) in the soils.

  20. Investigation of biologically-designed metal-specific chelators for potential metal recovery and waste remediation applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Ockwig, Nathan W.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria, algae and plants produce metal-specific chelators to capture required nutrient or toxic trace metals. Biological systems are thought to be very efficient, honed by evolutionary forces over time. Understanding the approaches used by living organisms to select for specific metals in the environment may lead to design of cheaper and more effective approaches for metal recovery and contaminant-metal remediation. In this study, the binding of a common siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFO-B), to three aqueous metal cations, Fe(II), Fe(III), and UO{sub 2}(VI) was investigated using classical molecular dynamics. DFO-B has three acetohydroxamate groups and a terminal amine group that all deprotonate with increasing pH. For all three metals, complexes with DFO-B (-2) are the most stable and favored under alkaline conditions. Under more acidic conditions, the metal-DFO complexes involve chelation with both acetohydroxamate and acetylamine groups. The approach taken here allows for detailed investigation of metal binding to biologically-designed organic ligands.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF CONDITIONS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE RESERVOIRS AND DESIGN AND DEMONSTRATION OF REMEDIAL TECHNIQUES FOR DAMAGE MECHANISMS FOUND THEREIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.H. Frantz Jr; K.G. Brown; W.K. Sawyer; P.A. Zyglowicz; P.M. Halleck; J.P. Spivey

    2004-12-01

    The underground gas storage (UGS) industry uses over 400 reservoirs and 17,000 wells to store and withdrawal gas. As such, it is a significant contributor to gas supply in the United States. It has been demonstrated that many UGS wells show a loss of deliverability each year due to numerous damage mechanisms. Previous studies estimate that up to one hundred million dollars are spent each year to recover or replace a deliverability loss of approximately 3.2 Bscf/D per year in the storage industry. Clearly, there is a great potential for developing technology to prevent, mitigate, or eliminate the damage causing deliverability losses in UGS wells. Prior studies have also identified the presence of several potential damage mechanisms in storage wells, developed damage diagnostic procedures, and discussed, in general terms, the possible reactions that need to occur to create the damage. However, few studies address how to prevent or mitigate specific damage types, and/or how to eliminate the damage from occurring in the future. This study seeks to increase our understanding of two specific damage mechanisms, inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite), and non-darcy damage, and thus serves to expand prior efforts as well as complement ongoing gas storage projects. Specifically, this study has resulted in: (1) An effective lab protocol designed to assess the extent of damage due to inorganic precipitates; (2) An increased understanding of how inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite) develop; (3) Identification of potential sources of chemical components necessary for siderite formation; (4) A remediation technique that has successfully restored deliverability to storage wells damaged by the inorganic precipitate siderite (one well had nearly a tenfold increase in deliverability); (5) Identification of the types of treatments that have historically been successful at reducing the amount of non-darcy pressure drop in a well, and (6) Development of a tool that can

  2. Evaluation of laboratory and industrial meat and bone meal combustion residue as cadmium immobilizing material for remediation of polluted aqueous solutions: "chemical and ecotoxicological studies".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutand, M; Deydier, E; Cyr, M; Mouchet, F; Gauthier, L; Guilet, R; Savaete, L Bernues; Cren, S; Clastres, P

    2009-07-30

    Meat and Bone Meals (MBM) combustion residues (ashes) are calcium and phosphate-rich materials. The aim of this work is to evaluate ashes efficiency for remediation of cadmium-contaminated aqueous solutions, and to assess the bioavailability of cadmium on Xenopus laevis larvae. In this study both industrial (MBM-BA) and laboratory (MBM-LA) ashes are compared regarding their efficiency. Kinetic investigations reveal that cadmium ions are quickly immobilized, with a maximum cadmium uptake at 57 mg Cd(2+)/g of ashes for MBM-LA, two times higher than metal uptake quantity of MBM-BA, in our experimental conditions. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) reveal that Cd(2+) is mainly immobilized as Ca(10-x)Cd(x)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2) by both ashes, whereas otavite, Cd(CO(3)), is also involved for MBM-LA in cadmium uptake. Otavite formation could be explained by the presence of carbonates in MBM-LA, as observed by IR. Genotoxicity of cadmium solution on Xenopus larvae is observed at 0.02, 0.2 and 2mg Cd(2+)/L. However addition of only 0.1g/L MBM-LA inhibits these effects for the above concentration values whereas Cd(2+) bioaccumulation in larvae's liver is similar for both experiments, with and without ashes.

  3. Designing a total data solution technology, implementation, and deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Burkey, Roxanne

    2000-01-01

    Your company's global competitiveness depends on the utilization and maintenance of information. Current data handling practices-storing, updating, and accessing data-can be either a problem or a significant strategic advantage for your company. Designing a Total Data Storage Solution: Technology, Implementation, and Deployment gives you the information you need to compare current technologies and determine which is best suited to your enterprise.This book defines and explains the components that make up total cost of ownership along with the impact of integrating current changes in technology

  4. Energy savings solutions: passive solar design in Iranian cold climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassehzadeh Tabriz, Shahram [Department of Architecture, Miyaneh Branch, Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sh_nassehzadeh@m-iau.ac.ir; Mahdavi Tabatabaei Fard, Fariborz [SABAT TARH CO. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sabat_arc@yahoo.com; Aliyev, Fagan [International Eco-energy Academy (Azerbaijan)], email: ie_academy@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the cost of fuel gas, fuel oil and electricity and much thought has been given to the use of solar energy. Living in a solar heated house gives peace of mind and body and it makes good sense in mountainous regions. Severe winters in such regions make more energy for standard living activities in buildings necessary. This paper discusses passive solar building design as an energy saving solution. In this type of design, windows, walls and floors act as storage and distribution devices for solar energy in winter and deflect solar heat in summer. Passive solar design techniques influence the choice of building site, design and materials within the general framework of enriching the quality of life of the inhabitants. As a result, natural resources are saved and the environment is conserved for future generations. In conclusion, it is seen that passive design keeps a home cool and comfortable in summer and warm and cozy in winter with minimal heating and cooling requirements.

  5. Music programs designed to remedy burnout symptoms show significant effects after five weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Vera; Terris, Darcey D; Fischer, Claudia; Schuessler, Marc N; Ottowitz, Gernot; Titscher, Georg; Fischer, Joachim E; Thayer, Julian F

    2009-07-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that music interventions can lessen symptoms of depression. Depression and burnout are closely related. We hypothesized that specially designed receptive music therapy programs and protocols might reduce the symptoms of burnout. In a four-arm randomized, placebo- and waiting-list-controlled double-blind study, including 150 participants, two specific music programs significantly reduced burnout symptoms after 5 weeks. The effects were maintained over a long time period. This newly developed method of receptive music therapy was also evaluated for the treatment of depression and dysthymia, with significant outcomes.

  6. MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMAL DESIGN OF GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION SYSTEMS: APPLICATION OF THE NICHED PARETO GENETIC ALGORITHM (NPGA). (R826614)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multiobjective optimization algorithm is applied to a groundwater quality management problem involving remediation by pump-and-treat (PAT). The multiobjective optimization framework uses the niched Pareto genetic algorithm (NPGA) and is applied to simultaneously minimize the...

  7. Designing e-learning solutions with a client centred approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Nielsen, Janni; Levinsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    as the organisation that has initiated the e-learning project and needs to manage the e-learning system after its development. Through the Client Centred Design and in close collaboration with the client, three strategic issues are uncovered and strategic models are presented for each. These models are complementary......  This paper claims that the strategies applied in designing e-learning solutions tend to focus on how to proceed after the precondition, e.g., learners requirements, pedagogical choice, etc., have been decided upon. Investigating the HCI research field, we find that the methodological approaches...... perspectives in a Client Centred framework that is useable as the starting point for others in developing large scale e-learning projects....

  8. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox

    2016-08-30

    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  9. Experimental Design for One Dimensional Electrolytic Reactive Barrier for Remediation of Munition Constituent in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, David B.; Wani, Altaf; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2012-01-01

    A combination of direct electrochemical reduction and in-situ alkaline hydrolysis has been proposed to decompose energetic contaminants such as 1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro- 1,3,5-triazine and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (RDX) in deep aquifers. This process utilizes natural groundwater convection to carry hydroxide produced by an upstream cathode to remove the contaminant at the cathode as well as in the pore water downstream as it migrates toward the anode. Laboratory evaluation incorporated fundamental principles of column design coupled with reactive contaminant modeling including electrokinetics transport. Batch and horizontal sand-packed column experiments included both alkaline hydrolysis and electrochemical treatment to determine RDX decomposition reaction rate coefficients. The sand packed columns simulated flow through a contaminated aquifer with a seepage velocity of 30.5 cm/day. Techniques to monitor and record the transient electric potential, hydroxide transport and contaminant concentration within the column were developed. The average reaction rate coefficients for both the alkaline batch (0.0487 hr−1) and sand column (0.0466 hr−1) experiments estimated the distance between the cathode and anode required to decompose 0.5 mg/L RDX to the USEPA drinking water lifetime Health Advisory level of 0.002 mg/L to be 145 and 152 cm. PMID:23472044

  10. Experimental Design for One Dimensional Electrolytic Reactive Barrier for Remediation of Munition Constituent in Groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, David B; Wani, Altaf; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2012-12-30

    A combination of direct electrochemical reduction and in-situ alkaline hydrolysis has been proposed to decompose energetic contaminants such as 1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro- 1,3,5-triazine and 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (RDX) in deep aquifers. This process utilizes natural groundwater convection to carry hydroxide produced by an upstream cathode to remove the contaminant at the cathode as well as in the pore water downstream as it migrates toward the anode. Laboratory evaluation incorporated fundamental principles of column design coupled with reactive contaminant modeling including electrokinetics transport. Batch and horizontal sand-packed column experiments included both alkaline hydrolysis and electrochemical treatment to determine RDX decomposition reaction rate coefficients. The sand packed columns simulated flow through a contaminated aquifer with a seepage velocity of 30.5 cm/day. Techniques to monitor and record the transient electric potential, hydroxide transport and contaminant concentration within the column were developed. The average reaction rate coefficients for both the alkaline batch (0.0487 hr(-1)) and sand column (0.0466 hr(-1)) experiments estimated the distance between the cathode and anode required to decompose 0.5 mg/L RDX to the USEPA drinking water lifetime Health Advisory level of 0.002 mg/L to be 145 and 152 cm.

  11. A mathematical solution to a network designing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y

    1996-01-01

    One of the major open issues in neural network research includes a Network Designing Problem (NDP): find a polynomial-time procedure that produces minimal structures (the minimum intermediate size, thresholds and synapse weights) of multilayer threshold feed-forward networks so that they can yield outputs consistent with given sample sets of input-output data. The NDP includes as a subproblem a Network Training Problem (NTP) where the intermediate size is given. The NTP has been studied mainly by use of iterative algorithms of network training. This paper, making use of both rate distortion theory in information theory and linear algebra, solves the NDP mathematically rigorously. On the basis of this mathematical solution, it furthermore develops a mathematical solution procedure to the NDP that computes the minimal structure straightforwardly from the sample set. The procedure precisely attains the minimum intermediate size, although its computational time complexity can be of nonpolynomial order at worst cases. The paper also refers to a polynomial-time shortcut of the procedure for practical use that can reach an approximate minimum intermediate size with its error measurable. The shortcut, when the intermediate size is prespecified, reduces to a promising alternative as well to current network training algorithms to the NTP.

  12. DESIGNING DEPENDABLE AGILE LAYERED WEB SERVICES SECURITY ARCHITECTURE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.UPENDRA KUMAR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Service Orientation Engineering (SOE (using Web Services and Agile modeling software development presents promising solutions for contemporary software development projects to deal effectively withchallenges in increasingly turbulent business environments typified by unpredictable markets, changing customer requirements, pressures of even shorter time to deliver, and rapidly advancing informationtechnologies. Web Services Security Architectures have three layers, as provided by NIST standard: Web Service Layer, Web Services Framework Layer (.NET or J2EE, and Web Server Layer. In services oriented web services architecture, business processes are executed as a composition of services, which can suffer from vulnerabilities pertaining to secure data access and protecting code of Web Services. The goal of the Web services security architecture is to summary out the details of message-level security from the mainstream business logic, with a focus on Web Service contract design and versioning for SOA. Service oriented web services architectures impose additional analysis complexity as they provide much flexibility and frequentchanges with in orchestrated processes and services. In this paper, we discuss about developing dependable solutions for Web Services Security Architectures using Agile Layered security architectures in terms of Privacy requirements. All this research is motivated by Secure Service Oriented Analysis and Design research domain. We initially validate this by a BPEL Editor using GWT for RBAC and Privacy. Finally a real world case study is implemented using J2EE, for validating our approach. Secure Stock Exchange System using Web Services is to automate the stock exchange works, and can help user make the decisions when it comes to investment.

  13. Design and construction of a circulating fluidized bed combustion facility for use in studying the thermal remediation of wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Karl K.; Kozinski, Janusz A.; Lighty, JoAnn S.; Lu, Quing

    1994-08-01

    Fluidized bed combustion systems have been widely applied in the combustion of solid fossil fuels, particularly by the power generation industry. Recently, attention has shifted from the conventional bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) to circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion systems. Inherent advantages of CFB combustion such as uniform temperatures, excellent mixing, high combustion efficiencies, and greater fuel flexibility have generated interest in the feasibility of CFB combustion systems applied to the thermal remediation of contaminated soils and sludges. Because it is often difficult to monitor and analyze the combustion phenomena that occurs within a full scale fluidized bed system, the need exists for smaller scale research facilities which permit detailed measurements of temperature, pressure, and chemical specie profiles. This article describes the design, construction, and operation of a pilot-scale fluidized bed facility developed to investigate the thermal remediation characteristics of contaminated soils and sludges. The refractory-lined reactor measures 8 m in height and has an external diameter of 0.6 m. The facility can be operated as a BFB or CFB using a variety of solid fuels including low calorific or high moisture content materials supplemented by natural gas introduced into the fluidized bed through auxiliary fuel injectors. Maximum firing rate of the fluidized bed is approximately 300 kW. Under normal operating conditions, internal wall temperatures are maintained between 1150 and 1350 K over superficial velocities ranging from 0.5 to 4 m/s. Contaminated material can be continuously fed into the fluidized bed or introduced as a single charge at three different locations. The facility is fully instrumented to allow time-resolved measurements of gaseous pollutant species, gas phase temperatures, and internal pressures. The facility has produced reproducible fluidization results which agree well with the work of other researchers. Minimum

  14. UMTRA Project remedial action planning and disposal cell design to comply with the proposed EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) standards (40 CFR Part 192)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project involves stabilizing 24 inactive uranium mill tailings piles in 10 states. Remedial work must meet standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Remedial action must be designed and constructed to prevent dispersion of the tailings and other contaminated materials, and must prevent the inadvertent use of the tailings by man. This report is prepared primarily for distribution to parties involved in the UMTRA Project, including the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and states and tribes. It is intended to record the work done by the DOE since publication of the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards, and to show how the DOE has attempted to respond and react in a positive way to the new requirements that result from the proposed standards. This report discusses the groundwater compliance strategies now being defined and implemented by the DOE, and details the changes in disposal cell designs that result from studies to evaluate ways to facilitate compliance with the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards. This report also serves to record the technical advances, planning, and progress made on the UMTRA Project since the appearance of the proposed EPA groundwater protection standards. The report serves to establish, document, and disseminate technical approaches and engineering and groundwater information to people who may be interested or involved in similar or related projects. 24 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. 昆明市环城南路禁左整治工程的设计与思考%Design and Thinking of Kunming Huancheng South Road Left-Turn-Banning Remediation Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟华

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion has become a hot issue for the major cities.Huancheng South Road is a typical congestion black spots in Kunming city,as it is in the bustling downtown,take what kind of measures to relieve the congestion is particularly critical,building the overpasses,tunnels or choosing other traffic remediation measures.This requires investigation and analysis of existing traffic,and workable remediation plan based on the current problems.In this article,we introduced the whole design process of Kunming Huancheng South Road 'left-turn-banning' remediation project,compared the survey datum before and after the project,and provided a scientific and workable solution for relieve the traffic congestion.%交通拥堵已经成为各大城市面临的热点问题,环城南路是昆明典型的拥堵点,由于其处于繁华的市区,采取何种缓解拥堵的措施显得尤为关键。对现有交通进行调查和分析,针对现有问题,制定出实施性强的整治方案。通过对昆明市环城南路"禁左"整治工程设计全过程的介绍,对工程实施前后的调查数据进行比对分析及思考,为缓解交通拥堵提供一种科学合理、操作性强的解决方案。

  16. Data Management Plan and Functional System Design for the Information Management System of the Clinch River Remedial Investigation and Waste Area Grouping 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, T.; Brandt, C.; Calfee, J.; Garland, M.; Holladay, S.; Nickle, B.; Schmoyer, D.; Serbin, C.; Ward, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The Data Management Plan and Functional System Design supports the Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) and Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 Environmental Monitoring Program. The objective of the Data Management Plan and Functional System Design is to provide organization, integrity, security, traceability, and consistency of the data generated during the CRRI and WAG 6 projects. Proper organization will ensure that the data are consistent with the procedures and requirements of the projects. The Information Management Groups (IMGs) for these two programs face similar challenges and share many common objectives. By teaming together, the IMGs have expedited the development and implementation of a common information management strategy that benefits each program.

  17. The Effectiveness of Peer Tutoring in Remedying Misconceptions of Operating System Concepts: A Design-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakiroglu, Ünal; Öngöz, Sakine

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to examine students' experiences on collaborative work with peer tutoring in projects. The study also focused impact of peer tutoring on remedying misconceptions. The study was conducted in the context of an operating system course in which 30 pre-service ICT teachers are the participants. Data were gathered from pre-tests,…

  18. Evaluation of meat and bone meal combustion residue as lead immobilizing material for in situ remediation of polluted aqueous solutions and soils: "chemical and ecotoxicological studies".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deydier, E; Guilet, R; Cren, S; Pereas, V; Mouchet, F; Gauthier, L

    2007-07-19

    As a result of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, meat and bone meal (MBM) production can no longer be used to feed cattle and must be safely disposed of or transformed. MBM specific incineration remains an alternative that could offer the opportunity to achieve both thermal valorization and solid waste recovery as ashes are calcium phosphate-rich material. The aim of this work is to evaluate ashes efficiency for in situ remediation of lead-contaminated aqueous solutions and soils, and to assess the bioavailability of lead using two biological models, amphibian Xenopus laevis larvae and Nicotiana tabaccum tobacco plant. With the amphibian model, no toxic or genotoxic effects of ashes are observed with concentrations from 0.1 to 5 g of ashes/L. If toxic and genotoxic effects of lead appear at concentration higher than 1 mg Pb/L (1 ppm), addition of only 100 mg of ashes/L neutralizes lead toxicity even with lead concentration up to 10 ppm. Chemical investigations (kinetics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis) reveals that lead is quickly immobilized as pyromorphite [Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2] and lead carbonate dihydrate [PbCO(3).2H2O]. Tobacco experiments are realized on contaminated soils with 50, 100, 2000 and 10000 ppm of lead with and without ashes amendment (35.3g ashes/kg of soil). Tobacco measurements show that plant elongation is bigger in an ashes-amended soil contaminated with 10000 ppm of lead than on the reference soil alone. Tobacco model points out that ashes present two beneficial actions as they do not only neutralize lead toxicity but also act as a fertilizer.

  19. Designing Digital Preservation Solutions: A Risk Management-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Barateiro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital preservation aims to keep digital objects accessible over long periods of time, ensuring the authenticity and integrity of these digital objects. In such complex environments, Risk Management is a key factor in assuring the normal behaviour of systems over time. Currently, the digital preservation arena commonly uses Risk Management concepts to assess repositories. In this paper, we intend to go further and propose a perspective where Risk Management can be used not only to assess existing solutions, but also to conceive digital preservation environments. Thus, we propose a Risk Management-based approach to design and assess digital preservation environments, including:• the definition of context and identification of strategic objectives to determine specific requirements and characterize which consequences are acceptable within the identified context;• the identification, analysis and evaluation of threats and vulnerabilities that may affect the normal behaviour of a specific business or the achievement of the goals and conformance to the requirements identified in the context characterization; and, • definition of actions to deal with the risks associated with the identified threats and vulnerabilities.We generalize and survey the main requirements, threats, vulnerabilities and techniques that can be applied in the scope of digital preservation.

  20. Analog circuit design a tutorial guide to applications and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    2011-01-01

    * Covers the fundamentals of linear/analog circuit and system design to guide engineers with their design challenges. * Based on the Application Notes of Linear Technology, the foremost designer of high performance analog products, readers will gain practical insights into design techniques and practice. * Broad range of topics, including power management tutorials, switching regulator design, linear regulator design, data conversion, signal conditioning, and high frequency/RF design. * Contributors include the leading lights in analog design, Robert Dobkin, Jim Willia

  1. Remedial Action Plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Spook, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, M L [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, NM (United States). Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office; Sullivan, M [Wyoming State Government, Cheyenne, WY (United States)

    1990-04-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a threefold purpose. It presents the series of activities which are proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at an inactive uranium processing site northeast of Casper, Wyoming, and referred to as the Spook site. It provides a characterization of the present conditions at the site and also serves to document the concurrence of the State of Wyoming and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the State of Wyoming, and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement.

  2. Successful Design of Learning Solutions Being Situation Aware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Pia; Isomöttönen, Ville; Lipponen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Education is increasingly enhanced by technology, and at the same time, the rapid pace of technology innovation and growing demand of consumers introduces challenges for providers of technological learning solutions. This paper investigates Finnish small and medium size companies who either develop or deliver technological solutions for education.…

  3. Successful Design of Learning Solutions Being Situation Aware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Pia; Isomöttönen, Ville; Lipponen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Education is increasingly enhanced by technology, and at the same time, the rapid pace of technology innovation and growing demand of consumers introduces challenges for providers of technological learning solutions. This paper investigates Finnish small and medium size companies who either develop or deliver technological solutions for education.…

  4. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Volume 2, Calculations, Final design for construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Volume two contains calculations for: embankment design--slope stability analysis; embankment design--excavation stability; embankment design--settlement and cover cracking analysis; radon barrier design--statistical analysis of ra-226 concentrations for North Continent and Union Carbide sites; radon barrier design--RAECOM input data; radon barrier design--design thickness; and cover design--frost penetration depth.

  5. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2007-09-26

    This Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Remedial Action Report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 of the INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan. The agency prefinal inspection of the ICDF Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF) was completed in June of 2005. Accordingly, this report has been developed to describe the construction activities completed at the ICDF along with a description of any modifications to the design originally approved for the facility. In addition, this report provides a summary of the major documents prepared for the design and construction of the ICDF, a discussion of relevant requirements and remedial action objectives, the total costs associated with the development and operation of the facility to date, and identification of necessary changes to the Agency-approved INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan and the ICDF Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan.

  6. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Gunnison, Colorado. Attachment 5, Supplemental radiological data: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    Diffusion coefficients for radon gas in earthen materials are required to design suitable radon-barrier covers for uranium tailings impoundments and other materials that emit radon gas. Many early measurements of radon diffusion coefficients relied on the differences in steady-state radon fluxes measured from radon source before and after installation of a cover layer of the material being tested. More recent measurements have utilized the small-sample transient (SST) technique for greater control on moistures and densities of the test soils, greater measurement precision, and reduced testing time and costs. Several of the project sites for the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Program contain radiologically contaminated subsurface material composed predominantly of cobbles, gravels andsands. Since remedial action designs require radon diffusion coefficients for the source materials as well as the cover materials, these cobbly and gravelly materials also must be tested. This report contains the following information: a description of the test materials used and the methods developed to conduct the SST radon diffusion measurements on cobbly soils; the protocol for conducting radon diffusion tests oncobbly soils; the results of measurements on the test samples; and modifications to the FITS computer code for analyzing the time-dependent radon diffusion data.

  7. The Remediation of Nosferatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghellal, Sabiha; Morrison, Ann; Hassenzahl, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present The Remediation of Nosferatu, a location based augmented reality horror adventure. Using the theory of fictional universe elements, we work with diverse material from Nosferatu’s horror genre and vampire themes as a case study. In this interdisciplinary research we intert...... universe. We believe our approach can be more generally useful for designing future rich, enjoyable and meaningful transmedia experiences....

  8. Disruptive images: stimulating creative solutions by visualizing the design vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Wouter; Kivacevic, A.; Ion, W.; McMahon, C.; Buck, C.; Hogarth, P.

    2011-01-01

    In a contemporary design context it is important to be able to communicate design strategy at a high abstraction level and at an early stage in the design process. At the same time, in our postmodern consumer society that is largely dominated by media, it is important to be able to communicate ideas

  9. Disruptive images: stimulating creative solutions by visualizing the design vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Wouter; Kivacevic, A.; Ion, W.; McMahon, C.; Buck, C.; Hogarth, P.

    2011-01-01

    In a contemporary design context it is important to be able to communicate design strategy at a high abstraction level and at an early stage in the design process. At the same time, in our postmodern consumer society that is largely dominated by media, it is important to be able to communicate ideas

  10. An unmanned ground vehicle for landmine remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Steven R.; Guilberto, Jose; Ogg, Wade; Wedeward, Kevin; Bruder, Stephen; El-Osery, Aly

    2004-09-01

    Anti-tank (AT) landmines slow down and endanger military advances and present sizeable humanitarian problems. The remediation of these mines by direct human intervention is both dangerous and costly. The Intelligent Systems & Robotics Group (ISRG) at New Mexico Tech has provided a partial solution to this problem by developing an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) to remediate these mines without endangering human lives. This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of this UGV. Current results and future work are also described herein. To initiate the remediation process the UGV is given the GPS coordinates of previously detected landmines. Once the UGV autonomously navigates to an acceptable proximity of the landmine, a remote operator acquires control over a wireless network link using a joystick on a base station. Utilizing two cameras mounted on the UGV, the operator is able to accurately position the UGV directly over the landmine. The UGV houses a self-contained drill system equipped with its own processing resources, sensors, and actuators. The drill system deploys a neutralizing device over the landmine to neutralize it. One such device, developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), employs incendiary materials to melt through the container of the landmine and slowly burn the explosive material, thereby safely and remotely disabling the landmine.

  11. A Solution to Knowledge Management in Networked Collaborative Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENYue-jie; TIANLing; TONGBing-shu

    2004-01-01

    Concerning the demands in networked collaborative innovative design, a knowledge-based collaborative design model is introduced the model of knowledge integration along with its relevant supporting techniques are presented. After illustrating the general knowledge search paradigm, a kind of dynamic user model is proposed to improve knowledge search efficiency. At last a short introduction of the system's implementation is described.

  12. Electrokinetic remediation of oil-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Vladimir A; Romanyukha, Olga V; Abyzova, Anna M

    2008-07-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the factors influencing electrokinetic remediation of soils from petroleum pollutants. The remediation method was applied in two versions: (i) static and (ii) flowing, when a sample was washed with leaching solution. It was found that all the soils studied can be purified using this technique. It was also observed that the mineral and grain-size composition of soils, their properties, and other parameters affect the remediation efficiency. The static and flowing versions of the remediation method removed 25-75% and 90-95% of the petroleum pollutants, respectively from the soils under study.

  13. Designing, developing, and facilitating smart cities urban design to IoT solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Tragos, Elias; Pöhls, Henrich; Kapovits, Adam; Bassi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses how smart cities strive to deploy and interconnect infrastructures and services to guarantee that authorities and citizens have access to reliable and global customized services. The book addresses the wide range of topics present in the design, development and running of smart cities, ranging from big data management, Internet of Things, and sustainable urban planning. The authors cover - from concept to practice – both the technical aspects of smart cities enabled primarily by the Internet of Things and the socio-economic motivations and impacts of smart city development. The reader will find smart city deployment motivations, technological enablers and solutions, as well as state of the art cases of smart city implementations and services. · Provides a single compendium of the technological, political, and social aspects of smart cities; · Discusses how the successful deployment of smart Cities requires a unified infrastructure to support the diverse set of applications that can be ...

  14. Basic Problems in Design and Inverse Engineering Solution for Outer Characteristic of Vehicle Suspension Shock Absorbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞德孚; 陈庆东; 李文君

    2003-01-01

    Based on the theory and the practical experiences of linearity design of feasible design area and inverse solution of non-linear outer characteristic of suspension shock absorber, in accordance with non-linearity outer characteristic formed by open-up damping coefficient, full-open damping coefficient and smoothness to safety ratio of suspension shock absorber, a method and a research conclusion of the feasible design and inverse solution for the basic problems of designing and inverse solution of non-linear outer characteristic of suspension damping components are provided.

  15. Designing a Business Intelligence Solution for Analyzing Security Data

    OpenAIRE

    Somasekaram, Premathas

    2013-01-01

    Business Intelligence is a set of tools and applications that are widely deployed across major corporations today. An appropriate translation for “Business Intelligence” in Swedish is “beslutstöd”, and it clearly describes the purpose of such a solution, andt hat is to collect, compress, consolidate and analyze data from multiple sources, so that critical decisions can be made based on it hence the name “beslutstöd. The focusof Business Intelligence has been on business data, so that trends a...

  16. Colloidal properties of biomacromolecular solutions: Towards urate oxidase crystal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneté, Françoise

    2013-02-01

    Crystallization of biological macromolecules is governed by weak interaction forces, attractive and repulsive. Knowledge of solution properties, via second virial coefficient measurements, makes it possible to select physico-chemical parameters that govern and control phase diagrams and thus to grow crystals for specific applications (bio-crystallography or pharmaceutical processes). We highlight here with urate oxidase a salting-in effect that increases its solubility and the depletion effect of amphiphilic polymer, at a polymer concentration above its cmc, in order to grow diffracting crystals of urate oxidase. These two effects were used to grow crystals for high pressure crystallography and in a purification process.

  17. Technology Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Systems: Designing for Setback Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-01

    For years, conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has specified two points: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  18. Technology Solutions Case Study: Hydronic Systems: Designing for Setback Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-01

    For years, conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has specified two points: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  19. APPROXIMATE SOLUTION USING A PERTURBATION METHOD FOR DETENTION POND DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jen-Yan CHEN; Yao-Ming HONG

    2002-01-01

    It is a common practice to use a hydrological continuity equation as the governing equation in detention pond design. Although the detention volume can be evaluated using a numerical method and computer program,they are not available for engineers to use because of the difficulty involved in the numerical evaluation or the computer program may not be ready for engineers. This study intends to provide a formula for calculating the volume of a detention pond. A nonlinear continuity equation for detention pond design is obtained by applying a triangular/trapezoidal inflow hydrograph and spillway or orifice for the outflow device. This perturbation method is employed to resolve the equation. After discussing the omission and curve fitting methods,a formula for detention pond design is proposed.Several examples are displayed and a high agreement with the numerical result is obtained.

  20. Engineering design and testing of a ground water remediation system using electrolytically generated hydrogen with a palladium catalyst for dehalogenation of chlorinated hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, R.

    1997-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that dissolved hydrogen causes rapid dehalogenation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the presence of a palladium catalyst. The speed and completeness of these reactions offer advantages in designing remediation technologies for certain ground water contamination problems. However, a practical design challenge arises in the need to saturate the aqueous phase with hydrogen in an expeditious manner. To address this issue, a two-stage treatment reactor has been developed. The first stage consists of an electrolytic cell that generates hydrogen by applying a voltage potential across the influent water stream. The second stage consists of a catalyst column of palladium metal supported on alumina beads. A bench-scale reactor has been used to test this design for treating ground water contaminated with trichloroethene and other chlorinated hydrocarbons. In influent streams containing contaminant concentrations up to 4 ppm, initial results confirm that destruction efficiencies greater than 95% may be achieved with residence times short enough to allow practical implementation in specially designed flow-through treatment wells. Results from the bench-scale tests are being used to design a pilot ground water treatment system.

  1. Engineering design and testing of a ground water remediation system using electrolytically generated hydrogen with a palladium catalyst for dehalogenation of chlorinated hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, R.

    1997-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that dissolved hydrogen causes rapid dehalogenation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the presence of a palladium catalyst. The speed and completeness of these reactions offer advantages in designing remediation technologies for certain ground water contamination problems. However, a practical design challenge arises in the need to saturate the aqueous phase with hydrogen in an expeditious manner. To address this issue, a two-stage treatment reactor has been developed. The first stage consists of an electrolytic cell that generates hydrogen by applying a voltage potential across the influent water stream. The second stage consists of a catalyst column of palladium metal supported on alumina beads. A bench-scale reactor has been used to test this design for treating ground water contaminated with trichloroethene and other chlorinated hydrocarbons. In influent streams containing contaminant concentrations up to 4 ppm, initial results confirm that destruction efficiencies greater than 95% may be achieved with residence times short enough to allow practical implementation in specially designed flow-through treatment wells. Results from the bench-scale tests are being used to design a pilot ground water treatment system.

  2. Design and Modeling Billing solution to Next Generation Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhtaria, Kamaljit I

    2010-01-01

    Next generation networks (NGN) services are assumed to be a new revenue stream for both network operators and service providers. New services especially focused on a mobile telecommunications that would be used not only as a communication de vice but also as a personal gateway to order or consume a variety of services and products [1]. This type of advanced services can be accomplished when the adaptability of the packet-networks (Internet) and the quality of service of the circuit switched networks are combined into one network [2]. New challenges appear in the billing of this heterogeneous multi services network. Some examples of such a services and possible solutions about charging and billing are examined in this paper. The first steps of mathematical model for billing are also considered.

  3. Development of a Design Support System that Can Efficiently Utilize Non-dominated Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinya; Minato, Ryojiro

    This paper proposes a new design support approach, which efficiently utilizes the information of many non-dominated solutions obtained from evolutionary multi-criterion optimization (EMO). The proposed approach consists of four mechanisms: grouping (clustering), reducing the number of candidates (selecting the representative solutions), dimensionality reduction, and estimation. Non-dominated solutions can be regarded as a beneficial subspace in whole search space, which have the feature of being non-inferior to other solutions. Therefore, we think the proposed approach can be used to estimate the characteristics of a problem through the interaction with the designer. In this paper, we examine the characteristics and effectiveness of the proposed approach through computational experiments on a design problem of a counter rotating axial fan turbojet engine. A counter rotating axial fan turbojet engine with two spools is chosen for the design target of the present study. We handle this task as a seven-objective design problem.

  4. Investigating the design and application of a funnel and gate barrier for PCB remediation in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinovich, I.; Rowe, R.K. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering]|[Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada); Rutter, A.; Poland, J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; McWatters, R. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    A long-term remediation plan is underway at a former military radar base at Resolution Island, Nunavut to prevent the migration of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from entering the drainage pathways of the island and flowing into the ocean. Migration pathways for PCBs include: leaching from soil; becoming mobilized via runoff; and, dispersed as an aerosol into the atmosphere. This study examined the feasibility of using geosynthetics as filters and sorbents in a funnel and gate barrier system. Preliminary results from a field trial were reported. The main concern was to determine how the geosynthetics will perform in the harsh Arctic conditions. In addition to field studies, laboratory studies examined the changes in permittivity in geosynthetics that have been exposed to ultraviolet (UV) and freeze-thaw conditions. Different geosynthetic materials, including filters and adsorbents, were also examined to determine if an isotherm can be established and used to evaluate sorption kinetics. The funnel and gate barrier system currently installed at the site is working as expected. The barrier system traps PCBs in a short period of time and the geosynthetic boom is an excellent adsorbent of PCBs. However, the permeability of the barrier materials seem to be affected by freeze-thaw and UV effects. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  5. Analysis of solution findings in the conceptual design of function structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Dong-yan; QIU Chang-hua; XUE Jun-fang; HUANG Mei

    2005-01-01

    In the conceptual stage the function design process is realized by the computer aided application. After surveying on the function specification methods and the function modeling, a computer aided function design environment is analyzed. Subsequently based on a module library and principle catalogue, a solution finding process as a part of conceptual design is proposed for a creative design. In addition, a search algorithm to find the solution of adaptable function structure is also discussed. The concepts proposed in this paper can support the subsequent design stages, especially simulation for checking the function structure defects.

  6. Designing Intuitive Web Solutions for Monitoring Patients’ Rehabilitation at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raihana Ferdous

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of web-based remote monitoring interfaces aimed at supporting therapists and caregivers in supervising motor-cognitive rehabilitation plans of care to be performed by patients at home. This work was part of a three years’ research project where game-based environments for upper body motor rehabilitation of post-stroke patients were developed in collaboration with two main rehabilitation centers in Italy and Austria, for a subsequent deployment at patients’ homes. The paper will specifically focus on describing the iterative design of the home rehabilitation features for clinicians over the first two years of the project to enable the delivery and monitoring of more personalized, engaging plans of care for home therapy by rehabilitation centers and services.

  7. The Effectiveness of Hybrid Solutions in Higher Education: A Call for Hybrid-Teaching Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentin, Guglielmo; Bocconi, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    In order to design learning solutions that effectively embed face-to-face and online dimensions, it is crucial to identify the key components underpinning hybrid solutions. Furthermore, once these components have been identified, there is the need to clarify how to recombine them to meet a specific learning objective. This article aims to…

  8. Remedial action plan and site conceptual design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico. Volume 1, Text, Appendices A, B, and C: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, M.L. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, NM (United States). Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office; Mitzelfelt, R. [New Mexico Health and Environment Dept., Santa Fe, NM (United States). Environmental Improvement Div.

    1991-11-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a dual purpose. It presents the series of activities that is proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to stabilize and control radioactive materials at the inactive Phillips/United Nuclear uranium processing site designated as the Ambrosia Lake site in McKinley County, New Mexico. It also serves to document the concurrence of both State of New Mexico and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state and concurrence by NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement.

