WorldWideScience

Sample records for remedial landscape measures

  1. Remedial measures at the short-term regulated rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soimakallio, H.

    1995-01-01

    Building up and producing hydro power causes environmental effects, which are directed at the geomorfology, hydrology, water quality, organisms and landscape of the water system. To reduce and eliminate these various effects there are available an abundance of technical remedial measures, many of which contribute to several effects at the same time. In Finland a lot of remedial measures have been carried out at voluntary or obligatory bases. The information concerning remedial measures implemented in large build-up rivers were collected as a part of the study of the effects of the short-term regulation of hydro power plants. Material for the study was collected via literature, postal inquiry and terrain visits. Measures handled in the study were protection and reinforcement of shores, boating projects, submerged weirs, improvement of water turnover, fishery, clearing of peat rafts and stubs, landscaping, maintaining ice roads and shaping river banks. Nowadays planning and implementation of the remedial measures varies greatly depending on the nature and extent of the project. Large projects, which are more expensive, are naturally planned more carefully and comprehensively than simple routine measures. Also the quality of follow-up of the sites changes and the main portion of the information is received through terrain checks and direct feed-back from the users of the water system. In the future there is a need for model plans of the different routine measures. Also a systemic method to evaluate and compare different actions is needed to help decision making and to solve possible conflicts between different interests. Fishery, which is generally managed well, must in the future utilize better possibilities offered by other measures. According to the study there is no particular need to develop the follow-up systems. However, if the follow-up information is going to be used to develop the measures further, more systematic systems are needed for follow-up. (author)

  2. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of topography can provide a wealth of information on landscape properties for managing hydrologic and geologic systems and conserving natural and agricultural resources. This article discusses the application of an airborne laser altimeter to measure topography and other landscape surface properties. The airborne laser altimeter makes 4000 measurements per second with a vertical recording resolution of 5 cm. Data are collected digitally with a personal computer. A video camera, borehole sighted with the laser, records an image for locating flight lines. GPS data are used to locate flight line positions on the landscape. Laser data were used to measure vegetation canopy topography, height, cover, and distribution and to measure microtopography of the land surface and gullies with depths of 15–20 cm. Macrotopography of landscape profiles for segments up to 4 km were in agreement with available topographic maps but provided more detail. Larger gullies with and without vegetation, and stream channel cross sections and their associated floodplains have also been measured and reported in other publications. Landscape segments for any length could be measured for either micro- or macrotopography. Airborne laser altimeter measurements of landscape profiles can provide detailed information on landscape properties or specific needs that will allow better decisions on the design and location of structures (i.e., roads, pipe, and power lines) and for improving the management and conservation of natural and agricultural landscapes. (author)

  3. Remedial measures for nozzles susceptible to PWSCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Remediating primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is usually directed towards one of the three causes of PWSCC, material susceptiability, tensile stress, and an aggressive environment. The most practical remedial measures for primary loop penetration of PWSCC are considered to be shot peening, electropolishing, stress relief, and electroplating. The objective of shot peening is to induce a comprehensive residual stress on surfaces of Inconel 600 which are exposed to aggressive environments. Experience with steam generator tubes has shown this method is most effective if applied before PWSCC occurs. If it has already occurred, then the peening may retard but not arrest the corrosion. Electroplating consists of plating the inside surface of the Inconel 600 penetration with pure nickel. One of the major problems with this method was in obtaining surfaces uniformly free from pitting and roughness. Electropolishing for PWSCC remediation would remove the high strength cold work surfaces on the insides of nozzles which are produced by mechanical working e.g. machining. 5 figs

  4. Radon remedial measures in cold climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birovljev, A.

    2004-01-01

    A view is taken that mitigation of an indoor radon problem is often more complex than usually assumed, and that additional factors should be considered to avoid situations in which after mitigation the radon problem may be solved, but other problems have been created. Emphasis is put on how the choice and design of radon remedial measures are influenced not only by effectiveness in reducing radon levels indoors, but also by climatic factors, energy-saving aspects, as well as economic and psycho-social factors. Climatic conditions give rise to several concerns when attempting to mitigate a radon problem in areas with large seasonal temperature variations. Problems with humidity, energy consumption and durability of sealing materials are probably the most prominent issues. Commonly used radon remedial measures and their effectiveness in Norway is reviewed. Discussion is focused on principles and technical solutions which produce good results, and those which don't perform so well in cold Norwegian climate. Innovative technical solutions which successfully resolve some of the main conflicting issues are discussed. Results of some preliminary tests showing performance of such solutions in reduction of radon levels are presented. Other aspects of mitigation systems, such as need and cost of maintenance, longevity, noise levels, 'additional benefits', etc., are briefly mentioned. Homeowners' perceptions and willingness to implement various mitigation solutions are briefly reviewed. Based on discussion, several guiding principles which may be adopted in search for optimal solutions are suggested. (author)

  5. Measuring Thermal Characteristics of Urban Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.

    1999-01-01

    The additional heating of the air over the city is the result of the replacement of naturally vegetated surfaces with those composed of asphalt, concrete, rooftops and other man-made materials. The temperatures of these artificial surfaces can be 20 to 40 C higher than vegetated surfaces. Materials such as asphalt store much of the sun's energy and remains hot long after sunset. This produces a dome of elevated air temperatures 5 to 8 C greater over the city, compared to the air temperatures over adjacent rural areas. This effect is called the "urban heat island". Urban landscapes are a complex mixture of vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces. It is difficult to take enough temperature measurements over a large city area to characterize the complexity of urban radiant surface temperature variability. However, the use of remotely sensed thermal data from airborne scanners are ideal for the task. In a study funded by NASA, a series of flights over Huntsville, Alabama were performed in September 1994 and over Atlanta, Georgia in May 1997. Analysis of thermal energy responses for specific or discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape (e.g., asphalt, building rooftops, vegetation) requires measurements at a very fine spatial scale (i.e., urban forest in both mitigating the urban heat island effect, in making cities more aesthetically pleasing and more habitable environments, and in overall cooling of the community. In this presentation we will examine the techniques of analyzing remotely sensed data for measuring the effect of various urban surfaces on their contribution to the urban heat island effect.

