WorldWideScience

Sample records for remediating high water

  1. High sensitivity 1H-NMR spectroscopy of homeopathic remedies made in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anick, David J

    2004-01-01

    Background The efficacy of homeopathy is controversial. Homeopathic remedies are made via iterated shaking and dilution, in ethanol or in water, from a starting substance. Remedies of potency 12 C or higher are ultra-dilute (UD), i.e. contain zero molecules of the starting material. Various hypotheses have been advanced to explain how a UD remedy might be different from unprepared solvent. One such hypothesis posits that a remedy contains stable clusters, i.e. localized regions where one or more hydrogen bonds remain fixed on a long time scale. High sensitivity proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has not previously been used to look for evidence of differences between UD remedies and controls. Methods Homeopathic remedies made in water were studied via high sensitivity proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A total of 57 remedy samples representing six starting materials and spanning a variety of potencies from 6 C to 10 M were tested along with 46 controls. Results By presaturating on the water peak, signals could be reliably detected that represented H-containing species at concentrations as low as 5 μM. There were 35 positions where a discrete signal was seen in one or more of the 103 spectra, which should theoretically have been absent from the spectrum of pure water. Of these 35, fifteen were identified as machine-generated artifacts, eight were identified as trace levels of organic contaminants, and twelve were unexplained. Of the unexplained signals, six were seen in just one spectrum each. None of the artifacts or unexplained signals occurred more frequently in remedies than in controls, using a p < .05 cutoff. Some commercially prepared samples were found to contain traces of one or more of these small organic molecules: ethanol, acetate, formate, methanol, and acetone. Conclusion No discrete signals suggesting a difference between remedies and controls were seen, via high sensitivity 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The results failed to support

  2. Identifying and Remediating High Water Production Problems in Basin-Centered Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Billingsley

    2005-12-01

    , seismic mapping, petrophysics, and reservoir simulation indicate a lithologic and structural component to excessive in situ water permeability. Higher formation water salinity was found to be a good pay indicator. Thus spontaneous potential (SP) and resistivity ratio approaches combined with accurate formation water resistivity (Rw) information may be underutilized tools. Reservoir simulation indicates significant infill potential in the demonstration area. Macro natural fracture permeability was determined to be a key element affecting both gas and water production. Using the reservoir characterization results, we generated strategies for avoidance and mitigation of unwanted water production in the field. These strategies include (1) more selective perforation by improved pay determination, (2) using seismic attributes to avoid small-scale fault zones, and (3) utilizing detailed subsurface information to deliberately target optimally located small scale fault zones high in the reservoir gas column. Tapping into the existing natural fracture network represents opportunity for generating dynamic value. Recognizing the crucial role of stress release in the natural generation of permeability within tight reservoirs raises the possibility of manmade generation of permeability through local confining stress release. To the extent that relative permeabilities prevent gas and water movement in the deep subsurface a reduction in stress around a wellbore has the potential to increase the relative permeability conditions, allowing gas to flow. For this reason, future research into cavitation completion methods for deep geopressured reservoirs is recommended.

  3. In situ remediation of Jet A in soil and ground water by high vacuum, dual phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirshner, M.; Pressly, N.C.; Roth, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial results of subsurface remediation at Terminal 1, Kennedy International Airport, to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with Jet A fuel. The project was driven and constrained by the construction schedule of a major new terminal at the facility. The remediation system used a combination of ground water pumping, air injection, and soil vapor extraction. In the first five months of operation, the combined processes of dewatering, volatilization, and biodegradation removed a total of 36,689 pounds of total volatile and semivolatile organic jet fuel hydrocarbons from subsurface soil and ground water. The results of this case study have shown that 62% of the removal resulted from biodegradation, 27% occurred as a result of liquid removal, and 11% resulted from the extraction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

  4. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorine in drainage water. Nano photo-Fenton like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drainage water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms (EMs removed 100% of the lindane initial concentration. There is no remaining toxicity in lindane contaminated-water after remediation on treated rats relative to control with respect to histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Advanced oxidation processes especially with nanomaterials and bioremediation using effective microorganisms can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies of lindane in water.

  5. Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water. ... the remediation of an oily sludge, which was part of the waste stream from the improvement ... m3 of fresh water respectively while 'treatment' reactors C and D received ...

  6. Soil and ground-water remediation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    1996-01-01

    Urban areas typically contain numerous sites underlain by soils or ground waters which are contaminated to levels that exceed clean-up guidelines and are hazardous to public health. Contamination most commonly results from the disposal, careless use and spillage of chemicals, or the historic importation of contaminated fill onto properties undergoing redevelopment. Contaminants of concern in soil and ground water include: inorganic chemicals such as heavy metals; radioactive metals; salt and inorganic pesticides, and a range of organic chemicals included within petroleum fuels, coal tar products, PCB oils, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. Dealing with contaminated sites is a major problem affecting all urban areas and a wide range of different remedial technologies are available. This chapter reviews the more commonly used methods for ground-water and soil remediation, paying particular regard to efficiency and applicability of specific treatments to different site conditions. (author). 43 refs., 1 tab., 27 figs

  7. Radiation induced oxidation for water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehringer, P.

    1997-01-01

    The action of ionizing radiation on halogenated hydrocarbons, in the presence and absence of ozone, was studied in water and wastewater. The combined ozone/electron-beam irradiation process was found especially suited for remediation of low-level contaminated groundwater. This combined treatment was often more effective than irradiation alone for wastewater decontamination. It reduced the COD without a simultaneous increase of BOD. Introduction of gaseous ozone directly into the irradiation chamber improved the water-flow turbulence, allowing treatment in layers thicker than the penetration range of the electrons, with increased decontamination efficiency. (author)

  8. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Ahmed; Derbalah Aly; Shaheen Sabry

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation) for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane) in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detect...

  9. Corrosion problems in boiling water reactors and their remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosborg, B.

    1989-01-01

    This article briefly presents current corrosion problems in boiling water reactors and their remedies. The problems are different forms of environmentally assisted cracking, and the remedies are divided into material-, environment-, and stress-related remedies. The list of problems comprises: intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in weld-sensitized stainless steel piping; IGSCC in cold-bent stainless steel piping; irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in stainless alloys; IGSCC in high-strength stainless alloys. A prospective corrosion problem, as judged from literature references, and one which relates to plant life, is corrosion fatigue in pressure vessel steel, since the reactor pressure vessel is the most critical component in the BWR pressure boundary as regards plant safety. (author)

  10. Can nitrate contaminated groundwater be remediated by optimizing flood irrigation rate with high nitrate water in a desert oasis using the WHCNS model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hao; Qi, Zhiming; Hu, Kelin; Prasher, Shiv O; Zhang, Yuanpei

    2016-10-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater is an environmental concern in intensively cultivated desert oases where this polluted groundwater is in turn used as a major irrigation water resource. However, nitrate fluxes from root zone to groundwater are difficult to monitor in this complex system. The objectives of this study were to validate and apply the WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) model to simulate water drainage and nitrate leaching under different irrigation and nitrogen (N) management practices, and to assess the utilization of groundwater nitrate as an approach to remediate nitrate contaminated groundwater while maintain crop yield. A two-year field experiment was conducted in a corn field irrigated with high nitrate groundwater (20 mg N L(-1)) in Alxa, Inner Mongolia, China. The experiment consisted of two irrigation treatments (Istd, standard, 750 mm per season; Icsv, conservation, 570 mm per season) factorially combined with two N fertilization treatments (Nstd, standard, 138 kg ha(-1); Ncsv, conservation, 92 kg ha(-1)). The validated results showed that the WHCNS model simulated values of crop dry matter, yield, soil water content and soil N concentration in soil profile all agreed well with the observed values. Compared to the standard water management (Istd), the simulated drainage and nitrate leaching decreased about 65% and 59%, respectively, under the conservation water management (Icsv). Nearly 55% of input N was lost by leaching under the IstdNstd and IstdNcsv treatments, compared to only 26% under the IcsvNstd and IcsvNcsv treatments. Simulations with more than 240 scenarios combing different levels of irrigation and fertilization indicated that irrigation was the main reason leading to the high risk of nitrate leaching, and the nitrate in irrigation groundwater can be best utilized without corn yield loss when the total irrigation was reduced from the current 750 mm to 491 mm. This reduced irrigation rate facilitated

  11. Water treatment technologies for a mixed waste remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, C; Freeman, G [Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., St. Charles, MO (United States); Ballew, B [Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Dames and Moore, St. Charles, MO (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Water treatment is an important element of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), which is cleaning up a former uranium processing plant near St. Louis, Missouri. This project, under the management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), includes treatment and release of contaminated surface water and possibly groundwater at the plant site and a nearby quarry, which was once used for waste disposal. The contaminants include uranium, thorium, radium, nitroaromatics, nitrates, and metals. Three water treatment plants will be used to treat contaminated water prior to its release to the Missouri River. The first, construction of which is nearly complete, will treat contaminated surface water and interstitial water in and around the quarry. A stepwise process of sedimentation, clarification, filtration, adsorption, and ion exchange will be used to remove the contaminants. A similar sequence will be used for the first train of the water treatment plant at the plant site, although process details have been adjusted to address the different contaminant concentrations. The site water treatment plant will also have a second train consisting of a vapor compression/ distillation (VCD) system. Train 2 is necessary to treat waters primarily from four raffinate pits containing high concentrations of inorganics (e.g., nitrates, sulfates, and chlorides) in addition to radionuclides, nitroaromatics, and metals contamination that are common in most of the waters at the site. Construction is under way on the First train of this facility. After it is treated, all water will be impounded and batch tested for compliance with the project's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits prior to release to the Missouri River. The third water treatment plant is a mobile system that will be used to treat waters in some of the building sumps. (author)

  12. Water treatment technologies for a mixed waste remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, C.; Freeman, G.; Ballew, B.

    1992-01-01

    Water treatment is an important element of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), which is cleaning up a former uranium processing plant near St. Louis, Missouri. This project, under the management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), includes treatment and release of contaminated surface water and possibly groundwater at the plant site and a nearby quarry, which was once used for waste disposal. The contaminants include uranium, thorium, radium, nitroaromatics, nitrates, and metals. Three water treatment plants will be used to treat contaminated water prior to its release to the Missouri River. The first, construction of which is nearly complete, will treat contaminated surface water and interstitial water in and around the quarry. A stepwise process of sedimentation, clarification, filtration, adsorption, and ion exchange will be used to remove the contaminants. A similar sequence will be used for the first train of the water treatment plant at the plant site, although process details have been adjusted to address the different contaminant concentrations. The site water treatment plant will also have a second train consisting of a vapor compression/ distillation (VCD) system. Train 2 is necessary to treat waters primarily from four raffinate pits containing high concentrations of inorganics (e.g., nitrates, sulfates, and chlorides) in addition to radionuclides, nitroaromatics, and metals contamination that are common in most of the waters at the site. Construction is under way on the First train of this facility. After it is treated, all water will be impounded and batch tested for compliance with the project's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits prior to release to the Missouri River. The third water treatment plant is a mobile system that will be used to treat waters in some of the building sumps. (author)

  13. Surface water management at a mixed waste remediation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlotzhauer, D.S.; Warbritton, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) deals with chemical and radiological contaminants. MK-Ferguson Company is managing the project under contract with the US Department of Energy. Remedial activities include demolishing buildings, constructing material storage and staging areas, excavating and consolidating waste materials, and treating and disposing of the materials in a land disposal facility. Due to the excavation and construction required during remediation, a well-planned surface water management system is essential. Planning involves characterization of source areas and surface water transport mechanisms and identification of applicable regulations. System components include: erosion control sediment control, flow attenuation, and management of contaminated water. Combinations of these components may be utilized during actual construction and remediation to obtain optimum control. Monitoring is performed during implementation in order to assess the effectiveness of control measures. This management scheme provides for comprehensive management of surface water at this site by providing control and/or treatment to appropriate standards. Although some treatment methodologies for contaminated water are specific to site contaminants, this comprehensive program provides a management approach which is applicable to many remedial projects in order to minimize contaminant release and meet Clean Water Act requirements

  14. A strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.

    1992-07-01

    Established pump and treat ground water remediation has a reputation for being too expensive and time consuming, especially when cleanup standards are set at very low levels, e.g., 50 ft below ground surface) widespread ground water contamination. The perceived shortcomings of pump and treat result from the (1) tendency of most contaminants to sorb to formation materials, thus retarding contaminant removal; (2) geologic complexity, which requires detailed characterization for the design of optimal extraction systems within available resources; and (3) failure to apply dynamic well field management techniques. An alternative strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation consists of (1) detailed characterization of the geology, hydrology, and chemistry; (2) use of computer-aided data interpretation, data display, and decision support systems; (3) removal of sources, if possible; (4) initial design for plume containment and source remediation; (5) phased installation of the well field; (6) detailed monitoring of the remediation; (7) active ongoing re-evaluation of the operating well field, including redesign as appropriate (dynamic management); (8) re-injection of treated ground water to speed the flushing of contaminants; and (9) setting of appropriate cleanup levels or goals. Use of some or all of these techniques can dramatically reduce the time required to achieve cleanup goals and thus the cost of ground water remediation

  15. Characterization and remediation of highly radioactive contaminated soil at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckmaster, M.A.; Erickson, J.K.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, contains over 1,500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 RI/FS is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation on the Hanford Site that involves highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste sites within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. These data were then used. to develop remedial alternatives during the FS evaluation. The preferred alternative resulting from the RI/FS process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit is to construct a surface isolation barrier. The multi-layered earthen barrier will be designed to prevent migration of contaminants resulting from water infiltration, biointrusion, and wind and water erosion

  16. Modernized approach for the remediation of produced water impacted sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knafla, A.; Carey, J. [Equilibrium Environmental Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Stokes, D. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Carey, J.; Sunita, R.

    2007-10-01

    This article described a project conducted to remediate a site in southeast Saskatchewan polluted by releases of produced water-related salts and boron during the 1960s. A risk assessment was conducted to define endpoints based on equivalent land capability and the potential for health risks. Multiple toxic stressors complicated the assessment, and limited published data were available regarding cumulative and interactive effects. Boron concentrations exceeded recommended guidelines, and the poor permeability of surface soils caused reduced infiltration and increased run-off. An automated pumping system was designed to allow for variable leachate removal rates depending on groundwater elevations. A distillation system using moderately saline water from a nearby source was designed to offset scaling that occurred due to high calcium sulfate concentrations. Results of the project suggested that the combination of groundwater control, improving surface soil permeability, establishing plant growth, and available water for infiltration resulted in significant improvements in soil quality and an approach towards land capability endpoints. The use of moderately saline irrigation water led to significant improvements in the soil salinity of heavily impacted areas. Test plots were then formed to test the efficacy of manure and calcium nitrate as a remediation technique. Test plots were treated with Roundup, and calcium nitrate before seeding, or with manure and calcium nitrate followed by rototilling and seeding. In treated plots, plant growth was observed for barley, alkali grass, wheatgrasses, orchard grass, rye, and alfalfa. Greater plant height and yield was visible in the manure and calcium nitrate treated plots. A decrease in boron topsoil concentrations was also observed. Average bioconcentration factors was calculated as 29.5. It was concluded that the method can provide a 20 per cent annual soil concentration reduction rate. 6 figs.

  17. Recent Developments for Remediating Acidic Mine Waters Using Sulfidogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Nancucheo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acidic mine drainage (AMD is regarded as a pollutant and considered as potential source of valuable metals. With diminishing metal resources and ever-increasing demand on industry, recovering AMD metals is a sustainable initiative, despite facing major challenges. AMD refers to effluents draining from abandoned mines and mine wastes usually highly acidic that contain a variety of dissolved metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn in much greater concentration than what is found in natural water bodies. There are numerous remediation treatments including chemical (lime treatment or biological methods (aerobic wetlands and compost bioreactors used for metal precipitation and removal from AMD. However, controlled biomineralization and selective recovering of metals using sulfidogenic bacteria are advantageous, reducing costs and environmental risks of sludge disposal. The increased understanding of the microbiology of acid-tolerant sulfidogenic bacteria will lead to the development of novel approaches to AMD treatment. We present and discuss several important recent approaches using low sulfidogenic bioreactors to both remediate and selectively recover metal sulfides from AMD. This work also highlights the efficiency and drawbacks of these types of treatments for metal recovery and points to future research for enhancing the use of novel acidophilic and acid-tolerant sulfidogenic microorganisms in AMD treatment.

  18. Remediation of uranium contaminated water and soil by PIMS approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Raicevic, J.; Smiciklas, I. . E-mail address of corresponding author: raich@beotel.yu; Raicevic, S.)

    2005-01-01

    Contamination of soil by uranium (U) represents a permanent threat for food and water resources. For this reason, remediation is a very important measure for protection of the health of the population living in the vicinity of these contaminated sites. Phosphate- Induced Metal Stabilization (PIMS) represents one of the powerful methods for remediation of soil and water contaminated by U, including depleted uranium (DU). By this approach it is possible to stabilize metals in the form of phosphate phases and other low soluble phases that are stable over geological time. PIMS is based on application of a special form of apatite of biological origin, Apatite II, to clean up metal and radionuclide contamination, in situ or ex situ. This biogenic apatite can be emplaced as a down-gradient permeable reactive barrier, mixed into contaminated soil or waste or used as a disposal liner. Here we will briefly describe the PIMS remediation protocol. (author)

  19. High Blood Pressure and Cold Remedies: Which Are Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counter cold remedies safe for people who have high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Over- ... remedies aren't off-limits if you have high blood pressure, but it's important to make careful choices. Among ...

  20. Water management. A core task of the Wismut remediation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Michael; Meyer, Juergen; Jenk, Ulf; Kassahun, Andrea; Schramm, Andrea; Baacke, Delf; Forbrig, Norbert; Metschies, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Water management and conventional technical water treatment are by far the most cost-intensive long-term tasks of the Wismut remediation programme. Over the medium term, there is no viable alternative to the operation of active systems to catch and treat contaminated mine waters at the Ronneburg, Schlema, Koenigstein, Poehla, Seelingstaedt and Heimsdorf sites. Based on the status quo this paper outlines the key issues of the Wismut GmbH water management strategy over the medium and long term. lt is focused primarily on achieving protection goals for potentially impacted water bodies in the surroundings of Wismut sites and on optimising associated remediation expenditure as well as on creating the prerequisites for achieving low post-remedial care and maintenance or walk-away system status over the long term. The topic of this paper is the presentation of priority tasks related to future water management at Wismut sites in Saxony and Thuringia. The reflections are based on experiences and lessons learned and take into account current statutory management requirements referring to ground and surface water bodies affected by Wismut. The paper is based on a presentation made at the International Mining Symposium WISSYM 2015 on 2nd September 2015 in Bad Schlema, Germany.

  1. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray W. Sheldon

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (stripper gas water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  2. Iron supported on bioinspired green silica for water remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Khalid M; Shiels, Lewis; Lacaze, Laure; Peshkur, Tanya A; Anderson, Peter; Machala, Libor; Critchley, Kevin; Patwardhan, Siddharth V; Gibson, Lorraine T

    2017-01-01

    Iron has been used previously in water decontamination, either unsupported or supported on clays, polymers, carbons or ceramics such as silica. However, the reported synthesis procedures are tedious, lengthy (involving various steps), and either utilise or produce toxic chemicals. Herein, the use of a simple, rapid, bio-inspired green synthesis method is reported to prepare, for the first time, a family of iron supported on green nanosilica materials (Fe@GN) to create new technological solutions for water remediation. In particular, Fe@GN were employed for the removal of arsenate ions as a model for potentially toxic elements in aqueous solution. Several characterization techniques were used to study the physical, structural and chemical properties of the new Fe@GN. When evaluated as an adsorption platform for the removal of arsenate ions, Fe@GN exhibited high adsorption capacity (69 mg of As per g of Fe@GN) with superior kinetics (reaching ∼35 mg As per g sorbent per hr) - threefold higher than the highest removal rates reported to date. Moreover, a method was developed to regenerate the Fe@GN allowing for a full recovery and reuse of the adsorbent in subsequent extractions; strongly highlighting the potential technological benefits of these new green materials.

  3. Assessment of produced water contaminated soils to determine remediation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clodfelter, C.

    1995-01-01

    Produced water and drilling fluids can impact the agricultural properties of soil and result in potential regulatory and legal liabilities. Produced water typically is classified as saline or a brine and affects surface soils by increasing the sodium and chloride content. Sources of produced water which can lead to problems include spills from flowlines and tank batteries, permitted surface water discharges and pit areas, particularly the larger pits including reserve pits, emergency pits and saltwater disposal pits. Methods to assess produced water spills include soil sampling with various chemical analyses and surface geophysical methods. A variety of laboratory analytical methods are available for soil assessment which include electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable sodium percent and others. Limiting the list of analytical parameters to reduce cost and still obtain the data necessary to assess the extent of contamination and determine remediation requirements can be difficult. The advantage to using analytical techniques is that often regulatory remediation standards are tied to soil properties determined from laboratory analysis. Surface geophysical techniques can be an inexpensive method to rapidly determine the extent and relative magnitude of saline soils. Data interpretations can also provide an indication of the horizontal as well as the vertical extent of impacted soils. The following discussion focuses on produced water spills on soil and assessment of the impacted soil. Produced water typically contains dissolved hydrocarbons which are not addressed in this discussion

  4. Reduced risk estimations after remediation of lead (Pb) in drinking water at two US school districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Le, Trung; Gallagher, Daniel; Edwards, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The risk of students to develop elevated blood lead from drinking water consumption at schools was assessed, which is a different approach from predictions of geometric mean blood lead levels. Measured water lead levels (WLLs) from 63 elementary schools in Seattle and 601 elementary schools in Los Angeles were acquired before and after voluntary remediation of water lead contamination problems. Combined exposures to measured school WLLs (first-draw and flushed, 50% of water consumption) and home WLLs (50% of water consumption) were used as inputs to the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model for each school. In Seattle an average 11.2% of students were predicted to exceed a blood lead threshold of 5 μg/dL across 63 schools pre-remediation, but predicted risks at individual schools varied (7% risk of exceedance at a "low exposure school", 11% risk at a "typical exposure school", and 31% risk at a "high exposure school"). Addition of water filters and removal of lead plumbing lowered school WLL inputs to the model, and reduced the predicted risk output to 4.8% on average for Seattle elementary students across all 63 schools. The remnant post-remediation risk was attributable to other assumed background lead sources in the model (air, soil, dust, diet and home WLLs), with school WLLs practically eliminated as a health threat. Los Angeles schools instead instituted a flushing program which was assumed to eliminate first-draw WLLs as inputs to the model. With assumed benefits of remedial flushing, the predicted average risk of students to exceed a BLL threshold of 5 μg/dL dropped from 8.6% to 6.0% across 601 schools. In an era with increasingly stringent public health goals (e.g., reduction of blood lead safety threshold from 10 to 5 μg/dL), quantifiable health benefits to students were predicted after water lead remediation at two large US school systems. © 2013.

  5. An environmentalist's perspective on alternatives to pump and treat for ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Pump and treat is far-and-away the most prevalent technique to remediate contaminated ground water. There is, however, a growing awareness of the limitations of this remediation method to achieve either background or health-based water quality standards, particularly for petroleum hydrocarbon constituents. Given these limitations, this paper explores advantages and disadvantages of some remediation alternatives from an environmentalist's perspective. They are: Do it anyway; Quit; Use supplementary remediation technology; Set alternative concentration standards; and Transfer resources to pollution prevention

  6. Developing and implementing institutional controls for ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulland, L.M.; Cooper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE has initiated its Ground Water Project as the second phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project authorized under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA). In the Ground Water Project, the DOE must reduce risk from ground water contaminated by uranium mill processing activities at 24 inactive processing sites by meeting the US EPA standards. The UMTRCA also requires consistency with federal statutes such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The use of institutional controls to reduce risk from contaminated ground water is one element of compliance with standards and the protection of public health and the environment. Institutional controls are active or passive measures that reduce exposure to risks by preventing intrusion or restricting direct access to an area, or restricting access to the contamination through secondary means. Because of inconsistent regulations and multi-party authorities for ground water management, the key to selecting and implementing effective institutional controls lies with developing a consensus between the parties responsible for ground water remediation; those with authority to implement, monitor, and maintain institutional controls; and those facing the risks from contaminated ground water. These parties must develop a consensus for an institutional control program that meets minimum regulatory requirements and protects public health and the environment. Developing consensus and implementing a successful institutional controls program was achieved by the DOE during the cleanup of uranium mill tailings. An effective institutional controls program can also be developed to protect against risks from contaminated ground water. Consensus building and information transmission are the critical elements of an institutional control program that protects human health and the environment from risks associated with ground water contamination

  7. Strategic Evaluation Tool for Surface Water Quality Management Remedies in Drinking Water Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Almaaofi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water catchments (DWC are under pressure from point and nonpoint source pollution due to the growing human activities. This worldwide challenge is causing number of adverse effects, such as degradation in water quality, ecosystem health, and other economic and social pressures. Different evaluation tools have been developed to achieve sustainable and healthy drinking water catchments. However, a holistic and strategic framework is still required to adequately consider the uncertainty associated with feasible management remedies of surface water quality in drinking water catchments. A strategic framework was developed to adequately consider the uncertainty associated with management remedies for surface water quality in drinking water catchments. A Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (FMCDA approach was embedded into a strategic decision support framework to evaluate and rank water quality remediation options within a typical fixed budget constraint faced by bulk water providers. The evaluation framework consists of four core aspects; namely, water quality, environmental, economic and social, and number of associated quantitative and qualitative criteria and sub-criteria. Final remediation strategy ranking was achieved through the application of the Euclidean Distance by the In-center of Centroids (EDIC.

  8. REMEDIATION OF LEON WATER FLOOD, BUTLER COUNTY, KANSAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.L. Korphage; Kelly Kindscher; Bruce G. Langhus

    2001-11-26

    The Leon Water Flood site has undergone one season of soil amendments and growth of specialized plants meant to colonize and accelerate the remediation of the salt-impacted site. The researchers characterized the impacted soil as to chemistry, added soil amendments, and planted several species of seedlings, and seeded the scarred areas. After the first growing season, the surface soil was again characterized and groundcover was also characterized. While plant growth was quite meager across the area, soil chemistry did improve over most of the two scars.

  9. Water Quality Monitoring in the Execution of Canal Remediation Methods in the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, A.; Briceno, H.

    2016-02-01

    Monitoring data indicate relatively high nutrient concentrations in waters close to shore along the Florida Keys, and corresponding responses from the system, such as higher phytoplankton biomass, turbidity and light attenuation as well as lower oxygenation and lower salinities of the water column. These changes, associated to human impact, have become more obvious near canal mouths. Waters close to shore show characteristics closely related to those in residential canals, affected by quick movement of infiltrated runoff and wastewaters (septic tanks), tides and high water table. Many canals do not meet the minimum water quality (WQ) criteria established by the State of Florida and are a potential source of contaminants to near shore waters designated as Outstanding Florida Waters. Canal remediation is being conducted by the Monroe County targeting poor circulation and organic matter accumulation. The restoration technologies include reduction in weed wrack, enhanced circulation, organic removal and partial backfilling. The objective of WQ monitoring is to measure the status and trends of WQ parameters to evaluate progress toward achieving and maintaining WQ standards and protecting/restoring the living marine resources. Monitoring followed a Before-and-After-Control-Impact scheme (BACI). Field measurements, included diel observations and vertical profiles of physical-chemical properties (salinity, DO, %DO saturation, temperature and turbidity) and nutrient analysis. Comparing profiles between remediated and control canals indicated similar patterns in physicochemical properties, and suggesting larger seasonal than spatial variability. BACI diel observations, in surface and bottom waters of remediated canals indicated little difference for surface waters, but significant improvements for bottom waters. Most surface waters are well oxygenated, while bottom waters show a significant increase in DO following culvert installation.

  10. Permeable reactive barrier - innovative technology for ground-water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidic, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Significant advances in the application of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for ground-water remediation have been witnessed in the last 5 years. From only a few full-scale systems and pilot-scale demonstrations, there are currently at least 38 full-scale PRBs using zero-valent iron (ZVI) as a reactive material. Of those, 26 are continuous reactive walls, 9 are funnel-and- gate systems and 3 are in situ reactive vessels. Most of the PRB systems have used granular iron media and have been applied to address the control of contamination caused by chlorinated volatile organic compounds or heavy metals. Many regulatory agencies have expressed interest in PRB systems and are becoming more comfortable in issuing permits. The main advantage of PRB systems is that the installation costs are comparable with those of other ground-water remediation technologies, while the O and M costs are significantly lower and are mostly due to monitoring requirements, which are required for all remediation approaches. In addition, the land use can resume after the installation of the PRB systems, since there are few visible signs of the installation above grounds except for the monitoring wells. It is difficult to make any definite conclusions about the long-term performance of PRB systems because there is no more than 5 years of the record of performance that can be used for such analysis. The two main challenges still facing this technology are: (1) evaluating the longevity (geochemistry) of a PRB; and (2) ensuring/verifying hydraulic performance. A number of public/private partnerships have been established in recent years that are working together to resolve some of these problems. This organized approach by combining the efforts of several government agencies and private companies will likely result in better understanding and, hopefully, better acceptance of this technology in the future. (author)

  11. Intrinsic remediation of JP-4 fuel in soil and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmithorst, W.L. Jr.; Vardy, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Intrinsic remediation methods were employed to remediate soil and ground water contaminated by JP-4 fuel at the United States Coast Guard (USCG) Support Center facility in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. By the time the release was discovered, non-aqueous phase JP-4 fuel was detected in ground water over an area of approximately 8,000 square feet. In addition, concentrations of dissolved BTEX in ground water exceeded 5,000 microg/L. Tight clays present in the upper two meters of the aquifer, underlain by highly transmissive sands, prevented remediation of the JP-4 by conventional treatment methods. Therefore, a system of air injection and air extraction wells were installed that simultaneously depressed the water table and extracted hydrocarbon vapors. The conceptual idea, developed by the EPA RS Kerr Environmental Laboratory (RSKERL) in Ada, Oklahoma, is to stimulate rapid intrinsic biodegradation of the JP-4 fuel compounds. Subsequent biorespiration measurements indicated that the fuel compounds were being rapidly biodegraded. Upon removal of the non aqueous JP-4 compounds, an investigation was conducted to determine if the aquifer had an adequate assimilative capacity to support natural aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of the contaminants. Analysis of ground water samples collected using a cone penetrometer and a direct-push sampling device indicate a sufficient concentration of electron acceptors to support natural biodegradation of the JP-4 compounds

  12. Electrochemical alkaline Fe(VI) water purification and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Stuart; Yu, Xingwen

    2005-10-15

    Fe(VI) is an unusual and strongly oxidizing form of iron, which provides a potentially less hazardous water-purifying agent than chlorine. A novel on-line electrochemical Fe(VI) water purification methodology is introduced. Fe(VI) addition had been a barrier to its effective use in water remediation, because solid Fe(VI) salts require complex (costly) syntheses steps and solutions of Fe(VI) decompose. Online electrochemical Fe(VI) water purification avoids these limitations, in which Fe(VI) is directly prepared in solution from an iron anode as the FeO42- ion, and is added to the contaminant stream. Added FeO42- decomposes, by oxidizing a wide range of water contaminants including sulfides (demonstrated in this study) and other sulfur-containing compounds, cyanides (demonstrated in this study), arsenic (demonstrated in this study), ammonia and other nitrogen-containing compounds (previously demonstrated), a wide range of organics (phenol demonstrated in this study), algae, and viruses (each previously demonstrated).

  13. A Targeted "Capture" and "Removal" Scavenger toward Multiple Pollutants for Water Remediation based on Molecular Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Haijing; Hu, Xiaoxia; Li, Yan; Li, Zhihao; Xu, Jinfan; Song, Xiufeng; Zeng, Haibo; Yuan, Quan

    2016-03-01

    For the water remediation techniques based on adsorption, the long-standing contradictories between selectivity and multiple adsorbability, as well as between affinity and recyclability, have put it on weak defense amid more and more severe environment crisis. Here, a pollutant-targeting hydrogel scavenger is reported for water remediation with both high selectivity and multiple adsorbability for several pollutants, and with strong affinity and good recyclability through rationally integrating the advantages of multiple functional materials. In the scavenger, aptamers fold into binding pockets to accommodate the molecular structure of pollutants to afford perfect selectivity, and Janus nanoparticles with antibacterial function as well as anisotropic surfaces to immobilize multiple aptamers allow for simultaneously handling different kinds of pollutants. The scavenger exhibits high efficiencies in removing pollutants from water and it can be easily recycled for many times without significant loss of loading capacities. Moreover, the residual concentrations of each contaminant are well below the drinking water standards. Thermodynamic behavior of the adsorption process is investigated and the rate-controlling process is determined. Furthermore, a point of use device is constructed and it displays high efficiency in removing pollutants from environmental water. The scavenger exhibits great promise to be applied in the next generation of water purification systems.

  14. Remediation of raw sewage water by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.A.; Laroussi, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    Raw sewage water has been used for irrigation in many countries in the world including Egypt. Although the reuse of sewage water for irrigation has become essential, this practice could represent a hazard to the environment and human health. Radiation treatment was applied to test its effect on the remediation of raw sewage water collected from the inlet of El-Gabal El-Asfar Waste Water Treatment Plant, north east of Cairo city. Different doses of gamma radiation and electron beam ( 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 KGy) were tested for their effects on raw sewage water properties. The parameters tested were total Coliform, BOD, COD, TSS, ph, EC, heavy metals, NH 4 and NO 3 . The data showed an inverse relationship between radiation dose and total Coliform, BOD, COD and TSS. This result proved true for both kinds of radiations. However, the effect of gamma radiation was more pronounced than the electron beam at the same dose. The lethal doses for total Coliform were 1.5 KGy and 3.0 KGy for gamma radiation and electron beam, respectively. Regarding ammonium and nitrate ions, there was a reduction in their content as the radiation dose increased. The reduction was 20% for NH 4 and 21% for NO 3 at 2.5 KGy dose using gamma or electron beam, respectively. The total heavy metals levels were 40.0, 5.8, 55.9, 0.55, 32.2 and 16.4 ppb for Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn. The soluble fraction were 19.5, 3.3, 8.3, 0.02, 0.50, 3.1 ppb representing 49%, 58%, 15%, 3%, 1.6% and 19% of the total Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively. In general, there was a tendency for reduction of the soluble fractions of heavy metals as the radiation dose increased

  15. Remedial investigation of the High-Explosives (HE) Process Area, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, N.B.; Lamarre, A.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a Remedial Investigation (RI) to define the extent of high explosives (HE) compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the soil, rocks, and ground water of the HE Process Area of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300 Facility. The report evaluates potential public health environmental risks associated with these compounds. Hydrogeologic information available before February 15, 1990, is included; however, chemical analyses and water-level data are reported through March 1990. This report is intended to assist the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)--Central Valley Region and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination of the LLNL HE Process Area and ultimately in designing remedial actions. 90 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. GROUND WATER ISSUE: STEAM INJECTION FOR SOIL AND AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide to those involved in assessing remediation technologies for specific sites basic technical information on the use of steam injection for the remediation of soils and aquifers that are contaminated by volatile or semivolatile organic c...

  17. Experience with remediating radiostrontium-contaminated ground water and surface water with versions of AECL's CHEMIC process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, S.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous approaches have been developed for the remediation of radiostrontium ( 90 Sr) contaminated ground water and surface water. Several strontium-removal technologies have been assessed and applied at AECL's (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) Chalk River Laboratories. These include simple ion exchange (based on non-selective natural zeolites or selective synthetic inorganic media), and precipitation and filtration with or without ion exchange as a final polishing step. AECL's CHEMIC process is based on precipitation-microfiltration and ion-exchange steps. This paper presents data related to radiostrontium removal performance and other operational experiences including troubleshooting with two round-the-clock, pilot-scale water remediation plants based on AECL's CHEMIC process at the Chalk River Laboratories site. These plants began operation in the early 1990s. Through optimization of process chemistry and operation, high values for system capability and system availability factors, and low concentrations of 90 Sr in the discharge water approaching drinking water standard can be achieved. (author)

  18. A comparison of pre- and post-remediation water quality, Mineral Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, R.L.; Bencala, K.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Walton-Day, K.; Verplanck, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Pre- and post-remediation data sets are used herein to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures implemented in the headwaters of the Mineral Creek watershed, where contamination from hard rock mining has led to elevated metal concentrations and acidic pH. Collection of pre- and post-remediation data sets generally followed the synoptic mass balance approach, in which numerous stream and inflow locations are sampled for the constituents of interest and estimates of streamflow are determined by tracer dilution. The comparison of pre- and post-remediation data sets is confounded by hydrologic effects and the effects of temporal variation. Hydrologic effects arise due to the relatively wet conditions that preceded the collection of pre-remediation data, and the relatively dry conditions associated with the post-remediation data set. This difference leads to a dilution effect in the upper part of the study reach, where pre-remediation concentrations were diluted by rainfall, and a source area effect in the lower part of the study reach, where a smaller portion of the watershed may have been contributing constituent mass during the drier post-remediation period. A second confounding factor, temporal variability, violates the steady-state assumption that underlies the synoptic mass balance approach, leading to false identification of constituent sources and sinks. Despite these complications, remedial actions completed in the Mineral Creek headwaters appear to have led to improvements in stream water quality, as post-remediation profiles of instream load are consistently lower than the pre-remediation profiles over the entire study reach for six of the eight constituents considered (aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc). Concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc remain above chronic aquatic-life standards, however, and additional remedial actions may be needed. Future implementations of the synoptic mass balance approach should be

  19. Remedial measures against high levels of radioisotopes in aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsekhovitch, O.; Haakanson, L.

    2000-01-01

    This Annex has been prepared within the framework of the Aquatic Working Group of the co-ordinated Research Programme on Validation of the Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP). The main objectives of this Annex are: (1) To provide an outline of a broad set of remedial measures and strategies tested and suggested for aquatic systems to speed up the recovery after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in April 1986. This Report covers case studies from rivers and lakes and includes results from field and laboratory experiments, as well as measures directed at reducing radioisotopes in food by different food preparation procedures in the home. (2) To provide results from selected case studies, focusing on general, strategic results rather than site-specific details. (3) To provide conclusions which specifically address practical matters concerning how to select remedial measures in different situations, how to avoid inefficient measures, and to suggest important areas for future research. (4) To provide an analysis of the concept of lake sensitivity using both empirical and modelled data. One and the same fallout may give rise to very different radionuclide concentrations in water and biota depending on the characteristics of the lake and its catchment

  20. Bio-chemical remediation of under-ground water contaminated by uranium in-situ leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingliang; Li Qian; Zhang Hongcan; Hu Eming; Chen Yongbo

    2014-01-01

    In the process of uranium in-situ leaching, it was serious that strong acid, uranium and heavy metals, and SO_4"2"-, NO_3"- could contaminate underground water. To remedy these pollutants, conventional methods are high-cost and low-efficient, so a bio-chemical remediation method was proposed to cope with the under-ground water pollution in this study. The results showed, in the chemical treatment with Ca(OH)_2 neutralization, pH went up from 2.0 to 7.0, the removal rates of U, Mn"2"+, Zn"2"+, Pb"2"+, SO_4"2"-, NO_3"- were 91.5%, 78.3%, 85.1%, 100%, 71.4% and 2.6% respectively, SO_4"2"- and NO_3"- need to be treated again by bio-method. In the biological process, the Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of bioreactor was controlled at 42 h, and 100% NO_3"- and 70% SO_4"2"- in the contaminated water were removed; Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. f) liquid to H_2S showed better absorption effect, can fully meet the process requirements of H_2S removal. (authors)

  1. Bio-inspired Ni2+-polyphenol hydrophilic network to achieve unconventional high-flux nanofiltration membranes for environmental remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Fangjie; Xu, Yanchao; Yang, Xiaobin; Zhang, Yanqiu; Shao, Lu

    2017-06-01

    A novel Ni 2+ -polyphenol network was designed as an excellent bio-coating by a one-step strategy to obtain nanofiltration membranes, possessing unconventional high water flux up to 56.1 L m -2 h -1 bar -1 with rose bengal (RB) rejection above 95%. This study provides a facile approach to prepare highly-efficient nanofiltration membranes for wastewater remediation.

  2. Acidification of Harbour sediment and removal of heavy metals induced by water splitting in electrodialytic remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    of compartments and ion exchange membranes differed. Totally, 14 electrodialytic experiments were made, with varying remediation time, current densities, and liquid to solid ratio (L/S). pH in the sediment decreased slightly after 1 day of remediation, even if the sediment had a high buffering capacity...

  3. REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH MOTOR OIL BY HIGHLY BIODEGRADABLE SURFACTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Moya-Ramírez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The remediation of a sandy soil contaminated with motor oil was studied by applying two different washing procedures: one discontinuous and the other continuous. In addition the capacity of three highly biodegradable surfactants, two synthetic (Glucopon 600 and Findet 1214N/23 and a biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis, to enhance oil removal was tested. The results obtained with the continuous procedure were much better than those achieved with the discontinuous one, even in experiments conducted with distilled water. Both the addition of surfactants and the rise in temperature significantly increased the removal of the pollutant in experiments conducted with the discontinuous procedure, but the biosurfactant showed a higher capacity for soil remediation than the synthetic surfactants at concentrations close to its CMC. Conversely, when the continuous method was used, surfactant concentration seems to have a lower effect on motor oil removal, at least below the CMC.

  4. Coca: High Altitude Remedy of the Ancient Incas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondich, Amy Sue; Joslin, Jeremy D

    2015-12-01

    The use of coca leaf for medicinal purposes is a centuries-old tradition of the native peoples of South America. Coca products are thought by many laypersons to provide risk-free benefits to users participating in strenuous activities at high altitude. Physiologic studies of coca have increased understanding of its possible mechanism of action as well as its potential impact on high altitude activities. This present work explores the role of coca throughout the history of the Andean peoples and explores whether this ancient remedy has a place in modern medicine. A focused summary of research articles with particular relevance to the field of wilderness medicine is also included to better provide the reader with lessons not only from history but also from another culture. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Field Test of Electromigration as a Method for Remediating Sulfate from Shallow Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, C.G.; Runnells, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Electromigration offers a potential tool for remediating ground water contaminated with highly soluble components, such as Na+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO4-. A field experiment was designed to test the efficacy of electromigration for preconcentrating dissolved SO42- in ground water associated with a fossil-fuel power plant. Two shallow wells, 25 feet apart (one 25 feet deep, the other 47 feet deep), were constructed in the upper portion of an unconfined alluvial aquifer. The wells were constructed with a double-wall design, with an outer casing of 4-inch PVC and an inner tube of 2-inch PVC; both were fully slotted (0.01 inch). Electrodes were constructed by wrapping the inner tubing with a 100-foot length of rare-earth metal oxide/copper wire. An electrical potential of 10.65 volts DC was applied, and tests were run for periods of 12, 44, and 216 hours. Results showed large changes in the pH from the initial pH of ground water of about 7.5 to values of approximately 2 and 12 at the anode and cathode, respectively. Despite the fact that the test conditions were far from ideal, dissolved SO42- was significantly concentrated at the anode. Over a period of approximately nine days, the concentration of SO42- at the anode reached what appeared to be a steady-state value of 2200 mg/L, compared to the initial value in ground water of approximately 1150 mg/L. The results of this field test should encourage further investigation of electromigration as a tool in the remediation of contaminated ground water.

  6. At-risk high school seniors: Science remediation for Georgia's High School Graduation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carolyn M.

    State departments of education have created a system of accountability for the academic achievement of students under the mandate of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. The Georgia Department of Education established the Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) as their method of evaluating the academic achievement of high school students. The GHSGT consist of five sections and students must pass all five sections before students they are eligible to receive a diploma. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of teacher-lead and computer based remediation for a group of high school seniors who have been unsuccessful in passing the science portion of the GHSGT. The objectives of this study include (a) Identify the most effective method of remediation for at-risk students on the science section of the GHSGT, and (b) evaluate the methods of remediation for at-risk students on the science section of GHSGT available to high school students. The participants of this study were at-risk seniors enrolled in one high school during the 2007-2008 school year. The findings of this research study indicated that at-risk students who participated in both types of remediation, teacher-led and computer-based, scored significantly higher than the computer-based remediation group alone. There was no significant relationship between the test scores and the number of times the students were tested.

  7. The remediation of tributyltin-contaminated dredgins and waters

    OpenAIRE

    Gkenakou, Evgenia-Varvara

    2008-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a pollutant, mainly introduced to the environment as a marine anti-fouling agent. The aim of this work was to assess and develop sustainable and cost-effective remediation technologies for TBT-contaminated dredged materials. For this purpose, analytical methods were developed for sediments and sediment leachates.For the sediments, a triple extraction followed by derivatisation and measurement by gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detection was employed, avoi...

  8. Remediation options and the significance of water treatment at former uranium production sites in Eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatzweiler, R.; Jakubick, A.T.; Kiessig, G.

    2000-01-01

    The WISMUT remediation project in the States of Saxony and Thuringia, Germany, comprises several mine and mill sites including large volumes of production residues. Due to the climate, the intensive land use and the regulatory conditions, the water path is most important in evaluating remediation options. Water treatment is an integral part of mine flooding, mine dump and tailings remediation, and treatment costs represent a major portion of the overall costs of the project. Uncertainties in the estimations of quantities of mine and seepage waters, variations in quality from site to site, and changing conditions in time demand a strategic approach to the selection and optimization of water treatment methods. The paper describes options considered and experience gained including efforts to limit long-term treatment costs by developing and applying passive treatment systems and negotiating acceptable discharge limits. (author)

  9. Ligand-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Iannelli, Renato; Losito, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    The suitability of electrokinetic remediation for removing heavy metals from dredged marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity was investigated. Laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments were carried out by applying two different voltage gradients to the sediment (0.5 and 0.8 V/cm) while circulating water or two different chelating agents at the electrode compartments. Tap water, 0.1 M citric acid and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were used respectively. The investigated metals were Zn, Pb, V, Ni and Cu. In the unenhanced experiment, the acid front could not propagate due to the high acid buffering capacity of the sediments; the production of OH(-) ions at the cathode resulted in a high-pH environment causing the precipitation of CaCO3 and metal hydroxides. The use of citric acid prevented the formation of precipitates, but solubilisation and mobilisation of metal species were not sufficiently achieved. Metal removal was relevant when EDTA was used as the conditioning agent, and the electric potential was raised up to 0.8 V/cm. EDTA led to the formation of negatively charged complexes with metals which migrated towards the anode compartment by electromigration. This result shows that metal removal from sediments with high acid buffering capacity may be achieved by enhancing the electrokinetic process by EDTA addition when the acidification of the medium is not economically and/or environmentally sustainable.

  10. Remediation of water and wastewater by using engineered nanomaterials: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishoge, Obadia K; Zhang, Lingling; Suntu, Shaldon L; Jin, Hui; Zewde, Abraham A; Qi, Zhongwei

    2018-05-12

    Nanotechnology is currently a fast-rising socioeconomic and political knowledge-based technology owing to the unique characteristics of its engineered nanomaterials. This branch of technology is useful for water and wastewater remediation. Many scientists and researchers have been conducting different studies and experiments on the applications of engineered nanomaterials at the local to international level. This review mainly aims to provide a current overview of existing knowledge on engineered nanomaterials and their applications in water and wastewater remediation. Furthermore, the present risks and challenges of nanotechnology are examined.

  11. New tailor-made bio-organoclays for the remediation of olive mill waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Ilaria; Liveri, Maria Liria Turco; Gelardi, Giulia; Merli, Marcello; Sciascia, Luciana; Rytwo, Giora

    2013-01-01

    A systematic study aimed at obtaining new organoclays for the treatment of Olive Mill Waste water (OMW) has been performed. Several organoclays have been prepared by loading different amounts of the biocompatible surfactant Tween20 onto the K10 montmorillonite (MMT). Complementary kinetic and equilibrium studies on the adsorption of the Tween20 onto the MMT have been carried out and the characterization of the new tailor-made bio-materials has been performed by means of the XRD and FT-IR measurements. Finally the prepared bio-organoclays have been successfully applied for the OMW remediation and they proved to be highly effective in decreasing the organic content (OC) to an extent that depends on both the amount of loaded surfactant and the experimental protocols applied

  12. New tailor-made bio-organoclays for the remediation of olive mill waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Ilaria; Gelardi, Giulia; Merli, Marcello; Rytwo, Giora; Sciascia, Luciana; Liria Turco Liveri, Maria

    2013-12-01

    A systematic study aimed at obtaining new organoclays for the treatment of Olive Mill Waste water (OMW) has been performed. Several organoclays have been prepared by loading different amounts of the biocompatible surfactant Tween20 onto the K10 montmorillonite (MMT). Complementary kinetic and equilibrium studies on the adsorption of the Tween20 onto the MMT have been carried out and the characterization of the new tailor-made bio-materials has been performed by means of the XRD and FT-IR measurements. Finally the prepared bio-organoclays have been successfully applied for the OMW remediation and they proved to be highly effective in decreasing the organic content (OC) to an extent that depends on both the amount of loaded surfactant and the experimental protocols applied.

  13. Fast degradation of dyes in water using manganese-oxide-coated diatomite for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Trung-Dung; Banerjee, Arghya Narayan; Tran, Quang-Tung; Roy, Sudipta

    2016-11-01

    By a simple wet-chemical procedure using a permanganate in the acidic medium, diatomite coated with amorphous manganese oxide nanoparticles was synthesized. The structural, microstructural and morphological characterizations of the as-synthesized catalysts confirmed the nanostructure of MnO2 and its stabilization on the support - diatomite. The highly efficient and rapid degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange over synthesized MnO2 coated Diatomite has been carried out. The results revealed considerably faster degradation of the dyes against the previously reported data. The proposed mechanism of the dye-degradation is considered to be a combinatorial effect of chemical, physicochemical and physical processes. Therefore, the fabricated catalysts have potential application in waste water treatment, and pollution degradation for environmental remediation.

  14. High gradient magnetic separation applied to environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D.; Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; Schake, A.; de Aguero, K.J.; Padilla, D.D.; Tolt, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is an application of superconducting magnet technology to the separation of magnetic solids from other solids, liquids, or gases. The production of both high magnetic fields (>4 T) and large field gradients using superconducting magnet technology has made it possible to separate a previously unreachable but large family of paramagnetic materials. This is a powerful technique that can be used to separate widely dispersed contaminants from a host material and may be the only technique available for separating material in the colloidal state. Because it is a physical separation process, no additional waste is generated. We are applying this technology to the treatment of radioactive wastes for environmental remediation. We have conducted tests examining slurries containing nonradioactive, magnetic surrogates. Results from these studies were used to verify our analytical model of the separation process. The model describes the rate process for magnetic separation and is based on a force balance on the paramagnetic species. This model was used to support bench scale experiments and prototype separator design

  15. The effect of cognitive remediation in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Louise Birkedal; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Kristensen, Tina Dam

    2017-01-01

    of five studies that reported a cognitive outcome found cognitive remediation to improve cognition in the domains of verbal memory, attention, and processing speed. Two out of four studies that reported on functional outcome found cognitive remediation to improve the functional outcome in the domains...... of social functioning and social adjustment. Zero out of the five studies that reported such an outcome found cognitive remediation to affect the magnitude of clinical symptoms. Research on the effect of cognitive remediation in the ultra-high risk state is still scarce. The current state of evidence...

  16. Toxicity of acid mine pit lake water remediated with limestone and phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil, L.L.; McCullough, C.D.; Lund, M.A.; Evans, L.H.; Tsvetnenko, Y. [Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Pit lakes are increasingly common worldwide and have potential to provide many benefits. However, lake water toxicity may require remediation before beneficial end uses can be realised. Three treatments to remediate AMD (pH similar to 4.8) pit lake water containing elevated concentrations of Al and Zn from Collie, Western Australia were tested in mesocosms. Treatments were: (a) limestone neutralisation (L), (b) phosphorus amendment (P), and c) combined limestone neutralisation and phosphorus amendment (L+P). Laboratory bioassays with Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia, Chlorella protothecoides and Tetrahymena thermophila assessed remediation. Limestone neutralisation increased pH and reduced heavy metal concentrations by 98% (Al) to 14% (Mg), removing toxicity to the three test species within 2 months. Phosphorus amendment removed toxicity after 6 months of treatment. However, phosphorus amendment to prior limestone neutralisation failed to reduce toxicity more than limestone neutralisation alone. Low concentrations of both phosphorus and nitrogen appear to limit phytoplankton population growth in all treatments.

  17. Toxicity of acid mine pit lake water remediated with limestone and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Luke L; McCullough, Clint D; Lund, Mark A; Evans, Louis H; Tsvetnenko, Yuri

    2009-11-01

    Pit lakes are increasingly common worldwide and have potential to provide many benefits. However, lake water toxicity may require remediation before beneficial end uses can be realised. Three treatments to remediate AMD (pH approximately 4.8) pit lake water containing elevated concentrations of Al and Zn from Collie, Western Australia were tested in mesocosms. Treatments were: (a) limestone neutralisation (L), (b) phosphorus amendment (P), and (c) combined limestone neutralisation and phosphorus amendment (L+P). Laboratory bioassays with Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia, Chlorella protothecoides and Tetrahymena thermophila assessed remediation. Limestone neutralisation increased pH and reduced heavy metal concentrations by 98% (Al) to 14% (Mg), removing toxicity to the three test species within 2 months. Phosphorus amendment removed toxicity after 6 months of treatment. However, phosphorus amendment to prior limestone neutralisation failed to reduce toxicity more than limestone neutralisation alone. Low concentrations of both phosphorus and nitrogen appear to limit phytoplankton population growth in all treatments.

  18. Bioventing - a new twist on soil vapor remediation of the vadose zone and shallow ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yancheski, T.B.; McFarland, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Bioventing, which is a combination of soil vapor remediation and bioremediation techniques, may be an innovative, cost-effective, and efficient remedial technology for addressing petroleum contamination in the vadose zone and shallow ground water. The objective of bioventing is to mobilize petroleum compounds from the soil and ground water into soil vapor using soil vapor extraction and injection technology, and to promote the migration of the soil vapor upward to the turf root zone for degradation by active near-surface microbiological activity. Promoting and maintaining optimum microbiological activity in the turf root rhizosphere is a key component to the bioventing technique. Preliminary ongoing USEPA bioventing pilot studies (Kampbell, 1991) have indicated that this technique is a promising remediation technology, although feasibility studies are not yet complete. However, based on the preliminary data, it appears that proper bioventing design and implementation will result in substantial reductions of petroleum compounds in the capillary zone and shallow ground water, complete degradation of petroleum compounds in the turf root zone, and no surface emissions. A bioventing system was installed at a site in southern Delaware with multiple leaking underground storage tanks in early 1992 to remediate vadose zone and shallow ground-water contaminated by petroleum compounds. The system consists of a series of soil vapor extraction and soil vapor/atmospheric air injection points placed in various contamination areas and a central core remediation area (a large grassy plot). This system was chosen for this site because it was least costly to implement and operate as compared to other remedial alternatives (soil vapor extraction with carbon or catalytic oxidation of off-gas treatment, insitu bioremediation, etc.), and results in the generation of no additional wastes

  19. ECONOMICS ANALYSIS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an analysis of the cost of using permeable reactive barriers to remediate contaminated ground water. When possible, these costs are compared with the cost of pump-and-treat technology for similar situations. Permeable reactive barriers are no longer perceiv...

  20. Harmful algal bloom removal and eutrophic water remediation by commercial nontoxic polyamine-co-polymeric ferric sulfate-modified soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Guofei; Zhong, Jiayou; Song, Lirong; Guo, Chunjing; Gan, Nanqin; Wu, Zhenbin

    2015-07-01

    Harmful algal bloom has posed great threat to drinking water safety worldwide. In this study, soils were combined with commercial nontoxic polyamine poly(epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine) (PN) and polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) to obtain PN-PFS soils for Microcystis removal and eutrophic water remediation under static laboratory conditions. High pH and temperature in water could enhance the function of PN-PFS soil. Algal removal efficiency increased as soil particle size decreased or modified soil dose increased. Other pollutants or chemicals (such as C, P, and organic matter) in eutrophic water could participate and promote algal removal by PN-PFS soil; these pollutants were also flocculated. During PN-PFS soil application in blooming field samples, the removal efficiency of blooming Microcystis cells exceeded 99 %, the cyanotoxin microcystins reduced by 57 %. Water parameters (as TP, TN, SS, and SPC) decreased by about 90 %. CODMn, PO4-P, and NH4-N also sharply decreased by >45 %. DO and ORP in water improved. Netting and bridging effects through electrostatic attraction and complexation reaction could be the two key mechanisms of Microcystis flocculation and pollutant purification. Considering the low cost of PN-PFS soil and its nontoxic effect on the environment, we proposed that this soil combination could be applied to remove cyanobacterial bloom and remediate eutrophic water in fields.