  9. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1. Volume 1, Calculations, Final design for construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Volume one contains calculations for: embankment design--embankment material properties; Union Carbide site--bedrock contours; vicinity properties--origin of contamination; North Continent and Union Carbide sites contaminated materials--excavation quantities; and demolition debris--quantity estimate.

  10. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Falls City, Texas. Remedial action selection report, attachment 2, geology report; attachment 3, groundwater hydrology report; and attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RAP, which includes this summary remedial action selection report (RAS), serves a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Texas, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Texas.

  11. Exploring How Experience with Planning Impacts First Grade Students' Planning and Solutions to Engineering Design Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portsmore, Merredith D.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents research that investigated how first grade students' ability to construct solutions and to plan through drawing for engineering design problems is related to their participation in a LEGO-based engineering curriculum with two variations on the instruction for planning. The quasi-experimental design engaged two first…

  12. Effect of different extracting solutions on the electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated wood waste Part I. - Behaviour of Cu and Cr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velizarova, E.; Ribeiro, A. B.; Mateus, E.

    2004-01-01

    Removal of Cu and Cr from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste under batch electrodialytic conditions was studied. The effect of different types of extracting solutions, such as deionised water or aqueous solutions of NaCl, formic acid, oxalic acid, and EDTA, on the magnitude...... and direction of the fluxes of Cu- and Cr-containing species in the electrodialytic cell was investigated. Oxalic acid was found to have the best performance if simultaneous removal of the two elements is required (removal efficiencies of 80.5% for Cu and 87.4% for Cr, respectively). A mixture of oxalic acid....... The latter were not present if EDTA was the extracting solution resulting in directing the Cu and Cr fluxes to the anode compartment. Contrary, these fluxes were exclusively to the cathode compartment if deionised water or an aqueous solution of NaCl were used. These extracting solutions proved suitable...

  13. Analytical solution and optimal design for galloping-based piezoelectric energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, T.; Yan, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The performance of the galloping-based piezoelectric energy harvester is usually investigated numerically. Instead of performing case studies by numerical simulations, analytical solutions of the nonlinear distributed parameter model are derived to capture the intrinsic effects of the physical parameters on the performance of such energy harvesters. The analytical solutions are confirmed with the numerical solutions. Optimal performance of such energy harvesters is therefore revealed theoretically. The electric damping due to the electromechanical coupling is defined. The design at the optimal electrical damping with smaller onset speed to galloping, higher harvested power, and acceptable tip displacement is superior than the design at the maximal electrical damping, as long as the optimal electrical damping can be achieved. Otherwise, the design at the maximal electrical damping should be then adopted. As the wind speed and aerodynamic empirical coefficients increase, the tip displacement and harvested power increase. This study provides a theoretical design and optimization procedure for galloping-based piezoelectric energy harvesters.

  14. Topical Day on Site Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H. [ed.

    1996-09-18

    Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions.

  15. Solution-verified reliability analysis and design of bistable MEMS using error estimation and adaptivity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Neckels, David; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Notz, Patrick K.; Adams, Brian M.; Carnes, Brian; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Bichon, Barron J.; Copps, Kevin D.

    2006-10-01

    This report documents the results for an FY06 ASC Algorithms Level 2 milestone combining error estimation and adaptivity, uncertainty quantification, and probabilistic design capabilities applied to the analysis and design of bistable MEMS. Through the use of error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement, solution verification can be performed in an automated and parameter-adaptive manner. The resulting uncertainty analysis and probabilistic design studies are shown to be more accurate, efficient, reliable, and convenient.

  16. An Optimization Index to Identify the optimal Design Solution of Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Structural optimization has become an important tool for structural designers, since it allows a better exploitation of material, thus decreasing structure self-weight and saving material costs. Moreover, it helps the designer to find innovative design solutions and structural forms that not only better exploit material but also give the structure higher aesthetic value from an architectural point of view. When applied to real scale structures like bridges, this approach leads to the definiti...

  17. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan For Test Area North Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L. O.

    2007-06-12

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medial zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF). As identified in the remediatial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action.

  18. Electrokinetic Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Spiked Soils

    OpenAIRE

    , M. Bilgin; , G. Akıncı

    2011-01-01

    In the presented study, remediation studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of electrokinetic method on the treatment of natural soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, in laboratory scale reactors. Electokinetic remediation of agricultural soil with an initial TPHs (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) concentration of 10000 ppm was investigated under 20 V or 40 V direct current by using NaOH and acetic acid as electrolyte solution, treatment efficiencies were observed accordin...

  19. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), Slick Rock, Colorado, Revision 1, Volume 3. Calculations, Final design for construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Volume three contains calculations for: site hydrology--rainfall intensity, duration, and frequency relations; site hydrology-- probable maximum precipitation; erosion protection--rock quality evaluation; erosion protection--embankment top and side slope; erosion protection--embankment toe apron; erosion protection-- gradations and layer thicknesses; Union Carbide site--temporary drainage ditch design; Union Carbide site--retention basin sediment volume; Union Carbide site--retention basin sizing; Burro Canyon site temporary drainage--temporary drainage facilities; and Union Carbide site temporary drainage--water balance.

  20. Ab initio identified design principles of solid-solution strengthening in Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duancheng Ma, Martin Friák, Johann von Pezold, Dierk Raabe and Jörg Neugebauer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-solution strengthening in six Al–X binary systems is investigated using first-principle methods. The volumetric mismatch parameter and the solubility enthalpy per solute were calculated. We derive three rules for designing solid-solution strengthened alloys: (i the solubility enthalpy per solute is related to the volumetric mismatch by a power law; (ii for each annealing temperature, there exists an optimal solute–volume mismatch to achieve maximum strength; and (iii the strengthening potential of high volumetric mismatch solutes is severely limited by their low solubility. Our results thus show that the thermodynamic properties of the system (here Al–X alloys set clear upper bounds to the achievable strengthening effects owing to the reduced solubility with increasing volume mismatch.

  1. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Maybell, Colorado. Final report, Appendixes to attachment 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This document contains supporting appendices to attachment 3 for the remedial action and site stabilization plan for Maybell, Colorado UMTRA site. Appendix A includes the Hydrological Services Calculations and Appendix B contains Ground Water Quality by Location data.

  2. Data management for the internet of things: design primitives and solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Elkheir, Mervat; Hayajneh, Mohammad; Ali, Najah Abu

    2013-11-14

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a networking paradigm where interconnected, smart objects continuously generate data and transmit it over the Internet. Much of the IoT initiatives are geared towards manufacturing low-cost and energy-efficient hardware for these objects, as well as the communication technologies that provide objects interconnectivity. However, the solutions to manage and utilize the massive volume of data produced by these objects are yet to mature. Traditional database management solutions fall short in satisfying the sophisticated application needs of an IoT network that has a truly global-scale. Current solutions for IoT data management address partial aspects of the IoT environment with special focus on sensor networks. In this paper, we survey the data management solutions that are proposed for IoT or subsystems of the IoT. We highlight the distinctive design primitives that we believe should be addressed in an IoT data management solution, and discuss how they are approached by the proposed solutions. We finally propose a data management framework for IoT that takes into consideration the discussed design elements and acts as a seed to a comprehensive IoT data management solution. The framework we propose adapts a federated, data- and sources-centric approach to link the diverse Things with their abundance of data to the potential applications and services that are envisioned for IoT.

  3. Design as a Problem and Design as a Solution for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    at the local level. This paper proposes a change in the design perspective that is strongly linked to a new approach to innovation in industrial production. Only a genetic change in the role of industrial production is likely to provide the radical changes required for a sustainable development. Consequently...... the design discipline particularly sensitive to the question of sustainability. In this context the need for a decisive change of perspective for designers is certainly a necessity, but can also be an opportunity to propose a new approach that can generate sustainable innovation and development, especially...... only a radically new design approach will be able to support such change....

  4. Functionality of microbial communities in constructed wetlands used for pesticide remediation: Influence of system design and sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tao; Carvalho, Pedro N; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Yang; Button, Mark; Arias, Carlos A; Weber, Kela P; Brix, Hans

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the microbial community metabolic function from both unsaturated and saturated constructed wetland mesocosms (CWs) when treating the pesticide tebuconazole. The comparison was performed for both interstitial water and substrate biofilm by community level physiological profiling (CLPP) via BIOLOG™ EcoPlates. For each CW design (saturated or unsaturated), six mesocosms were established including one unplanted and five planted individually with either Juncus effusus, Typha latifolia, Berula erecta, Phragmites australis or Iris pseudacorus. Microbial activity and metabolic richness of interstitial water from unsaturated CWs were significantly lower than that from saturated CWs. However, in general, the opposite result was observed for biofilm samples. Wetland plants promoted significantly higher biofilm microbial activity and metabolic richness than unplanted CWs in both CW designs. Differences in the microbial community functional profiles between plant species were only found for saturated CWs. Biofilm microbial metabolic richness was generally statistically higher than that of interstitial water in both unsaturated (1.4-24 times higher) and saturated (1.2-1.7 times higher) CWs. Carbon source (guild) utilization patterns were generally different between interstitial water and biofilm samples. Functionality of the biofilm microbial community was positively correlated to the removal of all pollutants (TN, NH4(+)-N, TP, TOC and tebuconazole) for both unsaturated and saturated CWs, suggesting the biofilm plays a more important role in pollutant removal than the interstitial water microbial community. Thus, merely observing the interstitial water microbial communities may underestimate the role of the microbial community in CW performance. Interestingly, the ability for the biofilm microbial community to utilize amino acids and amines/amides was positively correlated with tebuconazole removal in all system types.

  5. Selection of the variant solution of forest road alignment conceptual design using multicriteria optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Bogdan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the three studied variant solutions of forest road conceptual design was selected based on the linear distribution of criteria, as the method of multicriteria optimization. The selection was performed with 25 parameters classified as economic, technical, production and social criteria. The parameters of technical criteria were grouped into design, construction and building parameters. Based on calculated nominal values of parameters by the given criteria, their ranking, comparison, point rating and scoring, the selected most favorable solution was variant 1.

  6. Capturing Design: Improving conceptual ship design through the capture of design rationale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeNucci, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    As the complexity of ship design increases, the knowledge used to resolve these complexities is decreasing due to a loss of intellectual resources. In order to remedy these losses, Naval Architects must capitalize on the knowledge available in design teams. The solution to this quandary involves the

  7. Modification to the Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Mexican Hat, Utah: Volume 1, Text, Attachments 1--6. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-01-01

    This document provides the modifications to the 1988 Remedial Action Plan (RAP) of the contaminated materials at the Monument Valley, Arizona, and Mexican Hat, Utah. The text detailing the modifications and attachments 1 through 6 are provided with this document. The RAP was developed to serve a two-fold purpose. It presents the activities proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials (RRM) from Monument Valley, Arizona, and Mexican Hat, Utah, at the Mexican Hat disposal site. It also serves to document the concurrence of both the Navajo Nation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by DOE and the Navajo Nation and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement. This document has been structured to provide a comprehensive understanding of the remedial action proposed for the Monument Valley and Mexican Hat sites. It includes specific design and construction requirements for the remedial action. Pertinent information and data are included with reference given to the supporting documents.

  8. Characterization, performance modeling, and design of an active capping remediation project in a heavily polluted urban channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Viana, Priscilla; Zhao, Xiuhong; Rockne, Karl

    2010-07-15

    Collateral Channel is a heavily polluted former navigation slip to the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (Illinois, USA). Characterization of sediment cores taken in the channel show high levels of heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other contaminants in deposited sediment dating back to the 1800's. Of these, PAHs were the contaminants of greatest concern based upon exceedance of sediment contamination criteria (Sigma(16) PAHs up to 1500mg/kg). Benthic animal counts revealed a lack of biodiversity, with relatively low levels of small tubificid oligochaetes (generally work (Viana et al., 2008). Based on the sediment characterization and modeling results, the active capping design will be focused on organic contaminant sequestration through the use of organoclay. A site-specific difficulty is the substantial rates of gas ebullition from anaerobic organic matter biodegradation in the sediments, particularly in the summer months. These gases can open advective channels that may result in substantial pollution release and compromise cap effectiveness, and thus the capping scenario must control for such releases. The active capping layer will underlay a sloped sand layer and a high permeability gas venting system to allow biogenically-produced gas migration to shoreline collectors through an innovative support grid. The cap will include an overlaying wetland to remove nutrients from the adjoining Chicago River and provide a public recreational space.

  9. Design as a Problem and Design as a Solution for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    the design discipline particularly sensitive to the question of sustainability. In this context the need for a decisive change of perspective for designers is certainly a necessity, but can also be an opportunity to propose a new approach that can generate sustainable innovation and development, especially...... at the local level. This paper proposes a change in the design perspective that is strongly linked to a new approach to innovation in industrial production. Only a genetic change in the role of industrial production is likely to provide the radical changes required for a sustainable development. Consequently...

  10. Remediation of 17-α-ethinylestradiol aqueous solution by photocatalysis and electrochemically-assisted photocatalysis using TiO2 and TiO2/WO3 electrodes irradiated by a solar simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Haroldo G; Ferreira, Leticia H; Bertazzoli, Rodnei; Longo, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    TiO2 and TiO2/WO3 electrodes, irradiated by a solar simulator in configurations for heterogeneous photocatalysis (HP) and electrochemically-assisted HP (EHP), were used to remediate aqueous solutions containing 10 mg L(-1) (34 μmol L(-1)) of 17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), active component of most oral contraceptives. The photocatalysts consisted of 4.5 μm thick porous films of TiO2 and TiO2/WO3 (molar ratio W/Ti of 12%) deposited on transparent electrodes from aqueous suspensions of TiO2 particles and WO3 precursors, followed by thermal treatment at 450 (°)C. First, an energy diagram was organized with photoelectrochemical and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy data and revealed that EE2 could be directly oxidized by the photogenerated holes at the semiconductor surfaces, considering the relative HOMO level for EE2 and the semiconductor valence band edges. Also, for the irradiated hybrid photocatalyst, electrons in TiO2 should be transferred to WO3 conduction band, while holes move toward TiO2 valence band, improving charge separation. The remediated EE2 solutions were analyzed by fluorescence, HPLC and total organic carbon measurements. As expected from the energy diagram, both photocatalysts promoted the EE2 oxidation in HP configuration; after 4 h, the EE2 concentration decayed to 6.2 mg L(-1) (35% of EE2 removal) with irradiated TiO2 while TiO2/WO3 electrode resulted in 45% EE2 removal. A higher performance was achieved in EHP systems, when a Pt wire was introduced as a counter-electrode and the photoelectrodes were biased at +0.7 V; then, the EE2 removal corresponded to 48 and 54% for the TiO2 and TiO2/WO3, respectively. The hybrid TiO2/WO3, when compared to TiO2 electrode, exhibited enhanced sunlight harvesting and improved separation of photogenerated charge carriers, resulting in higher performance for removing this contaminant of emerging concern from aqueous solution.

  11. Evaluation of laboratory and industrial meat and bone meal combustion residue as cadmium immobilizing material for remediation of polluted aqueous solutions: 'Chemical and ecotoxicological studies'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutand, M., E-mail: marie.coutand@iut-tlse3.fr [Universite de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC - Laboratoire Materiaux et Durabilite des Constructions, 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Deydier, E., E-mail: eric.deydier@iut-tlse3.fr [Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination du CNRS (UPR 8241), lie par convention a l' Universite Paul Sabatier - IUT A, Avenue Georges Pompidou, BP258, 81104 Castres (France); Cyr, M. [Universite de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC - Laboratoire Materiaux et Durabilite des Constructions, 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); and others

    2009-07-30

    Meat and Bone Meals (MBM) combustion residues (ashes) are calcium and phosphate-rich materials. The aim of this work is to evaluate ashes efficiency for remediation of cadmium-contaminated aqueous solutions, and to assess the bioavailability of cadmium on Xenopuslaevis larvae. In this study both industrial (MBM-BA) and laboratory (MBM-LA) ashes are compared regarding their efficiency. Kinetic investigations reveal that cadmium ions are quickly immobilized, with a maximum cadmium uptake at 57 mg Cd{sup 2+}/g of ashes for MBM-LA, two times higher than metal uptake quantity of MBM-BA, in our experimental conditions. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) reveal that Cd{sup 2+} is mainly immobilized as Ca{sub 10-x}Cd{sub x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} by both ashes, whereas otavite, Cd(CO{sub 3}), is also involved for MBM-LA in cadmium uptake. Otavite formation could be explained by the presence of carbonates in MBM-LA, as observed by IR. Genotoxicity of cadmium solution on Xenopus larvae is observed at 0.02, 0.2 and 2 mg Cd{sup 2+}/L. However addition of only 0.1 g/L MBM-LA inhibits these effects for the above concentration values whereas Cd{sup 2+} bioaccumulation in larvae's liver is similar for both experiments, with and without ashes.

  12. Integrating DfM components into a cohesive design-to-silicon solution (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Lars; Maynard, Dan; McCullen, Kevin; Seong, Nakgeuon; Buturla, Ed; Lavin, Mark; Hibbeler, Jason

    2005-05-01

    Two primary tracks of DfM, one originating from physical design characterization, the other from low-k1 lithography, are described. Examples of specific DfM efforts are given and potentially conflicting layout optimization goals are pointed out. The need for an integrated DfM solution than ties together currently parallel DfM efforts of increasing sophistication and layout impact is identified and a novel DfM-enabling design flow is introduced.

  13. SOA enabled ELTA: approach in designing business intelligence solutions in Era of Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Dmitriyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work presents a new approach for designing business intelligence solutions. In the Era of Big Data, former and robust analytical concepts and utilities need to adapt themselves to the changed market circumstances. The main focus of this work is to address the acceleration of building process of a “data-centric” Business Intelligence (BI solution besides preparing BI solutions for Big Data utilization. This research addresses the following goals: reducing the time spent during business intelligence solution’s design phase; achieving flexibility of BI solution by adding new data sources; and preparing BI solution for utilizing Big Data concepts. This research proposes an extension of the existing Extract, Load and Transform (ELT approach to the new one Extract, Load, Transform and Analyze (ELTA supported by service-orientation concept. Additionally, the proposed model incorporates Service-Oriented Architecture concept as a mediator for the transformation phase. On one side, such incorporation brings flexibility to the BI solution and on the other side; it reduces the complexity of the whole system by moving some responsibilities to external authorities.

  14. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Vandel

    2003-09-01

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medical zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This plan details management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility. As identified in the remedial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action. This work plan was originally prepared as an early implementation of the final Phase C remediation. At that time, The Phase C implementation strategy was to use this document as the overall Phase C Work Plan and was to be revised to include the remedial actions for the other remedial zones (hotspot and distal zones). After the completion of Record of Decision Amendment: Technical Support Facility Injection Well (TSF-05) and Surrounding Groundwater Contamination (TSF-23) and Miscellaneous No Action Sites, Final Remedial Action, it was determined that each remedial zone would have it own stand-alone remedial action work plan. Revision 1 of this document converts this document to a stand-alone remedial action plan specific to the implementation of the New Pump and Treat Facility used for plume remediation within the medical zone of the OU 1-07B contaminated plume.

  15. Control of Groundwater Remediation Process as Distributed Parameter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendel M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of groundwater requires the implementation of appropriate solutions which can be deployed for several years. The case of local groundwater contamination and its subsequent spread may result in contamination of drinking water sources or other disasters. This publication aims to design and demonstrate control of pumping wells for a model task of groundwater remediation. The task consists of appropriately spaced soil with input parameters, pumping wells and control system. Model of controlled system is made in the program MODFLOW using the finitedifference method as distributed parameter system. Control problem is solved by DPS Blockset for MATLAB & Simulink.

  16. Relevance of a combined process coupling electro-Fenton and biological treatment for the remediation of sulfamethazine solutions – Application to an industrial pharmaceutical effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour, Dorsaf; Fourcade, Florence; Soutrel, Isabelle; Hauchard, Didier; Bellakhal, Nizar; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A combined process coupling an electro-Fenton pretreatment and a biological degradation was implemented in order to mineralize synthetic and industrial pharmaceutical effluents, containing a veterinary antibiotic, sulfamethazine (SMT). The electro-Fenton pretreatment of SMT synthetic solution was first examined and the obtained results showed total SMT degradation after 30 min of electrolysis at pH 3, 18°C, 500 mA and an initial SMT concentration of 0.2 mM, while the l...

  17. Analytical quality-by-design approach for sample treatment of BSA-containing solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lien Taevernier; Evelien Wynendaele; Matthias D’Hondt; Bart De Spiegeleer

    2015-01-01

    The sample preparation of samples containing bovine serum albumin (BSA), e.g., as used in transdermal Franz diffusion cell (FDC) solutions, was evaluated using an analytical quality-by-design (QbD) approach. Traditional precipitation of BSA by adding an equal volume of organic solvent, often successfully used with conventional HPLC-PDA, was found insufficiently robust when novel fused-core HPLC and/or UPLC-MS methods were used. In this study, three factors (acetonitrile (%), formic acid (%) and boiling time (min)) were included in the experimental design to determine an optimal and more suitable sample treatment of BSA-containing FDC solutions. Using a QbD and Derringer desirability (D) approach, combining BSA loss, dilution factor and variability, we constructed an optimal working space with the edge of failure defined as Do0.9. The design space is modelled and is confirmed to have an ACN range of 8373%and FA content of 170.25%.

  18. Predictive Sampling of Rare Conformational Events in Aqueous Solution: Designing a Generalized Orthogonal Space Tempering Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Li, Xubin; Wu, Dongsheng; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-12

    analysis suggests that because essential conformational events are mainly driven by the compensating fluctuations of essential solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, commonly employed "predictive" sampling methods are unlikely to be effective on this seemingly "simple" system. The gOST development presented in this paper illustrates how to employ the OSS scheme for physics-based sampling method designs.

  19. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    in similar experiments but without the bipolar electrodes. The new electrokinetic remediation design was tested on copper mine tailings with different applied electric fields, remediation times and pre-treatment. The results showed that the copper removal was increased from 8% (applying 20V for 8 days...... in sulphuric acidified tailings) without bipolar electrodes to 42% when bipolar electrodes were implemented. Furthermore, the results showed that in this system sulphuric acid addition prior to remediation was better than citric acid addition. In addition, applying a too strong electric field (even...

  20. Differential Evolution Algorithm Based Solution Approaches for Solving Transportation Network Design Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Başkan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Differential Evolution algorithm has effectively been used to solve engineering optimization problems recently. The Differential Evolution algorithm, which uses similar principles with Genetic Algorithms, is more robust on obtaining optimal solution than many other heuristic algorithms with its simpler structure. In this study, Differential Evolution algorithm is applied to the transportation network design problems and its effectiveness on the solution is investigated. In this context, Differential Evolution based models are developed using bi-level programming approach for the solution of the transportation network design problem and determination of the on-street parking places in urban road networks. In these models, optimal investment and parking strategies are investigated on the upper level. On the lower level, deterministic traffic assignment problem, which represents drivers' responses, is solved using Frank-Wolfe algorithm and VISUM traffic modeling software. In order to determine the effectiveness of the proposed models, numerical applications are carried out on Sioux-Falls test network. Results showed that the Differential Evolution algorithm may effectively been used for the solution of transportation network design problems.

  1. Porous graphene materials for water remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Li; Chen, Xiaodong

    2014-09-10

    Water remediation has been a critical issue over the past decades due to the expansion of wastewater discharge to the environment. Currently, a variety of functional materials have been successfully prepared for water remediation applications. Among them, graphene is an attractive candidate due to its high specific surface area, tunable surface behavior, and high strength. This Concept paper summarizes the design strategy of porous graphene materials and their applications in water remediation, such as the cleanup of oil, removal of heavy metal ions, and elimination of water soluble organic contaminants. The progress made so far will guide further development in structure design strategy of porous materials based on graphene and exploration of such materials in environmental remediation.

  2. Photovoltaic power for remote site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torr, S.; Jensen, E.; Dingman, C.; Brewster, M.L. [Komex International Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper described how photovoltaic solar power and remediation technologies can be integrated to remediate salt and hydrocarbon contaminated soils at remote sites. The integrated method can be applied in a variety of situations, such as groundwater extraction, reverse osmosis treatment, soil vapour extraction, and a solar mobile power station. The simplicity of the designs, the maximization of system efficiency, and minimization of operation and maintenance requirements ensure the success of the systems. The remedial goals combined with the applied technology, help in determining whether the photovoltaic powered systems should operate on an intermittent or continual basis. Higher system outputs are normally obtained with continual operation, but they also yield increased design complexity and inefficiencies. The authors stated that as the technology of photovoltaic power evolves, efficiencies and costs will improve, thereby increasing its progressive use as a renewable energy source for remote sites remediation. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  3. A STACKELBERG DIFFERENTIAL GAMES SOLUTION TO A PROBLEM OF OPTIMAL INTERTEMPORAL INVESTMENT AND TAX RATE DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rong; LIU Xing

    2004-01-01

    Using the Stackelberg differential games(SDG) theory, we quantitatively study a problem of optimal intertemporal investment and tax rate design. Under some appropriate assumptions, the open-loop Stackelberg equilibrium solutions are obtained. Equilibrium solutions show that: 1. The optimal strategies derived from differential game and unilateral optimal control approaches are different; 2. It is not always the best strategy for the government to use a constant tax rate over the whole time period; 3. The admissible size of tax rate adjustment may have great effect on the government's optimal strategy; 4.SDG approach has no significant effect on the firm's optimal investment strategy.

  4. On the Importance of Default Breach Remedies

    OpenAIRE

    Sloof, Randolph; Oosterbeek, Hessel; Sonnemans, Joep

    2006-01-01

    Theory predicts that default breach remedies are immaterial whenever contracting costs are negligible. Some experimental studies, however, suggest that in practice default rules do matter, as they may affect parties' preferences over contract terms. This paper presents results from an experiment designed to address the importance of default breach remedies for actual contract outcomes. We find that default rules do have an influence. The reason for this is not that contract proposals and/or r...

  5. SOLUTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Hoyos Guajardo, Ph.D. Candidate, M.Sc., B.Eng.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory that is presented below aims to conceptualise how a group of undergraduate students tackle non-routine mathematical problems during a problem-solving course. The aim of the course is to allow students to experience mathematics as a creative process and to reflect on their own experience. During the course, students are required to produce a written ‘rubric’ of their work, i.e., to document their thoughts as they occur as well as their emotionsduring the process. These ‘rubrics’ were used as the main source of data.Students’ problem-solving processes can be explained as a three-stage process that has been called ‘solutioning’. This process is presented in the six sections below. The first three refer to a common area of concern that can be called‘generating knowledge’. In this way, generating knowledge also includes issues related to ‘key ideas’ and ‘gaining understanding’. The third and the fourth sections refer to ‘generating’ and ‘validating a solution’, respectively. Finally, once solutions are generated and validated, students usually try to improve them further before presenting them as final results. Thus, the last section deals with‘improving a solution’. Although not all students go through all of the stages, it may be said that ‘solutioning’ considers students’ main concerns as they tackle non-routine mathematical problems.

  6. Reorganizing the Instructional Reading Components: Could There Be a Better Way to Design Remedial Reading Programs to Maximize Middle School Students with Reading Disabilities' Response to Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoon, Mary Beth; Sandow, Alexia; Hunter, Charles V.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to explore if there could be a more beneficial method in organizing the individual instructional reading components (phonological decoding, spelling, fluency, and reading comprehension) within a remedial reading program to increase sensitivity to instruction for middle school students with reading disabilities…

  7. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix A to Attachment 3, tables; Preliminary final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This appendix contains the supporting tables for the remedial action plan for uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, CO. The tables contain monitoring well information, background groundwater quality data, regulated constituent summaries, tailings pore fluid sample analyses, and other data for each of the sites studied.

  8. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Ramudu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself was used as the purging solution. Results showed that 49% reduction of cadmium concentration was achieved in the case of soil saturated (washed with ammonium citrate as well as purging solution also was ammonium citrate. The soil pH and washing solutions were the most important factors in controlling the removal of cadmium in electrokinetic remediation process.

  9. New morphing blade section designs and structural solutions for smart blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakalas, Anargyros A.; Machairas, Theodore; Solomou, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    and manufacturing processes constraints. Down selection of design based on results of analysis (for input to Task 2.3) was also performed. Following solutions were investigated:  Morphing blade sections with Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) by University of Patras  Morphing blade sections using an elastomer of zero...... Poisson ratio by University of Bristol  Morphing blade sections involving an innovative mechanism by Denmarks University of Technology The work performed on these three concepts is described in individual chapters of the present report. Section 2 discusses the concept using shape memory alloys, section 3...... of the present report. The solutions using Shape Memory Alloys, as well as an elastomer of zero Poisson ratio have a quite low technological readiness level (TRL). Both are inspired through the aeronautics sector, yet there are different challenges to address when designing for wind turbine blades. The size...

  10. Concurrent engineering solution for the design of ship and offshore bracket parts and fabrication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Won; Lim, Sang-Sub; Seok, Ho-Hyun; Kang, Chung-Gil

    2013-09-01

    Brackets in ships and offshore structures are added structures that can endure stress concentrations. In this study, a concurrent engineering solution was proposed, and a high strength low carbon cast steel alloy applicable to offshore structures was designed and developed. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the designed steel were 480 and 600 MPa, respectively. The carbon equivalent of the steel was 0.446 with a weld crack susceptibility index of 0.219. The optimal structural design of the brackets for offshore structures was evaluated using ANSYS commercial software. The possibility of replacing an assembly of conventional built-up brackets with a single casting bulb bracket was verified. The casting process was simulated using MAGMAsoft commercial software, and a casting fabrication process was designed. For the proposed bulb bracket, it was possible to reduce the size and weight by approximately 30% and 50%, respectively, compared to the conventional type of bracket.

  11. International experience in tailings pond remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacG. Robertson, A. [Robertson GeoConsultants Ltd., Vancouver (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Tailings pond remediation is required primarily on mine closure. While mining is an ancient industry, requirement for mine facility remediation is a comparatively new development. Requirement for remediation has come about partly as a result of mans awareness of the environmental impacts of mining and his desire to minimize this, partly, as a result of the ever-increasing scale and production rates of tailings generation and the resulting increased environmental impacts and safety risks. The paper starts with a review of the evolution of mans intolerance of environmental impacts from tailings production and the assignment of liability to remediate such impacts. Many of the tailings ponds currently undergoing remediation were designed and constructed using methods and technology that would be considered inappropriate for new impoundments being designed and developed today. The paper reviews the history of tailings impoundment design and construction practice and the resulting inherent deficiencies that must be remediated. Current practices and future trends in tailings pond remediation are reviewed. The evolution of regulatory requirements is not only in terms of technical and safety criteria, but also in terms of financial and political risk. Perhaps the most substantive driver of risk management is today the requirement for corporate governance at mining company board level and oversight of new project development in the underdeveloped countries by the large financial institutions responsible for funding projects. Embarrassment in the public eye and punishment in the stock markets for poor environmental and safety performance is driving the need for efficient and effective risk management of potential impacts and the remediation to avoid these. A basis for practical risk management is described. (orig.)

  12. Optimal Solution for VLSI Physical Design Automation Using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hameem Shanavas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Optimization of VLSI Physical Design, area minimization and interconnect length minimization is an important objective in physical design automation of very large scale integration chips. The objective of minimizing the area and interconnect length would scale down the size of integrated chips. To meet the above objective, it is necessary to find an optimal solution for physical design components like partitioning, floorplanning, placement, and routing. This work helps to perform the optimization of the benchmark circuits with the above said components of physical design using hierarchical approach of evolutionary algorithms. The goal of minimizing the delay in partitioning, minimizing the silicon area in floorplanning, minimizing the layout area in placement, minimizing the wirelength in routing has indefinite influence on other criteria like power, clock, speed, cost, and so forth. Hybrid evolutionary algorithm is applied on each of its phases to achieve the objective. Because evolutionary algorithm that includes one or many local search steps within its evolutionary cycles to obtain the minimization of area and interconnect length. This approach combines a hierarchical design like genetic algorithm and simulated annealing to attain the objective. This hybrid approach can quickly produce optimal solutions for the popular benchmarks.

  13. Natural Remediation at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C. M.; Van Pelt, R.

    2002-02-25

    Natural remediation is a general term that includes any technology or strategy that takes advantage of natural processes to remediate a contaminated media to a condition that is protective of human health and the environment. Natural remediation techniques are often passive and minimally disruptive to the environment. They are generally implemented in conjunction with traditional remedial solutions for source control (i.e., capping, stabilization, removal, soil vapor extraction, etc.). Natural remediation techniques being employed at Savannah River Site (SRS) include enhanced bio-remediation, monitored natural attenuation, and phytoremediation. Enhanced bio-remediation involves making nutrients available and conditions favorable for microbial growth. With proper precautions and feeding, the naturally existing microbes flourish and consume the contaminants. Case studies of enhanced bio-remediation include surface soils contaminated with PCBs and pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) contamination in both the vadose zone and groundwater. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been selected as the preferred alternative for groundwater clean up at several SRS waste units. Successful implementation of MNA has been based on demonstration that sources have been controlled, groundwater modeling that indicates that plumes will not expand or reach surface water discharge points at levels that exceed regulatory limits, and continued monitoring. Phytoremediation is being successfully utilized at several SRS waste units. Phytoremediation involves using plants and vegetation to uptake, break down, or manage contaminants in groundwater or soils. Case studies at SRS include managing groundwater plumes of tritium and VOCs with pine trees that are native to the area. Significant decreases in tritium discharge to a site stream have been realized in one phytoremediation project. Studies of other vegetation types, methods of application, and other target contaminants are

  14. An optimization model and solution for radiation shielding design of radiotherapy treatment vaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Francis; Asadi-Zeydabadi, Masoud

    2008-01-01

    In radiation shielding design, one is usually faced with a set of conflicting goals that are navigated by an experienced physicist. If one has abundant space, the task is simplified because concrete is relatively inexpensive and will provide adequate shielding for high energy photons and neutrons, when applicable. However, if space is constrained (which is usually the case), the design becomes more difficult since one will likely have to employ combinations of steel, lead, and concrete, or other new materials--each with different properties and costs. Very experienced shielding designers can draw upon previous plans, but they do not know if their design is optimal in any sense. We have constructed a linear program that minimizes the cost of the shielding materials and minimizes the dose at the protection point or the shielding thickness subject to space constraints and to Federal or State regulations regarding the allowable exposure to individuals adjacent to the radiotherapy vault. In spite of what appears to be a simple model, the solution may require iterations of the optimization to arrive at the optimal solution.

  15. Problems and their solutions in practical application of Eurocodes in seismic design of RC structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milev Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to present practical application of Eurocodes in the field of RC structures design. The selected examples represent the main problems in practical application of Eurocodes for seismic analysis and design of RC Structures in Bulgarian construction practice. The analysis is focused on some structural and economic problems as well as on some contradictions in Eurocode 8 itself. Special attention is paid to the practical solution of the following problems: recognition of torsionally flexible systems, stiffness reduction of RC elements for linear analysis dimensions and detailing of confined boundary areas of shear walls, detailing of wall structures, etc. Those problems appear during the practical design of some buildings in Bulgaria. Several proposals for solving some problems defined in the paper are presented through some practical examples. Some conclusions are made for further application of Eurocode 8 in the design and construction practice. The importance of some rules and procedures in Eurocode 8 is supported by the examples of damaged RC members during the past earthquakes. The problems of Eurocode 8 and their solutions are illustrated through the experience of Bulgarian construction practice.

  16. Design solutions for dome and main structure (mount) of giant telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga, Gaizka; Bilbao, Armando; de Bilbao, Lander; Lorentz, Thomas E.

    2016-07-01

    During the last recent years, designs for several giant telescopes ranging from 20 to 40m in diameter are being developed: European Extremely Large Telescope Telescope (TMT). (E-ELT), Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) and Thirty Meter It is evident that simple direct up-scaling of solutions that were more or less successful in the 8 to 10m class telescopes can not lead to viable designs for the future giant telescopes. New solutions are required to provide adequate load sharing, to cope with the large-scale derived deflections and to provide the required compliance, or to respond to structure-mechanism control interaction issues, among others. From IDOM experience in the development of the Dome and Main Structure of the European Extremely Large Telescope and our participation in some other giant telescopes, this paper reviews several design approaches for the main mechanisms and key structural parts of enclosures and mounts/main structures for giant telescopes, analyzing pros and cons of the different alternatives and outlining the preferred design schemes. The assessment is carried out mainly from a technical and performance-based angle but it also considers specific logistical issues for the assembly of these large telescopes in remote and space-limited areas, together with cost and schedule related issues.

  17. Physics and engineering studies on the MITICA accelerator: comparison among possible design solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Pilan, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P.

    2011-09-01

    Consorzio RFX in Padova is currently using a comprehensive set of numerical and analytical codes, for the physics and engineering design of the SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advancement) experiments, planned to be built at Consorzio RFX. This paper presents a set of studies on different possible geometries for the MITICA accelerator, with the objective to compare different design concepts and choose the most suitable one (or ones) to be further developed and possibly adopted in the experiment. Different design solutions have been discussed and compared, taking into account their advantages and drawbacks by both the physics and engineering points of view.

  18. Closed-form Solution to Directly Design FACE Waveforms for Beampatterns Using Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-04-19

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest. To do this, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization, therefore, use iterative algorithms. The main challenges encountered in the existing approaches are the computational complexity and the design of waveforms to use in practice. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design covariance matrix for the given beampattern using the planar array, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope (FACE) waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform. The performance of our proposed algorithm is compared with existing methods that are based on semi-definite quadratic programming with the advantage of a considerably reduced complexity.