  6. Measuring Thermal Characteristics of Urban Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.

    1999-01-01

    The additional heating of the air over the city is the result of the replacement of naturally vegetated surfaces with those composed of asphalt, concrete, rooftops and other man-made materials. The temperatures of these artificial surfaces can be 20 to 40 C higher than vegetated surfaces. Materials such as asphalt store much of the sun's energy and remains hot long after sunset. This produces a dome of elevated air temperatures 5 to 8 C greater over the city, compared to the air temperatures over adjacent rural areas. This effect is called the "urban heat island". Urban landscapes are a complex mixture of vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces. It is difficult to take enough temperature measurements over a large city area to characterize the complexity of urban radiant surface temperature variability. However, the use of remotely sensed thermal data from airborne scanners are ideal for the task. In a study funded by NASA, a series of flights over Huntsville, Alabama were performed in September 1994 and over Atlanta, Georgia in May 1997. Analysis of thermal energy responses for specific or discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape (e.g., asphalt, building rooftops, vegetation) requires measurements at a very fine spatial scale (i.e., energy regimes. Additionally, very fine scale spatial resolution thermal infrared data, such as that obtained from aircraft, are very useful for demonstrating to planning officials, policy makers, and the general populace, what the benefits are of the urban forest in both mitigating the urban heat island effect, in making cities more aesthetically pleasing and more habitable environments, and in overall cooling of the community. In this presentation we will examine the techniques of analyzing remotely sensed data for measuring the effect of various urban surfaces on their contribution to the urban heat island effect.

  7. The efficacy and durability of radon remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliff, K.D.; Naismith, S.P.; Scivyer, C.; Stephen, R.

    1994-01-01

    In the UK, over 16,000 homes, from an estimated 100,000, with annual average radon concentrations exceeding the UK Action Level of 200 Bq.m -3 have been discovered. Some 600 householders who have taken action have sought confirmatory measurements from NRPB. Results for 345 such homes are discussed. A number of remedied homes are being remeasured annually to determine the durability of the remedies: results for the first year follow-up measurements are given. In a separate exercise, homes having the highest radon levels known in the UK have been enrolled in a research programme of the Building Research Establishment. The results for 53 homes in which BRE surveyed, designed and supervised remedial work are presented. (author)

  8. Role of institutional controls in selection of remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakr, A.A.; Agoston, E.N.; McLeod, R.V.; Hicks, H.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the regulatory intent of CERCLA's definition and applicability of institutional controls at hazardous substance release sites undergoing remedial action and institutional controls that have been defined and implemented at selected CERCLA (Superfund) sites in the United States. Under provisions of CERCLA, institutional controls can be components of, or supplements to, interim or final remedial measures for hazardous substance [as defined under CERCLA 101(14)] releases. The use of institutional controls has been proposed in a number of RODs for large Superfund sites (e.g., Times Beach, Missouri; the Clothier Disposal Site in Oswego County, New York; and the Wildcat Landfill in Kent County, Delaware). In these cases, the selected remedial actions combine active response measures with institutional controls to protect human health and the environment. These RODs provide insight to how widely the concept of institutional controls is used and under what conditions. The use of institutional controls at large federal facilities is also discussed

  9. Assessment of slope stability and remedial measures around Gilgel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A road constructed from Fofa town to Gilgel Gibe-II powerhouse in south-western Ethiopia passes through an extremely rugged terrain characterized by steep hill slopes and deep valleys. The present study has been carried out to identify potentially unstable slope sections and to work out proper remedial measures. In order ...

  10. Nitrous oxide emissions and denitrification rates: A blueprint for smart management and remediation of agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasek, A.; Hondzo, M.; Kozarek, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    resulting in the release of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas with 300 times the warming potential of carbon dioxide. The investigation of nitrous oxide emissions and correlation to denitrification rates will facilitate smart management and remediation efforts of agricultural landscapes.

  11. Radon in indoor air. Health risk, measurement methods and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.

    1996-02-01

    Radon in indoor air is the main source of ionizing radiation in Norway. The booklet contains a presentation of radon sources, measurement methods, indoor radon concentrations, action levels, health risk and remedial measures

  12. Measuring Implicit European and Mediterranean Landscape Identity: A Tool Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornara, Ferdinando; Dentale, Francesco; Troffa, Renato; Piras, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a tool – the Landscape Identity Implicit Association Test (LI-IAT) – devoted to measure the implicit identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes. To this aim, a series of prototypical landscapes was selected as stimulus, following an accurate multi-step procedure. Participants (N = 174), recruited in two Italian cities, performed two LI-IATs devoted to assess their identification with European vs. Not-European and Mediterranean vs. Not-Mediterranean prototypical landscapes. Psychometric properties and criterion validity of these measures were investigated. Two self-report measures, assessing, respectively, European and Mediterranean place identity and pleasantness of the target landscapes, were also administered. Results showed: (1) an adequate level of internal consistency for both LI-IATs; (2) a higher identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes than, respectively, with Not-European and Not-Mediterranean ones; and (3) a significant positive relationship between the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs and the corresponding place identity scores, also when pleasantness of landscapes was controlled for. Overall, these findings provide a first evidence supporting the reliability and criterion validity of the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs. PMID:27642284

  13. Remedial measures against high levels of radioisotopes in aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsekhovitch, O.; Haakanson, L.

    2000-01-01

    This Annex has been prepared within the framework of the Aquatic Working Group of the co-ordinated Research Programme on Validation of the Environmental Model Predictions (VAMP). The main objectives of this Annex are: (1) To provide an outline of a broad set of remedial measures and strategies tested and suggested for aquatic systems to speed up the recovery after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in April 1986. This Report covers case studies from rivers and lakes and includes results from field and laboratory experiments, as well as measures directed at reducing radioisotopes in food by different food preparation procedures in the home. (2) To provide results from selected case studies, focusing on general, strategic results rather than site-specific details. (3) To provide conclusions which specifically address practical matters concerning how to select remedial measures in different situations, how to avoid inefficient measures, and to suggest important areas for future research. (4) To provide an analysis of the concept of lake sensitivity using both empirical and modelled data. One and the same fallout may give rise to very different radionuclide concentrations in water and biota depending on the characteristics of the lake and its catchment

  14. Specialized sorting and measuring system for site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, H.; Christ, G.