  1. Proceedings: Primary water stress corrosion cracking: 1989 EPRI remedial measures workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, J.A.

    1990-04-01

    A meeting on ''PWSCC Remedial Measures'' was organized to give those working in this area an opportunity to share their results, ideas and plans with regard to development and application of remedial measures directed against the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) phenomenon affecting alloy 600 steam generator tubes. Topics discussed included: utility experience and strategies; nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for PWSCC; technical topics ranging from predictive methods for occurrence of PWSCC to results of corrosion tests; and services provided by vendors that can help prevent the occurrence of PWSCC or can help address problems caused by PWSCC once it occurs

  2. Biochar based remediation of water and soil contaminated by phenanthrene and pentachlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Maria A; Di Rauso Simeone, Giuseppe; Scelza, Rosalia; Conte, Pellegrino

    2017-11-01

    Phenanthrene (Phe) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) are classified as persistent organic pollutants and represent serious concern for the environment as they are toxic and ubiquitous. Biochar based remediation is an emerging technology used in water and soil contamination. In this study we used poplar (BP) and conifer (BC) biochars to remediate water and soil contaminated by Phe and PCP. BP and BC were able to remove completely either Phe or PCP from contaminated water within one to three days. When biochar was confined in a porous membrane, BC and BP maintained their sorption efficiency for several remediation cycles. However, in these conditions BC allowed faster Phe removal. In soil remediation experiments, addition of two biochar rates, i.e. 2.5 and 5 mg g -1 , strongly reduced Phe extractability (up to 2.7% of the initially added Phe with the larger BC dose). This was similar to the behavior observed when compost was applied in order to verify the role of soil organic matter in the fate of both contaminants. PCP extractability was reduced only up to 75% (in average) in all samples including those with compost amendment. Only larger amount of biochar (20 and 50 mg g -1 ) allowed reduction of the extractable PCP and nullified phytotoxicity of the contaminant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A new technique for the remediation of oil spills from ice infested waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafiz, S.; Bjorndalen, N.; Basu, A.; Islam, M.R.; Lee, K.

    2003-01-01

    The petroleum industry is concerned about remediating oil spills in an environmentally sound manner, particularly when oil has to be removed from ice-infested waters where traditional remediation methods are ineffectual due to frigid temperatures. The authors propose using fish scale powder as an environmentally friendly and economically viable remediation medium for oil spills on ice. Tests have been conducted and results were compared to results obtained using bentonite, the conventional remediation medium. Fish-scale was found to absorb the oil spill and form fine emulsions that can readily biodegrade. The oil-fish scale media can also be re-used for other applications, such as drilling mud. The soaking time was much faster using fish scale than bentonite (less than 3 minutes for all weights of fish scale studied). Fish scale powder is an inexpensive material widely available in coastal regions. It was concluded that fish scale could be an alternate remediation medium which could yield great savings in oil spill clean up operations. 25 refs., 10 figs

  4. Remediation System Evaluation, Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site (PDF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site, located on the western edge of Milford, New Hampshire, consists of a source area and an extended plume that is approximately 6,000 feet long and 2,500 feet wide.

  5. River water remediation using pulsed corona, pulsed spark or ozonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izdebski, T.; Dors, M. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Szewalski Inst. of Fluid Flow Machiney, Fiszera (Poland). Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering; Mizeraczyk, J. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Szewalski Inst. of Fluid Flow Machiney, Fiszera (Poland). Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering; Gdynia Maritime Univ., Morska (Poland). Dept. of Marine Electronics

    2010-07-01

    The most common reason for epidemic formation is the pollution of surface and drinking water by wastewater bacteria. Pathogenic microorganisms that form the largest part of this are fecal bacteria, such as escherichia coli (E. coli). Wastewater treatment plants reduce the amount of the fecal bacteria by 1-3 orders of magnitude, depending on the initial number of bacteria. There is a lack of data on waste and drinking water purification by the electrohydraulic discharges method, which causes the destruction and inactivation of viruses, yeast, and bacteria. This paper investigated river water cleaning from microorganisms using pulsed corona, spark discharge and ozonization. The paper discussed the experimental setup and results. It was concluded that ozonization is the most efficient method of water disinfection as compared with pulsed spark and pulsed corona discharges. The pulsed spark discharge in water was capable of killing all microorganism similarly to ozonization, but with much lower energy efficiency. The pulsed corona discharge was found to be the less effective method of water disinfection. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Remediation of ground water containing volatile organic compounds and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.N.; Folsom, E.N.

    1994-03-01

    The Trailer 5475 (T-5475) East Taxi Strip Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California was used as a taxi strip by the US Navy to taxi airplanes to the runway from 1942 to 1947. Solvents were used in some unpaved areas adjacent to the East Taxi Strip for cleaning airplanes. From 1953 through 1976, the area was used to store and treat liquid waste. From 1962 to 1976 ponds were constructed and used for evaporation of liquid waste. As a result, the ground water in this area contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and tritium. The ground water in this area is also known to contain hexavalent chromium that is probably naturally occurring. Therefore, LLNL has proposed ''pump-and-treat'' technology above grade in a completely closed loop system. The facility will be designed to remove the VOCs and hexavalent chromium, if any, from the ground water, and the treated ground water containing tritium will be reinjected where it will decay naturally in the subsurface. Ground water containing tritium will be reinjected into areas with equal or higher tritium concentrations to comply with California regulations

  7. Incorporating Water Boiling in the Numerical Modelling of Thermal Remediation by Electrical Resistance Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, I. L.; Krol, M.; Mumford, K. G.

    2017-12-01

    Developing numerical models for subsurface thermal remediation techniques - such as Electrical Resistive Heating (ERH) - that include multiphase processes such as in-situ water boiling, gas production and recovery has remained a significant challenge. These subsurface gas generation and recovery processes are driven by physical phenomena such as discrete and unstable gas (bubble) flow as well as water-gas phase mass transfer rates during bubble flow. Traditional approaches to multiphase flow modeling soil remain unable to accurately describe these phenomena. However, it has been demonstrated that Macroscopic Invasion Percolation (MIP) can successfully simulate discrete and unstable gas transport1. This has lead to the development of a coupled Electro Thermal-MIP Model2 (ET-MIP) capable of simulating multiple key processes in the thermal remediation and gas recovery process including: electrical heating of soil and groundwater, water flow, geological heterogeneity, heating-induced buoyant flow, water boiling, gas bubble generation and mobilization, contaminant mass transport and removal, and additional mechanisms such as bubble collapse in cooler regions. This study presents the first rigorous validation of a coupled ET-MIP model against two-dimensional water boiling and water/NAPL co-boiling experiments3. Once validated, the model was used to explore the impact of water and co-boiling events and subsequent gas generation and mobilization on ERH's ability to 1) generate, expand and mobilize gas at boiling and NAPL co-boiling temperatures, 2) efficiently strip contaminants from soil during both boiling and co-boiling. In addition, a quantification of the energy losses arising from steam generation during subsurface water boiling was examined with respect to its impact on the efficacy of thermal remediation. While this study specifically targets ERH, the study's focus on examining the fundamental mechanisms driving thermal remediation (e.g., water boiling) renders

  8. Study on the application of permeable reactive barriers for remediation of uranium mine pit water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Na'na; Zhu Yucheng

    2012-01-01

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is economical and convenient on in suit remediation of polluted groundwater. In this paper, according to characteristics of uranium mine pit water, laboratory-scale PRB reactors were designed with the mixture of valent iron, active carbon, hydrated lime and quartz sands as reaction media. The feasibility and effectiveness of treating uranium mine pit water by PRB were tested under 3 different proportions of contaminants through dynamic simulation tests, which came out the optimal proportion of contaminants. The result indicated that the remediation effect of reactor B was the best, whose average removal rate to U was up to 99%. The quality of effluent attained the relevant standards, which indicated that the PRB technology is a feasible method for the treatment of uranium mine pit water. (authors)

  9. Draft programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for performing remedial action to bring surface and ground water contaminant levels at 24 inactive uranium processing sites into compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. DOE is accomplishing this through the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface and Ground Water Projects. Remedial action will be conducted with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the full participation of affected states and Indian tribes. Uranium processing activities at most of 24 the inactive mill sites resulted in the contamination of ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of constituents such as uranium and nitrate. The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to eliminate, or reduce to acceptable levels, the potential health and the environmental consequences of milling activities by meeting the EPA standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated. The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of four programmatic alternatives, including the proposed action. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies. Rather, the PEIS is a planning document that provides a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project; provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently

  10. Use of in-situ Dual Vacuum Extraction trademark for remediation of soil and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.E.; Trowbridge, B.E.; Ott, D.

    1994-01-01

    Dual Vacuum Extraction trademark provides a rapid and cost-effective method of remediating soil and ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds. The system involves the removal of both water and vapors through the same borehole by use of entrainment. This technology provides for the remediation of the vadose zone, capillary fringe, smear zone, and existing water table. The effectiveness of this technology is shown in a case study. A release from an underground storage tank was responsible for a hydrocarbon plume spreading over approximately 50,000 ft 2 . The release produced vadose-zone contamination in the silty and sandy clays from 10 to 30 ft below ground surface (bgs) with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations up to 1,400 mg/kg. In addition, a layer of free-floating liquid hydrocarbon was present on a shallow aquifer located at 25 ft bgs in thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 ft. An in-situ dual-extraction system was installed to remediate the soils and ground water to levels as required by the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB). The system operated 24 hr a day, with an operating efficiency of over 99%. After 196 days (28 weeks), over 17,000 lb of hydrocarbons had been extracted from the soils. Seven confirmatory soil borings in the area of highest initial hydrocarbon concentrations indicated that TPH and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX) concentrations had decreased over 99% from initial soil concentrations

  11. The Use of Waste Materials in the Passive Remediation of Mine Water Polution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Lesley C.; Younger, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    The contamination and resulting degradation of water courses by effluents from abandoned and active mines is a world-wide problem. Traditional methods of remediating the discharges from mines involve the addition of chemicals and the utilisation of artificial energy sources. Over the last 15-20 years passive treatment systems have been developed that harness natural chemical and biological processes to ameliorate the potentially toxic effects of such discharges. There are many different types of passive system, including compost wetlands, reducing and alkalinity producing systems (RAPS), permeable reactive barriers and inorganic media passive systems. Different waste materials can be utilised as reactive media within each of these systems, dependent upon the type of mine water and treatment technology. In many cases the reactivity of these recycled waste materials is key to the remedial performance of these systems. The materials used may be organic (e.g., composts) or inorganic (e.g., blast furnace slag) and where possible are sourced locally in order to minimise transport costs. The remediation of mine waters in itself can produce large quantities of waste products in the form of iron oxide sludge. Potential uses of this material in the production of pigments and in the treatment of phosphate contaminated waters is also currently under investigation. The exploitation of what are traditionally thought of as waste materials within treatment systems for polluted waters is an expanding technology which provides great scope for recycling.

  12. Characteristics of soil under variations in clay, water saturation, and water flow rates, and the implications upon soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikman, M.; Mirotchnik, K.; Kantzas, A.

    1997-01-01

    A potential remediation method for hydrocarbon contaminated soils was discussed. The new method was based on the use of proven and economic petroleum reservoir engineering methods for soil remediation. The methods that were applied included water and gas displacement methods together with horizontal boreholes as the flow inlet and outlets. This system could be used in the case of spills that seep beneath a plant or other immovable infrastructure which requires in-situ treatment schemes to decontaminate the soil. A study was conducted to characterize native soils and water samples from industrial plants in central Alberta and Sarnia, Ontario and to determine the variables that impact upon the flow conditions of synthetic test materials. The methods used to characterize the soils included X-Ray computed tomographic analysis, grain size and density measurements, and X-Ray diffraction. Clay content, initial water saturation, and water and gas flow rate were the variables that impacted on the flow conditions

  13. Water Remedial Investigation Report, Version 3.3. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    the Third Quarter FY 1987 water table contour map, S(Page 9 of 13) Water Level "KaU._ID LiaMAUan 26143 5175.9 26145 -999,9 27002 5095.3 27003 5098.0...26125 5146.9 26127 5164.6 26133 5147.0 26143 5175.9 4 26145 5140.9 ID 27001 5093.2 27002 5094.8 27003 51.08 -1 27004 B-105 20,43.7 27005 5094.2 27006...ML Po 1IM A- T .0 cO16 Folcm Iscale ’ 𔃾 IV*- C. [LA \\S Y4 6 It. ISO . 4:- 4~ 1A . 6 IAT sti ~~~~~ If*1 l H 44 - . C-99 0 S S 0 040 0 s HtHLm.01 0O

  14. Combination of aquatic species and safeners improves the remediation of copper polluted water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfili, Ivan; Bartucca, Maria Luce; Ballerini, Eleonora; Del Buono, Daniele

    2017-12-01

    In the last decades, many anthropogenic activities have resulted in heavy metal contamination of freshwaters and surrounding environments. This poses serious threats to human health. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective technology which is useful for remediating polluted soils and water. Recently, the use of aquatic free-floating plants has been proposed to remediate polluted water. In this context, a study on the capacity of two aquatic plants, Lemna minor (duckweed) and Salvinia auriculata (salvinia), to remediate Cu +2 (Cu) polluted water was carried out. Initially, the species were exposed to different copper concentrations (1, 5, 10, 20 and 50μmolL -1 ) in order to assess Cu +2 toxicity to the plants. In addition, plants were treated with two safeners (benoxacor and dichlormid), with the aim of pointing out any safening effect of these compounds on the aquatic species. Toxicity tests showed that safened plants had a greater Cu resistance, especially at the higher Cu doses. Finally, unsafened and safened plants were tested in the decontamination of water polluted by copper (1.2mgL -1 ). In general, duckweed removed higher amounts of Cu from polluted water than salvinia, and, surprisingly, for both the species the safeners significantly increased the plants' capacity to remove the metal from the polluted waters. Lastly, an HPLC-based method was developed and standardized to monitor the residual amounts of the two safeners in the water. While dichlormid was completely absorbed by duckweed within few days after the treatments, some residual amounts of both safeners were found in salvinia vegetated water after two weeks. In conclusion, the results of this research show that the use of aquatic species in combination with safeners is an attractive and reliable tool to make plants more effective in phytoremediation of water polluted with metals (or other toxic compounds). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Soil remediation: humic acids as natural surfactants in the washings of highly contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, Pellegrino; Agretto, Anna; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The remediation of the highly contaminated site around the former chemical plant of ACNA (near Savona) in Northern Italy is a top priority in Italy. The aim of the present work was to contribute in finding innovative and environmental-friendly technology to remediate soils from the ACNA contaminated site. Two soils sampled from the ACNA site (A and B), differing in texture and amount and type of organic contaminants, were subjected to soil washings by comparing the removal efficiency of water, two synthetic surfactants, sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) and Triton X-100 (TX100), and a solution of a natural surfactant, a humic acid (HA) at its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The extraction of pollutants by sonication and soxhlet was conducted before and after the soil washings. Soil A was richer in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, whereas soil B had a larger content of thiophenes. Sonication resulted more analytically efficient in the fine-textured soil B. The coarse-textured soil A was extracted with a general equal efficiency also by soxhlet. Clean-up by water was unable to exhaustively remove contaminants from the two soils, whereas all the organic surfactants revealed very similar efficiencies (up to 90%) in the removal of the contaminants from the soils. Hence, the use of solutions of natural HAs appears as a better choice for soil washings of highly polluted soils due to their additional capacity to promote microbial activity, in contrast to synthetic surfactants, for a further natural attenuation in washed soils. - Solutions of natural humic acids appear to be a better choice for washing highly polluted soils

  16. Immediate remediation of heavy metal (Cr(VI)) contaminated soil by high energy electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guilong; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An immediate remediation method for Cr(VI) contaminated soil (CCS) was developed. • High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation could reduce Cr(VI) in CCS to Cr(III). • This effect was attributed to electrons, hydrated electrons, and reductive radicals. • This remediation method was effective, environmentally friendly, and low-cost. - Abstract: This work developed an immediate and high-performance remediation method for Cr(VI) contaminated soil (CCS) using high energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The result indicated that, compared with γ-ray irradiation, HEEB irradiation displayed a significant reduction efficiency on Cr(VI) in CCS to Cr(III) with substantially lower toxicity, which was mainly attributed to the reduction effects of electrons, hydrated electrons, and reductive radicals generated in the irradiation process of HEEB. This work could provide a one-step and effective method for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil (HMCS)

  17. Immediate remediation of heavy metal (Cr(VI)) contaminated soil by high energy electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guilong [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Cai, Dongqing, E-mail: dqcai@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Zhengyan, E-mail: zywu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • An immediate remediation method for Cr(VI) contaminated soil (CCS) was developed. • High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation could reduce Cr(VI) in CCS to Cr(III). • This effect was attributed to electrons, hydrated electrons, and reductive radicals. • This remediation method was effective, environmentally friendly, and low-cost. - Abstract: This work developed an immediate and high-performance remediation method for Cr(VI) contaminated soil (CCS) using high energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The result indicated that, compared with γ-ray irradiation, HEEB irradiation displayed a significant reduction efficiency on Cr(VI) in CCS to Cr(III) with substantially lower toxicity, which was mainly attributed to the reduction effects of electrons, hydrated electrons, and reductive radicals generated in the irradiation process of HEEB. This work could provide a one-step and effective method for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil (HMCS)

  18. Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    biodegradation of oily sludge by hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) at salinity (NaCl ... petroleum waste. In recent times, several literatures have shown that bioremediation has high potentials for restoring polluted media with least negative impact on the ..... salinity, bacterial consortium is highly stable in immo-.

  19. Metallic iron for water treatment and environmental remediation: A handout to young researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Nkundimana, Emmanuel; Noubactep, Chicgoua; Uwamariya, Valentine

    2015-01-01

    The premise of this research note is that current research on metallic iron (Fe0) for environmental remediation and water treatment has started on a biased basis. Before expecting experienced researchers to correct flawed approaches compromising the future of the technology, the attention of new researchers should be drawn on the prevailing flawed conceptual models. There are guides on how to select good research topics, to perform good literature review, to select good mentors, and to write ...

  20. The application of in situ air sparging as an innovative soils and ground water remediation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, M.C.; Hazebrouck, D.J.; Walsh, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    Vapor extraction (soil venting) has been demonstrated to be a successful and cost-effective remediation technology for removing VOCs from the vadose (unsaturated) zone. However, in many cases, seasonal water table fluctuations, drawdown associated with pump-and-treat remediation techniques, and spills involving dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLS) create contaminated soil below the water table. Vapor extraction alone is not considered to be an optimal remediation technology to address this type of contamination. An innovative approach to saturated zone remediation is the use of sparging (injection) wells to inject a hydrocarbon-free gaseous medium (typically air) into the saturated zone below the areas of contamination. The contaminants dissolved in the ground water and sorbed onto soil particles partition into the advective air phase, effectively simulating an in situ air-stripping system. The stripped contaminants are transported in the gas phase to the vadose zone, within the radius of influence of a vapor extraction and vapor treatment system. In situ air sparging is a complex multifluid phase process, which has been applied successfully in Europe since the mid-1980s. To date, site-specific pilot tests have been used to design air-sparging systems. Research is currently underway to develop better engineering design methodologies for the process. Major design parameters to be considered include contaminant type, gas injection pressures and flow rates, site geology, bubble size, injection interval (areal and vertical) and the equipment specifications. Correct design and operation of this technology has been demonstrated to achieve ground water cleanup of VOC contamination to low part-per-billion levels

  1. Utilization of brewery wastewater for culturing yeast cells for use in river water remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-Yun; Sun, Jing-Mei; Song, Shu-Qiang; Sun, Bao-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Successful in situ bio-augmentation of contaminated river water involves reducing the cost of the bio-agent. In this study, brewery wastewater was used to culture yeast cells for degrading the COD(Cr) from a contaminated river. The results showed that 15 g/L of yeast cells could be achieved after being cultured in the autoclaved brewery wastewater with 5 mL/L of saccharified starch and 9 g/L of corn steep liquor. The COD(Cr) removal efficiency was increased from 22% to 33% when the cells were cultured using the mentioned method. Based on the market price of materials used in this method, the cost of the medium for remediating 1 m3 of river water was 0.0076 US dollars. If the additional cost of field implementation is included, the total cost is less than 0.016 US dollars for treating 1 m3 of river water. The final cost was dependent on the size of remediation: the larger the scale, the lower the cost. By this method, the nutrient in the brewery wastewater was reused, the cost of brewery wastewater treatment was saved and the cost of the remediation using bio-augmentation was reduced. Hence, it is suggested that using brewery wastewater to culture a bio-agent for bio-augmentation is a cost-effective method.

  2. Water Remedial Investigation Report, Version 2.2. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    aaa-a M!a 1 ý1!lýlýl 1 l P a~~~ a m-- m m I" ; i4 s: - :a o at lmemot 4 em: W! me Ili -ý Ot At on emt:ý I! ISO -- -t~ -t utmmmm -t -t -t emt -- t eq...mm em mm m1 mmý IN eý 4 "! mý4 ! l 0 emo -- P p 40 ISO ------ a* do 2sgaI- w im 0;C 01O- - - #0’ - - . Is:111 ’t,"ý i 9: t a 4ýWt l "n4i Wt1":7 p...13) Water Level 26143 5175.9 26145 -999.9 27002 5095.3 27003 5098.0 27004 5093.9 27005 5094.1 27006 5094.2 27007 5095.2 27008 5095.3 27009 5095.7

  3. Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Clare Water Supply Superfund Site, Permeable Reactive Barrier and Soil Remedy Areas, Clare, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report contains a review of the long-term groundwater monitoring network for the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) and Soil Remedy Areas at the Clare Water Supply Superfund Site in Clare, Michigan.

  4. Aluminum drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTRs) as sorbent for mercury: Implications for soil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsepyan, Anna; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J

    2009-05-15

    The potential of readily available and non-hazardous waste material, aluminum drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTRs), to efficiently sorb and immobilize mercury (Hg) from aqueous solutions was evaluated. Al-WTR samples with average specific surface area of 48m(2)/g and internal micropore surface area of 120m(2)/g were used in a series of batch sorption experiments. Obtained sorption isotherms indicated a strong affinity of Hg for Al-WTRs. Using the Langmuir adsorption model, a relatively high maximum sorption capacity of 79mg Hg/g Al-WTRs was determined. Sorption kinetic data was best fit to a pseudo-first-order model, while the use of the Weber-Morris and Bangham models suggested that the intraparticle diffusion could be the rate-limiting step. Also, Al-WTRs effectively immoblized Hg in the pH range of 3-8. The results from these short-term experiments demonstrate that Al-WTRs can be effectively used to remove Hg from aqueous solutions. This ability points to the potential of Al-WTRs as a sorbent in soil remediation techniques based on Hg-immobilization.

  5. Remediation of lead-contaminated water by geological fluorapatite and fungus Penicillium oxalicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Da; Wang, Wenchao; Su, Mu; Zheng, Junyi; Wu, Yuanyi; Wang, Shimei; Li, Zhen; Hu, Shuijin

    2018-05-16

    Phosphate-solubilizing fungi (PSF) can secrete large amounts of organic acids. In this study, the application of the fungus Penicillium oxalicum and geological fluorapatite (FAp) to lead immobilization was investigated. The formation and morphology of the lead-related minerals were analyzed by ATR-IR, XRD, Raman, and SEM. The quantity of organic acids secreted by P. oxalicum reached the maximum on the fourth day, which elevated soluble P concentrations from 0.4 to 108 mg/L in water. The secreted oxalic acid dominates the acidity in solution. P. oxalicum can survive in the solution with Pb concentration of ~ 1700 mg/L. In addition, it was shown that ~ 98% lead cations were removed while the fungus was cultured with Pb (~ 1700 mg/L) and FAp. The mechanism is that the released P from FAp (enhanced by organic acids) can react with Pb 2+ to form the stable pyromorphite mineral [Pb 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F]. The precipitation of lead oxalate also contributes to Pb immobilization. However, lead oxalate is more soluble due to its relatively high solubility. P. oxalicum has a higher rate of organic acid secretion compared with other typical PSF, e.g., Aspergillus niger. This study sheds light on bright future of applying P. oxalicum in Pb remediation.

  6. Tunable Nanocomposite Membranes for Water Remediation and Separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Sebastian Hernandez

    Nano-structured material fabrication using functionalized membranes with polyelectrolytes is a promising research field for water pollution, catalytic and mining applications. These responsive polymers react to external stimuli like temperature, pH, radiation, ionic strength or chemical composition. Such nanomaterials provide novel hybrid properties and can also be self-supported in addition to the membranes. Polyelectrolytes (as hydrogels) have pH responsiveness. The hydrogel moieties gain or lose protons based on the pH, displaying swelling properties. These responsive materials can be exploited to synthesize metal nanoparticles in situ using their functional groups, or to immobilize other polyelectrolytes and biomolecules. Due to their properties, these responsive materials prevent the loss of nanomaterials to the environment and improve reactivity due to their larger surface areas, expanding their range of applications. The present work describes different techniques used to create nanocomposites based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fiber and flat sheet membranes, both thick sponge-like and thin. Due to their hydrophobicity, hollow fiber membranes were hydrophilized by a water-based green process of cross-linking polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) onto their surface. Commercial hydrophilic and hydrophilized lab-prepared membranes were subsequently functionalized with a poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogel through free radical polymerizations. This work advanced membrane functionalization, specifically flat sheet membranes, from lab-scale to full-scale by modifications of the polymerization procedures. The hydrogel functionalized membranes by redox polymerization showed an expected responsive behavior, represented by permeability variation at various pH values (4.0 ≤ pH ≤ 9.0), from 53.9 to 3.4 L/(m2EhEbar) and a change in effective pore size from 222 to 111 nm, being 3800 L/(m 2EhEbar) and 650 nm the former permeability and pore size values of the

  7. Developing Sediment Remediation Goals at Superfund Sites Based on Pore Water for the Protection of Benthic Organisms from Direct Toxicity to Non-ionic Organic Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A methodology for developing remediation goals for sites with contaminated sediments is provided. The remediation goals are based upon the concentrations of chemicals in the sediment interstitial water measured using the passive sampling technique. The passive sampling technique ...

  8. Engineering Behavior and Characteristics of Water-Soluble Polymers: Implication on Soil Remediation and Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Cindy Cao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers have shown a great effect in enhanced oil recovery because of the improvement of water-flood performance by mobility control, as well as having been considered for oil contaminated-soil remediation thanks to their mobility control and water-flood performance. This study focused on the wettability analysis of biopolymers such as chitosan (85% deacetylated power, PEO (polyethylene oxide, Xanthan (xanthan gum, SA (Alginic Acid Sodium Salt, and PAA (polyacrylic acid, including the measurements of contact angles, interfacial tension, and viscosity. Furthermore, a micromodel study was conducted to explore pore-scale displacement phenomena during biopolymer injection into the pores. The contact angles of biopolymer solutions are higher on silica surfaces submerged in decane than at atmospheric conditions. While interfacial tensions of the biopolymer solutions have a relatively small range of 25 to 39 mN/m, the viscosities of biopolymer solutions have a wide range, 0.002 to 0.4 Pa·s, that dramatically affect both the capillary number and viscosity number. Both contact angles and interfacial tension have effects on the capillary entry pressure that increases along with an applied effective stress by overburden pressure in sediments. Additionally, a high injection rate of biopolymer solutions into the pores illustrates a high level of displacement ratio. Thus, oil-contaminated soil remediation and enhanced oil recovery should be operated in cost-efficient ways considering the injection rates and capillary entry pressure.

  9. Zn (II) Removal from River Water Samples of Sembrong, Johor State, Malaysia by Electrokinetic Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, E.; Husna, MNF; Shakila, A.; Azhar, ATS; Arif, AM; Norshuhaila, MS

    2017-08-01

    Heavy metals pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems today. The treatment of heavy metals is of special concern due to their recalcitrance and persistence in the environment. Even many physical, chemical and biological treatment processes have been proposed to remove heavy metals from river water, the use of these treatment processes are not efficient and relatively costly. This study focused on the potential application of electrokinetic (EK) remediation in Sembrong River water to remove zinc (Zn2+). The physicochemical and biological parameters and water quality index (WQI) of Sembrong River water was characterized. The electrokinetic remediation experiments were performed by controlling pH, and electric density on voltage were observed and investigated. The results indicated that all physicochemical and biological parameters of Sembrong River complied with the standard discharged limit set by the Department of Environment (DOE). However, suspended solids (SS) and pH can be categorized as Class III according to INWQS. The best performance of 88% efficiency of zinc can be achieved EK experiment run at a fixed voltage of 30 V at pH 5.14 after 60 min of the process operate. This technology may be proposed for faster and eco-friendly removal of heavy metals in the environment.

  10. Phytoremediation: role of terrestrial plants and aquatic macrophytes in the remediation of radionuclides and heavy metal contaminated soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Singh, Bikram; Manchanda, V K

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors are operating in 31 countries around the world. Along with reactor operations, activities like mining, fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing and military operations are the major contributors to the nuclear waste. The presence of a large number of fission products along with multiple oxidation state long-lived radionuclides such as neptunium ((237)Np), plutonium ((239)Pu), americium ((241/243)Am) and curium ((245)Cm) make the waste streams a potential radiological threat to the environment. Commonly high concentrations of cesium ((137)Cs) and strontium ((90)Sr) are found in a nuclear waste. These radionuclides are capable enough to produce potential health threat due to their long half-lives and effortless translocation into the human body. Besides the radionuclides, heavy metal contamination is also a serious issue. Heavy metals occur naturally in the earth crust and in low concentration, are also essential for the metabolism of living beings. Bioaccumulation of these heavy metals causes hazardous effects. These pollutants enter the human body directly via contaminated drinking water or through the food chain. This issue has drawn the attention of scientists throughout the world to device eco-friendly treatments to remediate the soil and water resources. Various physical and chemical treatments are being applied to clean the waste, but these techniques are quite expensive, complicated and comprise various side effects. One of the promising techniques, which has been pursued vigorously to overcome these demerits, is phytoremediation. The process is very effective, eco-friendly, easy and affordable. This technique utilizes the plants and its associated microbes to decontaminate the low and moderately contaminated sites efficiently. Many plant species are successfully used for remediation of contaminated soil and water systems. Remediation of these systems turns into a serious problem due to various anthropogenic activities that have

  11. Modeling Adsorption Kinetics (Bio-remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Water)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Chris

    My talk will focus on modeling the kinetics of the adsorption and filtering process using differential equations, stochastic methods, and recursive functions. The models have been developed in support of our interdisciplinary lab group which is conducting research into bio-remediation of heavy metal contaminated water via filtration through biomass such as spent tea leaves. The spent tea leaves are available in large quantities as a result of the industrial production of tea beverages. The heavy metals bond with the surfaces of the tea leaves (adsorption). Funding: CUNY Collaborative Incentive Research Grant.

  12. Remediation of Ni(2+)-contaminated water using iron powder and steel manufacturing byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Zhao, Wei-Rong; Xu, Xin-Hua; Hao, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Yong; He, Ping; Zhou, Mi

    2006-01-01

    Steel manufacturing byproducts and commercial iron powders were tested in the treatment of Ni(2+)-contaminated water. Ni2+ is a priority pollutant of some soils and groundwater. The use of zero-valent iron, which can reduce Ni2+ to its neural form appears to be an alternative approach for the remediation of Ni(2+)-contaminated sites. Our experimental data show that the removal efficiencies of Ni2+ were 95.15% and 94.68% at a metal to solution ratio of 20 g/L for commercial iron powders and the steel manufacturing byproducts in 60 min at room temperature, respectively. The removal efficiency reached 98.20% when the metal to solution ratio was 40 g/L for commercial iron powders. Furthermore, we found that the removal efficiency was also largely affected by other factors such as the pHs of the treated water, the length of time for the metal to be in contact with the Ni(2+)-contaminated water, initial concentrations of metal solutions, particle sizes and the amount of iron powders. Surprisingly, the reaction temperature appeared to have little effect on the removal efficiency. Our study opens the way to further optimize the reaction conditions of in situ remediation of Ni2+ or other heavy metals on contaminated sites.

  13. Post-remediation biomonitoring of pesticides and other contaminants in marine waters and sediment near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LD Antrim; NP Kohn

    2000-05-26

    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared with Year 1 of post-remediation monitoring, and with preremediation data from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Mean dieidrin concentrations in water ranged from 0.62 rig/L to 12.5 ng/L and were higher than the remediation goal (0.14 ng/L) at all stations. Mean total DDT concentrations in water ranged from 14.4 ng/L to 62.3 ng/L and exceeded the remediation goal (0.59 ng/L) at all stations. The highest concentrations of both pesticides were found at the Lauritzen Canal/End station. Despite exceedence of the remediation goals, chlorinated pesticide concentrations in Lauritzen Canal water samples were notably lower in 1999 than in 1998. Tissue samples from biomonitoring organisms (mussels) provide an indication of the longer-term integrated exposure to contaminants in the water column, which overcomes the limitations of grab samples of water. Biomonitoring results indicated that the bioavailability of chlorinated pesticides has been reduced from preremediation levels both in the dredged area and throughout Richmond Harbor. Total DDT and

  14. US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action ground water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The scope of the Project is to develop and implement a ground water compliance strategy for all 24 UMTRA processing sites. The compliance strategy for the processing sites must satisfy requirements of the proposed EPA ground water cleanup standards in 40 CFR Part 192, Subparts B and C (1988). This scope of work will entail the following activities, on a site-specific basis: Development of a compliance strategy based upon modification of the UMTRA Surface Project remedial action plans (RAP) or development of Ground Water Project RAPs with NRC and state or tribal concurrence on the RAP; implementation of the RAP to include establishment of institutional controls, where appropriate; institution of long-term verification monitoring for transfer to a separate DOE program on or before the Project end date; and preparation of completion reports and final licensing on those sites that will be completed prior to the Project end date

  15. Are Low Salinity Waters the Remedy to Noctiluca scintillans Blooms in the Arabian Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Noctiluca scintillans (Noctiluca) is a mixotrophic, green dinoflagellate that for the past two decades has been producing problematic algal blooms in the Arabian Sea (AS). As a mixotroph, Noctiluca obtains energy from both consumption of phytoplankton as well as its intracellular photosynthesizing endosymbionts named, Pedinomonas noctilucae. It is this autotrophic and heterotrophic dual capability that has largely enabled Noctiluca to be a highly dominant species at the planktonic trophic layer in the AS. Exacerbated by non-point source/point-source pollution in the AS, ocean acidification, and intensified monsoons, Noctiluca currently algal blooms can be as big as three times the size of Texas. By depleting the AS of oxygen, clogging the gills of fish, and altering the AS food web, these algal blooms result in mass fish die offs. In turn this propagates financial and food insecurity issues in countless coastal communities. However, through satellite imaging over the years, it has been observed that the proliferation of Noctiluca is precluded or encounters a "wall" about mid-way along the west coast of India. It is theorized that this "wall" is due to a significant change in salinity. Snow from atop the Himalayan Mountains melts and adds fresh water to the Bay of Bengal (BB), and in winter the East Indian Coastal Current (EICC) carries this fresher water around the southern tip of India and towards the AS. It is believed that this dilution effect impedes the growth of Noctiluca further south. Ultimately, in this study the salinity gradient from the Bay of Bengal (BB) around the horn of India into the AS was replicated in six pairs of culture bottles. Noctiluca was grown in six different salinities including 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, and 38 psu. Algae grown in the 34 and 38 psu bottles, were healthier and 38 psu treated Noctiluca provided optimal conditions for its photosynthesizing endosymbionts. Noctiluca does not grow well at lower salinities, thus applications of low

  16. Evaluation of select trade-offs between ground-water remediation and waste minimization for petroleum refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, C.D.; McTernan, W.F.; Willett, K.K.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation comparing environmental remediation alternatives and attendant costs for a hypothetical refinery site located in the Arkansas River alluvium was completed. Transport from the land's surface to and through the ground water of three spill sizes was simulated, representing a base case and two possible levels of waste minimization. Remediation costs were calculated for five alternative remediation options, for three possible regulatory levels and alternative site locations, for four levels of technology improvement, and for eight different years. It is appropriate from environmental and economic perspectives to initiate significant efforts and expenditures that are necessary to minimize the amount and type of waste produced and disposed during refinery operations; or conversely, given expected improvements in technology, is it better to wait until remediation technologies improve, allowing greater environmental compliance at lower costs? The present work used deterministic models to track a light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) spill through the unsaturated zone to the top of the water table. Benzene leaching from LNAPL to the ground water was further routed through the alluvial aquifer. Contaminant plumes were simulated over 50 yr of transport and remediation costs assigned for each of the five treatment options for each of these years. The results of these efforts show that active remediation is most cost effective after a set point or geochemical quasi-equilibrium is reached, where long-term improvements in technology greatly tilt the recommended option toward remediation. Finally, the impacts associated with increasingly rigorous regulatory levels present potentially significant penalties for the remediation option, but their likelihood of occurrence is difficult to define

  17. Environmental assessment for 881 Hillside (High Priority Sites) interim remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the impact of an interim remedial action proposed for the High Priority Sites (881 Hillside Area) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This interim action is to be conducted to minimize the release of hazardous substances from the 881 Hillside Area that pose a potential long-term threat to public health and the environment. This document integrates current site characterization data and environmental analyses required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or ''Superfund'' process, into an environmental assessment pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Characterization of the 881 Hillside Area is continuing. Consequently, a final remedial action has not yet been proposed. Environmental impacts associated with the proposed interim remedial action and reasonable alternatives designed to remove organic and inorganic contaminants, including radionuclides, from alluvial groundwater in the 881 Hillside Area are addressed. 24 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs

  18. Modeling and evaluation of chromium remediation from water using low cost bio-char, a green adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Rajput, Shalini; Singh, Vinod K.; Steele, Philip H.; Pittman, Charles U.

    2011-01-01

    Oak wood and oak bark chars were obtained from fast pyrolysis in an auger reactor at 400-450 deg. C. These chars were characterized and utilized for Cr(VI) remediation from water. Batch sorption studies were performed at different temperatures, pH values and solid to liquid ratios. Maximum chromium was removed at pH 2.0. A kinetic study yielded an optimum equilibrium time of 48 h with an adsorbent dose of 10 g/L. Sorption studies were conducted over a concentration range of 1-100 mg/L. Cr(VI) removal increased with an increase in temperature (Q Oakwood o : 25 deg. C = 3.03 mg/g; 35 deg. C = 4.08 mg/g; 45 deg. C = 4.93 mg/g and Q Oakbark o : 25 deg. C = 4.62 mg/g; 35 deg. C = 7.43 mg/g; 45 deg. C = 7.51 mg/g). More chromium was removed with oak bark than oak wood. The char performances were evaluated using the Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson, Toth, Radke and Sips adsorption isotherm models. The Sips adsorption isotherm model best fits the experimental data [high regression (R 2 ) coefficients]. The overall kinetic data was satisfactorily explained by a pseudo second order rate expression. Water penetrated into the char walls exposing Cr(VI) to additional adsorption sites that were not on the surfaces of dry char pores. It is remarkable that oak chars (S BET : 1-3 m 2 g -1 ) can remove similar amounts of Cr(VI) as activated carbon (S BET : ∼1000 m 2 g -1 ). Thus, byproduct chars from bio-oil production might be used as inexpensive adsorbents for water purification. Char samples were successfully used for chromium remediation from contaminated surface water with dissolved interfering ions.

  19. Investigation on reusing water treatment residuals to remedy soil contaminated with multiple metals in Baiyin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Changhui; Zhao, Yuanyuan [The Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Pei, Yuansheng, E-mail: yspei@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2012-10-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe/Al water treatment residuals (FARs) can stabilize As, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cr and Cu. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FARs cannot stabilize Ba and Cd. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of FARs and soil affect the FARs' ability of stabilizing metals. - Abstract: In this work, the remediation of soils contaminated with multiple metals using ferric and alum water treatment residuals (FARs) in Baiyin, China, was investigated. The results of metals fractionation indicated that after the soil was treated with FARs, arsenic (As), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) could be transformed into more stable forms, i.e., As bound in crystalline Fe/Al oxides and other metals in the oxidable and residual forms. However, the forms of chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) were unaffected. Interestingly, due to the effect of FARs, barium (Ba) was predominantly transformed into more mobile forms. The bioaccessibility extraction test demonstrated that the FARs reduced the bioaccessibility of As by 25%, followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni and Pb. The bioaccessibility of Cd and Ba were increased; in particular, there was an increase of 41% for Ba at the end of the test. In conclusion, the FARs can be used to remedy soil contaminated with multiple metals, but comprehensive studies are needed before practical applications of this work.

  20. Investigation on reusing water treatment residuals to remedy soil contaminated with multiple metals in Baiyin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changhui; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Pei, Yuansheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fe/Al water treatment residuals (FARs) can stabilize As, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cr and Cu. ► FARs cannot stabilize Ba and Cd. ► The properties of FARs and soil affect the FARs’ ability of stabilizing metals. - Abstract: In this work, the remediation of soils contaminated with multiple metals using ferric and alum water treatment residuals (FARs) in Baiyin, China, was investigated. The results of metals fractionation indicated that after the soil was treated with FARs, arsenic (As), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) could be transformed into more stable forms, i.e., As bound in crystalline Fe/Al oxides and other metals in the oxidable and residual forms. However, the forms of chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) were unaffected. Interestingly, due to the effect of FARs, barium (Ba) was predominantly transformed into more mobile forms. The bioaccessibility extraction test demonstrated that the FARs reduced the bioaccessibility of As by 25%, followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni and Pb. The bioaccessibility of Cd and Ba were increased; in particular, there was an increase of 41% for Ba at the end of the test. In conclusion, the FARs can be used to remedy soil contaminated with multiple metals, but comprehensive studies are needed before practical applications of this work.

  1. Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyette, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4 km (4 mi) southwest of the chemical plant area. Both of these areas became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through 1960s. The Weldon Spring site, located about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis, is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitroaromatic explosives were processed by the Army at the chemical plant area during the 1940s, and radioactive materials were processed by DOE's predecessor agency (the Atomic Energy Commission) during the 1950s and 1960s. Overall remediation of the Weldon Spring site is being addressed through the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, and it consists of several components. One component is the management of radioactively and chemically contaminated surface water impoundments at the chemical plant area -- i.e., the four raffinate pits, Frog Pond, and Ash Pond which was addressed under a separate action and documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis report. This report discusses the evaluation of surface water treatment at the Weldon Spring site

  2. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project is to eliminate, reduce, or address to acceptable levels the potential health and environmental consequences of milling activities. One of the first steps in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). This report contains the comments and responses received on the draft PEIS

  3. The Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Texts in Remediating High School Students' Alternative Conceptions Concerning Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Haluk

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of conceptual change texts in remediating high school students' alternative conceptions concerning chemical equilibrium. A quasi-experimental design was used in this study. The subjects for this study consisted of a total 78 tenth-grade students, 38 of them in the experimental group and 40 of them in the…

  4. Use of clay to remediate cadmium contaminated soil under different water management regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianrui; Xu, Yingming

    2017-07-01

    We examined in situ remediation of sepiolite on cadmium-polluted soils with diverse water regimes, and several variables including brown rice Cd, exchangeable Cd, pH, and available Fe/P. pH, available Fe/P in soils increased gradually during continuous flooding, which contributed to Cd absorption on colloids. In control group (untreated soils), compared to conventional irrigation, brown rice Cd in continuous flooding reduced by 37.9%, and that in wetting irrigation increased by 31.0% (psoils reduced by 44.4%, 34.5% and 36.8% under continuous flooding, conventional irrigation and wetting irrigation (psoils reduced by 27.5-49.0%, 14.3-40.5%, and 24.9-32.8% under three water management regimes (psoils were higher in continuous flooding than in conventional irrigation and wetting irrigation. Continuous flooding management promoted soil Cd immobilization by sepiolite. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Respiration testing for bioventing and biosparging remediation of petroleum contaminated soil and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, A.L.; Brown, A.; Moore, B.J.; Payne, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Respiration tests were performed to measure the effect of subsurface aeration on the biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in vadose zone soils (bioventing) and ground water (biosparging). The aerobic biodegradation of petroleum contamination is typically limited by the absence of oxygen in the soil and ground water. Therefore, the goal of these bioremediation technologies is to increase the oxygen concentration in the subsurface and thereby enhance the natural aerobic biodegradation of the organic contamination. One case study for biosparging bioremediation testing is presented. At this site atmospheric air was injected into the ground water to increase the dissolved oxygen concentration in the ground water surrounding a well, and to aerate the smear zone above the ground water table. Aeration flow rates of 3 to 8 cfm (0.09 to 0.23 m 3 /min) were sufficient to increase the dissolved oxygen concentration. Petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation rates of 32 to 47 microg/l/hour were calculated based on measurements of dissolved oxygen concentration in ground water. The results of this test have demonstrated that biosparging enhances the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, but the results as they apply to remediation are not known. Two case studies for bioventing respiration testing are presented

  6. Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Public concern regarding the potential human health and environmental effects from uranium mill tailings led Congress to pass the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (Public Law 95-604) in 1978. In the UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings at 24 abandoned uranium mill processing sites needing remedial action. Uranium processing activities at most of the 24 mill processing sites resulted in the formation of contaminated ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of hazardous constituents such as uranium and nitrate. The purpose of the Ground Water Project is to protect human health and the environment by meeting EPA-proposed standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated with constituents from UMTRA Project sites. A major first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of the alternatives, including the proposed action. These alternatives are programmatic in that they are plans for conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance. This PEIS is a planning document that will provide a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assess the potential programmatic and environmental impacts of conducting the UMTRA Ground Water Project; provide a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provide data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses documents more efficiently

  7. Monitoring water quality in Sydney Harbour using blue mussels during remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tony R; MacAskill, Devin

    2014-03-01

    Using mussels as monitoring tools we measured water quality in Sydney Harbour during a large scale, multi-year remediation project of the Sydney Tar Ponds (STPs); one of Canada's most contaminated sites. Chemical contaminants were measured in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in Sydney Harbour, which were used as monitoring tools to assess the spatio-temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); metals (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) and lipid content during baseline and 3 years of remediation. The overall spatio-temporal distribution of chemicals in mussels was also compared to contaminants in other marine indicators (e.g., sediment, water and crab tissue). Measured metal concentrations in mussels showed some minor temporal variability (4 years), but these did not appear to be directly related to remediation activities, with the highest concentrations of As, Hg and Zn measured at reference stations. Most measured contaminants showed stable or potentially decreasing concentrations during the study, except Pb and Zn. Individual PAH compounds were mostly undetected during baseline and remediation, except for fluoranthene and pyrene. Concentrations of fluoranthene in mussels and deep water samples were moderately related. Generally, PCBs were undetected (remediation at some near-field stations. Contaminants measured during this study were at much lower concentrations than previously reported in other studies of mussels in Sydney Harbour and eastern Canada. This is likely due to the ongoing natural recovery of Sydney Harbour and to a lesser extent because of the environmental mitigation protection measures implemented during remediation activities at the STPs. The lack of detection of most individual PAHs and PCBs, plus relatively low bio-accumulation of metals observed during baseline and remediation attest to the effectiveness of using mussels as monitoring tools for environmental quality.

  8. Remediation of cadmium contaminated water and soil using vinegar residue biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuxin; Pei, Guangpeng; Qiao, Xianliang; Zhu, Yuen; Li, Hua

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated a new biochar produced from vinegar residue that could be used to remediate cadmium (Cd)-contaminated water and soil. Aqueous solution adsorption and soil incubation experiments were performed to investigate whether a biochar prepared at 700 °C from vinegar residue could efficiently adsorb and/or stabilize Cd in water and soil. In the aqueous solution adsorption experiment, the Cd adsorption process was best fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic and Freundlich isotherm models. If the optimum parameters were used, i.e., pH 5 or higher, a biochar dosage of 12 g L -1 , a 10 mg L -1 Cd initial concentration, and 15-min equilibrium time, at 25 °C, then Cd removal could reach about 100%. The soil incubation experiment evaluated the biochar effects at four different application rates (1, 2, 5, and 10% w/w) and three Cd contamination rates (0.5, 1, and 2.5 mg kg -1 ) on soil properties and Cd fractionation. Soil pH and organic matter increased after adding biochar, especially at the 10% application rate. At Cd pollution levels of 1.0 or 2.5 mg kg -1 , a 10% biochar application rate was most effective. At 0.5 mg Cd kg -1 soil, a 5% biochar application rate was most efficient at transforming the acid extractable and easily reducible Cd fractions to oxidizable and residual Cd. The results from this study demonstrated that biochar made from vinegar residue could be a new and promising alternative biomass-derived material for Cd remediation in water and soil.

  9. In-Situ Remediation of Small Leaks in Water Pipes: Impacts of Water Chemistry, Physical Parameters and the Presence of Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Min

    2017-01-01

    Aging and leaking water infrastructure wastes water resources and creates public health risks. Upgrading of potable water systems represents a large financial burden for water utilities and private property owners. The conventional approaches of repair, rehabilitation and replacement are very effective, but will take decades to implement even if a financial commitment to do so was made immediately. A novel approach of in-situ remediation of leaks, achieved by harnessing the ability of water o...

  10. In-situ remediation of contaminated ground water using the MAG*SEPSM technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading a project for demonstration of in-situ remediation of contaminated ground water utilizing MAG*SEP SM technology developed by Bradtec. This technology is being considered for eventual application at sites involving groundwater contaminated with heavy metals and/or radionuclides, such as the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Berkeley Pit. The MAG*SEP SM technology uses specially coated magnetic particles to selectively adsorb contaminants from ground water. Particles are mixed with ground water, contaminants are adsorbed onto the particles, and the particles are removed by magnetic filtration. The technology can recover low levels of radioactive and/or inorganic hazardous contamination (in the ppm range), leaving nonradioactive/nonhazardous species essentially unaffected. The first phase of this project has involved the optimization of MAG*SEP SM process chemistry for a selected site at SRS. To date this work has identified a candidate adsorber material (the amino form of iminodicarboxylic acid) for selective removal of lead, cadmium, and mercury from this site's ground water. Decontamination factors of 170, 270, and 235, respective, for each contaminant have been achieved. Further process chemistry optimization work for this adsorber material is planned. The project will eventually lead to an in-situ demonstration of the MAG*SEP SM technology, integrated with the EnviroWall trademark barrier technology developed by Barrier Member Containment Corporation (BMC)

  11. Modeling Adsorption Based Filters (Bio-remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Water)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Chris

    I will discuss kinetic models of adsorption, as well as models of filters based on those mechanisms. These mathematical models have been developed in support of our interdisciplinary lab group, which is centered at BMCC/CUNY (City University of New York). Our group conducts research into bio-remediation of heavy metal contaminated water via filtration. The filters are constructed out of biomass, such as spent tea leaves. The spent tea leaves are available in large quantities as a result of the industrial production of tea beverages. The heavy metals bond with the surfaces of the tea leaves (adsorption). The models involve differential equations, stochastic methods, and recursive functions. I will compare the models' predictions to data obtained from computer simulations and experimentally by our lab group. Funding: CUNY Collaborative Incentive Research Grant (Round 12); CUNY Research Scholars Program.

  12. From biowaste to magnet-responsive materials for water remediation from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisticò, Roberto; Cesano, Federico; Franzoso, Flavia; Magnacca, Giuliana; Scarano, Domenica; Funes, Israel G; Carlos, Luciano; Parolo, Maria E

    2018-07-01

    Composted urban biowaste-derived substances (BBS-GC) are used as carbon sources for the preparation of carbon-coated magnet-sensitive nanoparticles obtained via co-precipitation method and the subsequent thermal treatment at 550 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. A multitechnique approach has been applied to investigate the morphology, magnetic properties, phase composition, thermal stability of the obtained magnet-sensitive materials. In particular, pyrolysis-induced modifications affecting the BBS-GC/carbon shell were highlighted. The adsorption capacity of such bio-derivative magnetic materials for the removal of hydrophobic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was evaluated in order to verify their potential application in wastewater remediation process. The promising results suggest their use as a new generation of magnet-responsive easily-recoverable adsorbents for water purification treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Potential Bio-Sorbent for Heavy Metals in the Remediation of Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Laskar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bay leaves are used for flavoring in cold drinks production, in bakery goods, sauces, confectionary products and liquors. The waste generated from these sources has been valorized by attempting the remediation of waste water. Hence, adsorption of toxic metals onto Bay leaves has been investigated after optimizing the experimental parameters, namely the pH, contact time, adsorbent and Zn (II concentrations as well as the temperature of the equilibrium mixture (consisting of the metal solution in contact with the adsorbent. The participation of the constituent functional groups, of the adsorbent, was ascertained with Fourier Transform spectroscopic studies. The mode of adsorption was examined by employing important isotherm models, namely Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models. The adsorption process was found to follow pseudo-first order kinetic model and also followed the intraparticle diffusion up to 60 minutes of contact time. The thermodynamic parameters suggest the spontaneous nature of adsorption

  14. Remediation of phosphate-contaminated water by electrocoagulation with aluminium, aluminium alloy and mild steel anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Subramanyan; Lakshmi, Jothinathan; Jayaraj, Jeganathan; Sozhan, Ganapathy

    2009-05-30

    The present study provides an electrocoagulation process for the remediation of phosphate-contaminated water using aluminium, aluminium alloy and mild steel as the anodes and stainless steel as the cathode. The various parameters like effect of anode materials, effect of pH, concentration of phosphate, current density, temperature and co-existing ions, and so forth, and the adsorption capacity was evaluated using both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption of phosphate preferably fitting the Langmuir adsorption isotherm suggests monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules. The results showed that the maximum removal efficiency of 99% was achieved with aluminium alloy anode at a current density of 0.2 A dm(-2), at a pH of 7.0. The adsorption process follows second-order kinetics.

  15. Natural attenuation: A feasible approach to remediation of ground water pollution at landfills?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, T.H.; Bjerg, P.L.; Kjeldsen, P.

    2000-12-31

    Remediation of ground water pollution at old landfills with no engineered leachate collection system is a demanding and costly operation. It requires control of the landfill body, since the majority of the pollutants are still present in the landfilled waste for decades after the site has been closed. However, natural attenuation of the plume without removing the source is an attractive approach to managing leachate plumes. Natural attenuation has been implemented for petroleum hydrocarbon plumes and for chlorinated solvent plumes, primarily in the US. Natural attenuation has not yet gained a foothold with respect to leachate plumes, however. Based on the experiences gained from 10 years of research on two Danish landfills, it is suggested that natural attenuation is a feasible approach but is more complicated and demanding than in the case of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvent.

  16. High Pressure Industrial Water Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In conjunction with Space Shuttle Main Engine testing at Stennis, the Nordberg Water Pumps at the High Pressure Industrial Water Facility provide water for cooling the flame deflectors at the test stands during test firings.

  17. Guide to ground water remediation at CERCLA response action and RCRA corrective action sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This Guide contains the regulatory and policy requirements governing remediation of ground water contaminated with hazardous waste [including radioactive mixed waste (RMW)], hazardous substances, or pollutants/contaminants that present (or may present) an imminent and substantial danger. It was prepared by the Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-413), to assist Environmental Program Managers (ERPMs) who often encounter contaminated ground water during the performance of either response actions under CERCLA or corrective actions under Subtitle C of RCRA. The Guide begins with coverage of the regulatory and technical issues that are encountered by ERPM's after a CERCLA Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) or the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) have been completed and releases into the environment have been confirmed. It is based on the assumption that ground water contamination is present at the site, operable unit, solid waste management unit, or facility. The Guide's scope concludes with completion of the final RAs/corrective measures and a determination by the appropriate regulatory agencies that no further response action is necessary

  18. Comparison of Barium and Arsenic Concentrations in Well Drinking Water and in Human Body Samples and a Novel Remediation System for These Elements in Well Drinking Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Kato

    Full Text Available Health risk for well drinking water is a worldwide problem. Our recent studies showed increased toxicity by exposure to barium alone (≤700 µg/L and coexposure to barium (137 µg/L and arsenic (225 µg/L. The present edition of WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water revised in 2011 has maintained the values of arsenic (10 µg/L and barium (700 µg/L, but not elements such as manganese, iron and zinc. Nevertheless, there have been very few studies on barium in drinking water and human samples. This study showed significant correlations between levels of arsenic and barium, but not its homologous elements (magnesium, calcium and strontium, in urine, toenail and hair samples obtained from residents of Jessore, Bangladesh. Significant correlation between levels of arsenic and barium in well drinking water and levels in human urine, toenail and hair samples were also observed. Based on these results, a high-performance and low-cost adsorbent composed of a hydrotalcite-like compound for barium and arsenic was developed. The adsorbent reduced levels of barium and arsenic from well water in Bangladesh and Vietnam to <7 µg/L within 1 min. Thus, we have showed levels of arsenic and barium in humans and propose a novel remediation system.