  19. Design and Construction Solutions in the Accurate Realization of NCSX Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitzenroeder, P.; Dudek, Lawrence E.; Brooks, Arthur W.; Viola, Michael E.; Brown, Thomas; Neilson, George H.; Zarnstorff, Michael C.; Rej, Donald; Cole,Michael J.; Freudenberg, Kevin D.; Harris J. H.; McGinnis, Gary

    2008-09-29

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment, NCSX, is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in partnership with the Oak Ridge national Laboratory. The goal of NCSX is to provide the understanding necessary to develop an attractive, disruption free, steady state compact stellaratorbased reactor design. This paper describes the recently revised designs of the critical interfaces between the modular coils, the construction solutions developed to meet assembly tolerances, and the recently revised trim coil system that provides the required compensation to correct for the “as built” conditions and to allow flexibility in the disposition of as-built conditions. In May, 2008, the sponsor decided to terminate the NCSX project due to growth in the project’s cost and schedule estimates. However significant technical challenges in design and construction were overcome, greatly reducing the risk in the remaining work to complete the project.

  20. A Cascade Optimization Strategy for Solution of Difficult Multidisciplinary Design Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Berke, Laszlo

    1996-01-01

    A research project to comparatively evaluate 10 nonlinear optimization algorithms was recently completed. A conclusion was that no single optimizer could successfully solve all 40 problems in the test bed, even though most optimizers successfully solved at least one-third of the problems. We realized that improved search directions and step lengths, available in the 10 optimizers compared, were not likely to alleviate the convergence difficulties. For the solution of those difficult problems we have devised an alternative approach called cascade optimization strategy. The cascade strategy uses several optimizers, one followed by another in a specified sequence, to solve a problem. A pseudorandom scheme perturbs design variables between the optimizers. The cascade strategy has been tested successfully in the design of supersonic and subsonic aircraft configurations and air-breathing engines for high-speed civil transport applications. These problems could not be successfully solved by an individual optimizer. The cascade optimization strategy, however, generated feasible optimum solutions for both aircraft and engine problems. This paper presents the cascade strategy and solutions to a number of these problems.

  1. Power-Aware Routing and Network Design with Bundled Links: Solutions and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario G. Garroppo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deeply analyzes a novel network-wide power management problem, called Power-Aware Routing and Network Design with Bundled Links (PARND-BL, which is able to take into account both the relationship between the power consumption and the traffic throughput of the nodes and to power off both the chassis and even the single Physical Interface Card (PIC composing each link. The solutions of the PARND-BL model have been analyzed by taking into account different aspects associated with the actual applicability in real network scenarios: (i the time for obtaining the solution, (ii the deployed network topology and the resulting topology provided by the solution, (iii the power behavior of the network elements, (iv the traffic load, (v the QoS requirement, and (vi the number of paths to route each traffic demand. Among the most interesting and novel results, our analysis shows that the strategy of minimizing the number of powered-on network elements through the traffic consolidation does not always produce power savings, and the solution of this kind of problems, in some cases, can lead to spliting a single traffic demand into a high number of paths.

  2. Remedial Action Plan and Site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Revision 1. Remedial action selection report, Attachment 2, geology report, Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report, Attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites are located near the small community of Slick Rock, in San Miguel County, Colorado. There are two designated Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites at Slick Rock: the Union Carbide site and the North Continent site. Both sites are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain former mill building concrete foundations, tailings piles, demolition debris, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,000 cubic yards (475,000 cubic meters). In addition to the contamination at the two processing site areas, 13 vicinity properties were contaminated. Contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into ground water. Pursuant to the requirements of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.), the proposed remedial action plan (RAP) will satisfy the final US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards in 40 CFR Part 192 (60 FR 2854) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of the residual radioactive material (RRM) (tailings and other contaminated materials) at the disposal site at Burro Canyon. The requirements for control of the RRM (Subpart A) will be satisfied by the construction of an engineered disposal cell. The proposed remedial action will consist of relocating the uranium mill tailings, contaminated vicinity property materials, demolition debris, and windblown/weaterborne materials to a permanent repository at the Burro Canyon disposal site. The site is approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the mill sites on land recently transferred to the DOE by the Bureau of Land Management.

  3. Design principles for high-pressure force fields: Aqueous TMAO solutions from ambient to kilobar pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzl, Christoph; Kibies, Patrick; Imoto, Sho; Frach, Roland; Suladze, Saba; Winter, Roland; Marx, Dominik; Horinek, Dominik; Kast, Stefan M.

    2016-04-01

    Accurate force fields are one of the major pillars on which successful molecular dynamics simulations of complex biomolecular processes rest. They have been optimized for ambient conditions, whereas high-pressure simulations become increasingly important in pressure perturbation studies, using pressure as an independent thermodynamic variable. Here, we explore the design of non-polarizable force fields tailored to work well in the realm of kilobar pressures - while avoiding complete reparameterization. Our key is to first compute the pressure-induced electronic and structural response of a solute by combining an integral equation approach to include pressure effects on solvent structure with a quantum-chemical treatment of the solute within the embedded cluster reference interaction site model (EC-RISM) framework. Next, the solute's response to compression is taken into account by introducing pressure-dependence into selected parameters of a well-established force field. In our proof-of-principle study, the full machinery is applied to N,N,N-trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in water being a potent osmolyte that counteracts pressure denaturation. EC-RISM theory is shown to describe well the charge redistribution upon compression of TMAO(aq) to 10 kbar, which is then embodied in force field molecular dynamics by pressure-dependent partial charges. The performance of the high pressure force field is assessed by comparing to experimental and ab initio molecular dynamics data. Beyond its broad usefulness for designing non-polarizable force fields for extreme thermodynamic conditions, a good description of the pressure-response of solutions is highly recommended when constructing and validating polarizable force fields.

  4. Implantable electronics: emerging design issues and an ultra light-weight security solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Seetharam; Wang, Xinmu; Bhunia, Swarup

    2010-01-01

    Implantable systems that monitor biological signals require increasingly complex digital signal processing (DSP) electronics for real-time in-situ analysis and compression of the recorded signals. While it is well-known that such signal processing hardware needs to be implemented under tight area and power constraints, new design requirements emerge with their increasing complexity. Use of nanoscale technology shows tremendous benefits in implementing these advanced circuits due to dramatic improvement in integration density and power dissipation per operation. However, it also brings in new challenges such as reliability and large idle power (due to higher leakage current). Besides, programmability of the device as well as security of the recorded information are rapidly becoming major design considerations of such systems. In this paper, we analyze the emerging issues associated with the design of the DSP unit in an implantable system. Next, we propose a novel ultra light-weight solution to address the information security issue. Unlike the conventional information security approaches like data encryption, which come at large area and power overhead and hence are not amenable for resource-constrained implantable systems, we propose a multilevel key-based scrambling algorithm, which exploits the nature of the biological signal to effectively obfuscate it. Analysis of the proposed algorithm in the context of neural signal processing and its hardware implementation shows that we can achieve high level of security with ∼ 13X lower power and ∼ 5X lower area overhead than conventional cryptographic solutions.

  5. Development of standardized extractive solution from Lippia sidoides by factorial design and their redox active profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Lima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the influences of variables of preparation on total flavonoids content from extractive solution of Lippia sidoides Cham., Verbenaceae. Thus a 23 factorial design was used to study the importance of plant proportion, the extraction method and solvent on the extraction of flavonoid. The methodology of determination of chemicals in factorial design was validated according to the parameters required by Brazilian Health Agency. The extraction solution was selected through a full factorial design where the best conditions to achieve the highest content of flavonoids were: 7.5% (w/v of plant with ethanol 50% (v/v as solvent. The polyphenols content was determined by LC method and its relationship with the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities was evaluated. The free radical scavenging activities and antioxidant potentials were determined for different concentrations using various in vitro models. Our results indicate that extracts exhibited a significant dose-dependent antioxidant effect as evaluated by TRAP/TAR assays. Besides, we observed an antioxidant activity against hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide, and protection against lipid peroxidation in vitro. Our results suggest that the extract presents significant in vitro antioxidant potential indicating promising perspectives for its use as pharmaceutical/or food additive.

  6. Evaluation of meat and bone meal combustion residue as lead immobilizing material for in situ remediation of polluted aqueous solutions and soils: 'Chemical and ecotoxicological studies'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deydier, E. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire de Chimie Inorganique et Sante - LCIS (LU06), IUT, Avenue G. Pompidou, BP 258, 81104 Castres (France)]. E-mail: eric.deydier@iut-tlse3.fr; Guilet, R. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique - LGC (UMR 5503), 5 rue Paulin Talabot, BP 1301, 31106 Toulouse (France)]. E-mail: richard.guilet@iut-tlse3.fr; Cren, S. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire d' Ecologie des Hydrosystemes - LEH (UMR 5177), 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Pereas, V. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire de Chimie Inorganique et Sante - LCIS (LU06), IUT, Avenue G. Pompidou, BP 258, 81104 Castres (France); Mouchet, F. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire d' Ecologie des Hydrosystemes - LEH (UMR 5177), 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Gauthier, L. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire d' Ecologie des Hydrosystemes - LEH (UMR 5177), 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2007-07-19

    As a result of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, meat and bone meal (MBM) production can no longer be used to feed cattle and must be safely disposed of or transformed. MBM specific incineration remains an alternative that could offer the opportunity to achieve both thermal valorization and solid waste recovery as ashes are calcium phosphate-rich material. The aim of this work is to evaluate ashes efficiency for in situ remediation of lead-contaminated aqueous solutions and soils, and to assess the bioavailability of lead using two biological models, amphibian Xenopus laevis larvae and Nicotiana tabaccum tobacco plant. With the amphibian model, no toxic or genotoxic effects of ashes are observed with concentrations from 0.1 to 5 g of ashes/L. If toxic and genotoxic effects of lead appear at concentration higher than 1 mg Pb/L (1 ppm), addition of only 100 mg of ashes/L neutralizes lead toxicity even with lead concentration up to 10 ppm. Chemical investigations (kinetics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis) reveals that lead is quickly immobilized as pyromorphite [Pb{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}] and lead carbonate dihydrate [PbCO{sub 3}.2H{sub 2}O]. Tobacco experiments are realized on contaminated soils with 50, 100, 2000 and 10 000 ppm of lead with and without ashes amendment (35.3 g ashes/kg of soil). Tobacco measurements show that plant elongation is bigger in an ashes-amended soil contaminated with 10 000 ppm of lead than on the reference soil alone. Tobacco model points out that ashes present two beneficial actions as they do not only neutralize lead toxicity but also act as a fertilizer.

  7. A Low Cost Design Solution - DSP Based Active Power Factor Corrector for SMPS/ UPS( Single Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia P. Pitchai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As per international agency regulation (IEC 1000-3-2/EN 61000-3-2 and market expectation, it is important to reduce current harmonics in the AC line current drawn by SMPS/ UPS connected to AC Mains as source and also it is desired by the user to deliver maximum power output by achieving unity power factor. To achieve the above objectives in SMPS/ UPS, APFC is required to be implemented as front end power interface between SMPS/UPS and AC Mains source. This study explores low cost design solution - DSP based APFC for Industry involved in manufacturing/supply of SMPS/UPS.

  8. Plant-Scale Concentration Column Designs for SHINE Target Solution Utilizing AG 1 Anion Exchange Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, Dominique C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, G. F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Argonne is assisting SHINE Medical Technologies (SHINE) in their efforts to develop SHINE, an accelerator-driven process that will utilize a uranyl-sulfate solution for the production of fission product Mo-99. An integral part of the process is the development of a column for the separation and recovery of Mo-99, followed by a concentration column to reduce the product volume from 15-25 L to <1 L. Argonne has collected data from batch studies and breakthrough column experiments to utilize the VERSE (Versatile Reaction Separation) simulation program (Purdue University) to design plant-scale product recovery and concentration processes.

  9. Human-centred methods in the design of an e-health solution for patients undergoing weight loss treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Anita; Svanæs, Dag

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Patients undergoing weight loss treatment require follow-up as part of the treatment process. E-health solutions may be used for this purpose. We have used an iterative design approach to develop a patient-centred e-health solution for patients undergoing weight loss...... in the design process. Our findings imply that involving stakeholders separately during specific human-centred activities is important in order to capture subtle, but critical aspects of the users’ requirements. Conclusion Applying human-centred methods in the design of e-health solutions requires...

  10. Distribution Network Design for Fixed Lifetime Perishable Products: A Model and Solution Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Firoozi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many distribution networks deal with the distribution and storage of perishable products. However, distribution network design models are largely based on assumptions that do not consider time limitations for the storage of products within the network. This study develops a model for the design of a distribution network that considers the short lifetime of perishable products. The model simultaneously determines the network configuration and inventory control decisions of the network. Moreover, as the lifetime is strictly dependent on the storage conditions, the model develops a trade-off between enhancing storage conditions (higher inventory cost to obtain a longer lifetime and selecting those storage conditions that lead to shorter lifetimes (less inventory cost. To solve the model, an efficient Lagrangian relaxation heuristic algorithm is developed. The model and algorithm are validated by sensitivity analysis on some key parameters. Results show that the algorithm finds optimal or near optimal solutions even for large-size cases.

  11. A computer package for the design and eigenproblem solution of damped linear multidegree of freedom systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, M.; Inman, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    Systems described by the matrix differental equation are considered. An interactive design routine is presented for positive definite mass, damping, and stiffness matrices. Designing is accomplished by adjusting the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices to obtain a desired oscillation behavior. The algorithm also features interactively modifying the physical structure of the system, obtaining the matrix structure and a number of other system properties. In case of a general system, where the M, C, and K matrices lack any special properties, a routine for the eigenproblem solution of the system is developed. The latent roots are obtained by computing the characteristic polynomial of the system and solving for its roots. The above routines are prepared in FORTRAN IV and prove to be usable for the machines with low core memory.

  12. Challenges and design solutions of the liquid hydrogen circuit at the European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, S.; Nilsson, P.; Sabbagh, P.; Takibayev, A.; Weisend, J. G., II; Beßler, Y.; Klaus, M.

    2014-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), Lund, Sweden will be a 5MW long-pulse neutron spallation research facility and will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. Neutrons are produced by accelerating a high-energy proton beam into a rotating helium-cooled tungsten target. These neutrons pass through moderators to reduce their energy to an appropriate range (< 5 meV for cold neutrons); two of which will use liquid hydrogen at 17 K as the moderating and cooling medium. There are several technical challenges to overcome in the design of a robust system that will operate under such conditions, not least the 20 kW of deposited heat. These challenges and the associated design solutions will be detailed in this paper.

  13. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed.

  14. LCA to choose among alternative design solutions: the case study of a new Italian incineration line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipioni, A; Mazzi, A; Niero, M; Boatto, T

    2009-09-01

    At international level LCA is being increasingly used to objectively evaluate the performances of different Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management solutions. One of the more important waste management options concerns MSW incineration. LCA is usually applied to existing incineration plants. In this study LCA methodology was applied to a new Italian incineration line, to facilitate the prediction, during the design phase, of its potential environmental impacts in terms of damage to human health, ecosystem quality and consumption of resources. The aim of the study was to analyse three different design alternatives: an incineration system with dry flue gas cleaning (without- and with-energy recovery) and one with wet flue gas cleaning. The last two technological solutions both incorporating facilities for energy recovery were compared. From the results of the study, the system with energy recovery and dry flue gas cleaning revealed lower environmental impacts in relation to the ecosystem quality. As LCA results are greatly affected by uncertainties of different types, the second part of the work provides for an uncertainty analysis aimed at detecting the extent output data from life cycle analysis are influenced by uncertainty of input data, and employs both qualitative (pedigree matrix) and quantitative methods (Monte Carlo analysis).

  15. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1993 Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1993, surface remedial action was complete at 10 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites. In 1993 the UMTRA Project office revised the UMTRA Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, as required by the US DOE. Because the UMTRA Project sites are in different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

  16. Capture chromatography for Mo-99 recovery from uranyl sulfate solutions: minimum-column-volume design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lei; Chung, Pei-Lun; Youker, Amanda; Stepinski, Dominique C; Vandegrift, George F; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2013-09-27

    Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), generated from the fission of Uranium-235 (U-235), is the radioactive parent of the most widely used medical isotope, technetium-99m (Tc-99m). An efficient, robust, low-pressure process is developed for recovering Mo-99 from uranyl sulfate solutions. The minimum column volume and the maximum column length for required yield, pressure limit, and loading time are determined using a new graphical method. The method is based on dimensionless groups and intrinsic adsorption and diffusion parameters, which are estimated using a small number of experiments and simulations. The design is tested with bench-scale experiments with titania columns. The results show a high capture yield and a high stripping yield (95±5%). The design can be adapted to changes in design constraints or the variations in feed concentration, feed volume, or material properties. The graph shows clearly how the column utilization is affected by the required yield, loading time, and pressure limit. The cost effectiveness of various sorbent candidates can be evaluated based on the intrinsic parameters. This method can be used more generally for designing other capture chromatography processes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Tank waste remediation system operational scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.E.

    1995-05-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium and cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner (DOE 1993). This operational scenario is a description of the facilities that are necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. The TWRS Program is developing technologies, conducting engineering analyses, and preparing for design and construction of facilities necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared to evaluate proposed actions of the TWRS. This operational scenario is only one of many plausible scenarios that would result from the completion of TWRS technology development, engineering analyses, design and construction activities and the TWRS EIS. This operational scenario will be updated as the development of the TWRS proceeds and will be used as a benchmark by which to evaluate alternative scenarios.

  18. EDTA retention and emissions from remediated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, Erika; Lestan, Domen

    2016-05-01

    EDTA-based remediation is reaching maturity but little information is available on the state of chelant in remediated soil. EDTA soil retention was examined after extracting 20 soil samples from Pb contaminated areas in Slovenia, Austria, Czech Republic and USA with 120 mM kg(-1) Na2H2EDTA, CaNa2EDTA and H4EDTA for 2 and 24 h. On average, 73% of Pb was removed from acidic and 71% from calcareous soils (24 h extractions). On average, 15% and up to 64% of applied EDTA was after remediation retained in acidic soils. Much less; in average 1% and up to the 22% of EDTA was retained in calcareous soils. The secondary emissions of EDTA retained in selected remediated soil increased with the acidity of the media: the TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) solution (average pH end point 3.6) released up to 36% of EDTA applied in the soil (28.1 mmol kg(-1)). Extraction with deionised water (pH > 6.0) did not produce measurable EDTA emissions. Exposing soil to model abiotic (thawing/freezing cycles) and biotic (ingestion by earthworms Lumbricus rubellus) ageing factors did not induce additional secondary emissions of EDTA retained in remediated soil.

  19. Remediation of Math Anxiety in Preservice Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkle, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the level of math anxiety in preservice elementary teachers, and then to determine if remediation methods would lower the measured level of anxiety in these same preservice teachers. The 10-day study provided an intense remediation using a time-series design to measure change on the Revised Math Anxiety…

  20. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    groundwater tainted by chlorinated solvents once used to clean rocket engine components. The award-winning innovation (Spinoff 2010) is now NASA s most licensed technology to date. PCBs in paint presented a new challenge. Removing the launch stand for recycling proved a difficult operation; the toxic paint had to be fully stripped from the steel structure, a lengthy and costly process that required the stripped paint to be treated before disposal. Noting the lack of efficient, environmentally friendly options for dealing with PCBs, Quinn and her colleagues developed the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS). AMTS is a paste consisting of a solvent solution containing microscale particles of activated zero-valent metal. When applied to a painted surface, the paste extracts and degrades the PCBs into benign byproducts while leaving the paint on the structure. This provides a superior alternative to other methods for PCB remediation, such as stripping the paint or incinerating the structure, which prevents reuse and can release volatized PCBs into the air. Since its development, AMTS has proven to be a valuable solution for removing PCBs from paint, caulking, and various insulation and filler materials in older buildings, naval ships, and former munitions facilities where the presence of PCBs interferes with methods for removing trace explosive materials. Miles of potentially toxic caulking join sections of runways at airports. Any of these materials installed before 1979 potentially contain PCBs, Quinn says. "This is not just a NASA problem," she says. "It s a global problem."

  1. Novel, In-situ NAPL Modification Technique for Persistent Source Zone Control and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateas, D. J.; Tick, G. R.; Carroll, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), such as fuels and solvents, are a major cause of groundwater and soil contamination. This environmental issue has led to concerted efforts to remediate subsurface systems impacted by NAPL pollution, but unfortunately, few of these remediation techniques have succeeded in lowering target contaminant levels below regulatory thresholds. To overcome these limitations, a novel, in-situ source remediation method was tested in the laboratory using equilibrium batch tests and two-dimensional flow cell experiments. The goal of this remediation method was to reduce the aqueous solubility, mass flux, and mass discharge of the target NAPL by the in-situ creation of a NAPL mixture source zone. Predetermined volumes of insoluble n-hexadecane or vegetable oil ("benign" NAPL) were injected into a trichloroethene or toluene ("toxic" NAPL) source zone through a simulated well within the flow cell to form a NAPL mixture. Initial NAPL-aqueous phase batch tests were conducted prior to the flow cell experiments to evaluate the effects of various NAPL mixture ratios on equilibrium aqueous-phase concentrations, and thus, to design optimal benign NAPL injection volumes for the flow cell experiments. Overall, this study indicated that the delivery of benign NAPL into the target, toxic NAPL source zone was effective in significantly reducing contaminant aqueous-phase concentration, mass flux, and mass discharge at intermediate scales. Variations in remediation performance did occur among the various predetermined injection volumes of benign NAPL and the target, toxic NAPL but were consistent to trends observed in batch tests. This novel remediation method may be feasible at larger scales, such as pilot field-scale studies, and may be a cost-effective solution to efficiently mitigate environmental pollution, attain regulatory compliance, and expedite site closure.

  2. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for operation of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility Complex (ICDF). This facility includes (a) an engineered landfill that meets the substantial requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl landfill requirements; (b) centralized receiving, inspections, administration, storage/staging, and treatment facilities necessary for CERCLA investigation-derived, remedial, and removal waste at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to final disposition in the disposal facility or shipment off-Site; and (c) an evaporation pond that has been designated as a corrective action management unit. The ICDF Complex, including a buffer zone, will cover approximately 40 acres, with a landfill disposal capacity of approximately 510,000 yd3. The ICDF Complex is designed and authorized to accept INL CERCLA-generated wastes, and includes the necessary subsystems and support facilities to provide a complete waste management system. This Remedial Action Work Plan presents the operational approach and requirements for the various components that are part of the ICDF Complex. Summaries of the remedial action work elements are presented herein, with supporting information and documents provided as appendixes to this work plan that contain specific detail about the operation of the ICDF Complex. This document presents the planned operational process based upon an evaluation of the remedial action requirements set forth in the Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision.

  3. System design optimization for a Mars-roving vehicle and perturbed-optimal solutions in nonlinear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavarini, C.

    1974-01-01

    Work in two somewhat distinct areas is presented. First, the optimal system design problem for a Mars-roving vehicle is attacked by creating static system models and a system evaluation function and optimizing via nonlinear programming techniques. The second area concerns the problem of perturbed-optimal solutions. Given an initial perturbation in an element of the solution to a nonlinear programming problem, a linear method is determined to approximate the optimal readjustments of the other elements of the solution. Then, the sensitivity of the Mars rover designs is described by application of this method.

  4. 基于INPGA的地下水污染治理多目标优化管理模型:Ⅱ——实例应用%INPGA-based Multiobjective Management Model for Optimal Design of Groundwater Remediation System: II. Application to the MMR Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴剑锋; 彭伟; 钱家忠; 吴吉春; 郑春苗

    2011-01-01

    简单算例研究表明改进的小生境Pareto遗传算法(INPGA)用于求解地下水系统的多目标优化管理模型时,求解过程简单,计算速度快,而且得到的Pareto解集跨度更为合理.本文以美国麻省军事保护区(Massachusetts Military Reservation,MMR)为实例,通过建立研究区复杂地下水污染治理的多目标优化管理模型,进一步对比NPGA和INPGA的求解结果,同时详细讨论和分析适应值库操作和MPI并行技术在实例中的应用效果.求解结果表明MPI并行技术在实例应用中能明显提高加速度和计算效率,而且同样能提供足够的选择方案供决策者权衡选择,由此证明基于INPGA的地下水污染治理多目标优化模型具有很好的应用前景.%The simple case study has shown that the improved niched Pareto genetic algorithm(INPGA) is applicable to multi-objective optimal design of groundwater remediation system due to thesimple procedure, the efficient computation, as well as the rational span of the Pareto solutions. However,the acceleration and efficiency of INPGA based on the message passing interface (MPI) is comparativelylow for the simple application. To further demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of INPGA coupledwith the MPI for parallel computing and the operation library of individual fitness under real fieldconditions, accordingly, an application project was conducted at the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR) in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, involving the multi-objective optimal design of a groundwater pump and treat system. The results of this study show that not only would it be possible using MPI to improve the parallel acceleration and efficiency, but also a near-Pareto-front trade-off curve could be achieved byproviding enough Pareto solutions to decision-makers. This field application clearly demonstrates the attractive prospect of MPI-based INPGA in identifying multi-objective optimal design of groundwater remediation systems.

  5. Comparison of approaches for assessing sustainable remediation of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    to be inherently green or sustainable since it removes a contaminant problem. However, it is now broadly recognized that while remediation is intended to address a local environmental threat, it may cause other local, regional and global impacts on the environment, society and economy. Over the last decade......, the broader assessment of these criteria is occurring in a movement toward ‘sustainable remediation’. This paper aims to review the available methods for assessing the sustainability of remediation alternatives. Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment......, while minimizing the indirect cost of remediation to the environment, society and economy. Here we present and compare the available tools and methods for assessing the sustainability of remedial solutions and discuss some of the key issues and future challenges. The aim of a sustainability assessment...

  6. Comparison of approaches for assessing sustainable remediation of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2017-01-01

    to be inherently green or sustainable since it removes a contaminant problem. However, it is now broadly recognized that while remediation is intended to address a local environmental threat, it may cause other local, regional and global impacts on the environment, society and economy. Over the last decade......, the broader assessment of these criteria is occurring in a movement toward ‘sustainable remediation’. This paper aims to review the available methods for assessing the sustainability of remediation alternatives. Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment......, while minimizing the indirect cost of remediation to the environment, society and economy. Here we present and compare the available tools and methods for assessing the sustainability of remedial solutions and discuss some of the key issues and future challenges. The aim of a sustainability assessment...

  7. Time lapse 3D geoelectric measurements for monitoring of in-situ remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tildy, Péter; Neducza, Boriszláv; Nagy, Péter; Kanli, Ali Ismet; Hegymegi, Csaba

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, different kinds of in-situ methods have been increasingly used for hydrocarbon contamination remediation due to their effectiveness. One of these techniques operates by injection of chemical oxidant solution to remove (degrade) the subsurface contaminants. Our aim was to develop a surface (non-destructive) measurement strategy to monitor oxidative in-situ remediation processes. The difficulties of the presented study originate from the small volume of conductive solution that can be used due to environmental considerations, the effect of conductive groundwater and the high clay content of the targeted layer. Therefore a site specific synthetic modelling was necessary for measurement design involving the results of preliminary 2D ERT measurements, electrical conductivity measurements of different active agents and expected resistivity changes calculated by soil resistivity modelling. The results of soil resistivity modelling have suggested that the reagent have complex effects on contaminated soils because of chemical biodegradation. As a result the plume of resistivity changes caused by the injected agent was determined showing strong fracturing effect because of the high pressure of injection. Based on the sophisticated tests and synthetic modelling 3D time-lapse geo-electric measurements were proven to provide a usable monitoring tool for in-situ remediation to help in-field design of such techniques.

  8. Electrodialytic Soil Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene; Hansen, Henrik K.

    1997-01-01

    It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective......It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective...

  9. Solution NMR structure of a designed metalloprotein and complementary molecular dynamics refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Jennifer R; Liu, Weixia; Spiegel, Katrin; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Klein, Michael L; Valentine, Kathleen G; Wand, A Joshua; DeGrado, William F

    2008-02-01

    We report the solution NMR structure of a designed dimetal-binding protein, di-Zn(II) DFsc, along with a secondary refinement step employing molecular dynamics techniques. Calculation of the initial NMR structural ensemble by standard methods led to distortions in the metal-ligand geometries at the active site. Unrestrained molecular dynamics using a nonbonded force field for the metal shell, followed by quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical dynamics of DFsc, were used to relax local frustrations at the dimetal site that were apparent in the initial NMR structure and provide a more realistic description of the structure. The MD model is consistent with NMR restraints, and in good agreement with the structural and functional properties expected for DF proteins. This work demonstrates that NMR structures of metalloproteins can be further refined using classical and first-principles molecular dynamics methods in the presence of explicit solvent to provide otherwise unavailable insight into the geometry of the metal center.

  10. Optimization of remediation strategies using vadose zone monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer

    2016-04-01

    In-situ bio-remediation of the vadose zone depends mainly on the ability to change the subsurface hydrological, physical and chemical conditions in order to enable development of specific, indigenous, pollutants degrading bacteria. As such the remediation efficiency is much dependent on the ability to implement optimal hydraulic and chemical conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. These conditions are usually determined in laboratory experiments where parameters such as the chemical composition of the soil water solution, redox potential and water content of the sediment are fully controlled. Usually, implementation of desired optimal degradation conditions in deep vadose zone at full scale field setups is achieved through infiltration of water enriched with chemical additives on the land surface. It is assumed that deep percolation into the vadose zone would create chemical conditions that promote biodegradation of specific compounds. However, application of water with specific chemical conditions near land surface dose not necessarily results in promoting of desired chemical and hydraulic conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. A vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) that was recently developed allows continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of deep sections of the unsaturated zone. The VMS includes flexible time-domain reflectometry (FTDR) probes which allow continuous monitoring of the temporal variation of the vadose zone water content, and vadose-zone sampling ports (VSPs) which are designed to allow frequent sampling of the sediment pore-water and gas at multiple depths. Implementation of the vadose zone monitoring system in sites that undergoes active remediation provides real time information on the actual chemical and hydrological conditions in the vadose zone as the remediation process progresses. Up-to-date the system has been successfully implemented in several studies on water flow and contaminant transport in

  11. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse;

    2008-01-01

    This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. A newly designed remediation cell, where the solids were kept in suspension by airflow, was tested. The results show that electric current could remove copper from suspended tailings...... experiment at 40 mA, with approximately 137.5 g mine tailings on dry basis. The removal for a static (baseline) experiment only amounted 15% when passing approximately the same amount of charge through 130 g of mine tailings. The use of air bubbling to keep the tailings suspended increased the removal...

  12. 10 CFR 1042.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. 1042....110 Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the designated agency... deems necessary to overcome the effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the...

  13. Design of future municipal wastewater treatment plants: A mathematical approach to manage complexity and identify optimal solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist;

    technologies to build a superstructure, the design problem was formulated as a Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming problem (MINLP). The tool generates many process alternatives and evaluates them with respect to their optimality. The objective function minimizes the operation cost. The design problem is thus...... with the help of the tool. The resulting solutions to the optimization problem are discussed in detail....

  14. Beyond Fullerenes: Designing Alternative Molecular Electron Acceptors for Solution-Processable Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvé, Geneviève; Fernando, Roshan

    2015-09-17

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are promising candidates for providing a low cost, widespread energy source by converting sunlight into electricity. Solution-processable active layers have predominantly consisted of a conjugated polymer donor blended with a fullerene derivative as the acceptor. Although fullerene derivatives have been the acceptor of choice, they have drawbacks such as weak visible light absorption and poor energy tuning that limit overall efficiencies. This has recently fueled new research to explore alternative acceptors that would overcome those limitations. During this exploration, one question arises: what are the important design principles for developing nonfullerene acceptors? It is generally accepted that acceptors should have high electron affinity, electron mobility, and absorption coefficient in the visible and near-IR region of the spectra. In this Perspective, we argue that alternative molecular acceptors, when blended with a conjugated polymer donor, should also have large nonplanar structures to promote nanoscale phase separation, charge separation and charge transport in blend films. Additionally, new material design should address the low dielectric constant of organic semiconductors that have so far limited their widespread application.

  15. On the solution of mixed-integer nonlinear programming models for computer aided molecular design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Guennadi M; Achenie, Luke E K; Sinha, Manish

    2002-11-01

    This paper addresses the efficient solution of computer aided molecular design (CAMD) problems, which have been posed as mixed-integer nonlinear programming models. The models of interest are those in which the number of linear constraints far exceeds the number of nonlinear constraints, and with most variables participating in the nonconvex terms. As a result global optimization methods are needed. A branch-and-bound algorithm (BB) is proposed that is specifically tailored to solving such problems. In a conventional BB algorithm, branching is performed on all the search variables that appear in the nonlinear terms. This translates to a large number of node traversals. To overcome this problem, we have proposed a new strategy for branching on a set of linear branchingfunctions, which depend linearly on the search variables. This leads to a significant reduction in the dimensionality of the search space. The construction of linear underestimators for a class of functions is also presented. The CAMD problem that is considered is the design of optimal solvents to be used as cleaning agents in lithographic printing.

  16. Design requirements, challenges, and solutions for high-temperature falling particle receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Joshua; Ho, Clifford

    2016-05-01

    Falling particle receivers (FPR) utilize small particles as a heat collecting medium within a cavity receiver structure. Previous analysis for FPR systems include computational fluid dynamics (CFD), analytical evaluations, and experiments to determine the feasibility and achievability of this CSP technology. Sandia National Laboratories has fabricated and tested a 1 MWth FPR that consists of a cavity receiver, top hopper, bottom hopper, support structure, particle elevator, flux target, and instrumentation. Design requirements and inherent challenges were addressed to enable continuous operation of flowing particles under high-flux conditions and particle temperatures over 700 °C. Challenges include being able to withstand extremely high temperatures (up to 1200°C on the walls of the cavity), maintaining particle flow and conveyance, measuring temperatures and mass flow rates, filtering out debris, protecting components from direct flux spillage, and measuring irradiance in the cavity. Each of the major components of the system is separated into design requirements, associated challenges and corresponding solutions. The intent is to provide industry and researchers with lessons learned to avoid pitfalls and technical problems encountered during the development of Sandia's prototype particle receiver system at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF).

  17. Active lower limb prosthetics: a systematic review of design issues and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windrich, Michael; Grimmer, Martin; Christ, Oliver; Rinderknecht, Stephan; Beckerle, Philipp

    2016-12-19

    This paper presents a review on design issues and solutions found in active lower limb prostheses. This review is based on a systematic literature search with a methodical search strategy. The search was carried out across four major technical databases and the retrieved records were screened for their relevance. A total of 21 different active prostheses, including 8 above-knee, 9 below-knee and 4 combined knee-ankle prostheses were identified. While an active prosthesis may help to restore the functional performance of an amputee, the requirements regarding the actuation unit as well as for the control system are high and the development becomes a challenging task. Regarding mechanical design and the actuation unit high force/torque delivery, high efficiency, low size and low weight are conflicting goals. The actuation principle and variable impedance actuators are discussed. The control system is paramount for a "natural functioning" of the prosthesis. The control system has to enable locomotion and should react to the amputee's intent. For this, multi-level control approaches are reviewed.

  18. Fluoride removal from diluted solutions by Donnan dialysis using full factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubakri, Ali; Helali, Nawel; Tlili, Mohamed; Amor, Mohamed Ben [Center of Researches and Water Technologies, Soliman (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    Excessive fluoride concentration in potable water can lead to fluorosis of teeth and bones. In the present study, Donnan dialysis (DD) is applied for the removal of fluoride ions from diluted sodium fluoride solutions. A four factor two level (2{sup 4}) full factorial design was used to investigate the influence of different physico-chemical parameters on fluoride removal efficiency (Y{sub F}) and fluoride flux (J{sub F}) through anion exchange membrane. The statistical design determines factors which have the important effects on Donnan dialysis performance and studies all interactions among the considered parameters. The four significant factors were initial fluoride concentration, feed flow rate, temperature and agitation speed. The experimental results and statistical analysis show that the temperature and agitation speed have positive effects on fluoride removal efficiency and the initial fluoride concentration has a negative effect. In the case of fluoride flux, feed flow rate and initial concentration are the main effect and all factors have a positive effect. The interaction between studied parameters was not negligible on two responses. A maximum fluoride removal of 75.52% was obtained under optimum conditions and the highest value of fluoride flux obtained was 2.4 mg/cm{sup 2}·h. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the flux and the fluoride removal profiles with satisfactory results.

  19. The Remediation of Nosferatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghellal, Sabiha; Morrison, Ann; Hassenzahl, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present The Remediation of Nosferatu, a location based augmented reality horror adventure. Using the theory of fictional universe elements, we work with diverse material from Nosferatu’s horror genre and vampire themes as a case study. In this interdisciplinary research we...

  20. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    prevents the protons and the hydroxides ions from the electrode processes to enter the soil. The heavy metals are collected in a concentration compartment, which is separated from the soil by ion-exchange membranes. Examples from remediation experiments are shown, and it is demonstrated that it is possible...

  1. Bioaugmentation for Groundwater Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    emulsified vegetable oil EX extraction well FRTR Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable gpm gallon per minute GSA General Services Administration...logic controller PRB permeable reactive barrier PVC polyvinyl chloride ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS (continued) viii qPCR quantitative...situ growth of DHC and degradation of target contaminants. A slow-release carbon source, such as emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) is often utilized with

  2. Catalysts for Environmental Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, B. L.; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2013-01-01

    The properties of catalysts used in environmental remediation are described here through specific examples in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. In the area of heterogeneous catalysis, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx was used as an example reaction with vanadia and tungsta...