    2001-01-01

    The machine design and measurement philosophy of the SSGE, developed for excavation and treatment of some 21,000 metric tons of ground material and concrete from NUKEM decommissioned fuel element factory, have already been passed the official licensing procedure. The start up of site clean-up is scheduled for summer 2001. With the SSGE there has been made available a method to safe and economically remediate contaminated ground of nuclear sites. The SSEG, being a mobile system, can be applied at various sites

  15. Reheating-volume measure in the string theory landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    I recently proposed the ''reheating-volume'' (RV) prescription as a possible solution to the measure problem in ''multiverse'' cosmology. The goal of this work is to extend the RV measure to scenarios involving bubble nucleation, such as the string theory landscape. In the spirit of the RV prescription, I propose to calculate the distribution of observable quantities in a landscape that is conditioned in probability to nucleate a finite total number of bubbles to the future of an initial bubble. A general formula for the relative number of bubbles of different types can be derived. I show that the RV measure is well defined and independent of the choice of the initial bubble type, as long as that type supports further bubble nucleation. Applying the RV measure to a generic landscape, I find that the abundance of Boltzmann brains is always negligibly small compared with the abundance of ordinary observers in the bubbles of the same type. As an illustration, I present explicit results for a toy landscape containing four vacuum states, and for landscapes with a single high-energy vacuum and a large number of low-energy vacua.

  16. An Empirical Measure of Computer Security Strength for Vulnerability Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Remediating all vulnerabilities on computer systems in a timely and cost effective manner is difficult given that the window of time between the announcement of a new vulnerability and an automated attack has decreased. Hence, organizations need to prioritize the vulnerability remediation process on their computer systems. The goal of this…

  17. 49 CFR 192.489 - Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron... for Corrosion Control § 192.489 Remedial measures: Cast iron and ductile iron pipelines. (a) General graphitization. Each segment of cast iron or ductile iron pipe on which general graphitization is found to a...

  18. Design criteria for the 200-ZP-1 interim remedial measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudge, J.F.; Olson, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    The Interim Remedial Measure Proposed Plan for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit recommended a pump and treat action to contain contaminated groundwater and limit further degradation of groundwater due to elevated concentrations of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and trichloroethylene in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. This design criteria document defines the Project. The Project encompasses: site preparation; development of groundwater wells for monitoring, extraction, and injection; extraction and injection equipment; construction of a treatment system with support buildings/utilities; management; engineering design, analysis, and reporting; and operation and maintenance. A groundwater pump and treat system, hereafter the System, will be composed of extraction wells, a piping network, treatment equipment, water storage, and injection wells. Based upon engineering judgment, the selected technology in the proposed plan (DOE-RL 1994a) is air stripping of the organic contaminants followed by vapor-phase adsorption onto granulated activated carbon (GAC); liquid-phase GAC may be required as a polishing step. The Treatment Equipment refers to air stripping towers, adsorption vessels, water pumps, air blowers, instrumentation, and control devices which will be procured as a turn-key system

  19. Estimating air emissions from a remediation of a petroleum sump using direct measurement and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    A technical approach was developed for the remediation of a petroleum sump near a residential neighborhood. The approach evolved around sludge handling/in-situ solidification and on-site disposal. As part of the development of the engineering approach, a field investigation and modeling program was conducted to predict air emissions from the proposed remediation. Field measurements using the EPA recommended surface isolation flux chamber were conducted to represent each major activity or air exposure involving waste at the site. Air emissions from freshly disturbed petroleum waste, along with engineering estimates were used to predict emissions from each phase of the engineering approach. This paper presents the remedial approach and the measurement/modeling technologies used to predict air toxic emissions from the remediation. Emphasis will be placed on the measurement approaches used in obtaining the emission rate data and the assumptions used in the modeling to estimate emissions from engineering scenarios

  20. Using NDVI to measure precipitation in semi-arid landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birtwhistle, Amy N.; Laituri, Melinda; Bledsoe, Brian; Friedman, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring precipitation in semi-arid landscapes is important for understanding the processes related to rainfall and run-off; however, measuring precipitation accurately can often be challenging especially within remote regions where precipitation instruments are scarce. Typically, rain-gauges are sparsely distributed and research comparing rain-gauge and RADAR precipitation estimates reveal that RADAR data are often misleading, especially for monsoon season convective storms. This study investigates an alternative way to map the spatial and temporal variation of precipitation inputs along ephemeral stream channels using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. NDVI values from 26 years of pre- and post-monsoon season Landsat imagery were derived across Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), a region covering 3,367 km2 of semiarid landscapes in southwestern Arizona, USA. The change in NDVI from a pre-to post-monsoon season image along ephemeral stream channels explained 73% of the variance in annual monsoonal precipitation totals from a nearby rain-gauge. In addition, large seasonal changes in NDVI along channels were useful in determining when and where flow events have occurred.