  19. Comparison of Barium and Arsenic Concentrations in Well Drinking Water and in Human Body Samples and a Novel Remediation System for These Elements in Well Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masashi; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Furuta, Akio; Kato, Yoko; Shekhar, Hossain U; Kojima, Michiyo; Koike, Yasuko; Dinh Thang, Nguyen; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Ly, Thuy Bich; Jia, Xiaofang; Yetti, Husna; Naito, Hisao; Ichihara, Gaku; Yajima, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Health risk for well drinking water is a worldwide problem. Our recent studies showed increased toxicity by exposure to barium alone (≤700 µg/L) and coexposure to barium (137 µg/L) and arsenic (225 µg/L). The present edition of WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water revised in 2011 has maintained the values of arsenic (10 µg/L) and barium (700 µg/L), but not elements such as manganese, iron and zinc. Nevertheless, there have been very few studies on barium in drinking water and human samples. This study showed significant correlations between levels of arsenic and barium, but not its homologous elements (magnesium, calcium and strontium), in urine, toenail and hair samples obtained from residents of Jessore, Bangladesh. Significant correlation between levels of arsenic and barium in well drinking water and levels in human urine, toenail and hair samples were also observed. Based on these results, a high-performance and low-cost adsorbent composed of a hydrotalcite-like compound for barium and arsenic was developed. The adsorbent reduced levels of barium and arsenic from well water in Bangladesh and Vietnam to barium in humans and propose a novel remediation system.

  20. Enhanced carcinogenicity by coexposure to arsenic and iron and a novel remediation system for the elements in well drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Yamanoshita, Osamu; Shimizu, Shingo; Ohnuma, Shoko; Furuta, Akio; Yajima, Ichiro; Nizam, Saika; Khalequzzaman, Md; Shekhar, Hossain U; Nakajima, Tamie; Kato, Masashi

    2013-03-01

    Various carcinomas including skin cancer are explosively increasing in arsenicosis patients who drink arsenic-polluted well water, especially in Bangladesh. Although well drinking water in the cancer-prone areas contains various elements, very little is known about the effects of elements except arsenic on carcinogenicity. In order to clarify the carcinogenic effects of coexposure to arsenic and iron, anchorage-independent growth and invasion in human untransformed HaCaT and transformed A431 keratinocytes were examined. Since the mean ratio of arsenic and iron in well water was 1:10 in cancer-prone areas of Bangladesh, effects of 1 μM arsenic and 10 μM iron were investigated. Iron synergistically promoted arsenic-mediated anchorage-independent growth in untransformed and transformed keratinocytes. Iron additionally increased invasion in both types of keratinocytes. Activities of c-SRC and ERK that regulate anchorage-independent growth and invasion were synergistically enhanced in both types of keratinocytes. Our results suggest that iron promotes arsenic-mediated transformation of untransformed keratinocytes and progression of transformed keratinocytes. We then developed a low-cost and high-performance adsorbent composed of a hydrotalcite-like compound for arsenic and iron. The adsorbent rapidly reduced concentrations of both elements from well drinking water in cancer-prone areas of Bangladesh to levels less than those in WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water. Thus, we not only demonstrated for the first time increased carcinogenicity by coexposure to arsenic and iron but also proposed a novel remediation system for well drinking water.

  1. Biofilm formation and microbial community analysis of the simulated river bioreactor for contaminated source water remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang-Yang; Feng, Li-Juan; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Jing; Ding, Wei; Qi, Han-Ying

    2012-06-01

    The start-up pattern of biofilm remediation system affects the biofilm characteristics and operating performances. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performances of the contaminated source water remediation systems with different start-up patterns in view of the pollutants removal performances and microbial community succession. The operating performances of four lab-scale simulated river biofilm reactors were examined which employed different start-up methods (natural enrichment and artificial enhancement via discharging sediment with influent velocity gradient increase) and different bio-fillers (Elastic filler and AquaMats® ecobase). At the same time, the microbial communities of the bioreactors in different phases were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and sequencing. The pollutants removal performances became stable in the four reactors after 2 months' operation, with ammonia nitrogen and permanganate index (COD(Mn)) removal efficiencies of 84.41-94.21% and 69.66-76.60%, respectively. The biomass of mature biofilm was higher in the bioreactors by artificial enhancement than that by natural enrichment. Microbial community analysis indicated that elastic filler could enrich mature biofilm faster than AquaMats®. The heterotrophic bacteria diversity of biofilm decreased by artificial enhancement, which favored the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) developing on the bio-fillers. Furthermore, Nitrosomonas- and Nitrosospira-like AOB coexisted in the biofilm, and Pseudomonas sp., Sphaerotilus sp., Janthinobacterium sp., Corynebacterium aurimucosum were dominant in the oligotrophic niche. Artificial enhancement via the combination of sediment discharging and influent velocity gradient increasing could enhance the biofilm formation and autotrophic AOB enrichment in oligotrophic niche.

  2. The use of field redox measurements in assessing remediation of ground water containing petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, S.D.; Gallinatti, J.D.; Honniball, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Field measurements of the reduction-oxidation (redox) condition of ground water were used to assess the effects of in situ remediation of ground water affected by petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated organic compounds at multiple sites in northern California. The redox condition of ground water, traditionally measured quickly and inexpensively using a meter that measures electrode potential (Eh), is a valuable parameter by which to assess the conditions that affect the relative stability of various chemicals in ground water. Although not specific to a given redox couple measurements obtained using the traditional Eh meter give a sense of the relative tendency for a ground water to be reducing or oxidizing by providing a measurement of the system Eh. Two cases demonstrate the use of ground water Eh measurements in assessing the effects of in situ ground water remediation. In the first case, ground water affected by petroleum hydrocarbons-gasoline (TPHg), and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) (ambient Eh of -100 to +100 millivolts [mv]) was treated by injecting hydrogen peroxide to supply oxygen to the subsurface environment and stimulate microbial activity. The second case involved remediation of ground water containing chlorinated organic compounds. In this case, a subsurface permeable ground water treatment wall containing granular iron was installed across the flow path of the affected ground water. The in situ chemical treatment, which successfully dechlorinates compounds such as trichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride, caused reducing conditions in the ground water, which resulted in the decrease in ground water Eh from am ambient reading of about -50 mv to about -400 mv

  3. High-density plasma etching of III-nitrides: Process development, device applications and damage remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajwinder

    Plasma-assisted etching is a key technology for III-nitride device fabrication. The inevitable etch damage resulting from energetic pattern transfer is a challenge that needs to be addressed in order to optimize device performance and reliability. This dissertation focuses on the development of a high-density inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) etch process for III-nitrides, the demonstration of its applicability to practical device fabrication using a custom built ICP reactor, and development of techniques for remediation of etch damage. A chlorine-based standard dry etch process has been developed and utilized in fabrication of a number of electronic and optoelectronic III-nitride devices. Annealing studies carried out at 700°C have yielded the important insight that the annealing time necessary for making good-quality metal contacts to etch processed n-GaN is very short (water, prior to metallization, removes some of the etch damage and is helpful in recovering contact quality. In-situ treatment consisting of a slow ramp-down of rf bias at the end of the etch is found to achieve the same effect as the ex-situ treatment. This insitu technique is significantly advantageous in a large-scale production environment because it eliminates a process step, particularly one involving treatment in hydrochloric acid. ICP equipment customization for scaling up the process to full 2-inch wafer size is described. Results on etching of state of the art 256 x 256 AlGaN focal plane arrays of ultraviolet photodetectors are reported, with excellent etch uniformity over the wafer area.

  4. Air Sparging Versus Gas Saturated Water Injection for Remediation of Volatile LNAPL in the Borden Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J.; Nelson, L.; Doughty, C.; Thomson, N.; Lambert, J.

    2009-05-01

    In the shallow, rather homogeneous, unconfined Borden sand aquifer, field trials of air sparging (Tomlinson et al., 2003) and pulsed air sparging (Lambert et al., 2009) have been conducted, the latter to remediate a residual gasoline source emplaced below the water table. As well, a supersaturated (with CO2) water injection (SWI) technology, using the inVentures inFusion system, has been trialed in two phases: 1. in the uncontaminated sand aquifer to evaluate the radius of influence, extent of lateral gas movement and gas saturation below the water table, and 2. in a sheet pile cell in the Borden aquifer to evaluate the recovery of volatile hydrocarbon components (pentane and hexane) of an LNAPL emplaced below the water table (Nelson et al., 2008). The SWI injects water supersaturated with CO2. The supersaturated injected water moves laterally away from the sparge point, releasing CO2 over a wider area than does gas sparging from a single well screen. This presentation compares these two techniques in terms of their potential for remediating volatile NAPL components occurring below the water table in a rather homogeneous sand aquifer. Air sparging created a significantly greater air saturation in the vicinity of the sparge well than did the CO2 system (60 percent versus 16 percent) in the uncontaminated Borden aquifer. However, SWI pushed water, still supersaturated with CO2, up to about 2.5 m from the injection well. This would seem to provide a considerable advantage over air sparging from a point, in that gas bubbles are generated at a much larger radius from the point of injection with SWI and so should involve additional gas pathways through a residual NAPL. Overall, air sparging created a greater area of influence, defined by measurable air saturation in the aquifer, but air sparging also injected about 12 times more gas than was injected in the SWI trials. The pulsed air sparging at Borden (Lambert et al.) removed about 20 percent (4.6 kg) of gasoline

  5. Modeling and evaluation of chromium remediation from water using low cost bio-char, a green adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Rajput, Shalini; Singh, Vinod K; Steele, Philip H; Pittman, Charles U

    2011-04-15

    Oak wood and oak bark chars were obtained from fast pyrolysis in an auger reactor at 400-450 °C. These chars were characterized and utilized for Cr(VI) remediation from water. Batch sorption studies were performed at different temperatures, pH values and solid to liquid ratios. Maximum chromium was removed at pH 2.0. A kinetic study yielded an optimum equilibrium time of 48 h with an adsorbent dose of 10 g/L. Sorption studies were conducted over a concentration range of 1-100mg/L. Cr(VI) removal increased with an increase in temperature (Q(Oak wood)(°): 25 °C = 3.03 mg/g; 35 °C = 4.08 mg/g; 45 °C = 4.93 mg/g and Q(Oakbark)(°): 25 °C = 4.62 mg/g; 35 °C = 7.43 mg/g; 45 °C = 7.51 mg/g). More chromium was removed with oak bark than oak wood. The char performances were evaluated using the Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson, Toth, Radke and Sips adsorption isotherm models. The Sips adsorption isotherm model best fits the experimental data [high regression (R(2)) coefficients]. The overall kinetic data was satisfactorily explained by a pseudo second order rate expression. Water penetrated into the char walls exposing Cr(VI) to additional adsorption sites that were not on the surfaces of dry char pores. It is remarkable that oak chars (S(BET): 1-3m(2)g(-1)) can remove similar amounts of Cr(VI) as activated carbon (S(BET): ∼ 1000 m(2)g(-1)). Thus, byproduct chars from bio-oil production might be used as inexpensive adsorbents for water purification. Char samples were successfully used for chromium remediation from contaminated surface water with dissolved interfering ions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate PAH-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Lindy; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Comfort, Steve

    2012-11-30

    Surface waters impacted by urban runoff in metropolitan areas are becoming increasingly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Slow-release oxidant candles (paraffin-KMnO(4)) are a relatively new technology being used to treat contaminated groundwater and could potentially be used to treat urban runoff. Given that these candles only release permanganate when submerged, the ephemeral nature of runoff events would influence when the permanganate is released for treating PAHs. Our objective was to determine if slow-release permanganate candles could be used to degrade and mineralize PAHs. Batch experiments quantified PAH degradation rates in the presence of the oxidant candles. Results showed most of the 16 PAHs tested were degraded within 2-4 h. Using (14)C-labled phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene, we demonstrated that the wax matrix of the candle initially adsorbs the PAH, but then releases the PAH back into solution as transformed, more water soluble products. While permanganate was unable to mineralize the PAHs (i.e., convert to CO(2)), we found that the permanganate-treated PAHs were much more biodegradable in soil microcosms. To test the concept of using candles to treat PAHs in multiple runoff events, we used a flow-through system where urban runoff water was pumped over a miniature candle in repetitive wet-dry, 24-h cycles. Results showed that the candle was robust in removing PAHs by repeatedly releasing permanganate and degrading the PAHs. These results provide proof-of-concept that permanganate candles could potentially provide a low-cost, low-maintenance approach to remediating PAH-contaminated water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of acid mine drainage remediation schemes on ground water flow regimes at a reclaimed mine site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabr, M.A.; Bowders, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Ground water modeling and a field monitoring program were conducted for a 35-acre reclaimed surface mine site that continues to produce acid mine drainage (AMD). The modeling effort was focused on predicting the effectiveness of various remedial measures implemented at the site for the abatement of AMD on predicting the effectiveness of various remedial measures implemented at the site for the abatement of AMD production. The field work included surface surveys and monitoring of ground water levels with time, seepage areas, and sedimentation ponds located on the site. The surveys provided the physical and topographic characteristics of the site. Pump tests conducted at the site provided general hydraulic conductivities (k) for two major areas of the site; undisturbed area (k ≅ 2.9 x 10 -5 ft/s) and disturbed area (k ≅ 3.3 x 10 -4 ft/s to 2.0 x 10 -3 ft/s). The monitored ground water data indicated rapid change in ground water levels during recharge events. Such behavior is indicative of flow regime that is dominated by fracture flow. Modeling of an approximately 700 ft by 1,500 ft area of the site was achieved using the US GS code MODFLOW, and ground water field measurements were used to calibrate the model. A hydraulic conductivity of about 1.15 x 10 -3 ft/s was estimated for the undisturbed area and 1.15 x 10 -2 ft/s for the reclaimed area. Remedial measures for diverting the ground water away from the areas of spoil included the use of a subsurface seepage cutoff wall and discrete sealing techniques. Modeling results indicated that the most effective remedial technique for this site is the use of a subsurface seepage cutoff wall installed at the interface (highwall) between the disturbed and undisturbed zones. Using this scheme caused a dewatering effect in the reclaimed area and therefore reduction in the volume of the AMD generated at the site

  8. Field Characterization for Remediation of Trinitrotoluene in Sediment and Water from Vieques, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, E. L.; Carvalho-Knighton, K. M.; Pyrtle, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an explosive used in military shells, bombs, and grenades, industrial applications, and underwater blasting. The explosive itself, some of its degradation and transformation products, and any manufacturing impurities or by-products are all considered serious environmental contaminants with potential harmful and toxic effects on animals, plants and humans. In Vieques, Puerto Rico, The Atlantic Fleet Weapons Training Area consists of areas and nearby waters that have become contaminated primarily by United States Department of Defense (DoD) activities. Known areas of concern include waters influenced by target practice off the eastern shores of Vieques, areas where ships were anchored north of Vieques, and waters near the western side of Vieques, including Mosquito Pier. Detection and remediation of TNT in these areas is necessary to protect the health and welfare of the present and future Vieques residents and visitors. This work examines the distribution of TNT at specific locations in Vieques. Samples were collected from Mosquito Bay which is located in the watershed between the residential and naval sections of Vieques and also in a northern section of the island at Kiani Lagoon. In addition to Vieques sediment studies, the use of zero-valent iron (ZVI) to degrade trinitrotoluene was examined. The ultimate focus is on emulsifying ZVI particles that are capable of promoting rapid and complete degradation of TNT molecules. ZVI has demonstrated effective degradation of TNT, however, these particles by themselves have significant problems in treating sorbed phase TNT. Results from these studies will be presented.

  9. Soil-Water Repellency and Critical Humidity as Cleanup Criteria for Remediation of a Hydrocarbon Contaminated Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Francisco Javier; Adams, Randy H.

    2010-05-01

    , in May before the first rains, the soil humidity was 20,3%, and thus values below the critical levels were not experienced. This permitted the development of a complete vegetative cover, vigorous growth, and transformation of a geologic substrate (bentonitic drilling muds) into a soil-like material apt for agricultural use. This focus on soil-water relationships and the use of soil fertility parameters in general is important in establishing cleanup criteria for the real remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites in agricultural areas. As seen in this study, relatively high WDPT and MED values may not necessarily indicate soil moisture problems and these need to be complemented with actual site information on soil humidity during the annual cycle and with determinations of critical humidity. Additionally, the augmentation of field capacity using organic conditioners may effectively mitigate potential critical humidity problems.

  10. Remediation of U(VI)-contaminated water using zero-valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelouas, A.; Gong, W.; Lutze, W.; Nuttall, E.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of U(VI) reduction by zero-valent iron (Fe 0 ). We conducted batch experiments with granular iron and solutions containing 0.25 and 9.3 mg L -1 U(VI) at 24 deg C. The solution pH ranges between 2 and 9. In all experiments uranium removal was complete within several hours to several days regardless of the pH value. The reduced uranium precipitated as poorly crystallized hydrated uraninite, UO 2 .nH 2 O. The reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) by Fe 0 was found to be the principal mechanism of U removal from the solution. Other mechanisms such as U(VI) sorption on the newly formed Fe(III) hydroxides are insignificant. These results show that zero-valent iron can be used to remedy U-contaminated waters from uranium mines and mill tailings sites, the pH of which usually ranges between 2 and 9. (authors)

  11. Perspectives of humic substances application in remediation of highly heavy metals contaminated soils in Kola Subarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregubova, Polina; Turbaevskaya, Valeria; Zakharenko, Andrey; Kadulin, Maksim; Smirnova, Irina; Stepanov, Andrey; Koptsik, Galina

    2016-04-01

    increasing of HMs mobility in the conditions of 6-weeks field experiment. Peat-humate application causes insignificant enrichment of soil by organic matter, has low influence on pH and microbiological activity. Nevertheless, in combination with lime, it raises pH and immobilizes Ni and Cu and shows best results by vegetation state. Ni and Cu mean concentrations in soil water extract of control sites are 3.7 μg kg-1 and 12.3 μg kg-1, and of sites with combination of peat-humate and lime - 0.2 μg kg-1 and 1.1 μg kg-1 respectively. Coal-humate application attended with high enrichment of soil by organic matter and it's soluble forms, changes in molecular-mass distribution, decreasing of acidity, and growth of microbe biomass (also due to using of biomates). That involves relatively HM soluble forms mobilization in variants with highest concentration of coal-humate (1%). Ni and Cu mean concentrations of those variants are 2.1 μg kg-1and 10.2 μg kg-1. Promising results obtained in short-term experiments should be supported by further investigations. Proper evaluation of humates efficiency and selection their optimal doses for remediation of contaminated soils require long-term field experiments under the influence of multicomponent contamination and diverse physical, chemical, and biological factors.

  12. Phyto-toxicity and Phyto-remediation Potential of Mercury in Indian Mustard and Two Ferns with Mercury Contaminated Water and Oak Ridge Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Y.; Han, F.X.; Chen, J.; Shiyab, S.; Monts, D.L.; Monts, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Phyto-remediation is an emerging technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. Certain fern and Indian mustard species have been suggested as candidates for phyto-remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil and water because of their high efficiency of accumulating metals in shoots and their high biomass production. Currently, no known hyper-accumulator plants for mercury have been found. Here we report the Hg uptake and phyto-toxicity by two varieties of fern and Indian mustard. Their potential for Hg phyto-remediation application was also investigated. Anatomical, histochemical and biochemical approaches were used to study mercury phyto-toxicity as well as anti-oxidative responses in ferns [Chinese brake fern (P. vittata) and Boston fern (N. exaltata)] and Indian mustard (Florida broadleaf and longstanding) (Brassica juncea L.) grown in a hydroponic system. Phyto-remediation potentials of these plant species were estimated based on their Hg uptake performance with contaminated soils from Oak Ridge (TN, USA). Our results show that mercury exposure led to severe phyto-toxicity accompanied by lipid peroxidation and rapid accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in P. vittata, but not in N. exaltata. The two cultivars of fern responded differently to mercury exposure in terms of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD; glutathione reductase, GR). Mercury exposure resulted in the accumulation of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH) in the shoots of both cultivars of fern. On the other hand, Indian mustard effectively generated an enzymatic antioxidant defense system (especially CAT) to scavenge H 2 O 2 , resulting in lower H 2 O 2 in shoots with higher mercury concentrations. These two cultivars of Indian mustard demonstrated an efficient metabolic defense and adaptation system to mercury-induced oxidative stress. In both varieties of fern and Indian

  13. Phyto remediation of 14C-fenvalerate insecticide contamination by fresh water weed potamogeton sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, H.A.; Aly, M.A.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to throw some light on the possibility of the fresh water-weed P otamogeton sp for the phyto remediation of 14 C-fenvalerate residues. In addition, the effect of the insecticide on some physiological parameters was also investigated. At the beginning of the experiment(zero time), 14 C-fenvalerate from a previous experiment carried out earlier in an aquarium in the laboratory. The potamogeton plants (125 g) having newly grown roots were transplanted in the aquarium. The amount of 14 C-activity in water was remarkably decreased from 6.54μg/ml at zero time to 1.84μg/ml at the end of the experiment (384 h). In the soil, a slight decrease in 14 C-activity was recorded from 15.23μg/g at zero time to 13.7μg/g at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, 14 C-activity in the plant was increased during the mentioned period by about 19.1%. Control and treated samples showed an increase in both chlorophyll a and b up to 96 h then their values were decreased thereafter. The carotenoid fractions in the tested plants were increased gradually up to 96 h then decreased relative to the control samples. Soluble sugars in treated plants showed maximum increase at 48 h (129.8%) then decreased to 114.3% at 192 h and to 104.7% at 384 h but still had higher values than those at zero time. A slight and gradual increase in the protein content of the treated Potamogeton plants was occurred at the first 24 h, then started to decrease than the values of corresponding controls starting from 48 h to 384 h

  14. Application of encapsulation (pH-sensitive polymer and phosphate buffer macrocapsules): a novel approach to remediation of acidic ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aelion, C Marjorie; Davis, Harley T; Flora, Joseph R V; Kirtland, Brian C; Amidon, Mark B

    2009-01-01

    Macrocapsules, composed of a pH-sensitive polymer and phosphate buffer, offer a novel remediation alternative for acidic ground waters. To test their potential effectiveness, laboratory experiments were carried out followed by a field trial within a coal pile runoff (CPR) acidic contaminant plume. Results of traditional limestone and macrocapsule treatments were compared in both laboratory and field experiments. Macrocapsules were more effective than limestone as a passive treatment for raising pH in well water from 2.5 to 6 in both laboratory and field experiments. The limestone treatments had limited impact on pH, only increasing pH as high as 3.3, and armoring by iron was evident in the field trial. Aluminum, iron and sulfate concentrations remained relatively constant throughout the experiments, but phosphate increased (0.15-32 mg/L), indicating macrocapsule release. This research confirmed that macrocapsules may be an effective alternative to limestone to treat highly acidic ground water.

  15. Application of encapsulation (pH-sensitive polymer and phosphate buffer macrocapsules): A novel approach to remediation of acidic ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aelion, C.M.; Davis, H.T.; Flora, J.R.V.; Kirtland, B.C.; Amidon, M.B. [University of Southern Carolina, Columbia, SC (USA). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

    2009-01-15

    Macrocapsules, composed of a pH-sensitive polymer and phosphate buffer, offer a novel remediation alternative for acidic ground waters. To test their potential effectiveness, laboratory experiments were carried out followed by a field trial within a coal pile runoff (CPR) acidic contaminant plume. Results of traditional limestone and macrocapsule treatments were compared in both laboratory and field experiments. Macrocapsules were more effective than limestone as a passive treatment for raising pH in well water from 2.5 to 6 in both laboratory and field experiments. The limestone treatments had limited impact on pH, only increasing pH as high as 3.3, and armoring by iron was evident in the field trial. Aluminum, iron and sulfate concentrations remained relatively constant throughout the experiments, but phosphate increased (0.15-32 mg/L), indicating macrocapsule release. This research confirmed that macrocapsules may be an effective alternative to limestone to treat highly acidic ground water.

  16. Arsenic contamination of underground water in Bangladesh: cause, effect, separation, determination and remedy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of underground water of Bangladesh has become the gravest concern for the lives of millions of people of this land. Probable causes and effects of arsenic contamination of underground water of Bangladesh have been extensively discussed. The extent of current knowledge regarding the specification of arsenic in environmental waters in delineated. A simple, non-extractive, highly sensitive and selective quench photometric methods for the rapid determination of arsenic at trace levels in aqueous medium has been developed. This paper also presents a short review of the technologies used for arsenic removal of underground water in Bangladesh. (author)

  17. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate PAH-contaminated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauscher, Lindy, E-mail: purplerauscher@neb.rr.com [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States); Sakulthaew, Chainarong, E-mail: chainarong@huskers.unl.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States); Department of Veterinary Technology, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Comfort, Steve, E-mail: scomfort1@unl.edu [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915 (United States)

    2012-11-30

    proof-of-concept that permanganate candles could potentially provide a low-cost, low-maintenance approach to remediating PAH-contaminated water.

  18. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate PAH-contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Lindy; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Comfort, Steve

    2012-01-01

    remediating PAH-contaminated water.

  19. Efficient adsorption and antibacterial properties of electrospun CuO-ZnO composite nanofibers for water remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malwal, Deepika [Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Centre for Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Gopinath, P., E-mail: pgopifnt@iitr.ernet.in [Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Centre for Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Synthesis of CuO-ZnO composite nanofibers using simple electrospinning technique. • Characterization data confirmed the proper structure. • Exploited as effective adsorbent for congo red dye. • Several adsorption kinetic and isotherm models were discussed. • Evaluation of antibacterial activity against GFP-E.coli and S. aureus. - Abstract: On the face of impending global water resources, developing low-cost and efficient water treatment technologies and materials thereof is highly important. Herein, we explore the adsorption capacity and antibacterial properties of CuO-ZnO (CZ) composite nanofibers. The ultrafine nanofibers were fabricated using simple and inexpensive electrospinning technique and were further characterized using Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). When employed as nanoadsorbents, CZ nanofibers exhibited excellent adsorption capacity for congo red dye. Adsorption Isotherms and kinetics were performed to determine the maximum adsorption capacity and the rate of adsorption, respectively, depicting the better efficiency of composite nanofibers as compared to their single counterparts. The mechanism of adsorption is also proposed with the evaluation of diffusion studies. The second part of this study deals with the examination of antibacterial activity of CZ composite nanofibers against antibiotic resistant GFP-E.coli and S. aureus. The antibacterial efficacy was monitored by visual turbidity assay, SEM analysis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) determination. Hence, such nanofibers have been explored as a single platform for the removal of biological as well organic contaminants so as to make them potential in the field of water remediation.

  20. Efficient adsorption and antibacterial properties of electrospun CuO-ZnO composite nanofibers for water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malwal, Deepika; Gopinath, P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of CuO-ZnO composite nanofibers using simple electrospinning technique. • Characterization data confirmed the proper structure. • Exploited as effective adsorbent for congo red dye. • Several adsorption kinetic and isotherm models were discussed. • Evaluation of antibacterial activity against GFP-E.coli and S. aureus. - Abstract: On the face of impending global water resources, developing low-cost and efficient water treatment technologies and materials thereof is highly important. Herein, we explore the adsorption capacity and antibacterial properties of CuO-ZnO (CZ) composite nanofibers. The ultrafine nanofibers were fabricated using simple and inexpensive electrospinning technique and were further characterized using Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). When employed as nanoadsorbents, CZ nanofibers exhibited excellent adsorption capacity for congo red dye. Adsorption Isotherms and kinetics were performed to determine the maximum adsorption capacity and the rate of adsorption, respectively, depicting the better efficiency of composite nanofibers as compared to their single counterparts. The mechanism of adsorption is also proposed with the evaluation of diffusion studies. The second part of this study deals with the examination of antibacterial activity of CZ composite nanofibers against antibiotic resistant GFP-E.coli and S. aureus. The antibacterial efficacy was monitored by visual turbidity assay, SEM analysis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) determination. Hence, such nanofibers have been explored as a single platform for the removal of biological as well organic contaminants so as to make them potential in the field of water remediation.

  1. Dynamics And Remediation Of Fine Textured Soils And Ground Water Contaminated With Salts And Chlorinated Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Alison; Naeth, M. Anne

    2017-04-01

    Soil and ground water are frequently contaminated by industrial activities, posing a potential risk to human and environmental health and limiting land use. Proper site management and remediation treatments can return contaminated areas to safe and useful states. Most remediation research focuses on single contaminants in coarse and medium textured soils. Contaminant mixtures are common and make remediation efforts complex due to differing chemical properties. Remediation in fine textured soils is difficult since their low hydraulic conductivities hinder addition of amendments into and removal of contaminated media out of the impacted zone. The objective of this research is to assess contaminant dynamics and potential remediation techniques for fine textured soil and ground water impacted by multiple contaminants in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The University of Alberta's Ellerslie Waste Management Facility was used to process liquid laboratory waste from 1972 to 2007. A waste water pond leak prior to 1984 resulted in salt and chlorinated organic compound contamination. An extensive annual ground water monitoring data set for the site is available since 1988. Analytical parameters include pH, electrical conductivity, major ions, volatile organic compounds, and metals. Data have been compared to Alberta Tier 1 Soil and Groundwater Remediation Guidelines to identify exceedances. The parameters of greatest concern, based on magnitude and frequency of detection, are electrical conductivity, sodium, chloride, chloroform, and dichloromethane. Spatial analyses of the data show that the contamination is focused in and down gradient of the former waste water pond. Temporal analyses show different trends depending on monitoring well location. Laboratory column experiments were used to assess leaching as a potential treatment for salt contamination in fine textured soils. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured for seven soils from two depth intervals with or without

  2. Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.; GADGIL, ASHOK J.; ADDY, SUSAN E.A.; KOWOLIK, KRISTIN

    2010-06-01

    We describe laboratory and field results of a novel arsenic removal adsorbent called 'Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash' (ARUBA). ARUBA is prepared by coating particles of coal bottom ash, a waste material from coal fired power plants, with iron (hydr)oxide. The coating process is simple and conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Material costs for ARUBA are estimated to be low (~;;$0.08 per kg) and arsenic remediation with ARUBA has the potential to be affordable to resource-constrained communities. ARUBA is used for removing arsenic via a dispersal-and-removal process, and we envision that ARUBA would be used in community-scale water treatment centers. We show that ARUBA is able to reduce arsenic concentrations in contaminated Bangladesh groundwater to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Using the Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.77) ARUBA's adsorption capacity in treating real groundwater is 2.6x10-6 mol/g (0.20 mg/g). Time-to-90percent (defined as the time interval for ARUBA to remove 90percent of the total amount of arsenic that is removed at equilibrium) is less than one hour. Reaction rates (pseudo-second-order kinetic model, R2>_ 0.99) increase from 2.4x105 to 7.2x105 g mol-1 min-1 as the groundwater arsenic concentration decreases from 560 to 170 ppb. We show that ARUBA's arsenic adsorption density (AAD), defined as the milligrams of arsenic removed at equilibrium per gram of ARUBA added, is linearly dependent on the initial arsenic concentration of the groundwater sample, for initial arsenic concentrations of up to 1600 ppb and an ARUBA dose of 4.0 g/L. This makes it easy to determine the amount of ARUBA required to treat a groundwater source when its arsenic concentration is known and less than 1600 ppb. Storing contaminated groundwater for two to three days before treatment is seen to significantly increase ARUBA's AAD. ARUBA can be separated from treated water by coagulation and clarification, which is expected to

  3. Combination of microbial oxidation and biogenic schwertmannite immobilization: A potential remediation for highly arsenic-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihui; Wu, Zijian; Liao, Yingping; Liao, Qi; Yang, Weichun; Chai, Liyuan

    2017-08-01

    Here, a novel strategy that combines microbial oxidation by As(III)-oxidizing bacterium and biogenic schwertmannite (Bio-SCH) immobilization was first proposed and applied for treating the highly arsenic-contaminated soil. Brevibacterium sp. YZ-1 isolated from a highly As-contaminated soil was used to oxidize As(III) in contaminated soils. Under optimum culture condition for microbial oxidation, 92.3% of water-soluble As(III) and 84.4% of NaHCO 3 -extractable As(III) in soils were removed. Bio-SCH synthesized through the oxidation of ferrous sulfate by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans immobilize As(V) in the contaminated soil effectively. Consequently, the combination of microbial oxidation and Bio-SCH immobilization performed better in treating the highly As-contaminated soil with immobilization efficiencies of 99.3% and 82.6% for water-soluble and NaHCO 3 -extractable total As, respectively. Thus, the combination can be considered as a green remediation strategy for developing a novel and valuable solution for As-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Remediation of a marine shore tailings deposit and the importance of water-rock interaction on element cycling in the coastal aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Bernhard; Diaby, Nouhou; Spangenberg, Jorge E

    2011-06-01

    We present the study of the geochemical processes associated with the first successful remediation of a marine shore tailings deposit in a coastal desert environment (Bahía de Ite, in the Atacama Desert of Peru). The remediation approach implemented a wetland on top of the oxidized tailings. The site is characterized by a high hydraulic gradient produced by agricultural irrigation on upstream gravel terraces that pushed river water (∼500 mg/L SO(4)) toward the sea and through the tailings deposit. The geochemical and isotopic (δ(2)H(water) and δ(18)O(water), δ(34)S(sulfate), δ(18)O(sulfate)) approach applied here revealed that evaporite horizons (anhydrite and halite) in the gravel terraces are the source of increased concentrations of SO(4), Cl, and Na up to ∼1500 mg/L in the springs at the base of the gravel terraces. Deeper groundwater interacting with underlying marine sequences increased the concentrations of SO(4), Cl, and Na up to 6000 mg/L and increased the alkalinity up to 923 mg/L CaCO(3) eq. in the coastal aquifer. These waters infiltrated into the tailings deposit at the shelf-tailings interface. Nonremediated tailings had a low-pH oxidation zone (pH 1-4) with significant accumulations of efflorescent salts (10-20 cm thick) at the surface because of upward capillary transport of metal cations in the arid climate. Remediated tailings were characterized by neutral pH and reducing conditions (pH ∼7, Eh ∼100 mV). As a result, most bivalent metals such as Cu, Zn, and Ni had very low concentrations (around 0.01 mg/L or below detection limit) because of reduction and sorption processes. In contrast, these reducing conditions increased the mobility of iron from two sources in this system: (1) The originally Fe(III)-rich oxidation zone, where Fe(III) was reduced during the remediation process and formed an Fe(II) plume, and (2) reductive dissolution of Fe(III) oxides present in the original shelf lithology formed an Fe-Mn plume at 10-m depth. These

  5. Remediation and production of low-sludge high-level waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, W.G.; Brown, K.G.; Beam, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    High-level radioactive sludge will constitute 24-28 oxide weight percent of the high-level waste glass produced at the Savannah River Site. A recent melter campaign using non-radioactive, simulated feed was performed with a sludge content considerably lower than 24 percent. The resulting glass was processed and shown to have acceptable durability. However, the durability was lower than predicted by the durability algorithm. Additional melter runs were performed to demonstrate that low sludge feed could be remediated by simply adding sludge oxides. The Product Composition Control System, a computer code developed to predict the proper feed composition for production of high-level waste glass, was utilized to determine the necessary chemical additions. The methodology used to calculate the needed feed additives, the effects of sludge oxides on glass production, and the resulting glass durability are discussed

  6. A Review on overboard CEOR discharged produced water treatment and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawindran, H.; Krishnan, S.; Sinnathambi, C. M.

    2017-06-01

    Produced water is a waste by-product generated during oil and gas recovery operations. It contains the mixture of organic and inorganic compounds. Produced water management is a challenge faced by the petroleum practitioners worldwide. Build-up of chemical wastes from produced water causes huge footprint, which results in high CapEx and OpEx. Different technologies are practiced by various practitioners to treat the produced waste water. However, the constituents removed by each technology and the degree of organic compound removal has to be considered to identify the potential and effective treatment technologies for offshore industrial applications. Current produced water technologies and their successful applications have advantages and disadvantages and can be ranked on the basis of several factors, such as their discharge limit into water bodies, reinjection in producing well, or for any miscellaneous beneficial use. This paper attempts to provide a review of existing physical and chemical treatment technologies used for management of produced water. Based on our analysis, suitable methods will be recommended for offshore waste water treatment technologies.

  7. Green synthesis of amphipathic graphene aerogel constructed by using the framework of polymer-surfactant complex for water remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jingjing; Wang, Ziyuan; Yang, Xianhou; Tu, Jing; Wu, Ronglan; Wang, Wei

    2018-06-01

    Graphene aerogels have been extensively studied in water treatment and oil remediation. We report a mild and green method to prepare a 3D-columnar graphene aerogel. The aerogel was synthesized by using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and stearic acid (SA) as crosslinking agents to construct a framework of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The interaction between PVA, SA, and stacked RGO sheets created a mechanically very robust aerogel. The aerogel possesses ultra-light performance with the destiny ranging from 4.9 to 10 mg cm-3. The aerogel also demonstrated ultrafast oil absorption, good fire-resistance, and excellent mechanical properties. The adsorptive capacities are in the range of 105-250 times of its original weight for various organic liquids after the absorption. The aerogel also exhibited a strong durability and reusability, and after ten cycles of absorbing-squeezing, the adsorptive capacity is nearly unchanged, indicating potential application in practical oil remediation.

  8. STUDENT'S SCIENCE MISCONCEPTIONS CONCERNING THE STATE CHANGES OF WATER AND THEIR REMEDIATION USING THREE DIFFERENT LEARNING MODELS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taufiq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secara umum, kesalahpahaman yang dialami oleh mahasiswa dapat menyebabkan kesulitan dalam penelitian, sementara anakanakmemiliki kesadaran mereka sendiri. Tingkat kesalahpahaman yang dialami oleh siswa juga tidak sama, dalam kasus inisesuatu mengalami kesalahpahaman pengalaman tingkat tinggi, menengah, dan rendah. Untuk alasan itu, siswa memerlukanmodel pembelajaran yang tepat untuk masing-masing tingkat kesalahpahaman yang dialami untuk membuat studi menjadibermakna. Dalam makalah ini, peneliti mengeksplorasi informasi tentang; (1 tingkat kesalahpahaman ilmu siswa tentangperubahan wujud dari air, dan (2 model pembelajaran yang paling efektif untuk mengatasi kesalahpahaman siswa mengenaiperubahan wujud air. Model pembelajaran tiga dalam penelitian ini adalah: siklus belajar, penyelidikan dipandu, dan model konseppemetaan. Metode yang diterapkan dalam penelitian ini adalah wawancara klinis dan pretest-posttest. Informasi yangdikumpulkan dianalisis secara kuantitatif dengan percobaan uji ANOVA dan keuntungan rata-rata normal dihitung untuk setiapkelompok percobaan. In general, misconceptions experienced by student could cause difficulties in study, meanwhile children have their own sense.Level of misconceptions experienced by student also unequal, in this case something experiences high level misconceptions,medium, and low. For that reason, student requires correct learning model for each level of misconception experienced to make thestudy become meaningful. In this paper, the researcher explored information about; (1 the level of science misconceptions of thestudent concerning the state changes of water, and (2 the most effective learning model to remedy student's misconceptionsconcerning the state changes of water. The three learning models in this research are: learning cycle, guided inquiry, and conceptmapping model. The method applied in this research is the clinical interview and pretest-posttest. The information collected wasanalyzed in

  9. High-pressure water facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    NASA Test Operations Group employees, from left, Todd Pearson, Tim Delcuze and Rodney Wilkinson maintain a water pump in Stennis Space Center's high-pressure water facility. The three were part of a group of employees who rode out Hurricane Katrina at the facility and helped protect NASA's rocket engine test complex.

  10. Lasagna trademark soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    Lasagna trademark is an integrated, in situ remediation technology being developed which remediates soils and soil pore water contaminated with soluble organic compounds. Lasagna trademark is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils where electroosmosis can move water faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods, with very low power consumption. The process uses electrokinetics to move contaminants in soil pore water into treatment zones where the contaminants can be captured and decomposed. Initial focus is on trichloroethylene (TCE), a major contaminant at many DOE and industrial sites. Both vertical and horizontal configurations have been conceptualized, but fieldwork to date is more advanced for the vertical configuration. Major features of the technology are electrodes energized by direct current, which causes water and soluble contaminants to move into or through the treatment layers and also heats the soil; treatment zones containing reagents that decompose the soluble organic contaminants or adsorb contaminants for immobilization or subsequent removal and disposal; and a water management system that recycles the water that accumulates at the cathode (high pH) back to the anode (low pH) for acid-base neutralization. Alternatively, electrode polarity can be reversed periodically to reverse electroosmotic flow and neutralize pH

  11. GEOCHEMISTRY OF SUBSURFACE REACTIVE BARRIERS FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive barriers that couple subsurface fluid flow with a passive chemical treatment zone are emerging, cost effective approaches for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. Factors such as the build-up of surface precipitates, bio-fouling, and changes in subsurface tr...

  12. Long term fluctuations of groundwater mine pollution in a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate: Implications for water resources management and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Manuel A; Macías, Francisco; Nieto, José Miguel; Ayora, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Water resources management and restoration strategies, and subsequently ecological and human life quality, are highly influenced by the presence of short and long term cycles affecting the intensity of a targeted pollution. On this respect, a typical acid mine drainage (AMD) groundwater from a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) was studied to unravel the effect of long term weather changes in water flow rate and metal pollutants concentration. Three well differentiated polluting stages were observed and the specific geochemical, mineralogical and hydrological processes involved (pyrite and enclosing rocks dissolution, evaporitic salts precipitation-redisolution and pluviometric long term fluctuations) were discussed. Evidencing the importance of including longer background monitoring stage in AMD management and restoration strategies, the present study strongly advise a minimum 5-years period of AMD continuous monitoring previous to the design of any AMD remediation system in regions with dry Mediterranean climate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High Throughput Plasma Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujovic, Selman; Foster, John

    2016-10-01

    The troublesome emergence of new classes of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors, poses challenges for conventional water treatment systems. In an effort to address these contaminants and to support water reuse in drought stricken regions, new technologies must be introduced. The interaction of water with plasma rapidly mineralizes organics by inducing advanced oxidation in addition to other chemical, physical and radiative processes. The primary barrier to the implementation of plasma-based water treatment is process volume scale up. In this work, we investigate a potentially scalable, high throughput plasma water reactor that utilizes a packed bed dielectric barrier-like geometry to maximize the plasma-water interface. Here, the water serves as the dielectric medium. High-speed imaging and emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the reactor discharges. Changes in methylene blue concentration and basic water parameters are mapped as a function of plasma treatment time. Experimental results are compared to electrostatic and plasma chemistry computations, which will provide insight into the reactor's operation so that efficiency can be assessed. Supported by NSF (CBET 1336375).

  14. Long term remediation of highly polluted acid mine drainage: A sustainable approach to restore the environmental quality of the Odiel river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caraballo, Manuel A., E-mail: manuel.caraballo@dgeo.uhu.es [Geology Department, University of Huelva, Avenida 3 de Marzo s/n, Campus ' El Carmen' , E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Macias, Francisco [Geology Department, University of Huelva, Avenida 3 de Marzo s/n, Campus ' El Carmen' , E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Roetting, Tobias S. [Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Hydrogeology Group, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Nieto, Jose Miguel [Geology Department, University of Huelva, Avenida 3 de Marzo s/n, Campus ' El Carmen' , E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Ayora, Carlos [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, IDAEA - CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    During 20 months of proper operation the full scale passive treatment in Mina Esperanza (SW Spain) produced around 100 mg/L of ferric iron in the aeration cascades, removing an average net acidity up to 1500 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3} and not having any significant clogging problem. Complete Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ti and V removal from the water was accomplished through almost the entire operation time while Fe removal ranged between 170 and 620 mg/L. The system operated at a mean inflow rate of 43 m{sup 3}/day achieving an acid load reduction of 597 g.(m{sup 2} day){sup -1}, more than 10 times higher than the generally accepted 40 g.(m{sup 2} day){sup -1} value commonly used as a passive treatment system designing criteria. The high performance achieved by the passive treatment system at Mina Esperanza demonstrates that this innovative treatment design is a simple, efficient and long lasting remediation option to treat highly polluted acid mine drainage. - Highlights: > Novel reactive mixture enable 20 month of high hydraulic conductivity. > Acid load reduction improved 10 times comparing to vertical flow wetland. > High biotic and abiotic iron oxidation and removal. > Complete Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ti and V water removal. - A high permeable alkaline reactive substrate offers a sustainable option to remediate severely polluted acid mine drainage in the Odiel basin

  15. Long term remediation of highly polluted acid mine drainage: A sustainable approach to restore the environmental quality of the Odiel river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraballo, Manuel A.; Macias, Francisco; Roetting, Tobias S.; Nieto, Jose Miguel; Ayora, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    During 20 months of proper operation the full scale passive treatment in Mina Esperanza (SW Spain) produced around 100 mg/L of ferric iron in the aeration cascades, removing an average net acidity up to 1500 mg/L as CaCO 3 and not having any significant clogging problem. Complete Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ti and V removal from the water was accomplished through almost the entire operation time while Fe removal ranged between 170 and 620 mg/L. The system operated at a mean inflow rate of 43 m 3 /day achieving an acid load reduction of 597 g.(m 2 day) -1 , more than 10 times higher than the generally accepted 40 g.(m 2 day) -1 value commonly used as a passive treatment system designing criteria. The high performance achieved by the passive treatment system at Mina Esperanza demonstrates that this innovative treatment design is a simple, efficient and long lasting remediation option to treat highly polluted acid mine drainage. - Highlights: → Novel reactive mixture enable 20 month of high hydraulic conductivity. → Acid load reduction improved 10 times comparing to vertical flow wetland. → High biotic and abiotic iron oxidation and removal. → Complete Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ti and V water removal. - A high permeable alkaline reactive substrate offers a sustainable option to remediate severely polluted acid mine drainage in the Odiel basin

  16. Remedial action technology - arid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; DePoorter, G.L.; Nyhan, J.W.; Perkins, B.A.; Lane, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    A summary is presented of the low-level waste remedial action program at Los Alamos. The experimental design and progress is described for the experiments on second generation intrusion barriers, subsidence effects on SLB components, moisture cycling effects on chemical transport, and erosion control methodologies. The soil moisture data from the bio-intrusion and moisture cycling experiments both demonstrate the overwhelming importance of vegetation in minimizing infiltration of water through trench covers and backfill. Evaporation, as a water loss component in trench covers, is only effective in reducing soil moisture within 40 cm of the trench cover surface. Moisture infiltrating past the zone of evaporation in unvegetated or poorly vegetated trench covers is in storage and accumulates until drainage out of the soil profile occurs. Judicious selection of vegetation species for revegetating a low-level waste site may prevent infiltration of moisture into the trench and, when coupled with other design features (i.e. trench cover slope, tilling and seeding practice), may greatly reduce problems with erosion. Standard US Department of Agriculture erosion plots, when coupled with a state-of-the-art water balance and erosion model (CREAMS) promises to be highly useful in screening proposed remedial action cover designs for low-level waste sites. The erosion plot configuration allows for complete accounting of the water balance in a soil profile. This feature enables the user to optimize cover designs to minimize erosion and infiltration of water into the trench

  17. Remedial measures in Czech houses with high radium content in building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.; Thomas, J.

    1999-01-01

    Three groups of houses built from materials having elevated natural radioactivity content were found in the Czech republic. These are: 1) about hundred old houses in Jachymov (Joachimstal) in Northern Bohemia, where residues from factory producing uranium paints were used as plaster and mortar before the World War II (radium concentration up to 1 MBq/kg, indoor gamma dose rate up to 10-100 μGy/h); 2) some 20 000 family houses built from highly emanating aerated concrete with radium content 500-1000 Bq/kg (produced from flying ash) in the period 1963-1980; 3) more than 2000 family houses from slag concrete of radium content about 3 kBq/kg in average (indoor gamma dose rate up to 2 μGy/h) made in the period 1972-83. Remedy measures were undertaken with state financial support. Intervention levels were laid down 200 Bq/m 3 for EEC (equivalent equilibrium radon concentration - it is equivalent to radon gas concentration 500 Bq/m 3 ), 2 μGy/h for indoor gamma dose rate. Weighted sum of indoor radon and indoor gamma dose rate was used if the latter was above 0,5 μGy/h. The central heat recovery ventilation units were used largely as the remedy measures. Some houses were demolished, in some houses local contamination of plasters was removed. Other tested measures (removal of the contaminated building material in great amount, gamma shielding, wall coating, etc.) proved to be not effective or not acceptable in practice. (author)

  18. The Impact of Traditional Septic Tank Soakaway Systems and the Effects of Remediation on Water Quality in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, Kate; Keggan, Mary; Barrett, Maria; Dubber, Donata; Gill, Laurence W.; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    In Ireland the domestic wastewater of over 1/3 of the population is treated by on-site systems. These systems are based on a traditional design for disposal of domestic wastewater and rely on the surrounding subsoil for further treatment. Inefficient treatment is often associated with these systems and can cause pollution of local aquifers and waterways. The effluent nutrient load can contribute to eutrophication, depletion of dissolved oxygen and excessive algae growth in surface water bodies. Human enteric pathogens associated with faecal pollution of water sources may promote the outbreak of disease through contamination of drinking water supplies. The subsoil attenuation plays an important role in the protection of groundwater from effluent pollution. Therefore, as over 25% of the countries domestic water supplies are provided by groundwater, the protection of groundwater resources is crucial. This project involves both the assessment of traditional septic tank soakaway systems and the effects of remediation in low permeability subsoil settings on water quality in Ireland. The study aims to confirm by microbial source tracking (MST), the source (human and/or animal) of faecal microorganisms detected in groundwater, surface water and effluent samples, and to monitor the transport of pathogens specific to on-site wastewater outflows. In combination with MST, the evaluation of nitrification and denitrification in surrounding soil and effluent samples aims to assess nitrogen removal at specific intervals; pre-remediation and post-remediation. Two experimental sites have been routinely sampled for effluent, soil and groundwater samples as well as soil moisture samples using suction lysimeters located at various depths. A robust and reproducible DNA extraction method was developed, applicable to both sites. MST markers based on host-specific Bacteriodales bacteria for universal, human and cow-derived faecal matter are being employed to determine quantitative target

  19. Integrated phytobial remediation for sustainable management of arsenic in soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Madhumita; Giri, Ashok K; Dutta, Sourav; Mukherjee, Pritam

    2015-02-01

    Arsenic (As), cited as the most hazardous substance by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry (ATSDR, 2005), is an ubiquitous metalloid which when ingested for prolonged periods cause extensive health effects leading to ultimate untimely death. Plants and microbes can help mitigate soil and groundwater As problem since they have evolved elaborate detoxification machineries against this toxic metalloid as a result of their coexistence with this since the origin of life on earth. Utilization of the phytoremediation and bioremediation potential of the plants and microbes, respectively, is now regarded as two innovative tools that encompass biology, geology, biotechnology and allied sciences with cutting edge applications for sustainable mitigation of As epidemic. Discovery of As hyperaccumulating plants that uptake and concentrate large amounts of this toxic metalloid in their shoots or roots offered new hope to As phytoremediation, solar power based nature's own green remediation. This review focuses on how phytoremediation and bioremediation can be merged together to form an integrated phytobial remediation which could synergistically achieve the goal of large scale removal of As from soil, sediment and groundwater and overcome the drawbacks of the either processes alone. The review also points to the feasibility of the introduction of transgenic plants and microbes that bring new hope for more efficient treatment of As. The review identifies one critical research gap on the importance of remediation of As contaminated groundwater not only for drinking purpose but also for irrigation purpose and stresses that more research should be conducted on the use of constructed wetland, one of the most suitable areas of application of phytobial remediation. Finally the review has narrowed down on different phytoinvestigation and phytodisposal methods, which constitute the most essential and the most difficult part of pilot scale and field scale applications

  20. Remediation of lead, cadmium and uranium contaminated water and soil by apatite amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Plecas, I.; Kaludjerovic, T.

    2002-01-01

    During the past years as a consequence of war and some accidents in neighboring countries large areas in Serbia were contaminated by toxic heavy metals, including lead, cadmium and uranium. For example, the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Cr have been doubled above the allowed maximum value in the Romanian part of the Danube while sediments near the border in Bulgaria have higher concentrations of Pb 3 times, Cu 1400 times and Cd 30 times more than the average long-standing levels. Furthermore, an estimated 10 tons of depleted uranium (DU) was spread mainly throughout the territory of Kosovo. This contamination is a potential source of different chronic diseases including malignant diseases and represents a long-term threat for the population living in the affected areas. For this reason, remediation of contaminated sites represents an urgent need and priority. The standard remediation procedure which includes soil removal, treatment (washing, chelating), conditioning etc. is costly, disruptive and not sustainable. This study was carried out to evaluate apatite from the Lisina deposit as soil amendment for in situ stabilization of toxic heavy metals. Preliminary theoretical and experimentally results presented here point out this natural apatite as an ecological, nontoxic material which can be used for efficient and cost-effective remediation of large areas contaminated with Pb, Cd and U. (author)

  1. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project is to eliminate, reduce, or address to acceptable levels the potential health and environmental consequences of milling activities by meeting Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. One of the first steps in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The EPA standards allow the use of different strategies for achieving compliance with the standards. This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. Each of the four alternatives evaluated in the PEIS is based on a different mix of strategies to meet EPA ground water standards. The PEIS is intended to serve as a programmatic planning document that provides an objective basis for determining site-specific ground water compliance strategies and data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impact analyses more efficiently. DOE will prepare appropriate further National Environmental Policy Act documentation before making site-specific decisions to implement the Ground Water Project. Affected States, Tribes, local government agencies, and members of the public have been involved in the process of preparing this PEIS; DOE encourages their continued participation in the site-specific decision making process

  2. Remedial action plan for the inactive Uranium Processing Site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action plan: Attachment 2, Geology report, Attachment 3, Ground water hydrology report: Working draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC section 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RAP serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the state of Colorado

  3. Glassy slags as novel waste forms for remediating mixed wastes with high metal contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Brown, N.R.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Ebert, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing a glassy slag final waste form for the remediation of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes with high metal contents. This waste form is composed of various crystalline and metal oxide phases embedded in a silicate glass phase. This work indicates that glassy slag shows promise as final waste form because (1) it has similar or better chemical durability than high-level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses, (2) it can incorporate large amounts of metal wastes, (3) it can incorporate waste streams having low contents of flux components (boron and alkalis), (4) it has less stringent processing requirements (e.g., viscosity and electric conductivity) than glass waste forms, (5) its production can require little or no purchased additives, which can result in greater reduction in waste volume and overall treatment costs. By using glassy slag waste forms, minimum additive waste stabilization approach can be applied to a much wider range of waste streams than those amenable only to glass waste forms

  4. Nanofiber-Based Materials for Persistent Organic Pollutants in Water Remediation by Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise des Ligneris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is one of the most precious resources for our society. As a cause of oxygen depletion, organic pollutants released into water streams from industrial discharges, fertilizers, pesticides, detergents or consumed medicines can raise toxicological concerns due to their long-range transportability, bio-accumulation and degradation into carcinogenic compounds. The Stockholm Convention has named 21 persistent organic pollutants (POP so far. As opposed to other separation techniques, adsorption, typically performed with activated carbons, offers opportunities to combine low operation costs with high performance as well as fast kinetics of capture if custom-designed with the right choice of adsorbent structure and surface chemistry. Nanofibers possess a higher surface to volume ratio compared to commercial macro-adsorbents, and a higher stability in water than other adsorptive nanostructures, such as loose nanoparticles. This paper highlights the potential of nanofibers in organic pollutant adsorption and thus provides an up-to-date overview of their employment for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by disinfectants and pesticides, which is benchmarked with other reported adsorptive structures. The discussion further investigates the impact of adsorbent pore geometry and surface chemistry on the resulting adsorption performance against specific organic molecules. Finally, insight into the physicochemical properties required for an adsorbent against a targeted pollutant is provided.

  5. Application of encapsulation (pH-sensitive polymer and phosphate buffer macrocapsules): A novel approach to remediation of acidic ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aelion, C. Marjorie; Davis, Harley T.; Flora, Joseph R.V.; Kirtland, Brian C.; Amidon, Mark B.