  3. Designing a solution to enable agency-academic scientific collaboration for disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Lindley A.; Gibbs-Plessl, Theodora; Erickson, Ashley; Ludwig, Kristin A.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Lubchenco, Jane

    2017-01-01

    As large-scale environmental disasters become increasingly frequent and more severe globally, people and organizations that prepare for and respond to these crises need efficient and effective ways to integrate sound science into their decision making. Experience has shown that integrating nongovernmental scientific expertise into disaster decision making can improve the quality of the response, and is most effective if the integration occurs before, during, and after a crisis, not just during a crisis. However, collaboration between academic, government, and industry scientists, decision makers, and responders is frequently difficult because of cultural differences, misaligned incentives, time pressures, and legal constraints. Our study addressed this challenge by using the Deep Change Method, a design methodology developed by Stanford ChangeLabs, which combines human-centered design, systems analysis, and behavioral psychology. We investigated underlying needs and motivations of government agency staff and academic scientists, mapped the root causes underlying the relationship failures between these two communities based on their experiences, and identified leverage points for shifting deeply rooted perceptions that impede collaboration. We found that building trust and creating mutual value between multiple stakeholders before crises occur is likely to increase the effectiveness of problem solving. We propose a solution, the Science Action Network, which is designed to address barriers to scientific collaboration by providing new mechanisms to build and improve trust and communication between government administrators and scientists, industry representatives, and academic scientists. The Science Action Network has the potential to ensure cross-disaster preparedness and science-based decision making through novel partnerships and scientific coordination.

  4. Designing a solution to enable agency-academic scientific collaboration for disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindley A. Mease

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As large-scale environmental disasters become increasingly frequent and more severe globally, people and organizations that prepare for and respond to these crises need efficient and effective ways to integrate sound science into their decision making. Experience has shown that integrating nongovernmental scientific expertise into disaster decision making can improve the quality of the response, and is most effective if the integration occurs before, during, and after a crisis, not just during a crisis. However, collaboration between academic, government, and industry scientists, decision makers, and responders is frequently difficult because of cultural differences, misaligned incentives, time pressures, and legal constraints. Our study addressed this challenge by using the Deep Change Method, a design methodology developed by Stanford ChangeLabs, which combines human-centered design, systems analysis, and behavioral psychology. We investigated underlying needs and motivations of government agency staff and academic scientists, mapped the root causes underlying the relationship failures between these two communities based on their experiences, and identified leverage points for shifting deeply rooted perceptions that impede collaboration. We found that building trust and creating mutual value between multiple stakeholders before crises occur is likely to increase the effectiveness of problem solving. We propose a solution, the Science Action Network, which is designed to address barriers to scientific collaboration by providing new mechanisms to build and improve trust and communication between government administrators and scientists, industry representatives, and academic scientists. The Science Action Network has the potential to ensure cross-disaster preparedness and science-based decision making through novel partnerships and scientific coordination.

  5. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. O. Nelson

    2003-09-01

    This operations and maintenance plan supports the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF) remedial action work plan and identifies the approach and requirements for the operations and maintenance activities specific to the final medical zone treatment remedy. The NPTF provides the treatment system necessary to remediate the medical zone portion of the OU 1-07B contaminated groundwater plume. Design and construction of the New Pump and Treat Facility is addressed in the NPTF remedial action work plan. The scope of this operation and maintenance plan includes facility operations and maintenance, remedy five-year reviews, and the final operations and maintenance report for the NPTF.

  6. Apoptosis of rat liver in cold preser vation with custom-designed K YL solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Chun-Man Li; Bing-Yan Zhang; Ming-Dao Hu; Xiao-Yan Li; Jiang-Hua Ran; Ming Huang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:A suitable perfusate is very important in reducing various problems in liver preservation, prolonging the time of organ preservation and enhancing the quality of donor tissue. University of Wisconsin (UW) solution is the most successful solution for preserving multiple organs at present, but it has many shortcomings. We set out to develop a new liver preservation solution (KYL solution) and study its effects on apoptosis in rat liver undergoing cold preservation. METHODS: Using non-circulated isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL), we randomly preserved Sprague-Dawley rat livers for 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 hours with KYL solution or UW solution. The effects were assessed by measuring the content of free radicals in Krebs-Henseleit solution and the intracellular calcium content of hepatocytes, assessing hepatocellular apoptosis and related-gene expression, and observing the morphological changes in liver. To evaluate the protection by KYL and UW solutions in rat liver perfusion and preservation, we chosed normal saline for negative comparison. RESULTS: The intracellular calcium content of the liver preserved in KYL solution was less than that preserved in UW solution. At every different period of preservation, the malonaldehyde and superoxide dismutase content in Krebs-Henseleit solution, the percentage of apoptotic cells and the expression patterns of apoptosis-related-genes were similar in livers preserved in KYL and UW solutions. Morphological changes in the two groups were almost the same. The variables in both groups were better than those of livers preserved in normal saline. Both KYL and UW solutions protected rat liver from ischemia-reperfusion injury. CONCLUSIONS:KYL solution is superior to UW solution in preventing calcium overload. More severe hepatocyte damage may appear in the KYL group than in the UW group and the effect of KYL solution on apoptosis in rat liver preservation is similar to that of UW solution.

  7. The effect of a zero-concentration sink on contaminant transport and remedial-action designs for the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.

    1990-04-01

    One-dimensional analytical expressions are developed to simulate two processes in a homogeneous porous medium: contaminant transport through a porous medium that has a zero-concentration sink located at a finite distance from a step-function source; and contaminant transport through a porous medium that has an initial steady-state distribution corresponding to a constant strength source and zero-concentration sink separated by a finite distance. The governing equations are cast in dimensionless form, making use of the flow system's Peclet number. Evaluation of the analytical expressions is accomplished by numerical inversion of Laplace-space concentrations using either a full Fourier series approach with acceleration, or the Stehfest algorithm. The analytical expressions are used to evaluate possible contaminant conditions at the Weldon Spring quarry near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The following results have been found: contaminant concentrations should be at or near steady-state conditions; the spatial distribution of contaminants should be a function of the flow system's Peclet number; contaminant concentrations near the Femme Osage Slough should approach zero; contaminant concentrations near the quarry during dewatering and bulk-waste removal should monotonically decrease with time; and the spatial distribution of contaminants during remedial activities should be relatively flat, especially near the dewatering pumps. Future work will entail evaluating existing radionuclide or chemical concentration data to determine the applicability of the proposed contaminant transport model and to improve the hydrogeological conceptualization of the quarry area and vicinity. 20 refs., 27 figs.

  8. Field Test Report: Preliminary Aquifer Test Characterization Results for Well 299-W15-225: Supporting Phase I of the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, Frank A.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2009-09-23

    This report examines the hydrologic test results for both local vertical profile characterization and large-scale hydrologic tests associated with a new extraction well (well 299-W15-225) that was constructed during FY2009 for inclusion within the future 200-West Area Groundwater Treatment System that is scheduled to go on-line at the end of FY2011. To facilitate the analysis of the large-scale hydrologic test performed at newly constructed extraction well 299-W15-225 (C7017; also referred to as EW-1 in some planning documents), the existing 200-ZP-1 interim pump-and-treat system was completely shut-down ~1 month before the performance of the large-scale hydrologic test. Specifically, this report 1) applies recently developed methods for removing barometric pressure fluctuations from well water-level measurements to enhance the detection of hydrologic test and pump-and-treat system effects at selected monitor wells, 2) analyzes the barometric-corrected well water-level responses for a preliminary determination of large-scale hydraulic properties, and 3) provides an assessment of the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity in the vicinity of newly constructed extraction well 299-W15-225. The hydrologic characterization approach presented in this report is expected to have universal application for meeting the characterization needs at other remedial action sites located within unconfined and confined aquifer systems.

  9. Efficiency of modified chemical remediation techniques for soil contaminated by organochlorine pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Torres, S. N.; Kopytko, M.; Avila, S.

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the optimization of innovation chemical techniques in order to improve the remediation of soils contaminated with organochloride pesticides. The techniques used for remediation were dehalogenation and chemical oxidation in soil contaminated by pesticides. These techniques were applied sequentially and combined to evaluate the design optimize the concentration and contact time variables. The soil of this study was collect in cotton crop zone in Agustin Codazzi municipality, Colombia, and its physical properties was measure. The modified dehalogenation technique of EPA was applied on the contaminated soil by adding Sodium Bicarbonate solution at different concentrations and rates during 4, 7 and 14 days, subsequently oxidation technique was implemented by applying a solution of KMnO4 at different concentration and reaction times. Organochlorine were detected by Gas Chromatography analysis coupled Mass Spectrometry and its removals were between 85.4- 90.0% of compounds such as 4, 4’-DDT, 4,4’-DDD, 4,4-DDE, trans-Clordane y Endrin. These results demonstrate that the technique of dehalogenation with oxidation chemistry can be used for remediation soils contaminated by organochloride pesticides.

  10. Is Sustainable Remediation Now a Self-Sustaining Process? an International Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. W. N.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable remediation - the consideration of environmental, social and economic factors associated with soil and groundwater risk-management options, to help select the best overall solution - has been a rapidly evolving topic in recent years. The first published reference[1] to 'sustainable remediation' was in the title of a 1999 conference paper by Kearney et al., (1999), but activity really accelerated in the middle-late 2000's, with establishment of a number of collaborative sustainable remediation groups and fora, and increased publication rates in the peer reviewed literature (Fig 1). Figure 1. Journal paper publications with search term 'sustainable remediation' (SCOPUS survey, 17 July 2014) This presentation will review the international progress of sustainable remediation concept development and application in regulatory and corporate decision-making processes. It will look back at what has already been achieved, provide an update on the latest initiatives and developments, and look forward to what the future of sustainable remediation might look like. Specifically it will describe: Sustainable remediation frameworks: synergies and international collaboration; Latest guidance and tools developed by the various sustainable remediation organisations (SuRFs), including the SuRF-UK Best Management Practices and Tier 1 Briefcase; Best practice standard development by ASTM and ISO; Regulatory acceptance of sustainable remediation, including incorporation into legislation, and the NICOLE - Common Forum Joint statement on 'risk-informed and sustainable remediation' in Europe; Examples of corporate adoption of sustainable remediation principles. The presentation will conclude with a look forward to a vision of sustainable remediation in 2020.

  11. Parameter identifiability-based optimal observation remedy for biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Miao, Hongyu

    2017-05-04

    To systematically understand the interactions between numerous biological components, a variety of biological networks on different levels and scales have been constructed and made available in public databases or knowledge repositories. Graphical models such as structural equation models have long been used to describe biological networks for various quantitative analysis tasks, especially key biological parameter estimation. However, limited by resources or technical capacities, partial observation is a common problem in experimental observations of biological networks, and it thus becomes an important problem how to select unobserved nodes for additional measurements such that all unknown model parameters become identifiable. To the best knowledge of our authors, a solution to this problem does not exist until this study. The identifiability-based observation problem for biological networks is mathematically formulated for the first time based on linear recursive structural equation models, and then a dynamic programming strategy is developed to obtain the optimal observation strategies. The efficiency of the dynamic programming algorithm is achieved by avoiding both symbolic computation and matrix operations as used in other studies. We also provided necessary theoretical justifications to the proposed method. Finally, we verified the algorithm using synthetic network structures and illustrated the application of the proposed method in practice using a real biological network related to influenza A virus infection. The proposed approach is the first solution to the structural identifiability-based optimal observation remedy problem. It is applicable to an arbitrary directed acyclic biological network (recursive SEMs) without bidirectional edges, and it is a computerizable method. Observation remedy is an important issue in experiment design for biological networks, and we believe that this study provides a solid basis for dealing with more challenging design

  12. New design solutions for low-power energy production in water pipe systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. RAMOS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is the result of ongoing research for a European Union 7th Framework Program Project regarding energy converters for very low heads, and aims to analyze optimization of new cost-effective hydraulic turbine designs for possible implementation in water supply systems (WSSs or in other pressurized water pipe infrastructures, such as irrigation, wastewater, or drainage systems. A new methodology is presented based on a theoretical, technical and economic analysis. Viability studies focused on small power values for different pipe systems were investigated. Detailed analyses of alternative typical volumetric energy converters were conducted on the basis of mathematical and physical fundamentals as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD associated with the interaction between the flow conditions and the system operation. Important constraints (e.g., size, stability, efficiency, and continuous steady flow conditions can be identified and a search for alternative rotary volumetric converters is being conducted. As promising cost-effective solutions for the coming years, adapted rotor-dynamic turbomachines and non-conventional axial propeller devices were analyzed based on the basic principles of pumps operating as turbines, as well as through an extensive comparison between simulations and experimental tests.

  13. Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John; Olsen, Wade

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews programs at NASA aimed at development at Remediation Technology development for removal of environmental pollutants from NASA sites. This is challenging because there are many sites with different environments, and various jurisdictions and regulations. There are also multiple contaminants. There must be different approaches based on location and type of contamination. There are other challenges: such as costs, increased need for resources and the amount of resources available, and a regulatory environment that is increasing.

  14. 一种基于数字密写的信息安全传输方案设计%A STEGANOGRAPHY-BASED INFORMATION SECURE TRANSFER SOLUTION DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓义

    2011-01-01

    在信息安全传输领域,为弥补密码技术的不足,在分析功能要求的基础上,提出了压缩软件、加密软件和密写软件相结合的信息安全传输方案,给出方案的详细处理过程,并重点设计了密写软件,对其嵌入部分和提取部分的实现过程分别进行了设计说明.实验表明,该方案切实可行,安全性较只使用加密技术有所提高.%In the information secure transfer area, in order to remedy the weakness of cryptogram technology, on the basis of functional requirement analysis, an information secure transfer solution is proposed which integrates compression, cryptogram and steganography softwares, describes in detail the handling process of the solution and emphasises on the design of the steganography software, of which the implementation process of the embedded and extracted parts are specifically described respectively. Experiments show that the solution is practical and is more secure than applying cryptography alone.

  15. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1994 environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1994, surface remedial action was complete at 14 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites: Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; Durango, Colorado; Grand Junction, Colorado; Green River Utah, Lakeview, Oregon; Lowman, Idaho; Mexican Hat, Utah; Riverton, Wyoming; Salt Lake City, Utah; Falls City, Texas; Shiprock, New Mexico; Spook, Wyoming, Tuba City, Arizona; and Monument Valley, Arizona. Surface remedial action was ongoing at 5 sites: Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico; Naturita, Colorado; Gunnison, Colorado; and Rifle, Colorado (2 sites). Remedial action has not begun at the 5 remaining UMTRA Project sites that are in the planning stage. Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota; Maybell, Colorado; and Slick Rock, Colorado (2 sites). The ground water compliance phase of the UMTRA Project started in 1991. Because the UMTRA Project sites are.` different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

  16. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  17. Bioelectrical Perchlorate Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, C.; Achenbach, L. A.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Several bioreactor designs are currently available for the ex-situ biological attenuation of perchlorate- contaminated waters and recently, some of these reactor designs were conditionally approved by the California Department of Health Services for application in the treatment of perchlorate contaminated drinking water. However, all of these systems are dependent on the continual addition of a chemical electron donor to sustain microbial activity and are always subject to biofouling and downstream water quality issues. In addition, residual labile electron donor in the reactor effluent can stimulate microbial growth in water distribution systems and contribute to the formation of potentially toxic trihalomethanes during disinfection by chlorination. As part of our ongoing studies into microbial perchlorate reduction we investigated the ability of dissimilatory perchlorate reducing bacteria (DPRB) to metabolize perchlorate using a negatively charged electrode (cathode) in the working chamber of a bioelectrical reactor (BER) as the primary electron donor. In this instance the DPRB use the electrons on the electrode surface either directly or indirectly in the form of electrolytically produced H2 as a source of reducing equivalents for nitrate and perchlorate reduction. As part of this investigation our fed-batch studies showed that DPRB could use electrons from a graphite cathode poised at -500mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) for the reduction of perchlorate and nitrate. We isolated a novel organism, Dechlorospirillum strain VDY, from the cathode surface after 70 days operation which readily reduced 100 mg.L-1 perchlorate in a mediatorless batch bioelectrical reactor (BER) in 6 days. Continuous up-flow BERs (UFBERs) seeded with active cultures of strain VDY continuously treated waters containing 100 mg.L-1 perchlorate with almost 100% efficiency throughout their operation achieving a non-optimized volumetric loading of 60 mg.L-1 reactor volume.day-1. The same UFBERs also treated

  18. Remediation plan for fluorescent light fixtures containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-30

    This report describes the remedial action to achieve compliance with 29 CFR 1910 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements of fluorescent light fixtures containing PCBs at K-25 site. This remedial action is called the Remediation Plan for Fluorescent Light Fixtures Containing PCBs at the K-25 Site (The Plan). The Plan specifically discusses (1) conditions of non-compliance, (2) alternative solutions, (3) recommended solution, (4) remediation plan costs, (5) corrective action, (6) disposal of PCB waste, (7) training, and (8) plan conclusions. The results from inspections by Energy Systems personnel in 2 buildings at K-25 site and statistical extension of this data to 91 selected buildings at the K-25 site indicates that there are approximately 28,000 fluorescent light fixtures containing 47,036 ballasts. Approximately 38,531 contain PCBs and 2,799 of the 38,531 ballasts are leaking PCBs. Review of reportable occurrences at K-25 for the 12 month period of September 1990 through August 1991 shows that Energy Systems personnel reported 69 ballasts leaking PCBs. Each leaking ballast is in non-compliance with 29 CFR 1910 - Table Z-1-A. The age of the K-25 facilities indicate a continued and potential increase in ballasts leaking PCBs. This report considers 4 alternative solutions for dealing with the ballasts leaking PCBs. The advantages and disadvantages of each alternative solution are discussed and ranked using cost of remediation, reduction of health risks, and compliance with OSHA as criteria.

  19. Effects of remediation amendments on vadose zone microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Hannah M.; Tilton, Fred A.

    2012-08-10

    Surfactant-based foam delivery technology has been studied to remediate Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment. However, the surfactants and remediation amendments have an unknown effect on indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Microbial populations are important factors to consider in remediation efforts due to their potential to alter soil geochemistry. This project focuses on measuring microbial metabolic responses to remediation amendments in batch and column studies using Deep Vadose Zone Sediments. Initial studies of the microbes from Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment showed surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and remediation amendment calcium polysulfide (CPS) had no affect on microbial growth using BiologTM Ecoplates. To move towards a more realistic field analog, soil columns were packed with Hanford 200 Area sediment. Once microbial growth in the column was verified by observing growth of the effluent solution on tryptic soy agar plates, remedial surfactants were injected into the columns, and the resulting metabolic diversity was measured. Results suggest surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) stimulates microbial growth. The soil columns were also visualized using X-ray microtomography to inspect soil packing and possibly probe for evidence of biofilms. Overall, BiologTM Ecoplates provide a rapid assay to predict effects of remediation amendments on Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone microorganisms.

  20. Design and Construction of Experiment for Direct Electron Irradiation of Uranyl Sulfate Solution: Bubble Formation and Thermal Hydraulics Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakho [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sun, Zaijing [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wardle, Kent E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Quigley, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stepinski, Dominique [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Argonne is assisting SHINE Medical Technologies in developing SHINE, a system for producing fission-product 99Mo using a D/T-accelerator to produce fission in a non-critical target solution of aqueous uranyl sulfate. We have developed an experimental setup for studying thermal-hydraulics and bubble formation in the uranyl sulfate solution to simulate conditions expected in the SHINE target solution during irradiation. A direct electron beam from the linac accelerator will be used to irradiate a 20 L solution (sector of the solution vessel). Because the solution will undergo radiolytic decomposition, we will be able to study bubble formation and dynamics and effects of convection and temperature on bubble behavior. These experiments will serve as a verification/ validation tool for the thermal-hydraulic model. Utilization of the direct electron beam for irradiation allows homogeneous heating of a large solution volume and simplifies observation of the bubble dynamics simultaneously with thermal-hydraulic data collection, which will complement data collected during operation of the miniSHINE experiment. Irradiation will be conducted using a 30-40 MeV electron beam from the high-power linac accelerator. The total electron-beam power will be 20 kW, which will yield a power density on the order of 1 kW/L. The solution volume will be cooled on the front and back surfaces and central tube to mimic the geometry of the proposed SHINE solution vessel. Also, multiple thermocouples will be inserted into the solution vessel to map thermal profiles. The experimental design is now complete, and installation and testing are in progress.

  1. THE EVALUATION SYSTEM OF DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY ON THE PRE-INVESTMENT STAGE THROUGH NEURAL NETWORK TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Kostsikava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the Soviet Union design solutions were evaluated according to different criteria and indicators. At the present stage of evaluation systems of design solutions stands systemengineering doctrine is allocated. It is complemented by the theory of efficiency and financial sustainability investment project in view of the general market concept. Also great attention is paid to the virtual object modeling. It is urgent to include the behavior prediction of an investment construction project model at each stage of its life cycle. The high cost of all phases of this life cycle makes it necessary to calculate the feasibility of the investment. Very urgent to do it as accurately as possible and before we start of design works on the stage of the investment plan evaluation. Belarus has legislated pre-investment stage of construction project development. To evaluate the design solution at this stage is necessary to develop an investment justification, a project management plan and a business plan. They will evaluate and will compare several options for future objects by the complex. This requires not only time, but considerable financial costs. In order to optimize the process to develop an evaluation system design solutions based on existing projects. It allows the customer (investor choose design solutions to build the object without developing of pre-design documentations for several options. This system it is advisable to try out the example of apartment house building with the assistance of the national fund of project documentation and objects-analogues data bank. The developed evaluation system of design solutions for residential real estate objects in the pre-investment stage is supposed to use the theory of neural networks and neyroprogramming. This system bases on the input parameters projects. The hidden layer neurons are trained to choose suitable projects of apartment houses with their classification. The projects will be classified

  2. Design and synthesis of molecular donors for solution-processed high-efficiency organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Jessica E; Henson, Zachary B; Welch, Gregory C; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2014-01-21

    Organic semiconductors incorporated into solar cells using a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) construction show promise as a cleaner answer to increasing energy needs throughout the world. Organic solar cells based on the BHJ architecture have steadily increased in their device performance over the past two decades, with power conversion efficiencies reaching 10%. Much of this success has come with conjugated polymer/fullerene combinations, where optimized polymer design strategies, synthetic protocols, device fabrication procedures, and characterization methods have provided significant advancements in the technology. More recently, chemists have been paying particular attention to well-defined molecular donor systems due to their ease of functionalization, amenability to standard organic purification and characterization methods, and reduced batch-to-batch variability compared to polymer counterparts. There are several critical properties for efficient small molecule donors. First, broad optical absorption needs to extend towards the near-IR region to achieve spectral overlap with the solar spectrum. Second, the low lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels need to be between -5.2 and -5.5 eV to ensure acceptable device open circuit voltages. Third, the structures need to be relatively planar to ensure close intermolecular contacts and high charge carrier mobilities. And last, the small molecule donors need to be sufficiently soluble in organic solvents (≥10 mg/mL) to facilitate solution deposition of thin films of appropriate uniformity and thickness. Ideally, these molecules should be constructed from cost-effective, sustainable building blocks using established, high yielding reactions in as few steps as possible. The structures should also be easy to functionalize to maximize tunability for desired properties. In this Account, we present a chronological description of our thought process and design strategies used in the development of highly

  3. Trends in Modelling, Simulation and Design of Water Hydraulic Systems – Motion Control and Open-Ended Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a R&D-view on trends in development and best practise in modelling, simulation and design of both low-pressure and high-pressure tap water hydraulic components and systems for motion control as well as open-ended solutions various industrial applications. The focus...

  4. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  5. Design of green spaces located below the urbanised level. Themes, problems and solutions applied to a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Toccolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of green areas and landscape is often related to spaces with special features, which, due to their territorial peculiarities, require the adoption of appropriate design solutions. This category includes spaces located below the urbanised/street level (or on different levels, which may have various origins: areas derived from the regeneration of defensive ditches that, after having lost their original function, have become centres of urban aggregation (ancient city walls, castles moats; sites derived from the demolition of buildings or other structures; spaces created expressly sub-level as a result of design choices. This paper deals with some design issues concerning those places, in relation to orography, vegetation and the type of users expected. Moreover, the opinion of the population is taken into account to clearly define design choices; the issue is explored using special techniques to involve citizens in the design process, namely focus groups and surveys aimed at identifying their needs. The paper, finally, presents a design experience applied to a study area in the municipality of Abbiategrasso (Lombardy region, Italy located under the urbanised level and currently used as urban park (the so-called Fossa Viscontea. This park (about 3.7 ha occupies the area of the ancient defensive moat of the historical village (including the Visconti Castle - 13th century; design solutions are proposed for ensuring accessibility and fruition of this area such as leisure and aggregation centre.

  6. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings: Comparing different operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojo, Adrian; Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analyzed, such as remediation time, voltage drop, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields. The results show that electric...... current could remove copper from watery tailings slowly. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was improved due to a pH decrease from 6.7 to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Moreover, with citric acid addition the process was further improved due to a formation...... of copper citrate complexes. Using pulsed electric fields the remediation process with sulphuric acid addition was also improved by a decrease in the polarization cell. Main results: considering remediation with watery tailing as the base line, for three weeks experiments no copper removal was observed...

  7. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  8. Phytotechnologies: remediation of environmental contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anjum, Naser A

    2013-01-01

    .... The book offers an evaluation of the known plant species for their different roles in phytotechnological applications in relation to remediation of varied environmental contaminants and also explores...

  9. Dynamic remedial action scheme using online transient stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Arun

    Economic pressure and environmental factors have forced the modern power systems to operate closer to their stability limits. However, maintaining transient stability is a fundamental requirement for the operation of interconnected power systems. In North America, power systems are planned and operated to withstand the loss of any single or multiple elements without violating North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) system performance criteria. For a contingency resulting in the loss of multiple elements (Category C), emergency transient stability controls may be necessary to stabilize the power system. Emergency control is designed to sense abnormal conditions and subsequently take pre-determined remedial actions to prevent instability. Commonly known as either Remedial Action Schemes (RAS) or as Special/System Protection Schemes (SPS), these emergency control approaches have been extensively adopted by utilities. RAS are designed to address specific problems, e.g. to increase power transfer, to provide reactive support, to address generator instability, to limit thermal overloads, etc. Possible remedial actions include generator tripping, load shedding, capacitor and reactor switching, static VAR control, etc. Among various RAS types, generation shedding is the most effective and widely used emergency control means for maintaining system stability. In this dissertation, an optimal power flow (OPF)-based generation-shedding RAS is proposed. This scheme uses online transient stability calculation and generator cost function to determine appropriate remedial actions. For transient stability calculation, SIngle Machine Equivalent (SIME) technique is used, which reduces the multimachine power system model to a One-Machine Infinite Bus (OMIB) equivalent and identifies critical machines. Unlike conventional RAS, which are designed using offline simulations, online stability calculations make the proposed RAS dynamic and adapting to any power system

  10. Carbon Nanotube Based Groundwater Remediation: The Case of Trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Kshitij C; Liu, Zhuonan; Vijwani, Hema; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M; Tsige, Mesfin

    2016-07-21

    Adsorption of chlorinated organic contaminants (COCs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been gaining ground as a remedial platform for groundwater treatment. Applications depend on our mechanistic understanding of COC adsorption on CNTs. This paper lays out the nature of competing interactions at play in hybrid, membrane, and pure CNT based systems and presents results with the perspective of existing gaps in design strategies. First, current remediation approaches to trichloroethylene (TCE), the most ubiquitous of the COCs, is presented along with examination of forces contributing to adsorption of analogous contaminants at the molecular level. Second, we present results on TCE adsorption and remediation on pure and hybrid CNT systems with a stress on the specific nature of substrate and molecular architecture that would contribute to competitive adsorption. The delineation of intermolecular interactions that contribute to efficient remediation is needed for custom, scalable field design of purification systems for a wide range of contaminants.

  11. Carbon Nanotube Based Groundwater Remediation: The Case of Trichloroethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitij C. Jha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of chlorinated organic contaminants (COCs on carbon nanotubes (CNTs has been gaining ground as a remedial platform for groundwater treatment. Applications depend on our mechanistic understanding of COC adsorption on CNTs. This paper lays out the nature of competing interactions at play in hybrid, membrane, and pure CNT based systems and presents results with the perspective of existing gaps in design strategies. First, current remediation approaches to trichloroethylene (TCE, the most ubiquitous of the COCs, is presented along with examination of forces contributing to adsorption of analogous contaminants at the molecular level. Second, we present results on TCE adsorption and remediation on pure and hybrid CNT systems with a stress on the specific nature of substrate and molecular architecture that would contribute to competitive adsorption. The delineation of intermolecular interactions that contribute to efficient remediation is needed for custom, scalable field design of purification systems for a wide range of contaminants.

  12. Design Mode Analysis of Pareto Solution Set for Decision-Making Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Hiwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in engineering design problems is challenging because they have multiple and conflicting criteria and complex correlation between design parameters. This study proposes a decision-making support methodology named design mode analysis, which consists of data clustering and principal component analysis (PCA. A design mode is indicated by the eigenvector obtained by PCA and reveals the dominant design parameters in a given dataset. The proposed method is a general framework to obtain the design modes from high-dimensional and large datasets. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified on the conceptual design problem of the hybrid rocket engine.

  13. Flow assurance intervention, hydrates remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Christopher S. [Oceaneering International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper addresses the issues of removing hydrates in sub sea flow lines and associated equipment with an Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) of opportunity and a multi-service-vessel (MSV). The paper is split into three topics: the equipment used with the ROV, assessing the interface points and handling fluids produced from drawing down the pressure. Each section is explained thoroughly and backed up with real world experience. The equipment section details information from actual jobs performed and why the particular components were utilized. The system is generally contained in an ROV mounted skid. Pumps are utilized to draw down the pressure inside the hydrated section of equipment, removing one of the three necessary components for hydrates formation. Once the section is pumped down, several options exist for handling the fluids pumped out of the system: pumping to surface, re-injection into the well, or injection into an operating flow line. This method of hydrates remediation is both economical and timely. Hydrate blockages form in low temperatures and high pressures. Reducing the pressure or increasing the temperature so the conditions lie to the right of the hydrate dissociation curve will slowly decompose the blockage. Depressurization and the use of MEG or methanol will give favorable conditions to remove the hydrate plug. Oceaneering has the capabilities to remove hydrates using the FRS in conjunction with an installation vessel to dispose of the gas and fluid removed from the flow line. Hydrate remediation techniques should be implemented into the initial design to reduce costs later. The cost of stopped production combined with the day rate for equipment needed for hydrate removal outweighs the costs if no technique is utilized. (author)

  14. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G. [Vortec Corp., Collegeville, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase I consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project.

  15. Remediating Remediation: From Basic Writing to Writing across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article challenges faculty members and administrators to rethink current definitions of remediation. First year college students are increasingly placed into basic writing courses due to a perceived inability to use English grammar correctly, but it must be acknowledged that all students will encounter the need for remediation as they attempt…

  16. Carbon Nanotube Based Groundwater Remediation: The Case of Trichloroethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Kshitij C. Jha; Zhuonan Liu; Hema Vijwani; Mallikarjuna Nadagouda; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M.; Mesfin Tsige

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption of chlorinated organic contaminants (COCs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been gaining ground as a remedial platform for groundwater treatment. Applications depend on our mechanistic understanding of COC adsorption on CNTs. This paper lays out the nature of competing interactions at play in hybrid, membrane, and pure CNT based systems and presents results with the perspective of existing gaps in design strategies. First, current remediation approaches to trichloroethylene (TCE), th...

  17. Property Integration - A New Approach for Simultaneous Solution of Process and Molecular Design Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    concepts are employed to identify optimal properties without commitment to specific species. Subsequently, group contribution methods and molecular design techniques are employed to solve the reverse property prediction problem to design molecules possessing the optimal properties....

  18. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Barlati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study is aimed to review the current scientific literature on cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. In particular, the main structured protocols of cognitive remediation developed for schizophrenia are presented and the main results reported in recent meta-analyses are summarized. Possible benefits of cognitive remediation in the early course of schizophrenia and in subjects at risk for psychosis are also discussed. Methods. Electronic search of the relevant studies which appeared in the PubMed database until April 2013 has been performed and all the meta-analyses and review articles on cognitive remediation in schizophrenia have been also taken into account. Results. Numerous intervention programs have been designed, applied, and evaluated, with the objective of improving cognition and social functioning in schizophrenia. Several quantitative reviews have established that cognitive remediation is effective in reducing cognitive deficits and in improving functional outcome of the disorder. Furthermore, the studies available support the usefulness of cognitive remediation when applied in the early course of schizophrenia and even in subjects at risk of the disease. Conclusions. Cognitive remediation is a promising approach to improve real-world functioning in schizophrenia and should be considered a key strategy for early intervention in the psychoses.

  19. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil;

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...... fly ash waste deposits from polluting the ground water....

  20. Fermentative processes for environmental remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Grilli, Selene

    2013-01-01

    The growing interest in environmental protection has led to the development of emerging biotechnologies for environmental remediation also introducing the biorefinery concept. This work mainly aimed to evaluate the applicability of innovative biotechnologies for environmental remediation and bioenergy production, throught fermentative processes. The investigated biotechnologies for waste and wastewater treatment and for the valorisation of specific feedstocks and energy recovery, were m...

  1. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...... fly ash waste deposits from polluting the ground water....

  2. Cognitive remediation: potential novel brain-based treatment for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, Daniel P; Cushman, Grace K; Kim, Kerri L; Weissman, Alexandra B; Wegbreit, Ezra

    2015-08-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is among the most impairing psychiatric disorders affecting children and adolescents, despite our best psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments. Cognitive remediation, defined as a behavioral intervention designed to improve cognitive functions so as to reduce psychiatric illness, is an emerging brain-based treatment approach that has thus far not been studied in pediatric BD. The present article reviews the basic principles of cognitive remediation, describes what is known about cognitive remediation in psychiatric disorders, and delineates potential brain/behavior alterations implicated in pediatric BD that might be targets for cognitive remediation. Emerging data show that cognitive remediation may be useful in children and adults with schizophrenia, ADHD, and anxiety disorders, and in adults with BD. Potential targets for cognitive remediation in pediatric BD include face processing, response inhibition, frustration, and cognitive flexibility. Further study is warranted to determine if cognitive remediation for these targets, or others, may serve as a novel, brain-based treatment for pediatric BD.

  3. Design of Nutrition Solution Regulating Controller for Greenhouse%温室营养液调控器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亮; 李树珍; 石磊; 陈立东; 马淑英; 李国防; 郑立新; 毛罕平

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the design of nutrition solution regulating controller in greenhouse in order to achieve reasonable allocation of nutrient solution. [ Method ] Based on the modularized design idea, the controller using AT89C55 as main control chip was designed and its hardware was made up of setting, acquisition and control component. [ Result j The results showed that it could collect EC and pH of nutrition solution parameter. Combined with the knowledge of nutrient solution allocation and regulation and the experience of experts, reasonable allocation of nutrient solution and support for keyboard input and digital display were achieved. [Conclusion]The controller was low cost,simple and reliable operation.%[目的]研究温室营养液调控器的设计,以实现营养液的全天候合理调配.[方法]采用模块化的设计思想,以AT89C55为主控芯片设计了一套温室营养液调控器.[结果]该系统硬件由设置、采集、控制3部分组成.该营养液控制器可以实现营养液的EC、pH参数的采集,并结合作物营养液配制与调控知识和专家的经验,实现营养液合理调配,并支持键盘输入与数码显示.[结论]该控制器成本低,操作简单方便,运行可靠.

  4. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Rifle, Colorado: Final report. Volume 4, Addenda D1--D5 to Appendix D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, James W.

    1990-02-01

    This radiologic characterization of tho two inactive uranium millsites at Rifle, Colorado, was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Grand Junction Projects Office, in accord with a Statement of Work prepared by the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. (Jacobs). The purpose of this project is to define the extent of radioactive contamination at the Rifle sites that exceeds US Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA) standards for UMTRA sites. The data presented in this report are required for characterization of the areas adjacent to the tailings piles and for the subsequent design of cleanup activities. An orientation visit to the study area was conducted on 31 July--1 August 1984, in conjunction with Jacobs, to determine the approximate extent of contaminated area surrounding tho piles. During that visit, survey control points were located and baselines were defined from which survey grids would later be established; drilling requirements were assessed; and radiologic and geochemical data were collected for use in planning the radiologic fieldwork. The information gained from this visit was used by Jacobs, with cooperation by Bendix, to determine the scope of work required for the radiologic characterization of the Rifle sites. Fieldwork at Rifle was conducted from 1 October through 16 November 1984.

  5. Remediation technologies for oil-contaminated sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashutosh; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-30

    Oil-contaminated sediments pose serious environmental hazards for both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Innovative and environmentally compatible technologies are urgently required to remove oil-contaminated sediments. In this paper, various physical, chemical and biological technologies are investigated for the remediation of oil-contaminated sediments such as flotation and washing, coal agglomeration, thermal desorption, ultrasonic desorption, bioremediation, chemical oxidation and extraction using ionic liquids. The basic principles of these technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages for practical application have been discussed. A combination of two or more technologies is expected to provide an innovative solution that is economical, eco-friendly and adaptable.