  1. Proposed plan for interim remedial measures at the 100-KR-1 Operable Unit. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This proposed plan identifies the preferred alternative for interim remedial measures for remedial action of radioactive liquid waste disposal sites that include contaminated soils and structures at the 100-KR-1 Operable Unit, located at the Hanford Site. It also summarizes other remedial alternatives evaluated for interim remedial measures in this Operable Unit. The intent of interim remedial measures is to speed up actions to address contaminated areas that pose potential threats to human health and the environment. This proposed plan is being issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the lead regulatory agency; the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), the support regulatory agency; and the US Department of Energy (DOE), the responsible agency. The EPA, Ecology, and the DOE are issuing this proposed plan as part of their public participation responsibilities under Section 117(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as the ''Superfund Law.'' This proposed plan is intended to be a fact sheet for public review which briefly describes the remedial alternatives analyzed, identifies a preferred alternative, and summarizes the information relied upon to recommend the preferred alternative

  2. Measuring urban tree loss dynamics across residential landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Alessandro; Hopton, Matthew E

    2018-01-15

    The spatial arrangement of urban vegetation depends on urban morphology and socio-economic settings. Urban vegetation changes over time because of human management. Urban trees are removed due to hazard prevention or aesthetic preferences. Previous research attributed tree loss to decreases in canopy cover. However, this provides little information about location and structural characteristics of trees lost, as well as environmental and social factors affecting tree loss dynamics. This is particularly relevant in residential landscapes where access to residential parcels for field surveys is limited. We tested whether multi-temporal airborne LiDAR and multi-spectral imagery collected at a 5-year interval can be used to investigate urban tree loss dynamics across residential landscapes in Denver, CO and Milwaukee, WI, covering 400,705 residential parcels in 444 census tracts. Position and stem height of trees lost were extracted from canopy height models calculated as the difference between final (year 5) and initial (year 0) vegetation height derived from LiDAR. Multivariate regression models were used to predict number and height of tree stems lost in residential parcels in each census tract based on urban morphological and socio-economic variables. A total of 28,427 stems were lost from residential parcels in Denver and Milwaukee over 5years. Overall, 7% of residential parcels lost one stem, averaging 90.87 stems per km 2 . Average stem height was 10.16m, though trees lost in Denver were taller compared to Milwaukee. The number of stems lost was higher in neighborhoods with higher canopy cover and developed before the 1970s. However, socio-economic characteristics had little effect on tree loss dynamics. The study provides a simple method for measuring urban tree loss dynamics within and across entire cities, and represents a further step toward high resolution assessments of the three-dimensional change of urban vegetation at large spatial scales. Published by

  3. Measurements of N2O emissions at the landscape scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelde, Kirsten; Cellier, P.; Bertolini, T.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural land are variable at the landscape scale due to variability in land use, management, soil type, and topography. A field experiment was carried out in a typical mixed farming landscape near Bjerringbro, Denmark, to investigate the main sources of variations...

  4. Proceedings: Primary water stress corrosion cracking: 1989 EPRI remedial measures workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, J.A.

    1990-04-01

    A meeting on ''PWSCC Remedial Measures'' was organized to give those working in this area an opportunity to share their results, ideas and plans with regard to development and application of remedial measures directed against the primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) phenomenon affecting alloy 600 steam generator tubes. Topics discussed included: utility experience and strategies; nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for PWSCC; technical topics ranging from predictive methods for occurrence of PWSCC to results of corrosion tests; and services provided by vendors that can help prevent the occurrence of PWSCC or can help address problems caused by PWSCC once it occurs

  5. Engineering evaluation/conceptual plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater operable unit interim remedial measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.; Swanson, L.C.; Weeks, R.S.; Giacinto, J.; Gustafson, F.W.; Ford, B.H.; Wittreich, C.; Parnell, S.; Green, J.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents an engineering evaluation and conceptual plan for an interim remedial measure (ERM) to address a uranium and technetium-99 groundwater plume and an associated nitrate contamination plume in the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This report provides information regarding the need and potentially achievable objectives and goals for an IRM and evaluates alternatives to contain elevated concentrations of uranium, technetium-99, nitrate, and carbon tetrachloride and to obtain information necessary to develop final remedial actions for the operable unit

  6. Interim remedial measures proposed plan for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.L.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this interim remedial measures (IRM) proposed plan is to present and solicit public comments on the IRM planned for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in Washington state. The 200-ZP-1 is one of two operable units that envelop the groundwater beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

  7. Safety Assessment Approach for Decision Making Related to Remedial Measures and Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybalka, Nataliia; Kondratyev, Sergiy; Alekseeva, Zoya

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: At each particular case of “legacy” radioactive waste management facilities the optimized remedial measures should be justified taken into account: • results of facility investigations; • site status and characteristics; • safety assessment; • economical reasons; • societal factors; • timeframes; • available technologies and techniques

  8. 29 CFR 18.407 - Subsequent remedial measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Relevancy and Its Limits § 18.407 Subsequent... event less likely to occur, evidence of the subsequent measures is not admissible to prove negligence or...

  9. Environmental radiation measurements and remedial actions (Hantepe/Ezine/Canakkale)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    There are some regions in the world that are known as high background radiation areas. Intensive scientific investigations in the field of radiation dose and health effects, risk estimates, radiation protection, environmental transportation routes and ecological effects related with natural radiation have been carried out in these regions. Also natural radiation dosimetry, in vitro and in vivo biological studies which take into account the measurements in the field of low level radiation, radon, thoron and cosmic rays have been carried out, again in these regions. The well-known high natural background radiation areas in the world are Guarapari in Brazil, Ramsar in Iran, Kerala in India and Yangjiang in China. In addition to above mentioned areas, other relatively lower high background radiation areas are exist. Since 1960s, radiological, geological, epidemiological and ecological studies have been carried out in order to determine the risks and possible health effects of long-term low level natural radiation exposure. In the framework of surveying the background radiation of Turkey, the background radiation measurements were carried out in 56 different points around the area of Canakkale city. The radiation levels at Hantepe beach of Geyikli which is located in Ezine town of Canakkale was found higher than the mean background radiation level of the region. The radiation dose rates were measured in between 0.20 and 10.88 Gy h-1 in contact and 0.27 and 3.11 Gy h-1 above 1 meter of the ground level where the thorium-containing sand is dense. After the rehabilitation studies, the radiation dose rate were measured in between 0.15 and 8.09 Gy h-1 in contact and 0.17 and 2.88 Gy h-1 above 1 meter of the ground level. It was observed that the radiation dose rates were decreased seriously after the rehabilitation studies when the arithmetic mean value of the dose rates was taken into account. The effective dose calculations were performed by taking into account the