    2009-01-01

    Macrocapsules, composed of a pH-sensitive polymer and phosphate buffer, offer a novel remediation alternative for acidic ground waters. To test their potential effectiveness, laboratory experiments were carried out followed by a field trial within a coal pile runoff (CPR) acidic contaminant plume. Results of traditional limestone and macrocapsule treatments were compared in both laboratory and field experiments. Macrocapsules were more effective than limestone as a passive treatment for raising pH in well water from 2.5 to 6 in both laboratory and field experiments. The limestone treatments had limited impact on pH, only increasing pH as high as 3.3, and armoring by iron was evident in the field trial. Aluminum, iron and sulfate concentrations remained relatively constant throughout the experiments, but phosphate increased (0.15-32 mg/L), indicating macrocapsule release. This research confirmed that macrocapsules may be an effective alternative to limestone to treat highly acidic ground water. - Encapsulated phosphate buffer macrocapsules were more effective than limestone for passive treatment of acidic coal pile runoff (CPR) contaminated ground water, increasing pH from 2.5 to 6 in laboratory and field experiments

  6. Sorption of colloids, organics, and metals onto gas-water interfaces: Transport mechanisms and potential remediation technology. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, T.K.; Wan, J.

    1998-01-01

    'Although contaminant sorption at mineral surfaces has received much recognition as a major mechanism controlling contaminant behavior in subsurface environments, virtually no attention has been given to the possibility of contaminant sorption at gas-water interfaces. Moreover, no effort has yet been advanced to optimize such interactions for the purpose of facilitating in-situ remediation. Gas-water interfaces, unlike water-solid interfaces, are mobile. Therefore, associations of contaminants with gas-water interfaces can be very important not only in subsurface contaminant distributions, but also in contaminant transport, and potentially in remediation. The first objective of this research is to develop a quantitative understanding of interactions between contaminants and gas-water interfaces. The anticipated results will provide insights into the poorly understood phenomenon of contaminant interactions with the gas-water interface, and improve the current conceptual models of contaminant behavior in subsurface environments. The second purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of using surfactant stabilized microbubbles for in-situ remediation. Both pump-and-treat, and air sparging remediation methods are ineffective at displacing contaminants in zones which are advectively inaccessible. Stable microbubbles can migrate beyond preferential flow pathways and enter lower permeability zones by buoyant rise. The microbubbles can deliver oxygen and nutrients for promoting aerobic degradation of organic contaminants, and also deliver surfactants for emulsifying NAPLs.'

  7. Functional lignocellulosic material for the remediation of copper(II) ions from water: Towards the design of a wood filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitas, Selin; Keplinger, Tobias; Reichholf, Nico; Figi, Renato; Cabane, Etienne

    2018-05-09

    In this study, the chemical modification of bulk beech wood is described along with its utilization as biosorbent for the remediation of copper from water. The material was prepared by esterification using anhydrides, and reaction conditions were optimized to propose a greener process, in particular by reducing the amount of solvent. This modification yields a lignocellulosic material whose native structure is preserved, with an increased amount of carboxylic groups (up to 3 mmol/g). We demonstrate that the material can remove up to 95% of copper from low concentration solutions (100- 500 ppm). The adsorption efficiency decreases with concentrated copper solutions, and we show that a limited number of -COOH groups participate in copper binding (ca. 0.1 Cu/-COOH). This result suggests a limited accessibility of -COOH groups in the wood scaffold. This was demonstrated by the characterization of -COOH and copper distributions inside wood. Raman and EDX imaging confirmed that most -COOH groups are located inside the wood cell walls, thereby limiting interactions with copper. According to this study, critical limitations of bulk wood as a biosorbent were identified, and the results will be used to improve the material and design an efficient wood filter for heavy metal remediation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Successful Characterization and Remedial Contour of Highly Contaminated Mercury Soil at the Y-12 National Security Complex - 13593

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Aaron; Rigas, Michael [U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Birchfield, Joseph W. III [1528 Paxton Drive Knoxville, TN 37918 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    An area known as the 81-10 pad within the footprint of the Y-12 National Security Complex, suspected to be heavily contaminated with mercury, was slated for characterization in support of a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) milestone to be accomplished by September 30, 2012. A full remedial design report (RDR) required the soil in Exposure Unit -9 (EU-9) to be fully characterized for a number of contaminates of concern including mercury. The goal of this characterization effort was to determine what soil, if any, would need to be removed for the protection of industrial workers and impacts to the surface and ground water. Funding for this project was made available using buy-back scope under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The EU-9 soil unit involved 3 different classifications which were determined as follows: Class 1: Known to have been impacted, contamination is likely; Class 2: Suspected to have been impacted, contamination is unknown; Class 3: Area not known to have been impacted, contamination unlikely. Due to various sampling and analysis events since the 1980's, significant mercury contamination was expected under the concrete pad of an area known as 81-10. Mercury contamination outside of the boundary of this pad within the EU-9 footprint was not known and therefore an original planned estimate of 1,461 cubic meters of material were expected to be heavily contaminated with mercury requiring removal, treatment and disposal. Through the use of a highly effective nature and extent sampling and analysis design that involved a hybrid of statistically-based and judgmental sampling, the actual remedial contour requiring removal was approximately 717 cubic meters, roughly 12% of the original estimate. This characterization approach was executed in full compliance with the Record of Decision (ROD) [1] documents that were agreed upon by the U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency and Tennessee Department of Environment and

  9. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of how heavy metals can be found in the soil and the theory of electrodialytic remediation. Basically electrodialytic remediation works by passing electric current through the soil, and the heavy metals in ionic form will carry some of the current. Ion-exchange membranes...... prevents the protons and the hydroxides ions from the electrode processes to enter the soil. The heavy metals are collected in a concentration compartment, which is separated from the soil by ion-exchange membranes. Examples from remediation experiments are shown, and it is demonstrated that it is possible...... to remediate soil polluted with heavy metals be this method. When adding desorbing agents or complexing agents, chosing the right current density, electrolyte and membranes, the proces can be optimised for a given remediation situation. Also electroosmosis is influencing the system, and if extra water...

  10. Remediation of water pollution caused by pharmaceutical residues based on electrochemical separation and degradation technologies: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric

    2012-04-01

    In the last years, the decontamination and disinfection of waters by means of direct or integrated electrochemical processes are being considered as a very appealing alternative due to the significant improvement of the electrode materials and the coupling with low-cost renewable energy sources. Many electrochemical technologies are currently available for the remediation of waters contaminated by refractory organic pollutants such as pharmaceutical micropollutants, whose presence in the environment has become a matter of major concern. Recent reviews have focused on the removal of pharmaceutical residues upon the application of other important methods like ozonation and advanced oxidation processes. Here, we present an overview on the electrochemical methods devised for the treatment of pharmaceutical residues from both, synthetic solutions and real pharmaceutical wastewaters. Electrochemical separation technologies such as membrane technologies, electrocoagulation and internal micro-electrolysis, which only isolate the pollutants from water, are firstly introduced. The fundamentals and experimental set-ups involved in technologies that allow the degradation of pharmaceuticals, like anodic oxidation, electro-oxidation with active chlorine, electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton and photoelectrocatalysis among others, are further discussed. Progress on the promising solar photoelectro-Fenton process devised and further developed in our laboratory is especially highlighted and documented. The abatement of total organic carbon or reduction of chemical oxygen demand from contaminated waters allows the comparison between the different methods and materials. The routes for the degradation of the some pharmaceuticals are also presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Remedial measures against high levels of radioactive cesium in Swedish lake fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, T.; Nilsson, Aa.; Haakanson, L.; Kvarnaes, H.

    1991-01-01

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) has provided funds for the testing of methods to reduce the concentration of radioactive cesium in fish. The main purpose of this report is to present to remedies tested and to give an account of the effect they had on the concentration of Cs-137 in fish. In addition, analyses are made of the lake-specific factors contributing to the Cs-uptake in fish in the tested lakes. The time interval between the remedies adopted and the latest fish analyses (about 2 years on average) is not sufficient to statistically establish the small effects of the remedies. A longer time series of data is required for this

  12. Multi-Component Remediation System for Generating Potable Water Onboard Spacecrafts, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fractal Systems Inc. proposes to develop an innovative, energy-efficient water purification system to enable humans to live and work permanently in space. Water...

  13. Arsenic remediation from drinking water by synthesized nano-alumina dispersed in chitosan-grafted polyacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Suparna; Sarkar, Priyabrata

    2012-08-15

    An arsenic adsorbent comprising alumina nanoparticles dispersed in polymer matrix was developed and its removal potential studied. Alumina nanoparticles were prepared by reverse microemulsion technique and these were immobilized on chitosan grafted polyacrylamide matrix by in situ dispersion. The loading capacity of this new synthesized adsorbent was found to be high (6.56 mg/g). Batch adsorption studies were performed as a function of contact time, initial arsenic concentration, pH and presence of competing anions. The removal was found to be pH dependent, and maximum removal was obtained at pH 7.2 while the equilibrium time was 6h. The equilibrium adsorption data fitted very well with Freundlich isotherm. However, the D-R isotherm studies indicated that chemisorptions might play an important role. This was also confirmed by the FTIR study of the arsenic loaded adsorbent. A mechanism of arsenic sorption by the new polymeric adsorbent has been proposed. The regeneration study of the adsorbent resulted in retention of 94% capacity in the fifth cycle. An optimum pH of 7.2, operation at normal temperature, high adsorption capacity and good recycle potential of this new adsorbent would make it an ideal material for removal of arsenic from drinking water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-10-01

    This programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) was prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This PElS provides an analysis of the potential impacts of the alternatives and ground water compliance strategies as well as potential cumulative impacts. On November 8, 1978, Congress enacted the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law, codified at 42 USC §7901 et seq. Congress found that uranium mill tailings " ... may pose a potential and significant radiation health hazard to the public, and that every reasonable effort should be made to provide for stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe, and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings." Congress authorized the Secretary of Energy to designate inactive uranium processing sites for remedial action by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Congress also directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set the standards to be followed by the DOE for this process of stabilization, disposal, and control. On January 5, 1983, EPA published standards (40 CFR Part 192) for the disposal and cleanup of residual radioactive materials. On September 3, 1985, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit set aside and remanded to EPA the ground water provisions of the standards. The EPA proposed new standards to replace remanded sections and changed other sections of 40 CFR Part 192. These proposed standards were published in the Federal Register on September 24, 1987 (52 FR 36000). Section 108 of the UMTRCA requires that DOE comply with EPA's proposed standards in the absence of final standards. The Ground Water Project was planned under the proposed standards. On January 11, 1995, EPA published the final rule, with which the DOE must now comply. The PElS and the Ground Water Project are

  15. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) was prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This PElS provides an analysis of the potential impacts of the alternatives and ground water compliance strategies as well as potential cumulative impacts. On November 8, 1978, Congress enacted the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law, codified at 42 USC §7901 et seq. Congress found that uranium mill tailings ' ... may pose a potential and significant radiation health hazard to the public, and that every reasonable effort should be made to provide for stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe, and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings.' Congress authorized the Secretary of Energy to designate inactive uranium processing sites for remedial action by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Congress also directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set the standards to be followed by the DOE for this process of stabilization, disposal, and control. On January 5, 1983, EPA published standards (40 CFR Part 192) for the disposal and cleanup of residual radioactive materials. On September 3, 1985, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit set aside and remanded to EPA the ground water provisions of the standards. The EPA proposed new standards to replace remanded sections and changed other sections of 40 CFR Part 192. These proposed standards were published in the Federal Register on September 24, 1987 (52 FR 36000). Section 108 of the UMTRCA requires that DOE comply with EPA's proposed standards in the absence of final standards. The Ground Water Project was planned under the proposed standards. On January 11, 1995, EPA published the final rule, with which the DOE must now comply. The PElS and the Ground Water Project are in

  16. PILOT-SCALE SUBCRITICAL WATER REMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON- AND PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subcritical water (hot water under enough pressure to maintain the liquid state) was used to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides from highly contaminated soils. Laboratory-scale (8 g of soil) experiments were used to determine conditions f...

  17. Perspectives of low cost arsenic remediation of drinking water in Pakistan and other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Amir Haider; Khan, Zahid Mehmood; Mahmood, Qaisar; Nasreen, Sadia; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmed

    2009-08-30

    Arsenic concentrations above acceptable standards for drinking water have been detected in many countries and this should therefore is a global issue. The presence of arsenic in subsurface aquifers and drinking water systems is a potentially serious human health hazard. The current population growth in Pakistan and other developing countries will have direct bearing on the water sector for meeting the domestic, industrial and agricultural needs. Pakistan is about to exhaust its available water resources and is on the verge of becoming a water deficit country. Water pollution is a serious menace in Pakistan, as almost 70% of its surface waters as well as its groundwater reserves have contaminated by biological, organic and inorganic pollutants. In some areas of Pakistan, a number of shallow aquifers and tube wells are contaminated with arsenic at levels which are above the recommended USEPA arsenic level of 10 ppb (10 microg L(-1)). Adverse health effects including human mortality from drinking water are well documented and can be attributed to arsenic contamination. The present paper reviews appropriate and low cost methods for the elimination of arsenic from drinking waters. It is recommended that a combination of low cost chemical treatment like ion exchange, filtration and adsorption along with bioremediation may be useful option for arsenic removal from drinking water.

  18. Response of plants to high concentrations of uranium stress and the screening of remediation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yongjin; Luo Xuegang; Zeng Feng; Jiang Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the resistance and accumulation ability of different plant species to uranium (U) has important influence on the bioremediation of U contaminated soil. The resistance and enrichment ability of high concentrations of U (500 mg · kg"-"1 soil) in fourteen plant species were investigated and evaluated in this study in order to screen remediation plants for governance soil U contamination. The results showed that: (1) high concentrations of U stress had different effects on the emergence and survival of the different plants. The seed emergence of Hibiscus esculentus was reduced by 2/3, but the seed emergence of Gynura cusimbua (D. Don) S. Moore, Chenopodium album L. and Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alef were not reduced. Under the contaminated soil, all the sesamum indicum died within a month after the emergence and the survival number of Amaranth and Iresine herbstii 'Aureo-reticulata' reduced by about 80%. But the survival number of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb., Chenopodium album L. and Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alef were not influenced. (2) The biomass of the plants would be reduced by 8-99% in the uranium-contaminated soil. The anti-stress ability of Phaseolus vulgaris var. humilis Alef was the strongest in the fourteen plants, and Cucurbita pepo L., Sorghumbicolor (L.) Moench, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, Helianthus annuus, Chenopodium album L. and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. showed some the anti-stress ability. (3) Significant differences were found in the capacity of plants to absorb uranium between under high-uranium contaminated soil and under the non-uranium contaminated soil were. The plants with higher uranium content in thenon-contaminated soil were Gomphrena globosa, and Cucurbita pepo L., which were 2.249 mg · kg"-"1 DW and 1.620 mg · kg"-"1 DW, respectively. But the plants with higher uranium content in the high uranium contaminated soil were Cichorium intybus L., Amaranth and Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, which

  19. Photocatalytic ozonation under visible light for the remediation of water effluents and its integration with an electro-membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano Garcia, Diego; Ozer, Lütfiye Y; Parrino, Francesco; Ahmed, Menatalla; Brudecki, Grzegorz Przemyslaw; Hasan, Shadi W; Palmisano, Giovanni

    2018-06-06

    Photocatalysis and photocatalytic ozonation under visible light have been applied for the purification of a complex aqueous matrix such as the grey water of Masdar City (UAE), by using N-doped brookite-rutile catalysts. Preliminary runs on 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) solutions allowed to test the reaction system in the presence of a model pollutant and to afford the relevant kinetic parameters of the process. Subsequently, the remediation of grey water effluent has been evaluated in terms of the reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and bacterial counts. The concentration of the most abundant inorganic ionic species in the effluent has been also monitored during reaction. Photocatalytic ozonation under visible light allowed to reduce the TOC content of the grey water by ca. 60% in the optimized experimental conditions and to reduce the total bacterial count by ca. 97%. The extent of TOC mineralization reached ca. 80% when the photocatalytic ozonation occurred downstream to a preliminary electro-membrane bioreactor (eMBR). Coupling the two processes enhanced the global efficiency. In fact, the eMBR treatment lowered the turbidity and the organic load of the effluent entering the photocatalytic ozonation treatment, which in turn enhanced the extent of purification and disinfection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Draft programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to protect human health and the environment by meeting the proposed EPA standards in areas where ground water has been contaminated. The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes potential impacts of four programmatic alternatives, including the proposed action. The alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance. Rather, the PEIS is a planning document that provides a framework for conducting the Ground Water Project; assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project; provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies; and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own unique set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. Implementing a PEIS alternative means applying a ground water compliance strategy or strategies at a specific site. It is the use of a strategy or a combination of strategies that would result in site-specific impacts

  1. Metal doped green zeolites for water treatment a sustainable remediation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabassum, N.; Rafique, U.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of zeolites from refused materials presents a greener model for environmental remediation. The present study offers a novel procedure to synthesize not only the basic framework but also Vanadium modified polymeric zeolites. The spent polythene bags, lunch boxes, and packaging are used as raw material for synthesis of zeolites. Characterization through EDX showed incorporation of vanadium is more than 35%, exhibiting FTIR frequencies in the range 601-995cm-1. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis revealed a stabilizing effect of zeolites on addition of dopant upto 320 degree C as determined by higher residue percentage (> 98%). Vanadium doped synthesized zeolites (MP1, MP2, MP3) were applied in batch adsorption experiments for in-situ (synthetic metal salt solution) and ex-situ (industrial effluents) removal of metals (Pb, Cr, and Cd). Adsorption results indicated the successful metal removal of more than 90% in the sequence Pb > Cd > Cr. The sequence follows, higher is the ionic radius of the metal cation, more is the adsorption on zeolites. Application of adsorption isotherms demonstrated fitness of Freundlich and Temkin models, whereas pseudo first order kinetics depicts metal removal. The study concludes that synthesized zeolites are suitable candidates with improvised green economy for industrial sector to treat effectively industrial discharges. (author)

  2. Use of three-dimensional, high-resolution seismic technology to optimize the location of remedial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainer, R.W.; Adams, M.L.

    1993-02-01

    Two three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution seismic reflection pilot studies were conducted in California at two sites, where the primary contaminants of concern are solvents. Identify pathways of contaminant migration. Determine the subsurface stratigraphy and structure to optimize the location for placement of remedial systems. The geology at the first site, located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, is characterized by unconsolidated alluvium. Ground water varies in depth from about 30 to 100 ft. The site typically is subjected to extensive cultural noise. The second site, in Southern California, is located in a broad, synclinal depression in the Transverse Range. Shallow alluvium overlies a marine turbidite sequence that crops out as massive sandstone beds. Field work for both surveys took place in August 1992. A Bison Model 90120-A, 120-channel (DIFP) seismograph was used to record the data. Thirty-hertz, natural-frequency geophones were used to receive the data, and an Elastic Wave Generator (EWG) was used as the seismic source. The use of a signal-stacking, noninvasive source was found to be an effective method of overriding background noise at the sites. Prior to the commencement of the 3-D pilot studies, a two-dimensional (2-D) profile was recorded to test the acquisition parameters, which included the geometry of the survey, digital sample rate, and analog filter settings. The data were monitored in the field with a Bison 486 Explorer outdoor computer. The 2-D data were processed and displayed in the field. Both sites displayed coherent seismic reflections from the depths of interest on the field-stacked sections

  3. High pressure experimental water loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.

    1958-01-01

    A high pressure experimental water loop has been made for studying the detection and evolution of cladding failure in a pressurized reactor. The loop has been designed for a maximum temperature of 360 deg. C, a maximum of 160 kg/cm 2 and flow rates up to 5 m 3 /h. The entire loop consists of several parts: a main circuit with a canned rotor circulation pump, steam pressurizer, heating tubes, two hydro-cyclones (one de-gasser and one decanter) and one tubular heat exchanger; a continuous purification loop, connected in parallel, comprising pressure reducing valves and resin pots which also allow studies of the stability of resins under pressure, temperature and radiation; following the gas separator is a gas loop for studying the recombination of the radiolytic gases in the steam phase. The preceding circuits, as well as others, return to a low pressure storage circuit. The cold water of the low pressure storage flask is continuously reintroduced into the high pressure main circuit by means of a return pump at a maximum head of 160 kg /cm 2 , and adjusted to the pressurizer level. This loop is also a testing bench for the tight high pressure apparatus. The circulating pump and the connecting flanges (Oak Ridge type) are water-tight. The feed pump and the pressure reducing valves are not; the un-tight ones have a system of leak recovery. To permanently check the tightness the circuit has been fitted with a leak detection system (similar to the HRT one). (author) [fr

  4. Water management. A core task of the Wismut remediation programme; Kernaufgaben des langfristigen Wassermanagements an den saechsisch-thueringischen Wismut-Standorten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Michael; Meyer, Juergen; Jenk, Ulf; Kassahun, Andrea; Schramm, Andrea; Baacke, Delf; Forbrig, Norbert; Metschies, Thomas [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany). Bereich Ingenieurwesen/Strahlenschutz

    2015-07-01

    Water management and conventional technical water treatment are by far the most cost-intensive long-term tasks of the Wismut remediation programme. Over the medium term, there is no viable alternative to the operation of active systems to catch and treat contaminated mine waters at the Ronneburg, Schlema, Koenigstein, Poehla, Seelingstaedt and Heimsdorf sites. Based on the status quo this paper outlines the key issues of the Wismut GmbH water management strategy over the medium and long term. lt is focused primarily on achieving protection goals for potentially impacted water bodies in the surroundings of Wismut sites and on optimising associated remediation expenditure as well as on creating the prerequisites for achieving low post-remedial care and maintenance or walk-away system status over the long term. The topic of this paper is the presentation of priority tasks related to future water management at Wismut sites in Saxony and Thuringia. The reflections are based on experiences and lessons learned and take into account current statutory management requirements referring to ground and surface water bodies affected by Wismut. The paper is based on a presentation made at the International Mining Symposium WISSYM 2015 on 2nd September 2015 in Bad Schlema, Germany.

  5. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes as decentralized water treatment technologies to remediate domestic washing machine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alexsandro Jhones; Costa, Emily Cintia Tossi de Araújo; da Silva, Djalma Ribeiro; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto

    2018-03-01

    Water scarcity is one of the major concerns worldwide. In order to secure this appreciated natural resource, management and development of water treatment technologies are mandatory. One feasible alternative is the consideration of water recycling/reuse at the household scale. Here, the treatment of actual washing machine effluent by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes was considered. Electrochemical oxidation and electro-Fenton technologies can be applied as decentralized small-scale water treatment devices. Therefore, efficient decolorization and total organic abatement have been followed. The results demonstrate the promising performance of solar photoelectro-Fenton process, where complete color and organic removal was attained after 240 min of treatment under optimum conditions by applying a current density of 66.6 mA cm -2 . Thus, electrochemical technologies emerge as promising water-sustainable approaches.

  6. Sol-Gel Derived Adsorbents with Enzymatic and Complexonate Functions for Complex Water Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman P. Pogorilyi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sol-gel technology is a versatile tool for preparation of complex silica-based materials with targeting functions for use as adsorbents in water purification. Most efficient removal of organic pollutants is achieved by using enzymatic reagents grafted on nano-carriers. However, enzymes are easily deactivated in the presence of heavy metal cations. In this work, we avoided inactivation of immobilized urease by Cu (II and Cd (II ions using magnetic nanoparticles provided with additional complexonate (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid or DTPA functions. Obtained nanomaterials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. According to TGA, the obtained Fe3O4/SiO2-NH2-DTPA nanoadsorbents contained up to 0.401 mmol/g of DTPA groups. In the concentration range Ceq = 0–50 mmol/L, maximum adsorption capacities towards Cu (II and Cd (II ions were 1.1 mmol/g and 1.7 mmol/g, respectively. Langmuir adsorption model fits experimental data in concentration range Ceq = 0–10 mmol/L. The adsorption mechanisms have been evaluated for both of cations. Crosslinking of 5 wt % of immobilized urease with glutaraldehyde prevented the loss of the enzyme in repeated use of the adsorbent and improved the stability of the enzymatic function leading to unchanged activity in at least 18 cycles. Crosslinking of 10 wt % urease on the surface of the particles allowed a decrease in urea concentration in 20 mmol/L model solutions to 2 mmol/L in up to 10 consequent decomposition cycles. Due to the presence of DTPA groups, Cu2+ ions in concentration 1 µmol/L did not significantly affect the urease activity. Obtained magnetic Fe3O4/SiO2-NH2-DTPA-Urease nanocomposite sorbents revealed a high potential for urease decomposition, even in presence of heavy metal ions.

  7. Green remediation: enhanced reductive dechlorination using recycled rinse water as bioremediation substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Gaynor; McKeon, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) has rapidly become a remedy of choice for use on chlorinated solvent contamination when site conditions allow. With this approach, solutions of an organic substrate are injected into the affected aquifer to stimulate biological growth and the resultant production of reducing conditions in the target zone. Under the reducing conditions, hydrogen is produced and ultimately replaces chlorine atoms on the contaminant molecule causing sequential dechlorination. Under suitable conditions the process continues until the parent hydrocarbon precursor is produced, such as the complete dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) to ethene. The process is optimized by use of a substrate that maximizes hydrogen production per unit cost. When natural biota are not present to promote the desired degradation, inoculates can be added with the substrate. The in-situ method both reduces cost and accelerates cleanup. Successful applications have been extended from the most common chlorinated compounds perchloroethylene (PCE) and TCE and related products of degradation, to perchlorate, and even explosives such as RDX and trinitrotoluene on which nitrates are attacked in lieu of chloride. In recent work, the process has been further improved through use of beverage industry wastewaters that are available at little or no cost. With material cost removed from the equation, applications can maximize the substrate loading without significantly increasing total cost. The extra substrate loading both accelerates reaction rates and extends the period of time over which reducing conditions are maintained. In some cases, the presence of other organic matter in addition to simple sugars provides for longer performance times of individual injections, thereby working in a fashion similar to emulsified vegetable oil. The paper discusses results of applications at three different sites contaminated with chlorinated ethylenes. The applications have included

  8. Risk-based systems analysis of emerging high-level waste tank remediation technologies. Volume 1: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormack, W.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a System Analysis Model developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) program to aid technology development funding decisions for radioactive tank waste remediation. Current technology development selection methods evaluate new technologies in isolation from other components of an overall tank waste remediation system. These methods do not show the relative effect of new technologies on tank remediation systems as a whole. Consequently, DOE may spend its resources on technologies that promise to improve a single function but have a small or possibly negative, impact on the overall system, or DOE may overlook a technology that does not address a high priority problem in the system but that does, if implemented, offer sufficient overall improvements. Systems engineering and detailed analyses often conducted under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA 1969) use a ''whole system'' approach but are costly, too time-consuming, and often not sufficiently focused to support the needs of the technology program decision-makers. An alternative approach is required to evaluate these systems impacts but still meet the budget and schedule needs of the technology program

  9. Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels: a BRE guide to remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is aimed specifically at builders, surveyors and building specialists surveying for and prescribing remedial measures for dwellings. It supplements guidance available in The householders' guide to radon obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the Department of the Environment. The report has been prepared on the basis of experience gained in remedial work on more than 100 dwellings following advice given by BRE, and of discussions with others in the field, notably the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council. Work is continuing, particularly dealing with suspended timber floors, basements and ventilation systems. Results will be incorporated into revisions of this report as they become available. (Author)

  10. Wild plants as tools for the remediation of abandoned mining sites with a high arsenic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lopez, Salvadora; Martínez-Sanchez, MJose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez, Lucia B.; Bech, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the environmental risk posed by arsenic when new vegetation types are introduced, analyzing the transfer of arsenic in different plant species that grow spontaneously in mining areas of SE Spain (Sierra Minera of Cartagena), and the contribution of such plants to the environmental risk represented by their ingestion by animals living in the same ecosystems. When dealing with remediation projects in zones affected by mining activities, the risk posed by the ingestion of the plants by fauna is often forgotten. To study the transfer to the trophic chain, two mammals, sheep and vole, were selected. The risk analysis was centered in the contribution of these natural plants to the ingestion calculated. For this study, 21 vegetal species naturally growing in the soils were collected from the Sierra Minera. The vegetal material studied is clearly associated with the Mediterranean Region (S.E. of Spain) and the plant species collected are endemisms and plants characteristic of the zone. Physico-chemical properties were obtained by means of the usual procedures. To determine the arsenic content, the soil samples and plant materials were digested in a microwave system and the arsenic concentration was determined using atomic fluorescence spectrometry with an automated continuous flow hydride generation system. A semiquantitative estimation of the mineralogical composition of the samples was made by X Ray Diffraction analysis. The soils were classified into three groups: Low (group 1) (7-35 mg/kg) medium (group 2) (35-327 mg/kg) and high (group 3) (> 327 mg/kg), according to their As content. The mineralogy and As content of the soils studied depends on the materials related with mining activity. The descriptive statistical analysis of the population of plants studied showed the As range in roots to be 0.31-150 mg/kg while leaf concentrations were lower (0.21-83.4 mg/kg). The potential risk of As entering the food chain through of the plant

  11. Remediation of chromium and copper on water hyacinth (E. crassipes shoot powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tannery effluent characterization and removal efficiency of Chromium (Cr and Copper (Cu on water hyacinth has been observed by filtration process. The effluent was contaminated by deep blue color, acidic pH, higher value of total dissolve solid (TDS, electrical conductivity (EC, chemical oxygen demand (COD and lower value of dissolve oxygen (DO. After filtration, the effluent shows that the permissible limit of investigated metals. Adsorbent capacity of water hyacinth shoot powder for Cr and Cu ion was found to be 99.98% and 99.96% for standard solution (SS and 98.83% and 99.59% for tannery effluent (TE, respectively.

  12. Remediation of ultra low level of transuranics from potable water using hybrid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Basu, H.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2015-01-01

    In case of nuclear accidents like Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Fukushima, Japan (11 March, 2011) and nuclear accidents like Chernobyl, USSR (March, 1986), where large amount of activity spread in public domain necessitate the need of development of new material which can efficiently remove transuranic from potable water without disturbing its water quality. Three different types of natural sorbents were developed using natural siliceous material, sodium alginate and impregnation of goethite in alginate matrix. Experiments were carried out for decontamination of americium and plutonium by using Calcium Alginate (Cal-Alg) and Goethite impregnated Cal-Alg (Geo-Cal-Alg) respectively

  13. GROUND WATER REMEDIATION OF CHROMIUM USING ZERO-VALENT IRON IN A PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of laboratory experiments were performed to elucidate the chromium transformation and precipitation reactions caused by the corrosion of zero-valent iron in water-based systems. Reaction rates were determined for chromate reduction in the presence of different types of ...

  14. REMEDIATION OF MTBE FROM DRINKING WATER: AIR STRIPPING FOLLOWED BY OFF-GAS ADSORPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The widespread use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as an oxygenate in gasoline has resulted in the contamination of a large number of ground and surface water sources. Even though air stripping has been proven to be an effective treatment technology for MTBE removal, off-ga...

  15. Phosphate Remediation and Recovery from Lake Water using Modified Iron Oxide-based Adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsorption behavior of Bayoxide ® E33 (E33) and three E33-modified sorbents for the removal of phosphate from lake water was investigated in this study. E33-modified sorbents were synthesized by coating with manganese and nanoparticles. Characterization was done by X-ray diffract...

  16. REMEDIATION OF MTBE - CONTAMINATED WATER: STUDIES ON THE DEGRADATION OF MTBE INTERMEDIATES USING THE FENTON'S REAGENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent findings of unusual oncentrations of MTBE in groundwater aquifers and surface waters [1] originated most probably from the leaking of underground storage gasoline tanks [2[ has led to a series of judicial and legislative actions, especially in the state of California w...

  17. Hazardous Waste Water Remediation by Ecoresin-Dry Cow Dung Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Barot, Nisha

    2013-04-01

    Water, the matter, matrix, medium and the mother of our life, is indeed one of the drivers of Nature. Through water cycle only the intra and inter equilibrium is maintained constantly between entire 'green' and 'blue'. Unfortunately, with each successive epoch of industrialization and urbanization, human societies have produced non-biodegradable waste hulk with far beyond handling capacities of mankind. At this juncture the very need is to appreciate and move towards the cost as well as time effective scientific alternatives for the removal of aqueous heavy metal pollutants. Green chemistry advocates the utilization of naturally available bio-resins which are environmentally benign alternative to current synthetic materials and technologies employed for waste water treatment. This explicit investigation aims to explore Dry Cow dung powder, DCP, a natural biosorbent as a green and clean alternative for the aqueous waste water treatment. It is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter of cow and is enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic - aromatic species such as 'Humic acid'(HA). The HA has been successfully extracted by authors from DCP and this piece of work has been published in the International Journal [1]. We have developed simple, efficient and eco-friendly method for the removal of aqueous heavy metal pollutant such as Cr(VI) [2], Cd(II), Cr(III) [3] and Hg(II) as well radiotoxic 90Sr(II) [4], employing DCP. DCP is employed without any pre or post treatment. Being freely and easily available DCP has an edge over processed natural adsorbent considering their cost, time and energy efficiency. In nutshell we have to remember that prevention is better than the cure. If we fail to meet this, the situation will surely augment which will drain our water, our life, to slaughters knife..! Reference: 1. H.K.Bagla, N.S.Barot, Soil Amendement by Green Supplement: Dry Cowdung powder, EGUGA - 11

  18. High temperature pressure water's blowdown into water. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Iida, Hiromasa

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present experimental study is to clarify the phenomena in blowdown of high temperature and pressure water in pressure vessel into the containment water for evaluation of design of an advanced marine reactor(MRX). The water blown into the containment water flushed and formed steam jet plume. The steam jet condensed in the water, but some stream penetrated to gas phase of containment and contributed to increase of containment pressure. (author)

  19. High performance light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squarer, D.; Schulenberg, T.; Struwe, D.; Oka, Y.; Bittermann, D.; Aksan, N.; Maraczy, C.; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.; Souyri, A.; Dumaz, P.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the high performance light water reactor (HPLWR) project is to assess the merit and economic feasibility of a high efficiency LWR operating at thermodynamically supercritical regime. An efficiency of approximately 44% is expected. To accomplish this objective, a highly qualified team of European research institutes and industrial partners together with the University of Tokyo is assessing the major issues pertaining to a new reactor concept, under the co-sponsorship of the European Commission. The assessment has emphasized the recent advancement achieved in this area by Japan. Additionally, it accounts for advanced European reactor design requirements, recent improvements, practical design aspects, availability of plant components and the availability of high temperature materials. The final objective of this project is to reach a conclusion on the potential of the HPLWR to help sustain the nuclear option, by supplying competitively priced electricity, as well as to continue the nuclear competence in LWR technology. The following is a brief summary of the main project achievements:-A state-of-the-art review of supercritical water-cooled reactors has been performed for the HPLWR project.-Extensive studies have been performed in the last 10 years by the University of Tokyo. Therefore, a 'reference design', developed by the University of Tokyo, was selected in order to assess the available technological tools (i.e. computer codes, analyses, advanced materials, water chemistry, etc.). Design data and results of the analysis were supplied by the University of Tokyo. A benchmark problem, based on the 'reference design' was defined for neutronics calculations and several partners of the HPLWR project carried out independent analyses. The results of these analyses, which in addition help to 'calibrate' the codes, have guided the assessment of the core and the design of an improved HPLWR fuel assembly. Preliminary selection was made for the HPLWR scale

  20. Engineered nanomaterials for water treatment and remediation: Costs, benefits, and applicability

    OpenAIRE

    Adeleye, AS; Conway, JR; Garner, K; Huang, Y; Su, Y; Keller, AA

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The application of nanotechnology in drinking water treatment and pollution cleanup is promising, as demonstrated by a number of field-based (pilot and full scale) and bench scale studies. A number of reviews exist for these nanotechnology-based applications; but to better illustrate its importance and guide its development, a direct comparison between traditional treatment technologies and emerging approaches using nanotechnology is needed. In this review, the performanc...

  1. U.S. Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project: Project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The scope of the Project is to develop and implement a ground water compliance strategy for all 24 UMTRA Project processing sites. The compliance strategy for the processing sites must satisfy the proposed EPA ground water cleanup standards in 40 CFR Part 192, Subparts B and C (1987). This scope of work will entail the following activities on a site-specific basis: Develop a compliance strategy based on modification of the UMTRA Surface Project RAPs or develop Ground Water Project RAPs with NRC concurrence on the RAP and full participation of the affected states and tribes. Implement the RAP to include institutional controls, where appropriate, as an interim measure until compliance with the standards is achieved. Institute long-term verification monitoring for transfer to a separate long-term surveillance program on or before the Project end date. Prepare certification or confirmation reports and modify the long-term surveillance plan (LTSP), where needed, on those sites completed prior to the Project end date

  2. Sorbent materials for rapid remediation of wash water during radiological event relief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolin, William C.; Kaminski, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Procedures for removing harmful radiation from interior and exterior surfaces of homes and businesses after a nuclear or radiological disaster may generate large volumes of radiologically contaminated waste water. Rather than releasing this waste water to potentially contaminate surrounding areas, it is preferable to treat it onsite. Retention barrels are a viable option because of their simplicity in preparation and availability of possible sorbent materials. This study investigated the use of aluminosilicate clay minerals as sorbent materials to retain 137Cs, 85Sr, and 152Eu. Vermiculite strongly retained 137Cs, though other radionuclides displayed diminished affinity for the surface. Montmorillonite exhibited increased affinity to sorb 85Sr and 152Eu in the presence of higher concentrations of 137Cs. To simulate flow within retention barrels, vermiculite was mixed with sand and used in small-scale column experiments. The GoldSim contaminate fate module was used to model breakthrough and assess the feasibility of using clay minerals as sorbent materials in retention barrels. The modeled radionuclide breakthrough profiles suggest that vermiculite-sand and montmorillonite-sand filled barrels could be used for treatment of contaminated water generated from field operations.

  3. High temperature water chemistry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all corrosion phenomena in nuclear power plants can be prevented or at least damped by water chemistry control or by the change of water chemistry control or by the change of water chemistry. Successful water chemistry control needs regular and continuous monitoring of such water chemistry parameters like dissolved oxygen content, pH, conductivity and impurity contents. Conventionally the monitoring is carried out at low pressures and temperatures, which method, however, has some shortcomings. Recently electrodes have been developed which enables the direct monitoring at operating pressures and temperatures. (author). 2 refs, 5 figs

  4. Vegetative changes in boreal peatlands along salinity gradients resulting from produced water spills : implications for the environmental assessment and remediation of upstream oil and gas sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, D.; Harris, C.; Meier, M. [AECOM Canada Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    In the province of Alberta, there are approximately 8,000 registered oil effluent and produced pipelines that have significant potential for ruptures and spills due to the highly corrosive nature of the emulsions and produced water they transport. Most releases occur in or adjacent to northern boreal wetlands. The first objective in spill response involves assessment and remediation for residuals, which involves handling and disposal of large volumes of salinized water. This presentation reported on a study that addressed the issues regarding the ecological features of semi-terrestrial and semi-aquatic components of boreal wetland environments as a basis for environmental protection at salt release sites. The fate of salt ions in such environments was examined along with the implications for secondary succession and ecological restoration. The study also examined the reasonable threshold concentration of salt ions in soils or water beyond which there is an inhibition to wetlands plants and bryophyte secondary succession; the reasonable threshold concentration of salt ions in water beyond which there may be adverse effects on invertebrates, vertebrates and other non-plant taxa; and species sensitivity distributions for floral and faunal assemblages found in boreal wetland habitats. The presentation summarized the 3 phases of a project that examined pipeline ruptures at 9 sites. Field methods and site sampling summaries were presented. It was difficult to locate study sites with residual salt contamination in surface media at concentrations above effects threshold for many species. It was concluded that the departures between surface and subsurface salinity indicates a smaller potential for effects on site vegetation. tabs., figs.

  5. Vegetative changes in boreal peatlands along salinity gradients resulting from produced water spills : implications for the environmental assessment and remediation of upstream oil and gas sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, D.; Harris, C.; Meier, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the province of Alberta, there are approximately 8,000 registered oil effluent and produced pipelines that have significant potential for ruptures and spills due to the highly corrosive nature of the emulsions and produced water they transport. Most releases occur in or adjacent to northern boreal wetlands. The first objective in spill response involves assessment and remediation for residuals, which involves handling and disposal of large volumes of salinized water. This presentation reported on a study that addressed the issues regarding the ecological features of semi-terrestrial and semi-aquatic components of boreal wetland environments as a basis for environmental protection at salt release sites. The fate of salt ions in such environments was examined along with the implications for secondary succession and ecological restoration. The study also examined the reasonable threshold concentration of salt ions in soils or water beyond which there is an inhibition to wetlands plants and bryophyte secondary succession; the reasonable threshold concentration of salt ions in water beyond which there may be adverse effects on invertebrates, vertebrates and other non-plant taxa; and species sensitivity distributions for floral and faunal assemblages found in boreal wetland habitats. The presentation summarized the 3 phases of a project that examined pipeline ruptures at 9 sites. Field methods and site sampling summaries were presented. It was difficult to locate study sites with residual salt contamination in surface media at concentrations above effects threshold for many species. It was concluded that the departures between surface and subsurface salinity indicates a smaller potential for effects on site vegetation. tabs., figs.

  6. Remediation of DDT-contaminated water and soil by using pretreated iron byproducts from the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapanajaru, Tunlawit; Anurakpongsatorn, Patana; Pengthamkeerati, Patthra

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effectiveness of different pretreated iron byproducts from the automotive industry to degrade DDT [(1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane] in aqueous solutions and soil slurry. Iron byproducts from automotive manufacturing were pretreated by three different methods (heating, solvent and 0.5N HCl acid washing) prior to experimentation. All pretreated irons were used at 5% (wt v-1) to treat 0.014 mM (5 mgL-1) of DDT in aqueous solution. Among the pretreated irons, acid pretreated iron results in the fastest destruction rates, with a pseudo first-order degradation rate of 0.364 d-1. By lowering the pH of the DDT aqueous solution from 9 to 3, destruction kinetic rates increase more than 20%. In addition, when DDT-contaminated soil slurry (3.54 mg kg-1) was incubated with 5% (wt v-1) acid-pretreated iron, more than 90% destruction of DDT was observed within 8 weeks. Moreover, DDT destruction kinetics were enhanced when Fe(II), Fe(III) or Al(III) sulfate salts were added to the soil slurry, with the following order of destruction kinetics: Al(III) sulfate > Fe(III) sulfate > Fe(II) sulfate. These results provide proof-of concept that inexpensive iron byproducts of the automotive industry can be used to remediate DDT-contaminated water and soil.

  7. Discharge, water quality, and native fish abundance in the Virgin River, Utah, Nevada, and Arizona, in support of Pah Tempe Springs discharge remediation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Lambert, Patrick M.; Hardy, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Pah Tempe Springs discharge hot, saline, low dissolved-oxygen water to the Virgin River in southwestern Utah, which is transported downstream to Lake Mead and the Colorado River. The dissolved salts in the Virgin River negatively influence the suitability of this water for downstream agricultural, municipal, and industrial use. Therefore, various remediation scenarios to remove the salt load discharged from Pah Tempe Springs to the Virgin River are being considered. One concern about this load removal is the potential to impact the ecology of the Virgin River. Specifically, information is needed regarding possible impacts of Pah Tempe Springs remediation scenarios on the abundance, distribution, and survival of native fish in the Virgin River. Future efforts that aim to quantitatively assess how various remediation scenarios to reduce the load of dissolved salts from Pah Tempe Springs into the Virgin River may influence the abundance, distribution, and survival of native fish will require data on discharge, water quality, and native fish abundance. This report contains organized accessible discharge, water quality, and native fish abundance data sets from the Virgin River, documents the compilation of these data, and discusses approaches for quantifying relations between abiotic physical and chemical conditions, and fish abundance.

  8. Towards highly efficient water photoelectrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavambedu Prakasam, Haripriya

    ethylene glycol resulted in remarkable growth characteristics of titania nanotube arrays, hexagonal closed packed up to 1 mm in length, with tube aspect ratios of approximately 10,000. For the first time, complete anodization of the starting titanium foil has been demonstrated resulting in back to back nanotube array membranes ranging from 360 mum--1 mm in length. The nanotubes exhibited growth rates of up to 15 mum/hr. A detailed study on the factors affecting the growth rate and nanotube dimensions is presented. It is suggested that faster high field ionic conduction through a thinner barrier layer is responsible for the higher growth rates observed in electrolytes containing ethylene glycol. Methods to fabricate free standing, titania nanotube array membranes ranging in thickness from 50 microm--1000 mum has also been an outcome of this dissertation. In an effort to combine the charge transport properties of titania with the light absorption properties of iron (III) oxide, films comprised of vertically oriented Ti-Fe-O nanotube arrays on FTO coated glass substrates have been successfully synthesized in ethylene glycol electrolytes. Depending upon the Fe content the bandgap of the resulting films varied from about 3.26 to 2.17 eV. The Ti-Fe oxide nanotube array films demonstrated a photocurrent of 2 mA/cm2 under global AM 1.5 illumination with a 1.2% (two-electrode) photoconversion efficiency, demonstrating a sustained, time-energy normalized hydrogen evolution rate by water splitting of 7.1 mL/W·hr in a 1 M KOH solution with a platinum counter electrode under an applied bias of 0.7 V. The Ti-Fe-O material architecture demonstrates properties useful for hydrogen generation by water photoelectrolysis and, more importantly, this dissertation demonstrates that the general nanotube-array synthesis technique can be extended to other ternary oxide compositions of interest for water photoelectrolysis.

  9. Immobilization remediation of Cd-polluted soil with different water condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianrui; Xu, Yingming

    2017-05-15

    To demonstrate effects of water management on soil Cd immobilization using palygorskite, the investigation evaluated impacts of palygorskite on uptake of Cd present in soils with different water condition by rice plant. Pot experiment results showed that, pH, available Fe and P in untreated soils were higher in continuous flooding than in traditional irrigation and wetting irrigation, which were reasons for lower soil exchangeable Cd and plant Cd in continuous flooding. In control group (untreated soils), compared to traditional irrigation, continuous flooding reduced brown rice Cd by 37.9%, that in wetting irrigation increased by 31.0%. At palygorskite concentrations of 5 g kg -1 , 10 g kg -1 and 15 g kg -1 , brown rice Cd reduced by 16.7%, 44.4% and 55.6% under continuous flooding, 13.8%, 34.5% and 44.8% under traditional irrigation, 13.1%, 36.8% and 47.3% under wetting irrigation (p soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Applying the Taguchi method to river water pollution remediation strategy optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Ming; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Hsin-Ju

    2014-04-15

    Optimization methods usually obtain the travel direction of the solution by substituting the solutions into the objective function. However, if the solution space is too large, this search method may be time consuming. In order to address this problem, this study incorporated the Taguchi method into the solution space search process of the optimization method, and used the characteristics of the Taguchi method to sequence the effects of the variation of decision variables on the system. Based on the level of effect, this study determined the impact factor of decision variables and the optimal solution for the model. The integration of the Taguchi method and the solution optimization method successfully obtained the optimal solution of the optimization problem, while significantly reducing the solution computing time and enhancing the river water quality. The results suggested that the basin with the greatest water quality improvement effectiveness is the Dahan River. Under the optimal strategy of this study, the severe pollution length was reduced from 18 km to 5 km.

  11. Applying the Taguchi Method to River Water Pollution Remediation Strategy Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Ming Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimization methods usually obtain the travel direction of the solution by substituting the solutions into the objective function. However, if the solution space is too large, this search method may be time consuming. In order to address this problem, this study incorporated the Taguchi method into the solution space search process of the optimization method, and used the characteristics of the Taguchi method to sequence the effects of the variation of decision variables on the system. Based on the level of effect, this study determined the impact factor of decision variables and the optimal solution for the model. The integration of the Taguchi method and the solution optimization method successfully obtained the optimal solution of the optimization problem, while significantly reducing the solution computing time and enhancing the river water quality. The results suggested that the basin with the greatest water quality improvement effectiveness is the Dahan River. Under the optimal strategy of this study, the severe pollution length was reduced from 18 km to 5 km.

  12. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/ Environmental and Decision Document, South Walnut Creek Basin, Operable Unit No.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Water quality investigations have identified the presence of volatile organic compound (VOC) and radionuclide contamination of surface water at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). The subject interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses contaminated surface water in a portion of the South Walnut Creek drainage basin located within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU 2). There is no immediate threat to public health and the environment posed by this surface water contamination. The affected surface water is contained within the plant boundary by existing detention ponds, and is treated prior to discharge for removal of volatile contaminants and suspended particulates to which radionuclides, if present, are likely to absorb. However, there is a potential threat and the Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing this Surface Water IM/IRAP at the request of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Implementation of the Surface Water IM/IRA will enhance the DOE's efforts towards containing and managing contaminated surface water, and will mitigate downgradient migration of contaminants. Another factor in implementing this IM/IRA is the length of time it will take to complete the investigations and engineering studies necessary to determine the final remedy for OU 2. 44 refs., 23 figs., 14 tabs

  13. A macroalgae-based biotechnology for water remediation: Simultaneous removal of Cd, Pb and Hg by living Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Bruno; Rocha, Luciana S; Lopes, Cláudia B; Figueira, Paula; Duarte, A C; Vale, Carlos; Pardal, M A; Pereira, E

    2017-04-15

    Metal uptake from contaminated waters by living Ulva lactuca was studied during 6 days, under different relevant contamination scenarios. In mono-metallic solutions, with concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 μg L -1 for Hg, 10-200 μg L -1 for Cd, and 50-1000 μg L -1 for Pb, macroalgae (500 mg L -1 , d.w.) were able to remove, in most cases 93-99% of metal, allowing to achieve water quality criteria regarding both surface and drinking waters. In multi-metallic solutions, comprising simultaneously the three metals, living macroalgae still performed well, with Hg removal (c.a. 99%) not being significantly affected by the presence of Cd and Pb, even when those metals were in higher concentrations. Removal efficiencies for Cd and Pb varied between 57 and 96%, and 34-97%, respectively, revealing an affinity of U. lactuca toward metals: Hg > Cd > Pb. Chemical quantification in macroalgae, after bioaccumulation assays demonstrated that all Cd and Hg removed from solution was really bound in macroalgae biomass, while only half of Pb showed to be sorbed on the biomass. Overall, U. lactuca accumulated up to 209 μg g -1 of Hg, up to 347 μg g -1 of Cd and up to 1641 μg g -1 of Pb, which correspond to bioconcentration factors ranging from 500 to 2200, in a dose-dependent accumulation. Pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovich models showed a good performance in describing the kinetics of bioaccumulation, in the whole period of time. In the range of experimental conditions used, no mortality was observed and U. lactuca relative growth rate was not significantly affected by the presence of metals. Results represent an important contribution for developing a macroalgae-based biotechnology, applied for contaminated saline water remediation, more "green" and cost-effective than conventional treatment methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental Pathway Models-Ground-Water Modeling in Support of Remedial Decision Making at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Joint Interagency Environmental Pathway Modeling Working Group wrote this report to promote appropriate and consistent use of mathematical environmental models in the remediation and restoration of sites contaminated by radioactive substances.

  15. Gemini Surfactant-Modified Activated Carbon for Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gemini surfactants, with double hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, offer potentially orders of magnitude greater surface activity compared to similar single unit molecules. A cationic Gemini surfactant (Propyl didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide, PDDDAB and a conventional cationic surfactant (Dodecyltrimethylammonium Bromide, DTAB were used to pre-treat and generate activated carbon. The removal efficiency of the surfactant-modified activated carbon through adsorption of chromium(VI was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used to investigate the surface changes of surfactant-modified activated carbon. The effect of important parameters such as adsorbent dosage, pH, ionic strength and contact time were also investigated. The chromium(VI was adsorbed more significantly on the Gemini surfactant-modified activated carbon than on the conventional surfactant-modified activated carbon. The correlation coefficients show the data best fit the Freundlich model, which confirms the monolayer adsorption of chromium(VI onto Gemini surfactant-modified activated carbon. From this assessment, the surfactant-modified (especially Gemini surfactant-modified activated carbon in this study showed promise for practical applications to treat water pollution.

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): United Nuclear Corporation, Mckinley County, New Mexico, ground-water operable unit (first remedial action) September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) site is located approximately 17 miles northeast of Gallup, New Mexico in McKinley County. The site operated as a State-licensed uranium mill facility from June 1977 to May 1982. It includes an ore-processing mill (about 25 acres) and an unlined tailings pond area (about 100 acres). In July 1979, approximately 23 million gallons of tailings and pond water were released to a nearby river as a result of a dam breach in the tailings pond area. The site damage was repaired; however, attention was focused on ground-water contamination resulting from tailings seepage. Nevertheless, the offsite migration of radionuclides and chemical constituents from uranium milling byproduct materials into the ground water, as well as to surface water and air, are still principal threats at the site. The remedial action will address onsite ground water contamination. Source control and onsite surface reclamation will be implemented under the direction of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and integrated with this ground water operable unit. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are metals including arsenic, and radioactive substances including radium-226/228 and gross alpha. The selected remedial action for the site is included

  17. High-level waste tank remediation technology integration summary. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLannoy, C.R.; Susiene, C.; Fowler, K.M.; Robson, W.M.; Cruse, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management and Technology Development Programs are engaged in a number of projects to develop, demonstrate, test, and evaluate new technologies to support the cleanup and site remediation of more than 300 underground storage tanks containing over 381,000 m 3 (100 million gal) of liquid radioactive mixed waste at the Hanford Reservation. Significant development is needed within primary functions and in determining an overall bounding strategy. This document is an update of continuing work to summarize the overall strategy and to provide data regarding technology development activities within the strategy. It is intended to serve as an information resource to support understanding, decision making, and integration of multiple program technology development activities. Recipients are encouraged to provide comments and input to the authors for incorporation in future revisions

  18. Alternative Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Alternative Remedies Font ... medical treatment prescribed by their healthcare provider. Using this type of alternative therapy along with traditional treatments is ...

  19. Topological modeling of methane hydrate crystallization from low to high water cut emulsion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Melchuna , Aline; Cameirão , Ana; Herri , Jean-Michel; Glénat , Philippe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Hydrate formation and remediation in oil flowlines facilities represent a major concern for oil industry in respect of capital and operational costs. It is necessary to have a better understanding on the hydrate formation process to be more efficient in hydrate prevention, especially in respect to additive dosage. This work is a contribution to enhance the knowledge of hydrate formation at high water cuts, by introducing new techniques of analysis in the Archimede flow...

  20. Genealogy Remediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2007-01-01

    Genealogical websites are becoming an increasingly popular genre on the Web. This chapter will examine how remediation is used creatively in the construction of family history. While remediation of different kinds of old memory materials is essential in genealogy, digital technology opens new...... possibilities. Genealogists use their private websites to negotiate family identity and hereby create a sense of belonging in an increasingly complex society. Digital technologies enhance the possibilities of coorporation between genealogists. Therefore, the websites are also used to present archival...

  1. Remediation of highly contaminated soils from an industrial site by employing a combined treatment with exogeneous humic substances and oxidative biomimetic catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannino, Filomena; Spaccini, Riccardo; Savy, Davide; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Remediation of two polluted soils from a highly contaminated industrial site in Italy. • Restoration of soil quality by introducing additional carbon into polluted soil with humic matter amendments. • Detoxification of contaminants by covalent binding to humic molecules. • Prevention of environmental transport of pollutants. -- Abstract: Remediation of two polluted soils from a northern Italian industrial site heavily contaminated with organic contaminants was attempted here by subjecting soils first to addition with an exogenous humic acid (HA), and, then, to an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a water-soluble iron-porphyrin (FeP). An expected decrease of detectable organic pollutants (>50%) was already observed when soils were treated only with the H 2 O 2 oxidant. This reduction was substantially enhanced when oxidation was catalyzed by iron-porphyrin (FeP + H 2 O 2 ) and the largest effect was observed for the most highly polluted soil. Even more significant was the decrease in detectable pollutants (70–90%) when soils were first amended with HA and then subjected to the FeP + H 2 O 2 treatment. This reduction in extractable pollutants after the combined HA + FeP + H 2 O 2 treatment was due to formation of covalent C-C and C-O-C bonds between soil contaminants and amended humic molecules. Moreover, the concomitant detection of condensation products in soil extracts following FeP addition confirmed the occurrence of free-radical coupling reactions catalyzed by FeP. These findings indicate that a combined technique based on the action of both humic matter and a metal-porhyrin catalyst, may become useful to quantitatively reduce the toxicity of heavily contaminated soils and prevent the environmental transport of pollutants

  2. Remediation of highly contaminated soils from an industrial site by employing a combined treatment with exogeneous humic substances and oxidative biomimetic catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannino, Filomena, E-mail: fsannino@unina.it [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Spaccini, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca sulla Risonanza Magnetica Nucleare per l’Ambiente, l’Agro-Alimentare ed i Nuovi Materiali (CERMANU), Via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Savy, Davide [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Piccolo, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca sulla Risonanza Magnetica Nucleare per l’Ambiente, l’Agro-Alimentare ed i Nuovi Materiali (CERMANU), Via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Remediation of two polluted soils from a highly contaminated industrial site in Italy. • Restoration of soil quality by introducing additional carbon into polluted soil with humic matter amendments. • Detoxification of contaminants by covalent binding to humic molecules. • Prevention of environmental transport of pollutants. -- Abstract: Remediation of two polluted soils from a northern Italian industrial site heavily contaminated with organic contaminants was attempted here by subjecting soils first to addition with an exogenous humic acid (HA), and, then, to an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a water-soluble iron-porphyrin (FeP). An expected decrease of detectable organic pollutants (>50%) was already observed when soils were treated only with the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} oxidant. This reduction was substantially enhanced when oxidation was catalyzed by iron-porphyrin (FeP + H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and the largest effect was observed for the most highly polluted soil. Even more significant was the decrease in detectable pollutants (70–90%) when soils were first amended with HA and then subjected to the FeP + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. This reduction in extractable pollutants after the combined HA + FeP + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment was due to formation of covalent C-C and C-O-C bonds between soil contaminants and amended humic molecules. Moreover, the concomitant detection of condensation products in soil extracts following FeP addition confirmed the occurrence of free-radical coupling reactions catalyzed by FeP. These findings indicate that a combined technique based on the action of both humic matter and a metal-porhyrin catalyst, may become useful to quantitatively reduce the toxicity of heavily contaminated soils and prevent the environmental transport of pollutants.