  6. DDE remediation and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John E; Ou, Li-Tse; All-Agely, Abid

    2008-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites, DDD and DDE, have been shown to be recalcitrant to degradation. The parent compound, DDT, was used extensively worldwide starting in 1939 and was banned in the United States in 1973. The daughter compound, DDE, may result from aerobic degradation, abiotic dehydrochlorination, or photochemical decomposition. DDE has also occurred as a contaminant in commercial-grade DDT. The p,p'-DDE isomer is more biologically active than the o,p-DDE, with a reported half-life of -5.7 years. However, when DDT was repeatedly applied to the soil, the DDE concentration may remain unchanged for more than 20 yr. Remediation of DDE-contaminated soil and water may be done by several techniques. Phytoremediation involves translocating DDT, DDD, and DDE from the soil into the plant, although some aquatic species (duckweed > elodea > parrot feather) can transform DDT into predominantly DDD with some DDE being formed. Of all the plants that can uptake DDE, Cucurbita pepo has been the most extensively studied, with translocation values approaching "hyperaccumulation" levels. Soil moisture, temperature, and plant density have all been documented as important factors in the uptake of DDE by Cucurbita pepo. Uptake may also be influenced positively by amendments such as biosurfactants, mycorrhizal inoculants, and low molecular weight organic acids (e.g., citric and oxalic acids). DDE microbial degradation by dehalogenases, dioxygenases, and hydrolases occurs under the proper conditions. Although several aerobic degradation pathways have been proposed, none has been fully verified. Very few aerobic pure cultures are capable of fully degrading DDE to CO2. Cometabolism of DDE by Pseudomonas sp., Alicaligens sp., and Terrabacter sp. grown on biphenyl has been reported; however, not all bacterial species that produce biphenyl dioxygenase degraded DDE. Arsenic and copper inhibit DDE degradation by aerobic microorganisms. Similarly, metal chelates such as EDTA inhibit the

  7. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews of the literature support the idea that cognitive deficits observed in a large percentage of patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the cognitive performance deficit and functional disability associated with the disease. The grow- ing importance of neurocognition in Psychiatry, especially with regard to planning strategies and rehabilitative therapies to improve the prognosis of patients contrib- utes to the interest of achieving this literature review on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. In this work, drawn from research in the areas of schizophrenia, cog- nition, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive remediation (2000-2012 through PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration, it is intended, to describe the types of psychological and behavioral therapies recommended in the treatment of cognitive disabilities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight the clinical and scientific evidence of each of these therapies, as their effect on cognitive performance, symptoms and functionality in patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Modeling the oldest old: personas to design technology-based solutions for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Blaine; Zaslavksy, Oleg; Wilamowska, Katarzyna M; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J

    2011-01-01

    There is a recognized need to develop information technology for the delivery of care services to older adults. However, little attention has been paid to the design of information technology for the oldest old demographic. We made novel use of data from observations, focus groups and cluster analysis of oldest old participant characteristics from a pilot study in a community setting to iteratively construct personas for the design of information technology for the oldest old. The resulting two personas, "Hazel" and "Rose", capture different abilities of members of the oldest old demographic group. In addition, we provide a list of eleven design recommendations to guide the design of technology that supports the abilities of people like Hazel and Rose. The resulting personas, design recommendations and persona construction method can be useful tools for informaticians and designers of new systems for the oldest old.

  9. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Durango, Colorado: Attachment 2, Geology report. Revised final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    Detailed investigations of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the Bodo Canyon disposal site were conducted. The purpose of these investigations was basic site characterization and identification of potential geologic hazards that could affect long-term site stability. Subsequent engineering studies, such as analyses of hydrologic and liquefaction hazards, used the data developed in these studies. The geomorphic analysis was employed in the design of effective erosion protection. Studies of the regional and local seismotectonic setting, which included a detailed search for possible capable faults within a 65 kilometer radius of the site, provided the basis for seismic design parameters. The scope of work performed included the following: Compilation and analysis of previous published and unpublished geologic literature and maps; Review of historical and instrumental earthquake data; Review of site-specific subsurface geologic data, including lithologic and geophysical logs of exploratory boreholes advanced in the site area; Photogeologic interpretations of existing conventional aerial photographs; and, Ground reconnaissance and mapping of the site region.

  10. State-space solutions to the h_inf/ltr design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1993-01-01

    phase case, though, the order of the controllers can be reduced to n in all cases. The control problems corresponding to the various controller types are given as four different singular state-space problems, and the solutions are given in terms of the relevant equations and inequalities...

  11. Priorities in urban traffic problems and implications for the design of solutions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jaap; Berkum, van Eric; Arem, van Bart

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of ICT in the traffic domain showed great potential, but the many opportunities this brings seems to have distracted engineers. To solve urban traffic problems, many potentially effective solutions have been developed, but deployment rates are low. The main reason seems to be that s

  12. Modeling design iteration in product design and development and its solution by a novel artificial bee colony algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tinggui; Xiao, Renbin

    2014-01-01

    Due to fierce market competition, how to improve product quality and reduce development cost determines the core competitiveness of enterprises. However, design iteration generally causes increases of product cost and delays of development time as well, so how to identify and model couplings among tasks in product design and development has become an important issue for enterprises to settle. In this paper, the shortcomings existing in WTM model are discussed and tearing approach as well as inner iteration method is used to complement the classic WTM model. In addition, the ABC algorithm is also introduced to find out the optimal decoupling schemes. In this paper, firstly, tearing approach and inner iteration method are analyzed for solving coupled sets. Secondly, a hybrid iteration model combining these two technologies is set up. Thirdly, a high-performance swarm intelligence algorithm, artificial bee colony, is adopted to realize problem-solving. Finally, an engineering design of a chemical processing system is given in order to verify its reasonability and effectiveness.

  13. Bio-inspired solutions in design for manufacturing of micro fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omidvarnia, Farzaneh; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the application of biomimetic principles in design for micro manufacturing is investigated. A micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) for power generation in hearing aid devices is considered as the case study in which the bioinspired functions are replicated. The focus in design of...

  14. Design of attitude solution algorithm for tail-sitter VTOL UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghui LIU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The tail-sitter Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV, flying in a fixed-wing model, overcomes many shortcomings of traditional fixed-wing UAVs, and inherits the advantage of high overall efficiency, which means it has great development potential and very broad application prospects. The attitude of tail-sitter VTOL UAV shows a wide change range in its takeoff and landing stages, and when the attitude sensor changes more than 90 degrees in pitch direction, the Euler angles converted by the Quaternions will have singular points, which means gimbal deadlock appears. From the solution algorithm, this paper provides a method of changing the order of rotation to avoid the appearance of singular points. The results show that this method can be well applied to the attitude solution of the VTOL UAV.

  15. Stochastic goal programming based groundwater remediation management under human-health-risk uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing; He, Li, E-mail: li.he@ncepu.edu.cn; Lu, Hongwei; Fan, Xing

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • We propose an integrated optimal groundwater remediation design approach. • The approach can address stochasticity in carcinogenic risks. • Goal programming is used to make the system approaching to ideal operation and remediation effects. • The uncertainty in slope factor is evaluated under different confidence levels. • Optimal strategies are obtained to support remediation design under uncertainty. - Abstract: An optimal design approach for groundwater remediation is developed through incorporating numerical simulation, health risk assessment, uncertainty analysis and nonlinear optimization within a general framework. Stochastic analysis and goal programming are introduced into the framework to handle uncertainties in real-world groundwater remediation systems. Carcinogenic risks associated with remediation actions are further evaluated at four confidence levels. The differences between ideal and predicted constraints are minimized by goal programming. The approach is then applied to a contaminated site in western Canada for creating a set of optimal remediation strategies. Results from the case study indicate that factors including environmental standards, health risks and technical requirements mutually affected and restricted themselves. Stochastic uncertainty existed in the entire process of remediation optimization, which should to be taken into consideration in groundwater remediation design.

  16. Survey-Based Cross-Country Comparisons Where Countries Vary in Sample Design: Issues and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminska Olena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In multi-national surveys, different countries usually implement different sample designs. The sample designs affect the variance of estimates of differences between countries. When making such estimates, analysts often fail to take sufficient account of sample design. This failure occurs sometimes because variables indicating stratification, clustering, or weighting are unavailable, partially available, or in a form that is unsuitable for cross-national analysis. In this article, we demonstrate how complex sample design should be taken into account when estimating differences between countries, and we provide practical guidance to analysts and to data producers on how to deal with partial or inappropriately-coded sample design indicator variables. Using EU-SILC as a case study, we evaluate the inverse misspecification effect (imeff that results from ignoring clustering or stratification, or both in a between-country comparison where countries’ sample designs differ. We present imeff for estimates of between-country differences in a number of demographic and economic variables for 19 European Union Member States. We assess the magnitude of imeff and the associated impact on standard error estimates. Our empirical findings illustrate that it is important for data producers to supply appropriate sample design indicators and for analysts to use them.

  17. Design and development of sustainable remediation process for mitigation of fluoride contamination in ground water and field application for domestic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwala, Poonam; Andey, Subhash; Nagarnaik, Pranav; Ghosh, Sarika Pimpalkar; Pal, Prashant; Deshmukh, Prashant; Labhasetwar, Pawan

    2014-08-01

    Decentralised household chemo defluoridation unit (CDU) was developed and designed based on a combination of coagulation and sorption processes. Chemo-defluoridation process was optimised to reduce use of chemicals and increase acceptability among beneficiaries without affecting palatability of water. Chemical dose optimization undertaken in the laboratory using jar test revealed the optimum calcium salt to initial fluoride ratio of 60 for fluoride removal. Performance of CDU was evaluated in the laboratory for removal efficiency, water quality parameters, filter bed cleaning cycle and desorption of fluoride. CDU evaluation in the laboratory with spiked water (5 mg/L) and field water (~4.2 mg/L) revealed treated water fluoride concentration of less than 1mg/L. Seventy five CDUs were installed in households at Sakhara Village, Yavatmal District in Maharashtra State of India. Monthly monitoring of CDUs for one year indicated reduction of the raw water fluoride concentration from around 4 mg/L to less than 1mg/L. Post implementation survey after regular consumption of treated drinking water by the users for one year indicated user satisfaction and technological sustainability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mon Wenger har en avatar? Vilkår og muligheder i det sociale web-observationer og refleksioner over remediering af didaktisk design i Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Riis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available På Masteruddannelsen i Ikt og Læring er der stor interesse for løbende at afprøve nye medier ift. deres undervisningsog læringsmæssige potentiale, og artiklen beskriver et pilotforsøg gennemført i efteråret 2007, hvor den 3D virtuelle verden, Second Life® (SL blev afprøvet som analytisk objekt inden for et eksisterende didaktisk design. 22 studerende og en underviser deltog i forsøget, der forløb over seks uger. De studerende blev i forsøgsperioden bedt om at analysere og vurdere Second Life ud fra følgende fem emner; didaktik og målgrupper, orientering og navigation, interaktivitet, læreprocesser og læringsforløb, samt audiovisuelle elementer. De studerendes observationer beskrives gennem citater og relateres til aktuel forskning. Forsøget blev gennemført som første cyklus i et aktionsforskningsinspireret ph.d.projekt, og formålet var dels generelt at afdække SL som fænomen, dels specifikt at undersøge, hvad der ville ske, når et praksisfællesskab blev remedieret i SL. Artiklen afsluttes med refleksioner med henblik på fremtidige tiltag.

  19. Strategic network design of Java Island fuel supply with production-transportation solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianawati, Fauzia; Farizal, -; Surjandari, Isti; Marzuli, Rully

    2011-10-01

    This study aims to find more efficient supply network, from refineries / imports to fuel terminal, which still uses the Tanker, Tank Trucks or Rail Tank Wagon with an alternative pipeline that are considered more efficient than other transport modes, as well as gaining pipeline transportation network optimization analysis tailored to the capabilities/ capacity of refinery production and capacity of the pipe mode. With the complexity of the number of 3 point sources of supply, 19 destination of terminal, 4 kinds of products and 4 types of transport modes, transport-production model modified by adding multi-modal transport and investment costs of new pipeline. Then coded in Lingo program which adopts Branch & Bound technique and input the processed data in order to obtain an optimal distribution pattern produced the lowest distribution costs. This B&B solution was also compared with SCO solution which is a metaheuristic method. The results of this study lead to the development of new modes of pipeline connections in amount of 4 alternatives, generated from the optimal solution, but still potentially earned savings of about IDR 1 Trillion per year from cost-efficiency of product procurement and transportation costs.

  20. Design of Distributed Controllers Seeking Optimal Power Flow Solutions under Communication Constraints: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Simonetto, Andrea; Dhople, Sairaj

    2016-12-01

    This paper focuses on power distribution networks featuring inverter-interfaced distributed energy resources (DERs), and develops feedback controllers that drive the DER output powers to solutions of time-varying AC optimal power flow (OPF) problems. Control synthesis is grounded on primal-dual-type methods for regularized Lagrangian functions, as well as linear approximations of the AC power-flow equations. Convergence and OPF-solution-tracking capabilities are established while acknowledging: i) communication-packet losses, and ii) partial updates of control signals. The latter case is particularly relevant since it enables asynchronous operation of the controllers where DER setpoints are updated at a fast time scale based on local voltage measurements, and information on the network state is utilized if and when available, based on communication constraints. As an application, the paper considers distribution systems with high photovoltaic integration, and demonstrates that the proposed framework provides fast voltage-regulation capabilities, while enabling the near real-time pursuit of solutions of AC OPF problems.

  1. Design of Distributed Controllers Seeking Optimal Power Flow Solutions Under Communication Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Simonetto, Andrea; Dhople, Sairaj

    2016-12-29

    This paper focuses on power distribution networks featuring inverter-interfaced distributed energy resources (DERs), and develops feedback controllers that drive the DER output powers to solutions of time-varying AC optimal power flow (OPF) problems. Control synthesis is grounded on primal-dual-type methods for regularized Lagrangian functions, as well as linear approximations of the AC power-flow equations. Convergence and OPF-solution-tracking capabilities are established while acknowledging: i) communication-packet losses, and ii) partial updates of control signals. The latter case is particularly relevant since it enables asynchronous operation of the controllers where DER setpoints are updated at a fast time scale based on local voltage measurements, and information on the network state is utilized if and when available, based on communication constraints. As an application, the paper considers distribution systems with high photovoltaic integration, and demonstrates that the proposed framework provides fast voltage-regulation capabilities, while enabling the near real-time pursuit of solutions of AC OPF problems.

  2. Optimized Solution of Two Bar Truss Design Using Intuitionistic Fuzzy Optimization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Dey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the structural optimization is to minimize the weight of structure or the vertical deflection of loaded joint while satisfying all design requirements imposed by design codes. In general fuzzy sets are used to analyze the fuzzy structural optimization. In this paper, a planer truss structural model in intuitionistic fuzzy environment has been developed. This paper proposes an intuitionistic fuzzy optimization approach to solve a non-linear programming problem in the context of a structural application. This approximation approach is used to solve structural optimization model with weight as objective function. This intuitionistic fuzzy optimization (IFO approach is illustrated on two-bar truss structural design problem. The result of the intuitionistic fuzzy optimization obtained is compared with the other results of optimization algorithms from the literary sources. It is shown that the proposed intuitionistic fuzzy optimization approach is more efficient than the analogous fuzzy technique for structural design.

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: Design Guidance for Passive Vents in New Construction, Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-12

    In an effort to improve indoor air quality in high-performance, new construction, multifamily buildings, dedicated sources of outdoor air are being implemented. Passive vents are being selected by some design teams over other strategies because of their lower first costs and operating costs. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings constructed eight steps, which outline the design and commissioning required for these passive vents to perform as intended.

  4. 公路设计中的缺陷及解决措施%Highway design defects and solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚方涛; 陈玮

    2016-01-01

    公路在我国的交通中占有重要的一席之地,对我国的经济贡献巨大。近年来,公路的损毁问题也越来越严重,由于公路的损毁导致的交通事故屡见不鲜。因此本文对公路设计中的缺陷及解决措施进行了探讨,提出了一定可行的解决措施。这些解决措施对公路的设计具有一定的参考价值。%The road occupies an important place in our traffic, a huge contribution to our economy. In re-cent years,damaged more and more serious problem of road traffic accidents due to the damage caused by common road. Therefore,this article on the highway design flaws and solutions were discussed,and some possible solutions. These solutions have certain reference value for highway design.

  5. SOLUTION OF SIGNAL UNCERTAINTY PROBLEM AT ANALYTICAL DESIGN OF CONSECUTIVE COMPENSATOR IN PIEZO ACTUATOR CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Bystrov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We present research results for the signal uncertainty problem that naturally arises for the developers of servomechanisms, including analytical design of serial compensators, delivering the required quality indexes for servomechanisms. Method. The problem was solved with the use of Besekerskiy engineering approach, formulated in 1958. This gave the possibility to reduce requirements for input signal composition of servomechanisms by using only two of their quantitative characteristics, such as maximum speed and acceleration. Information about input signal maximum speed and acceleration allows entering into consideration the equivalent harmonic input signal with calculated amplitude and frequency. In combination with requirements for maximum tracking error, the amplitude and frequency of the equivalent harmonic effects make it possible to estimate analytically the value of the amplitude characteristics of the system by error and then convert it to amplitude characteristic of open-loop system transfer function. While previously Besekerskiy approach was mainly used in relation to the apparatus of logarithmic characteristics, we use this approach for analytical synthesis of consecutive compensators. Main Results. Proposed technique is used to create analytical representation of "input–output" and "error–output" polynomial dynamic models of the designed system. In turn, the desired model of the designed system in the "error–output" form of analytical representation of transfer functions is the basis for the design of consecutive compensator, that delivers the desired placement of state matrix eigenvalues and, consequently, the necessary set of dynamic indexes for the designed system. The given procedure of consecutive compensator analytical design on the basis of Besekerskiy engineering approach under conditions of signal uncertainty is illustrated by an example. Practical Relevance. The obtained theoretical results are

  6. Remediation of lead and cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Ahmed K; Osman, Khaled A; Gouda, Neama Abdel-Razeek

    2016-01-01

    The research was designated to study the ability of plants to bio-accumulate, translocate and remove the heavy metals, lead and cadmium from contaminated soil. The herbal plant ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum was investigated as a bio-accumulator plant for these metals. The translocation of these heavy metals in the herbal plant was compared considering root to shoot transport and redistribution of metals in the root and shoot system. The trace metal contents from root and shoot parts were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The results showed that the percent of lead and cadmium transferred to ryegrass plant were averaged as 51.39, and 74.57%, respectively, while those remained in the soil were averaged as 48.61 and 25.43% following 60 days of treatment. The soil-plant transfer index in root and shoot system of ryegrass was found to be 0.32 and 0.20 for lead, and 0.50 and 0.25 for cadmium. These findings indicated that the herbal plant ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum is a good accumulator for cadmium than lead. The soil-plant transfer factor (the conc. of heavy metal in plant to the conc. in soil) indicated that the mechanism of soil remedy using the investigated plant is phytoextraction where the amounts of heavy metals transferred by plant roots into the above ground portions were higher than that remained in the soil. The method offers green technology solution for the contamination problem since it is effective technology with minimal impact on the environment and can be easily used for soil remedy.

  7. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ``lessons learned`` from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors.

  8. An algebraic approach for simultaneous solution of process and molecular design problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bommareddy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The property integration framework has allowed for simultaneous representation of processes and products from a properties perspective and thereby established a link between molecular and process design problems. The simultaneous approach involves solving two reverse problems. The first reverse problem identifies the property targets corresponding to the desired process performance. The second reverse problem is the reverse of a property prediction problem, which identifies the molecular structures that match the targets identified in the first problem. Group Contribution Methods (GCM are used to form molecular property operators that will be used to track properties. Earlier contributions in this area have worked to include higher order estimation of GCM for solving the molecular design problem. In this work, the accuracy of the property prediction is further enhanced by improving the techniques to enumerate higher order groups. Incorporation of these higher order enumeration techniques increases the efficiency of property prediction and thus the application range of the group contribution methods in molecular design problems. Successful tracking of properties is the key in applying the reverse problem formulation for integrated process and product design problems. An algebraic technique has been developed for solving process and molecular design problems simultaneously. Since both process and molecular property operators target the same optimum process performance, the set of inequality expressions can be solved simultaneously to identify the molecules that meet the desired process performance. Since this approach is based on an algebraic algorithm, any number of properties can be tracked simultaneously.

  9. Approaches for assessing sustainable remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment, while minimizing the indirect cost of remediation to the environment, society and economy. This paper presents an overview of available approaches for assessing the sustainability of alternative...... remediation strategies for a contaminated site. Most approaches use multi-criteria assessment methods (MCA) to structure a decision support process. Different combinations of environmental, social and economic criteria are employed, and are assessed either in qualitative or quantitative forms with various...... tools such as life cycle assessment and cost benefit analysis. Stakeholder involvement, which is a key component of sustainable remediation, is conducted in various ways. Some approaches involve stakeholders directly in the evaluation or weighting of criteria, whereas other approaches only indirectly...

  10. Plant-based remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar (ed.) [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment Division

    2013-11-01

    A valuable source of information for scientists in the field of environmental pollution and remediation. Describes the latest biotechnological methods for the treatment of contaminated soils. Includes case studies and protocols. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.

  11. Durability of radon remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    In the UK, approximately 3600 householders are believed to have taken action to reduce high radon concentrations in their homes. In 1993 a number of those householders who had taken successful remedial actions were invited to participate in a study of durability of radon remedial actions. This involved the radon concentration being remeasured annually. Results for 26 such homes where a complete set of data are available and a further 32 with incomplete data are discussed here. All remedial actions were shown to remain durable during a period of 5 years. The largest variation in effectiveness was found in houses with natural ventilation of the underfloor void. The failure rate for all remedial measures was found to be 4.0% per annum, but in most cases the problems were noticed by the householder and corrected. The frequency of failures which were not noticed until a remeasurement was carried out was 0.4% per annum. (Author).

  12. Durability of radon remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    It is estimated that at least 3600 householders in the UK have taken remedial action to reduce radon concentrations found to be above the government Action Level. A study has been carried out on the durability of these remedial actions. It involved annual reassessment of the radon levels in a number of homes. The results for 26 of these homes where data over five years are available show that in general the remedial actions remained effective. The remedy with the largest variation in efficacy was natural ventilation of the underfloor void. The failure rate was found to be 4.0% per annum for all measures, but in the majority of cases the failure was discovered by the householder and rectified. The rate of failures not noticed by the householders was 0.4% per annum. (UK).

  13. The air transportation hub-and-spoke design problem: comparison between a continuous and a discrete solution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guina Sotomayor Alzamora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The hub-and-spoke network design problem, also known as the hub location problem, aims to find the concentration points in a given network flow so that the sum of the distances of the linkages is minimized. In this work, we compare discrete solutions of this problem, given by the branch-and-cut method applied to the p-hub median model, with continuous solutions, given by the hyperbolic smoothing technique applied to a min-sum-min model. Computational experiments for particular instances of the Brazilian air transportation system, with the number of hubs varying from 2 to 8, are conducted with the support of a discretization heuristic and the Voronoi diagram.

  14. Opium the Best Remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Merskey

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sydenham was the leading English physician of the 17th century and probably to the present time. He was using a well tried remedy. It had been known by then for about 4000 years, frequently mentioned by Hippocrates, and recognized in use in medieval Europe where it probably came through Arabic traders and was well established in use in Paris by the 12th century (2. Professional concerns up to the time of Sydenham were not about addiction. As can be seen from his text, they were about whether the drug was available in adequate preparations, whether there was any difference between opium and other narcotics, particularly comparing the natural juice with "its artificial preparations" (1 (all of which he thought to be about equal in effect, whether it was stimulant or restorative and invigorating, and whether it was being properly used for all the conditions in which it could be helpful. Addiction, dependence and insanity are not mentioned, although the fact that it could occasionally promote excitement ("frenzy" was known.

  15. Mechatronic futures challenges and solutions for mechatronic systems and their designers

    CERN Document Server

    Bradley, David

    2016-01-01

    Offering a comprehensive overview of the challenges, risks and options facing the future of mechatronics, this book provides insights into how these issues are currently assessed and managed. Building on the previously published book ‘Mechatronics in Action,’ it identifies and discusses the key issues likely to impact on future mechatronic systems. It supports mechatronics practitioners in identifying key areas in design, modeling and technology and places these in the wider context of concepts such as cyber-physical systems and the Internet of Things. For educators it considers the potential effects of developments in these areas on mechatronic course design, and ways of integrating these. Written by experts in the field, it explores topics including systems integration, design, modeling, privacy, ethics and future application domains. Highlighting novel innovation directions, it is intended for academics, engineers and students working in the field of mechatronics, particularly those developing new conc...

  16. Social Innovation and New Industrial Contexts: Can Designers "Industrialize" Socially Responsible Solutions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2007-01-01

      Many years ago Viktor Papanek urgently called for a radical revision of the design profession based on an exploration of new territories outside the market oriented logic. For many years Papanek's call was ignored, but the urgency of those theme is re-emerging, together with the need to overcome...... Papanek's approach, in view of the changed context in which industrial companies are now operating. While industrial production is globalising, local needs are becoming more and more complex, generating demand patterns and opportunities that are often ignored in the mainstream market-oriented perspective...... framework for this paper. An investigation is proposed beyond the traditional links between design and industry, emphasising new insights into the changes in the social role of industrial production. Furthermore, the paper proposes a methodological exploration to help designers focus on new actors and new...

  17. Social Innovation and New Industrial Contexts: Can Designers "Industrialize" Socially Responsible Solutions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2007-01-01

      Many years ago Viktor Papanek urgently called for a radical revision of the design profession based on an exploration of new territories outside the market oriented logic. For many years Papanek's call was ignored, but the urgency of those theme is re-emerging, together with the need to overcome...... Papanek's approach, in view of the changed context in which industrial companies are now operating. While industrial production is globalising, local needs are becoming more and more complex, generating demand patterns and opportunities that are often ignored in the mainstream market-oriented perspective...... framework for this paper. An investigation is proposed beyond the traditional links between design and industry, emphasising new insights into the changes in the social role of industrial production. Furthermore, the paper proposes a methodological exploration to help designers focus on new actors and new...

  18. Co-design and implementation research: challenges and solutions for ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Jackson, Claire; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2015-11-16

    Implementation science research, especially when using participatory and co-design approaches, raises unique challenges for research ethics committees. Such challenges may be poorly addressed by approval and governance mechanisms that were developed for more traditional research approaches such as randomised controlled trials. Implementation science commonly involves the partnership of researchers and stakeholders, attempting to understand and encourage uptake of completed or piloted research. A co-creation approach involves collaboration between researchers and end users from the onset, in question framing, research design and delivery, and influencing strategy, with implementation and broader dissemination strategies part of its design from gestation. A defining feature of co-creation is its emergent and adaptive nature, making detailed pre-specification of interventions and outcome measures impossible. This methodology sits oddly with ethics committee protocols that require precise pre-definition of interventions, mode of delivery, outcome measurements, and the role of study participants. But the strict (and, some would say, inflexible) requirements of ethics committees were developed for a purpose - to protect participants from harm and help ensure the rigour and transparency of studies. We propose some guiding principles to help square this circle. First, ethics committees should acknowledge and celebrate the diversity of research approaches, both formally (through training) and informally (by promoting debate and discussion); without active support, their members may not understand or value participatory designs. Second, ground rules should be established for co-design applications (e.g. how to judge when 'consultation' or 'engagement' becomes research) and communicated to committee members and stakeholders. Third, the benefits of power-sharing should be recognised and credit given to measures likely to support this important goal, especially in research with

  19. Rational design of ABC triblock terpolymer solution nanostructures with controlled patch morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löbling, Tina I.; Borisov, Oleg; Haataja, Johannes S.; Ikkala, Olli; Gröschel, André H.; Müller, Axel H. E.

    2016-06-01

    Block copolymers self-assemble into a variety of nanostructures that are relevant for science and technology. While the assembly of diblock copolymers is largely understood, predicting the solution assembly of triblock terpolymers remains challenging due to complex interplay of block/block and block/solvent interactions. Here we provide guidelines for the self-assembly of linear ABC triblock terpolymers into a large variety of multicompartment nanostructures with C corona and A/B cores. The ratio of block lengths NC/NA thereby controls micelle geometry to spheres, cylinders, bilayer sheets and vesicles. The insoluble blocks then microphase separate to core A and surface patch B, where NB controls the patch morphology to spherical, cylindrical, bicontinuous and lamellar. The independent control over both parameters allows constructing combinatorial libraries of unprecedented solution nanostructures, including spheres-on-cylinders/sheets/vesicles, cylinders-on-sheets/vesicles, and sheets/vesicles with bicontinuous or lamellar membrane morphology (patchy polymersomes). The derived parameters provide a logical toolbox towards complex self-assemblies for soft matter nanotechnologies.

  20. Rational design of solution additives for the prevention of protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Brian M; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2004-09-01

    We have developed a statistical-mechanical model of the effect of solution additives on protein association reactions. This model incorporates solvent radial distribution functions obtained from all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of particular proteins into simple models of protein interactions. In this way, the effects of additives can be computed along the entire association/dissociation reaction coordinate. We used the model to test our hypothesis that a class of large solution additives, which we term "neutral crowders," can slow protein association and dissociation by being preferentially excluded from protein-protein encounter complexes, in a manner analogous to osmotic stress. The magnitude of this proposed "gap effect" was probed for two simple model systems: the association of two spheres and the association of two planes. Our results suggest that for a protein of 20 A radius, an 8 A additive can increase the free energy barrier for association and dissociation by as much as 3-6 kcal/mol. Because the proposed gap effect is present only for reactions involving multiple molecules, it can be exploited to develop novel additives that affect protein association reactions although having little or no effect on unimolecular reactions such as protein folding. This idea has many potential applications in areas such as the stabilization of proteins against aggregation during folding and in pharmaceutical formulations.

  1. Development of a Virtual Reality Solution for End User Involvement in Interior Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Sørensen, Jesper Bendix

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes development and test of a prototype Virtual Reality system aimed at user involvement in hospital design. User needs and functional requirements are captured by interviews and observations in three case studies of ongoing projects in Denmark. Based on the identified requirements......, a prototype is developed based on a multitouch display for manipulating room layout in a floor plan view and a set of Oculus Rift glasses for experiencing the design in Virtual Reality. Together with users from the studied cases, test scenarios were performed to identify possible benefits, challenges...

  2. Development of a Virtual Reality Solution for End User Involvement in Interior Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Sørensen, Jesper Bendix

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes development and test of a prototype Virtual Reality system aimed at user involvement in hospital design. User needs and functional requirements are captured by interviews and observations in three case studies of ongoing projects in Denmark. Based on the identified requirements......, a prototype is developed based on a multitouch display for manipulating room layout in a floor plan view and a set of Oculus Rift glasses for experiencing the design in Virtual Reality. Together with users from the studied cases, test scenarios were performed to identify possible benefits, challenges...

  3. Organizational factors in design and implementation of technological and organizational solutions in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macchi, L.; Reiman, T.; Savioja, P. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Kahlbom, U. (Risk Pilot AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rollenhagen, C. (Vattenfall (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    Design is often found as one of the contributing factors in accident in the nuclear industry. The design of new technological systems and organisational structures has to take into account and be driven by the future users' needs and has to consider how their role and work practices within the organisation will be affected. The SADE project explores to which extend the concepts of safety culture and resilience engineering can contribute to the prevention of design errors when no hindsight data are available. In 2011, the SADE project focused on gathering experience and clarifying the current issues and challenges related to the design process. During 2011 seventeen interviews have been conducted in Finland and Sweden to identify some of the major challenges the nuclear industry is currently facing. At the same time a literature review has been conducted to establish a sound common theoretical ground. This progress report presents some of the relevant theoretical findings and preliminary results from the interviews. (Author)

  4. A Design Based Research Framework for Implementing a Transnational Mobile and Blended Learning Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palalas, Agnieszka; Berezin, Nicole; Gunawardena, Charlotte; Kramer, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes a modified Design-Based Research (DBR) framework which accommodates the various socio-cultural factors that emerged in the longitudinal PA-HELP research study at Central University College (CUC) in Ghana, Africa. A transnational team of stakeholders from Ghana, Canada, and the USA collaborated on the development,…

  5. Interaction design challenges and solutions for ALMA operations monitoring and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietriga, Emmanuel; Cubaud, Pierre; Schwarz, Joseph; Primet, Romain; Schilling, Marcus; Barkats, Denis; Barrios, Emilio; Vila Vilaro, Baltasar

    2012-09-01

    The ALMA radio-telescope, currently under construction in northern Chile, is a very advanced instrument that presents numerous challenges. From a software perspective, one critical issue is the design of graphical user interfaces for operations monitoring and control that scale to the complexity of the system and to the massive amounts of data users are faced with. Early experience operating the telescope with only a few antennas has shown that conventional user interface technologies are not adequate in this context. They consume too much screen real-estate, require many unnecessary interactions to access relevant information, and fail to provide operators and astronomers with a clear mental map of the instrument. They increase extraneous cognitive load, impeding tasks that call for quick diagnosis and action. To address this challenge, the ALMA software division adopted a user-centered design approach. For the last two years, astronomers, operators, software engineers and human-computer interaction researchers have been involved in participatory design workshops, with the aim of designing better user interfaces based on state-of-the-art visualization techniques. This paper describes the process that led to the development of those interface components and to a proposal for the science and operations console setup: brainstorming sessions, rapid prototyping, joint implementation work involving software engineers and human-computer interaction researchers, feedback collection from a broader range of users, further iterations and testing.

  6. Graphic Design: A Sustainable Solution to Manage the Contents of Teaching Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Garcia Izaguirre; Luisa, Pier Castello Maria; Eduardo, Arvizu Sanchez

    2010-01-01

    There is a concern that the teaching of subjects is applied not only with support from a set of technological devices, but largely in the proper use of teaching and new technologies. Taking this idea, the authors develop a research and sustainable design that result in educational materials in solid content and technological innovation, also to…

  7. Solution of Algebraic Equations in the Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Continuous Ultrafiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Continuous feed and bleed ultrafiltration, modeled with the gel polarization model for the limiting flux, is shown to provide a rich source of non-linear algebraic equations that can be readily solved using numerical and graphical techniques familiar to undergraduate students. We present a variety of numerical problems in the design, analysis, and…

  8. Participatory design of ehealth solutions for women from vulnerable populations with perinatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mara; Henderson, Rebecca; Holmes, John H; Wolters, Maria K; Bennett, Ian M

    2016-01-01

    Cultural and health service obstacles affect the quality of pregnancy care that women from vulnerable populations receive. Using a participatory design approach, the Stress in Pregnancy: Improving Results with Interactive Technology group developed specifications for a suite of eHealth applications to improve the quality of perinatal mental health care. We established a longitudinal participatory design group consisting of low-income women with a history of antenatal depression, their prenatal providers, mental health specialists, an app developer, and researchers. The group met 20 times over 24 months. Applications were designed using rapid prototyping. Meetings were documented using field notes. The group achieved high levels of continuity and engagement. Three apps were developed by the group: an app to support high-risk women after discharge from hospital, a screening tool for depression, and a patient decision aid for supporting treatment choice. Longitudinal participatory design groups are a promising, highly feasible approach to developing technology for underserved populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The design of Smart Energy Systems for 100% renewable energy and transport solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we launch the design of Smart Energy Systems through the 100% renewable energy system analyses and research behind the CEESA research project. The transition from fossil fuels towards the integration of more and more renewable energy requires rethinking and redesign of the energy...

  10. Towards appropriate design solutions for drug-resistant TB facilities in SA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parsons, SA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has a high and increasing burden of both drugs-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. This disease has been declared an emergency in Africa. South Africa has committed itself to addressing this national crises by designing...

  11. Combining design-based research and action research to test management solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Daan Andriessen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to organizational research that aims to produce research results that are both relevant and rigorous. The research approach combines the designing of a management tool with the testing of the tool using an action research methodology. The lack of relevance in

  12. Research through design : A way to drive innovative solutions in the field of smart textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottenberg, E. (Eliza); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Toeters, M. (Marina)

    2012-01-01

    Research through design allows creating a dialogue with the material. It uses making andreflection on action as a generator of knowledge. Our aim is to explore the opportunities and challenges of smart textiles. The Fablab is our set up, a place that allows us to combine the hackingscientific-, and

  13. A Design Based Research Framework for Implementing a Transnational Mobile and Blended Learning Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palalas, Agnieszka; Berezin, Nicole; Gunawardena, Charlotte; Kramer, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes a modified Design-Based Research (DBR) framework which accommodates the various socio-cultural factors that emerged in the longitudinal PA-HELP research study at Central University College (CUC) in Ghana, Africa. A transnational team of stakeholders from Ghana, Canada, and the USA collaborated on the development,…

  14. Analysis and design of machine learning techniques evolutionary solutions for regression, prediction, and control problems

    CERN Document Server

    Stalph, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Manipulating or grasping objects seems like a trivial task for humans, as these are motor skills of everyday life. Nevertheless, motor skills are not easy to learn for humans and this is also an active research topic in robotics. However, most solutions are optimized for industrial applications and, thus, few are plausible explanations for human learning. The fundamental challenge, that motivates Patrick Stalph, originates from the cognitive science: How do humans learn their motor skills? The author makes a connection between robotics and cognitive sciences by analyzing motor skill learning using implementations that could be found in the human brain – at least to some extent. Therefore three suitable machine learning algorithms are selected – algorithms that are plausible from a cognitive viewpoint and feasible for the roboticist. The power and scalability of those algorithms is evaluated in theoretical simulations and more realistic scenarios with the iCub humanoid robot. Convincing results confirm the...

  15. Pre-produsage and the remediation of virtual products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skågeby, Jörgen

    2011-04-01

    This paper introduces and explores cycles of pre-produsage and produsage. It reports on the results from an online ethnographical study of the Apple iPad conducted before the public release of the material product. Consequently, most users had not physically interacted with the device in question. Nevertheless, the release of the technical specifications and marketing material generated a massive amount of produsage-related online discussion. As such this paper explores the concept of pre-produsage. Pre-produsage is a form of predicted or expected use, relating to products or services that are only accessible to users as a form of representation (e.g. technical specification, virtual prototype, and design sketch), but with an added element of user-generated design suggestions, conflict coordination, and software development. Remediation-the process by which new digital media technologies reuses qualities of previous technologies and enters an existing media ecology-is a prevalent theme in pre-produsage and involves a tension between features that support protracted use and features that provide total innovation. The paper argues that an analysis of pre-produsage can provide insights that relate to both anticipated and actual user experience (UX). More specifically, pre-produsage analysis can trace the underlying reasons for a certain problem, intention, or concern and connect it to a specific set of features and potential solutions. Finally, the paper shows how proprietary products become subject to produsage, resulting in artifacts negotiated by cycles of produsage.