  10. Limited applicability of cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses for the optimization of radon remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiránek, Martin; Rovenská, Kateřina

    2010-01-01

    Ways of using different decision-aiding techniques for optimizing and evaluating radon remedial measures have been studied on a large set of data obtained from the remediation of 32 houses that had an original indoor radon concentration level above 1,000 Bq/m 3 (around 0.2 % of all dwellings in the Czech Republic have a radon concentration higher than 1,000 Bq/ m 3 ). Detailed information about radon concentrations before and after remediation, type and extent of remedial measures and installation and operation costs were used as the input parameters for a comparison of costs and for determining the efficiencies, for a cost-benefit analysis and a cost-effectiveness analysis, in order to find out whether these criteria and techniques provide sufficient and relevant information for the improvement and optimization of remediation. The study has delivered quite new results. It is confirmed that the installation costs of remedial measures do not depend on the original level of indoor radon concentration, but on the technical state of the building. In addition, the study reveals that the efficiency of remediation does not depend on the installation costs. Each of the studied remedial measures will on an average save 0.3 lives and gain 4.3 years of life. On one hand, the general decision-aiding techniques - cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis - lead to the conclusion that the remedial measures reducing the indoor radon concentration from values above 1,000 Bq/m 3 to values below the action level of 400 Bq/m 3 are always acceptable and reasonable. On the other hand, these analytical techniques can neither help the designer to choose the proper remedial measure nor provide information resulting in improved remediation. (author)

  11. Measures of safeguard and rehabilitation for landscape protection planning: a qualitative approach based on diversity indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Daniele; Privitera, Riccardo; Martinico, Francesco; La Greca, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Maintaining existing levels of landscape diversity is becoming more and more important for planning considering the increasing pressures on agricultural ecosystems due to soil sealing, sprawl processes and intensive agriculture. Norms for land-use regulation and measures for landscape Safeguard and Rehabilitation have to take into consideration these threats in landscape planning. Evaluating the diversity of agricultural ecosystems is a fundamental step for proposing sound approaches to planning and managing both soil and landscape, as well as maintaining the related ecosystem services. The paper proposes a method aimed at the qualitative evaluation of spatial diversity of agricultural landscapes using a reduced set of ecological indicators based on land-use vector data. Indicators are calculated for defined landscape units characterized by landscape homogeneity. GIS geoprocessing and spatial analysis functions are employed. The study area is the Province of Enna in Sicily (Italy), which is characterized by cultivation mosaics in its southern region, cereal cultivation in the central region and prevailing natural environments in the northern region. Results from the indicator calculations are used to define measures to be included in a Landscape Protection Plan. Safeguard and Rehabilitation measures are introduced, which link indicator scores to planning protection aims. The results highlight the relevance of some agricultural mosaics in proximity to streams and seasonal fluvial environments, where some undamaged natural environments are still present. For these areas, specific landscape safeguard measures are proposed to preserve their diversity features together with their original agricultural functions. The work shows that even with a reduced number of indicators, a differentiated set of measures can be proposed for a Landscape Protection Plan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impacts of landscape remediation on the heavy metal pollution dynamics of a lake surrounded by non-ferrous smelter waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, William H.; Walsh, Rory P.D.; Reed, Jane M.; Barnsley, Michael J.; Smith, Jamie

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and potential bioavailability are reported for sediment in a shallow flood detention lake surrounded by reclaimed, smelter-contaminated land. A range of sediment column proxy indicators is used to explore changes in pollution dynamics with remediation. Sediment concentrations of Pb and Zn are high at ∼600 and 20 000 mg kg -1 , respectively. Less than 7% of total Pb is potentially bioavailable following sequential extraction as opposed to 47% of Zn. Metal transfer mechanisms to lake sediment include detrital inputs, scavenging by particulates and biogeochemical precipitation. Sedimentary evidence indicates that detrital inputs to the lake declined following land reclamation after which it is proposed that dissolved inputs increased with leaching of reworked waste material. Whilst downcore metal profiles may be subject to post-depositional change, diatom analysis suggests more recent improvements in water quality. The potential for post-remediation pollution episodes relating to metal release from historic sedimentary stores should be considered in future remediation strategies. - The contaminant hydrology of reworked smelter spoil is complex

  13. Impacts of landscape remediation on the heavy metal pollution dynamics of a lake surrounded by non-ferrous smelter waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, William H. [Department of Geography, University of Wales, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: william.blake@plymouth.ac.uk; Walsh, Rory P.D. [Department of Geography, University of Wales, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Reed, Jane M. [Department of Geography, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Barnsley, Michael J. [Department of Geography, University of Wales, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Smith, Jamie [Department of Geography, University of Wales, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Heavy metal concentrations and potential bioavailability are reported for sediment in a shallow flood detention lake surrounded by reclaimed, smelter-contaminated land. A range of sediment column proxy indicators is used to explore changes in pollution dynamics with remediation. Sediment concentrations of Pb and Zn are high at {approx}600 and 20 000 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. Less than 7% of total Pb is potentially bioavailable following sequential extraction as opposed to 47% of Zn. Metal transfer mechanisms to lake sediment include detrital inputs, scavenging by particulates and biogeochemical precipitation. Sedimentary evidence indicates that detrital inputs to the lake declined following land reclamation after which it is proposed that dissolved inputs increased with leaching of reworked waste material. Whilst downcore metal profiles may be subject to post-depositional change, diatom analysis suggests more recent improvements in water quality. The potential for post-remediation pollution episodes relating to metal release from historic sedimentary stores should be considered in future remediation strategies. - The contaminant hydrology of reworked smelter spoil is complex.

  14. Monitoring of In-Situ Remediation By Time Lapse 3D Geo-Electric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanli, A. I.; Tildy, P.; Neducza, B.; Nagy, P.; Hegymegi, C.