  3. Remediation of textile dye waste water using a white-rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta through solid-state fermentation (SSF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tim; Nigam, Poonam Singh

    2008-12-01

    A strict screening strategy for microorganism selection was followed employing a number of white-rot fungi for the bioremediation of textile effluent, which was generated from one Ireland-based American textile industry. Finally, one fungus Bjerkandera adusta has been investigated in depth for its ability to simultaneously degrade and enrich the nutritional quality of highly coloured textile effluent-adsorbed barley husks through solid-state fermentation (SSF). Certain important parameters such as media requirements, moisture content, protein/biomass production and enzyme activities were examined in detail. A previously optimised method of dye desorption was employed to measure the extent of dye remediation through effluent decolorisation achieved as a result of fungal activity in SSF. B. adusta was capable of decolourising a considerable concentration of the synthetic dye effluent (up to 53%) with a moisture content of 80-85%. Protein enrichment of the fermented mass was achieved to the extent of 229 g/kg dry weight initial substrate used. Lignin peroxidase and laccase were found to be the two main enzymes produced during SSF of the dye-adsorbed lignocellulosic waste residue.

  4. Bioavailability of mercury in contaminated Oak Ridge watershed and potential remediation of river/runoff/storm water by an aquatic plant - 16319

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang X.; Chen, Jian; Xia, Yunju; Monts, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Historically as part of its national security mission, the U.S. Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Facility in Oak Ridge, TN, USA acquired a significant fraction of the world's supply of elemental mercury. During the 1950's and 1960's, a large amount of elemental mercury escaped confinement and is still present in the buildings and grounds of the Y-12 Facility and in the Y-12 Watershed. Because of the adverse effects of elemental mercury and mercury compounds upon human health, the Oak Ridge Site is engaged in an on-going effort to monitor and remediate the area. The main thrust of the Oak Ridge mercury remediation effort is currently scheduled for implementation in FY09. In order to more cost effectively implement those extensive remediation efforts, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of the role that mercury and mercury compounds play in the Oak Ridge ecosystem. Most recently, concentrations of both total mercury and methylmercury in fish and water of lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) of Oak Ridge increased although the majority of mercury in the site is mercury sulfide. This drives the US DOE and the Oak Ridge Site to study the long-term bioavailability of mercury and speciation at the site. The stability and bioavailability of mercury sulfide as affected by various biogeochemical conditions -presence of iron oxides have been studied. We examined the kinetic rate of dissolution of cinnabar from Oak Ridge soils and possible mechanisms and pathways in triggering the most recent increase of mercury solubility, bioavailability and mobility in Oak Ridge site. The effects of pH and chlorine on oxidative dissolution of cinnabar from cinnabar-contaminated Oak Ridge soils is discussed. On the other hand, aquatic plants might be good candidate for phyto-remediate contaminated waste water and phyto-filtration of collective storm water and surface runoff and river. Our greenhouse studies on uptake of Hg by water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes

  5. Strategic planning for remediation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapp, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Remediation projects may range from a single leaking storage tank to an entire plant complex or producing oil and gas field. Strategic planning comes into play when the contamination of soil and groundwater is extensive. If adjacent landowners have been impacted or the community at large is concerned about the quality of drinking water, then strategic planning is even more important. (1) To manage highly complex interrelated issues--for example, the efforts expended on community relations can alter public opinion, which can impact regulatory agency decisions that affect cleanup standards, which can...and so on. (2) To ensure that all potential liabilities are managed--for example, preparation for the defense of future lawsuits is essential during site investigation and remediation. (3) To communicate with senior management--when the remediation team provides a strategic plan that includes both technical and business issues, senior management has the opportunity to become more involved and make sound policy decisions. The following discusses the elements of a strategic plan, who should participate in it, and the issues that should be considered

  6. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Appendix B of Attachment 3: Groundwater hydrology report, Attachment 4: Water resources protection strategy, Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    Attachment 3 Groundwater Hydrology Report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the processing site and Dry Flats disposal site. The Hydrological Services calculations contained in Appendix A of Attachment 3, are presented in a separate report. Attachment 4 Water Resources Protection Strategy describes how the remedial action will be in compliance with the proposed EPA groundwater standards.

  7. Hard Water or High Ages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

    to spurious, too high ages of samples from freshwater systems. The possibility of the hardwater effect in food crusts on pottery is investigated for two sites of the Late Mesolithic Ertebølle culture. The first radiocarbon dates from the food crusts from these sites were surprisingly high. I will examine...

  8. An application of a water assessment and simulation model in the remediation of the eutrophication capacity of a tropical water system: Case study the Lake Obili in Yaounde (Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeagah Gideon A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake Obili is one of the most famous lakes in the city of Yaounde, Cameroon. Studies carried out in this lake showed that it was hyper eutrophic and therefore it represents a great danger because it is used for aquaculture, tourism and a suitable laboratory for hydro-biological engineering. It is thus very vital to restore this lake ecosystem that singles itself in the heart of the city of Yaounde. This can be greatly facilitated through the use of Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP of the United State Environmental protection Agency (USEPA. The outcomes of the previous results obtained from EUTRO, a Subroutine of the WASP model specialised in determining eutrophication level have proven that the remediation of this lake can be achievable through the implementation of a wet dredging, the construction and restoration of a wastewater treatment plant, the implementation of environmental incentive policies and the arrangement of the access to the lake. The application of the model is a contribution to the scientific mastery of nutrient flow, lake functioning and possibilities of restauration of highly polluted tropical water bodies subjected to domestic and industrial pollution.

  9. Long term remediation of highly polluted acid mine drainage: a sustainable approach to restore the environmental quality of the Odiel river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Manuel A; Macías, Francisco; Rötting, Tobias S; Nieto, José Miguel; Ayora, Carlos

    2011-12-01

    During 20 months of proper operation the full scale passive treatment in Mina Esperanza (SW Spain) produced around 100 mg/L of ferric iron in the aeration cascades, removing an average net acidity up to 1500 mg/L as CaCO(3) and not having any significant clogging problem. Complete Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ti and V removal from the water was accomplished through almost the entire operation time while Fe removal ranged between 170 and 620 mg/L. The system operated at a mean inflow rate of 43 m(3)/day achieving an acid load reduction of 597 g·(m(2) day)(-1), more than 10 times higher than the generally accepted 40 g·(m(2) day)(-1) value commonly used as a passive treatment system designing criteria. The high performance achieved by the passive treatment system at Mina Esperanza demonstrates that this innovative treatment design is a simple, efficient and long lasting remediation option to treat highly polluted acid mine drainage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis of zeolite-P from coal fly ash derivative and its utilisation in mine-water remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie F. Petrik

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid residues resulting from the active treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash were successfully converted to zeolite-P under mild hydrothermal treatment conditions. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the zeolite-P product was highly crystalline. The product had a high cation exchange capacity (178.7 meq / 100 g and surface area (69.1 m2/g and has potential application in waste-water treatment. A mineralogical analysis of the final product identified zeolite-P, as well as mullite and quartz phases, which indicated incomplete dissolution of the fly ash feedstock during the ageing step. Further optimisation of the synthesis conditions would be required to attain complete utilisation of the feedstock. The zeolite-P was tested for decontamination potential of circumneutral mine water. High removal efficiency was observed in the first treatment, but varied for different contaminants. The synthesised zeolite-P exhibited a high efficiency for the removal of heavy metal cations, such as aluminium, iron, manganese, zinc, copper and nickel, from contaminated mine water, even with repeated use. For potassium, calcium, strontium and barium, the removal was only efficient in the first treatment and decreased rapidly with subsequent treatments, indicating preferential adsorption of the other metals. A continuous release of sodium was observed during decontamination experiments, which decreased with subsequent treatments, confirming that sodium was the main exchangeable charge-balancing cation present in the zeolite-P product.

  11. Computer-model analysis of ground-water flow and simulated effects of contaminant remediation at Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Rene A.; Braun, Christopher L.

    2000-01-01

    In June 1993, the Department of the Navy, Southern Division Naval Facilities Engineering Command (SOUTHDIV), began a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) of the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant (NWIRP) in north-central Texas. The RFI has found trichloroethene, dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, as well as chromium, lead, and other metallic residuum in the shallow alluvial aquifer underlying NWIRP. These findings and the possibility of on-site or off-site migration of contaminants prompted the need for a ground-water-flow model of the NWIRP area. The resulting U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model: (1) defines aquifer properties, (2) computes water budgets, (3) delineates major flowpaths, and (4) simulates hydrologic effects of remediation activity. In addition to assisting with particle-tracking analyses, the calibrated model could support solute-transport modeling as well as help evaluate the effects of potential corrective action. The USGS model simulates steadystate and transient conditions of ground-water flow within a single model layer.The alluvial aquifer is within fluvial terrace deposits of Pleistocene age, which unconformably overlie the relatively impermeable Eagle Ford Shale of Late Cretaceous age. Over small distances and short periods, finer grained parts of the aquifer are separated hydraulically; however, most of the aquifer is connected circuitously through randomly distributed coarser grained sediments. The top of the underlying Eagle Ford Shale, a regional confining unit, is assumed to be the effective lower limit of ground-water circulation and chemical contamination.The calibrated steady-state model reproduces long-term average water levels within +5.1 or –3.5 feet of those observed; the standard error of the estimate is 1.07 feet with a mean residual of 0.02 foot. Hydraulic conductivity values range from 0.75 to 7.5 feet per day, and average about 4 feet per day. Specific yield values range from 0

  12. Simulation of remediation alternatives for a 137Cs contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bea, S.A.; Carrera, J.; Saaltink, M.; Soler, J.M.; Ayora, C.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze remediation alternatives for a soil contaminated with 137 Cs, which sorbs strongly to clay aggregates where water flux is negligible. The mobile portion of the soil (macropores) retains little water and cesium. Some of the remediation alternatives involve infiltration of seawater enriched with KCl, to promote mobilization of Cs through exchange with K. Therefore, a fully coupled reactive transport model is used to test these alternatives. We conclude that flushing is a viable alternative, provided that some recommendations, derived from the modelling exercise are followed. These include high rate periodic infiltration and draining, as well as performing infiltration from independent cells to limit the effect of preferential flowpaths. (orig.)

  13. Physicochemical and biological quality of soil in hexavalent chromium-contaminated soils as affected by chemical and microbial remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yingping; Min, Xiaobo; Yang, Zhihui; Chai, Liyuan; Zhang, Shujuan; Wang, Yangyang

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and microbial methods are the main remediation technologies for chromium-contaminated soil. These technologies have progressed rapidly in recent years; however, there is still a lack of methods for evaluating the chemical and biological quality of soil after different remediation technologies have been applied. In this paper, microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria and chemical remediation with ferrous sulphate were used for the remediation of soils contaminated with Cr(VI) at two levels (80 and 1,276 mg kg(-1)) through a column leaching experiment. After microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria, the average concentration of water-soluble Cr(VI) in the soils was reduced to less than 5.0 mg kg(-1). Soil quality was evaluated based on 11 soil properties and the fuzzy comprehensive assessment method, including fuzzy mathematics and correlative analysis. The chemical fertility quality index was improved by one grade using microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria, and the biological fertility quality index increased by at least a factor of 6. Chemical remediation with ferrous sulphate, however, resulted in lower levels of available phosphorus, dehydrogenase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase. The result showed that microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria was more effective for remedying Cr(VI)-contaminated soils with high pH value than chemical remediation with ferrous sulphate. In addition, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method was proven to be a useful tool for monitoring the quality change in chromium-contaminated soils.

  14. Thermal soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental properties and business aspects of thermal soil remediation are described. Thermal soil remediation is considered as being the best option in cleaning contaminated soil for reuse. The thermal desorption process can remove hydrocarbons such as gasoline, kerosene and crude oil, from contaminated soil. Nelson Environmental Remediation (NER) Ltd. uses a mobile thermal desorption unit (TDU) with high temperature capabilities. NER has successfully applied the technology to target heavy end hydrocarbon removal from Alberta's gumbo clay in all seasons. The TDU consist of a feed system, a counter flow rotary drum kiln, a baghouse particulate removal system, and a secondary combustion chamber known as an afterburner. The technology has proven to be cost effective and more efficient than bioremediation and landfarming

  15. Standardized Testing Placement and High School GPA as Predictors of Success in Remedial Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if a relationship existed between success in elementary algebra and a set of predictor variables including COMPASS score and high school GPA. Relationships for intermediate algebra and college credit accumulation over three semesters were also examined with COMPASS score and high school GPA…

  16. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document for South Walnut Creek Basin (Operable Unit No. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an Interim Measure/Interim Remedial Action (IM/IRA) at the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This IM/IRA is to be conducted to minimize the release from these areas of hazardous substances that pose a potential threat to the public health and environment. The Plan involved the collection of contaminated surface water at specific locations, treatment by chemical precipitation, cross-flow membrane filtration and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption, and surface discharge of treated water. Information for the initial configuration of the Plan is presented in the document entitled ''Proposed Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan and Decision Document, 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas, Operable Unit No. 2'' (IM/IRAP) dated 26 September 1990. Information concerning the proposed Surface Water IM/IRA was presented during a public meeting held from 7 to 10 p.m., Tuesday, 23 October 1990, at the Westminster City Park Recreation Center in Westminster, Colorado. This Responsiveness Summary presents DOE's response to all comments received at the public meeting, as well as those mailed to DOE during the public comment period which ended 24 November 1990. There were a number of technical comments on the plan that DOE has addressed herein. It is noted that several major issues were raised by the comments. Regardless of the estimated low risk to the public from construction and water transport activities, the popular sentiment of the public, based on comments received, is strong concern over worker and public health risks from these activities. In the light of public and municipal concerns, DOE proposes to eliminate from this IM/IRA the interbasin transfer of Woman Creek seepage to the South Walnut Creek drainage and to address collection and treatment of contaminated South Walnut Creek and Woman Creek surface water under two separate IM/IRAs

  17. Tank waste remediation system high-level waste vitrification system development and testing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmus, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the fiscal year (FY) 1995 recommended high-level waste melter system development and testing (D and T) requirements. The first phase of melter system testing (FY 1995) will focus on the feasibility of high-temperature operation of recommended high-level waste melter systems. These test requirements will be used to establish the basis for defining detailed testing work scope, cost, and schedules. This document includes a brief summary of the recommended technologies and technical issues associated with each technology. In addition, this document presents the key D and T activities and engineering evaluations to be performed for a particular technology or general melter system support feature. The strategy for testing in Phase 1 (FY 1995) is to pursue testing of the recommended high-temperature technologies, namely the high-temperature, ceramic-lined, joule-heated melter, referred to as the HTCM, and the high-frequency, cold-wall, induction-heated melter, referred to as the cold-crucible melter (CCM). This document provides a detailed description of the FY 1995 D and T needs and requirements relative to each of the high-temperature technologies

  18. Efficiency evaluation for remediating paddy soil contaminated with cadmium and arsenic using water management, variety screening and foliage dressing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Guojian; Wu, Qianhua; Feng, Renwei; Guo, Junkang; Wang, Ruigang; Xu, Yingming; Ding, Yongzhen; Fan, Zhilian; Mo, Liangyu

    2016-04-01

    Paddy soils in many regions of China have been seriously polluted by multiple heavy metals or metalloids, such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). In order to ensure the safety of food and take full advantage of the limited farmland resources of China, exploring an effective technology to repair contaminated soils is urgent and necessary. In this study, three technologies were employed, including variety screening, water management and foliage dressing, to assess their abilities to reduce the accumulation of Cd and As in the grains of different rice varieties, and meanwhile monitor the related yields. The results of variety screening under insufficient field drying condition showed that the As and Cd contents in the grains of only four varieties [Fengliangyouxiang 1 (P6), Zhongzheyou 8 (P7), Guangliangyou 1128 (P10), Y-liangyou 696 (P11)] did not exceed their individual national standard. P6 gained a relatively high grain yield but accumulated less As and Cd in the grains despite of the relatively high As and Cd concentrations in the rhizosphere soil. However, long-playing field drying in water management trial significantly increased Cd but decreased As content in the grains of all tested three varieties including P6, suggesting an important role of water supply in controlling the accumulation of grain As and Cd. Selenium (Se) showed a stronger ability than silicon (Si) to reduce As and Cd accumulation in the grains of Fengliangyou 4 (P2) and Teyou 524 (P13), and keep the yields. The results of this study suggest that combined application of water management and foliage dressing may be an efficient way to control As and Cd accumulation in the grains of paddy rice exposing to As- and Cd-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 2014 Ohio Remediation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In fulfillment of Ohio Revised Code 3333.041 (A) (1) the Chancellor has published a listing by school district of the number of the 2013 high school graduates who attended a state institution of higher education in academic year 2013-2014 and the percentage of each district's graduates required by the institution to enroll in a remedial course in…

  20. Remediation of incomplete nitrification and capacity increase of biofilters at different drinking water treatment plants through copper dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Florian B; Nielsen, Peter Borch; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2018-04-01

    that nitrite produced from increased ammonium oxidation was completely oxidized further to nitrate. Hence, no problems with nitrite accumulation or breakthrough occurred. Overall, copper dosing generically enhanced nitrification efficiency and allowed a range of quite different plants to meet water quality standards, even at increased loading rates. The capacity increase is highly relevant in practice, as it makes filters more robust towards sudden ammonium loading rate variations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Remediation: Higher Education's Bridge to Nowhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete College America, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The intentions were noble. It was hoped that remediation programs would be an academic bridge from poor high school preparation to college readiness. Sadly, remediation has become instead higher education's "Bridge to Nowhere." This broken remedial bridge is travelled by some 1.7 million beginning students each year, most of whom will…

  2. Use of high performance computing to examine the effectiveness of aquifer remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompson, A.F.B.; Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Smith, S.G.; Fogwell, T.W.; Loosmore, G.A.

    1994-06-01

    Large-scale simulation of fluid flow and chemical migration is being used to study the effectiveness of pump-and-treat restoration of a contaminated, saturated aquifer. A three-element approach focusing on geostatistical representations of heterogeneous aquifers, high-performance computing strategies for simulating flow, migration, and reaction processes in large three-dimensional systems, and highly-resolved simulations of flow and chemical migration in porous formations will be discussed. Results from a preliminary application of this approach to examine pumping behavior at a real, heterogeneous field site will be presented. Future activities will emphasize parallel computations in larger, dynamic, and nonlinear (two-phase) flow problems as well as improved interpretive methods for defining detailed material property distributions

  3. High Performance Nanofiltration Membrane for Effective Removal of Perfluoroalkyl Substances at High Water Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Chanhee; Wang, Yunkun; Zucker, Ines; Choo, Youngwoo; Osuji, Chinedum O; Elimelech, Menachem

    2018-05-31

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a loose, negatively charged nanofiltration (NF) membrane with tailored selectivity for the removal of perfluoroalkyl substances with reduced scaling potential. A selective polyamide layer was fabricated on top of a polyethersulfone support via interfacial polymerization of trimesoyl chloride and a mixture of piperazine and bipiperidine. Incorporating high molecular weight bipiperidine during the interfacial polymerization enables the formation of a loose, nanoporous selective layer structure. The fabricated NF membrane possessed a negative surface charge and had a pore diameter of ~1.2 nm, much larger than a widely used commercial NF membrane (i.e., NF270 with pore diameter of ~0.8 nm). We evaluated the performance of the fabricated NF membrane for the rejection of different salts (i.e., NaCl, CaCl2, and Na2SO4) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The fabricated NF membrane exhibited a high retention of PFOA (~90%) while allowing high passage of scale-forming cations (i.e., calcium). We further performed gypsum scaling experiments to demonstrate lower scaling potential of the fabricated loose porous NF membrane compared to NF membranes having a dense selective layer under solution conditions simulating high water recovery. Our results demonstrate that properly designed NF membranes are a critical component of a high recovery NF system, which provide an efficient and sustainable solution for remediation of groundwater contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances.

  4. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  5. High pressure water jet mining machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clark R.

    1981-05-05

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  6. High conversion heavy water moderated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyawaki, Yoshio; Wakabayashi, Toshio.

    1989-01-01

    In the present invention, fuel rods using uranium-plutonium oxide mixture fuels are arranged in a square lattice at the same pitch as that in light water cooled reactor and heavy water moderators are used. Accordingly, the volume ratio (Vm/Vf) between the moderator and the fuel can be, for example, of about 2. When heavy water is used for the moderator (coolant), since the moderating effect of heavy water is lower than that of light water, a high conversion ratio of not less than 0.8 can be obtained even if the fuel rod arrangement is equal to that of PWR (Vm/Vf about 2). Accordingly, it is possible to avoid problems caused by dense arrangement of fuel rods as in high conversion rate light water cooled reactors. That is, there are no more troubles in view of thermal hydrodynamic characteristics, re-flooding upon loss of coolant accident, etc., as well as the fuel production cost is not increased. (K.M.)

  7. Flexible Superhydrophobic and Superoleophilic MoS2 Sponge for Highly Efficient Oil-Water Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaojia; Wang, Xiufeng; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Wen, Cuie

    2016-01-01

    Removal of oils and organic solvents from water is an important global challenge for energy conservation and environmental protection. Advanced sorbent materials with excellent sorption capacity need to be developed. Here we report on a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic MoS2 nanosheet sponge (SMS) for highly efficient separation and absorption of oils or organic solvents from water. This novel sponge exhibits excellent absorption performance through a combination of superhydrophobicity, high porosity, robust stability in harsh conditions (including flame retardance and inertness to corrosive and different temperature environments) and excellent mechanical properties. The dip-coating strategy proposed for the fabrication of the SMS, which does not require a complicated process or sophisticated equipment, is very straightforward and easy to scale up. This finding shows promise for water remediation and oil recovery. PMID:27272562

  8. PROBABILISTIC RISK ANALYSIS OF REMEDIATION EFFORTS IN NAPL SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, D.; de Vries, L.; Pool, M.; Sapriza, G.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Bolster, D.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    The release of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents in the subsurface is a severe source of groundwater and vapor contamination. Because these liquids are essentially immiscible due to low solubility, these contaminants get slowly dissolved in groundwater and/or volatilized in the vadoze zone threatening the environment and public health over a long period. Many remediation technologies and strategies have been developed in the last decades for restoring the water quality properties of these contaminated sites. The failure of an on-site treatment technology application is often due to the unnoticed presence of dissolved NAPL entrapped in low permeability areas (heterogeneity) and/or the remaining of substantial amounts of pure phase after remediation efforts. Full understanding of the impact of remediation efforts is complicated due to the role of many interlink physical and biochemical processes taking place through several potential pathways of exposure to multiple receptors in a highly unknown heterogeneous environment. Due to these difficulties, the design of remediation strategies and definition of remediation endpoints have been traditionally determined without quantifying the risk associated with the failure of such efforts. We conduct a probabilistic risk assessment of the likelihood of success of an on-site NAPL treatment technology that easily integrates all aspects of the problem (causes, pathways, and receptors). Thus, the methodology allows combining the probability of failure of a remediation effort due to multiple causes, each one associated to several pathways and receptors.

  9. Risk-based systems analysis of emerging high-level waste tank remediation technologies. Volume 2: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormack, W.D.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of DOE's Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area is to identify and develop new technologies that will reduce the risk and/or cost of remediating DOE underground waste storage tanks and tank contents. There are, however, many more technology investment opportunities than the current budget can support. Current technology development selection methods evaluate new technologies in isolation from other components of an overall tank waste remediation system. This report describes a System Analysis Model developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) program. The report identifies the project objectives and provides a description of the model. Development of the first ''demonstration'' version of this model and a trial application have been completed and the results are presented. This model will continue to evolve as it undergoes additional user review and testing

  10. Risk-based systems analysis of emerging high-level waste tank remediation technologies. Volume 2: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.B.; Cameron, R.J.; McCormack, W.D. [Enserch Environmental Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The objective of DOE`s Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area is to identify and develop new technologies that will reduce the risk and/or cost of remediating DOE underground waste storage tanks and tank contents. There are, however, many more technology investment opportunities than the current budget can support. Current technology development selection methods evaluate new technologies in isolation from other components of an overall tank waste remediation system. This report describes a System Analysis Model developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) program. The report identifies the project objectives and provides a description of the model. Development of the first ``demonstration`` version of this model and a trial application have been completed and the results are presented. This model will continue to evolve as it undergoes additional user review and testing.

  11. Sustainable Remediation for Enhanced NAPL Recovery from Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaher, M.

    2012-12-01

    Sustainable remediation relates to the achievement of balance between environmental, social, and economic elements throughout the remedial lifecycle. A significant contributor to this balance is the use of green and sustainable technologies which minimize environmental impacts, while maximizing social and economic benefits of remedial implementation. To this end, a patented mobile vapor energy generation (VEG) technology has been developed targeting variable applications, including onsite soil remediation for unrestricted reuse and enhanced non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) recover at the water table. At the core of the mobile VEG technology is a compact, high efficiency vapor generator, which utilizes recycled water and propane within an entirely enclosed system to generate steam as high as 1100°F. Operating within a fully enclosed system and capturing all heat that is generated within this portable system, the VEG technology eliminates all emissions to the atmosphere and yields an undetected carbon footprint with resulting carbon dioxide concentrations that are below ambient levels. Introduction of the steam to the subsurface via existing wells results in a desired change in the NAPL viscosity and the interfacial tension at the soil, water, NAPL interface; in turn, this results in mobilization and capture of the otherwise trapped, weathered NAPL. Approved by the California Air Resources Control Board (and underlying Air Quality Management Districts) and applied in California's San Joaquin Valley, in-well heating of NAPLs trapped at the water table using the VEG technology has proven as effective as electrical resistivity heating (ERH) in changing the viscosity of and mobilizing NAPLs in groundwater in support of recovery, but has achieved these results while minimizing the remedial carbon footprint by 90%, reducing energy use by 99%, and reducing remedial costs by more than 95%. NAPL recovery using VEG has also allowed for completion of source removal historically

  12. HANFORD GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    By 1990 nearly 50 years of producing plutonium put approximately 1.70E + 12 liters (450 billion gallons) of liquid wastes into the soil of the 1,518-square kilometer (586-square mile) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. The liquid releases consisted of chemicals used in laboratory experiments, manufacturing and rinsing uranium fuel, dissolving that fuel after irradiation in Hanford's nuclear reactors, and in liquefying plutonium scraps needed to feed other plutonium-processing operations. Chemicals were also added to the water used to cool Hanford's reactors to prevent corrosion in the reactor tubes. In addition, water and acid rinses were used to clean plutonium deposits from piping in Hanford's large radiochemical facilities. All of these chemicals became contaminated with radionuclides. As Hanford raced to help win World War II, and then raced to produce materials for the Cold War, these radioactive liquid wastes were released to the Site's sandy soils. Early scientific experiments seemed to show that the most highly radioactive components of these liquids would bind to the soil just below the surface of the land, thus posing no threat to groundwater. Other experiments predicted that the water containing most radionuclides would take hundreds of years to seep into groundwater, decaying (or losing) most of its radioactivity before reaching the groundwater or subsequently flowing into the Columbia River, although it was known that some contaminants like tritium would move quickly. Evidence today, however, shows that many contaminants have reached the Site's groundwater and the Columbia River, with more on its way. Over 259 square kilometers (100 square miles) of groundwater at Hanford have contaminant levels above drinking-water standards. Also key to successfully cleaning up the Site is providing information resources and public-involvement opportunities to Hanford's stakeholders. This large, passionate, diverse, and

  13. Laser irradiation in water for the novel, scalable synthesis of black TiOx photocatalyst for environmental remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Zimbone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1970, TiO2 photocatalysis has been considered a possible alternative for sustainable water treatment. This is due to its material stability, abundance, nontoxicity and high activity. Unfortunately, its wide band gap (≈3.2 eV in the UV portion of the spectrum makes it inefficient under solar illumination. Recently, so-called “black TiO2” has been proposed as a candidate to overcome this issue. However, typical synthesis routes require high hydrogen pressure and long annealing treatments. In this work, we present an industrially scalable synthesis of TiO2-based material based on laser irradiation. The resulting black TiOx shows a high activity and adsorbs visible radiation, overcoming the main concerns related to the use of TiO2 under solar irradiation. We employed a commercial high repetition rate green laser in order to synthesize a black TiOx layer and we demonstrate the scalability of the present methodology. The photocatalyst is composed of a nanostructured titanate film (TiOx synthetized on a titanium foil, directly back-contacted to a layer of Pt nanoparticles (PtNps deposited on the rear side of the same foil. The result is a monolithic photochemical diode with a stacked, layered structure (TiOx/Ti/PtNps. The resulting high photo-efficiency is ascribed to both the scavenging of electrons by Pt nanoparticles and the presence of trap surface states for holes in an amorphous hydrogenated TiOx layer.

  14. Zircaloy behaviour in high temperature irradiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanic, V.F.

    1982-04-01

    The corrosion and hydriding of Zircaloy during irradiation in high temperature water is strongly dependent on the oxygen concentration of the water. Corrosion tests in the NRX and NRU research reactors using small samples have demonstrated the importance of water chemistry in maintaining Zircaloy corrosion and hydriding within acceptable limits. Zircaloy fuel cladding develops non-uniform, patch-type oxides during irradiation in hich temperature water containing dissolved oxygen. Results from examinations of prototype fuel cladding irradiated in the research reactors are presented to show how local variations in coolant flow, fast neutron flux, metallurgical structure and surface condition can influence the onset of non-uniform corrosion under these conditions. Destructive examinations of CANDU-PHW reactor fuel cladding have emphasized the importance of good chemistry control, especially the dissolved oxygen concentration of the water. When reactor coolants are maintained under normal reducing conditions at high pH (5 to 10 cm 3 D 2 /kg D 2 O; 2 /kg D 2 O; pH > 10 with LiOD), Zircaloy cladding develops non-uniform, patch-type oxides. These patch-type oxides tend to coalesce with time to form a thick, uniform oxide layer after extended exposure. Under reducing coolant conditions, Zircaloy cladding absorbs less than 200 mg D/kg Zr (approximately 2.5 mg/dm 2 equivalent hydrogen) in about 500 days. With oxygen in the coolant, deuterium absorption is considerably less despite the significant increase in corrosion under such conditions

  15. Post-remedial-action survey report for Kinetic Experiment Water Boiler Reactor Facility, Santa Susana Field Laboratories, Rockwell International, Ventura County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Flynn, K.F.; Justus, A.L.

    1981-10-01

    Rockwell International's Santa Susana Laboratories in Ventura County, California, have been the site of numerous federally-funded contracted projects involving the use of radioactive materials. Among these was the Kinetics Experiment Water Boiler (KEWB) Reactor which was operated under the auspices of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The KEWB Reactor was last operated in 1966. The facility was subsequently declared excess and decontamination and decommissioning operations were conducted during the first half of calendar year 1975. The facility was completely dismantled and the site graded to blend with the surrounding terrain. During October 1981, a post-remedial-action (certification) survey of the KEWB site was conducted on the behalf of the US Department of Energy by the Radiological Survey Group (RSG) of the Occupational Health and Safety Division's Health Physics Section (OHS/HP) of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The survey confirmed that the site was free from contamination and could be released for unrestricted use

  16. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Durango, Colorado: Attachment 4, Water resources protection strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    To achieve compliance with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards (Subpart A of 40 CFR 192), the US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to meet background concentrations or the EPA maximum concentration limits (MCLS) for hazardous constituents in groundwater in the uppermost aquifer (Cliff House/Menefee aquifer) at the point of compliance (POC) at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site in Bodo Canyon near Durango, Colorado (DOE, 1989). Details of hydrologic site characterization at the disposal site are provided in Attachment 3, Groundwater Hydrology Report. The principal features of the water resources protection strategy for the Bodo Canyon disposal site are presented in this document

  17. Aplication of the statistical experimental design to optimize mine-impacted water (MIW) remediation using shrimp-shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Gómez, Dámaris; Alves, Alcione Aparecida de Almeida; Lapolli, Flavio Rubens; Lobo-Recio, María A

    2017-01-01

    Mine-impacted water (MIW) is one of the most serious mining problems and has a high negative impact on water resources and aquatic life. The main characteristics of MIW are a low pH (between 2 and 4) and high concentrations of SO 4 2- and metal ions (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Al, Cr, Mn, Mg, etc.), many of which are toxic to ecosystems and human life. Shrimp shell was selected as a MIW treatment agent because it is a low-cost metal-sorbent biopolymer with a high chitin content and contains calcium carbonate, an acid-neutralizing agent. To determine the best metal-removal conditions, a statistical study using statistical planning was carried out. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify the degree of influence and dependence of the shrimp-shell content for the removal of Fe, Al, Mn, Co, and Ni from MIW. In this study, a central composite rotational experimental design (CCRD) with a quadruplicate at the midpoint (2 2 ) was used to evaluate the joint influence of two formulation variables-agitation and the shrimp-shell content. The statistical results showed the significant influence (p < 0.05) of the agitation variable for Fe and Ni removal (linear and quadratic form, respectively) and of the shrimp-shell content variable for Mn (linear form), Al and Co (linear and quadratic form) removal. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Al, Co, and Ni removal showed that the model is valid at the 95% confidence interval and that no adjustment needed within the ranges evaluated of agitation (0-251.5 rpm) and shrimp-shell content (1.2-12.8 g L -1 ). The model required adjustments to the 90% and 75% confidence interval for Fe and Mn removal, respectively. In terms of efficiency in removing pollutants, it was possible to determine the best experimental values of the variables considered as 188 rpm and 9.36 g L -1 of shrimp-shells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels: a BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radom levels in existing dwellings. It is aimed specifically at builders, surveyors and building specialists surveying for and prescribing remedial measures for dwellings. It supplements guidance available in 'The householders' guide to radon, obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the Department of the Environment. (Author)

  19. Electrochemical soil remediation - accelerated soil weathering?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosen, L.M.; Villumsen, A.; Hansen, H.K.; Jensen, P.E.; Pedersen, A.J. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Ribeiro, A.B. [Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, New Univ. of Lisbon, Monte da Caparica (Portugal)

    2001-07-01

    In electrochemical soil remediation systems, where enhancement solutions and complexing agents are not used, a developing acidic front is mobilizing the heavy metals and the electric current is removing the mobilized elements from the soil. The hypotheses investigated in this paper is whether this process may be comparable to the chemical soil weathering that occurs in the environment due to the acidic rain, where the mobilized elements are removed from the soil by the penetrating water. Even through the weathering process is highly accelerated in the electrochemical cell. This paper shows results from electrodialytic remediation experiments performed with four different Danish heavy metal polluted soils. The main emphasis is laid on the relation between the developing acidic front and electromigration of Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg, Fe and Ca. (orig.)

  20. Cost considerations in remediation and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, J.T.; Huddleston, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Opportunities for assessing the costs associated with the reclamation and remediation of sites contaminated by oilfield wastes are discussed. The savings can be maximized by paying close attention to five different aspects of the overall site remediation and disposal process. These are: (1) highly focused site assessment, (2) cost control of treatment and disposal options, (3) value added cost benefits, (4) opportunities to control outside influences during the remedial process, and (5) opportunities for managing long-term liabilities and residual risk remaining after the remedial program is completed. It is claimed that addressing these aspects of the process will ultimately lower the overall cost of site remediation and waste disposal

  1. Remediation of soils combining soil vapor extraction and bioremediation: benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, António Alves; Albergaria, José Tomás; Domingues, Valentina Fernandes; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição M; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2010-08-01

    This work reports the study of the combination of soil vapor extraction (SVE) with bioremediation (BR) to remediate soils contaminated with benzene. Soils contaminated with benzene with different water and natural organic matter contents were studied. The main goals were: (i) evaluate the performance of SVE regarding the remediation time and the process efficiency; (ii) study the combination of both technologies in order to identify the best option capable to achieve the legal clean up goals; and (iii) evaluate the influence of soil water content (SWC) and natural organic matter (NOM) on SVE and BR. The remediation experiments performed in soils contaminated with benzene allowed concluding that: (i) SVE presented (a) efficiencies above 92% for sandy soils and above 78% for humic soils; (b) and remediation times from 2 to 45 h, depending on the soil; (ii) BR showed to be an efficient technology to complement SVE; (iii) (a) SWC showed minimum impact on SVE when high airflow rates were used and led to higher remediation times for lower flow rates; (b) NOM as source of microorganisms and nutrients enhanced BR but hindered the SVE due the limitation on the mass transfer of benzene from the soil to the gas phase. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recent developments in high pressure water technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.A.; Johnson, T.

    1992-01-01

    High Pressure Water Jetting has advanced rapidly in the last decade to a point where the field is splitting into specialised areas. This has left the end user or client in the dark as to whether water jetting will work and if so what equipment is best suited to their particular application. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of:-1. The way water is delivered to the surface and the parameters which control the concentration of energy available on impact. 2. The factors governing application driven selection of equipment. 3. The effects to technical advances in pumps and delivery systems on equipment selection with reference to their to their application to concrete removal and nuclear decontamination. (Author)

  3. A Follow-Up Study on the Efficacy of the Homeopathic Remedy Arsenicum album in Volunteers Living in High Risk Arsenic Contaminated Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of our short-term pilot studies reported earlier, results on certain toxicity biomarkers in volunteers who continued to take the potentized Arsenicum album 200C till 2 years are presented. Out of some 130 “verum”-fed volunteers of pilot study, 96 continued to take the remedy till 6 months, 65 till 1 year and 15 among them continued till 2 years. They provided samples of their urine and blood at 6 months, 1 year and finally at 2 years. None out of 17 who received “placebo” turned up for providing blood or urine at these longer intervals. Standard methodologies were used for determination of arsenic content in blood and urine, and for measurement of toxicity biomarkers like acid and alkaline phosphatases, alanine and aspartate amino transferases, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione and anti-nuclear antibody titers. Most of the volunteers reported status quo maintained after the improvement they achieved within the first 3 months of homeopathic treatment, in respect of their general health and spirit, and appetite and sleep. A few with skin symptoms and burning sensation, however, improved further. This was supported by the data of toxicity biomarkers, levels of all of which remained fairly within normal range. Therefore, administration of Arsenicum album 200C considerably ameliorates symptoms of arsenic toxicity on a long-term basis, and can be recommended for interim use, particularly in high risk remote villages lacking modern medical and arsenic free drinking water facilities. Similar studies by others are encouraged.

  4. Ground water elevation monitoring at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Salt Lake City, Utah, Vitro processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In February 1994, a ground water level monitoring program was begun at the Vitro processing site. The purpose of the program was to evaluate how irrigating the new golf driving range affected ground water elevations in the unconfined aquifer. The program also evaluated potential impacts of a 9-hole golf course planned as an expansion of the driving range. The planned golf course expansion would increase the area to be irrigated and, thus, the water that could infiltrate the processing site soil to recharge the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in ground water could migrate off the site or could discharge to bodies of surface water in the area. The potential effects of expanding the golf course have been evaluated, and a report is being prepared. Water level data obtained during this monitoring program indicate that minor seasonal mounding may be occurring in response to irrigation of the driving range. However, the effects of irrigation appear small in comparison to the effects of precipitation. There are no monitor wells in the area that irrigation would affect most; that data limitation makes interpretations of water levels and the possibility of ground water mounding uncertain. Limitations of available data are discussed in the conclusion

  5. Streamer model for high voltage water switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazama, F.J.; Kenyon, V.L. III

    1979-01-01

    An electrical switch model for high voltage water switches has been developed which predicts streamer-switching effects that correlate well with water-switch data from Casino over the past four years and with switch data from recent Aurora/AMP experiments. Preclosure rounding and postclosure resistive damping of pulseforming line voltage waveforms are explained in terms of spatially-extensive, capacitive-coupling of the conducting streamers as they propagate across the gap and in terms of time-dependent streamer resistance and inductance. The arc resistance of the Casino water switch and of a gas switch under test on Casino was determined by computer fit to be 0.5 +- 0.1 ohms and 0.3 +- 0.06 ohms respectively, during the time of peak current in the power pulse. Energy lost in the water switch during the first pulse is 18% of that stored in the pulseforming line while similar energy lost in the gas switch is 11%. The model is described, computer transient analyses are compared with observed water and gas switch data and the results - switch resistance, inductance and energy loss during the primary power pulse - are presented

  6. Application of Fe-Cu/Biochar System for Chlorobenzene Remediation of Groundwater in Inhomogeneous Aquifers

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Zhang; Yanqing Wu; Pingping Zhao; Xin Shu; Qiong Zhou; Zichen Dong

    2017-01-01

    Chlorobenzene (CB), as a typical Volatile Organic Contaminants (VOC), is toxic, highly persistent and easily migrates in water, posing a significant risk to human health and subsurface ecosystems. Therefore, exploring effective approaches to remediate groundwater contaminated by CB is essential. As an enhanced micro-electrolysis system for CB-contaminated groundwater remediation, this study attempted to couple the iron-copper bimetal with biochar. Two series of columns using sands with differ...

  7. Pyruvate remediation of cell stress and genotoxicity induced by haloacetic acid drinking water disinfection by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dad, Azra; Jeong, Clara H; Pals, Justin A; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Plewa, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    Monohaloacetic acids (monoHAAs) are a major class of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) and are cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. We propose a model of toxic action based on monoHAA-mediated inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a target cytosolic enzyme. This model predicts that GAPDH inhibition by the monoHAAs will lead to a severe reduction of cellular ATP levels and repress the generation of pyruvate. A loss of pyruvate will lead to mitochondrial stress and genomic DNA damage. We found a concentration-dependent reduction of ATP in Chinese hamster ovary cells after monoHAA treatment. ATP reduction per pmol monoHAA followed the pattern of iodoacetic acid (IAA) > bromoacetic acid (BAA) > chloroacetic acid (CAA), which is the pattern of potency observed with many toxicological endpoints. Exogenous supplementation with pyruvate enhanced ATP levels and attenuated monoHAA-induced genomic DNA damage as measured with single cell gel electrophoresis. These data were highly correlated with the SN 2 alkylating potentials of the monoHAAs and with the induction of toxicity. The results from this study strongly support the hypothesis that GAPDH inhibition and the possible subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species is linked with the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, teratogenicity, and neurotoxicity of these DBPs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses....... The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...

  9. Kerr Hollow Quarry Remediation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry is a 3-acre flooded limestone quarry located near the Y-12 Facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The quarry was used in the 1940s as a source of construction material for the Department of Energy in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Its use was discontinued in the early 1950s, and it was allowed to flood with water. The quarry presently has a maximum water depth of approximately 55 ft. During the period between the early 1950s until about 1988, the quarry was used for the treatment and disposal of a variety of materials including water-reactive, alkali metals, shock-sensitive chemicals, and compressed gas cylinders. For some of these materials, the treatment consisted of dropping the vessels containing the materials into the quarry from a high bluff located on one side of the quarry. The vessels were then punctured by gun shot, and the materials were allowed to react with the water and sink to the bottom of the quarry. Very few disposal records exist for the period from 1952 to 1962. The records after that time, from 1962 until 1988, indicate some 50 t of hazardous and nonhazardous materials were disposed of in the quarry. This report documents remediation efforts that have taken place at the quarry beginning in September 1990

  10. Integrated treatment process using a natural Wyoming clinoptilolite for remediating produced waters from coalbed natural gas operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Vance, G.F.; Urynowicz, M.A.; Gregory, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Coalbed natural gas (CBNG) development in western U.S. states has resulted in an increase in an essential energy resource, but has also resulted in environmental impacts and additional regulatory needs. A concern associated with CBNG development relates to the production of the copious quantities of potentially saline-sodic groundwater required to recover the natural gas, hereafter referred to as CBNG water. Management of CBNG water is a major environmental challenge because of its quantity and quality. In this study, a locally available Na-rich natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) from Wyoming (WY) was examined for its potential to treat CBNG water to remove Na+ and lower the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, mmol1/2 L- 1/2). The zeolite material was Ca-modified before being used in column experiments. Column breakthrough studies indicated that a metric tonne (1000??kg) of Ca-WY-zeolite could be used to treat 60,000??L of CBNG water in order to lower SAR of the CBNG water from 30 to an acceptable level of 10??mmol1/2 L- 1/2. An integrated treatment process using Na-WY-zeolite for alternately treating hard water and CBNG water was also examined for its potential to treat problematic waters in the region. Based on the results of this study, use of WY-zeolite appears to be a cost-effective water treatment technology for maximizing the beneficial use of poor-quality CBNG water. Ongoing studies are evaluating water treatment techniques involving infiltration ponds lined with zeolite. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Remedial action plan for the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, geology report; Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report; Attachment 4, supplemental information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC section 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RAP serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the state of Colorado

  12. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-04-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. One of these alternatives is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. In a traditional environmental impact statement, an impacts analysis leads directly to the defined alternatives. The impacts analysis for implementing alternatives in this PEIS first involves evaluating a ground water compliance strategy or strategies, the use of which will result in site-specific impacts. This PEIS impacts analysis assesses only the potential impacts of the various ground water compliance strategies, then relates them to the alternatives to provide a comparison of impacts.

  13. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. One of these alternatives is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. In a traditional environmental impact statement, an impacts analysis leads directly to the defined alternatives. The impacts analysis for implementing alternatives in this PEIS first involves evaluating a ground water compliance strategy or strategies, the use of which will result in site-specific impacts. This PEIS impacts analysis assesses only the potential impacts of the various ground water compliance strategies, then relates them to the alternatives to provide a comparison of impacts

  14. Remediation of the Maxey Flats Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes issues associated with remedial action of Maxey Flats, a low-level radioactive waste disposal site from 1963-1977, located in Fleming County, Kentucky. Present remedial action alternatives being considered are discussed along with emergency plans, ground water monitoring plans, and budgets

  15. Remediation of incomplete nitrification and capacity increase of biofilters at different drinking water treatment plants through copper dosing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Florian Benedikt; Borch Nielsen, Peter; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    Drinking water treatment plants based on groundwater may suffer from incomplete ammonium removal, which deteriorates drinking water quality and constrains water utilities in the operation of their plants. Ammonium is normally removed through nitrification in biological granular media filters...... groundwater treatment plants, all of which had displayed several years of incomplete nitrification. Plants exceeded the Danish national water quality standard of 0.05 mg NH4+/L by a factor of 2–12. Within only 2-3 weeks of dosing, ammonium removal rates increased significantly (up to 150%). Nitrification...... was fully established, with ammonium effluent concentrations of water chemistry, ammonium loading rates, filter design and operation, or treatment plant configuration. However, for filters without primary filtration, it took longer time...

  16. Preliminary final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternative systems for conducting the ground water program. One of these systems is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies, because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS presents multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, that could be used to implement all the alternatives presented in the PEIS except the no action alternative. The no action alternative must be considered by law. It consists of taking no action to meet EPA standards. Implementing all PEIS alternatives (except no action) means applying a ground water compliance strategy or a combination of strategies that would result in site-specific impacts

  17. Remediation of uranium impacted sediments in a watercourse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shephard, Eugene; Walter, Nelson; Downey, Heath [AMEC, Inc., Portland, Maine (United States); Collopy, Peter [AMEC, Inc., San Diego, California (United States); Conant, John [ABB, Inc., Windsor, Connecticut (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In 2009, remediation was initiated for a non-operational fuel cycle facility previously used for government contract work located in Windsor, Connecticut, USA. Radiological contaminants consisted primarily of high enriched uranium (HEU). Other radionuclides encountered in relatively minor amounts in certain areas of the clean-up included Co-60, Cs- 137, Ra-226, Th-232 and low enriched uranium (LEU).Between 2009 and the spring of 2011, remediation efforts were focused on demolition of contaminated buildings and removal of contaminated soil. In the late spring of 2011, the last phase of remediation commenced involving the removal of contaminated sediments from portions of a 1,200 meter long gaining stream. Planning and preparation for remediation of the stream began in 2009 with submittal of permit applications to undertake construction activities in a wetland area. The permitting process was lengthy and involved securing permits from multiple agencies. However, early and frequent communication with stakeholders played an integral role in efficiently obtaining the permit approvals. Frequent communication with stakeholders throughout the planning and remediation process also proved to be a key factor in timely completion of the project. The remediation of the stream involved the use of temporary bladder berms to divert surface water flow, water diversion piping, a sediment vacuum removal system, excavation of sediments using small front-end loaders, sediment dewatering, and waste packaging, transportation and disposal. Many safeguards were employed to protect several species of concern in the work area, water management during project activities, challenges encountered during the project, methods of Final Status Survey, and stream restoration. (authors)

  18. USING ECONOMIC ANALYSIS TO VALUE WATER REMEDIATION: AN APPLICATION TO THE CHEAT RIVER WATERSHED IN WEST VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inherent in any decision to allocate resources is the constraint imposed by a limited budget. In small communities, particularly in rural areas, this often means stark tradeoffs among major public projects (schools, roads, water treatment). When dealing with management options ...

  19. In situ Remediation Technologies Associated with Sanitation Improvement: An Opportunity for Water Quality Recovering in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha , Davi ,; Calijuri , Maria Do Carmo; Grull , Doron; Mancuso , Pedro ,; Thevenot , Daniel ,

    2012-01-01

    The access to safe water is of great importance to reduce the spread of diseases caused by water-related pathogens and to assure the life quality to the human-beings. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011), diarrhea, for example, is responsible for two million deaths every year, mainly among children under the age of five. The environmental effects of some pollutants (e.g. endocrine disruptors, organic compounds) remain unclear and the harmful consequences of the exposure to c...

  20. Water evaporation on highly viscoelastic polymer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Gang; Severtson, Steven J

    2012-07-03

    Results are reported for a study on the evaporation of water droplets from a highly viscoelastic acrylic polymer surface. These are contrasted with those collected for the same measurements carried out on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). For PDMS, the evaporation process involves the expected multistep process including constant drop area, constant contact angle, and finally a combination of these steps until the liquid is gone. In contrast, water evaporation from the acrylic polymer shows a constant drop area mode throughout. Furthermore, during the evaporation process, the drop area actually expands on the acrylic polymer. The single mode evaporation process is consistent with formation of wetting structures, which cannot be propagated by the capillary forces. Expansion of the drop area is attributed to the influence of the drop capillary pressure. Furthermore, the rate of drop area expansion is shown to be dependent on the thickness of the polymer film.

  1. Can the water content of highly compacted bentonite be increased by applying a high water pressure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Kasbohm, J.

    2001-10-01

    A great many laboratory investigations have shown that the water uptake in highly compacted MX-80 clay takes place by diffusion at low external pressure. It means that wetting of the clay buffer in the deposition holes of a KBS-3 repository is very slow if the water pressure is low and that complete water saturation can take several tens of years if the initial degree of water saturation of the buffer clay and the ability of the rock to give off water are low. It has therefore been asked whether injection of water can raise the degree of water saturation and if a high water pressure in the nearfield can have the same effect. The present report describes attempts to moisten highly compacted blocks of MX-80 clay with a dry density of 1510 kg/m 3 by injecting water under a pressure of 650 kPa through a perforated injection pipe for 3 and 20 minutes, respectively. The interpretation was made by determining the water content of a number of samples located at different distances from the pipe. An attempt to interpret the pattern of distribution of injected uranium acetate solution showed that the channels into which the solution went became closed in a few minutes and that dispersion in the homogenized clay gave low U-concentrations. The result was that the water content increased from about 9 to about 11-12 % within a distance of about 1 centimeter from the injection pipe and to slightly more than 9 % at a distance of about 4-5 cm almost independently of the injection time. Complete water saturation corresponds to a water content of about 30 % and the wetting effect was hence small from a practical point of view. By use of microstructural models it can be shown that injected water enters only the widest channels that remain after the compaction and that these channels are quickly closed by expansion of the hydrating surrounding clay. Part of the particles that are thereby released become transported by the flowing water and cause clogging of the channels, which is

  2. HIGH RESOLUTION AIRBORNE SHALLOW WATER MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Steinbacher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD, authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river

  3. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  4. Assessment, water-quality trends, and options for remediation of acidic drainage from abandoned coal mines near Huntsville, Missouri, 2003-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.

    2005-01-01

    Water from abandoned underground coal mines acidifies receiving streams in the Sugar Creek Basin and Mitchell Mine Basin near Huntsville, Missouri. A 4.35-kilometer (2.7-mile) reach of Sugar Creek has been classified as impaired based on Missouri's Water Quality Standards because of small pH values [mine drainage (AMD) from two mine springs as well as small and diffuse seeps were observed to have an effect on water quality in Sugar Creek. Metal and sulfate loads increased and pH decreased immediately downstream from Sugar Creek's confluence with the Calfee Slope and Huntsville Gob drainages that discharge AMD into Sugar Creek. Similar effects were observed in the Mitchell Mine drainage that receives AMD from a large mine spring. Comparisons of water-quality samples from this study and two previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1987-1988 and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources in 2000-2002 indicate that AMD generation in the Sugar Creek Basin and Mitchell Mine Basin is declining, but the data are insufficient to quantify any trends or time frame. AMD samples from the largest mine spring in the Calfee Slope subbasin indicated a modest but significant increase in median pH from 4.8 to 5.2 using the Wilcoxan rank-sum test (p mine spring in the Mitchell Mine Basin indicated an increase in median pH values from 5.6 to 6.0 and a decrease in median specific conductance from 3,050 to 2,450 ?S/cm during the same period. Remediation of AMD at or near the sites of the three largest mine springs is geochemically feasible based on alkalinity addition rates and increased pH determined by cubitainer experiments and geochemical mixing experiments using the computer model PHREEQCI. Alkalinity values for seven cubitainer experiments conducted to simulate anoxic treatment options exceeded the targeted value for alkalinity [90 mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO3)] specified in Missouri's Total Maximum Daily Load program by 18 percent or more, but maximum pH values were

  5. Remedial Action Plan and Site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Revision 1. Remedial action selection report, Attachment 2, geology report, Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report, Attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites are located near the small community of Slick Rock, in San Miguel County, Colorado. There are two designated Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites at Slick Rock: the Union Carbide site and the North Continent site. Both sites are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain former mill building concrete foundations, tailings piles, demolition debris, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,000 cubic yards (475,000 cubic meters). In addition to the contamination at the two processing site areas, 13 vicinity properties were contaminated. Contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into ground water. Pursuant to the requirements of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.), the proposed remedial action plan (RAP) will satisfy the final US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards in 40 CFR Part 192 (60 FR 2854) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of the residual radioactive material (RRM) (tailings and other contaminated materials) at the disposal site at Burro Canyon. The requirements for control of the RRM (Subpart A) will be satisfied by the construction of an engineered disposal cell. The proposed remedial action will consist of relocating the uranium mill tailings, contaminated vicinity property materials, demolition debris, and windblown/weaterborne materials to a permanent repository at the Burro Canyon disposal site. The site is approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the mill sites on land recently transferred to the DOE by the Bureau of Land Management.