  16. Major Design Drivers for LEO Space Surveillance in Europe and Solution Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krag, Holger; Flohrer, Tim; Klinkrad, Heiner

    Europe is preparing for the development of an autonomous system for space situational aware-ness. One important segment of this new system will be dedicated to surveillance and tracking of space objects in Earth orbits. First concept and capability analysis studies have led to a draft system proposal. This proposal foresees, in a first deployment step, a groundbased system consisting of radar sensors and a network of optical telescopes. These sensors will be designed to have the capability of building up and maintaining a catalogue of space objects. A number of related services will be provided, including collision avoidance and the prediction of uncontrolled reentry events. Currently, the user requirements are consolidated, defining the different services, and the related accuracy and timeliness of the derived products. In this consolidation process parameters like the lower diameter limit above which catalogue coverage is to be achieved, the degree of population coverage in various orbital regions and the accuracy of the orbit data maintained in the catalogue are important design drivers for the selection of number and location of the sensors, and the definition of the required sensor performance. Further, the required minimum time for the detection of a manoeuvre, a newly launched object or a fragmentation event, significantly determines the required surveillance performance. In the requirement consolidation process the performance to be specified has to be based on a careful analysis which takes into account accuracy constraints of the services to be provided, the technical feasibility, complexity and costs. User requirements can thus not be defined with-out understanding the consequences they would pose on the system design. This paper will outline the design definition process for the surveillance and tracking segment of the European space situational awareness system. The paper will focus on the low-Earth orbits (LEO). It will present the core user

  17. Systematic network synthesis and design: Problem formulation, superstructure generation, data management and solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Gargalo, Carina L.; Chairakwongsa, Siwanat;

    2015-01-01

    The developments obtained in recent years in the field of mathematical programming considerably reduced the computational time and resources needed to solve large and complex Mixed Integer Non Linear Programming (MINLP) problems. Nevertheless, the application of these methods in industrial practice...... when large problems are considered. In an earlier work, we proposed a computer-aided framework for synthesis and design of process networks. In this contribution, we expand the framework by including methods and tools developed to structure, automate and simplify the mathematical formulation...... is still limited by the complexity associated with the mathematical formulation of some problems. In particular, the tasks of design space definition and representation as superstructure, as well as the data collection, validation and handling may become too complex and cumbersome to execute, especially...

  18. Mission-constrained design drivers and technical solutions for the MAGIA satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, Giorgio; Stipa, M.; Silvi, D.; Coltellacci, S.; Curti, G.; Colonna, G.; Formica, T.; Casali, V.; Fossati, T.; Di Matteo, F.; Zelli, M.; Rinaldi, M.; Ansalone, L.; di Salvo, A.

    2011-10-01

    The Mission MAGIA (Missione Altimetrica Geofisica GeochImica lunAre) was proposed in the framework of the "Bando per Piccole Missioni" of ASI (Italian Space Agency) in 2007. The mission was selected for a phase A study by ASI on February 7th 2008. The tight budget allocation, combined with quite ambitious scientific objectives, set challenging requirements for the satellite design. The paper gives a fast overview of the payloads complement and of the mission-constrained design drivers, including cost minimization, risk reduction, and AIT flexibility. The spacecraft architecture is then outlined, along with an overview of the key subsystems and trade-offs. Some details are given of a Moon gravitometric experiment based on a mother-daughter satellite configuration with the daughter being a subsatellite released from the MAGIA satellite and intended to circle the Moon at a very low altitude. Budgets are appended at the end of the paper showing the key study results.

  19. Generic Mathematical Programming Formulation and Solution for Computer-Aided Molecular Design

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This short communication presents a generic mathematical programming formulation for Computer-Aided Molecular Design (CAMD). A given CAMD problem, based on target properties, is formulated as a Mixed Integer Linear/Non-Linear Program (MILP/MINLP). The mathematical programming model presented here, which is formulated as an MILP/MINLP problem, considers first-order and second-order molecular groups for molecular structure representation and property estimation. It is shown that various CAMD pr...

  20. Wood slabs as a proposed solution to the design and construction of pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfonso Devia Castillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternatives to replace concrete slabs for prefabricated wood as structure of pavement with wearing course was evaluated, ensuring that these prefabrications work as a single element using finger joints. The mechanical behavior of two types of wood identified through simulations implementing a method of finite elements was evaluated, to subsequently determined optimal configuration for the alternative design with wood pavements and finally verified in the laboratory with the optimal configuration determined with simulation for a design of 440 000 vehicles shafts, with the use of the MTS machine and a load of 6.50 tons equivalent to a load of a single axle shaft with two wheels, found that for different traffic design the thickness of the slab of wood to resist this load varies between 0.125 and 0.24 meters. This research shows that prefabricated wood building systems are a viable alternative in the market for pavement construction in the structural sense; additionally, they are an innovation since they modify the structural system of slabs, conventionally built on concrete slabs and reduce environmental impact.

  1. PATENT SEARCH DESIGN PROVIDES TILLAGE OVERTURNING. METOD SEARCH. THE PROPOSED TECHNICAL SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belousov S. V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of patent search of mechanization for the main-processin you with a turnover of reservoir devices carry it out-ment, identified problems existing in the given-term technological operation. The ways of solving them and their implementation are shown. We describe two possible variants, making patent search using two search engines FIPS and FINDPATENT. We have shown the closest in design and type of patents that answer the main question which is tillage, the ways of influencing the process of improving tillage with a turnover of reservoir and definition of the design for further examination. This article has applied nature and is aimed at improving trend constructions of arable unit to improve the quality performance. We have proposed and presented a design of reversible ploughs and its body to moldboard tillage. When using a system of rational agriculture, we comply with all management practices of the application of modern energy-saving technology, the goal will be reached - increasing crop yields with less expenses

  2. Enhanced Remedial Amendment Delivery through Fluid Viscosity Modifications: Experiments and numerical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.

    2008-07-29

    Abstract Heterogeneity is often encountered in subsurface contamination characterization and remediation. Low-permeability zones are typically bypassed when remedial fluids are injected into subsurface heterogeneous aquifer systems. Therefore, contaminants in the bypassed areas may not be contacted by the amendments in the remedial fluid, which may significantly prolong the remediation operations. Laboratory experiments and numerical studies have been conducted to develop the Mobility-Controlled Flood (MCF) technology for subsurface remediation and to demonstrate the capability of this technology in enhancing the remedial amendments delivery to the lower permeability zones in heterogeneous systems. Xanthan gum, a bio-polymer, was used to modify the viscosity of the amendment-containing remedial solutions. Sodium mono-phosphate and surfactant were the remedial amendment used in this work. The enhanced delivery of the amendments was demonstrated in two-dimensional (2-D) flow cell experiments, packed with heterogeneous systems. The impact of polymer concentration, fluid injection rate, and permeability contract in the heterogeneous systems has been studied. The Subsurface Transport over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator was modified to include polymer-induced shear thinning effects. Shear rates of polymer solutions were computed from pore-water velocities using a relationship proposed in the literature. Viscosity data were subsequently obtained from empirical viscosity-shear rate relationships derived from laboratory data. The experimental and simulation results clearly show that the MCF technology is capable of enhancing the delivery of remedial amendments to subsurface lower permeability zones. The enhanced delivery significantly improved the NAPL removal from these zones and the sweeping efficiency on a heterogeneous system was remarkably increased when a polymer fluid was applied. MCF technology is also able to stabilize the fluid displacing front when there is a

  3. Trends in Modelling, Simulation and Design of Water Hydraulic Systems – Motion Control and Open-Ended Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a R&D-view on trends in development and best practise in modelling, simulation and design of both low-pressure and high-pressure tap water hydraulic components and systems for motion control as well as open-ended solutions various industrial applications. The focus...... is on the advantages using ordinary tap water and the range of application areas are illustrated with examples, in particular within the food processing industry, humidification operations, water mist systems for fire fighting, high water pressure cleaners, water moisturising systems for wood processing, lumber drying...... is that the components operate with pure water from the tap without additives of any kind. Hence water hydraulics takes the benefit of pure water as fluid being environmentally friendly, easy to clean sanitary design, non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive, readily available and easily disposable. The low-pressure tap...

  4. Fractional Factorial Design Study on the Performance of GAC-Enhanced Electrocoagulation Process Involved in Color Removal from Dye Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Gabriela Breaban

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of main factors and interactions on the color removal performance from dye solutions using the electrocoagulation process enhanced by adsorption on Granular Activated Carbon (GAC. In this study, a mathematical approach was conducted using a two-level fractional factorial design (FFD for a given dye solution. Three textile dyes: Acid Blue 74, Basic Red 1, and Reactive Black 5 were used. Experimental factors used and their respective levels were: current density (2.73 or 27.32 A/m2, initial pH of aqueous dye solution (3 or 9, electrocoagulation time (20 or 180 min, GAC dose (0.1 or 0.5 g/L, support electrolyte (2 or 50 mM, initial dye concentration (0.05 or 0.25 g/L and current type (Direct Current—DC or Alternative Pulsed Current—APC. GAC-enhanced electrocoagulation performance was analyzed statistically in terms of removal efficiency, electrical energy, and electrode material consumptions, using modeling polynomial equations. The statistical significance of GAC dose level on the performance of GAC enhanced electrocoagulation and the experimental conditions that favor the process operation of electrocoagulation in APC regime were determined. The local optimal experimental conditions were established using a multi-objective desirability function method.

  5. Radioactive Tank Waste Remediation Focus Area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In February 1991, DOE`s Office of Technology Development created the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID), to develop technologies for tank remediation. Tank remediation across the DOE Complex has been driven by Federal Facility Compliance Agreements with individual sites. In 1994, the DOE Office of Environmental Management created the High Level Waste Tank Remediation Focus Area (TFA; of which UST-ID is now a part) to better integrate and coordinate tank waste remediation technology development efforts. The mission of both organizations is the same: to focus the development, testing, and evaluation of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in USTs at DOE facilities. The ultimate goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. The TFA has focused on four DOE locations: the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina.

  6. Designing solutions for the retirement system – in search of balance between economy and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Romaniuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Social security system currently face a number of difficulties arising of changes in the demographic structure of societies, like the decrease in fertility, lengthening of life expectancy and unfavorable change in the proportion of the population receiving retirement benefits to the population in working age. In result social security systems are being subjects to transition aimed ad securing their financial stability, part of which is a tendency to rise the retirement age and eliminate all the incentives to prematurely exit the labor market. On the other hand, this process of transition, as observed in Poland, is being driven mainly by political processes and due to economic reasons, while lacking public health evidence. This rises a danger that in final result the financial savings will be illusory only, and that the final configuration of the system will be inconsistent with the actual social needs of the population and will not efficiently protect against the social risks. In the article we present arguments for using the Healthy Life Years indicator in analyzes relating to the performance of social security systems, so that its construction will reflect differences in health status of different professional groups and system’s solutions in terms of both risk protection and prevention might be adjusted to conditions characterizing these groups.

  7. Designing Solutions for the Retirement System - In Search of Balance between Economy and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Piotr; Brukało, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Social security system currently faces a number of difficulties arising of changes in the demographic structure of societies, like the decrease in fertility, lengthening of life expectancy, and unfavorable change in the proportion of the population receiving retirement benefits to the population in working age. In result, social security systems are being subjected to transition aimed at securing their financial stability, part of which is a tendency to rise the retirement age and eliminate all the incentives to prematurely exit the labor market. On the other hand, this process of transition, as observed in Poland, is being driven mainly by political processes and due to economic reasons, while lacking public health evidence. This raises a danger that in final result the financial savings will be illusory only and that the final configuration of the system will be inconsistent with the actual social needs of the population and will not efficiently protect against the social risks. In this article, we present arguments for using the Healthy Life Years indicator in analyses relating to the performance of social security systems. The indicator may help to reflect differences in health status of different professional groups and adjust system's solutions to conditions characterizing these groups, in terms of both risk protection and prevention.

  8. Computational benefits using artificial intelligent methodologies for the solution of an environmental design problem: saltwater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Maria P; Nikolos, Ioannis K; Karatzas, George P

    2010-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) comprise a powerful tool to approximate the complicated behavior and response of physical systems allowing considerable reduction in computation time during time-consuming optimization runs. In this work, a Radial Basis Function Artificial Neural Network (RBFN) is combined with a Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm to solve a water resources management problem, using an optimization procedure. The objective of the optimization scheme is to cover the daily water demand on the coastal aquifer east of the city of Heraklion, Crete, without reducing the subsurface water quality due to seawater intrusion. The RBFN is utilized as an on-line surrogate model to approximate the behavior of the aquifer and to replace some of the costly evaluations of an accurate numerical simulation model which solves the subsurface water flow differential equations. The RBFN is used as a local approximation model in such a way as to maintain the robustness of the DE algorithm. The results of this procedure are compared to the corresponding results obtained by using the Simplex method and by using the DE procedure without the surrogate model. As it is demonstrated, the use of the surrogate model accelerates the convergence of the DE optimization procedure and additionally provides a better solution at the same number of exact evaluations, compared to the original DE algorithm.

  9. Optimization of the design and preparation of nanoscale phospholipid bilayers for its application to solution NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthenveetil, Robbins; Vinogradova, Olga

    2013-07-01

    Despite arduous efforts and recent technological developments structural investigation of integral membrane proteins remains a challenge. The primary deterrents include difficulties with their expression, low inherent solubility, and problems associated with existing membrane mimicking systems. A relatively new class of membrane mimetics, nanodiscs, is emerging as a promising alternative. Although nanodiscs have been proven successful for several biophysical applications, they yet remain to become the system of preferred choice for structure determination. We have hereby made nanodiscs more suitable for solution NMR applications by reducing the diameter of the self-assembly complex to its potential limit. We achieved a noticeable improvement in the quality of NMR spectra obtained for the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of integrin αIIb incorporated into these smaller discs rendering them susceptible for a thorough structural investigation. In addition, we also present an on-column method for a rapid, efficient, single-step preparation of protein incorporated nanodiscs at high concentrations. These discs have been fully characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and differential scanning calorimetry.

  10. Generic Mathematical Programming Formulation and Solution for Computer-Aided Molecular Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lei; Cignitti, Stefano; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    This short communication presents a generic mathematical programming formulation for Computer-Aided Molecular Design (CAMD). A given CAMD problem, based on target properties, is formulated as a Mixed Integer Linear/Non-Linear Program (MILP/MINLP). The mathematical programming model presented here......, which is formulated as an MILP/MINLP problem, considers first-order and second-order molecular groups for molecular structure representation and property estimation. It is shown that various CAMD problems can be formulated and solved through this model....

  11. Generic Mathematical Programming Formulation and Solution for Computer-Aided Molecular Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lei; Cignitti, Stefano; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    This short communication presents a generic mathematical programming formulation for Computer-Aided Molecular Design (CAMD). A given CAMD problem, based on target properties, is formulated as a Mixed Integer Linear/Non-Linear Program (MILP/MINLP). The mathematical programming model presented here......, which is formulated as an MILP/MINLP problem, considers first-order and second-order molecular groups for molecular structure representation and property estimation. It is shown that various CAMD problems can be formulated and solved through this model....

  12. Technology Solutions Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings team monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.

  13. Customer Relationship Management System in Occupational Safety & Health Companies: Research on Practice and Preliminary Design Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fabac

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent contemporary trends in formation of companies is the approach to development of a customer-oriented company. In this matter, various versions related to the intensity of this orientation are differentiated. Customer relationship management (CRM system is a well-known concept, and its practice is being studied and improved in connection to various sectors. Companies providing services of occupational safety and health (OHS mainly cooperate with a large number of customers and the quality of this cooperation largely affects the occupational safety and health of employees. Therefore, it is of both scientific and wider social interest to study and improve the relationship of these companies with their customers. This paper investigates the practice of applying CRM in Croatian OHS companies. It identifies the existing conditions and suggests possible improvements in the practice of CRM, based on experts’ assessments using analytic hierarchy process evaluation. Universal preliminary design was created as a framework concept for the formation of a typical customer-oriented OHS services company. Preliminary design includes a structural view, which provides more details through system diagrams, and an illustration of main cooperation processes of a company with its customer.

  14. 29 CFR 36.110 - Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Remedial and affirmative action and self-evaluation. 36.110... affirmative action and self-evaluation. (a) Remedial action. If the designated agency official finds that a... effects of such discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination...

  15. Observational Approach to Chromium Site Remediation - 13266

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Myers, R. [Washington Closure Hanford, 2620 Fermi, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Production reactors at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, required massive quantities of water for reactor cooling and material processing. To reduce corrosion and the build-up of scale in pipelines and cooling systems, sodium dichromate was added to the water feedstock. Spills and other releases at the makeup facilities, as well as leaks from miles of pipelines, have led to numerous areas with chromium-contaminated soil and groundwater, threatening fish populations in the nearby Columbia River. Pump-and-treat systems have been installed to remove chromium from the groundwater, but significant contamination remain in the soil column and poses a continuing threat to groundwater and the Columbia River. Washington Closure Hanford, DOE, and regulators are working on a team approach that implements the observational approach, a strategy for effectively dealing with the uncertainties inherent in subsurface conditions. Remediation of large, complex waste sites at a federal facility is a daunting effort. It is particularly difficult to perform the work in an environment of rapid response to changing field and contamination conditions. The observational approach, developed by geotechnical engineers to accommodate the inherent uncertainties in subsurface conditions, is a powerful and appropriate method for site remediation. It offers a structured means of quickly moving into full remediation and responding to the variations and changing conditions inherent in waste site cleanups. A number of significant factors, however, complicate the application of the observational approach for chromium site remediation. Conceptual models of contamination and site conditions are difficult to establish and get consensus on. Mid-stream revisions to the design of large excavations are time-consuming and costly. And regulatory constraints and contract performance incentives can be impediments to the flexible responses required under the

  16. Analytical Solution for Interference Fit for Multi-Layer Thick-Walled Cylinders and the Application in Crankshaft Bearing Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Interference fit is an important contact mode used for torque transmission existing widely in engineering design. To prevent trackslip, a certain magnitude of interference has to be ensured; meanwhile, the interference needs to be controlled to avoid failure of the mechanical components caused by high assembly stress. The finite element method (FEM can be used to analyze the stress, while the computational cost of FEM involving nonlinear contact algorithm is relatively high, and likely to come across low precision and convergence problems. Therefore, a rapid and accurate analytical method for estimation is of vital need, especially for the initial design stage when the parameters vary in a large range. In this study, an analytical method to calculate the contact pressure and stress between multi-layer thick-walled cylinders (MLTWC with multi-contact pairs and temperature-raising effect is proposed, and evaluated by FEM. The analytical solution of the interference for tri-layer thick-walled cylinders is applied to the design of engine crankshaft bearing. The results indicate that the analytical method presented in this study can reduce complexity of MLTWC problems and improve the computational efficiency. It is well suited to be used for the calculation model of parameter optimization in early design.

  17. Artisanal fishing net float loss and a proposal for a float design solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Chaves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plastic floats from fishing nets are commonly found washed up on beaches in southern Brazil. They are usually broken and show signs of having been repaired. Characteristics of floats and interviews with fishermen suggest two main causes of float loss. First, collisions between active gear, bottom trawl nets for shrimp, and passive gear, drift nets for fish, destroy nets and release fragments of them, including floats. Second, the difficulty with which floats are inserted on the float rope of the nets when they are used near the surface. Floats are inserted to replace damaged or lost floats, or they may be removed if it is desired that the nets be used in deeper waters. Floats may thus be poorly fixed to the cables and lost. Here a new float design that offers greater safety in use and for the replacement of floats is described and tested.

  18. Problems and solutions in high-rate multichannel hybrid photodiode design The CMS experience

    CERN Document Server

    Cushman, P B

    2002-01-01

    The unique conditions of the CMS experiment (4 T magnetic field, restricted access, high neutron radiation, and 25-ns bunch-crossings) necessitated the development of a new type of high-rate multichannel hybrid photodiode for the tile/fiber hadronic calorimeter. New complexities arose in the push toward high-rate operation, necessitating design changes in the diode structure and surface treatment. The product is now capable of high-rate operation with low crosstalk and leakage current. Lifetime studies of high-voltage behavior, total charge, and irradiation have shown that the tubes will survive the ten years of CMS running with only a few percent change in gain and manageable leakage current rise. (13 refs).

  19. Fully Decoupled Compliant Parallel Mechanism: a New Solution for the Design of Multidimensional Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen GAO

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel multidimensional accelerometer is proposed based on fully decoupled compliant parallel mechanism. Three separated chains, which are served as the elastic body, are perpendicular to each other for sensing the kinetic information in different directions without decoupling process. As the crucial part of the whole sensor structure, the revolute and prismatic joints in three pairwise orthogonal branches of the parallel mechanism are manufactured with the alloy aluminium as flexure hinge-based compliant joints. The structure development is first introduced, followed by the comprehensive finite-element analysis including the strain of the sensitive legs, modal analysis for total deformation under different frequency, and the performance of harmonic response. Then, the shape optimization is conducted to reduce the unnecessary parts. Compliance optimization with particle swarm algorithm is implemented to redesign the dimension of the sensitive legs. The research supplies a new viewpoint for the mechanical design of physical sensor, especially acceleration sensor.

  20. Point-of-care solution for osteoporosis management design, fabrication, and validation of new technology

    CERN Document Server

    Khashayar, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the important clinical problem of accurately diagnosing osteoporosis, and analyzes how Bone Turnover Markers (BTMs) can improve osteoporosis detection. In her research, the author integrated microfluidic technology with electrochemical sensing to embody a reaction/detection chamber to measure serum levels of different biomarkers, creating a microfluidic proteomic platform that can easily be translated into a biomarker diagnostic. The Osteokit System, a result of the integration of electrochemical system and microfluidic chips, is a unique design that offers the potential for greater sensitivity. The implementation, feasibility, and specificity of the Osteokit platform is demonstrated in this book, which is appropriate for researchers working on bone biology and mechanics, as well as clinicians.

  1. Designing Illumination Lenses and Mirrors by the Numerical Solution of Monge-Amp\\`ere Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Brix, Kolja; Platen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We consider the inverse refractor and the inverse reflector problem. The task is to design a free-form lens or a free-form mirror that, when illuminated by a point light source, produces a given illumination pattern on a target. Both problems can be modeled by strongly nonlinear second-order partial differential equations of Monge-Amp\\`ere type. In [Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci. 25 (2015), pp. 803--837, DOI: 10.1142/S0218202515500190] the authors have proposed a B-spline collocation method which has been applied to the inverse reflector problem. Now this approach is extended to the inverse refractor problem. We explain in depth the collocation method and how to handle boundary conditions and constraints. The paper concludes with numerical results of refracting and reflecting optical surfaces and their verification via ray tracing.

  2. Designing local solutions for emptying pit latrines in low-income urban settlements (Malawi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipeta, W. C.; Holm, R. H.; Kamanula, J. F.; Mtonga, W. E.; de los Reyes, F. L.

    2017-08-01

    A lack of effective options in local technology poses challenges when onsite household sanitation facilities are eventually filled to capacity in unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu City, located in northern Malawi. Vacuum trucks currently dominate the market but focus on emptying septic tanks in the more easily accessible planned settlement areas, rather than servicing the pit latrines common in unplanned settlement areas. As a result, households in the unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu rely primarily on manual pit emptying (i.e., shoveling by hand) or digging a new pit latrine. These practices have associated health risks and are limited by space constraints. This research focused on filling the technological gap through the design, development, and testing of a pedal powered modified Gulper pump using locally available materials and fabrication. A modified pedal powered Gulper technology was developed and demonstrated to be capable of lifting fecal sludge from a depth of 1.5 m with a mean flow rate of 0.00058 m3/s. If the trash content was low, a typical pit latrine with a volume of 1-4 m3 could be emptied within 1-2 h. Based on the findings in our research Phase IV, the pedal powered Gulper modification is promising as a potential emptying technology for lined pit latrines in unplanned settlement areas. The success rate of the technology is about 17% (5 out 30 sampled lined pit latrines were successful) and reflects the difficulty in finding a single technology that can work well in all types of pit latrines with varying contents. We note that cost should not be the only design criteria and acknowledge the challenge of handling trash in pit latrines.

  3. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Appendix B of Attachment 3: Groundwater hydrology report, Attachment 4: Water resources protection strategy, Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    Attachment 3 Groundwater Hydrology Report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the processing site and Dry Flats disposal site. The Hydrological Services calculations contained in Appendix A of Attachment 3, are presented in a separate report. Attachment 4 Water Resources Protection Strategy describes how the remedial action will be in compliance with the proposed EPA groundwater standards.

  4. Deformability of plastering compositions in design solutions of modern thermal protective exterior walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Vakhitov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, appearance of new constructive decisions for multilayer thermal efficient walls in the practice of design and construction caused the increasing use of protective and decorative plaster compositions. Comprehensive protective plaster systems nowadays are used in the facade insulation systems as a protective layer on the surface of polystyrene foam or mineral wool boards, forming the insulating layer to the outer walls of concrete blocks. They are also used for exterior finish of walls made of gas-concrete blocks, plastering the brickwork of the buildings operated by rehabilitation, in particular, apartment houses of old mass series. The problem of ensuring durability of thermal efficient external walls with the use of protective and decorative plaster systems were identified in this article. The factors, affecting the resistance of facade plasters to the action of external conditions in operating process were considered. The weaknesses in the necessary characteristics of plaster mixtures provided by material manufacturers are revealed. The existing methods for determining crack resistance of plaster compositions are monitored. The author's method of determining the maximum stretch of plaster compositions is given. The article presents tests results of various plaster compositions, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. BILEVEL PROGRAMMING MODEL AND SOLUTION METHOD FOR MIXED TRANSPORTATION NETWORK DESIGN PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haozhi ZHANG; Ziyou GAO

    2009-01-01

    By handling the travel cost function artfully, the authors formulate the transportation mixed network design problem (MNDP) as a mixed-integer, nonlinear bilevel programming problem, in which the lower-level problem, comparing with that of conventional bilevel DNDP models, is not a side constrained user equilibrium assignment problem, but a standard user equilibrium assignment problem. Then, the bilevel programming model for MNDP is reformulated as a continuous version of bilevel programming problem by the continuation method. By virtue of the optimal-value function, the lower-level assignment problem can be expressed as a nonlinear equality constraint. Therefore, the bilevel programming model for MNDP can be transformed into an equivalent single-level optimization problem. By exploring the inherent nature of the MNDP, the optimal-value function for the lower-level equilibrium assignment problem is proved to be continuously differentiable and its functional value and gradient can be obtained efficiently. Thus, a continuously differentiable but still nonconvex optimization formulation of the MNDP is created, and then a locally convergent algorithm is proposed by applying penalty function method. The inner loop of solving the subproblem is mainly to implement an all-or-nothing assignment. Finally, a small-scale transportation network and a large-scale network are presented to verify the proposed model and algorithm.

  6. Generalized solution of design optimization and failure analysis of composite drive shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollipalli, K.; Shivaramakrishna, K.V.S.; Prabhakaran, R.T.D. [Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Goa (India)

    2012-07-01

    Composites have an edge over conventional metals like steel and aluminum due to higher stiffness-to-weight ratio and strength-to-weight ratio. Due to these advantages, composites can bring out a revolutionary change in materials used in automotive engineering, as weight savings has positive impacts on other attributes like fuel economy and possible noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). In this paper, the drive line system of an automotive system is targeted for use of composites by keeping constraints in view such as such as torque transmission, torsional buckling load and fundamental natural frequency. Composite drive shafts made of three different composites ('HM Carbon/HS Carbon/E-glass'-epoxy) was modeled using Catia V5R16 CPD workbench and a finite element analysis with boundary conditions, fiber orientation and stacking sequence was performed using ANSYS Composite module. Results obtained were compared to theoretical results and were found to be accurate and in the limits. This paper also speaks on drive shaft modeling and analysis generalization i.e., changes in stacking sequence in the future can be incorporated directly into ANSYS model without modeling it again in Catia. Hence the base model and analysis method made up in this analysis generalization facilitated by CAD/CAE can be used to carry out any composite shaft design optimization process. (Author)

  7. Design and implementation of disaster recovery and business continuity solution for radiology PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori, Bahar; Rosipko, Beverly; Erhard, Karen K; Sunshine, Jeffrey L

    2014-02-01

    In the digital era of radiology, picture archiving and communication system (PACS) has a pivotal role in retrieving and storing the images. Integration of PACS with all the health care information systems e.g., health information system, radiology information system, and electronic medical record has greatly improved access to patient data at anytime and anywhere throughout the entire enterprise. In such an integrated setting, seamless operation depends critically on maintaining data integrity and continuous access for all. Any failure in hardware or software could interrupt the workflow or data and consequently, would risk serious impact to patient care. Thus, any large-scale PACS now have an indispensable requirement to include deployment of a disaster recovery plan to ensure secure sources of data. This paper presents our experience with designing and implementing a disaster recovery and business continuity plan. The selected architecture with two servers in each site (local and disaster recovery (DR) site) provides four different scenarios to continue running and maintain end user service. The implemented DR at University Hospitals Health System now permits continuous access to the PACS application and its contained images for radiologists, other clinicians, and patients alike.

  8. Endocrinology in field studies: problems and solutions for the experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusani, Leonida

    2008-07-01

    The increasing interest in hormones among field biologists can be frustrating because of the difficulties of applying classical endocrinological methods to natural settings. A few thoroughly tested methods have become popular because of their simplicity of use. This does not mean that such methods are the best or the appropriate ones for all studies. In this brief review I will examine some common problems encountered by field biologists who want to study the relationships between a morphological, behavioral, or physiological trait and a hormone. First, I will discuss why questions asked in the field often differ substantially from those asked in the laboratory, and how to adapt the design of the experiment accordingly. Second, I will review alternative methods to study hormone-trait relationships and how to combine them to strengthen the conclusions that can be drawn from the study. Then, I will discuss how to find the right control for a hormonal manipulation. Finally, I will examine the pitfalls associated with long-term hormonal treatment and the available methods for such types of studies.

  9. An Electronic Tongue Designed to Detect Ammonium Nitrate in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Campos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An electronic tongue has been developed to monitor the presence of ammonium nitrate in water. It is based on pulse voltammetry and consists of an array of eight working electrodes (Au; Pt; Rh; Ir; Cu; Co; Ag and Ni encapsulated in a stainless steel cylinder. In a first step the electrochemical response of the different electrodes was studied in the presence of ammonium nitrate in water in order to further design the wave form used in the voltammetric tongue. The response of the electronic tongue was then tested in the presence of a set of 15 common inorganic salts; i.e.; NH4NO3; MgSO4; NH4Cl; NaCl; Na2CO3; (NH42SO4; MgCl2; Na3PO4; K2SO4; K2CO3; CaCl2; NaH2PO4; KCl; NaNO3; K2HPO4. A PCA plot showed a fairly good discrimination between ammonium nitrate and the remaining salts studied. In addition Fuzzy Art map analyses determined that the best classification was obtained using the Pt; Co; Cu and Ni electrodes. Moreover; PLS regression allowed the creation of a model to correlate the voltammetric response of the electrodes with concentrations of ammonium nitrate in the presence of potential interferents such as ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate.

  10. Remedial Action Contacts Directory - 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This document, which was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), is a directory of 2628 individuals interested or involved in environmental restoration and/or remedial actions at radioactively contaminated sites. This directory contains a list of mailing addresses and phone numbers of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor offices; an index of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor office sorted by state; a list of individuals, presented by last name, facsimile number, and e-mail address; an index of affiliations presented alphabetically, with individual contacts appearing below each affiliation name; and an index of foreign contacta sorted by country and affiliation. This document was generated from the Remedial Action Contacts Database, which is maintained by the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC).

  11. Nanocomposite Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Environmental Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Homaeigohar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid worldwide industrialization and population growth is going to lead to an extensive environmental pollution. Therefore, so many people are currently suffering from the water shortage induced by the respective pollution, as well as poor air quality and a huge fund is wasted in the world each year due to the relevant problems. Environmental remediation necessitates implementation of novel materials and technologies, which are cost and energy efficient. Nanomaterials, with their unique chemical and physical properties, are an optimum solution. Accordingly, there is a strong motivation in seeking nano-based approaches for alleviation of environmental problems in an energy efficient, thereby, inexpensive manner. Thanks to a high porosity and surface area presenting an extraordinary permeability (thereby an energy efficiency and selectivity, respectively, nanofibrous membranes are a desirable candidate. Their functionality and applicability is even promoted when adopting a nanocomposite strategy. In this case, specific nanofillers, such as metal oxides, carbon nanotubes, precious metals, and smart biological agents, are incorporated either during electrospinning or in the post-processing. Moreover, to meet operational requirements, e.g., to enhance mechanical stability, decrease of pressure drop, etc., nanofibrous membranes are backed by a microfibrous non-woven forming a hybrid membrane. The novel generation of nanocomposite/hybrid nanofibrous membranes can perform extraordinarily well in environmental remediation and control. This reality justifies authoring of this review paper.

  12. Overview of innovative remediation of emerging contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, A. A.; Adeleye, A. S.; Huang, Y.; Garner, K.

    2015-12-01

    The application of nanotechnology in drinking water treatment and pollution cleanup is promising, as demonstrated by a number of field-based (pilot and full scale) and bench scale studies. A number of reviews exist for these nanotechnology-based applications; but to better illustrate its importance and guide its development, a direct comparison between traditional treatment technologies and emerging approaches using nanotechnology is needed. In this review, the performances of traditional technologies and nanotechnology for water treatment and environmental remediation were compared with the goal of providing an up-to-date reference on the state of treatment techniques for researchers, industry, and policy makers. Pollutants were categorized into broad classes, and the most cost-effective techniques (traditional and nanotechnology-based) in each category reported in the literature were compared. Where information was available, cost and environmental implications of both technologies were also compared. Traditional treatment technologies were found to currently offer the most cost-effective choices for removal of several common pollutants from drinking water and polluted sites. Nano-based techniques may however become important in complicated remediation conditions and meeting increasingly stringent water quality standards, especially in removal of emerging pollutants and low levels of contaminants. We also discuss challenges facing environmental application of nanotechnology were also discussed and potential solutions.

  13. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  14. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  15. Design and Implementation of a Novel HomePlug-Based Solution for Low Cost and High Performance Smart Home Networking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.T.Bathaee; A.Fereidunian; A.Khajeh Amiri Hagh; H.Heydari

    2014-01-01

    As the smart home is the end-point power consumer, it is the major part to be controlled in a smart micro grid. There are so many challenges for implementing a smart home system in which the most important ones are the cost and simplicity of the implementation method. It is clear that the major share of the total cost is referred to the internal controlling system network; although there are too many methods proposed but still there is not any satisfying method at the consumers’ point of view. In this paper, a novel solution for this demand is proposed, which not only minimizes the implementation cost, but also provides a high level of reliability and simplicity of operation;feasibility, extendibility, and flexibility are other leading properties of the design.

  16. Gender and cleaner production: toward a framework for including gender analysis when developing strategies and designing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sally; Quinn, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Environmental policies that do not consider global gender dimensions often create benefits for some people and ecosystems but result in costs for others, in particular women, at some point along the global chain of production and consumption. This article is intended to begin a dialogue about the importance of including gender analysis in the design of cleaner production strategies. We review global development policy and its critiques that have identified a need for gender awareness and analysis. This examination provides a backdrop for a discussion of how to include gender analysis in cleaner production planning and implementation. We invite researchers and practitioners to enter this dialogue to further the field and develop effective tools and policies to analyze gender dynamics, support gender equity, and find environmentally sound solutions that are sustainable for the long-term.

  17. LINQifying TheBeerHouse An N-Tier LINQ Web Application with ASPNET 20 Website Programming Problem - Design - Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Dumond, Lee

    2008-01-01

    Finally, TheBeerHouse website from ASP.NET 2.0 Website Programming: Problem-Design-Solution gets the ASP.NET 3.5 treatment! This Wrox Blox presents two unique approaches to applying LINQ to SQL to data access in TheBeerHouse.   In Part 1, you'll take advantage of the original application's data provider model to develop a custom LINQ to SQL provider for the Articles module. In Part 2, you'll try a different approach, while learning how to develop an ASP.NET 3.5 application using a purely LINQ-based three-tier model. Along the way, you'll learn about LINQ to Objects; the newest features of the

  18. EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF HEAVY OIL AND BITUMEN FIELDS IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwizug-bee L. K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, belt of bituminous sand stretches to the East of Ijebu-Ode (Ogun State in the district of Siluko and Akotogbo, Okitipupa (Ondo Sate and Edo State. It covers a distance of approximately 110 km and lies in the upper cretaceous sequence of the Abeokuta formation in the eastern Dahomey Basin. Reserves of bituminous sand in Nigeria is estimated to be around 30- 40 billion barrels with a possibility to extract 3654 × 106 barrels. From the approximately 30-40 billion barrels of oil sand, Ogun State has more than 40% in reserve. However, this huge stock of oil sand in Nigeria is yet to be exploited. This article provides an assessment of technological solutions for the design and development of tar sand fields in Nigeria. Reserves of oil sand in Nigeria are the biggest in the whole of Africa

  19. The increase of surface area of a Brazilian palygorskite clay activated with sulfuric acid solutions using a factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palygorskite is fibrous clay in which the structural tetrahedral and octahedral layers are organized in a way that structural channels are formed, leading to high surface area. However, impurities inside the channels and aggregated ones considerably reduce the available area. In order to increase the surface area, an activation treatment can be considered useful. The goal of this work is the activation of palygorskite from Guadalupe, Piauí, via sulfuric acid treatment using a two-level factorial design. The influence of three parameters (solution molarity, temperature and time on BET surface area was determined. Moreover, samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD and fluorescence (XRF, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The largest surface area (282 m²/g without considerable changes in clay structure and morphology was found in a sample treated with 5M H2SO4 at 70°C for 1h. The main parameters that favored the improvement of the surface area were the solution's molarity, temperature and their interaction.