    2017-12-01

    Injection of chemical oxidant solution to degrade the subsurface contaminants can be used for hydrocarbon contamination remediation. In this study, we developed a non-destructive measurement strategy to monitor oxidative in-situ remediation processes. The difficulties of the presented study originate from the small volume of conductive solution that can be used due to environmental considerations. Due to the effect of conductive groundwater and the high clay content of the targeted layer and the small volume of conductive solution that can be used due to environmental considerations, a site specific synthetic modelling is necessary for measurement design involving the results of preliminary 2D ERT measurements, electrical conductivity measurements of different active agents and expected resistivity changes calculated by soil resistivity modelling. Because of chemical biodegradation, the results of soil resistivity modelling have suggested that the reagent have complex effects on contaminated soils. As a result the plume of resistivity changes caused by the injected agent was determined showing strong fracturing effect because of the high pressure of injection. 3D time-lapse geo-electric measurements were proven to provide a usable monitoring tool for in-situ remediation as a result of our sophisticated tests and synthetic modelling.

  15. Coal Mine Accidents in Bangladesh: Its Causes and Remedial Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. MINHAJ UDDIN MONIR

    2012-12-01

    C, water flow 600 m3/hr and humidity 100%. Due to roof-fall, toxic gas and very high temperature and humidity in the face 1105 and 1108, some miners were highly injured and died. Therefore, taking necessary safety and risk measures during development of face and roadway in BCM, production will be sustained by controlling roof-fall. Strata pressure of every faces is monitor regularly through electromagnetic emission detector as well as changing sufficient ventilation system, accidents of BCM could be controlled. Adding earth filling materials (e.g. sand, silt etc. in to the vacuum goaf area, air blast accident should be reduced and surface subsidence would also be controlled. Considering all the problems of 1st slice and initiating extra caution for face development accident in BCM may reduce in 2nd slice and overall production may be increased significantly.

  16. Measurement systems in the area of land remediation and soil segregation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Gerold G.; Sokcic-Kostic, Marina; Auler, Ingolf; Eickelpasch, Ludger; Betts, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The remediation of radioactively contaminated land is a small but growing sector in the area of decommissioning of nuclear facilities. This also includes the material from buildings after demolition. Contamination comprises in general alpha and beta activities and emission of alpha, beta and gamma radiation. The measurement is in practice restricted to the measurement of gamma emission, because of the high penetration of material by gamma rays. All isotopes, which do not emit gammas are estimated on the basis of given relation between alpha and beta emitters without gamma radiation and emitters with gamma radiation. This method is called 'key nuclide method'. Whilst many studies have been completed, others still continue in the processing of large volumes of concrete, steel and soil. An important conclusion from these and similar research programs is that a significant proportion of the waste contains only low concentrations of radioactive nuclides. Therefore, much of the material from the remediation can be considered for 'free release'. It was often not possible to attain adequate specific information on these materials, so a measurement system is needed for their classification and characterization. NUKEM Technologies has practical experience in characterising and remediating of nuclear sites. Recently, it has pioneered the use of innovative in-situ and ex-situ characterisation and waste segregation technologies, which enhance the efficiency of remedial actions and provide assurance to customers, regulators and the public that all significant contamination has been removed and sites can be used for new purposes. (authors)

  17. Final remediation of the provisional storage near Zavratec. Separation of waste, decontamination and radiological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepisnik, M.; Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents remedial activities in Zavratec during winter 1999 - 2000. The difficult and slow process of separation radioactive from non-radioactive waste is explained, and the measuring techniques and equipment for separation are presented. The measurements of storage contamination and its decontamination, involving different practical problems, are described in detail. As a result, the initial volume of the waste was reduced to 50%, in spite of the extended decontamination works. The waste has been relocated to the Brinje storage facility. Measurements inside and outside the Zavratec facility after decontamination showed that no radioactivity higher than the natural background was present. The facility was released for unrestricted use. (author)

  18. Direct measurement and characterization of active photosynthesis zones inside biofuel producing and wastewater remediating microalgal biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Kesaano, Maureen; Moll, Karen; Smith, Terence; Gerlach, Robin; Carlson, Ross; Miller, Charles D.; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith; Gardner, Robert D.; Sims, Ronald C.

    2014-03-01

    Abstract: Microalgal biofilm based technologies are of keen interest due to their high biomass concentrations and ability to utilize renewable resources, such as light and CO2. While photoautotrophic biofilms have long been used for wastewater remediation applications, biofuel production represents a relatively new and under-represented focus area. However, the direct measurement and characterization of fundamental parameters required for physiological analyses are challenging due to biofilm heterogeneity. This study evaluated oxygenic photosynthesis and biofuel precursor molecule production using a novel rotating algal biofilm reactor (RABR) operated at field- and laboratory-scales for wastewater remediation and biofuel production, respectively. Clear differences in oxygenic-photosynthesis, respiration and biofuel-precursor capacities were observed between the two systems and different conditions based on light and nitrogen availability. Nitrogen depletion was not found to have the same effect on lipid accumulation compared to prior planktonic studies. Physiological characterizations of these microalgal biofilms identify potential areas for future process optimization.

  19. Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels: a BRE guide to remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is aimed specifically at builders, surveyors and building specialists surveying for and prescribing remedial measures for dwellings. It supplements guidance available in The householders' guide to radon obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the Department of the Environment. The report has been prepared on the basis of experience gained in remedial work on more than 100 dwellings following advice given by BRE, and of discussions with others in the field, notably the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council. Work is continuing, particularly dealing with suspended timber floors, basements and ventilation systems. Results will be incorporated into revisions of this report as they become available. (Author)

  20. 200-ZP-1 phase 2 interim remedial measure quarterly report, August--October 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.; Jacques, I.D.; McMahon, W.J.; Singleton, K.M.; Strope, S.A.; Swanson, L.C.; Windmueller, C.R.