  6. Remedial Action Plan and Site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Revision 1. Remedial action selection report, Attachment 2, geology report, Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report, Attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites are located near the small community of Slick Rock, in San Miguel County, Colorado. There are two designated Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites at Slick Rock: the Union Carbide site and the North Continent site. Both sites are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain former mill building concrete foundations, tailings piles, demolition debris, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,000 cubic yards (475,000 cubic meters). In addition to the contamination at the two processing site areas, 13 vicinity properties were contaminated. Contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into ground water. Pursuant to the requirements of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC section 7901 et seq.), the proposed remedial action plan (RAP) will satisfy the final US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards in 40 CFR Part 192 (60 FR 2854) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of the residual radioactive material (RRM) (tailings and other contaminated materials) at the disposal site at Burro Canyon. The requirements for control of the RRM (Subpart A) will be satisfied by the construction of an engineered disposal cell. The proposed remedial action will consist of relocating the uranium mill tailings, contaminated vicinity property materials, demolition debris, and windblown/weaterborne materials to a permanent repository at the Burro Canyon disposal site. The site is approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the mill sites on land recently transferred to the DOE by the Bureau of Land Management

  7. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress

  8. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This conference provided an opportunity for industry, practitioners, researchers and regulators to discuss technical issues in environmental remediation research and the latest innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. Cost effective in-situ and ex-situ soil reclamation strategies were presented along with groundwater and surface water remediation strategies in 13 sessions entitled: hydrocarbon contamination; salt management; liability management; chemical oxidation; light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL); Montreal Center of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation; Alberta government updates; phytoremediation; natural attenuation; Lake Wabamun; ex-situ remediation; in-situ remediation; and, miscellaneous issues. Technological solutions for erosion control and water clarification were highlighted. The conference featured 52 presentations, of which 17 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  9. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  10. Subsurface soil and water pollution by diesel fuel at Bozdarevac railway station near Belgrade and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujasinovic, S.; Matic, D.I.

    1991-01-01

    An excessive pollution of ground water and the hydrogeologic environment by naphtha and its derivatives spilled on the surface has been recorded in Yugoslavia. The similar accidents in Serbia (Obrenovac, Uzicka Pozega, Beograd-Makis, Beograd-Danube railway station, Leskovac, Bozdarevac, etc.) have increased in number in the last several years. Transportation of naphtha and its derivatives, either by road or river, from the refineries to the consumers is obviously contributing much to the environmental pollution hazard. For the wide range of use and the specific effect on ground water, this pollutant can be taken for one of the first order. This paper discusses a case example. (Author)

  11. Remediation of Site of Decommissioning Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilovich, A.S.; Ivanov, O.P.; Lemus, A.V.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Potapov, V.N.; Semenov, S.G.; Shisha, A.D.; Chesnokov, A.V. [National Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , 123182, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In the world the most widespread method of soil decontamination consists of removing the contaminated upper layer and sending it for long-term controlled storage. However, implementation of this soil cleanup method for remediation of large contaminated areas would involve high material and financial expenditures, because it produces large amounts of radioactive waste demanding removal to special storage sites. Contaminated soil extraction and cleanup performed right on the spot of remediation activities represents a more advanced and economically acceptable method. Radiological separation of the radioactive soil allows reducing of amount of radwaste. Studies performed during the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences revealed that a considerable fraction of radioactivity is accumulated in minute soil grains. So, the separation of contaminated soil by size fractions makes it possible to extract and concentrate the major share of radioactivity in the fine fraction. Based on these researches water gravity separation technology was proposed by Bochvar Institute. The method extracts the fine fraction from contaminated soil. Studies carried out by Bochvar Institute experts showed that, together with the fine fraction (amounting to 10-20% of the initial soil), this technology can remove up to 85-90% of contaminating radionuclides. The resulting 'dirty' soil fraction could be packaged into containers and removed as radwaste, and decontaminated fractions returned back to their extraction site. Use of radiological and water gravity separations consequently increases the productivity of decontamination facility. Efficiency of this technology applied for contaminated soil cleanup was confirmed in the course of remediation of the contaminated territories near decommissioning research reactor in the Kurchatov Institute. For soil cleaning purposes, a special facility implementing the technology of water gravity separation and radiometric monitoring of soil

  12. Remedial measures for nozzles susceptible to PWSCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Remediating primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is usually directed towards one of the three causes of PWSCC, material susceptiability, tensile stress, and an aggressive environment. The most practical remedial measures for primary loop penetration of PWSCC are considered to be shot peening, electropolishing, stress relief, and electroplating. The objective of shot peening is to induce a comprehensive residual stress on surfaces of Inconel 600 which are exposed to aggressive environments. Experience with steam generator tubes has shown this method is most effective if applied before PWSCC occurs. If it has already occurred, then the peening may retard but not arrest the corrosion. Electroplating consists of plating the inside surface of the Inconel 600 penetration with pure nickel. One of the major problems with this method was in obtaining surfaces uniformly free from pitting and roughness. Electropolishing for PWSCC remediation would remove the high strength cold work surfaces on the insides of nozzles which are produced by mechanical working e.g. machining. 5 figs

  13. Remediation of sediment and water contaminated by copper in small-scaled constructed wetlands: effect of bioaugmentation and phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguenot, D; Bois, P; Cornu, J Y; Jezequel, K; Lollier, M; Lebeau, T

    2015-01-01

    The use of plants and microorganisms to mitigate sediment contaminated by copper was studied in microcosms that mimic the functioning of a stormwater basin (SWB) connected to vineyard watershed. The impact of phytoremediation and bioaugmentation with siderophore-producing bacteria on the fate of Cu was studied in two contrasted (batch vs. semi-continuous) hydraulic regimes. The fate of copper was characterised following its discharge at the outlet of the microcosms, its pore water concentration in the sediment, the assessment of its bioaccessible fraction in the rhizosphere and the measurement of its content in plant tissues. Physico-chemical (pH, redox potential) and biological parameters (total heterotrophic bacteria) were also monitored. As expected, the results showed a clear impact of the hydraulic regime on the redox potential and thus on the pore water concentration of Cu. Copper in pore water was also dependent on the frequency of Cu-polluted water discharges. Repeated bioaugmentation increased the total heterotrophic microflora as well as the Cu bioaccessibility in the rhizosphere and increased the amount of Cu extracted by Phragmites australis by a factor of ~2. Sugar beet pulp, used as a filter to avoid copper flushing, retained 20% of outcoming Cu and led to an overall retention of Cu higher than 94% when arranged at the outlet of microcosms. Bioaugmentation clearly improved the phytoextraction rate of Cu in a small-scaled SWB designed to mimic the functioning of a full-size SWB connected to vineyard watershed. Highlights: Cu phytoextraction in constructed wetlands much depends on the hydraulic regime and on the frequency of Cu-polluted water discharges. Cu phytoextraction increases with time and plant density. Cu bioaccessibility can be increased by bioaugmentation with siderophore-producing bacteria.

  14. Waste remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-12-29

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  15. Environmental remediation of high-level nuclear waste in geological repository. Modified computer code creates ultimate benchmark in natural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Geoffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Isolation of high-level nuclear waste in permanent geological repositories has been a major concern for over 30 years due to the migration of dissolved radio nuclides reaching the water table (10,000-year compliance period) as water moves through the repository and the surrounding area. Repositories based on mathematical models allow for long-term geological phenomena and involve many approximations; however, experimental verification of long-term processes is impossible. Countries must determine if geological disposal is adequate for permanent storage. Many countries have extensively studied different aspects of safely confining the highly radioactive waste in an underground repository based on the unique geological composition at their selected repository location. This paper discusses two computer codes developed by various countries to study the coupled thermal, mechanical, and chemical process in these environments, and the migration of radionuclide. Further, this paper presents the results of a case study of the Magma-hydrothermal (MH) computer code, modified by the author, applied to nuclear waste repository analysis. The MH code verified by simulating natural systems thus, creating the ultimate benchmark. This approach based on processes similar to those expected near waste repositories currently occurring in natural systems. (author)

  16. Biotechnological Potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: A Novel Strain for Remediating Water Polluted with Crude Oil Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Salmah; Dadrasnia, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hy...

  17. Investigation, assessment and remediation of the water pathway in the surroundings of the Culmitzsch A tailings impoundment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, G.; Paul, M.; Priester, J.; Schoepfer, C.

    1998-01-01

    Several large tailings impoundments in Saxony and Thuringia are the result of the extensive uranium mining and milling in Eastern Germany after World War II. The Culmitzsch tailings pond in Eastern Thuringia was constructed within a former uranium open pit mine and is located within the Culmitzsch trench fault. The tailings impoundment includes two ponds (Culmitzsch A and B) which are separated by an internal dam with an impervious core. The Culmitzsch A pond covers an area of 158 ha, the maximum tailings thickness is 70 m. Between this pond (elevation of up to 340 m above sea-level) and the Lerchenbach creek (265.. 280 m above sea-level) a steep gradient exists. So the valley of the Lerchenbach is the general discharge area for the seepage of the pond which is a result of dewatering by gravity and consolidation. The seepage water migrates through the southern dam of the impoundment and through permeable layers which are in contact with the tailings. About 400 groundwater wells were installed within three aquifers in order to clarify the flow direction and the degree of contamination of the groundwater as well as to investigate the geohydraulic properties of the rocks in the surroundings of the pond. Based on the results of this investigation programme a three-dimensional hydrogeological model was built up which reflects the general relationships between the pond and its geological setting as well as the water balance of the whole system. Presently a catchment system exists which gathers all surface waters with significant uranium and salt concentrations. Moreover dewatering wells on the beach zone of the pond and catchment wells in the downstream area of the impoundment have been installed. Before being released to the receiving streams seepage and freewater are treated in a two-step water treatment plant in order to decrease their uranium, radium and arsenic contents. (orig.) [de

  18. Remedial action plan for the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, geology report; Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report; Attachment 4, supplemental information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section} 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RAP serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the state of Colorado.

  19. Fluoride distribution and contamination in the water, soil and plants continuum and its remedial technologies, an Indian perspective- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gayatri; Kumari, Babita; Sinam, Geetgovind; Kriti; Kumar, Navin; Mallick, Shekhar

    2018-04-09

    Fluorine is an essential element required in trace amounts but gets toxic for human beings at levels more than 1.5 mg F - L -1 primarily through drinking contaminated water. It is the 13th most abundant element and constitutes about 0.06-0.09% in the earth crust. It is electronegative in aqueous medium forming fluoride ion (F - ). Fluoride contamination in the environment occurs mostly due to anthropogenic and geogenic sources. Fluoride is widely distributed in all components of environment, air (0.1-0.6 μg L -1 ) soils (150-400 mg Kg -1 ) rocks (100-2000 mg Kg -1 ), plant (0.01-42 mg Kg -1 ) and water (1.0-38.5 mg L -1 ). Human beings and animals are being exposed to F - primarily from water (0.2-42.0 mg L -1 ) and plants (0.77-29.5 μg g -1 ). Fluorosis, a health hazard due to F - is a major problem in many countries across the world affecting about 200 million people globally. In India, > 62 million people in twenty states are facing problem due to F - . The most affected states are Rajasthan (7670 habitations), Telangana (1,174 habitations) and Karnataka (1122 habitations). To mitigate this problem, there is an urgent need to understand the current status and brief knowledge of F - geochemistry. The objective of this review is to highlight different sources of F - that contaminate different environmental matrices including plants, the extent of contamination level in India, uptake, translocation and toxicity mechanism in plants. The review also highlights currently available mitigation methods or technologies through physio-chemical and biological means. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An integrated approach to planning and rehabilitation for the future: proceedings of the 2. mining and the environment conference - Sudbury '99: volume two: ecosystems: health evaluation and restoration technologies, ground and surface water remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsack, D. [ed.] [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Centre in Mining and Mining Environment Research; Belzile, P. [ed.] [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Dept.of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Yearwood, P. [ed.] [Inco Ltd., Copper Cliff, ON (Canada). Environmental Control and Occupational Health; Hall, G. [ed.] [Falconbridge Ltd., Falconbridge, ON (Canada). Technology Centre

    1999-07-01

    Volume two of the symposium featured 27 papers under the general headings of ecosystems - health evaluation and restoration technologies; and ground and surface water remediation. Five papers are abstracted separately on the use of catchment liming for the improvement of drainage water quality from smelter-impacted lands, the effects of emission reductions from the smelters in Sudbury on recovery of lakes within the metal deposition zone, the effects of regional reductions in sulphur deposition on the recovery of biodiversity in lakes, the influence of drought-induced acidification on biotic recovery and the use of catchment liming for the improvement of drainage water quality from smelter-impacted lands.

  1. Mold: Cleanup and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Cleanup and Remediation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... CDC and EPA on mold cleanup, removal and remediation. Cleanup information for you and your family Homeowner’s ...

  2. Topical Day on Site Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H [ed.

    1996-09-18

    Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions.

  3. Barometric pumping with a twist: VOC containment and remediation without boreholes. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The majority of the planned remediation sites within the DOE complex are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In many instances the contamination has not reached the water table, does not pose an immediate threat, and is not considered a high priority problem. These sites will ultimately require remediation of some type, either by active vapor extraction, bioremediation, or excavation and ex-situ soil treatment. The cost of remediating these sites can range from $50 K to more than $150 K, depending on site characteristics, contaminants, and remediation method. Additionally, for many remediated sites, residual contamination exists which could not practically be removed by the applied remediation technology. These circumstances result in modest sites with contamination of limited risk, but by regulation they must still be controlled. A remediation solution being developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) for the Department of Energy serves as an in-situ containment and extraction methodology for sites where most or all of the contamination resides in the vadose zone soil. The approach capitalizes on the advective soil gas movement resulting from barometric pressure oscillations.

  4. Biotechnological potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: a novel strain for remediating water polluted with crude oil waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Salmah; Dadrasnia, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater.

  5. Biotechnological potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: a novel strain for remediating water polluted with crude oil waste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmah Ismail

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater.

  6. Remediation of surface water polluted by effluent discharges from mining activities in the Eastern Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusi, Samuel

    2017-07-01

    Heavy metals are very toxic to the environment and humans at large. Exposures to heavy metals have significant health disorders. In this research, the mandate to find novel adsorbent to reduce lead and mercury concentrations from water samples from Birim River in the Eastern Region of Ghana was studied. The turbidity of the water samples from Kibi, Anyinam and Kade indicated that, the river is very turbid (an average of 355 NTU) and therefore not recommended for domestic use without treatment. The modification of rice husk and orange peels with tartaric acid showed that modified rice husk had better binding efficiency for Pb and Hg. A series of batch experiments using tartaric acid modified rice husk (RH-TAM), tartaric acid orange peel modified (OP-TAM), unmodified rice husk (UM-RH) and unmodified orange peel (UM-OP) for the removal of Pb and Hg showed that the sorption processes depended on pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage. A pH of 5 with 0.5 g/20 ml of adsorbent solution maintained at a temperature of 35 o C ± 2 for a period of four (4) hours yielded the highest adsorption efficiency for both modified and unmodified adsorbents. The adsorption efficiencies recorded for RH –TAM and UM-RH were 75. 56 % and 69.93 % respectively for Pb. Similarly, Hg adsorption efficiencies for both RH-TAM and UM-RH were 53. 26 % and 45.11 % respectively. The adsorption efficiencies of OP –TAM was 62.03 % for Pb and 44.57% for Hg. The unmodified orange peel (UM-OP) had the least adsorption efficiencies of 51.88 % for Pb and 42.39% for Hg. The Langmuir isotherm fitted the experimental data for Pb and Hg better than the Freundlich isotherm. (author)

  7. Methods for the analysis and remediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, M.; Bemporad, E.; Berardi, S.; Marino, A.; Paglietti, F.

    2008-01-01

    In Italy, in recent years, the number of contaminated sites has multiplied disproportionately. In essence, contamination is caused by accidental spills or intentional discharge of pollutants into the soils or waters from industrial activities, or non-controlled deposits of urban and/or industrial waste, mostly part toxic and harmful. Contaminated sites clearly pose risks to human health and the environment; hence the need to remediate these sites. The remediation of soil and water and the restoration of degraded areas are complex operations requiring specific technical and scientific know-how, including knowledge of the methodologies and tools required to tackle problems arising during the different phases of the remediation process. These include, in particular: - health and environmental risk assessment procedures for the quantification of risks to human health (general population and workers) and the environment from a contaminated site; - remote sensing and the Geographical Information Systems (GIS), which are a fundamentally important IT support for each phase of planning and management of remediation interventions; - criteria for the management of sites contaminated by asbestos, a highly carcinogenic and therefore hazardous substance that was widely used in the past due to its particular mechanical and thermal characteristics; - analysis of the issues relating to waste management in contaminated sites; - relationship between safety procedures for workers and the general population. Identification of the best available techniques for an efficient, integrated management of contaminated sites, which will also take into account the health protection of workers and of the general population living near such sites

  8. 46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250 Shipping COAST... Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On... operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (a) A...

  9. Site remediation techniques in India: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomitra Banerjee; Miller Jothi

    2013-01-01

    India is one of the developing countries operating site remediation techniques for the entire nuclear fuel cycle waste for the last three decades. In this paper we intend to provide an overview of remediation methods currently utilized at various hazardous waste sites in India, their advantages and disadvantages. Over the years the site remediation techniques have been well characterized and different processes for treatment, conditioning and disposal are being practiced. Remediation Methods categorized as biological, chemical or physical are summarized for contaminated soils and environmental waters. This paper covers the site remediation techniques implemented for treatment and conditioning of wastelands arising from the operation of nuclear power plant, research reactors and fuel reprocessing units. (authors)

  10. Synthesis of New Schiff Base from Natural Products for Remediation of Water Pollution with Heavy Metals in Industrial Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A resin of [5-((E-1-(ethylimino ethyl-4, 7-dimethoxy benzofuran-6-ol] Schiff base (EEDB was prepared, characterized, and successfully applied in the removal of Cu (II ions from aqueous real samples. While the metal cation was detected using ICP-OES, the prepared Schiff base resin was characterized by means of FTIR, 1HNMR, mass spectral data, and elemental analysis. Various factors affecting the uptake behavior such as pH (2–12, contact time, effect of initial metal concentration (10–250 ppm, and effect of Schiff base weight (0.1–1.5 gm were studied. The adsorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was established after about 60 min. The optimum initial pH was 8.0 at a metal ion concentration (100 ppm. Under the optimized conditions, the removal of Cu (II from real samples of tap water was applied and the removal efficiency reached nearly 85%. The biological activity for Schiff base was also investigated. The results showed that there is no significant difference between the effects of Schiff base on serum (alanine amino transferase ALT and creatinine concentration activities in treated mice and control, at confidence limits 95%.

  11. Waste-based alternative adsorbents for the remediation of pharmaceutical contaminated waters: Has a step forward already been taken?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla Patrícia; Jaria, Guilaine; Otero, Marta; Esteves, Valdemar I; Calisto, Vânia

    2018-02-01

    When adsorption is considered for water treatment, commercial activated carbon is usually the chosen adsorbent for the removal of pollutants from the aqueous phase, particularly pharmaceuticals. In order to decrease costs and save natural resources, attempts have been made to use wastes as raw materials for the production of alternative carbon adsorbents. This approach intends to increase efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and also to propose an alternative and sustainable way for the valorization/management of residues. This review aims to provide an overview on waste-based adsorbents used on pharmaceuticals' adsorption. Experimental facts related to the adsorption behaviour of each adsorbent/pharmaceutical pair and some key factors were addressed. Also, research gaps that subsist in this research area, as well as future needs, were identified. Simultaneously, this review aims to clarify the current status of the research on pharmaceuticals' adsorption by waste-based adsorbents in order to recognize if the right direction is being taken. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer trademark, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made

  13. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer{trademark}, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made.

  14. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes

  15. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes Refs, figs, tabs

  16. A novel method for the synergistic remediation of oil-water mixtures using nanoparticles and oil-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabresm, Amjed; Chen, Yung Pin; Decho, Alan W; Lead, Jamie

    2018-07-15

    Releases of crude oil and other types of oil from numerous sources can impose catastrophic physical, chemical, and biological effects on aquatic ecosystems. While currently-used oil removal techniques possess many advantages, they have inherent limitations, including low removal efficiencies and waste disposal challenges. The present study quantified the synergistic interactions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated magnetite nanoparticles (NP) and oil-degrading bacteria for enhanced oil removal at the laboratory scale. The results showed that at relatively high oil concentrations (375 mg L -1 ), NP alone could remove approximately 70% of lower-chain alkanes (C9-C22) and 65% of higher-chain (C23-C26), after only 1 h, when magnetic separation of NP was used. Removal efficiency did not increase significantly after that, which was likely due to saturation of the NP with oil. Microbial bioremediation, using strains of oil-degrading bacteria, removed almost zero oil immediately but 80-90% removal after 24-48 h. The combination of NPs and oil-degrading bacterial strains worked effectively to remove essentially 100% of oil within 48 h or less. This was likely due to the sorption of oil components to NPs and their subsequent utilization by bacteria as a joint Fe and C source, although the mechanisms of removal require further testing. Furthermore, results showed that the emission of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were reduced after addition of NPs and bacteria separately. When combined, VOC and SVOC emissions were reduced by up to 80%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancing the reactivity of bimetallic Bi/Fe{sup 0} by citric acid for remediation of polluted water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jianyu; Lee, Chung-Seop; Kim, Eun-Ju [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon-Young [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon-Seok, E-mail: yschang@postech.ac.kr [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-05

    Highlights: • A novel bismuth modified zero valent iron (Bi/Fe{sup 0}) was synthesized. • The Bi/Fe{sup 0} + CA(citric acid) + O{sub 2} system could produce ·OH and ·O{sub 2}{sup −}. • Some recalcitrant pollutants could be treated by Bi/Fe{sup 0} + CA + O{sub 2} in a short time. • The formation of Fe(III)-citric results in the generation of ·OH and ·O{sub 2}{sup −}. - Abstract: In this study, the environmentally benign citric acid (CA) was utilized to improve the aerobic degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) over bismuth modified nanoscale zero-valent iron (Bi/Fe{sup 0}). The characterization results revealed the existence of bismuth covering on the Fe{sup 0} surface under zero-valent state. And, the Bi/Fe{sup 0}-CA + O{sub 2} system performed excellent reactivity in degradation of 4-CP due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was confirmed by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. After 30 min of reaction, 80% of 4-CP was removed using Bi/Fe{sup 0}-CA + O{sub 2} accompanying with high dechlorination rate. The oxidative degradation intermediates were analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS. We found that CA could promote the bismuth-iron system to produce much reactive oxygen species ROS under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions due to its ligand function, which could react with Fe{sup 3+} to form a ligand complex (Fe(III)Cit), accompanying with a considerable production of Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. This study provides a new strategy for generating ROS on nZVI and suggests its application for the mineralization of many recalcitrant pollutants.

  18. The construction for remediation work of contaminated water at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Closure work of seawater piping trench and screen pump chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibi, Yasuki; Yanai, Shuji; Nishikori, Kazumasa; Soma, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In the seawater piping trench of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, highly contaminated water was stagnating, which flowed in from the reactor building and turbine building affected by the tsunami caused by the Tohoku Pacific Ocean Earthquake. Although the screen pump chamber, adjacent to the seawater piping trench, escaped from the inflow and retention of contaminated water, it was exposed to the leakage risk of contaminated water from the seawater piping trench. As measures against these conditions, the following emergency work was applied: (1) contaminated water replacement and removal operation based on the implantation of fillers into the seawater piping trench, and (2) closure operation of the screen pump chamber by implanting fillers into the screen pump chamber. In face of these operations, long-distance underwater flow special filler, high workable concrete, and underwater non-separation concrete were developed and used. The implantation of the long-distance underwater-flow special fillers into the seawater piping trench was successfully completed by filling to the tunnel top without gap and without water head difference, and by preventing the occurrence of movement or water path formation of the fillers in the initial curing process. Other fillers were also able to be implanted as planned. The leakage risk of contaminated water to the periphery could be suppressed to a large extent by this work. (A.O.)

  19. Calculating the Costs of Remedial Placement Testing. CCRC Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Olga; Bowden, Brooks; Belfield, Clive; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Of the more than one million new students who enter community colleges each fall, nearly 70 percent are assigned to remedial coursework. The cost of providing this coursework is high, yet evidence about the effectiveness of remediation is not compelling. In addition, many students are misclassified in the remedial assessment process. In order for…

  20. Characterization of Uranium Contamination, Transport, and Remediation at Rocky Flats - Across Remediation into Post-Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecky, D. R.; Boylan, J.; Murrell, M. T.

    2009-12-01

    The Rocky Flats Site is a former nuclear weapons production facility approximately 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado. Built in 1952 and operated by the Atomic Energy Commission and then Department of Energy, the Site was remediated and closed in 2005, and is currently undergoing long-term surveillance and monitoring by the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Areas of contamination resulted from roughly fifty years of operation. Of greatest interest, surface soils were contaminated with plutonium, americium, and uranium; groundwater was contaminated with chlorinated solvents, uranium, and nitrates; and surface waters, as recipients of runoff and shallow groundwater discharge, have been contaminated by transport from both regimes. A region of economic mineralization that has been referred to as the Colorado Mineral Belt is nearby, and the Schwartzwalder uranium mine is approximately five miles upgradient of the Site. Background uranium concentrations are therefore elevated in many areas. Weapons-related activities included work with enriched and depleted uranium, contributing anthropogenic content to the environment. Using high-resolution isotopic analyses, Site-related contamination can be distinguished from natural uranium in water samples. This has been instrumental in defining remedy components, and long-term monitoring and surveillance strategies. Rocky Flats hydrology interlinks surface waters and shallow groundwater (which is very limited in volume and vertical and horizontal extent). Surface water transport pathways include several streams, constructed ponds, and facility surfaces. Shallow groundwater has no demonstrated connection to deep aquifers, and includes natural preferential pathways resulting primarily from porosity in the Rocky Flats alluvium, weathered bedrock, and discontinuous sandstones. In addition, building footings, drains, trenches, and remedial systems provide pathways for transport at the site. Removal of impermeable surfaces (buildings

  1. Development and application of anti-washout special material for long distance. Remediation work of contaminated water at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant underground structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsu, Hitoshi; Nishikori, Kazumasa; Sato, Keita; Hibi, Yasuki; Yanai, Shuji; Deguchi, Amane

    2017-01-01

    The seawater piping trench of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station connects the screen pump room and turbine building. High concentration contaminated water stagnated in the trench due to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, which caused a leakage accident. In order to solve the future leakage risk, a replacement work the liquid with cement was performed to remove contaminated water inside the trench. This paper explains the development of cement filler applied to the trench and the outline of its application work. Long-distance underwater fluid filler that can flow in the water throughout the longest 85 m long shafts was developed and its fluidity was confirmed in a laboratory and mockup device. In the field application, a cement manufacturing plant was set up in the power plant premises, and it took about a year to pour the cement into the trenches of No 2, 3, and 4 Units. To prevent the leakage of contaminated water in the trench, the cement pouring was performed while controlling the water level. Due to the high concentration of contaminated water, workers' radiation exposure management was conducted on a daily and monthly basis, and cumulative radiation exposure was strictly controlled. For radiation shielding, laying crushed stone and iron plate, installation of concrete protection wall and lead wool mat, and use of tungsten vest during work were practiced. Thanks to these measures, it was possible to reduce the exposure dose to about 27% of the originally predicted level. (A.O.)

  2. Economic Valuation of On Site Material Damages of High Water on Economic Activities based in the City of Venice: Results from a Dose-Response-Expert-Based Valuation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo A.L.D. Nunes; Margaretha Breil; Gretel Gambarelli

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on the economic assessment of damages caused by high water in the city of Venice. In particular, we focus our attention on a valuation exercise that addresses the estimation of monetary, short period, on-site damages due to high water events on the different business activities located in Venice. On-site damages include both mitigation costs, which refer to all types of financial expenditure undergone to avert physical and material damages caused by flooding, and remediation...

  3. Magnetic separation for environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schake, A.R.; Avens, L.R.; Hill, D.D.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Romero, D.A.; Worl, L.A.; Tolt, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a form of magnetic separation used to separate solids from other solids, liquids or gases. HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles from diamagnetic host materials. The technology relies only on physical properties, and therefore separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Actinide and fission product wastes within the DOE weapons complex pose challenging problems for environmental remediation. Because the majority of actinide complexes and many fission products are paramagnetic, while most host materials are diamagnetic, HGMS can be used to concentrate the contaminants into a low volume waste stream. The authors are currently developing HGMS for applications to soil decontamination, liquid waste treatment, underground storage tank waste treatment, and actinide chemical processing residue concentration. Application of HGMS usually involves passing a slurry of the contaminated mixture through a magnetized volume. Field gradients are produced in the magnetized volume by a ferromagnetic matrix material, such as steel wool, expanded metal, iron shot, or nickel foam. The matrix fibers become trapping sites for ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles in the host material. The particles with a positive susceptibility are attracted toward an increasing magnetic field gradient and can be extracted from diamagnetic particles, which react in the opposite direction, moving away from the areas of high field gradients. The extracted paramagnetic contaminants are flushed from the matrix fibers when the magnetic field is reduced to zero or when the matrix canister is removed from the magnetic field. Results are discussed for the removal of uranium trioxide from water, PuO 2 , U, and Pu from various soils (Fernald, Nevada Test Site), and the waste water treatment of Pu and Am isotopes using HGMS

  4. Fluoride in groundwater: toxicological exposure and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S K; Singh, R K; Damodaran, T; Mishra, V K; Sharma, D K; Rai, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is a chemical element that is found most frequently in groundwater and has become one of the most important toxicological environmental hazards globally. The occurrence of fluoride in groundwater is due to weathering and leaching of fluoride-bearing minerals from rocks and sediments. Fluoride when ingested in small quantities (dental health by reducing dental caries, whereas higher concentrations (>1.5 mg/L) may cause fluorosis. It is estimated that about 200 million people, from among 25 nations the world over, may suffer from fluorosis and the causes have been ascribed to fluoride contamination in groundwater including India. High fluoride occurrence in groundwaters is expected from sodium bicarbonate-type water, which is calcium deficient. The alkalinity of water also helps in mobilizing fluoride from fluorite (CaF2). Fluoride exposure in humans is related to (1) fluoride concentration in drinking water, (2) duration of consumption, and (3) climate of the area. In hotter climates where water consumption is greater, exposure doses of fluoride need to be modified based on mean fluoride intake. Various cost-effective and simple procedures for water defluoridation techniques are already known, but the benefits of such techniques have not reached the rural affected population due to limitations. Therefore, there is a need to develop workable strategies to provide fluoride-safe drinking water to rural communities. The study investigated the geochemistry and occurrence of fluoride and its contamination in groundwater, human exposure, various adverse health effects, and possible remedial measures from fluoride toxicity effects.

  5. Acid rock drainage passive remediation using alkaline clay: Hydro-geochemical study and impacts of vegetation and sand on remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Fernando; Wen, Yipei; Liang, Xu

    2018-10-01

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) is one of the most adverse environmental problems of the mine industry, especially in regions with an abundance of coal refuse (CR) deposits (e.g. the Northern Appalachian Coalfield in the USA) where surface and ground waters are affected by this pollution due to the acidity and high content of sulfates and heavy metals. This study explores the effectiveness of the ARD passive remediation method using alkaline clay (AC) through a series of static and long-term kinetic laboratory experiments (over three years) complemented with field measurements and geochemical modeling. Two important issues associated with this passive and auto-sustainable ARD remediation method were investigated: 1) the hydrogeochemical study of the mixture in terms of the percentages of AC and CR, and, 2) impacts of vegetation cover and a saturated sand barrier on the remediation. Both the field measurements and the samples used for the experiments came from a local coal waste site. Through the analysis of the field measurements and the outcome of the laboratory experiments and the geochemical modeling, alkaline clay proved to be an effective remediation material for ARD, in terms of achieving a neutral pH in the leachate and immobilization of sulfate and metals such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd, Co. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the use of vegetation and a saturated sand barrier are beneficial. Vegetation acted as a phytoaccumulation/phytoextraction agent, causing an additional immobilization of metals. The saturated sand barrier blocked downward the oxygen and water diffusion, reducing pyrite oxidation rates. The proposed remediation approach ensures that the acidity consumption will likely occur before all the alkalinity is exhausted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing the risk posed by high-turbidity water to water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ling; Liao, Chung-Sheng

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the risk of insufficient water supply posed by high-turbidity water. Several phenomena can pose risks to the sufficiency of a water supply; this study concerns risks to water treatment plants from particular properties of rainfall and raw water turbidity. High-turbidity water can impede water treatment plant operations; rainfall properties can influence the degree of soil erosion. Thus, water turbidity relates to rainfall characteristics. Exceedance probabilities are presented for different rainfall intensities and turbidities of water. When the turbidity of raw water is higher than 5,000 NTU, it can cause operational problems for a water treatment plant. Calculations show that the turbidity of raw water at the Ban-Sin water treatment plant will be higher than 5,000 NTU if the rainfall intensity is larger than 165 mm/day. The exceedance probability of high turbidity (turbidity >5,000 NTU) in the Ban-Sin water treatment plant is larger than 10%. When any water treatment plant cannot work regularly, its ability to supply water to its customers is at risk.

  7. Assessment of a biological in situ remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuerdemann, H.; Lund, N.C.; Gudehus, G.

    1995-01-01

    A field experiment using a bioventing technique has been conducted at the center of contamination at a former gasworks site for 3 years. The emphasis of this investigation is to determine the efficiency of in situ remediation. Due to an extremely heterogeneous distribution of contamination it was impossible to satisfactorily quantify the reduction of hydrocarbons. However, a comparison of highly contaminated soil samples shows a qualitative alteration. The analyses of pollutant composition reveal a significant decrease of low condensed PAHs up to anthracene. The relative increase of high condensed PAHs in the contaminant composition indicates a PAH degradation of 54%. Soil respiration is used to assess the course of remediation. Continuous monitoring of O 2 and CO 2 in the used air leads to an amount of about 2,400 kg of decomposed organics. Large-scale elution tests show a reduction of the sum parameters for the organic pollution of the flushing water of 80%. The PAHs have dropped about 97%. The Microtox test indicates a detoxification of 98%

  8. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss the remediation of contaminated sites. It was attended by all industry sectors that have an interest in learning about technical issues in environmental remediation research and the latest innovations in soil and groundwater remediation and industrial pollutant treatments. Cost effective in-situ and ex-situ soil reclamation strategies were presented along with groundwater and surface water remediation strategies. The diversified sessions at this conference were entitled: regulatory update; Montreal Centre of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation; soil and groundwater remediation through the Program of Energy Research and Development at Environment Canada; technology from the Netherlands; bioremediation; hydrocarbons; in-situ remediation; phytoremediation; salt management; unique locations; and, miscellaneous issues. Some areas and case studies covered in the presentations included: biological and non-biological treatments; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; electrochemical remediation; and membrane technology. The conference featured 63 presentations, of which 23 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  9. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss the remediation of contaminated sites. It was attended by all industry sectors that have an interest in learning about technical issues in environmental remediation research and the latest innovations in soil and groundwater remediation and industrial pollutant treatments. Cost effective in-situ and ex-situ soil reclamation strategies were presented along with groundwater and surface water remediation strategies. The diversified sessions at this conference were entitled: regulatory update; Montreal Centre of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation; soil and groundwater remediation through the Program of Energy Research and Development at Environment Canada; technology from the Netherlands; bioremediation; hydrocarbons; in-situ remediation; phytoremediation; salt management; unique locations; and, miscellaneous issues. Some areas and case studies covered in the presentations included: biological and non-biological treatments; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; electrochemical remediation; and membrane technology. The conference featured 63 presentations, of which 23 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  10. Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek - FY 2015 Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Mark J.; Smith, John; Eller, Virginia; DeRolph, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury remediation is a high priority for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OREM) because of large historical losses of mercury within buildings and to soils and surface waters at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Because of the extent of mercury losses and the complexities of mercury transport and fate in the downstream environment, the success of conventional options for mercury remediation in lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) is uncertain. A phased, adaptive management approach to remediation of surface water includes mercury treatment actions at Y-12 in the short-term and research and technology development (TD) to evaluate longer-term solutions in the downstream environment (US Department of Energy 2014b).

  11. Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek - FY 2015 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Mayes, Melanie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Johs, Alexander [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Poteat, Monica D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Mehlhorn, Tonia [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Lester, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Morris, Jesse [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Lowe, Kenneth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Dickson, Johnbull O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eller, Virginia [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division

    2016-04-01

    Mercury remediation is a high priority for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OREM) because of large historical losses of mercury within buildings and to soils and surface waters at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Because of the extent of mercury losses and the complexities of mercury transport and fate in the downstream environment, the success of conventional options for mercury remediation in lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) is uncertain. A phased, adaptive management approach to remediation of surface water includes mercury treatment actions at Y-12 in the short-term and research and technology development (TD) to evaluate longer-term solutions in the downstream environment (US Department of Energy 2014b).

  12. The use of high vacuum soil vapor extraction to improve contaminant recovery from ground water zones of low transmissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.; Farrow, J.R.C.; Burgess, W.

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the potential for enhancing hydrocarbon contaminant mass recovery from ground water using high vacuum soil vapor extraction (SVE). The effectiveness of this form of remediation is compared with the effectiveness of conventional pump-and-treat. This study focuses on the performance of a high vacuum SVE system at two ground water monitoring wells (MW-17 and MW-65b) at a site in Santa Barbara, California, US. The site is a highly characterized site with vadose zone and ground water petroleum hydrocarbon contamination (gasoline). The ground water wells are located beyond a defined area of vadose zone soil contamination. Ground water hydrocarbon contamination [light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) and dissolved phase] is present at each of the wells. the ground water wells have been part of a low-flow, pump-and-treat, ground water treatment system (GWTS) since August, 1986. The low transmissivity of the aquifer sediments prevent flow rates above approximately 0.02 gpm (0.01 l/min) per well

  13. An in vitro based investigation of the cytotoxic effect of water extracts of the Chinese herbal remedy LD on cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Lucy A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long Dan Xie Gan Wan (LD, a Chinese herbal remedy formulation, is traditionally used to treat a range of conditions, including gall bladder diseases, hepatitis, hyperthyroidism, migraines but it is not used for the management or treatment of cancer. However some of its herbal constituents, specifically Radix bupleuri, Radix scutellariae and Rhizoma alismatis have been shown to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the impact of LD on cancer cells in vitro. Methods HL60 and HT29 cancer cell lines were exposed to water extracts of LD (1:10, 1:50, 1:100 and/or 1:1000 prepared from a 3 mg/30 ml stock and for both cell lines growth, apoptotic induction, alterations in cell cycle characteristics and genotoxicity were investigated. The specificity of the action of LD on these cancer cell lines was also investigated by determining its effect on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Preliminary chemical analysis was carried out to identify cytotoxic constituents of LD using HPLC and LCMS. Results LD was significantly cytotoxic to, and induced apoptosis in, both cell lines. Apoptotic induction appeared to be cell cycle independent at all concentrations of LD used (1:10, 1:50 and 1:100 for the HL60 cell lines and at 1:10 for the HT29 cell line. At 1:50 and 1:100 apoptotic induction by LD appeared to be cell cycle dependent. LD caused significant genotoxic damage to both cell lines compared to their respective controls. The specificity study showed that LD exerted a moderate cytotoxic action against non-proliferating and proliferating blood lymphocytes but not apoptosis. Chemical analysis showed that a number of fractions were found to exert a significant growth inhibitory effect. However, the molecular weights of compounds within these fractions did not correspond to those from the herbal constituents of LD. Conclusion It is possible that LD may have some chemotherapeutic potential. However

  14. The effects of high-Ca hardness water treatment for secondary cooling water in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, T. J.; Park, Y. C.; Hwang, S. R.; Lim, I. C.; Choi, H. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Water-quality control of the second cooling system in HANARO has been altered from low Ca-hardness treatment to high Ca-hardness treatment since March, 2001. High Ca-hardness water treatment in HANARO is to maintain the calcium hardness around 12 by minimizing the blowdown of secondary cooling water. This paper describes the effect of cost reduction after change of water-quility treatment method. The result shows that the cost of the water could be reduced by 25% using the pond water in KAERI. The amount and cost for the chemical agent could be reduced by 40% and 10% respectively

  15. To remediate or not: A case study of Co-60 contamination at the Southerly Waste Water Treatment Plant, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The SWWTP was identified as being contaminated with 60 Co (t 1/2 =5.27 a) in early 1991. The cobalt was apparently disposed of into the sanitary sewer system by a licensee of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission during the mid- to late 1970s. It is not known if this material was disposed of illegally or as a part of licensed activities. It appears as though the contamination resulted from a single, large discharge of 60 Co from a licensed facility. However, this facility also reported periodic, permitted discharges into the sanitary sewer system while licensed by the NRC. The radioactive material was relatively immobile and heterogeneously deposited around the site at the SWWTP. In the case of the SWWTP, the regulators exercised restraint in requiring only a partial remediation of this site at a much lower cost than full remediation would have necessitated. However, given the very small risk posed by this site, it is likely that even this remediation was excessive and likely generated more risk than was abated. The most cost-effective risk reduction measure to have taken at this site would have been institutional controls, which would have generated almost exactly the same degree of risk reduction at about 1-2% of the cost of partial remediation

  16. To remediate or not: A case study of Co-60 contamination at the Southerly Waste Water Treatment Plant, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, P.A. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The SWWTP was identified as being contaminated with {sup 60}Co (t{sub 1/2}=5.27 a) in early 1991. The cobalt was apparently disposed of into the sanitary sewer system by a licensee of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission during the mid- to late 1970s. It is not known if this material was disposed of illegally or as a part of licensed activities. It appears as though the contamination resulted from a single, large discharge of {sup 60}Co from a licensed facility. However, this facility also reported periodic, permitted discharges into the sanitary sewer system while licensed by the NRC. The radioactive material was relatively immobile and heterogeneously deposited around the site at the SWWTP. In the case of the SWWTP, the regulators exercised restraint in requiring only a partial remediation of this site at a much lower cost than full remediation would have necessitated. However, given the very small risk posed by this site, it is likely that even this remediation was excessive and likely generated more risk than was abated. The most cost-effective risk reduction measure to have taken at this site would have been institutional controls, which would have generated almost exactly the same degree of risk reduction at about 1-2% of the cost of partial remediation.

  17. Reuse of waste water from high pressure water jet decontamination for reactor decommissioning scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Junxian; Li Xin; Hou Huijuan

    2011-01-01

    For recycle and reuse of reactor decommissioning scrap metal by high pressure water jet decontamination, large quantity of radioactive waste water will be generated. To save the cost of radioactive waste water treatment and to reduce the cost of the scrap decontamination, this part of radioactive waste water should be reused. Most of the radioactivities in the decontamination waste water come from the solid particle in the water. Thus to reuse the waste water, the solid particle in the waster should be removed. Different possible treatment technologies have been investigated. By cost benefit analysis the centrifugal separation technology is selected. (authors)

  18. Feasibility study of a self-remediation system for mine drainage using its thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chamteut; Cheong, Youngwook; Yim, Giljae; Ji, Sangwoo

    2016-04-01

    Mine drainage is defined as the water which is discharged to the ground surface through shafts and/or cracks formed by mining activities. Typically, mine drainage features high concentration of acidity and metals since it passes through the underground. Therefore, for the purpose of protecting the surrounding natural environment, mine drainage should be remediated before being discharged to nature. Mine drainage, due to its nature of being retained underground, shows constant temperature which is independent from the temperature of the atmosphere above ground. This condition allows mine drainage to become a promising renewable energy source since energy can be recovered from water with constant temperature. In this research, a self-remediation system is proposed which remediates the mine drainage through electrochemical reactions powered by the thermal energy of mine drainage. High energy efficiency is able to be achieved by shortening the distance between the energy source and consumption, and therefore, this system has a strong advantage to be actualized. A feasibility study for the system was conducted in this research where the thermal energy of mine drainage over time and depth was calculated as energy supply and the required electrical energy for remediating the mine drainage was measured as energy consumption. While the technology of converting thermal energy directly into electrical energy is yet to be developed, energy balance analysis results showed that the proposed self-remediation system is theoretically possible.

  19. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  20. PRODUCTION WELL WATER SHUT-OFF TREATMENT IN A HIGHLY FRACTURED SANDSTONE RESERVOIR; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.

    2001-01-01

    As domestic oil and gas fields approach maturity or even abandonment, new methods are being tested to add life to the fields. One area being addressed is the reduction of water production to extend the economic life of a field. In many fields a very common problem is permeability heterogeneity from matrix variations, fractures, or both. Conventional procedures to remediate high water rates in fractured networks, including cement squeezing, openhole packers, and liners are generally unsuccessful. The objective of this project was to test the viability of using sequential treatment of a production well with a cross-linked polymer to restrict water production from highly permeable and fractured zones. The field used for testing was the Ashley Valley field in northeastern Utah. The process proposed for testing in this field was the sequential application of small batches of a cross-linked polymer, chromium (III) polyacrylamide polymer (Marcit(trademark)). First, the highest permeability fractures were to be blocked, followed progressively by smaller fractures, and finally the higher permeability matrix channels. The initial application of this polymer in September 1997 in the Ashley Valley (AV) well No.2 did increase oil production while decreasing both water production and the relative permeability to water. The successive application of the polymer was considered as a method to increase both daily and ultimate oil production and reduce produced water. The second polymer treatment was conducted in October 1999 in AV No.2. The treatment consisted of 4,994 barrels of 1,500-mg/l to 9,000-mg/l polymer at surface injection pressures no higher than 380 psig. During injection, four offset wells showed polymer breakthrough and were shut in during the remaining treatment. Present oil and water production rates for AV No.2 are 14 BOPD and 2,700 BWPD, which is a 44% decrease in the oil rate and a 40% reduction in water from the rates after the first treatment. The decrease in

  1. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1993 Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1993, surface remedial action was complete at 10 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites. In 1993 the UMTRA Project office revised the UMTRA Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, as required by the US DOE. Because the UMTRA Project sites are in different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

  2. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1993 Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1993, surface remedial action was complete at 10 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites. In 1993 the UMTRA Project office revised the UMTRA Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, as required by the US DOE. Because the UMTRA Project sites are in different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments

  3. Remedial action and waste disposal project: 100-DR-1 remedial action readiness evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April, J.G.; Bryant, D.L.; Calverley, C.

    1996-08-01

    This plan presents the method used to assess the readiness of the 100- DR-1 Remedial Action Project. Remediation of the 100-D sites (located on the Hanford Site) involves the excavation (treatment if applicable) and final disposal of contaminated soil and debris associated with the high-priority waste sites in the 100 Areas

  4. Characterization and treatment options for high TOC heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.; Leilabadi, A.; Rudolph, A.; Williams, D.

    2007-01-01

    High total organic carbon (TOC) and high conductivity contamination in heavy water feed present serious problems for the operation of heavy water upgrader facilities. The authors describe the chemical analysis of a particular batch of contaminated heavy water which had resisted standard clean-up procedures. After chemical characterization, a special clean-up plan was developed and successfully tested in the laboratory, followed by its implementation at site. (author)

  5. Soil remediation via bioventing, vapor extraction and transition regime between vapor extraction and bioventing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Comparison of the BV, SVE and AIBV technologies indicated that all of those technologies are efficient for remediation of unsaturated zone, but after specific remediation time frames, only AIBV able to support guide line values and protect ground waters.

  6. Nanocomposite Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Environmental Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaeigohar, Shahin; Elbahri, Mady

    2014-02-10

    Rapid worldwide industrialization and population growth is going to lead to an extensive environmental pollution. Therefore, so many people are currently suffering from the water shortage induced by the respective pollution, as well as poor air quality and a huge fund is wasted in the world each year due to the relevant problems. Environmental remediation necessitates implementation of novel materials and technologies, which are cost and energy efficient. Nanomaterials, with their unique chemical and physical properties, are an optimum solution. Accordingly, there is a strong motivation in seeking nano-based approaches for alleviation of environmental problems in an energy efficient, thereby, inexpensive manner. Thanks to a high porosity and surface area presenting an extraordinary permeability (thereby an energy efficiency) and selectivity, respectively, nanofibrous membranes are a desirable candidate. Their functionality and applicability is even promoted when adopting a nanocomposite strategy. In this case, specific nanofillers, such as metal oxides, carbon nanotubes, precious metals, and smart biological agents, are incorporated either during electrospinning or in the post-processing. Moreover, to meet operational requirements, e.g., to enhance mechanical stability, decrease of pressure drop, etc. , nanofibrous membranes are backed by a microfibrous non-woven forming a hybrid membrane. The novel generation of nanocomposite/hybrid nanofibrous membranes can perform extraordinarily well in environmental remediation and control. This reality justifies authoring of this review paper.

  7. Nanocomposite Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Environmental Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Homaeigohar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid worldwide industrialization and population growth is going to lead to an extensive environmental pollution. Therefore, so many people are currently suffering from the water shortage induced by the respective pollution, as well as poor air quality and a huge fund is wasted in the world each year due to the relevant problems. Environmental remediation necessitates implementation of novel materials and technologies, which are cost and energy efficient. Nanomaterials, with their unique chemical and physical properties, are an optimum solution. Accordingly, there is a strong motivation in seeking nano-based approaches for alleviation of environmental problems in an energy efficient, thereby, inexpensive manner. Thanks to a high porosity and surface area presenting an extraordinary permeability (thereby an energy efficiency and selectivity, respectively, nanofibrous membranes are a desirable candidate. Their functionality and applicability is even promoted when adopting a nanocomposite strategy. In this case, specific nanofillers, such as metal oxides, carbon nanotubes, precious metals, and smart biological agents, are incorporated either during electrospinning or in the post-processing. Moreover, to meet operational requirements, e.g., to enhance mechanical stability, decrease of pressure drop, etc., nanofibrous membranes are backed by a microfibrous non-woven forming a hybrid membrane. The novel generation of nanocomposite/hybrid nanofibrous membranes can perform extraordinarily well in environmental remediation and control. This reality justifies authoring of this review paper.

  8. Mercury contaminated sediment sites—An evaluation of remedial options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Chattopadhyay, Sandip, E-mail: Sandip.Chattopadhyay@tetratech.com [Tetra Tech, Inc., 250 West Court Street, Suite 200W, Cincinnati, OH 45202 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally-occurring element that is ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. Though efforts have been made in recent years to decrease Hg emissions, historically-emitted Hg can be retained in the sediments of aquatic bodies where they may be slowly converted to methylmercury (MeHg). Consequently, Hg in historically-contaminated sediments can result in high levels of significant exposure for aquatic species, wildlife and human populations consuming fish. Even if source control of contaminated wastewater is achievable, it may take a very long time, perhaps decades, for Hg-contaminated aquatic systems to reach relatively safe Hg levels in both water and surface sediment naturally. It may take even longer if Hg is present at higher concentration levels in deep sediment. Hg contaminated sediment results from previous releases or ongoing contributions from sources that are difficult to identify. Due to human activities or physical, chemical, or biological processes (e.g. hydrodynamic flows, bioturbation, molecular diffusion, and chemical transformation), the buried Hg can be remobilized into the overlying water. Hg speciation in the water column and sediments critically affect the reactivity (i.e. conversion of inorganic Hg(II) to MeHg), transport, and its exposure to living organisms. Also, geochemical conditions affect the activity of methylating bacteria and its availability for methylation. This review paper discusses remedial considerations (e.g. key chemical factors in fate and transport of Hg, source characterization and control, environmental management procedures, remediation options, modeling tools) and includes practical case studies for cleaning up Hg-contaminated sediment sites. -- Highlights: ► Managing mercury-contaminated sediment sites are challenging to remediate. ► Remediation technologies are making a difference in managing these sites. ► Partitioning plays a dominant role in the distribution of mercury species. ► Mathematical

  9. Water quality monitoring for high-priority water bodies in the Sonoran Desert network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry W. Sprouse; Robert M. Emanuel; Sara A. Strorrer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a network monitoring program for “high priority” water bodies in the Sonoran Desert Network of the National Park Service. Protocols were developed for monitoring selected waters for ten of the eleven parks in the Network. Park and network staff assisted in identifying potential locations of testing sites, local priorities, and how water quality...

  10. Saving Now and Saving Later: How High School Reform Can Reduce the Nation's Wasted Remediation Dollars. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    For young people entering the twenty-first-century job market, high school graduation is no longer the finish line, but the starting line. While one-third of students will fail to graduate from high school, too many students who do graduate and make it to the postsecondary starting line find that they are underprepared for postsecondary work. A…

  11. Lessons Learned from Environmental Remediation Programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-15

    Several remediation projects have been developed to date, and experience with these projects has been accumulated. Lessons learned span from non-technical to technical aspects, and need to be shared with those who are beginning or are facing the challenge to implement environmental remediation works. This publication reviews some of these lessons. The key role of policy and strategies at the national level in framing the conditions in which remediation projects are to be developed and decisions made is emphasized. Following policy matters, this publication pays attention to the importance of social aspects and the requirement for fairness in decisions to be made, something that can only be achieved with the involvement of a broad range of interested parties in the decision making process. The publication also reviews the funding of remediation projects, planning, contracting, cost estimates and procurement, and issues related to long term stewardship. Lessons learned regarding technical aspects of remediation projects are reviewed. Techniques such as the application of cover systems and soil remediation (electrokinetics, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification and stabilization techniques) are analysed with respect to performance and cost. After discussing soil remediation, the publication covers issues associated with water treatment, where techniques such as ‘pump and treat’ and the application of permeable barriers are reviewed. Subsequently, there is a section dedicated to reviewing briefly the lessons learned in the remediation of uranium mining and processing sites. Many of these sites throughout the world have become orphaned, and are waiting for remediation. The publication notes that little progress has been made in the management of some of these sites, particularly in the understanding of associated environmental and health risks, and the ability to apply prediction to future environmental and health standards. The publication concludes

  12. Lessons Learned from Environmental Remediation Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Several remediation projects have been developed to date, and experience with these projects has been accumulated. Lessons learned span from non-technical to technical aspects, and need to be shared with those who are beginning or are facing the challenge to implement environmental remediation works. This publication reviews some of these lessons. The key role of policy and strategies at the national level in framing the conditions in which remediation projects are to be developed and decisions made is emphasized. Following policy matters, this publication pays attention to the importance of social aspects and the requirement for fairness in decisions to be made, something that can only be achieved with the involvement of a broad range of interested parties in the decision making process. The publication also reviews the funding of remediation projects, planning, contracting, cost estimates and procurement, and issues related to long term stewardship. Lessons learned regarding technical aspects of remediation projects are reviewed. Techniques such as the application of cover systems and soil remediation (electrokinetics, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification and stabilization techniques) are analysed with respect to performance and cost. After discussing soil remediation, the publication covers issues associated with water treatment, where techniques such as ‘pump and treat’ and the application of permeable barriers are reviewed. Subsequently, there is a section dedicated to reviewing briefly the lessons learned in the remediation of uranium mining and processing sites. Many of these sites throughout the world have become orphaned, and are waiting for remediation. The publication notes that little progress has been made in the management of some of these sites, particularly in the understanding of associated environmental and health risks, and the ability to apply prediction to future environmental and health standards. The publication concludes

  13. Environmental impact of differently remediated hard coal overburden and tailings dumps a few decades after remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willscher, S.; Felix, M.; Sohr, A.

    2010-01-01

    Coal mining in the Saxony region of Germany has caused heavy metal and arsenic pollution in adjacent groundwater and surface waters. Coal waste dumping sites are leaching heavy metals and metalloids in the form of fine precipitates into local rivers. This paper studied the different remediation strategies used at 3 different dump sites in the area. The aim of the study was to determine the environmental impact of the dumps and evaluate the long-term effects of remediation measures. The dumps consisted of coarse to fine-grained materials from former processing activities, and contained pyrite in varying concentrations. Samples from different depth as well as groundwater samples were taken from the sites and investigated for their mechanical, geological, geochemical, biogeochemical, and physico-chemical characteristics. Seepage formation rates and contaminant loads at the dump sites were compared. The study showed that the revegetation of dump surfaces can help to prevent against erosion, but cannot prevent acid mine drainage (AMD) generation. The additional seals and covers placed at 2 of the dumps resulted in a high reduction of seepage waters, and almost no acidification of dump materials. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek - FY 2016 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Johnbull O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, John G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Mehlhorn, Tonia L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Lowe, Kenneth Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Morris, Jesse G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Mayes, Melanie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Johs, Alexander [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); McManamay, Ryan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Poteat, Monica D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Olsen, Todd A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Eller, Virginia A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC); Gonez Rodriguez, Leroy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC)

    2017-07-01

    Mercury remediation is a high priority for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OREM), especially at and near the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) where historical mercury use has resulted in contaminated buildings, soils, and downstream surface waters. To address mercury contamination of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), the DOE has adopted a phased, adaptive management approach to remediation, which includes mercury treatment actions at Y-12 in the short-term and research and technology development (TD) to evaluate longer-term solutions in the downstream environment (US Department of Energy 2014).

  15. SEQUESTERING AGENTS FOR ACTIVE CAPS - REMEDIATION OF METALS AND ORGANICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A; Michael Paller, M; Danny D. Reible, D; Xingmao Ma, X; Ioana G. Petrisor, I

    2007-05-10

    This research evaluated organoclays, zeolites, phosphates, and a biopolymer as sequestering agents for inorganic and organic contaminants. Batch experiments were conducted to identify amendments and mixtures of amendments for metal and organic contaminants removal and retention. Contaminant removal was evaluated by calculating partitioning coefficients. Metal retention was evaluated by desorption studies in which residue from the removal studies was extracted with 1 M MgCl{sub 2} solution. The results indicated that phosphate amendments, some organoclays, and the biopolymer, chitosan, were very effective sequestering agents for metals in fresh and salt water. Organoclays were very effective sorbents for phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Partitioning coefficients for the organoclays were 3000-3500 ml g{sup -1} for benzo(a)pyrene, 400-450 ml g{sup -1} for pyrene, and 50-70 ml g{sup -1} for phenanthrene. Remediation of sites with a mixture of contaminants is more difficult than sites with a single contaminant because metals and organic contaminants have different fate and transport mechanisms in sediment and water. Mixtures of amendments (e.g., organoclay and rock phosphate) have high potential for remediating both organic and inorganic contaminants under a broad range of environmental conditions, and have promise as components in active caps for sediment remediation.