  20. CIRCUIT-DESIGN SOLUTIONS AND INFORMATION SUPPORT OF CITY ELECTRIC NETWORKS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SMART GRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fursanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure, circuit-design solutions and information support of the city electric networks in the conditions of the SMART GRID have been analyzed. It is demonstrated that the new conditions of functioning of electric power engineering, increasing demands for its technological state and reliability in most countries determined the transition to a restructuring of electrical networks to be based on the SMART GRID (intelligent power networks innovative new structure. The definitions of the SMART GRID, its various attributes and characteristics in most developed countries including Belarus are presented. It is revealed that the existing and future circuit and constructive solutions that can automate the process of managing modes of urban electric networks under the SMART GRID conditions are manifold. At present, the most common in distribution networks are the sources of distributed generation (combustion turbines, wind turbines, photovoltaic installations, mini-hydro, etc.. The patterns and problems of information traceability of a traditional urban networks of the unified energy system of Belarus have been analyzed, and it is demonstrated that in the conditions of the SMART GRID most of the problems of the control mode that are characteristic for traditional distribution networks 6–10 kV and 0.38 kV, lose their relevance. Therefore, the present article presents and features the main directions of development of automatic control modes of the SMART GRID.

  1. Solution-based synthesis and design of late transition metal chalcogenide materials for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min-Rui; Jiang, Jun; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2012-01-09

    Late transition metal chalcogenide (LTMC) nanomaterials have been introduced as a promising Pt-free oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts because of their low cost, good ORR activity, high methanol tolerance, and facile synthesis. Herein, an overview on the design and synthesis of LTMC nanomaterials by solution-based strategies is presented along with their ORR performances. Current solution-based synthetic approaches towards LTMC nanomaterials include a hydrothermal/solvothermal approach, single-source precursor approach, hot-injection approach, template-directed soft synthesis, and Kirkendall-effect-induced soft synthesis. Although the ORR activity and stability of LTMC nanomaterials are still far from what is needed for practical fuel-cell applications, much enhanced electrocatalytic performance can be expected. Recent advances have emphasized that decorating the surface of the LTMC nanostructures with other functional nanoparticles can lead to much better ORR catalytic activity. It is believed that new synthesis approaches to LTMCs, modification techniques of LTMCs, and LTMCs with desirable morphology, size, composition, and structures are expected to be developed in the future to satisfy the requirements of commercial fuel cells.

  2. Inclusion of social indicators in decision support tools for the selection of sustainable site remediation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuyns, Valérie

    2016-12-15

    Sustainable remediation requires a balanced decision-making process in which environmental, economic and social aspects of different remediation options are all considered together and the optimum remediation solution is selected. More attention has been paid to the evaluation of environmental and economic aspects, in particular to reduce the human and environmental risks and the remediation costs, to the exclusion of social aspects of remediation. This paper investigates how social aspects are currently considered in sustainability assessments of remediation projects. A selection of decision support tools (DSTs), used for the sustainability assessment of a remediation project, is analyzed to define how social aspects are considered in those tools. The social indicator categories of the Sustainable Remediation Forum - United Kingdom (SuRF-UK), are used as a basis for this evaluation. The consideration of social aspects in the investigated decision support tools is limited, but a clear increase is noticed in more recently developed tools. Among the five social indicator categories defined by SuRF-UK to facilitate a holistic consideration of social aspects of a remediation project only "Human health and safety" is systematically taken into account. "Neighbourhood and locality" is also often addressed, mostly emphasizing the potential disturbance caused by the remediation activities. However, the evaluation of 'Ethics and Equality', Communities and community involvement', and 'Uncertainty and evidence' is often neglected. Nevertheless, concrete examples can be found in some of the investigated tools. Specific legislation, standard procedures, and guidelines that have to be followed in a region or country are mainly been set up in the context of protecting human and ecosystem health, safety and prevention of nuisance. However, they sometimes already include some of the aspects addressed by the social indicators. In this perspective the use of DST to evaluate the

  3. Natural attenuation software (NAS): Assessing remedial strategies and estimating timeframes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, E.; Widdowson, M.; Chapelle, F.; Casey, C.

    2005-01-01

    Natural Attenuation Software (NAS) is a screening tool to estimate remediation timeframes for monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and to assist in decision-making on the level of source zone treatment in conjunction with MNA using site-specific remediation objectives. Natural attenuation processes that NAS models include are advection, dispersion, sorption, non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) dissolution, and biodegradation of either petroleum hydrocarbons or chlorinated ethylenes. Newly-implemented enhancements to NAS designed to maximize the utility of NAS for site managers were observed. NAS has expanded source contaminant specification options to include chlorinated ethanes and chlorinated methanes, and to allow for the analysis of any other user-defined contaminants that may be subject to microbially-mediated transformations (heavy metals, radioisotopes, etc.). Included is the capability to model co-mingled plumes, with constituents from multiple contaminant categories. To enable comparison of remediation timeframe estimates between MNA and specific engineered remedial actions , NAS was modified to incorporate an estimation technique for timeframes associated with pump-and-treat remediation technology for comparison to MNA. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 8th International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium (Baltimore, MD 6/6-9/2005).

  4. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Johnson, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography contains 693 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. Foreign, as well as domestic, literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, and Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General Studies. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for (1) author; (2) corporate affiliation; (3) title; (4) publication description; (5) geographic location; and (6) keywords. An appendix of 202 bibliographic references without abstracts or indexes has been included in this bibliography. This appendix represents literature identified but not abstracted due to time constraints.

  5. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, A.; Ottpsen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers.This work shows the laboratory results of nine...... electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4......, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2V/cm.The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20V using approximately 1.8kg mine tailing on dry basis...

  6. The efficacy and durability of radon remedial measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cliff, K.D.; Naismith, S.P. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom); Scivyer, C.; Stephen, R. [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    In the UK, over 16,000 homes, from an estimated 100,000, with annual average radon concentrations exceeding the UK Action Level of 200 Bq.m{sup -3} have been discovered. Some 600 householders who have taken action have sought confirmatory measurements from NRPB. Results for 345 such homes are discussed. A number of remedied homes are being remeasured annually to determine the durability of the remedies: results for the first year follow-up measurements are given. In a separate exercise, homes having the highest radon levels known in the UK have been enrolled in a research programme of the Building Research Establishment. The results for 53 homes in which BRE surveyed, designed and supervised remedial work are presented. (author).

  7. Electrodialytic Remediation of Copper Mine Tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields.......This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields....

  8. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuen, C. R.; Martino, L. E.; Biang, R. P.; Chang, Y. S.; Dolak, D.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Patton, T. L.; Prasad, S.; Quinn, J.; Rosenblatt, D. H.; Vercellone, J.; Wang, Y. Y.

    2000-03-14

    This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field.

  9. Assessment and remediation of a historical pipeline release : tools, techniques and technologies applied to in-situ/ex-situ soil and groundwater remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, N. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kohlsmith, B. [Kinder Morgan Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Tools, techniques, and technologies applied to in-situ/ex-situ soil and groundwater remediation were presented as part of an assessment and remediation of a historical pipeline release. The presentation discussed the initial assessment, as well as a discussion of remediation of hydrophobic soils, re-assessment, site specific criteria, a remediation trial involving bioventing and chemical oxidation, and a full scale remediation. The pipeline release occurred in the summer of 1977. The event was followed by a complete surface remediation with a significant amount of topsoil being removed and replaced. In 2004, a landowner complained of poor crop growth in four patches near the area of the historical spill. An initial assessment was undertaken and several photographs were presented. It was concluded that a comprehensive assessment set the base for a careful staged approach to the remediation of the site including the establishment of site specific criteria. The process was made possible with a high level of communication between all stakeholders. In addition, the most appropriate solution for the site was realized. figs.

  10. Green Chemistry and Environmental Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Nutrient remediation and recovery is a growing concern for two key reasons: (i) the prevention of harmful algal bloom proliferation, and (ii) the recycling of nutrients (e.g., phosphates) as they are non-renewable resources which are quickly being depleted. A wide range...

  11. Efficacy of radon remedial measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom))

    1994-04-01

    About 2000 householders in the UK have taken remedial action to reduce high radon levels in their homes. Some 800 of these householders have sought measurements to confirm the effectiveness of the action. Results for 528 such homes are discussed. (author).

  12. Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, Andre; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2008-01-01

    Proper mathematical skills are important for every science course and mathematics-intensive chemistry courses rely on a sound mathematical pre-knowledge. In the first-year quantum chemistry course at this university, it was noticed that many students lack basic mathematical knowledge. To tackle the mathematics problem, a remedial mathematics…

  13. Green Chemistry and Environmental Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Nutrient remediation and recovery is a growing concern for two key reasons: (i) the prevention of harmful algal bloom proliferation, and (ii) the recycling of nutrients (e.g., phosphates) as they are non-renewable resources which are quickly being depleted. A wide range...

  14. Remediation Technology for Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioremediation is the most commonly selected technology for remediation of ground water at Superfund sites in the USA. The next most common technology is Chemical treatment, followed by Air Sparging, and followed by Permeable Reactive Barriers. This presentation reviews the the...

  15. Remediation of Cr(VI)-Contaminated Soil Using the Acidified Hydrazine Hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yameng; Li, Fangfang; Jiang, Yuling; Yang, Weihua; Lv, Lv; Xue, Haotian; Wang, Yangyang

    2016-09-01

    Acidified hydrazine hydrate was used to remediate Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. The content of water-soluble Cr(VI) in contaminated soil was 4977.53 mg/kg. The optimal initial pH of hydrazine hydrate solution, soil to solution ratio and molar ratio of Cr(VI) to hydrazine hydrate for remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil were 5.0, 3:1 and 1:3, respectively. Over 99.50 % of water-soluble Cr(VI) in the contaminated soil was reduced at the optimal condition within 30 min. The remediated soil can keep stable within 4 months. Meanwhile the total phosphorus increased from 0.47 to 4.29 g/kg, indicating that using of acidified hydrazine hydrate is an effective method to remediate Cr(VI)-contaminated soil.

  16. 40 CFR 85.1803 - Remedial Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial Plan. 85.1803 Section 85.1803... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1803 Remedial Plan. (a) When any manufacturer is... manufacturer shall submit a plan to the Administrator to remedy such nonconformity. The plan shall contain...

  17. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (ECRTS) DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ElectroChemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) process was developed by P2-Soil Remediation, Inc. P-2 Soil Remediation, Inc. formed a partnership with Weiss Associates and ElectroPetroleum, Inc. to apply the technology to contaminated sites. The ECRTs process was evaluated ...

  18. 48 CFR 2009.570-10 - Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 2009.570-10 Remedies. In addition to other remedies permitted by law or contract for a breach of the restrictions in this subpart or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Remedies....

  19. System/Design Trade Study Report for the Navigation of the Airborne, Ground Vehicular and Man-Portable Platforms in Support of the Buried Ordnance Detection, Identification, and Remediation Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division Project Manager: Gerard Snyder 301/743-6855 2008 Stump Neck Road Indian Head ...NUMBER 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER SFIM-AEC-ET-CR-95043 Supporting Contractor: PRC, Inc. 801 North Strauss Avenue Indian Head ...available on the market today for detection, mapping and remediation of hazardous materials have not been developed to the level that could be

  20. [Application of organic agents in remediation of heavy metals- contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Wu, Longhua; Luo, Yongming

    2006-06-01

    Organic agents play an important role in the remediation of heavy metals - contaminated soil, and their introduction into practice is a promising strategy to develop an efficient solution for this remediation. This paper summarized the research advances in the application of organic agents to the remediation of heavy metals- polluted soil, including their action mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages, and factors affecting their efficiency. The commonly used organic agents, such as aminopolycarboxylic acid, organic acid, humic acid, biosurfactants, etc., were introduced, and the prospects of organic agents' application were discussed.

  1. Remediation of oil-contaminated soil in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Rodrigo, Ana P.

    Oil spill is a problem in towns in Greenland, where oil is used for heating and transport. The problem may increase in the future with expected oil exploitation in Greenlandic marine areas and related terrestrial activities. Oil undergoes natural microbial degradation in which nutrients...... have been made with excavated oil-contaminated soil from the Greenlandic town Sisimiut to study different low-tech and low-cost solutions for remediation of oil-contamination....

  2. Remediation of oil-contaminated soil in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Rodrigo, Ana

    Oil spill is a problem in towns in Greenland, where oil is used for heating and transport. The problem may increase in the future with expected oil exploitation in Greenlandic marine areas and related terrestrial activities. Oil undergoes natural microbial degradation in which nutrients....... Experiments have been made with excavated oil-contaminated soil from the Greenlandic town Sisimiut to study different low-tech and low-cost solutions for remediation of oil-contamination...

  3. Remediation of Oil-Contaminated Soil in Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2013-01-01

    This paper present the recent research conducted at the Arctic Technology Centre, where different solutions for remediation of excavated oil contaminated soil in Greenlandic towns were tested.In the first work, soil polluted by light oil was treated with two different nutrient sources (substrate and N:P:K), stabilizer (crab shells) and heating (20°C). In this work a clear reduction in hydrocarbon content was observed during the treatment period of 730 days. No significant difference in degrad...

  4. Thermal design of lithium bromide-water solution vapor absorption cooling system for indirect evaporative cooling for IT pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Digvijay Ramkrishna

    Nowadays with increase use of internet, mobile there is increase in heat which ultimately increases the efficient cooling system of server room or IT POD. Use of traditional ways of cooling system has ultimately increased CO2 emission and depletion of CFC's are serious environmental issues which led scientific people to improve cooling techniques and eliminate use of CFC's. To reduce dependency on fossil fuels and 4environmental friendly system needed to be design. For being utilizing low grade energy source such as solar collector and reducing dependency on fossil fuel vapour absorption cooling system has shown a great driving force in today's refrigeration systems. This LiBr-water aabsorption cooling consists of five heat exchanger namely: Evaporator, Absorber, Solution Heat Exchanger, Generator, Condenser. The thermal design was done for a load of 23 kW and the procedure was described in the thesis. There are 120 servers in the IT POD emitting 196 W of heat each on full load and some of the heat was generated by the computer placed inside the IT POD. A detailed procedure has been discussed. A excel spreadsheet was to prepared with varying tube sizes to see the effect on flows and ultimately overall heat transfer coefficient.

  5. CFORM- LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: CLOSED FORM SOLUTION AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    CFORM was developed by the Kennedy Space Center Robotics Lab to assist in linear control system design and analysis using closed form and transient response mechanisms. The program computes the closed form solution and transient response of a linear (constant coefficient) differential equation. CFORM allows a choice of three input functions: the Unit Step (a unit change in displacement); the Ramp function (step velocity); and the Parabolic function (step acceleration). It is only accurate in cases where the differential equation has distinct roots, and does not handle the case for roots at the origin (s=0). Initial conditions must be zero. Differential equations may be input to CFORM in two forms - polynomial and product of factors. In some linear control analyses, it may be more appropriate to use a related program, Linear Control System Design and Analysis (KSC-11376), which uses root locus and frequency response methods. CFORM was written in VAX FORTRAN for a VAX 11/780 under VAX VMS 4.7. It has a central memory requirement of 30K. CFORM was developed in 1987.

  6. Estimating Cleanup Times Associated with Combining Source-Area Remediation with Monitored Natural Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Remediation Innovative Technology Seminar RPM remedial project manager SDWA Safe Drinking Water Act SEAM3D Sequential Electron Acceptor Model, 3D SEDA ...calibration). Applications of NAS at both at the Seneca Army Depot Activity ( SEDA ) Ash Landfill and Hill AFB OU2 (Figures 3 and 4, respectively...will contribute to concentration variability relative to the ideal solution. The response in TCE concentration at two monitoring wells at the SEDA

  7. Design challenges and gaps in standards in developing an interoperable zero footprint DI thin client for use in image-enabled electronic health record solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arun; Koff, David; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Castelli, Jane

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. A major challenge for these deployments has been support for ubiquitous image viewing. More specifically, these deployments require an imaging solution that can work over the Internet, leverage any point of service device: desktop, tablet, phone; and access imaging data from any source seamlessly. Whereas standards exist to enable ubiquitous image viewing, few if any solutions exist that leverage these standards and meet the challenge. Rather, most of the currently available web based DI viewing solutions are either proprietary solutions or require special plugins. We developed a true zero foot print browser based DI viewing solution based on the Web Access DICOM Objects (WADO) and Cross-enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I.b) standards to a) demonstrate that a truly ubiquitous image viewer can be deployed; b) identify the gaps in the current standards and the design challenges for developing such a solution. The objective was to develop a viewer, which works on all modern browsers on both desktop and mobile devices. The implementation allows basic viewing functionalities of scroll, zoom, pan and window leveling (limited). The major gaps identified in the current DICOM WADO standards are a lack of ability to allow any kind of 3D reconstruction or MPR views. Other design challenges explored include considerations related to optimization of the solution for response time and low memory foot print.

  8. Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

  9. Decision Framework for Incorporation of Sustainability into Army Environmental Remediation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    consumption • Current recommended approach – incorporate RSE or equivalent process into the site remediation process • Future approach – RSE ...Corps developing joint contract template language with AEC. • Corps revising independent review design/ RSE checklists to identify existing

  10. REDUCTION IN ASTHMA MORBIDITY IN CHILDREN AS A RESULT OF HOME REMEDIATION AIMED AT MOISTURE SOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Home dampness, presence of mold and allergens have been associated with asthma morbidity. We examined changes in asthma morbidity in children as a result of home remediation aimed at moisture sources.Design: Prospective, randomized controlled trial.Part...

  11. Groundwater remediation optimization using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L. L., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    One continuing point of research in optimizing groundwater quality management is reduction of computational burden which is particularly limiting in field-scale applications. Often evaluation of a single pumping strategy, i.e. one call to the groundwater flow and transport model (GFTM) may take several hours on a reasonably fast workstation. For computational flexibility and efficiency, optimal groundwater remediation design at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has relied on artificial neural networks (ANNS) trained to approximate the outcome of 2-D field-scale, finite difference/finite element GFTMs. The search itself has been directed primarily by the genetic algorithm (GA) or the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. This approach has advantages of (1) up to a million fold increase in speed of remediation pattern assessment during the searches and sensitivity analyses for the 2-D LLNL work, (2) freedom from sequential runs of the GFTM (enables workstation farming), and (3) recycling of the knowledge base (i.e. runs of the GFTM necessary to train the ANNS). Reviewed here are the background and motivation for such work, recent applications, and continuing issues of research.

  12. Optimal selection of biochars for remediating metals ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 500,000 abandoned mines across the U.S. pose a considerable, pervasive risk to human health and the environment due to possible exposure to the residuals of heavy metal extraction. Historically, a variety of chemical and biological methods have been used to reduce the bioavailability of the metals at mine sites. Biochar with its potential to complex and immobilize heavy metals, is an emerging alternative for reducing bioavailability. Furthermore, biochar has been reported to improve soil conditions for plant growth and can be used for promoting the establishment of a soil-stabilizing native plant community to reduce offsite movement of metal-laden waste materials. Because biochar properties depend upon feedstock selection, pyrolysis production conditions, and activation procedures used, they can be designed to meet specific remediation needs. As a result biochar with specific properties can be produced to correspond to specific soil remediation situations. However, techniques are needed to optimally match biochar characteristics with metals contaminated soils to effectively reduce metal bioavailability. Here we present experimental results used to develop a generalized method for evaluating the ability of biochar to reduce metals in mine spoil soil from an abandoned Cu and Zn mine. Thirty-eight biochars were produced from approximately 20 different feedstocks and produced via slow pyrolysis or gasification, and were allowed to react with a f

  13. Response surface modeling of Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution by Pistacia vera L.: Box-Behnken experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Demirel, Sevgi; Vanderbei, Robert J

    2009-11-15

    A three factor, three-level Box-Behnken experimental design combining with response surface modeling (RSM) and quadratic programming (QP) was employed for maximizing Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution by Antep pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) shells based on 17 different experimental data obtained in a lab-scale batch study. Three independent variables (initial pH of solution (pH(0)) ranging from 2.0 to 5.5, initial concentration of Pb(II) ions (C(0)) ranging from 5 to 50 ppm, and contact time (t(C)) ranging from 5 to 120 min) were consecutively coded as x(1), x(2) and x(3) at three levels (-1, 0 and 1), and a second-order polynomial regression equation was then derived to predict responses. The significance of independent variables and their interactions were tested by means of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95% confidence limits (alpha=0.05). The standardized effects of the independent variables and their interactions on the dependent variable were also investigated by preparing a Pareto chart. The optimum values of the selected variables were obtained by solving the quadratic regression model, as well as by analysing the response surface contour plots. The optimum coded values of three test variables were computed as x(1)=0.125, x(2)=0.707, and x(3)=0.107 by using a LOQO/AMPL optimization algorithm. The experimental conditions at this global point were determined to be pH(0)=3.97, C(0)=43.4 ppm, and t(C)=68.7 min, and the corresponding Pb(II) removal efficiency was found to be about 100%.

  14. Method and software to solution of inverse and inverse design fluid flow and heat transfer problems is compatible with CFD-software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krukovsky, P.G. [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The description of method and software FRIEND which provide a possibility of solution of inverse and inverse design problems on the basis of existing (base) CFD-software for solution of direct problems (in particular, heat-transfer and fluid-flow problems using software PHOENICS) are presented. FRIEND is an independent additional module that widens the operational capacities of the base software unified with this module. This unifying does not require any change or addition to the base software. Interfacing of FRIEND and the base software takes place through input and output files of the base software. A brief description of the computational technique applied for the inverse problem solution, same detailed information on the interfacing of FRIEND and CFD-software and solution results for testing inverse and inverse design problems, obtained using the tandem CFD-software PHOENICS and FRIEND, are presented. (author) 9 refs.

  15. A simulation-based fuzzy chance-constrained programming model for optimal groundwater remediation under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L.; Huang, G. H.; Lu, H. W.

    2008-12-01

    In this study a simulation-based fuzzy chance-constrained programming (SFCCP) model is developed based on possibility theory. The model is solved through an indirect search approach which integrates fuzzy simulation, artificial neural network and simulated annealing techniques. This approach has the advantages of: (1) handling simulation and optimization problems under uncertainty associated with fuzzy parameters, (2) providing additional information (i.e. possibility of constraint satisfaction) indicating that how likely one can believe the decision results, (3) alleviating computational burdens in the optimization process, and (4) reducing the chances of being trapped in local optima. The model is applied to a petroleum-contaminated aquifer located in western Canada for supporting the optimal design of groundwater remediation systems. The model solutions provide optimal groundwater pumping rates for the 3, 5 and 10 years of pumping schemes. It is observed that the uncertainty significantly affects the remediation strategies. To mitigate such impacts, additional cost is required either for increased pumping rate or for reinforced site characterization.

  16. Residential landfill remedial action construction case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creamer, P.D.; Martin, K.E. [RMT, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Fahrney, J.S. [City of Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The City of Madison - Mineral Point Park is located on Madison`s west side within a well-established neighborhood on approximately 11 acres of open green space, which was formerly the Mineral Point Landfill. In 1994, a comprehensive remedial action construction project was implemented to more effectively extract methane gas and control gas migration, to minimize potential groundwater contamination, and to improve surface water run-off controls. This was accomplished by installing two new gas extraction systems, constructing a 4-foot-thick composite final cover with a geosynthetic subsurface drainage system, and adding 12 feet of relief and a storm sewer system to promote positive surface water drainage. While these features alone are not uncommon to many other landfills, the challenging aspect of this project was to install them in extreme proximity to homes, condominiums, and a school that were quickly developed shortly after the landfill closed. Some of the issues unique to this project due to the residential setting included strict noise, dust, and odor controls, easement negotiations, limited hours of operation, limited material storage areas, utility relocations and crossings, continuous operation of the existing gas extraction system, limited construction access, and increased health and safety concerns for the general public. The need to keep the neighboring residents informed, as well as to address their concerns and requests, was also a critical requirement in both the design and construction phases. This paper will review the design of the remedial action plan and present the construction process, highlighting the constructability issues encountered and the innovative means to overcome them. The program for communication with the neighbors throughout the design and construction phases will also be addressed.

  17. Adapting Advances in Remediation Science to Long-Term Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dave [S.M. Stoller Corporation

    2006-03-01

    Several facets of groundwater remediation stand to gain from the advances made during recent years in disciplines that contribute to remediation science. Engineered remedies designed to aggressively remove subsurface contamination should benefit from this progress, and more passive cleanup methods and the long-term monitoring of such passive approaches may benefit equally well if not more. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) has adopted a strategic plan that is designed to take advantage of technological improvements in the monitoring and assessment of both active and passive groundwater remedies. Flexible adaptation of new technologies, as they become available, to long-term surveillance at LM sites is expected to reduce site stewardship costs while ensuring the future protection of human health and the environment. Some of the technologies are expected to come from government initiatives that focus on the needs of subsurface monitoring. Additional progress in monitoring science will likely result from continual improvements in our understanding of contaminant fate-and-transport processes in the groundwater and the vadose zone.

  18. New IAEA guidelines on environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency, A2444, Seibersdorf (Austria); Howard, Brenda [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, LA1 4AP, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Kashparov, Valery [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, 08162, 7, Mashinobudivnykiv str., Chabany, Kyivo-Svyatoshin region, Kyiv (Ukraine); Sanzharova, Natalie [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Russian Federation, 249032, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry Department-Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In response to the needs of its Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published many documents covering different aspects of remediation of contaminated environments. These documents range from safety fundamentals and safety requirements to technical documents describing remedial technologies. Almost all the documents on environmental remediation are related to uranium mining areas and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. IAEA radiation safety standards on remediation of contaminated environments are largely based on these two types of remediation. The exception is a document related to accidents, namely the IAEA TRS No. 363 'Guidelines for Agricultural Countermeasures Following an Accidental Release of Radionuclides'. Since the publication of TRS 363, there has been a considerable increase in relevant information. In response, the IAEA initiated the development of a new document, which incorporated new knowledge obtained during last 20 years, lessons learned and subsequent changes in the regulatory framework. The new document covers all aspects related to the environmental remediation from site characterisation to a description of individual remedial actions and decision making frameworks, covering urban, agricultural, forest and freshwater environments. Decisions taken to commence remediation need to be based on an accurate assessment of the amount and extent of contamination in relevant environmental compartments and how they vary with time. Major aspects of site characterisation intended for remediation are described together with recommendations on effective sampling programmes and data compilation for decision making. Approaches for evaluation of remedial actions are given in the document alongside the factors and processes which affect their implementation for different environments. Lessons learned following severe radiation accidents indicate that remediation should be considered with respect to many different

  19. [Simulation on remediation of benzene contaminated groundwater by air sparging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan-Ling; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Dan; Zhong, Mao-Sheng; Jia, Xiao-Yang

    2012-11-01

    Air sparging (AS) is one of the in situ remedial technologies which are used in groundwater remediation for pollutions with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). At present, the field design of air sparging system was mainly based on experience due to the lack of field data. In order to obtain rational design parameters, the TMVOC module in the Petrasim software package, combined with field test results on a coking plant in Beijing, is used to optimize the design parameters and simulate the remediation process. The pilot test showed that the optimal injection rate was 23.2 m3 x h(-1), while the optimal radius of influence (ROI) was 5 m. The simulation results revealed that the pressure response simulated by the model matched well with the field test results, which indicated a good representation of the simulation. The optimization results indicated that the optimal injection location was at the bottom of the aquifer. Furthermore, simulated at the optimized injection location, the optimal injection rate was 20 m3 x h(-1), which was in accordance with the field test result. Besides, 3 m was the optimal ROI, less than the field test results, and the main reason was that field test reflected the flow behavior at the upper space of groundwater and unsaturated area, in which the width of flow increased rapidly, and became bigger than the actual one. With the above optimized operation parameters, in addition to the hydro-geological parameters measured on site, the model simulation result revealed that 90 days were needed to remediate the benzene from 371 000 microg x L(-1) to 1 microg x L(-1) for the site, and that the opeation model in which the injection wells were progressively turned off once the groundwater around them was "clean" was better than the one in which all the wells were kept operating throughout the remediation process.

  20. Contaminated soil remediation and quality assurance; Pilaantuneen maan kunnostaminen ja laadunvarmistus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkkila, J.; Mroueh, U.M.; Leino-Forsman, H.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of contaminated soil remediation quality assurance is to carry out remediation activities according to plans. Besides the design work the appropriate implementation of the quality assurance covers source data and investigation methods as well as the requirements for documentation. Contaminated soil characterization and the selection of the most suitable remediation method is made with the help of various sampling and analysis methods. There are different kinds of requirements to the sampling plan depending on the type of remediation project. Quality assurance is taken into account in sampling, in sample handling and analysis as well as in the reporting of results. The most common unsaturated zone remediation methods used in Finland are introduced in this guide. These methods include excavation (as part of remediation), encapsulating, stabilization, thermal desorption, soil washing, composting, soil vapor extraction and bioventing. The methods are introduced on a general level with emphasis on their technical implementation and feasibility as well as on the eventual material requirements. Harmful environmental impacts of the methods must be identified and prevented. In order to monitor the remediation process, various chemical and physical quality assurance measurements are performed. Additionally the work safety issues related to remediation methods must be taken into account and proper documentation must be prepared. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 6. A selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P.

    1985-09-01

    This bibliography of 683 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the sixth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Facilities Contaminated with Natural Radioactivity; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) Technical Measurements Center; and (9) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 7 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate affiliation or by publication description.

  2. Designing solutions for securing patient privacy--meeting the demands of health care in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluml, B M; Crooks, G M

    1999-01-01

    To define the issues surrounding patient privacy, examine the political context in which debate is taking place, and present a novel technology model for addressing privacy, confidentiality, and security in 21st century health care. The discussion of privacy addresses one of the basic issues in health care today--the tension between the needs of the individual patient for privacy and confidentiality and the needs of society to effectively manage health care practices and control health care costs. Patient concerns for privacy, confidentiality, and security are legitimate, and can usually be reduced to issues that potentially affect an individual's employment, ability to get and maintain health coverage, and have control over his or her records and care. These concerns, combined with several precipitating events, are forcing the issue of privacy into the political arena, where new health policy decisions will be made. The debate must be framed within a principle-centered approach that focuses on boundaries, security, consumer control, accountability, and public responsibility. A global, distributed electronic health record management model that provides location-independent, secured, authenticated access to relevant patient care records by qualified health care professionals on a need-to-know basis provides solutions. Information asset considerations should be designed to equitably represent the ownership needs of corporate entities, society, and the individual. A secure electronic health record structure that systematically ensures a high level of accountability combined with thoughtful dialogue among key stakeholders in the public policy development process can offer the privacy outcomes we seek.

  3. Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution by adsorption on Apatitic tricalcium phosphate using Box-Behnken design and desirability function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourabet, M.; El Rhilassi, A.; El Boujaady, H.; Bennani-Ziatni, M.; El Hamri, R.; Taitai, A.

    2012-03-01

    The adsorption method was used for fluoride removal from aqueous solution by Apatitic tricalcium phosphate. In this study, response surface methodology was employed for the removal of fluoride. Experiments were carried out as per Box-Behnken surface statistical design with four input parameters namely adsorbent dose (0.1-0.3 g), initial concentration (30-60 mg L-1), temperature (20-40 °C) and pH (4-11). Contact time (90 min) was taken as a fixed input parameter. Regression analysis showed good fit of the experimental data to the second-order polynomial model with coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.966 and Fisher F-value of 10.28. Applying the method of the desirability function, optimization of adsorbent dose (29 g), initial concentration (60 mg L-1), T (40 °C) and pH (4) gave a maximum of 82.34% fluoride removal white desirability of 0.916 by Apatitic tricalcium phosphate. Dynamic adsorption data were applied to pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order rate equations. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model well expressed fluoride adsorption onto Apatitic tricalcium phosphate. According to the correlation coefficients, the adsorption of fluoride on the Apatitic tricalcium phosphate was correlated well with the Langmuir and Freundlich models.

  4. Enniatin-containing solutions for oromucosal use: Quality-by-design ex-vivo transmucosal risk assessment of composition variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taevernier, Lien; Detroyer, Sven; Veryser, Lieselotte; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2015-08-01

    Fusafungine, a mixture of the cyclic hexadepsipeptides enniatins, is currently on the market for the treatment of upper respiratory tract diseases because of its bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, a quality-by-design risk assessment was performed with two objectives: (i) investigate whether enniatins are able to permeate the mucosa and reach blood circulation, as the summary of product characteristics indicates this is not the case, and if so, to quantify their transmucosal kinetics and (ii) study the influence of excipient concentration variability on mucosal permeation. First, the concentration of the two main excipients isopropyl myristate and ethanol, known penetration enhancers, in several marketed samples was determined using GC-FID. Then, the transmucosal kinetics of the enniatins were quantitatively evaluated for different dose solutions, using porcine buccal mucosa in an ex-vivo in-vitro Franz diffusion cell set-up, with UHPLC-MS/MS bioanalytics. This study demonstrated that enniatins are capable of permeating the mucosa. However, no risk of a significant different transmucosal permeability with varying excipient concentrations was detected.

  5. Using Central Composite Experimental Design to Optimize the Degradation of Tylosin from Aqueous Solution by Photo-Fenton Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Elaziz Sarrai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of the application of the Photo-Fenton process in the treatment of aqueous solution contaminated by Tylosin antibiotic was evaluated. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on Central Composite Design (CCD was used to evaluate and optimize the effect of hydrogen peroxide, ferrous ion concentration and initial pH as independent variables on the total organic carbon (TOC removal as the response function. The interaction effects and optimal parameters were obtained by using MODDE software. The significance of the independent variables and their interactions was tested by means of analysis of variance (ANOVA with a 95% confidence level. Results show that the concentration of the ferrous ion and pH were the main parameters affecting TOC removal, while peroxide concentration had a slight effect on the reaction. The optimum operating conditions to achieve maximum TOC removal were determined. The model prediction for maximum TOC removal was compared to the experimental result at optimal operating conditions. A good agreement between the model prediction and experimental results confirms the soundness of the developed model.

  6. Design and Implementation of a CoAP-Compliant Solution for RFID Inclusion in the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Farris

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advancements allowed widening the applicability scope of the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology from item identification to sensor-enabled computation platforms. This feature, added to the native radio energy-harvesting capability and the extremely low power consumption, has attracted the interest of research and industrial communities and pushed them to include the RFID technology into a global network of interconnected objects, as envisaged by the Internet of Things paradigm. In the last few years, standardization bodies have made significant efforts to design lightweight approaches, such as CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol, to efficiently manage resource-constrained nodes by using traditional web interfaces; nevertheless, RFID integration is not addressed yet. In this paper, we propose a CoAP-compliant solution where RFID tags, behaving as virtual CoAP servers, are directly accessible by remote CoAP clients via a reader, which acts as a CoAP proxy. A real testbed, addressing key aspects, such as tag addressing, discovery and management of CoAP requests via RFID operations, is deployed to validate the feasibility of the proposal. Experimental results show rapid response times: less than 60 ms are requested for resource retrieval, while from 80 to 360 ms for sending data to the RFID device, depending on the tag memory dimension.

  7. Design and implementation of an open source indexing solution for a large set of radiological reports and images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voet, T; Devolder, P; Pynoo, B; Vercruysse, J; Duyck, P

    2007-11-01

    This paper hopes to share the insights we experienced during designing, building, and running an indexing solution for a large set of radiological reports and images in a production environment for more than 3 years. Several technical challenges were encountered and solved in the course of this project. One hundred four million words in 1.8 million radiological reports from 1989 to the present were indexed and became instantaneously searchable in a user-friendly fashion; the median query duration is only 31 ms. Currently, our highly tuned index holds 332,088 unique words in four languages. The indexing system is feature-rich and language-independent and allows for making complex queries. For research and training purposes it certainly is a valuable and convenient addition to our radiology informatics toolbox. Extended use of open-source technology dramatically reduced both implementation time and cost. All software we developed related to the indexing project has been made available to the open-source community covered by an unrestricted Berkeley Software Distribution-style license.

  8. AN IMPROVEMENT OF DESIGN, TECHNOLOGICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL SOLUTIONS IN THE RECONSTRUCTION OF INSPECTION SHAFTS OF SEWAGE TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONCHARENKO D. F.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. Ensuring reliable operation of wastewater systems is one of the important tasks of community services Ukrainian cities. Sewer pipelines and collectors in Ukrainian cities have different operation life. In some cases, the operation life of wastewater working systems is more than 100 years. Significant operating costs, maintenance and inspection of sewer networks are made to keep them in reliable condition. Sewer pipes, sewers and inspection of the mine are operated at highly aggressive conditions. The concentrations of carbon dioxide, ammonia, methane, hydrogen sulfide and other corrosive substances greater than the maximum allowable concentration in the gas environment of collectors and inspection shafts. This leads to corrosion of concrete nutrient. The problem of preservation and revitalization of existing collectors is relevant because to environmental requirements increase. An important environmental challenge is the protection of groundwater against aggressive reagents, which can get into the groundwater through a rotten constructions of wastewater systems. Purpose. Consolidation of experience survey dredging well collector in Kharkiv, an improvement of technical solutions and recommendations of ensure their continued reliable and safe operation with development, which provide resistance to dredging well construction of biogenic corrosion. Conclusion. Technology and recommendations were designed to bring construction of dredging well to normal technical condition. The aggression of the environment has been taken into account. The decisions will ensure the normal operation of dredging well for 20 years. At work was used modern corrosion-resistant materials: concrete of sulfate-resistant cement, glass-plastic composite reinforcement.

  9. Environmental Remediation Data Management Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierowski, J. V.; Henry, L. G.; Dooley, D. A.