    1996-11-01

    A groundwater pump-and-treat system is being operated in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit under authority of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order . The purpose of the pump-and-treat system is to accomplish the following: Minimize further migration of the high-concentration portion of the carbon tetrachloride plume and co-contaminants chloroform and trichlorethylene in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit Provide data for evaluation of final remedy selection. The 200-ZP-1 pump-and-treat operations were conducted as a pilot-scale treatability test and interim remedial measure treatment system between August 1994 and July 1996 to assess the effectiveness of liquid-phase granular activated carbon carbon tetrachloride removal. The pilot-scale treatability test's removal efficiently was determined to be 99.96% for carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and trichloroethylene. This report summarizes and evaluates treatment, hydraulic, and hydrochemistry data collected for the 200-ZP-1 interim remedial measure from August through September 1996

  1. An Overview of Public Domain Tools for Measuring the Sustainability of Environmental Remediation - 12060

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claypool, John E.; Rogers, Scott [AECOM, Denver, Colorado, 80202 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    their clients. When it comes to the public domain, Federal government agencies are spearheading the development of software tools to measure and report emissions of air pollutants (e.g., carbon dioxide, other greenhouse gases, criteria air pollutants); consumption of energy, water and natural resources; accident and safety risks; project costs and other economic metrics. Most of the tools developed for the Government are available to environmental practitioners without charge, so they are growing in usage and popularity. The key features and metrics calculated by the available public-domain tools for measuring the sustainability of environmental remediation projects share some commonalities but there are differences amongst the tools. The SiteWise{sup TM} sustainability tool developed for the Navy and US Army will be compared with the Sustainable Remediation Tool (SRT{sup TM}) developed for the US Air Force (USAF). In addition, the USAF's Clean Solar and Wind Energy in Environmental Programs (CleanSWEEP), a soon-to-be-released tool for evaluating the economic feasibility of utilizing renewal energy for powering remediation systems will be described in the paper. (authors)

  2. Lab-Based Measurement of Remediation Techniques for Radiation Portal Monitors (Initial Report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesay, Jake

    2012-01-01

    Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM) deployed by the Second Line of Defense (SLD) are known to be sensitive to the natural environmental radioactive background. There are several techniques used to mitigate the effects of background on the monitors, but since the installation environments can vary significantly from one another the need for a standardized, systematic, study of remediation techniques was proposed and carried out. This study is not meant to serve as the absolute last word on the subject. The data collected are, however, intelligible and useful. Some compromises were made, each of which will be described in detail. The hope of this initial report is to familiarize the SLD science teams with ORNL's effort to model the effect of various remediation techniques on simple, static backgrounds. This study provides a good start toward benchmarking the model, and each additional increment of data will serve to make the model more robust. The scope of this initial study is limited to a few basic cases. Its purpose is to prove the utility of lab-based study of remediation techniques and serve as a standard data set for future use. This importance of this first step of standardization will become obvious when science teams are working in parallel on issues of remediation; having a common starting point will do away with one category of difference, thereby making easier the task of determining the sources of disagreement. Further measurements will augment this data set, allowing for further constraint of the universe of possible situations. As will be discussed in the 'Going Forward' section, more data will be included in the final report of this work. Of particular interest will be the data taken with the official TSA lead collimators, which will provide more direct results for comparison with installation data.

  3. Main types of environmental pollution the contributory causes, the effects on environment and the suggested remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.

    1995-01-01

    In this article the main types of environmental pollution, the contributory causes, the effects on environment and suggested remedial measures have been described. The fundamental types of environmental pollution are land pollution, water pollution and air pollution. Many artificial and natural factors contribute towards land pollution. Several remedial measures have suggested in this article, some of them are provision of clean water by municipal agencies, toxic wastes or nuclear wastes should not disposed off in the sea. (A.B.)

  4. Assessment of N and P status at the landscape scale using environmental models and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Vos, J.A. de; Kros, J.; Knotters, M.; Frumau, A.; Bleeker, A.; Vries, W. de

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the compliance of a Dutch landscape, dominated by dairy farming, with environmental quality standards using a combination of model calculations and measurements. The total ammonia emission of 2.4 kton NH 3 yr −1 does not exceed the environmental quality standard (2.6 kton NH 3 yr −1 ). Nevertheless, the total N deposition (on average 24.4 kg N ha −1 yr −1 ) is such that critical N loads are exceeded at 53% of the nature areas. The deposited N mainly results from non-agricultural sources and agricultural sources outside the area (72%). The calculated average NO 3 − concentration in the upper groundwater does not exceed the 50 mg l −1 threshold. Calculated annual average N-total and P-total concentrations in discharge water are relatively high but these cannot be directly compared with thresholds for surface water. The results suggest that compliance monitoring at the landscape scale needs to include source indicators and cannot be based on state indicators alone. - Highlights: ► There is scope for environmental monitoring programs at the landscape scale. ► Landscape assessment of state indicators for N and P require models and measurements. ► Monitoring at the landscape scale needs to consider farm management indicators. - The compliance of an agricultural landscape with quality standards is investigated using a combination of model calculations and measurements.

  5. Remedial measures in Swedish and Norwegian houses - application of radon and radon decay product measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, G.; Philipsborn, H. von; Matolin, M.; Molzahn, D.

    1998-01-01

    Houses and apartments in Sweden and Norway with excessive indoor radon concentrations were studied in detail with a variety of methods, standard and novel ones recently developed. For suitable remediation it is necessary to distinguish soil radon and exhalation from blue (porous) concrete. Our CARBOTEST-S is a simple, sensitive, in-situ method to quantify radon exhalation from existing walls, as well as radon permeability of different protective foils and final quality control of foils applied to existing walls. (orig.) [de

  6. Report on investigation of remedial measures for the radiation reduction and radioactive decontamination of Elliot Lake, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    This is the fourth annual report on a program to monitor and reduce radon daughter exposures in the town of Elliot Lake, Ontario. Twelve month's WL survey measurements were completed in 1980 and showed that 22 houses exceeded the remedial action criterion of 0.02 WL. In a few cases gamma radiation levels were high enough to require remedial action in driveways and public areas, but not inside houses. During 1980 remedial work was carried out on 85 buildings; work was completed on 58. The most frequent routes of entry for radon and radon daughters were untrapped weeping tile connected to a floor drain or sump, and the wall to floor joint

  7. Rockfall Modelling with Remedial Design and Measures along Part of a Mountainous Settlement Area, Southern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntel, Berna; Acar, Altay

    2016-10-01

    In June 2011, a heavy rainfall triggered a number of rockfalls from steep slopes and on slopes made of soft to loose soils capped by inhomogeneous hard rock blocks and masses in the Düziçi Town of Osmaniye Province in Turkey. Large rock blocks had damaged 15 prefabricated hotel rooms whereas the slope movement blocked the major road between Duzigi and hot spring facilities at numerous locations along 280 m. This paper describes remedial measures and design recommended according to the modelling process based on the collection of data and simulation of rockfall with Rocscience RockFall 5.0 software.