  16. Treatment of Highly Turbid Water by Polyaluminum Ferric Chloride (PAFCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Fazel Mohammadi-Moghaddam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: In some situation like rainfall seasons raw water become very turbid so it affected the water treatment plant processes and quality of produced water. Treatment of very high turbid water has some concerns like precursors for disinfection by-products and very loading rate of particle on filter's media and consequently increases in water consumption for filter backwash. This paper investigates the performance of a composite inorganic polymer of aluminium and ferric salt, Polyaluminium ferric chloride (PAFCl, for the removal of turbidity, color and natural organic matter (NOM from high turbid water. Materials and Methods: Experiments were carried out by Jar test experiment by synthetic water samples with 250 and 500 NTU turbidity that prepared in laboratory. Results: The results of conventional jar test showed that the optimum pH for coagulation of water sample was 7.5 to 8 and optimum dosage of the coagulant was 10 mg/L. Removal efficiency of turbidity, color and UV adsorbent at 254 nm at optimum dose and pH without filtration was 99.92%, 100% and 80.6% respectively for first sample (250 NTU and 99.95%, 99.49% and 84.77 for second sample (500 NTU respectively. Conclusion: It concluded that polyaluminium ferric chloride has a very good efficiency for the removal of turbidity, color and organic matter in high turbid water. Also it can be select as a coagulant for high turbid water and some waste water from water treatment plant like filter backwash water.

  17. Foam - novel delivery technology for remediation of vadose zone environments - 59019

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansik, Danielle; Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Zhong, Lirong; Zhang, Fred; Foote, Martin; Wu, Yuxin; Hubbard, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Deep vadose zone environments can be a primary source and pathway for contaminant migration to groundwater. These environments present unique characterization and remediation challenges that necessitate scrutiny and research. The thickness, depth, and intricacies of the deep vadose zone, combined with a lack of understanding of the key subsurface processes (e.g., biogeochemical and hydrologic) affecting contaminant migration, make it difficult to create validated conceptual and predictive models of subsurface flow dynamics and contaminant behavior across multiple scales. These factors also make it difficult to design and deploy sustainable remedial approaches and monitor long-term contaminant behavior after remedial actions. Functionally, methods for addressing contamination must remove and/or reduce transport of contaminants. This problem is particularly challenging in the arid western United States where the vadose zone is hundreds of feet thick, rendering transitional excavation methods exceedingly costly and ineffective. Delivery of remedial amendments is one of the most challenging and critical aspects for all remedy-based approaches. The conventional approach for delivery is through injection of aqueous remedial solutions. However, heterogeneous deep vadose zone environments present hydrologic and geochemical challenges that limit the effectiveness. Because the flow of solution infiltration is dominantly controlled by gravity and suction, injected liquid preferentially percolates through highly permeable pathways, by-passing low-permeability zones that frequently contain the majority of contamination. Moreover, the wetting front can readily mobilize and enhance contaminant transport to the underlying aquifer prior to stabilization. Development of innovative in-situ technologies may be the only means to meet remedial action objectives and long-term stewardship goals. Surfactants can be used to lower the liquid surface tension and create stabile foams, which

  18. High Throughput Analysis of Photocatalytic Water Purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobral Romao, J.I.; Baiao Barata, David; Habibovic, Pamela; Mul, Guido; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel high throughput photocatalyst efficiency assessment method based on 96-well microplates and UV-Vis spectroscopy. We demonstrate the reproducibility of the method using methyl orange (MO) decomposition, and compare kinetic data obtained with those provided in the literature for

  19. Development of high conversion boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Mochida, Takaaki; Uchikawa, Sadao.

    1988-01-01

    It is expected that the period of LWRs being the main source of electric power supply becomes long, therefore, the development of next generation LWRs placing emphasis on the effective utilization of uranium resources and the improvement of economical efficiency is necessary. In this paper, as the next generation BWRs subsequent to ABWRs, the concept of the core of high conversion type BWRs is reported, in which emphasis is placed on the saving of natural uranium resources by raising the rate of conversion to plutonium. This core is that of realizing the high rate of conversion by utilizing the void in the core, which is the feature of BWRs, and the case of making the change of the core structure relatively small by using cross type control rods and the case of changing the core structure for further heightening the rate of conversion and making control rods into cluster type are described. In order to meet the demand like this, Hitachi Ltd. has engaged in the development of the concept of the core of next generation LWRs. In the high conversion type BWRs, there is not large change in the reactor system and turbine system from the current BWRs. The features and the concept of the core of high conversion type BWRs are described. (Kako, I.)

  20. Is high-pressure water the cradle of life?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2003-01-01

    Several theories have been proposed for the synthesis of prebiotic molecules. This letter shows that the structure of supercritical water, or high-pressure water, could trigger prebiotic synthesis and the origin of life deep in the oceans, in hydrothermal vent systems. Dimer geometries of high-pressure water may have a point of symmetry and a zero dipole moment. Consequently, simple apolar molecules found in submarine hydrothermal vent systems will dissolve in the apolar environment provided by the apolar form of the water dimer. Apolar water could be the medium which helps precursor molecules to concentrate and react more efficiently. The formation of prebiotic molecules could thus be linked to the structure of the water inside chimney nanochannels and cavities where hydrothermal piezochemistry and shock wave chemistry could occur. (letter to the editor)

  1. Natural Remediation at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C. M.; Van Pelt, R.

    2002-01-01

    Natural remediation is a general term that includes any technology or strategy that takes advantage of natural processes to remediate a contaminated media to a condition that is protective of human health and the environment. Natural remediation techniques are often passive and minimally disruptive to the environment. They are generally implemented in conjunction with traditional remedial solutions for source control (i.e., capping, stabilization, removal, soil vapor extraction, etc.). Natural remediation techniques being employed at Savannah River Site (SRS) include enhanced bio-remediation, monitored natural attenuation, and phytoremediation. Enhanced bio-remediation involves making nutrients available and conditions favorable for microbial growth. With proper precautions and feeding, the naturally existing microbes flourish and consume the contaminants. Case studies of enhanced bio-remediation include surface soils contaminated with PCBs and pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) contamination in both the vadose zone and groundwater. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been selected as the preferred alternative for groundwater clean up at several SRS waste units. Successful implementation of MNA has been based on demonstration that sources have been controlled, groundwater modeling that indicates that plumes will not expand or reach surface water discharge points at levels that exceed regulatory limits, and continued monitoring. Phytoremediation is being successfully utilized at several SRS waste units. Phytoremediation involves using plants and vegetation to uptake, break down, or manage contaminants in groundwater or soils. Case studies at SRS include managing groundwater plumes of tritium and VOCs with pine trees that are native to the area. Significant decreases in tritium discharge to a site stream have been realized in one phytoremediation project. Studies of other vegetation types, methods of application, and other target contaminants are

  2. Advances in high temperature water chemistry and future issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millett, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper traces the development of advances in high temperature water chemistry with emphasis in the field of nuclear power. Many of the water chemistry technologies used in plants throughout the world today would not have been possible without the underlying scientific advances made in this field. In recent years, optimization of water chemistry has been accomplished by the availability of high temperature water chemistry codes such as MULTEQ. These tools have made the science of high temperature chemistry readily accessible for engineering purposes. The paper closes with a discussion of what additional scientific data and insights must be pursued in order to support the further development of water chemistry technologies for the nuclear industry. (orig.)

  3. Potential uses of high gradient magnetic filtration for high-temperature water purification in boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, H.H.; Holloway, J.H.; Abbott, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    Studies of various high-temperature filter devices indicate a potentially positive impact for high gradient magnetic filtration on boiling water reactor radiation level reduction. Test results on in-plant water composition and impurity crystallography are presented for several typical boiling water reactors (BWRs) on plant streams where high-temperature filtration may be particularly beneficial. An experimental model on the removal of red iron oxide (hematite) from simulated reactor water with a high gradient magnetic filter is presented, as well as the scale-up parameters used to predict the filtration efficiency on various high temperature, in-plant streams. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the crud removal potential of high gradient magnetic filters installed at alternative stream locations under typical, steady-state, plant operating conditions

  4. Hurricane Harvey & Houston: Hell or High Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedient, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    Harvey was the largest rainfall and most damaging flood event in US history. By all measures the widespread impact was a devastating blow to all of Houston and surrounding areas. It dropped between 36 and 52 inches along the Texas coast over 5 days, exceeding all previous rainfall records, with up to 20 inches in a day. However, two earlier events from 2015 and 2016 also brought widespread flooding to many parts of Houston, especially concentrated in a few watersheds. Most bayous during Harvey were over bank by as much as 10 ft, and flooded an estimated 136000 homes in Harris county alone, greatly exceeding the massive TS Allison impact of 2001. While the area deals with a significant recovery effort, there is a massive call to action on the part of politicians, governmental agencies, and those affected by this event. There is need for a better statistical basis of rainfalls and floodplain mapping in Houston. Development patterns and density have come into question, as homes have been either built in 100 yr floodplains or taken into those floodplains over time. Estimates say > 47 % of homes flooded in TS Allison were outside the floodplain. Many homes were built behind Addicks/Barker reservoirs that protect downtown, many with no knowledge that they were in harms way (over 8000 were flooded there alone), and flooded as water reached record setting levels. New technologies have allowed the measurement and prediction of floods to make great strides since the mid 1990s, (Radar, LIDAR, GIS, hydrologic models, floodplain updates) and the Houston area has benefited from these efforts. While the plan going forward is daunting, there are a number of positive steps that are occurring and should lead to more resiliency. There needs to be policy changes on storage and detention requirements, green space & infrastructure improvements, and perhaps a third regional reservoir above Addicks. Also there is a renewed interest in flood warning systems to better inform the public

  5. Water Intake by Soil, Experiments for High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969

    Presented are a variety of surface run-off experiments for high school students. The experiments are analogies to basic concepts about water intake, as related to water delivery, soil properties and management, floods, and conservation measures. The materials needed to perform the experiments are easily obtainable. The experiments are followed by…

  6. Decomposition of water into highly combustible hydroxyl gas used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method proposed involves the decomposition of water into highly combustible hydroxyl gas via electrolysis, which is used in internal combustion engines of electrical generators for electricity generation. The by-product obtained from combustion of this gas is water vapour and oxygen to replenish the atmosphere.

  7. Mechanism of high-temperature resistant water-base mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, P

    1981-01-01

    Based on experiments, the causes and laws governing the changes in the performance of water-base mud under high temperature are analyzed, and the requisites and mechanism of treating agents resisting high temperature are discussed. Ways and means are sought for inhibiting, delaying and making use of the effect of high temperature on the performance of mud, while new ideas and systematic views have been expressed on the preparation of treating agents and set-up of a high temperature resistant water-base mud system. High temperature dispersion and high temperature surface inactivation of clay in the mud, as well as their effect and method of utilization are reviewed. Subjects also touched upon include degradation and cross-linking of the high-temperature resistant treating agents, their use and effect. Based on the above, the preparation of a water-base and system capable of resisting 180 to 250/sup 0/C is recommended.

  8. High resolution production water footprints of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, L.; Yufei, A.; Konar, M.; Mekonnen, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The United States is the largest producer and consumer of goods and services in the world. Rainfall, surface water supplies, and groundwater aquifers represent a fundamental input to this economic production. Despite the importance of water resources to economic activity, we do not have consistent information on water use for specific locations and economic sectors. A national, high-resolution database of water use by sector would provide insight into US utilization and dependence on water resources for economic production. To this end, we calculate the water footprint of over 500 food, energy, mining, services, and manufacturing industries and goods produced in the US. To do this, we employ a data intensive approach that integrates water footprint and input-output techniques into a novel methodological framework. This approach enables us to present the most detailed and comprehensive water footprint analysis of any country to date. This study broadly contributes to our understanding of water in the US economy, enables supply chain managers to assess direct and indirect water dependencies, and provides opportunities to reduce water use through benchmarking.

  9. Superfund Green Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of site cleanup and incorporating options – like the use of renewable energy resources – to maximize the environmental benefits of cleanups.

  10. Remediation of sites with dispersed radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    disciplines, including the health sciences, chemistry, physics, geology, microbiology and environmental engineering, is necessary in order to develop technical solutions. It is also necessary to include information on the political, social and economic context. This report describes remediation techniques that are applicable to dispersed radioactive contamination at a variety of sites, including surface soil, the vadose zone, surface water, sediments and groundwater

  11. Water uptake and motion in highly densified bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahr, G.; Mueller-Vonmoos, F.; Kraehenbuehl, F.; Stoeckli, H.F.

    1986-07-01

    Water uptake by the bentonites MX-80 and Montigel was investigated according to the classical method of determination of the heat immersion and the adsorption-desorption isotherms. In addition, the layer expansion of the montmorillonite was measured as a function of the water content. The evaluation of the adsorption isotherms according to Dubinin-Radushkevich and the stratification distances determined by x-ray confirmed gradual water uptake. Up to 10% water content, the water is adsorbed as a monolayer, up to 20%, as a bimolecular layer around the interlayer cations. The partial specific entropy could be determined from the approximative calculation of the partial specific enthalpy from the heats of immersion and the free enthalpy from the adsorption isotherms. From this it is evident that the interlayer water shows a high degree of order. In this condition, the mobility of the water molecules is considerably lower than in free water. From the adsorption isotherm and the layer expansion observed, it can be assumed that water can appear in the pore space only from approximately 25% water content. The spaces outwith the interlayer space and the surfaces of the montmorillonite particles are considered as pore space. If free swelling is prevented and with dry densities greater than 1.8 Mg/m/sup 3/ for the highly compacted bentonites, water uptake causes a drastic reduction of the original pore space so that practically all the water is in the interlayer space. Calculation of the swelling pressure from the adsorption isotherms gives a good approximation of the measured swelling pressures. A montmorillonite surface of ca. 750 m/sup 2//g for both bentonites can be derived from a Dubinin-Radushkevich analysis of the adsorption isotherm. Water uptake into the compacted unsaturated bentonites can be described as diffusion with a diffusion coefficient of the order of magnitude of 3.10/sup -10/ m/sup 2//s. (author)

  12. Steam condensation behavior of high pressure water's blow down directly into water in containment under LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Ishida, Toshihisa; Yoritsune, Tsutomu; Kasahara, Y.

    1995-01-01

    JAERI has been conducting a design study of an advanced type Marine Reactor X (MRX) for merchant ships. By employing 'Integral type PWR', In-vessel type control rod drive systems', 'Water filled containment system' and 'Decay heat removal system by natural convection', MRX achieved a compact, light weight and highly safe plant. Experiments on steam condensation behavior of high pressure water's blow down into water have been conducted in order to investigate a major safety issue related to the design decision of 'Water filled containment system'. (author)

  13. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, High Low

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), daily, high low water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services...

  14. Inundation Mapping Tidal Surface - Mean Higher High Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are a derived product of the NOAA VDatum tool and they extend the tool's Mean Higher High Water (MHHW) tidal datum conversion inland beyond its original...

  15. MGP site remediation: Working toward presumptive remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs) were prevalent in the United States during the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries. MGPs produced large quantities of waste by-products, which varied depending on the process used to manufacture the gas, but most commonly were tars and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. There are an estimated 3,000 to 5,000 abandoned MGP sites across the United States. Because these sites are not concentrated in one geographic location and at least three different manufacturing processes were used, the waste characteristics are very heterogeneous. The question of site remediation becomes how to implement a cost-effective remediation with the variety of cleanup technologies available for these sites. Because of the significant expenditure required for characterization and cleanup of MGP sites, owners and regulatory agencies are beginning to look at standardizing cleanup technologies for these sites. This paper discusses applicable cleanup technologies and the attitude of state regulatory agencies towards the use of presumptive remedies, which can reduce the amount of characterization and detailed analysis necessary for any particular site. Additionally, this paper outlines the process of screening and evaluating candidate technologies, and the progress being made to match the technology to the site

  16. Procedure of the preparatory works execution during the remediation of high-rise buildings debris due to the disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsyn, Denis

    2018-03-01

    The article covers one of the preparatory works types, in particular - the debris clearance. The types of machines and machinery, the purposes of the debris clearance, as well as the tasks for decrease of debris mass and scope are specified herein. The purpose of the article is to show the current level of the domestic machinery, as well as to share the experience of preparatory works. The article describes one of the preparatory works types, in particular - the debris clearance during the high-rise buildings demolition. Given are the equipment and machinery types, covered are the purposes and procedure of debris clearance defined are the tasks on reduction of debris mass and sizes. Specified are the types and methods of the preparatory works execution. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the domestic equipment current state, and to share the experience in preparatory works execution.

  17. Arsenic Remediation by Synthetic and Natural Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqaf Jagirani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contagion of toxic metals in water is a serious environmental and health concern and threatening problem worldwide. Particularly arsenic contamination in ground water has became great dilemma in the earlier decades. With advent in research for arsenic remediation, standard of drinking water is improving and now reduced to few parts per million (ppm level of arsenic in drinking water sources. However, due to continuous enhancement in environmental pollution, remediation techniques are still needed to achieve the drinking water quality standard. Development of novel and economically feasible removal techniques or materials for selective separation of this toxic specie has been the main focus of research. Several arsenic removal techniques, including membrane separation, coagulation, precipitation, anion exchange have been developed. The aim of this article is to review briefly arsenic chemistry and previous and current available technologies that have been reported various low-cost adsorbents for arsenic removal.

  18. Dynamical explanation for the high water abundance detected in Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elitzur, M.

    1979-01-01

    Shock wave chemistry is suggested as the likely explanation for the high water abundance which has been recently detected in Orion by Phyllips et al. The existence of such a shock and its inferred properties are in agreement with other observations of Orion such as the broad velocity feature and H 2 vibration emission. Shock waves are proposed as the likely explanation for high water abundances observed in other sources such as the strong H 2 O masers

  19. Auto Detection For High Level Water Content For Oil Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janier, Josefina Barnachea; Jumaludin, Zainul Arifin B.

    2010-06-01

    Auto detection of high level water content for oil well is a system that measures the percentage of water in crude oil. This paper aims to discuss an auto detection system for measuring the content of water level in crude oil which is applicable for offshore and onshore oil operations. Data regarding water level content from wells can be determined by using automation thus, well with high water level can be determined immediately whether to be closed or not from operations. Theoretically the system measures the percentage of two- fluid mixture where the fluids have different electrical conductivities which are water and crude oil. The system made use of grid sensor which is a grid pattern like of horizontal and vertical wires. When water occupies the space at the intersection of vertical and horizontal wires, an electrical signal is detected which proved that water completed the circuit path in the system. The electrical signals are counted whereas the percentage of water is determined from the total electrical signals detected over electrical signals provided. Simulation of the system using the MultiSIM showed that the system provided the desired result.

  20. Potential Remedies for the High Synchrotron-Radiation-Induced Heat Load for Future Highest-Energy-Proton Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084568; Baglin, Vincent; Schaefers, Franz

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new method for handling the high synchrotron radiation (SR) induced heat load of future circular hadron colliders (like FCC-hh). FCC-hh are dominated by the production of SR, which causes a significant heat load on the accelerator walls. Removal of such a heat load in the cold part of the machine, as done in the Large Hadron Collider, will require more than 100 MW of electrical power and a major cooling system. We studied a totally different approach, identifying an accelerator beam screen whose illuminated surface is able to forward reflect most of the photons impinging onto it. Such a reflecting beam screen will transport a significant part of this heat load outside the cold dipoles. Then, in room temperature sections, it could be more efficiently dissipated. Here we will analyze the proposed solution and address its full compatibility with all other aspects an accelerator beam screen must fulfill to keep under control beam instabilities as caused by electron cloud formation, impedance, dynamic...

  1. Big Data Challenges of High-Dimensional Continuous-Time Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection and a Remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei Choi; Pun, Chi Seng; Wong, Hoi Ying

    2017-08-01

    Investors interested in the global financial market must analyze financial securities internationally. Making an optimal global investment decision involves processing a huge amount of data for a high-dimensional portfolio. This article investigates the big data challenges of two mean-variance optimal portfolios: continuous-time precommitment and constant-rebalancing strategies. We show that both optimized portfolios implemented with the traditional sample estimates converge to the worst performing portfolio when the portfolio size becomes large. The crux of the problem is the estimation error accumulated from the huge dimension of stock data. We then propose a linear programming optimal (LPO) portfolio framework, which applies a constrained ℓ 1 minimization to the theoretical optimal control to mitigate the risk associated with the dimensionality issue. The resulting portfolio becomes a sparse portfolio that selects stocks with a data-driven procedure and hence offers a stable mean-variance portfolio in practice. When the number of observations becomes large, the LPO portfolio converges to the oracle optimal portfolio, which is free of estimation error, even though the number of stocks grows faster than the number of observations. Our numerical and empirical studies demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Biogas from organically high polluted industrial waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixt, H

    1985-06-01

    Organically high polluted waste water sets special claims for an economical purification and the process treatment. Up to now these waste waters are being purified by anaerobic processes with simultaneous biogas generation. The fourstep anaerobic degradation is influenced by a lot of important parameters. Extensive researchers in the field of anaerobic microbiology has improved the knowledge of the fundamental principles. Parallel the reactor technology is developed worldwide. In general it seems that the fixed-film-reactor with immobilized bacteria has the best future to purify organically high polluted industrial waste water with short retention times under stable operation conditions.

  3. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, South Walnut Creek Basin, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Volume 2 of this IM/IRA Plan contains OU 2 surface water, sediment, ground water and soil chemistry data, as well as the South Walnut Creek Basin Surface Water IM/IRA schedule and a tabulation of ARARs. (FL)

  4. Passive remediation strategies for petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, L.G.; Cullen, S.J.; Eccles, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The US EPA is becoming increasingly aware of costs and the limited success of existing remediation strategies. Research teams within the US EPA believe that if passive remediation can be successfully demonstrated, it is a candidate for best available technology. Passive remediation, however, must be demonstrated through the use of monitoring techniques, which demonstrate: contaminants are not moving in the dissolved, adsorbed or free product phase; and contamination is biodegrading in-place. This paper presents a concise monitoring and analysis strategy for passive remediation. Specifically, the paper presents the accuracy, precision and operating range of neutron moderation techniques as a low cost, real-time screening tool to measure the migration of the dissolved phase in soil moisture, the stabilized adsorbed phase and free product movement. In addition, the paper identifies the capillary pressure range through which the dissolved phase will move and identifies techniques for satisfying the risk analysis that movement is not taking place. The rationale for passive remediation taking place is confirmed through a discussion of gas ratios associated with bacterial assimilation of hydrocarbons. Gas ratios which are relatively constant above ground are highly inverted in the subsurface at contamination sites. The use of frequent screening of a vertical geologic profile using least cost techniques and the infrequent analysis of soil gas ratios provides the required data upon which the public will accept passive remediation as best available technology at a particular site. The paper points out that neutron moderation is a high candidate vadose zone monitoring device and identifies alternative techniques using resistivity and dielectric constants, which are in the developmental stage. The economic implications for passive remediation are enormous relative to the excavation and remediation strategies which are currently in use

  5. Remediation of antimony-rich mine waters: Assessment of antimony removal and shifts in the microbial community of an onsite field-scale bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Xiao, Enzong; Kalin, Margarete; Krumins, Valdis; Dong, Yiran; Ning, Zengping; Liu, Tong; Sun, Min; Zhao, Yanlong; Wu, Shiliang; Mao, Jianzhong; Xiao, Tangfu

    2016-08-01

    An on-site field-scale bioreactor for passive treatment of antimony (Sb) contamination was installed downstream of an active Sb mine in Southwest China, and operated for one year (including a six month monitoring period). This bioreactor consisted of five treatment units, including one pre-aerobic cell, two aerobic cells, and two microaerobic cells. With the aerobic cells inoculated with indigenous mine water microflora, the bioreactor removed more than 90% of total soluble Sb and 80% of soluble antimonite (Sb(III)). An increase in pH and decrease of oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) was also observed along the flow direction. High-throughput sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene variable (V4) region revealed that taxonomically diverse microbial communities developed in the bioreactor. Metal (loid)-oxidizing bacteria including Ferrovum, Thiomonas, Gallionella, and Leptospirillum, were highly enriched in the bioreactor cells where the highest total Sb and Sb(III) removal occurred. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that a suite of in situ physicochemical parameters including pH and Eh were substantially correlated with the overall microbial communities. Based on an UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) tree and PCoA (Principal Coordinates Analysis), the microbial composition of each cell was distinct, indicating these in situ physicochemical parameters had an effect in shaping the indigenous microbial communities. Overall, this study was the first to employ a field-scale bioreactor to treat Sb-rich mine water onsite and, moreover, the findings suggest the feasibility of the bioreactor in removing elevated Sb from mine waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioelectrical Perchlorate Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, C.; Achenbach, L. A.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    low-level perchlorate (100 μg.L-1) influent as well as mixed-waste influents more typically found in the environment containing both nitrate and perchlorate. Through extended periods of operation (>70 days), no loss in treatment efficiency was noted and no measurable growth in biomass was observed. Gas phase analysis indicated that low levels of H2 produced at the cathode surface through electrolysis can provide enough reducing equivalents to mediate this metabolism. The results of these studies demonstrate that perchlorate remediation can be facilitated through the use of a cathode as the primary electron donor, and that continuous treatment in such a system approaches current industry standards. This has important implications for the continuous treatment of this critical contaminant in industrial waste streams and drinking water. Such a process has the advantage of long-term, low-maintenance operation with ease of online monitoring and control while limiting the injection of additional chemicals into the water treatment process and outgrowth of the microbial populations. This would negate the need for the continual removal and disposal of biomass produced during treatment and also the downstream issues associated with corrosion and biofouling of distribution systems and the production of toxic disinfection byproducts.

  7. Remediation of Contaminated Soils by Solvent Flushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Jessup, Ron E.; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Wood, A. Lynn

    1994-01-01

    Solvent flushing is a potential technique for remediating a waste disposal/spill site contaminated with organic chemicals. This technique involves the injection of a solvent mixture (e.g., water plus alcohols) that enhances contaminant solubility, reduces the retardation factor, and increases the

  8. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1994 environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1994, surface remedial action was complete at 14 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites: Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; Durango, Colorado; Grand Junction, Colorado; Green River Utah, Lakeview, Oregon; Lowman, Idaho; Mexican Hat, Utah; Riverton, Wyoming; Salt Lake City, Utah; Falls City, Texas; Shiprock, New Mexico; Spook, Wyoming, Tuba City, Arizona; and Monument Valley, Arizona. Surface remedial action was ongoing at 5 sites: Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico; Naturita, Colorado; Gunnison, Colorado; and Rifle, Colorado (2 sites). Remedial action has not begun at the 5 remaining UMTRA Project sites that are in the planning stage. Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota; Maybell, Colorado; and Slick Rock, Colorado (2 sites). The ground water compliance phase of the UMTRA Project started in 1991. Because the UMTRA Project sites are.` different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

  9. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1994 environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1994, surface remedial action was complete at 14 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites: Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; Durango, Colorado; Grand Junction, Colorado; Green River Utah, Lakeview, Oregon; Lowman, Idaho; Mexican Hat, Utah; Riverton, Wyoming; Salt Lake City, Utah; Falls City, Texas; Shiprock, New Mexico; Spook, Wyoming, Tuba City, Arizona; and Monument Valley, Arizona. Surface remedial action was ongoing at 5 sites: Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico; Naturita, Colorado; Gunnison, Colorado; and Rifle, Colorado (2 sites). Remedial action has not begun at the 5 remaining UMTRA Project sites that are in the planning stage. Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota; Maybell, Colorado; and Slick Rock, Colorado (2 sites). The ground water compliance phase of the UMTRA Project started in 1991. Because the UMTRA Project sites are.' different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments

  10. Water quality assessment of a small peri-urban river using low and high frequency monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovsky, A; Criquet, J; Dumoulin, D; Alary, C; Prygiel, J; Duponchel, L; Billon, G

    2016-05-18

    The biogeochemical behaviors of small rivers that pass through suburban areas are difficult to understand because of the multi-origin inputs that can modify their behavior. In this context, a monitoring strategy has been designed for the Marque River, located in Lille Metropolitan area of northern France, that includes both low-frequency monitoring over a one-year period (monthly sampling) and high frequency monitoring (measurements every 10 minutes) in spring and summer. Several environmental and chemical parameters are evaluated including rainfall events, river flow, temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity, nutritive salts and dissolved organic matter. Our results from the Marque River show that (i) it is impacted by both urban and agricultural inputs, and as a consequence, the concentrations of phosphate and inorganic nitrogen have degraded the water quality; (ii) the classic photosynthesis/respiration processes are disrupted by the inputs of organic matter and nutritive salts; (iii) during dry periods, the urban sewage inputs (treated or not) are more important during the day, as indicated by higher river flows and maximal concentrations of ammonium; (iv) phosphate concentrations depend on oxygen contents in the river; (v) high nutrient concentrations result in eutrophication of the Marque River with lower pH and oxygen concentrations in summer. During rainfalls, additional inputs of ammonium, biodegradable organic matter as well as sediment resuspension result in anoxic events; and finally (vi) concentrations of nitrate are approximately constant over the year, except in winter when higher inputs can be recorded. Having better identified the processes responsible for the observed water quality, a more informed remediation effort can be put forward to move this suburban river to a good status of water quality.

  11. Production of highly tritiated water for tritium exposure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muirhead, C.; Pilatzke, K.; Tripple, A.; Philippi, N.; McCrimmon, K.; Castillo, I.; Boniface, H.; Suppiah, S.

    2015-01-01

    Tritium Facility staff at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) have successfully prepared highly tritiated water for use in radiation resistance of PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane-based)electrolyser membrane. The goal of System A was to convert a known amount of elemental tritium (HT) into tritiated water vapour using a copper(II) oxide bed, and to condense the tritiated water vapour into a known amount of chilled heavy water (D 2 O). The conversion and capture of tritium using this system is close to 100%. The goal of System B was to transfer tritiated water from the containment vessel to an exposure vessel (experiment) in a controlled and safe manner. System B is based on the pushing of D 2 0 with low-pressure argon carrier gas to a calibrated volume and then to the exposure vessel. A method for delivering a known and controlled amount of tritiated water has been successfully demonstrated at CRL. Using both systems Tritium Facility staff have made and distributed highly tritiated water in a safe and controlled manner. This paper focuses on how the tritiated water was produced and dispensed to the experiment

  12. In situ, high sensitivity, measurement of sup 9 sup 0 strontium in ground water using Cherenkov light

    CERN Document Server

    Bowyer, T W; Hossbach, T W; Hansen, R; Wilcox, W A

    2000-01-01

    The measurement of sup 9 sup 0 Sr in soils and ground water is important for characterization and remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. Measuring the sup 9 sup 0 Sr content to a few pCi/g of soil has been accomplished based on a design of scintillating fibers in a multilayered configuration measuring the high-energy beta emitted from sup 9 sup 0 Y decay (when in secular equilibrium with sup 9 sup 0 Sr), but has not been applied to water because the technique is sensitive to only the first few mm of soil. The volume of the source to which the detector is sensitive limits the theoretical sensitivity of such a detector, unless chemical preprocessing to strip the sup 9 sup 0 Sr from the water is performed. sup 9 sup 0 Sr activity in water can be quantified by detecting the high-energy beta particle by the Cherenkov light it produces when the high-energy beta from sup 9 sup 0 Y passes through the medium. We have used this phenomenon to sensitively measure sup 9 sup 0 Sr ( sup 9 sup 0 Y) from a volume of...

  13. Characterising Dynamic Instability in High Water-Cut Oil-Water Flows Using High-Resolution Microwave Sensor Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixin; Jin, Ningde; Han, Yunfeng; Ma, Jing

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, multi-scale entropy algorithm was used to characterise the complex flow phenomena of turbulent droplets in high water-cut oil-water two-phase flow. First, we compared multi-scale weighted permutation entropy (MWPE), multi-scale approximate entropy (MAE), multi-scale sample entropy (MSE) and multi-scale complexity measure (MCM) for typical nonlinear systems. The results show that MWPE presents satisfied variability with scale and anti-noise ability. Accordingly, we conducted an experiment of vertical upward oil-water two-phase flow with high water-cut and collected the signals of a high-resolution microwave resonant sensor, based on which two indexes, the entropy rate and mean value of MWPE, were extracted. Besides, the effects of total flow rate and water-cut on these two indexes were analysed. Our researches show that MWPE is an effective method to uncover the dynamic instability of oil-water two-phase flow with high water-cut.

  14. Origin of radium in high-mineralised waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, J.W.; Sebastian, F.

    2002-01-01

    High-mineralised waters are showing frequently high concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra, which are positively correlated with salinity. The investigated pit water is a high mineralised, reducing NaCl-brine (up to 230 g/l), which contains in coexcidence with Ba (up to 2500 ppm) and Sr, high 226 Ra concentrations (up to 63 Bq/l) and 228 Ra concentrations (up to 28 Bq/l). Feeding river systems with this water, the contact of the pit water with sulphate bearing surface water results in a precipitation of Ba and Ra as radiobaryte, with 226 Ra concentrations up to several tens of kBq/kg. The pit waters originate from a mixture of formation and meteoric waters, older than 20 Ma. High concentrations of mainly Na + and C1 - , but K + , Ca 2+ and HCO 3 - as well, are explained by dissolution of Permian salt deposits. Ba 2+ is enriched by sulphate-reducing bacteria, which destroy detrital baryte. Radium enters the water by leaching and alpha-recoil effect, but a large fraction of it is adsorbed at the surfaces of mineral grains. Mainly Ba 2+ and Sr 2+ , but univalent ions like Na + and K + as well, are desorbing Ra 2+ from the surface of minerals and take their place. Elution experiments show that beside the ion exchange of the cations, the type and amount of anions control the radium mobilisation. It seems that large anions like NO 3 - are disturbing the hydrate coat around minerals and therefore, enhance the ion exchange process. (author)

  15. Development of site remediation technologies in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunno, T.J.; Hyman, J.A.; Pheiffer, T.

    1988-01-01

    Site remediation is a pressing issue in European countries due to limited availability of land. Therefore, much progress is being made in the development of effective technologies for remediating contaminated sites. The purpose of this program was to investigate the most successful and innovative technologies for potential application into US markets. This EPA-sponsored project was based on a 9-month research effort which identified 95 innovative technologies in use or being researched in foreign countries. The most promising technologies were studied in-depth through personal interviews with the engineers who research and apply these technologies, and tours of laboratory models and full-scale installations. The most successful full-scale technologies investigated were developed in Holland, West Germany and Belgium. These technologies include vacuum extraction of hydrocarbons from soil, in situ washing of cadmium-polluted soil, rotating biocontractors for treating pesticides in ground water, high-temperature slagging incineration of low-level radioactive wastes, in situ steam stripping, and a number of landfarming and soil washing operations. The paper provides description of 13 site remediation techniques that have shown such promise in laboratory studies or in practice to warrant consideration of their use in the US

  16. Treatability of a Highly-Impaired, Saline Surface Water for Potential Urban Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Pontius

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As freshwater sources of drinking water become limited, cities and urban areas must consider higher-salinity waters as potential sources of drinking water. The Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley of California has a very high salinity (43 ppt, total dissolved solids (70,000 mg/L, and color (1440 CU. Future wetlands and habitat restoration will have significant ecological benefits, but salinity levels will remain elevated. High salinity eutrophic waters, such as the Salton Sea, are difficult to treat, yet more desirable sources of drinking water are limited. The treatability of Salton Sea water for potential urban water use was evaluated here. Coagulation-sedimentation using aluminum chlorohydrate, ferric chloride, and alum proved to be relatively ineffective for lowering turbidity, with no clear optimum dose for any of the coagulants tested. Alum was most effective for color removal (28 percent at a dose of 40 mg/L. Turbidity was removed effectively with 0.45 μm and 0.1 μm microfiltration. Bench tests of Salton Sea water using sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO achieved initial contaminant rejections of 99 percent salinity, 97.7 percent conductivity, 98.6 percent total dissolved solids, 98.7 percent chloride, 65 percent sulfate, and 99.3 percent turbidity.

  17. Biochar- and phosphate-induced immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soil and water: implication on simultaneous remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Arellano, Eduardo

    2014-03-01

    Long-term wastewater irrigation or solid waste disposal has resulted in the heavy metal contamination in both soil and groundwater. It is often separately implemented for remediation of contaminated soil or groundwater at a specific site. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the hypothesis of simultaneous remediation of both heavy metal contaminated soil and groundwater by integrating the chemical immobilization and pump-and-treat methods. To accomplish the objective, three experiments were conducted, i.e., an incubation experiment was first conducted to determine how dairy-manure-derived biochar and phosphate rock tailing induced immobilization of Cd in the Cd-contaminated soils; second, a batch sorption experiment was carried out to determine whether the pre-amended contaminated soil still had the ability to retain Pb, Zn and Cd from aqueous solution. BCR sequential extraction as well as XRD and SEM analysis were conducted to explore the possible retention mechanism; and last, a laboratory-scale model test was undertaken by leaching the Pb, Zn, and Cd contaminated groundwater through the pre-amended contaminated soils to demonstrate how the heavy metals in both contaminated soil and groundwater were simultaneously retained and immobilized. The incubation experiment showed that the phosphate biochar were effective in immobilizing soil Cd with Cd concentration in TCLP (toxicity characteristics leaching procedure) extract reduced by 19.6 % and 13.7 %, respectively. The batch sorption experiment revealed that the pre-amended soil still had ability to retain Pb, Zn, and Cd from aqueous solution. The phosphate-induced metal retention was mainly due to the metal-phosphate precipitation, while both sorption and precipitation were responsible for the metal stabilization in the biochar amendment. The laboratory-scale test demonstrated that the soil amended with phosphate removed groundwater Pb, Zn, and Cd by 96.4 %, 44.6 %, and 49.2 %, respectively, and the

  18. High purity heavy water production: need for total organic carbon determination in process water streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayushi; Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Vithal, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    In recent times, demand for high purity heavy water (99.98% pure) in industries and laboratories has grown by manifold. Its application started in nuclear industry with the design of CANDU reactor, which uses natural uranium as fuel. In this reactor the purest grade of heavy water is used as the moderator and the primary coolant. Diverse industrial applications like fibre optics, medicine, semiconductors etc. use high purity heavy water extensively to achieve better performance of the specific material. In all these applications there is a stringent requirement that the total organic carbon content (TOC) of high purity heavy water should be very low. This is because the presence of TOC can lead to adverse interactions in different applications. To minimize the TOC content in the final product there is a need to monitor and control the TOC content at each and every stage of heavy water production. Hence a simple, rapid and accurate method was developed for the determination of TOC content in process water samples. The paper summarizes the results obtained for the TOC content in the water samples collected from process streams of heavy water production plant. (author)

  19. Green Remediation: Best Management Practices for Excavation and Surface Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet is one of a series describing best management practices (BMPs) for green remediation, which holistically addresses a cleanup project's energy requirements, air emissions, impacts on water, impacts on land and ecosystems, material consumpt..

  20. To fail is human: remediating remediation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalet, Adina; Chou, Calvin L; Ellaway, Rachel H

    2017-12-01

    Remediating failing medical learners has traditionally been a craft activity responding to individual learner and remediator circumstances. Although there have been moves towards more systematic approaches to remediation (at least at the institutional level), these changes have tended to focus on due process and defensibility rather than on educational principles. As remediation practice evolves, there is a growing need for common theoretical and systems-based perspectives to guide this work. This paper steps back from the practicalities of remediation practice to take a critical systems perspective on remediation in contemporary medical education. In doing so, the authors acknowledge the complex interactions between institutional, professional, and societal forces that are both facilitators of and barriers to effective remediation practices. The authors propose a model that situates remediation within the contexts of society as a whole, the medical profession, and medical education institutions. They also outline a number of recommendations to constructively align remediation principles and practices, support a continuum of remediation practices, destigmatize remediation, and develop institutional communities of practice in remediation. Medical educators must embrace a responsible and accountable systems-level approach to remediation if they are to meet their obligations to provide a safe and effective physician workforce.

  1. Agricultural recovery of a formerly contaminated area: Establishment of a high-resolution quantitative protein map of mature flax seeds harvested from the remediated chernobyl area

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years there has been an increasing tendency toward remediation of contaminated areas for agricultural purposes. The study described herein is part of a comprehensive, long-term characterization of crop plants grown in the area formerly contaminated with radioactivity. As a first step, we ...

  2. Does the Computer-Assisted Remedial Mathematics Program at Kearny High School Lead to Improved Scores on the N.J. Early Warning Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalago-Schirm, Cynthia

    Eighth-grade students in New Jersey take the Early Warning Test (EWT), which involves reading, writing, and mathematics. Students with EWT scores below the state level of competency take a remedial mathematics course that provides students with computer-assisted instruction (2 days per week) as well as regular classroom instruction (3 days per…

  3. Diagenetic and other highly mineralized waters in the Polish Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, Andrzej; Chowaniec, Jozef

    2009-01-01

    Highly mineralized waters of different chemical types and origin occur in the flysch formations and their bedrocks in the western part of the Polish Carpathians. The marine sedimentation water of the flysch formations is not preserved, as the most mineralized and the heaviest isotopic values of flysch waters are characterized by δ 18 O and δ 2 H values in the ranges of 5-7 per mille and -(20-30) per mille , respectively. Their origin is related to the dehydration of clay minerals during burial diagenesis, with molecules of marine water completely removed by molecules of released bound water. They are relatively enriched in Na + in respect to the marine water, supposedly due to the release of Na + during the illitization of smectites and preferable incorporation of other cations from the primary brine into newly formed minerals. In some parts of younger formations, i.e. in the Badenian sediments, brines occur with isotopic composition close to SMOW and Cl - contents greatly exceeding the typical marine value of about 19.6 g/L, supposedly due to ultrafiltration. Most probably, the marine water of the flysch formations was similarly enriched chemically in its initial burial stages. Final Cl - contents in diagenetic waters depend on different Cl - contents in the primary brines and on relationships between diagenetic and further ultrafiltration processes. In some areas, diagenetic waters migrate to the surface along fault zones and mix with young local meteoric waters becoming diluted, with the isotope composition scattering along typical mixing lines. In areas with independent CO 2 flow from great depths, they form chloride CO 2 -rich waters. Common CO 2 -rich waters are formed in areas without near-surface occurrences of diagenetic waters. They change from the HCO 3 -Ca type for modern waters to HCO 3 -Mg-Ca, HCO 3 -Na-Ca and other types with elevated TDS, Mg 2+ and/or Na - contents for old waters reaching even those of glacial age. Bedrocks of the flysch are

  4. Diagenetic and other highly mineralized waters in the Polish Carpathians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, Andrzej, E-mail: andrzej.zuber@pgi.gov.pl [Polish Geological Institute, Carpathian Branch, PL-31560 Krakow, ul. Skrzatow 1 (Poland); Chowaniec, Jozef [Polish Geological Institute, Carpathian Branch, PL-31560 Krakow, ul. Skrzatow 1 (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    Highly mineralized waters of different chemical types and origin occur in the flysch formations and their bedrocks in the western part of the Polish Carpathians. The marine sedimentation water of the flysch formations is not preserved, as the most mineralized and the heaviest isotopic values of flysch waters are characterized by {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H values in the ranges of 5-7 per mille and -(20-30) per mille , respectively. Their origin is related to the dehydration of clay minerals during burial diagenesis, with molecules of marine water completely removed by molecules of released bound water. They are relatively enriched in Na{sup +} in respect to the marine water, supposedly due to the release of Na{sup +} during the illitization of smectites and preferable incorporation of other cations from the primary brine into newly formed minerals. In some parts of younger formations, i.e. in the Badenian sediments, brines occur with isotopic composition close to SMOW and Cl{sup -} contents greatly exceeding the typical marine value of about 19.6 g/L, supposedly due to ultrafiltration. Most probably, the marine water of the flysch formations was similarly enriched chemically in its initial burial stages. Final Cl{sup -} contents in diagenetic waters depend on different Cl{sup -} contents in the primary brines and on relationships between diagenetic and further ultrafiltration processes. In some areas, diagenetic waters migrate to the surface along fault zones and mix with young local meteoric waters becoming diluted, with the isotope composition scattering along typical mixing lines. In areas with independent CO{sub 2} flow from great depths, they form chloride CO{sub 2}-rich waters. Common CO{sub 2}-rich waters are formed in areas without near-surface occurrences of diagenetic waters. They change from the HCO{sub 3}-Ca type for modern waters to HCO{sub 3}-Mg-Ca, HCO{sub 3}-Na-Ca and other types with elevated TDS, Mg{sup 2+} and/or Na{sup -} contents for

  5. Highly purified water production technology. The influence of water purity on steam quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, J.

    1975-01-01

    The fundamental question related to high-pressure steam generation, intended for powering steam turbines, concerns steam production conditions based on constant quality standards. The characteristics of water (salinity, silica concentration) are indicated for a given steam quality as a function of the pressure. Two processes for the purification of feedwater for high pressure boilers are described: a treatment using precoated cellulose or resin filters and a treatment using mixed-bed ion exchangers. When ultrapure water is required, the demineralized water is filtred using microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes [fr

  6. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bala Ramudu; R. P. Tiwari; R. K. Srivastava

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself wa...

  7. GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE REMEDIATION BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    system for sediment runoff along sloped areas.  Use of excavated areas as retention basins.  Optimize amount of injection water used during...of Solid Waste and Emergency Response vii RACG remedial action cleanup goal RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ROD Record of Decision...total energy use, increase in hybrid vehicles, and reduction in water intensity. Many of the principles outlined in EO 13693 can be applied to improve

  8. Transport of hydrate slurry at high water cut

    OpenAIRE

    Melchuna , Aline; Cameirão , Ana; Herri , Jean-Michel; Ouabbas , Yamina; Glenat , Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Poster; International audience; Oil transportation in pipelines at the end of field production life implies to flow high quantities of water which represents the dominant phase. The process of crystallization of gas hydrates in this system needs to be studied and compared to the opposite one widely studied in the literature where water is the dispersed phase. The laboratory is equipped with the Archimede flow loop where the hydrate crystallization and transport are monitored. The flow loop is...

  9. Development test procedure High Pressure Water Jet System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Development testing will be performed on the water jet cleaning fixture to determine the most effective arrangement of water jet nozzles to remove contamination from the surfaces of canisters and other debris. The following debris may be stained with dye to simulate surface contaminates: Mark O, Mark I, and Mark II Fuel Storage Canisters (both stainless steel and aluminum), pipe of various size, (steel, stainless, carbon steel and aluminum). Carbon steel and stainless steel plate, channel, angle, I-beam and other surfaces, specifically based on the Scientific Ecology Group (SEG) inventory and observations of debris within the basin. Test procedure for developmental testing of High Pressure Water Jet System

  10. Novel sorbents for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Werner, David

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the major environmental problems is the pollution of aquatic systems and soil by persistent pollutants. Persistent pollutants have been found widespread in sediments, surface waters, and drinking water supplies. The removal of pollutants can be accomplished prior to their discharge to receiving bodies or by immobilizing them onto soil. Sorption is the most commonly applied process, and activated carbons have been widely used. Rapid progress in nanotechnology and a new focus on biomass-based instead of non-renewable starting materials have produced a wide range of novel engineered sorbents including biosorbents, biochars, carbon-based nanoparticles, bio-nano hybrid materials, and iron-impregnated activated carbons. Sorbent materials have been used in environmental remediation processes and especially in agricultural soil, sediments and contaminated soil, water treatment, and industrial wastewater treatment. Furthermore, sorbents may enhance the synergistic action of other processes, such as volatilization and biodegradation. Novel sorbents have been employed for the removal or immobilization of persistent pollutants such as and include heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg), halogenated organic compounds, endocrine disrupting chemicals, metalloids and non-metallic elements, and other organic pollutants. The development and evaluation of novel sorbents requires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing environmental, nanotechnology, physical, analytical, and surface chemistry. The necessary evaluations encompass not only the efficiency of these materials to remove pollutants from surface waters and groundwater, industrial wastewater, polluted soils and sediments, etc., but also the potential side-effects of their environmental applications. The aim of this work is to present the results of the use of biochar and impregnated carbon sorbents for the removal of organic pollutants and metals. Furthermore, the new findings from the forthcoming session

  11. Remedial Action Programs annual meeting: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Within the DOE's Office of Nuclear Energy, the Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology manages a number of programs whose purposes are to complete remedial actions at DOE facilities and sites located throughout the United States. These programs include the Surplus Facilities Management Program, the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the Uranium Mill Tailings remedial Action Program and the West Valley Demonstration Project. The programs involve the decontamination and decommissioning of radioactively-contaminated structures and equipment, the disposal of uranium mill tailings, and the cleanup or restoration of soils and ground water that have been contaminated with radioactive hazardous substances. Each year the DOE and DOE-contractor staff who conduct these programs meet to exchange information and experience in common technical areas. This year's meeting was hosted by the Surplus Facilities Management Program and was held near DOE Headquarters, in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This volume of proceedings provides the record for the meeting. The proceedings consist of abstracts for each presentation made at the meeting, and the visual aids (if any) used by the speakers. The material is organized in the following pages according to the five different sessions at the meeting: Session 1: Environmental Compliance--Policy; Session 2: Environmental Compliance--Practice; Session 3: Reports from working groups; Session 4: DandD Technology; and Session 5: Remedial Action Technology. The agenda for the meeting and the list of meeting registrants are provided in Appendix A and B, respectively. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base

  12. Remediating a design tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rädle, Roman; Klokmose, Clemens N.

    2018-01-01

    digital sticky notes setup. The paper contributes with a nuanced understanding of what happens when remediating a physical design tool into digital space, by emphasizing focus shifts and breakdowns caused by the technology, but also benefits and promises inherent in the digital media. Despite users......' preference for creating physical notes, handling digital notes on boards was easier and the potential of proper documentation make the digital setup a possible alternative. While the analogy in our remediation supported a transfer of learned handling, the users' experiences across technological setups impact......Sticky notes are ubiquitous in design processes because of their tangibility and ease of use. Yet, they have well-known limitations in professional design processes, as documentation and distribution are cumbersome at best. This paper compares the use of sticky notes in ideation with a remediated...

  13. Water Treatment Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  14. A Facile All-Solution-Processed Surface with High Water Contact Angle and High Water Adhesive Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Hu, Wei; Liang, Xiao; Zou, Cheng; Li, Fasheng; Zhang, Lanying; Chen, Feiwu; Yang, Huai

    2017-07-12

    A series of sticky superhydrophobicity surfaces with high water contact angle and high water adhesive force is facilely prepared via an all-solution-processed method based on polymerization-induced phase separation between liquid crystals (LCs) and epoxy resin, which produces layers of epoxy microspheres (EMSs) with nanofolds on the surface of a substrate. The morphologies and size distributions of EMSs are confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Results reveal that the obtained EMS coated-surface exhibits high apparent contact angle of 152.0° and high water adhesive force up to 117.6 μN. By varying the composition of the sample or preparing conditions, the sizes of the produced EMSs can be artificially regulated and, thus, control the wetting properties and water adhesive behaviors. Also, the sticky superhydrophobic surface exhibits excellent chemical stability, as well as long-term durability. Water droplet transportation experiments further prove that the as-made surface can be effectively used as a mechanical hand for water transportation applications. Based on this, it is believed that the simple method proposed in this paper will pave a new way for producing a sticky superhydrophobic surface and obtain a wide range of use.

  15. Integration of biotechnology in remediation and pollution prevention activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement/North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation provides a mechanism for an international collaboration between the US, Canada, and Mexico to jointly develop, modify, or refine technologies that remediate or protect the environment. These countries have a vested interest in this type of collaboration because contaminants do not respect the boundaries of a manufacturing site, region, city, state, or country. The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) consists of a diverse group of individuals who address a variety of environmental issues. ESD is involved in basic and applied research on the fate, transport, and remediation of contaminants; environmental assessment; environmental engineering; and demonstrations of advanced remediation technologies. The remediation and protection of the environment includes water, air, and soils for organic, inorganic, and radioactive contaminants. In addition to remediating contaminated sites, research also focuses on life-cycle analyses of industrial processes and the production of green technologies. The author focuses this discussion on subsurface remediation and pollution prevention; however, the research activities encompass water, soil and air and many of the technologies are applicable to all environments. The discussion focuses on the integration of biotechnology with remediation activities and subsequently linking these biological processes to other remediation technologies

  16. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1997-01-01

    It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective......It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective...

  17. Evaluation of vermicompost as bioadsorbent substrate of Pb, Ni, V and Cr for waste waters remediation using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urdaneta, Cynthia; Parra, Lue-Meru Marco; Matute, Saida; Garaboto, Mayantino Angel; Barros, Hayden; Vazquez, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The use of vermicompost as adsorbent substrate for removing Pb, Ni, V and Cr from waste waters is proposed. In this work, after a preliminary physical and chemical characterization of the vermicompost, the optimal parameters for the heavy metal adsorption were obtained. A synthetic multielemental solution of Pb, Cr and Ni and a solution of NH 4 VO 3 for vanadium were evaluated. The optimized parameters were pH, vermicompost mass to volume ratio, agitation time and particle size of the adsorbent. A batch system was employed for the assays. The elements were determined in the supernatant solution after filtration of the substrate. An optimal pH of 4.5 was found for ion removal. The agitation time slightly influences the adsorption of Pb and Cr, but it has a high influence on the Ni and V adsorption. The highest adsorption and removal of the metals was observed for a vermicompost mass of 2 g per 500 mL using a particle size between 75 to 841 μm for Pb, Cr and Ni, and 841 till 1192 μm for V. The mean removal percentage for each element is around 95% for Pb. Ni and Cr in the multielemental synthetic sample, demonstrating a high removal capacity of the substrate. For V it was found a removal efficiency of 50%

  18. Flashing of high-pressure saturated water into the pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Kondo, Koichi; Aya, Izuo.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on a saturated high-pressure water discharging into a water pool. The purpose of the experiment is to clarify the phenomena that occur by a blow-down of the water from the pressure vessel into the water-filled containment in the case of a wall-crack accident or a LOCA in a passive safety reactor. The results show that a flashing oscillation (FO) occurs when the water discharges into the pool, under specified experimental conditions. The range of the flashing location oscillates between a point very close to and some distance away from the vent hole. The pressures in the vent tube and water pool constantly fluctuate due to the flashing oscillation. The pressure oscillation and alternating flashing location might be caused by the balancing action between the supply of saturated water, flashing at the control volume and steam condensation on the steam-water interface. The frequencies of FO, or frequencies of pressure oscillation and alternating flashing location, increased as water subcooling increased, and as discharging pressure and vent hole diameter decreased. A linear analysis was conducted using a spherical flashing bubble model in which the motion of bubble is controlled by steam condensation. The effects of these parameters on the period of FO in the experiments can be predicted well by the analysis. (author)

  19. High-level water purifying technology. Kodo josui shori gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsugura, H; Tsukiashi, K [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-07-01

    Research and development have been carried out on a high-level water purifying system using ozone and activated charcoals to supply drinking water free of carcinogenic matters and odors. This system comprises a system to utilize ozone by using silent discharge and oxygen enriching device, and a living organism/activated charcoal treatment system. The latter system utilizes living organisms deposited on activated charcoal surfaces to remove polluting substances including ammonia. The treatment experimenting equipment comprises an ozone generating system, an ozone treating column, an activated charcoal treating column, an ozone/activated charcoal control device, and a water amount and quality measuring system. An experiment was carried out using an experimental plant with a capacity of 20 m[sup 3]/day on water taken from the sedimentation process at an actual water purifying plant. As a result, trihalomethane formation potential was removed at about 40% in the ozone treatment, and at 70% in the whole treatment combining the ozone and living organism/activated charcoal treatments. For parameterization of palatability of water, a method is being studied that utilizes nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate degrees of water cluster. The method is regarded promising. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  20. Optimization of Remediation Conditions using Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, O.; Mandelbaum, R.; Ronen, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Success of in-situ bio-remediation of the vadose zone depends mainly on the ability to change and control hydrological, physical and chemical conditions of subsurface. These manipulations enables the development of specific, indigenous, pollutants degrading bacteria or set the environmental conditions for seeded bacteria. As such, the remediation efficiency is dependent on the ability to implement optimal hydraulic and chemical conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. Enhanced bioremediation of the vadose zone is achieved under field conditions through infiltration of water enriched with chemical additives. Yet, water percolation and solute transport in unsaturated conditions is a complex process and application of water with specific chemical conditions near land surface dose not necessarily result in promoting of desired chemical and hydraulic conditions in deeper sections of the vadose zone. A newly developed vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) allows continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of the percolating water along deep sections of the vadose zone. Implementation of the VMS at sites that undergoes active remediation provides real time information on the chemical and hydrological conditions in the vadose zone as the remediation process progresses. Manipulating subsurface conditions for optimal biodegradation of hydrocarbons is demonstrated through enhanced bio-remediation of the vadose zone at a site that has been contaminated with gasoline products in Tel Aviv. The vadose zone at the site is composed of 6 m clay layer overlying a sandy formation extending to the water table at depth of 20 m bls. The upper 5 m of contaminated soil were removed for ex-situ treatment, and the remaining 15 m vadose zone is treated in-situ through enhanced bioremedaition. Underground drip irrigation system was installed below the surface on the bottom of the excavation. Oxygen and nutrients releasing powder (EHCO, Adventus) was spread below the

  1. A preliminary study to design a floating treatment wetland for remediating acid mine drainage-impacted water using vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiskila, Jeffrey D; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Feuerstein, Kailey A; Datta, Rupali

    2017-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is extremely acidic, sulfate-rich effluent from abandoned or active mine sites that also contain elevated levels of heavy metals. Untreated AMD can contaminate surface and groundwater and pose severe ecological risk. Both active and passive methods have been developed for AMD treatment consisting of abiotic and biological techniques. Abiotic techniques are expensive and can create large amounts of secondary wastes. Passive biological treatment mainly consists of aerobic or anaerobic constructed wetlands. While aerobic wetlands are economical, they are not effective if the pH of the AMD is systems declines overtime and requires continuous maintenance. Our objective is to develop an alternative, low-cost, and sustainable floating wetland treatment (FWT) system for AMD for the abandoned Tab-Simco coal mining site in Illinois using vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides). Tab-Simco AMD is highly acidic, with mean pH value of 2.64, and contains high levels of sulfate and metals. A greenhouse study was performed for a 30-day period in order to screen and optimize the necessary parameters to design a FWT system. Water quality and plant growth parameters were continuously monitored. Results show significant SO 4 2- removal, resulting in increased pH, particularly at higher planting densities. Vetiver also helped in metal removal; high amounts of Fe, Zn, and Cu were removed, with relatively lower amounts of Pb, Al, and Ni. Iron plaque formation on the root was observed, which increased metal stabilization in root and lowered root to shoot metal translocation. Vetiver was tolerant of AMD, showing minimal change in biomass and plant growth. Results obtained are encouraging, and a large scale mesocosm study is now in progress, as the next step to develop the vetiver-based system for AMD treatment.