    2002-02-26

    Computer software tools for data management can improve site characterization, planning and execution of remediation projects. This paper discusses the use of two such products that have primarily been used within the nuclear power industry to enhance the capabilities of radiation protection department operations. Advances in digital imaging, web application development and programming technologies have made development of these tools possible. The Interactive Visual Tour System (IVTS) allows the user to easily create and maintain a comprehensive catalog containing digital pictures of the remediation site. Pictures can be cataloged in groups (termed ''tours'') that can be organized either chronologically or spatially. Spatial organization enables the user to ''walk around'' the site and view desired areas or components instantly. Each photo is linked to a map (floor plan, topographical map, elevation drawing, etc.) with graphics displaying the location on the map and any available tour/component links. Chronological organization enables the user to view the physical results of the remediation efforts over time. Local and remote management teams can view these pictures at any time and from any location. The Visual Survey Data System (VSDS) allows users to record survey and sample data directly on photos and/or maps of areas and/or components. As survey information is collected for each area, survey data trends can be reviewed for any repetitively measured location or component. All data is stored in a Quality Assurance (Q/A) records database with reference to its physical sampling point on the site as well as other information to support the final closeout report for the site. The ease of use of these web-based products has allowed nuclear power plant clients to plan outage work from their desktop and realize significant savings with respect to dose and cost. These same tools are invaluable for remediation and decommissioning

  10. Barometric pumping with a twist: VOC containment and remediation without boreholes. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The majority of the planned remediation sites within the DOE complex are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In many instances the contamination has not reached the water table, does not pose an immediate threat, and is not considered a high priority problem. These sites will ultimately require remediation of some type, either by active vapor extraction, bioremediation, or excavation and ex-situ soil treatment. The cost of remediating these sites can range from $50 K to more than $150 K, depending on site characteristics, contaminants, and remediation method. Additionally, for many remediated sites, residual contamination exists which could not practically be removed by the applied remediation technology. These circumstances result in modest sites with contamination of limited risk, but by regulation they must still be controlled. A remediation solution being developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) for the Department of Energy serves as an in-situ containment and extraction methodology for sites where most or all of the contamination resides in the vadose zone soil. The approach capitalizes on the advective soil gas movement resulting from barometric pressure oscillations.

  11. A comprehensive guide of remediation technologies for oil contaminated soil - Present works and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mee Wei; Lau, Ee Von; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2016-08-15

    Oil spills result in negative impacts on the environment, economy and society. Due to tidal and waves actions, the oil spillage affects the shorelines by adhering to the soil, making it difficult for immediate cleaning of the soil. As shoreline clean-up is the most costly component of a response operation, there is a need for effective oil remediation technologies. This paper provides a review on the remediation technologies for soil contaminated with various types of oil, including diesel, crude oil, petroleum, lubricating oil, bitumen and bunker oil. The methods discussed include solvent extraction, bioremediation, phytoremediation, chemical oxidation, electrokinetic remediation, thermal technologies, ultrasonication, flotation and integrated remediation technologies. Each of these technologies was discussed, and associated with their advantages, disadvantages, advancements and future work in detail. Nonetheless, it is important to note that no single remediation technology is considered the best solution for the remediation of oil contaminated soil. This review provides a comprehensive literature on the various remediation technologies studied in the removal of different oil types from soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Humic Acid on Migration, Distribution and Remediation of Dense Non-aqueous Phase Liquids: A laboratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Z.; Wu, J.; Xu, H.; Gao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decades, dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) contamination in the subsurface increases with the rapid development of oil industry and becomes the focus of many studies. The migration, distribution and remediation efficiency of DNAPLs in the subsurface environment are greatly affected by the solution chemistry besides the physical heterogeneities of aquifers. Humic acid (HA), which is ubiquitous in natural environments, is a surface active substance exhibiting solubility enhancement behavior for hydrophobic organic compounds such as DNAPLs. Here we reported a laboratory investigation to study the effects of HA on the infiltration, immobilization and subsequent recovery of DNAPL in porous media. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was selected as the representative DNAPL in this study. Two-dimensional (2-D) sandbox experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of different HA concentrations on the transport, distribution of PCE and the remediation of PCE using surfactant (Tween 80) flushing in a saturated porous media system. The surfactant flushing of PCE was performed after the PCE transport and distribution had reached equilibrium. A light transmission visualization method with charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was adopted to visualize PCE distribution and quantify its saturation. In addition, the experiments were also designed to gather data for the validation of multiphase flow models. Effluent samples were collected to determine dissolved PCE concentrations. PCE solubilization and PCE-water interfacial tension were experimentally determined in aqueous solutions of varying HA concentrations. The experimental results showed that the presence of HA can have a dramatic impact on PCE flow and entrapment, and significantly improved the recovery of PCE during surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR). The findings are of use for better understanding of the migration and entrapment of DNAPLs and developing of SEAR technology.

  13. [Natural remedies during pregnancy and lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, E; Melzer, J; von Mandach, U; Saller, R

    2004-10-01

    Up to date there is a lack of systematically gathered data on the use of natural remedies (phytotherapeutic, homeopathic, anthroposophic, spagyric, Bach and Schussler remedies) during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this non-representative pilot study on 139 women, who came for delivery to three institutions between mid-1997 and the beginning of 1998, was to receive data about how often and within which spectrum natural remedies are used during pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy 96% and within the lactation period 84% of the women consumed at least 1 natural remedy. Phytotherapeutic drugs were used most frequently. In contrast to the widespread use of natural remedies by pregnant women and nursing mothers in this study, little information on the effectiveness and possible risks is available. Therefore it seems necessary to examine and evaluate natural remedies used during pregnancy and lactation.

  14. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings using bipolar electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.rojo@usm.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Cubillos, Luis [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2009-09-15

    In this work an electrodialytic remediation (EDR) cell for copper mine tailings with bipolar stainless steel plates was analyzed. The bipolar plates were inserted inside the tailings, dividing it into independent electrochemical cells or sections, in order to increase the copper removal efficiency from mine tailings. The bipolar plates design was tested on acidic copper mine tailings with a fixed: applied electric field, liquid content, initial pH, and remediation time. The laboratory results showed that inserting bipolar plates in EDR cells improves the remediation action, even though the applied electric field is reduced by the electrochemical reactions on the plates. Basically three aspects favor the process: reduction of the ionic migration pathways, increase of the electrode surface, and in-situ generation of protons (H{sup +}) and hydroxyls (OH{sup -}). Furthermore, the laboratory results with citric acid addition significantly improve the remediation actions, reaching copper removal of up to nine times better, compared to conventional EDR experiments without any plates or citric acid addition.

  15. Using biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaokai; Wang, Hailong; He, Lizhi; Lu, Kouping; Sarmah, Ajit; Li, Jianwu; Bolan, Nanthi S; Pei, Jianchuan; Huang, Huagang

    2013-12-01

    Soil contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants has increasingly become a serious global environmental issue in recent years. Considerable efforts have been made to remediate contaminated soils. Biochar has a large surface area, and high capacity to adsorb heavy metals and organic pollutants. Biochar can potentially be used to reduce the bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals and organic pollutants in soils through adsorption and other physicochemical reactions. Biochar is typically an alkaline material which can increase soil pH and contribute to stabilization of heavy metals. Application of biochar for remediation of contaminated soils may provide a new solution to the soil pollution problem. This paper provides an overview on the impact of biochar on the environmental fate and mobility of heavy metals and organic pollutants in contaminated soils and its implication for remediation of contaminated soils. Further research directions are identified to ensure a safe and sustainable use of biochar as a soil amendment for remediation of contaminated soils.

  16. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 8 Air-Based Remediation Technology Selection Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  17. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (ECRTS) - IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Innovative Technology Evaulation Report summarizes the results of the evaluation of the Electrochemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) process, developed by P2-Soil Remediation, Inc. (in partnership with Weiss Associates and Electro-Petroleum, Inc.). This evaluation was co...

  18. Collaboration Results - Applying Technical Solutions To Environmental Remediation Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G.; Fiore, J.; Walker, J.; DeRemer, C.; Wight, E.

    2002-02-26

    Within the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM), the Office of Science and Technology (OST) identifies and develops innovative technologies that accelerate cleanup of high-priority environmental contamination problems and enable EM closure sites to meet closure schedules. OST manages an integrated research and development program that is essential to completing timely and cost-effective cleanup and stewardship of DOE sites. While innovative technologies can make significant contributions to the cleanup process, in some cases, EM has encountered unexpected barriers to their implementation. Technical obstacles are expected, but administrative challenges-such as regulatory, organizational, and stakeholder issues-must also be addressed. OST has found that collaborative needs identification and problem solving are essential components in overcoming these barriers. Collaboration helps EM meet its cleanup goals, close sites, and reduce the overall cost of cleanup at DOE sites nationwide. This paper presents examples of OST's collaboration efforts that expedite site closure and solve specific cleanup problems at EM sites.

  19. Approximate solutions to a weighted mixed-sensitivity H-infinity-control design for irrational transfer matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtain, RF; Weiss, M; Zhou, Y

    1996-01-01

    Approximate solutions to a weighted mixed-sensitivity H-infinity-control problem for an irrational transfer matrix are obtained by solving the same problem for a reduced-order (rational) transfer matrix. Upper and lower bounds are given in terms of the solution to the reduced-order problem and the a

  20. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1996-10-03

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  1. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  2. [Advance in enzymological remediation of polluted soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Chen, Lijun; Liu, Guifen; Wu, Zhijie

    2003-12-01

    Soils enzymes play an important role in the remediation of polluted soils. The enzymological remediation of polluted soils has the characteristics of high specialization, wide applicability, and little sensitivity to the ambient factors. This paper reviewed the advantages of enzymological remediation of polluted soils, the methods and technologies of enzyme immobilization, and the removal mechanisms of pollutants by oxidoreductases. The sources and characteristics of the enzymes used to remediation were also introduced, and some suggestions about the research in the future were put forward.

  3. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Organics and Radionuclides - An Innovative Approach Eases Traditional Hurdles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.; Case, N.; Coltman, K.

    2003-02-25

    Traditional approaches to the remediation of contaminated groundwater, such as pump-and-treat, have been used for many years for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with various organics. However the treatment of groundwater contaminated with organics and radionuclides has been considerably more challenging. Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) was recently faced with these challenges while designing a remediation system for the remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater and soil at the RMI Extrusion Plant in Ashtabula, OH. Under contract with RMI Environmental Services (RMIES), SEC teamed with Regenesis, Inc. to design, implement, and execute a bioremediation system to remove TCE and associated organics from groundwater and soil that was also contaminated with uranium and technetium. The SEC-Regenesis system involved the injection of Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC), a natural attenuation accelerant that has been patented, designed, and produced by Regenesis, to stimulate the reductive dechlorination and remediation of chlorinated organics in subsurface environments. The compound was injected using direct-push Geoprobe rods over a specially designed grid system through the zone of contaminated groundwater. The innovative approach eliminated the need to extract contaminated groundwater and bypassed the restrictive limitations listed above. The system has been in operation for roughly six months and has begun to show considerable success at dechlorinating and remediating the TCE plume and in reducing the radionuclides into insoluble precipitants. The paper will provide an overview of the design, installation, and initial operation phase of the project, focusing on how traditional design challenges of remediating radiologically contaminated groundwater were overcome. The following topics will be specifically covered: a description of the mechanics of the HRC technology; an assessment of the applicability of the HRC technology to contaminated groundwater plumes

  5. Tank Waste Remediation System Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robershotte, M.A.; Dirks, L.L.; Seaver, D.A.; Bothers, A.J.; Madden, M.S.

    1995-06-01

    The scope, number and complexity of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) decisions require an integrated, consistent, and logical approach to decision making. TWRS has adopted a seven-step decision process applicable to all decisions. Not all decisions, however, require the same degree of rigor/detail. The decision impact will dictate the appropriate required detail. In the entire process, values, both from the public as well as from the decision makers, play a key role. This document concludes with a general discussion of the implementation process that includes the roles of concerned parties.

  6. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  7. Sustainable exposure prevention through innovative detection and remediation technologies from the NIEHS Superfund Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Heather F; Suk, William A

    2017-03-01

    Innovative devices and tools for exposure assessment and remediation play an integral role in preventing exposure to hazardous substances. New solutions for detecting and remediating organic, inorganic, and mixtures of contaminants can improve public health as a means of primary prevention. Using a public health prevention model, detection and remediation technologies contribute to primary prevention as tools to identify areas of high risk (e.g. contamination hotspots), to recognize hazards (bioassay tests), and to prevent exposure through contaminant cleanups. Primary prevention success is ultimately governed by the widespread acceptance of the prevention tool. And, in like fashion, detection and remediation technologies must convey technical and sustainability advantages to be adopted for use. Hence, sustainability - economic, environmental, and societal - drives innovation in detection and remediation technology. The National Institute of Health (NIH) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program (SRP) is mandated to advance innovative detection, remediation, and toxicity screening technology development through grants to universities and small businesses. SRP recognizes the importance of fast, accurate, robust, and advanced detection technologies that allow for portable real-time, on-site characterization, monitoring, and assessment of contaminant concentration and/or toxicity. Advances in non-targeted screening, biological-based assays, passive sampling devices (PSDs), sophisticated modeling approaches, and precision-based analytical tools are making it easier to quickly identify hazardous "hotspots" and, therefore, prevent exposures. Innovation in sustainable remediation uses a variety of approaches: in situ remediation; harnessing the natural catalytic properties of biological processes (such as bioremediation and phytotechnologies); and application of novel materials science (such as nanotechnology, advanced

  8. Evaluation of surfactant flushing for remediating EDC-tar contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chenju; Hsieh, Cheng-Lin

    2015-06-01

    Ethylene dichloride tar (EDC-tar) is a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) waste originated from the process of vinyl chloride production, with major constituents including chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. This study investigated the feasibility of Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) for treating EDC-tar contaminated aquifers. Initial experiments explored the potential to enhance the apparent solubility of EDC-tar using single or mixed surfactants. The results showed that an aqueous solution mixed anionic and non-ionic surfactants (i.e., SDS/Tween 80) exhibited higher EDC-tar apparent solubility and lower surface tension than other surfactant systems tested. Additionally, alkaline pH aids in increasing the EDC-tar apparent solubility. In column flushing experiments, it was seen that the alkaline mixed SDS/Tween 80 solution showed better removal of pure EDC-tar from silica sand porous media. Furthermore, separation of EDC-tar in the surfactant solution was conducted employing a salting-out effect. Significant separation of DNAPL was observed when 13 wt.% or more NaCl was added to the solution. Overall, this study evaluates the feasibility of using SEAR for remediating EDC-tar contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater.

  9. Lead based remedies for empacho: patterns and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, R D; Garcia de Alba, J; Cueto, L M; Ackerman, A; Davison, S

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses research designed to investigate the patterns and consequences of the use of lead based folk remedies in the treatment of some gastrointestinal problems in Mexico. Use of lead is seen in 35% of the population sampled in Guadalajara who treated the folk illness empacho, and 5% of a similar population in Oaxaca. Lead use seems to be associated with mestizo ethnic background, and with lower levels of parental education and income.

  10. Traditional herbs: a remedy for cardiovascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Subha; Pandey, Madan Mohan; Rawat, A K S

    2016-10-15

    Medicinal plants have been used in patients with congestive heart failure, systolic hypertension, angina pectoris, atherosclerosis, cerebral insufficiency, venous insufficiency and arrhythmia since centuries. A recent increase in the popularity of alternative medicine and natural products has revived interest in traditional remedies that have been used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this review is to provide updated, comprehensive and categorized information on the history and traditional uses of some herbal medicines that affect the cardiovascular system in order to explore their therapeutic potential and evaluate future research opportunities. Systematic literature searches were carried out and the available information on various medicinal plants traditionally used for cardiovascular disorders was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, SciFinder, Scirus, GoogleScholar, JCCC@INSTIRC and Web of Science) and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. No restrictions regarding the language of publication were imposed. This article highlights the cardiovascular effects of four potent traditional botanicals viz. Garlic (Allium sativum), Guggul (Commiphora wightii), Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) and Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna). Although these plants have been used in the treatment of heart disease for hundreds of years, current research methods show us they can be utilized effectively in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases including ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias and hypertension. Although the mechanisms of action are not very clear, there is enough evidence of their efficacy in various cardiovascular disorders. However, for bringing more objectivity and also to confirm traditional claims, more systematic, well-designed animal and randomized clinical studies with sufficient sample sizes are necessary. Multidisciplinary research is still required to exploit the vast

  11. Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program - 12189

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Christopher [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Kothari, Vijendra [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Starr, Ken [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Westminster, Colorado (United States); Gillespie, Joey; Widdop, Michael [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was established in 1974 to address residual radiological contamination at sites where work was performed for the Manhattan Engineer District and U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Initially, FUSRAP activities began with a records search for sites that had the potential to contain residual radiological contamination; 46 sites were identified that were eligible for and required remediation. Remedial action began in 1979. In 1997, Congress assigned responsibility for the remediation of FUSRAP sites to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). DOE retains responsibility for determining if sites are eligible for FUSRAP remediation and for providing long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) of remediated FUSRAP sites. DOE LTS and M activities are designed to ensure that FUSRAP sites remain protective of human health and the environment and to preserve knowledge regarding FUSRAP sites. Additional elements include eligibility determinations, transition of remediated sites from USACE to DOE, LTS and M operations such as inspections and institutional controls management, stakeholder support, preservation of records, and real property and reuse. DOE maintains close coordination with USACE and regulators to ensure there is no loss of protectiveness when sites transition to DOE for LTS and M. Over the life of the FUSRAP program from 1974 to the present, DOE's primary mission and responsibility has been to ensure that FUSRAP sites remain protective of human health and the environment. In fulfilling this mission, the DOE program includes the following key elements: eligibility determinations, transition of remediated sites from USACE to DOE, LTS and M operations such as inspections and institutional controls management, stakeholder support, preservation of records, and real property and reuse. DOE maintains close communication stakeholders as well as state and federal regulators

  12. Laboratory differential simulation design method of pressure absorbers for carbonization of phenolate solution by carbon dioxide in coal-tar processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linek, V.; Sinkule, J.; Moucha, T.; Rejl, J.F. [Prague Institute for Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-01-15

    A laboratory differential simulation method is used for the design of carbonization columns at coal-tar processing in which phenols are regenerated from phenolate solution by carbon dioxide absorption. The design method is based on integration of local absorption rates of carbon dioxide along the column. The local absorption rates into industrial phenolate mixture are measured in a laboratory model contactor for various compositions of the gas and liquid phases under the conditions that ensure the absorption rates in the laboratory absorber simulate the local rates in the industrial column. On the bases of the calculations, two-step carbonization columns were designed for 30000 t/year of the phenolate solution treatment by carbon dioxide. The absorption proceeds at higher pressure of 500 kPa and temperatures from 50 to 65 C, pure carbon dioxide is used and toluene is added. These conditions have the following favourable effects: (I) significant size reduction of the columns, (ii) it is possible to process more concentrated solutions without danger of silting the columns by crystallization of NaHCO{sub 3} on the packing. (iii) small amount of inert gas is released, (iv) lower alkalinity and better separability of the organic phase (phenols with toluene) from water phase (soda or bicarbonate solution) in separators.

  13. Experimental Design of a Polymeric Solution to Improve the Mobility Ratio in a Reservoir previous implementation of a pilot project of EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cuenca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes experimental formulations of polymeric solutions through lab evaluations with the objective of finding optimum solution concentration to fluid mobility in reservoirs as previous step before implementing a pilot project of enhanced oil recovery. The polymers, firstly, were selected based on the properties from fluids from reservoir. Two types of polymers were used TCC-330 and EOR909 and the experimental tests were: thermal stability, compatibility, adsorption, salinity, and displacement. The design with the best results was with polymer TCC-330 at 1,500 ppm concentration.

  14. Programmatic Environmental Report for remedial actions at UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project vicinity properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-01

    This Environmental Report (ER) examines the environmental consequences of implementing a remedial action that would remove radioactive uranium mill tailings and associated contaminated materials from 394 vicinity properties near 14 inactive uranium processing sites included in the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project pursuant to Public Law 95--604, the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. Vicinity properties are those properties in the vicinity of the UMTRA Project inactive mill sites, either public or private, that are believed to be contaminated by residual radioactive material originating from one of the 14 inactive uranium processing sites, and which have been designated under Section 102(a)(1) of UMTRCA. The principal hazard associated with the contaminated properties results from the production of radon, a radioactive decay product of the radium contained in the tailings. Radon, a radioactive gas, can diffuse through the contaminated material and be released into the atmosphere where it and its radioactive decay products may be inhaled by humans. A second radiation exposure pathway results from the emission of gamma radiation from uranium decay products contained in the tailings. Gamma radiation emitted from contaminated material delivers an external exposure to the whole body. If the concentration of radon and its decay products is high enough and the exposure time long enough, or if the exposure to direct gamma radiation is long enough, cancers (i.e., excess health effects) may develop in persons living and working at the vicinity properties. 3 refs., 7 tabs.

  15. Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program - 12189

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Christopher [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC; Kothari, Vijendra [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia; Starr, Ken [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Westminster, Colorado; Gillespie, Joey [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado; Widdop, Michael [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado; none,

    2012-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was established in 1974 to address residual radiological contamination at sites where work was performed for the Manhattan Engineer District and U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Initially, FUSRAP activities began with a records search for sites that had the potential to contain residual radiological contamination; 46 sites were identified that were eligible for and required remediation. Remedial action began in 1979. In 1997, Congress assigned responsibility for the remediation of FUSRAP sites to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). DOE retains responsibility for determining if sites are eligible for FUSRAP remediation and for providing long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M) of remediated FUSRAP sites. DOE LTS&M activities are designed to ensure that FUSRAP sites remain protective of human health and the environment and to preserve knowledge regarding FUSRAP sites. Additional elements include eligibility determinations, transition of remediated sites from USACE to DOE, LTS&M operations such as inspections and institutional controls management, stakeholder support, preservation of records, and real property and reuse. DOE maintains close coordination with USACE and regulators to ensure there is no loss of protectiveness when sites transition to DOE for LTS&M.

  16. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Chilton, B.D.; Baldauf, M.F.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography of 756 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fifth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; and (7) Technical Measurements Center. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 4, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The Appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms.

  17. Effects of Spatial Experiences & Cognitive Styles in the Solution Process of Space-Based Design Problems in the First Year of Architectural Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan Yazici, Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    There are many factors that influence designers in the architectural design process. Cognitive style, which varies according to the cognitive structure of persons, and spatial experience, which is created with spatial data acquired during life are two of these factors. Designers usually refer to their spatial experiences in order to find solutions…

  18. Effects of Spatial Experiences & Cognitive Styles in the Solution Process of Space-Based Design Problems in the First Year of Architectural Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan Yazici, Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    There are many factors that influence designers in the architectural design process. Cognitive style, which varies according to the cognitive structure of persons, and spatial experience, which is created with spatial data acquired during life are two of these factors. Designers usually refer to their spatial experiences in order to find solutions…

  19. An Expert support model for ex situ soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.; Frankhuizen, E.M.; Wit, de J.C.; Pijls, C.G.J.M.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an expert support model recombining knowledge and experience obtained during ex situ soil remediation. To solve soil remediation problems, an inter-disciplinary approach is required. Responsibilities during the soil remediation process, however, are increasingly decentralised, wh

  20. The phyto-remediation of radioactively contaminated land - a feasible approach or just bananas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesbitt, Victoria A [Nuvia Limited, The Library, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RL (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Soil is an essential component of all terrestrial ecosystems and is under increasing threat from human activity. Techniques available for removing radioactive contamination from soil and aquatic substrates are limited and often costly to implement; particularly over large areas. Frequently, bulk soil removal, with its attendant consequences, is a significant component of the majority of contamination incidents. Alternative techniques capable of removing contamination or exposure pathways without damaging or removing the soil are therefore of significant interest. An increasing number of old nuclear facilities are entering 'care and maintenance', with significant ground contamination issues. Phyto-remediation - the use of plants' natural metabolic processes to remediate contaminated sites is one possible solution. Its key mechanisms include phyto-extraction and phyto-stabilisation. These are analogues of existing remedial techniques. Further, phyto-remediation can improve soil quality and stability and restore functionality. Information on the application of phyto-remediation in the nuclear industry is widely distributed over an extended period of time and sources. It is therefore difficult to quickly and effectively identify which plants would be most suitable for phyto-remediation on a site by site basis. In response, a phyto-remediation tool has been developed to address this issue. Existing research and case studies were reviewed to understand the mechanisms of phyto-remediation, its effectiveness and the benefits and limitations of implementation. The potential for cost recovery from a phyto-remediation system is also briefly considered. An overview of this information is provided here. From this data, a set of matrices was developed to guide potential users through the plant selection process. The matrices take the user through a preliminary screening process to determine whether the contamination present at their site is amenable to phyto-remediation

  1. Feasibility Study of the Use of Thiosulfate as Extractant Agent in the Electrokinetic Remediation of a Soil Contaminated by Mercury from Almadén

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subires-Muñoz, José Diego; García-Rubio, Ana; Vereda-Alonso, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Natural soils are rather complex, making the predictability of the behavior of some remediation techniques very complicated. In this paper, the remediation of a Hg contaminated soil close to Almadén using a thiosulfate solution as extractant agent is studied. In addition, the use of the BCR...

  2. Laboratory Experiment on Electrokinetic Remediation of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed-Ali, Alya H.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is a method of decontaminating soil containing heavy metals and polar organic contaminants by passing a direct current through the soil. An undergraduate chemistry laboratory is described to demonstrate electrokinetic remediation of soil contaminated with copper. A 30 cm electrokinetic cell with an applied voltage of 30…

  3. Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This document describes how to investigate and evaluate moisture and mold problems in educational facilities, and presents the key steps for implementing a remediation plan. A checklist is provided for conducting mold remediation efforts along with a resource list of helpful organizations and governmental agencies. Appendices contain a glossary,…

  4. LCA of Soil and Groundwater Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Owsianiak, Mikolaj

    2017-01-01

    Today, there is increasing interest in applying LCA to support decision-makers in contaminated site management. In this chapter, we introduce remediation technologies and associated environmental impacts, present an overview of literature findings on LCA applied to remediation technologies and pr...

  5. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2005-01-31

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time.

  6. A temperature responsive biopolymer for mercury remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Jan; Mulchandani, Ashok; Gropp, Katie E; Chen, Wilfred

    2003-10-01

    Tunable biopolymers based on elastin-like polypeptides (ELP) were engineered for the selective removal of mercury. ELP undergoes a reversible thermal precipitation within a wide range of temperatures and was exploited to enable easy recovery of the sequestered mercury. A bacterial metalloregulatory protein, MerR, which binds mercury with an unusually high affinity and selectivity, was fused to the ELP to provide the highly selective nature of the biopolymers. Selective binding of mercury was demonstrated at an expected ratio of 0.5 mercury/biopolymer, and minimal binding of competing heavy metals (cadmium, nickel, and zinc), even at 100-fold excess, was observed. The sequestered mercury was extracted easily, enabling continuous reuse of the biopolymers. In repeating cycles, mercury concentration was reduced to ppb levels, satisfying even drinking water limits. Utility of the biopolymers with mercury-contaminated Lake Elsinore water was demonstrated with no decrease in efficiency. The nanoscale biopolymers reported here using metalloregulatory proteins represent a "green" technology for environmentally benign mercury removal. As nature offers a wide selection of specific metalloregulatory proteins, this technology offers promising solutions to remediation of other important pollutants such as arsenic or chromium.

  7. Design of a terminal solution for integration of in-home health care devices and services towards the Internet-of-Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhibo; Zheng, Lirong; Tian, Junzhe; Kao-Walter, Sharon; Dubrova, Elena; Chen, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    In-home health care services based on the Internet-of-Things are promising to resolve the challenges caused by the ageing of population. But the existing research is rather scattered and shows lack of interoperability. In this article, a business-technology co-design methodology is proposed for cross-boundary integration of in-home health care devices and services. In this framework, three key elements of a solution (business model, device and service integration architecture and information system integration architecture) are organically integrated and aligned. In particular, a cooperative Health-IoT ecosystem is formulated, and information systems of all stakeholders are integrated in a cooperative health cloud as well as extended to patients' home through the in-home health care station (IHHS). Design principles of the IHHS includes the reuse of 3C platform, certification of the Health Extension, interoperability and extendibility, convenient and trusted software distribution, standardised and secured electrical health care record handling, effective service composition and efficient data fusion. These principles are applied to the design of an IHHS solution called iMedBox. Detailed device and service integration architecture and hardware and software architecture are presented and verified by an implemented prototype. The quantitative performance analysis and field trials have confirmed the feasibility of the proposed design methodology and solution.

  8. Plugging solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomashevskiy, L.P.; Boldin, V.M.; Borovikov, P.A.; Fedorova, G.G.; Koshelova, I.F.; Krivoshchekova, N.P.; Prokhorevich, L.D.; Prudnikova, N.N.; Vin, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    This solution is designed to quickly harden in a cool environment. Phenoformaldyhyde tar is used as a hardening agent along with a modified diethyleneglycol in the amounts of (part by weight): phenoformaldyhyde tar and diethyleneglycol=1oo; acidic hardener=8-16; water=2-4.

  9. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate buffer concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. The remediation steps include changes in the coolant chemistry specification, development of a suite of new antimicrobial additives, and development of devices for the removal of nickel and phosphate ions from the coolant. This paper presents an overview of the anomalies, their known and suspected system effects, their causes, and the actions being taken to remediate the coolant.

  10. SEQUESTERING AGENTS FOR ACTIVE CAPS - REMEDIATION OF METALS AND ORGANICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A; Michael Paller, M; Danny D. Reible, D; Xingmao Ma, X; Ioana G. Petrisor, I

    2007-05-10

    This research evaluated organoclays, zeolites, phosphates, and a biopolymer as sequestering agents for inorganic and organic contaminants. Batch experiments were conducted to identify amendments and mixtures of amendments for metal and organic contaminants removal and retention. Contaminant removal was evaluated by calculating partitioning coefficients. Metal retention was evaluated by desorption studies in which residue from the removal studies was extracted with 1 M MgCl{sub 2} solution. The results indicated that phosphate amendments, some organoclays, and the biopolymer, chitosan, were very effective sequestering agents for metals in fresh and salt water. Organoclays were very effective sorbents for phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Partitioning coefficients for the organoclays were 3000-3500 ml g{sup -1} for benzo(a)pyrene, 400-450 ml g{sup -1} for pyrene, and 50-70 ml g{sup -1} for phenanthrene. Remediation of sites with a mixture of contaminants is more difficult than sites with a single contaminant because metals and organic contaminants have different fate and transport mechanisms in sediment and water. Mixtures of amendments (e.g., organoclay and rock phosphate) have high potential for remediating both organic and inorganic contaminants under a broad range of environmental conditions, and have promise as components in active caps for sediment remediation.

  11. Site remediation techniques in India: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anomitra Banerjee; Miller Jothi [BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus (United Arab Emirates)

    2013-07-01

    India is one of the developing countries operating site remediation techniques for the entire nuclear fuel cycle waste for the last three decades. In this paper we intend to provide an overview of remediation methods currently utilized at various hazardous waste sites in India, their advantages and disadvantages. Over the years the site remediation techniques have been well characterized and different processes for treatment, conditioning and disposal are being practiced. Remediation Methods categorized as biological, chemical or physical are summarized for contaminated soils and environmental waters. This paper covers the site remediation techniques implemented for treatment and conditioning of wastelands arising from the operation of nuclear power plant, research reactors and fuel reprocessing units. (authors)

  12. Colour and COD removal of disperse dye solution by a novel coagulant: application of statistical design for the optimization and regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anouzla, Abdelkader; Abrouki, Younes; Souabi, Salah; Safi, Mohammed; Rhbal, Hicham

    2009-07-30

    The investigation presented here focussed on the steel industrial wastewater (SIWW) FeCl(3) rich as an original coagulant to remove the synthetic textile wastewater. Response surface methodology was used to study the cumulative effect of the various parameters namely, coagulant dosage, initial pH of dye solution, dye concentration and to optimize the process conditions for the decolourization and COD reduction of disperse blue 79 solution. For obtaining the mutual interaction between the variables and optimizing these variables, a 2(3) full factorial central composite rotatable design using response surface methodology was employed. The efficiencies of decolourization and COD reduction for disperse blue 79 solution were accomplished at optimum conditions as 99% and 94%, respectively.

  13. Engineered wetlands : an innovative environmental solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M. [Jacques Whitford NAWE, White Bear Lake, MN (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Engineered wetlands are now considered as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and waters. Engineered wetlands incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems in order to enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. The wetlands typically emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. This article discussed an engineered wetlands installed at a set of pipeline terminals as well as at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery. The pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing BTEX and ammonia, and a subsurface engineered wetland was built in 1998. To date, the 16,000{sup 2} foot wetland has treated a flow-equalized input of approximately 1.5 m{sup 3} per day of contaminants. At the refinery, a wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m{sup 3} of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The treatment site consists of a golf course, river front trails, and a white water kayak course. A cascade aeration system was used for iron oxidation and air-stripping. A soil matrix biofilter was used for passive gas phase benzene removal, as well as for the removal of ferric hydroxide precipitates. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 1 fig.

  14. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, volume 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Michelson, D.C.; Turmer, G.S.

    1988-09-01

    The 604 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the ninth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Subsections for sections 1, 2, 5, and 6 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at (615) 576-0568 or FTS 626-0568.

  15. Remediation of Oil-Contaminated Soil in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2013-01-01

    This paper present the recent research conducted at the Arctic Technology Centre, where different solutions for remediation of excavated oil contaminated soil in Greenlandic towns were tested. In the first work, soil polluted by light oil was treated with two different nutrient sources (substrate....... The degradation proceeded further at the elevated temperature and even more when heat and nutrients were combined. In the second work, a nutrient rich soil highly polluted by weathered heavy oil was aerated by insertion of air-channels, and heated to 20°C. Between 19 % and 34 % of the oil pollution was removed...

  16. 反思私力救济,推动依法治校--高校大学生人身伤害的解决对策%Reviewing the Private Remedy and Promoting Ruling Colleges by law-Solutions to Personal Injuries of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴蕴君

    2015-01-01

    随着十八届四中全会的顺利召开,落实依法治国的基本方略,建设社会主义法治国家的步伐不断加快。新形势下高校大学生的人身伤害事故日趋严重,而扭曲的私立救助更是起到了推波助澜的作用。依法治校有利于把学校各项事业和各项工作纳入法制轨道,实行有法可依、有法必依、执法必严、违法必究,维护学校公平正义,实现学校和学生生活制度化、法制化。本文从学生工作实践角度,通过遵循社会救济、设立高校安全管理委员会和学生伤害事件维权委员会来促进高校大学生人身伤害的有力解决。%With the holding of Fourth Plenary Session of the Eighteenth Central Committee,the implementation of the policies for country-running by law goes comprehensively and the progress of building socialism country ruled by law goes fast.Under the new situation,student personal injury accidents become serious day by day,and distorted private remedy certainly fuels them.So college-running by law is beneficial for college to put all the affairs on the road of legalization.Thus see to it that there are laws to go by,the laws are observed and strictly enforced,and law-breakers are prosecuted.Then it is more possible for colleges to maintain justice and institutionalize and legalized university life.Considering the experiences from work of man-agement and practice of students,this paper provides some solutions to college student personal injury accidents,such as adap-ting to social relief,establishing college safety administration committee and setting up committee for protecting rights of students in personal injury accidents.

  17. Use of surfactants for the remediation of contaminated soils: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuhui; Jiang, Rui; Xiao, Wei; Yu, Jiaguo

    2015-03-21

    Due to the great harm caused by soil contamination, there is an increasing interest to apply surfactants to the remediation of a variety of contaminated soils worldwide. This review article summarizes the findings of recent literatures regarding remediation of contaminated soils/sites using surfactants as an enhancing agent. For the surfactant-based remedial technologies, the adsorption behaviors of surfactants onto soil, the solubilizing capability of surfactants, and the toxicity and biocompatibility of surfactants are important considerations. Surfactants can enhance desorption of pollutants from soil, and promote bioremediation of organics by increasing bioavailability of pollutants. The removal of heavy metals and radionuclides from soils involves the mechanisms of dissolution, surfactant-associated complexation, and ionic exchange. In addition to the conventional ionic and nonionic surfactants, gemini surfactants and biosurfactants are also applied to soil remediation due to their benign features like lower critical micelle concentration (CMC) values and better biocompatibility. Mixed surfactant systems and combined use of surfactants with other additives are often adopted to improve the overall performance of soil washing solution for decontamination. Worldwide the field studies and full-scale remediation using surfactant-based technologies are yet limited, however, the already known cases reveal the good prospect of applying surfactant-based technologies to soil remediation.

  18. Light Pollution Responses and Remedies

    CERN Document Server

    Mizon, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Light pollution is a major threat to astronomy across the entire developed world. The night sky that most of us can see bears little relationship to the spectacular vistas that our ancestors have gazed at for tens of thousands of years. It is ironic that as our understanding of the universe has improved, our ability to see it has been dramatically reduced by the skyglow of our civilization. In the second edition of Light Pollution - Responses and Remedies, Bob Mizon delves into the history and practice of lighting and how its misue has not only stolen the stars, but blighted our lives and those of our fellow-creatures on this planet. This book suggests how we can win back the night sky and at the same time save energy and money, improve our health, and even lower crime rate! It also includes a list of targets for urban stargazers, and recommendations for ensuring sane lighting worldwide.

  19. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  20. Introduction: Mediating and Remediating Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    In this second volume we explore how people, groups and institutions deal with death through processes of mediation (the presentation of something through media), remediation (the representation of one medium in another, see below) and mediatization (the process through which core elements...... of a social or cultural activity assume media form, see below). The volume presents a wide variety of ethnographies of death from Norway, Finland, Sweden, the US, Papua New Guinea, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Libya, Tibet, Uganda and Denmark as well as a number of online sites and social media material....... These are analyzed through a vast number of theoretical and analytical perspectives in order to investigate how very diverse practices surrounding death and dying - mourning and commemoration, ritualization, politicization, re-enactment, traditionalization, activism or documentarism: private or public, offline...