  2. 200 Areas soil remediation strategy -- Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The remediation and waste management activities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site (located in Richland, Washington) currently range from remediating groundwater, remediating source units (contaminated soils), decontaminating and decommissioning of buildings and structures, maintaining facilities, managing transuranic, low-level and mixed waste, and operating tank farms that store high-level waste. This strategy focuses on the assessment and remediation of soil that resulted from the discharge of liquids and solids from processing facilities to the ground (e.g., ponds, ditches, cribs, burial grounds) in the 200 Areas and addresses only those waste sites assigned to the Environmental Restoration Program

  3. High converter pressurized water reactor with heavy water as a coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronen, Y.; Reyev, D.

    1983-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in water breeder and high converter reactors. The increase in the conversion ratio of these reactors is obtained by hardening the neutron spectrum achieved by tightening the reactor's lattice. Another way of hardening the neutron spectrum is to replace the light water with heavy water. Two pressurized water reactor fuel cycles that use heavy water as a coolant are considered. The first fuel cycle is based on plutonium and depleted uranium, and the second cycle is based on plutonium and enriched uranium. The uranium ore and separative work unit (SWU) requirements are calculated as well as the fuel cycle cost. The savings in uranium ore are about40 and 60% and about40% in SWU for both fuel cycles considered

  4. Foam-Delivery of Remedial Amendments for Enhanced Vadose Zone Metals and Radionuclides Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, L.; Szecsody, J.E.; Dresel, P.E.; Zhang, Z.F.; Qafoku, N.P.

    2009-01-01

    The remediation of metals and radionuclides contamination, such as Cr(VI), Tc-99, and Sr-90 in the U.S. DOE Hanford Site vadose zone is a critical need. Water-based remedial amendments delivery to the deep vadose zone is facing significant technical challenges. Water-based delivery will easily leach out the highly mobile pollutants therefore contaminate the underlying aquifer. Preferential flow of the amendment-laden solution in the vadose zone due to the formation heterogeneity is difficult to overcome, resulting in bypassing of the less permeable zones. Foam has unique transport properties in the vadose zone that enable mitigation on the mobilization of mobile contaminants and enhance the sweeping over heterogeneous systems. Calcium polysulfide (CPS) is a remedial amendment that can be used to reduce and immobilize hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and other redox-sensitive radionuclides/metals in the vadose zone. The delivery of CPS to the vadose zone using foam and the immobilization of Cr(VI) via reduction by the foam-delivered CPS was investigated in this study. Batch tests were conducted to select the foam-generating CPS-surfactant solutions, to determine the solution foamability and the reducing potential of CPS-containing foams, and to study the influence of foam quality, surfactant concentration, and CPS concentration on foam stability. Column experiments were performed to test the foam delivery of CPS to sediments under conditions similar to field vadose zone, to study the foam transport and interaction with sediments, and to determine the extent of Cr(VI) immobilization using this novel delivery approach. CPS-containing foams with high reducing potential were prepared based on the batch tests. Sediment reduction by foam-delivered CPS was observed in the column studies. Significant mobilization of Cr(VI) from sediments occurred when CPS was delivered in aqueous solution. The Cr(VI) mobilization was minimized when CPS was delivered by foams, resulting in

  5. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil has been demonstrated for saturated and unsaturated sand in preliminary experiments using a novel transport visualization technique. Large anionic organic dyes were mixed with a portion of soil and the rate of electromigration of the dye in an imposed electric field was monitored photographically. One of the fastest current-normalized electromigration rates was measured in the driest sand, which contained 7% water by weight. This moisture content is typical of the moisture content in the unsaturated zone of subsurface native soils found in New Mexico. The characteristics of the electromigration were similar in both the saturated and unsaturated sand. The leading edge of the dye migration front was diffuse while the trailing edge was sharp and concentrated. This and other observed behavior may indicate a concentration effect, where the electromigration rate of dilute dye is greater than that of concentrated dye. The soil left after the trailing edge passed seemed to contain no residual dye in both the saturated and unsaturated cases. The success of demonstrating electromigration of large molecules in unsaturated soil is encouraging and indicates that it may be feasible to remediate in situ anionic heavy metals such as chromate from unsaturated soil with electrokinetic techniques. 23 refs., 7 figs

  6. Solar One demolition and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Solar One was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of generating electrical energy from solar power using a central receiver concept. An array of heliostats focused sunlight onto a central receiver, which superheated water to produce steam. Although Solar One was successful, the oil-based Thermal Storage System (TSS), used to store heat energy for power generation at night, was not efficient. When the TSS was demolished for the installation of a more efficient molten salt system, a major effort was made to salvage or recycle all of its equipment and materials. During TSS demolition, approximately 7 tons of aluminum shielding and 205 tons of steel were salvaged as scrap metal; 200 tons of concrete was used for erosion protection along the Mohave River banks; 150,000 gallons of oil was recycled and 100 tons of equipment was salvaged for use at other facilities. During remediation, approximately 9,000 tons of oil contaminated sand, gravel and soil was recycled into approximately 10,000 tons of asphalt concrete and used to pave a nearby 5-acre parking lot at Barstow College. This not only reduced project remediation costs, but also met environmental requirements and provided a much needed community service. Of the estimated 11,864 tons of equipment and material from the TSS, less than 1% was disposed of at a landfill

  7. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil has been demonstrated for saturated and unsaturated sand in preliminary experiments using a novel transport visualization technique. Large anionic organic dyes were mixed with a portion of soil and the rate of electromigration of the dye in an imposed electric field was monitored photographically. One of the fastest current-normalized electromigration rates was measured in the driest sand, which contained 7% water by-weight. This moisture content is typical of the moisture content in the unsaturated zone of subsurface native soils found in New Mexico. The characteristics of the electromigration were similar in both the saturated and unsaturated sand. The leading edge of the dye migration front was diffuse while the trailing edge was sharp and concentrated. This and other observed behavior may indicate a concentration effect, where the electromigration rate of dilute dye is greater than that of concentrated dye. The soil left after the trailing edge passed seemed to contain no residual dye in both the saturated and unsaturated cases. The success of demonstrating electromigration of large molecules in unsaturated soil is encouraging and indicates that it may be feasible to remediate in situ anionic heavy metals such as chromate from unsaturated soil with electrokinetic techniques

  8. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Attachment 3, Ground water hydrology report: Preliminary final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-04

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent ground water contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites (52 FR 36000 (1987)). According to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, 42 USC {section}7901 et seq., the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for assessing the inactive uranium processing sites. The DOE has determined that for Slick Rock, this assessment shall include hydrogeologic site characterization for two separate uranium processing sites, the Union Carbide (UC) site and the North Continent (NC) site, and for the proposed Burro Canyon disposal site. The water resources protection strategy that describes how the proposed action will comply with the EPA ground water protection standards is presented in Attachment 4. The following site characterization activities are discussed in this attachment: Characterization of the hydrogeologic environment, including hydrostratigraphy, ground water occurrence, aquifer parameters, and areas of recharge and discharge. Characterization of existing ground water quality by comparison with background water quality and the maximum concentration limits (MCL) of the proposed EPA ground water protection standards. Definition of physical and chemical characteristics of the potential contaminant source, including concentration and leachability of the source in relation to migration in ground water and hydraulically connected surface water. Description of local water resources, including current and future use, availability, and alternative supplies.

  9. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2006-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  10. Modularizing Remedial Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    As remedial mathematics education has become an increasingly important topic of conversation in higher education. Mathematics departments have been put under increased pressure to change their programs to increase the student success rate. A number of models have been introduced over the last decade that represent a wide range of new ideas and…

  11. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  12. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  13. Catalysts for Environmental Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, B. L.; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2013-01-01

    The properties of catalysts used in environmental remediation are described here through specific examples in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. In the area of heterogeneous catalysis, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx was used as an example reaction with vanadia and tungsta...

  14. The Remediation of Nosferatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghellal, Sabiha; Morrison, Ann; Hassenzahl, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present The Remediation of Nosferatu, a location based augmented reality horror adventure. Using the theory of fictional universe elements, we work with diverse material from Nosferatu’s horror genre and vampire themes as a case study. In this interdisciplinary research we...

  15. A critical review of ferrate(VI)-based remediation of soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar; Lee, Jechan; Kailasa, Suresh Kumar; Kwon, Eilhann E; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Over the past few decades, diverse chemicals and materials such as mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles, metal oxides, and zeolites have been used for soil and groundwater remediation. Ferrate (Fe VI O 4 2- ) has been widely employed due to its high-valent iron (VI) oxo compound with high oxidation/reduction potentials. Ferrate has received attention for wide environmental applications including water purification and sewage sludge treatment. Ferrate provides great potential for diverse environmental applications without any environmental problems. Therefore, this paper provides comprehensive information on the recent progress on the use of (Fe VI O 4 2- ) as a green material for use in sustainable treatment processes, especially for soil and water remediation. We reviewed diverse synthesis recipes for ferrates (Fe VI O 4 2- ) and their associated physicochemical properties as oxidants, coagulants, and disinfectants for the elimination of a diverse range of chemical and biological species from water/wastewater samples. A summary of the eco-sustainable performance of ferrate(VI) in water remediation is also provided and the future of ferrate(VI) is discussed in this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  17. Microbial Remediation of Metals in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, K. A.; Roane, T. M.

    Of metal-contaminated systems, metal-contaminated soils present the greatest challenge to remediation efforts because of the structural, physical, chemical, and biological heterogeneities encountered in soils. One of the confounding issues surrounding metal remediation is that metals can be readily re-mobilized, requiring constant monitoring of metal toxicity in sites where metals are not removed. Excessive metal content in soils can impact air, surface water, and groundwater quality. However, our understanding of how metals affect organisms, from bacteria to plants and animals, and our ability to negate the toxicity of metals are in their infancies. The ubiquity of metal contamination in developing and industrialized areas of the world make remediation of soils via removal, containment, and/or detoxification of metals a primary concern. Recent examples of the health and environmental consequences of metal contamination include arsenic in drinking water (Wang and Wai 2004), mercury levels in fish (Jewett and Duffy 2007), and metal uptake by agricultural crops (Howe et al. 2005). The goal of this chapter is to summarize the traditional approaches and recent developments using microorganisms and microbial products to address metal toxicity and remediation.

  18. Remediation of lead-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Shem, L.

    1992-01-01

    Excavation and transport of soil contaminated with heavy metals has generally been the standard remediation technique for treatment of heavy-metal-contaminated soils. This approach is not a permanent solution; moreover, off-site shipment and disposal of contaminated soil involves high expense, liability, and appropriate regulatory approval. Recently, a number of other techniques have been investigated for treating such contaminated sites, including flotation, solidification/stabilization, vitrification, and chemical extraction. This paper reports the results of a laboratory investigation determining the efficiency of using chelating agents to extract lead from contaminated soils. Lead concentrations in the soils ranged from 500 to 10,000 mg/kg. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were examined for their potential extractive capabilities. Concentrations of the chelating agents ranged from 0.01 to 0.10 M. The pH of the suspensions in which the extractions were performed ranged from 4 to 12. Results showed that the removal of lead using NTA and water was ph-dependent, whereas the removal of lead using EDTA was ph-insensitive. Maximum removals of lead were 68.7%,19.1%, and 7.3% using EDTA, NTA, and water, respectively (as compared with initial lead concentrations)

  19. High resolution conductometry for isotopic assay of deuterium in mixtures of heavy water and light water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthanarayanan, R.; Sahoo, P.; Murali, N.

    2014-01-01

    A PC based high resolution conductivity monitoring technique has been deployed for determination of isotopic purity of heavy water in samples containing heavy water and light water mixtures using pulsating sensor based conductivity monitoring instrument. The technique involves accurate determination of conductivities of a series of specially treated heavy water and light water mixtures of various compositions at a constant solution temperature. The shift in conductivity (Δκ), which is the difference between conductivities of composite mixture after and before the formation of a typical complex compound (boric acid–mannitol complex in this case), shows a smooth and reproducible decreasing trend with increase in percentage composition of heavy water. This relation, which is obtained by appropriate calibration, is used in the software program for direct display of isotopic purity of heavy water. The technique is examined for determination of percentage composition of heavy water in the entire range of concentration (0-100 %) with reasonable precision (relative standard deviation, RSD ≤1.5 %). About 1 mL of sample is required for each analysis and analysis is completed within a couple of minutes after pretreatment of sample. The accuracy in measurement is ≤1.75 %. (author)

  20. High-efficiency water-loaded microwave antenna in ultra-high-frequency band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zilun; Bartone, Chris; Yang, Fuyi; Yao, Jie

    2018-03-01

    High-index dielectrics are widely used in microwave antennas to control the radiation characteristics. Liquid water, with a high dielectric index at microwave frequency, is an interesting material to achieving tunable functionalities. Here, we demonstrate a water-loaded microwave antenna system that has high loss-tolerance and wideband tunability enabled by fluidity. Our simulation and experimental results show that the resonance frequency can be effectively tuned by the size of loading water. Furthermore, the antenna systems with water loading can achieve high radiation efficiency (>90%) in the ultra-high-frequency (0.3-3 GHz) band. This work brings about opportunities in realistic tunable microwave antenna designs enabled by liquid.

  1. Investigation of Novel Electrode Materials for Electrochemically-Based Remediation of High- and Low-Level Mixed Wastes in the DOE Complex - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, N.S.; Anderson, M.

    2000-12-01

    New materials are investigated, based on degenerately-doped titanias, for use in the electrochemical degradation of organics and nitrogen-containing compounds in sites of concern to the DOE remediation effort. The data collected in this project appear to provide a rational approach for design of more efficient nanoporous electrodes. Also, osmium complexes appear to be promising candidates for further optimization in operating photo electrochemical cells for solar energy conversion applications.

  2. Investigation of Novel Electrode Materials for Electrochemically-Based Remediation of High- and Low-Level Mixed Wastes in the DOE Complex - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, N.S.; Anderson, M.

    2000-01-01

    New materials are investigated, based on degenerately-doped titanias, for use in the electrochemical degradation of organics and nitrogen-containing compounds in sites of concern to the DOE remediation effort. The data collected in this project appear to provide a rational approach for design of more efficient nanoporous electrodes. Also, osmium complexes appear to be promising candidates for further optimization in operating photo electrochemical cells for solar energy conversion applications

  3. Beryllium-10 concentrations in water samples of high northern latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobl, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Schulz, V.; Baumann, S.; Mangini, A. [Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Heildelberg (Germany); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    {sup 10}Be concentrations in the water column of high northern latitudes were not available so far. We present different {sup 10}Be profiles from the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and the Laptev Sea. (author) 3 fig., 3 refs.

  4. A `big-mac` high converting water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Y; Dali, Y [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Currently an effort is being made to get rid of plutonium. Therefore, at this time, a scientific study of a high converting reactor seems to be out of place. However , it is our opinion that the future of nuclear energy lies, among other things in the clever utilization of plutonium. It is also our opinion that one of the best ways to utilize plutonium is in high converting water reactors (authors).

  5. Remedial action in areas of enhanced natural background radiation levels (with particular emphasis in areas with mineral sand mining residues)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1985-01-01

    In areas where individuals may receive doses from natural background sources which are higher than those received in areas of normal background radiation, it may be considered desirable that some remedial action be taken to reduce those doses. Contributions to these higher doses may be through high gamma ray fields from the ground or from the use of local building materials, the intake of food or water derived from the areas or of food covered with dust from the areas, the ingestion of dirt and the inhalation of dust, and radon or thoron. Guidelines for remedial action in areas where residues from mineral sand mining and processing have been deposited are given

  6. MiniSipper: a new in situ water sampler for high-resolution, long-duration acid mine drainage monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Thomas P; Todd, Andrew S

    2012-11-15

    Abandoned hard-rock mines can be a significant source of acid mine drainage (AMD) and toxic metal pollution to watersheds. In Colorado, USA, abandoned mines are often located in remote, high elevation areas that are snowbound for 7-8 months of the year. The difficulty in accessing these remote sites, especially during winter, creates challenging water sampling problems and major hydrologic and toxic metal loading events are often under sampled. Currently available automated water samplers are not well suited for sampling remote snowbound areas so the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a new water sampler, the MiniSipper, to provide long-duration, high-resolution water sampling in remote areas. The MiniSipper is a small, portable sampler that uses gas bubbles to separate up to 250 five milliliter acidified samples in a long tubing coil. The MiniSipper operates for over 8 months unattended in water under snow/ice, reduces field work costs, and greatly increases sampling resolution, especially during inaccessible times. MiniSippers were deployed in support of an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) project evaluating acid mine drainage inputs from the Pennsylvania Mine to the Snake River watershed in Summit County, CO, USA. MiniSipper metal results agree within 10% of EPA-USGS hand collected grab sample results. Our high-resolution results reveal very strong correlations (R(2)>0.9) between potentially toxic metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) and specific conductivity at the Pennsylvania Mine site. The large number of samples collected by the MiniSipper over the entire water year provides a detailed look at the effects of major hydrologic events such as snowmelt runoff and rainstorms on metal loading from the Pennsylvania Mine. MiniSipper results will help guide EPA sampling strategy and remediation efforts in the Snake River watershed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. MiniSipper: A new in situ water sampler for high-resolution, long-duration acid mine drainage monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Thomas P.; Todd, Andrew S.

    2012-01-01

    Abandoned hard-rock mines can be a significant source of acid mine drainage (AMD) and toxic metal pollution to watersheds. In Colorado, USA, abandoned mines are often located in remote, high elevation areas that are snowbound for 7–8 months of the year. The difficulty in accessing these remote sites, especially during winter, creates challenging water sampling problems and major hydrologic and toxic metal loading events are often under sampled. Currently available automated water samplers are not well suited for sampling remote snowbound areas so the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a new water sampler, the MiniSipper, to provide long-duration, high-resolution water sampling in remote areas. The MiniSipper is a small, portable sampler that uses gas bubbles to separate up to 250 five milliliter acidified samples in a long tubing coil. The MiniSipper operates for over 8 months unattended in water under snow/ice, reduces field work costs, and greatly increases sampling resolution, especially during inaccessible times. MiniSippers were deployed in support of an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) project evaluating acid mine drainage inputs from the Pennsylvania Mine to the Snake River watershed in Summit County, CO, USA. MiniSipper metal results agree within 10% of EPA-USGS hand collected grab sample results. Our high-resolution results reveal very strong correlations (R2 > 0.9) between potentially toxic metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) and specific conductivity at the Pennsylvania Mine site. The large number of samples collected by the MiniSipper over the entire water year provides a detailed look at the effects of major hydrologic events such as snowmelt runoff and rainstorms on metal loading from the Pennsylvania Mine. MiniSipper results will help guide EPA sampling strategy and remediation efforts in the Snake River watershed.

  8. Environmental impact of ongoing sources of metal contamination on remediated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, Anna Sophia, E-mail: anna.knox@srn.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Paller, Michael H., E-mail: michael.paller@srnl.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Milliken, Charles E., E-mail: charles.milliken@srnl.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Redder, Todd M., E-mail: tredder@limno.com [LimnoTech, Ann Arbor, Minnesota 48108 (United States); Wolfe, John R., E-mail: jwolfe@limno.com [LimnoTech, Ann Arbor, Minnesota 48108 (United States); Seaman, John, E-mail: seaman@srel.uga.edu [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A challenge to all remedial approaches for contaminated sediments is the continued influx of contaminants from uncontrolled sources following remediation. We investigated the effects of ongoing contamination in mesocosms employing sediments remediated by different types of active and passive caps and in-situ treatment. Our hypothesis was that the sequestering agents used in active caps and in situ treatment will bind elements (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc) from ongoing sources thereby reducing their bioavailability and protecting underlying remediated sediments from recontamination. Most element concentrations in surface water remained significantly lower in mesocosms with apatite and mixed amendment caps than in mesocosms with passive caps (sand), uncapped sediment, and spike solution throughout the 2520 h experiment. Element concentrations were significantly higher in Lumbriculus variegatus from untreated sediment than in Lumbriculus from most active caps. Pearson correlations between element concentrations in Lumbriculus and metal concentrations in the top 2.5 cm of sediment or cap measured by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) sediment probes were generally strong (as high as 0.98) and significant (p < 0.05) for almost all tested elements. Metal concentrations in both Lumbriculus and sediment/cap were lowest in apatite, mixed amendment, and activated carbon treatments. These findings show that some active caps can protect remediated sediments by reducing the bioavailable pool of metals/metalloids in ongoing sources of contamination. - Graphical abstract: Conventional methods of remediating contaminated sediments may be inadequate for the protection of benthic organisms when ongoing sources of contamination are present. However, sediment caps with chemically active sequestering agents have the ability to reduce the bioavailable pool of metals in ongoing sources of contamination (red dots), reduce toxicity to

  9. Environmental impact of ongoing sources of metal contamination on remediated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, Anna Sophia; Paller, Michael H.; Milliken, Charles E.; Redder, Todd M.; Wolfe, John R.; Seaman, John

    2016-01-01

    A challenge to all remedial approaches for contaminated sediments is the continued influx of contaminants from uncontrolled sources following remediation. We investigated the effects of ongoing contamination in mesocosms employing sediments remediated by different types of active and passive caps and in-situ treatment. Our hypothesis was that the sequestering agents used in active caps and in situ treatment will bind elements (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc) from ongoing sources thereby reducing their bioavailability and protecting underlying remediated sediments from recontamination. Most element concentrations in surface water remained significantly lower in mesocosms with apatite and mixed amendment caps than in mesocosms with passive caps (sand), uncapped sediment, and spike solution throughout the 2520 h experiment. Element concentrations were significantly higher in Lumbriculus variegatus from untreated sediment than in Lumbriculus from most active caps. Pearson correlations between element concentrations in Lumbriculus and metal concentrations in the top 2.5 cm of sediment or cap measured by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) sediment probes were generally strong (as high as 0.98) and significant (p < 0.05) for almost all tested elements. Metal concentrations in both Lumbriculus and sediment/cap were lowest in apatite, mixed amendment, and activated carbon treatments. These findings show that some active caps can protect remediated sediments by reducing the bioavailable pool of metals/metalloids in ongoing sources of contamination. - Graphical abstract: Conventional methods of remediating contaminated sediments may be inadequate for the protection of benthic organisms when ongoing sources of contamination are present. However, sediment caps with chemically active sequestering agents have the ability to reduce the bioavailable pool of metals in ongoing sources of contamination (red dots), reduce toxicity to

  10. Tank waste remediation system: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alumkal, W.T.; Babad, H.; Dunford, G.L.; Honeyman, J.O.; Wodrich, D.D.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, contains the largest amount and the most diverse collection of highly radioactive waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at the Hanford Site in large, underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 217,000 M 3 (57 Mgal) of caustic liquids, slurries, saltcakes, and sludges have accumulated in 177 tanks. In addition, significant amounts of 90 Sr and 137 Cs were removed from the tank waste, converted to salts, doubly encapsulated in metal containers, and stored in water basins. The Tank Waste Remediation System Program was established by the US Department of Energy in 1991 to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal of the high-level waste fraction in a geologic repository. Since 1991, significant progress has been made in resolving waste tank safety issues, upgrading Tank Farm facilities and operations, and developing a new strategy for retrieving, treating, and immobilizing the waste for disposal

  11. Contaminated land and ground water: trends in the development of biological methods for remediation research; Altlasten und Grundwasser - Trends in der Entwicklung der biologischen Methoden in der Sanierungsforschung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stottmeister, U [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Sektion Sanierungsforschung

    1998-11-01

    Future developments in environmental biotechnology and in situ-remediation processes need the understanding and the influencing of the interaction between all components of a biological biocoenosis, especially in biofilm. Better performances concerning the elimination of contaminants could be made possible by the balanced addition of both additional electron acceptors and cosubstrates, in which the studies of the physiological interaction must be studied. The application of physical methods like radio waves are able to support the microbiological processes. The understanding of the interaction between biotic and abiotic processes in contaminated sites is incomplete at the present time. Ecotechnical processes must decrease the time demand of the natural attenuation and remove inhibitions. Phytoremediation is promising; the understanding of the root - microorganism interaction is the basis of new applications. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die zukuenftigen Entwicklungen der Umweltbiotechnologie und der in situ-Sanierungsverfahren sollten durch das Erkennen und die Beeinflussung des Wechselspiels von Biozoenosen insbesondere in Biofilmen bestimmt werden. Leistungssteigerungen des Schadstoffabbaus sind moeglich durch die bilanzierte Zugabe zusaetzlicher Elektronenakzeptoren oder von Kosubstraten, deren physiologische Wirkungsweise erkannt werden muss. Physikalische Massnahmen wie z.B. die Radiowellenanwendung koennen mikrobiologische Prozesse unterstuetzen. Das Wechselspiel biotischer und abiotischer Prozesse in Altlasten ist erst unvollstaendig verstanden. Oekotechnische Prozesse muessen die natuerliche Selbstreinigung beschleunigen oder Inhibitionen aufheben. Die vielversprechenden Methoden der Phytoremediation werden neue Anwendungsgebiete finden, wenn die Wurzelraum-Mikroorganismen-Wechselwirkung verstanden wird. (orig.)

  12. Glycol-Substitute for High Power RF Water Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Ebert, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In water loads for high power rf applications, power is dissipated directly into the coolant. Loads for frequencies below approx. 1GHz are ordinarily using an ethylene glycol-water mixture as coolant. The rf systems at DESY utilize about 100 glycol water loads with powers ranging up to 600kW. Due to the increased ecological awareness, the use of glycol is now considered to be problematic. In EU it is forbidden to discharge glycol into the waste water system. In case of cooling system leakages one has to make sure that no glycol is lost. Since it is nearly impossible to avoid any glycol loss in large rf systems, a glycol-substitute was searched for and found. The found sodium-molybdate based substitute is actually a additive for corrosion protection in water systems. Sodium-molybdate is ecologically harmless; for instance, it is also used as fertilizer in agriculture. A homoeopathic dose of 0.4% mixed into deionised water gives better rf absorption characteristics than a 30% glycol mixture. The rf coolant feat...

  13. Experimental Study on High Electrical Breakdown of Water Dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zicheng; Zhang Jiande; Yang Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    By means of a coaxial apparatus, pressurized water breakdown experiments with microsecond charging have been carried out with different surface roughness of electrodes and different ethylene glycol concentrations of ethylene glycol/water mixture. The experimental results about the breakdown stress and the effective time are presented. The breakdown stress is normalized to the situation that the effective time is transformed to 1 μs and analyzed. The conclusions are as follows: (1) the breakdown stress formula is modified to E = 0.561M A -1/10 t eff -1/N P 1/8 ; (2) the coefficient M is significantly increased by surface polishing and ethylene glycol additive; (3) it is accumulative for the capacity of improving electrical breakdown strength for surface polishing, ethylene glycol additive, and pressurization, of which pressurization is the most effective method; (4) the highest stress of 235.5 kV/cm is observed in ethylene glycol/water mixture with an ethylene glycol concentration of 80% at a hydrostatic pressure of 1215.9 kPa and is about one time greater than that in pure water at constant pressure; (5) for pressurization and surface polishing, the primary mechanism to improve the breakdown strength of water dielectric is the increase in the breakdown time delay. Research results indicate great potential in the application of the high power pulse conditioning system of water dielectric

  14. A High Rated Solar Water Distillation Unit for Solar Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available India is presently focusing on complete utilization of solar energy and saving fossil fuels, which are limited. Various solar energy systems like solar cookers, solar water heaters, solar lanterns, solar PV lights, and solar lamps are continuously availing by the people of India at a low cost and on good subsidies. Apart from this, India is a solar energy promising country with a good number of solar homes (carrying solar energy systems in its various locations. The present paper focuses on a unique combination of solar dish cooker (SDC and solar water heater (SWH to produce distilled water with a high distillate and a high daily productivity. The procedure has been discussed on the basis of experimental testing to produce distilled water by combining an evacuated type SWH and a SDC. Experimentation has been carried out in MIT, Moradabad (longitude, 28.83°N, and latitude, 78.78°E by developing the same experimental setup on behalf of solar homes. The daily productivity of distilled water was found around 3.66 litres per day in full sunshine hours for an approximated pH value of 7.7 and a ppm value of 21. The payback period (PBP has been estimated around 1.16 years of the present system.

  15. Setting a benchmark in remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Thiess Services has achieved a first in the treatment of contaminated soil, in the process assisting Orica in successfully removing a toxic legacy. In 1980, when Orica Australia's predecessor ICI Australia constructed its car park waste encapsulation (CPWE) to seal off contaminated soil at Botany Industrial Park, 12km south of the Sydney CBD, treatment methods were not available. Fast-forward more than 30 years and Thiess Services has successfully undertaken treatment of the soil, earning it the 2013 CARE award. The contaminated soil contained hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD), low levels of hexachlorobenzene and hexachloroethane, all by-products of historical manufacturing of chlorinated solvents, including dry cleaning fluid, in the 1960s and 1970s. ICI Australia decided initially to store the contaminated material in drums and place it on a bed of boiler ash. However, drum corrosion led to contamination of the ash bed and underlying soil, so the company decided to encapsulate the material within a synthetic Hypalon liner, covering it with clean soil and capping it with bitumen in a 45,000 cubic metre cell. In 2005, Orica commissioned Thiess to assess a range of remediation methods and technologies to treat the material. Three options were recommended — directly heated thermal desorption, in situ thermal desorption and indirectly heated thermal desorption. “Together with Orica, we decided that directly heated thermal desorption was the appropriate technology to use,” Thiess project manager Joshua Van Der Heiden said. “Essentially, the soil is introduced into a rotary kiln and a flame directly heats up the soil above the contaminants' boiling point (up to a maximum of 450C) so that the contaminants are volatilised and the soil comes out clean. The gas separated from the soil is then heated to around 1000C in a thermal oxidiser, converting it into carbon dioxide and water. To prevent contaminants from reforming, the gas stream is rapidly cooled by a

  16. Design of an electrolysis cell for highly tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahier, A.; Baetsle, L.; Buggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Goossens, W.

    1985-01-01

    Within the framework of the European fusion technology programme, SCK/CEN has started the development of a 100 ml per day electrolyser for decomposing the highly tritiated water that will be formed when tritium is extracted from the breeder or when the plasma exhaust is purified. Safety and reliability of this electrolytic system will have to be guaranteed for at least 10 4 working hours. Three different cell configurations are being studied one of which is most promising because of its low tritiated water inventory (about 12 ml), its low working temperature ( 0 C) and other advantages such as avoiding any recirculation of radioactive streams

  17. Nitrification of highly contaminated waste water with retention of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichgrebe, D.

    1992-09-01

    The AIF Research Project No 7698 was concerned with the nitrification of highly contaminated waste water with retention of biomass. A compact system for the nitrification was developed and optimized in the investigations. This is an over-dammed fixed bed reactor with structured packing elements and membrane gasification. The fixed bed reactor was successfully installed in a multi-stage compact plant on the laboratory scale for the biological treatment of dump trickled water. With the conclusion of the investigations, design data are available for the technical scale realisation of nitrification in fixed bed reactors. (orig.) [de

  18. Photoionization of water molecules by high energy photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Martini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically study the photoionization of water molecules by high energy photon impact. We develop a model in which the final state wavefunction is given by a Coulomb continuum wavefunction with effective charges and the water molecule bound states are represented using the Moccia's monocentric wavefunctions. We obtain analytical expressions for the transition matrix element that enable the computation of cross sections by numerical quadratures. We compare our predictions for photon energies between 20 and 300 eV with more elaborated theoretical results and experiments. We obtain a very good agreement with experiments, in particular, at enough high energies where there is a lack of elaborated results due to their high computational cost. Received: 15 March 2017, Accepted: 25 June 2017; Edited by: S. Kais; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.090006 Cite as: L Martini, D I R Boll, O A Fojón, Papers in Physics 9, 090006 (2017

  19. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  20. Thermal denitration of high concentration nitrate salts waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Oh, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Latge, C.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the thermodynamic and the thermal decomposition properties of high concentration nitrate salts waste water for the lagoon sludge treatment. The thermodynamic property was carried out by COACH and GEMINI II based on the composition of nitrate salts waste water. The thermal decomposition property was carried out by TG-DTA and XRD. Ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate were decomposed at 250 .deg. C and 730 . deg. C, respectively. Sodium nitrate could be decomposed at 450 .deg. C in the case of adding alumina for converting unstable Na 2 O into stable Na 2 O.Al 2 O 3 . The flow sheet for nitrate salts waste water treatment was proposed based on the these properties data. These will be used by the basic data of the process simulation

  1. Modeling foam delivery mechanisms in deep vadose-zone remediation using method of characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roostapour, A.; Kam, S.I.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new mathematical framework established for vadose-zone foam remediation. ► Graphical solutions presented by Method of Characteristics quantitatively. ► Effects of design parameters in the field applications thoroughly investigated. ► Implication of modeling study for successful field treatment discussed. - Abstract: This study investigates foam delivery mechanisms in vadose-zone remediation by using Method of Characteristics (MoC), a mathematical tool long been used for the analysis of miscible and immiscible flooding in porous media in petroleum industry. MoC converts the governing material-balance partial differential equations into a series of ordinary differential equations, and the resulting solutions are in a form of wave propagation (more specifically, for chemical species and phase saturations) through the system as a function of time and space. Deep vadose-zone remediation has special features compared to other conventional remediation applications. They include, not limited to, a high level of heterogeneity, a very dry initial condition with low water saturation (S w ), pollutants such as metals and radionuclides fully dissolved in groundwater, and a serious concern about downward migration during the remediation treatments. For the vadose-zone remediation processes to be successful, the injected aqueous phase should carry chemicals to react with pollutants and precipitate them for immobilization and stabilization purposes. As a result, foams are believed to be an effective means, and understanding foam flow mechanism in situ is a key to the optimal design of field applications. Results show that foam delivery mechanism is indeed very complicated, making the optimum injection condition field-specific. The five major parameters selected (i.e., initial saturation of the medium, injection foam quality, surfactant adsorption, foam strength, and foam stability) are shown to be all important, interacting with each other. Results also

  2. Ultra-high pressure water jet: Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The ultra-high pressure waterjet technology acts as a cutting tool for the removal of surface substrates. The Husky trademark pump feeds water to a lance that directs the high pressure water at the surface to be removed. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure. These were dust and noise. The dust exposure was found to be minimal, which would be expected due to the wet environment inherent in the technology, but noise exposure was at a significant level. Further testing for noise is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, fall hazards, slipping hazards, hazards associated with the high pressure water, and hazards associated with air pressure systems

  3. In Situ Raman Study of Liquid Water at High Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, Alexandr V; Rashchenko, Sergey V; Goryainov, Sergey V; Likhacheva, Anna Yu; Korsakov, Andrey V

    2018-06-01

    A pressure shift of Raman band of liquid water (H 2 O) may be an important tool for measuring residual pressures in mineral inclusions, in situ barometry in high-pressure cells, and as an indicator of pressure-induced structural transitions in H 2 O. However, there was no consensus as to how the broad and asymmetric water Raman band should be quantitatively described, which has led to fundamental inconsistencies between reported data. In order to overcome this issue, we measured Raman spectra of H 2 O in situ up to 1.2 GPa using a diamond anvil cell, and use them to test different approaches proposed for the description of the water Raman band. We found that the most physically meaningful description of water Raman band is the decomposition into a linear background and three Gaussian components, associated with differently H-bonded H 2 O molecules. Two of these components demonstrate a pronounced anomaly in pressure shift near 0.4 GPa, supporting ideas of structural transition in H 2 O at this pressure. The most convenient approach for pressure calibration is the use of "a linear background + one Gaussian" decomposition (the pressure can be measured using the formula P (GPa) = -0.0317(3)·Δν G (cm -1 ), where Δν G represents the difference between the position of water Raman band, fitted as a single Gaussian, in measured spectrum and spectrum at ambient pressure).

  4. Output calibration in solid water for high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reft, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    The AAPM Protocol recommends the use of water, polystyrene or acrylic media for measuring the output of high energy photon beams. It provides the appropriate restricted mass stopping powers and mass energy absorption coefficients for converting the dose to these media to dose to water. A water-equivalent solid has been developed for dosimetric applications. [C. Constantinou, F. Attix, and B. Paliwal, Med. Phys. 9, 436 (1982)]. Calculated values for the restricted mass stopping powers and mass energy absorption coefficients have been published for this material. [A. Ho and B. Paliwal, Med. Phys. 13, 403 (1986)]. The accuracy of these calculations was investigated by making output measurements, following the Protocol, with a Farmer type chamber in four materials for Co-60, 4, 6, 10, 18, and 24 MV photon beams. The results show that the scaled dose to water for the different media agree to better than 1%, and the analysis supports the methodology of the Protocol for obtaining the dose to water from the different media

  5. Almost remediation of saltwater spills at E and P sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carty, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    At exploration and production (E and P) sites crude spills restricted to topsoil are often self-remediating, but salt spills rarely are. Most soils naturally biodegrade crude. Without appropriate human intervention, brine spills can result in decades of barren land and seriously degrade surface water and aquifers. Servicing the E and P industry are remediation practitioners with a limited array of often expensive remediation concepts and materials which they hope will work, and sometimes do. Unfortunately, many remediation practitioners are unfamiliar with, or disregard, the natural physical, chemical, and biotic complexity of the soil and aquatic media. All too often this results in exacerbating injury to an already damaged ecosystem. Likewise, important cultural factors such as public relations, environmental regulations, property rights, and water rights are also overlooked until after implementation of an ill-advised or illegal remediation design has been initiated. A major issue is determining what constitutes ''successful'' remediation of a brine spill. Environmental managers have long sought one or two universally applicable fast and cheap amendment/treatment protocols for all their diverse multi-state salt affected spill scenarios. This presentation describes aspects of common spill-affected ecosystems which must be considered to achieve ''successful'' remediation

  6. Technology development activities supporting tank waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Beeman, G.H.

    1994-06-01

    This document summarizes work being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (EM-50) in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The specific work activities are organized by the following categories: safety, characterization, retrieval, barriers, pretreatment, low-level waste, and high-level waste. In most cases, the activities presented here were identified as supporting tank remediation by EM-50 integrated program or integrated demonstration lead staff and the selections were further refined by contractor staff. Data sheets were prepared from DOE-HQ guidance to the field issued in September 1993. Activities were included if a significant portion of the work described provides technology potentially needed by TWRS; consequently, not all parts of each description necessarily support tank remediation

  7. 33 CFR 2.34 - Waters subject to tidal influence; waters subject to the ebb and flow of the tide; mean high water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waters subject to tidal influence; waters subject to the ebb and flow of the tide; mean high water. 2.34 Section 2.34 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2...

  8. ICT Solutions for Highly-Customized Water Demand Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Cominola, A.; Castelletti, A.; Fraternali, P.; Guardiola, J.; Barba, J.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The recent deployment of smart metering networks is opening new opportunities for advancing the design of residential water demand management strategies (WDMS) relying on improved understanding of water consumers' behaviors. Recent applications showed that retrieving information on users' consumption behaviors, along with their explanatory and/or causal factors, is key to spot potential areas where targeting water saving efforts, and to design user-tailored WDMS. In this study, we explore the potential of ICT-based solutions in supporting the design and implementation of highly customized WDMS. On one side, the collection of consumption data at high spatial and temporal resolutions requires big data analytics and machine learning techniques to extract typical consumption features from the metered population of water users. On the other side, ICT solutions and gamifications can be used as effective means for facilitating both users' engagement and the collection of socio-psychographic users' information. This latter allows interpreting and improving the extracted profiles, ultimately supporting the customization of WDMS, such as awareness campaigns or personalized recommendations. Our approach is implemented in the SmartH2O platform and demonstrated in a pilot application in Valencia, Spain. Results show how the analysis of the smart metered consumption data, combined with the information retrieved from an ICT gamified web user portal, successfully identify the typical consumption profiles of the metered users and supports the design of alternative WDMS targeting the different users' profiles.

  9. Production of high quality water for oil sands application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudette-Hodsman, C.; Macleod, B. [Pall Corp., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Venkatadri, R. [Pall Corp., East Hills, NY (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This paper described a pressurized microfiltration membrane system installed at an oil sands extraction site in Alberta. The system was designed to complement a reverse osmosis (RO) system installed at the site to produce the high quality feed water required by the system's boilers. Groundwater in the region exhibited moderate total suspended solids and high alkalinity and hardness levels, and the RO system required feed water with a silt density index of 3 or less. The conventional pretreatment system used at the site was slowing down production due to the severe fouling of the RO membranes. The new microfiltration system contained an automated PVDF hollow fiber microfiltration membrane system contained in a trailer. Suspended particles and bacteria were captured within the filter, and permeate was sent to the RO unit. Within 6 hours of being installed, the unit was producing water with SDI values in the range of 1.0 to 2.5. It was concluded that the microfiltration system performed reliably regardless of wide variations in feed water quality and flow rates. 3 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  10. Colloid remediation in groundwater by polyelectrolyte capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.; Rao, S.; Jain, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing study to characterize groundwater colloids, to understand the geochemical factors affecting colloid transport in groundwater, and to develop an in-situ colloid remediation process. The colloids and suspended particulate matter used in this study were collected from a perched aquifer site that has radiation levels several hundred times the natural background and where previous researchers have measured and reported the presence of radiocolloids containing plutonium and americium. At this site, radionuclides have spread over several kilometers. Inorganic colloids collected from water samples are characterized with respect to concentration, mineralogy, size distribution, electrophoretic mobility (zeta potential), and radioactivity levels. Presented are the methods used to investigate the physiochemical factors affecting colloid transport and the preliminary analytical results. Included below are a description of a colloid transport model and the corresponding computational code, water analyses, characterization of the inorganic colloids, and a conceptual description of a process for in-situ colloid remediation using the phenomenon of polyelectrolyte capture

  11. Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John; Olsen, Wade

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews programs at NASA aimed at development at Remediation Technology development for removal of environmental pollutants from NASA sites. This is challenging because there are many sites with different environments, and various jurisdictions and regulations. There are also multiple contaminants. There must be different approaches based on location and type of contamination. There are other challenges: such as costs, increased need for resources and the amount of resources available, and a regulatory environment that is increasing.

  12. Experiments on aerosol removal by high-pressure water spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corno, Ada del, E-mail: delcorno@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Morandi, Sonia, E-mail: morandi@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Parozzi, Flavio, E-mail: parozzi@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Araneo, Lucio, E-mail: lucio.araneo@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, via Lambruschini 4A, I-20156 Milano (Italy); CNR-IENI, via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Casella, Francesco, E-mail: francesco2.casella@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, via Lambruschini 4A, I-20156 Milano (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Experimental research to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols if applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. • Cloud of monodispersed SiO{sub 2} particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration in the range 2–90 mg/m{sup 3}. • Carried out in a chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls equipped with a high pressure water spray with single nozzle. • Respect to low-pressure sprays, removal efficiency turned out significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure sprays system. - Abstract: An experimental research was managed in the framework of the PASSAM European Project to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols when applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. The campaign was carried out in a purposely built facility composed by a scrubbing chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls to permit the complete view of the aerosol removal process, where the aerosol was injected to form a cloud of specific particle concentration. The chamber was equipped with a high pressure water spray system with a single nozzle placed on its top. The test matrix consisted in the combination of water pressure injections, in the range 50–130 bar, on a cloud of monodispersed SiO{sub 2} particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration ranging between 2 and 99 mg/m{sup 3}. The spray was kept running for 2 min and the efficiency of the removal was evaluated, along the test time, using an optical particle sizer. With respect to low-pressure sprays, the removal efficiency turned out much more significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure spray system. The highest removal rate was

  13. Experiments on aerosol removal by high-pressure water spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, Ada del; Morandi, Sonia; Parozzi, Flavio; Araneo, Lucio; Casella, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental research to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols if applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. • Cloud of monodispersed SiO_2 particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration in the range 2–90 mg/m"3. • Carried out in a chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls equipped with a high pressure water spray with single nozzle. • Respect to low-pressure sprays, removal efficiency turned out significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure sprays system. - Abstract: An experimental research was managed in the framework of the PASSAM European Project to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols when applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. The campaign was carried out in a purposely built facility composed by a scrubbing chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls to permit the complete view of the aerosol removal process, where the aerosol was injected to form a cloud of specific particle concentration. The chamber was equipped with a high pressure water spray system with a single nozzle placed on its top. The test matrix consisted in the combination of water pressure injections, in the range 50–130 bar, on a cloud of monodispersed SiO_2 particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration ranging between 2 and 99 mg/m"3. The spray was kept running for 2 min and the efficiency of the removal was evaluated, along the test time, using an optical particle sizer. With respect to low-pressure sprays, the removal efficiency turned out much more significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure spray system. The highest removal rate was detected with 1

  14. Characterization of Carbon Onion Nanomaterials for Environmental Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unique properties of carbonaceous nanomaterials, including small particle size, high surface area, and manipulatable surface chemistry, provide high potential for their application to environmental remediation. While research has devoted to develop nanotechnology for environm...

  15. Remediating MGP brownfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Before natural gas pipelines became widespread in this country, gas fuel was produced locally in more than 5,000 manufactured gas plants (MGPs). The toxic wastes from these processes often were disposed onsite and have since seeped into the surrounding soil and groundwater. Although the MGPs--commonly called gas plants, gas-works or town gas plants--have closed and most have been demolished, they have left a legacy of environmental contamination. At many MGP sites, underground storage tanks were constructed of wood or brick, with process piping and equipment which frequently leaked. Waste materials often were disposed onsite. Releases of coal tars, oils and condensates produced within the plants contributed to a wide range of contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, benzene and cyanide. Remediation of selected MGP sites has been sporadic. Unless the site has been identified as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) Superfund site, the regulatory initiative to remediate often remains with the state in which the MGP is located. A number of factors are working to change that picture and to create a renewed interest in MGP site remediation. The recent Brownfield Initiative by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is such an example

  16. Sediment remediation of the Hespeler Mill Pond, Cambridge, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeloni, D.; Eby, M.; Jarvis, S.; Martin, P. [Univ. of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: danielle.angeloni@earthtech.ca

    2002-06-15

    'Full text:' Low dissolved oxygen levels and large accumulated sediment remediation alternatives were examined to assemble the Hespeler Mill Pond, Cambridge (HMP) into a healthier and more desirable recreational area in the City of Cambridge. The theory that a large amount of sediment has been deposited into the HMP from the Speed River upstream over a number of years predicts the depressed oxygen levels, high nutrient-loading rates and the odour problems in the summer months. The initial phase in the remediation plan for this project involved extensive background research and investigation. The focus was on determining the characteristics of the sediment and the history of the pond, to ultimately decide if the sediment was the source of the issues. Dissolved oxygen field tests and sediment sampling were conducted to get information on the magnitude of the problem and the environmental hazards potentially present in the pond. The pond was modelled utilising the Streeter-Phelps oxygen-sag model to predict the oxygen deficit. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD{sub 5}) testing was completed to determine the oxygen demand in the pond. These tests were conducted by using water samples obtained from various sample points at the pond. The proposed solution is a combined dredging and aeration approach. Mechanical dredging using a clamshell bucket and the installation of aerators is expected to solve the dissolved oxygen and water quality issues. (author)

  17. High Speed Water Sterilization Using One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Schoen, David T.; Schoen, Alia P.; Hu, Liangbing; Kim, Han Sun; Heilshorn, Sarah C.; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The removal of bacteria and other organisms from water is an extremely important process, not only for drinking and sanitation but also industrially as biofouling is a commonplace and serious problem. We here present a textile based multiscale device for the high speed electrical sterilization of water using silver nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and cotton. This approach, which combines several materials spanning three very different length scales with simple dying based fabrication, makes a gravity fed device operating at 100000 L/(h m2) which can inactivate >98% of bacteria with only several seconds of total incubation time. This excellent performance is enabled by the use of an electrical mechanism rather than size exclusion, while the very high surface area of the device coupled with large electric field concentrations near the silver nanowire tips allows for effective bacterial inactivation. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  18. High Speed Water Sterilization Using One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Schoen, David T.

    2010-09-08

    The removal of bacteria and other organisms from water is an extremely important process, not only for drinking and sanitation but also industrially as biofouling is a commonplace and serious problem. We here present a textile based multiscale device for the high speed electrical sterilization of water using silver nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and cotton. This approach, which combines several materials spanning three very different length scales with simple dying based fabrication, makes a gravity fed device operating at 100000 L/(h m2) which can inactivate >98% of bacteria with only several seconds of total incubation time. This excellent performance is enabled by the use of an electrical mechanism rather than size exclusion, while the very high surface area of the device coupled with large electric field concentrations near the silver nanowire tips allows for effective bacterial inactivation. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  19. Groundwater remediation at the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, W.

    1993-01-01

    Ion exchange resin and adsorption technology has been used successfully to treat diversified types of toxic waste water for many years. Even though the Hanford Site presents many unique problems, the author believes these technologies can remediate the groundwater at this site. However, treatment of the sludge in tanks generally is beyond the pale of these technologies except for the possibility of experimental studies being performed at the University of Idaho (Troescher)

  20. Reverse osmosis membrane of high urea rejection properties. [water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wydeven, T. J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Polymeric membranes suitable for use in reverse osmosis water purification because of their high urea and salt rejection properties are prepared by generating a plasma of an unsaturated hydrocarbon monomer and nitrogen gas from an electrical source. A polymeric membrane is formed by depositing a polymer of the unsaturated monomer from the plasma onto a substrate, so that nitrogen from the nitrogen gas is incorporated within the polymer in a chemically combined form.

  1. Solubility of corrosion products in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.P.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    A short review of solubility of corrosion products at high temperature in either neutral or alkaline water as encountered in BWR, PHWR and PWR primary coolant reactor circuits is presented in this report. Based on the available literature, various experimental techniques involved in the study of the solubility, theory for fitting the solubility data to the thermodynamic model and discussion of the published results with a scope for future work have been brought out. (author). 17 refs., 7 figs

  2. Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste of any site in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program has been established within the DOE to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Management 1993 Symposium Papers and Viewgraphs covered the following topics: Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Overview; Tank Waste Retrieval Issues and Options for their Resolution; Tank Waste Pretreatment - Issues, Alternatives and Strategies for Resolution; Low-Level Waste Disposal - Grout Issue and Alternative Waste Form Technology; A Strategy for Resolving High-Priority Hanford Site Radioactive Waste Storage Tank Safety Issues; Tank Waste Chemistry - A New Understanding of Waste Aging; Recent Results from Characterization of Ferrocyanide Wastes at the Hanford Site; Resolving the Safety Issue for Radioactive Waste Tanks with High Organic Content; Technology to Support Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Objectives

  3. DNAPL Surface Chemistry: Its Impact on DNAPL Distribution in the Vadose Zone and its Manipulation to Enhance Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suan Power; Stefan Grimberg; Miles Denham

    2003-06-16

    The remediation of DNAPLs in subsurface environments is often limited by the heterogeneous distribution of the organic fluid. The fraction of DNAPL that is in the high conductivity regions of the subsurface can often be recovered relatively easily, although DNAPL in lower conductivity regions is much more difficult to extract, either through direct pumping or remediation measures based on interface mass transfer. The distribution of DNAPL within the vadose zone is affected by a complex interplay of heterogeneities in the porous matrix and the interfacial properties defining the interactions among all fluid and solid phases. Decreasing the interfacial tension between a DNAPL and water in the vadose zone could change the spreading of the DNAPL, thereby increase the surface area for mass transfer and the effectiveness of soil vapor extraction remediation.

  4. Remedial Action Program annual conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Within the DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration ampersand Waste Management, the Office of Environmental Restoration manages a number of programs whose purposes are to complete remedial actions at DOE facilities and sites located throughout the United States. The programs include the Surplus Facilities Management Program, the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, and the West Valley Demonstration Project. These programs involve the decontamination and decommissioning of radioactively-contaminated structures and equipment, the disposal of uranium mill tailings, and the cleanup or restoration of soils and ground water that have been contaminated with radioactive or hazardous substances. Each year the DOE and DOE-contractor staff who conduct these programs meet to exchange information and experience in common technical areas. This year's meeting was hosted by the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, DOE-AL, and was held in Albuquerque, NM. This volume of proceedings is the record of that conference. The proceedings consist of abstracts, summaries, or actual text for each presentation made and any visual aids used by the speakers

  5. Purification of power plant waters with high gradient magnetic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.

    1993-04-01

    This is a report of a literature survey. Magnetic high gradient filtration is suitable for separations in difficult surroundings because it can be used in high pressure and temperature, the filtration can be automated and the filter does not contain components which have to be replaced. Magnetic separators for purification of power plant waters have been manufactured commercially for a long time, but they have not always worked satisfactorily especially when separating small particles. The corrosion products in power plant waters are usually ferrimagnetic or paramagnetic and are well suited for magnetic separation. The particle sizes varies considerable but at least in nuclear power plants they are mostly in the range 0.1-30 μ, some even smaller. According to different publications most 60 Co is in particles, while other publications indicate that more than 70 % is in solution. Similarly the data on the purification efficiency of 60 Co varies significantly. Even small magnetic fields are sufficient to separate large ferrimagnetic particles, but the separation of small and paramagnetic particles requires a field more than 20 kT and the high gradient. Presently available commercial separators are so efficient that its seems not to be economically worthwhile to develop them further to improve the filtration efficiency for small particles. Instead it might be worthwhile to investigate methods to increase the particle size by water chemistry methods. (Au). (25 refs., 2 figs.)

  6. Cavitational Hydrothermal Oxidation: A New Remediation Process - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suslick, K. S.

    2001-07-05

    During the past year, we have continued to make substantial scientific progress on our understanding of cavitation phenomena in aqueous media and applications of cavitation to remediation processes. Our efforts have focused on three separate areas: sonoluminescence as a probe of conditions created during cavitational collapse in aqueous media, the use of cavitation for remediation of contaminated water, and an addition of the use of ultrasound in the synthesis of novel heterogeneous catalysts for hydrodehalogenation of halocarbons under mild conditions.

  7. Cavitational Hydrothermal Oxidation: A New Remediation Process - Final Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslick, K. S.

    2001-01-01

    During the past year, we hav