  8. Peer Tutoring as a Remedial Measure for Slow Learners in a Medical School

    OpenAIRE

    Ray (Arora) Suranjana; Ray Ujjani; Ray Manas Kanti

    2015-01-01

    Background: A Slow Learner (SL) is one who has the ability to learn necessary academic skills but at a rate and depth below average of the same age peers. Aims: To identify SL we have to judge them not just by their grade level, but by the fact that they master skills slowly, have difficulty following multistep directives, live in the present and do not have long term goals. The remedial measures for these SL were repetition, peer tutoring, enhancing their self-esteem ...

  9. Advances in hydrocarbons spill remediation in Barreal-Belen: proposed measures for the protection of aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Fallas, Luis Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The advances accomplished with regard to hydrocarbons spill remediation, through 2009 are shown and the costs made in the process are listed. In the Central Valley have been located about 160 gas stations on major aquifers at risk of contamination, in light of the case of hydrocarbons spill happened in Barreal-Belen in 2004, discovered by chance during the inspection to a nearby well. The study instruments of the vulnerability to contamination of aquifers are analyzed. A proposal of measures is presented, which should be taken to ensure control over the risk of further spillage and for proper management of waters. (author) [es

  10. The effectiveness of radon preventive and remedial measures in Irish homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S; Fenton, D; Cremin, M; Morgan, A

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 100 000 Irish homes have radon concentrations above the reference level of 200 Bq m −3 . To minimise the number of new homes with this problem, building regulations require that all new homes built since July 1998 in high radon areas are installed with radon barriers during construction. Measurements on local authority homes in a number of high radon areas have allowed the impact of these new regulations to be assessed. In County Cork a reduction of up to 70% in the mean radon concentration was observed in homes built since 1998 relative to those built before this date. A reduction in both the number of homes exceeding the reference level and the maximum concentration measured in homes was also measured. Homes exceeding the reference level were remediated with the use of an active sump. The results of this remedial work are also presented and show that the mean reduction in radon concentration achieved was 92%. (paper)

  11. Proposed plan for interim remedial measures at the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This proposed plan identifies the preferred alternative for interim remedial measures for remedial action of radioactive liquid waste disposal sites at the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit, located at the Hanford Site. It also summarizes other remedial alternatives evaluated for interim remedial measures in this operable unit. The intent of interim remedial measures is to speed up actions to address contaminated areas that historically received radioactive liquid waste discharges that pose a potential threat to human health and the environment. This proposed plan is being issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), the lead regulatory agency; the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the support regulatory agency; and the US Department of Energy (DOE), the responsible agency. Ecology, EPA, and DOE are issuing this proposed plan as part of their public participation responsibilities under Section 117(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as the ''Superfund Program.'' The proposed plan is intended to be a fact sheet for public review that (1) briefly describes the remedial alternatives analyzed; (2) proposes a preferred alternative; (3) summarizes the information relied upon to recommend the preferred alternative; and (4) provides a basis for an interim action record of decision (ROD). The preferred alternative presented in this proposed plan is removal, treatment (as appropriate), and disposal of contaminated soil and associated structures. Treatment will be conducted if there is cost benefit

  12. Strategies for measuring flows of reactive nitrogen at the landscape scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theobald, M.R.; Akkal, N.; Bienkowski, J.

    2011-01-01

    Within a rural landscape there are flows of reactive nitrogen (Nr) through and between the soil, vegetation, atmosphere and hydrological systems as well as transfer as a result of agricultural activities. Measurements of these flows and transfers have generally been limited to individual media (e.......g., hydrological flows) or the interface between two media (e.g., exchange between the soil and the atmosphere). However, the study of flows of Nr at the landscape scale requires a more integrated approach that combines measurement techniques to quantify the flows from one medium to the next. This paper discusses...

  13. Cased Hole Evaluation Using Pulsed Neutron measurements and remedial actions on non-performing wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukerji, P.

    2002-01-01

    Advances in pulsed neutron spectroscopy tools have improved accuracy and precision of measured carbon-oxygen rations. The C/O ratios relate to the volumes of oil and water in the formation. Some of the improvements in accuracy and precision have resulted from better tool characterization in a wider variety of logging environments in the calibration facility and new spectral standards. The ability to combine advanced logging measurements has provided the operator with better diagnosis tools for identifying candidates for possible remedial actions. The successful diagnosis and treatment of water production problems requires the identification of specific influx zones. The information obtained from such logs allows effective treatment of unwanted wellbore fluid entries. This paper will present examples from logs run in the Niger delta. We will show how the application of pulsed neutron logs can optimise subsequent well intervention to reduce water production and/or increase oil production

  14. The effectiveness of soil conservation measures at a landscape scale in the West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wickama, Juma; Masselink, Rens; Sterk, Geert

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of soil and water conservation (SWC) technologies among small holder farmers in the East African highlands is an area which poses many challenges. When adoption occurs across a vast landscape, the locations and effectiveness of the adopted measures are often not adequately known. For

  15. Dwellings with cellars and basements. A BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.; Jaggs, M.P.R.

    1998-01-01

    This guide is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. The guide is based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. The measures it describes are applicable, in principle, to all dwellings and other buildings of a similar scale and construction which have cellars or basements. Contact details of other organisations referred to are listed at the back of this guide. Basements and cellars are relatively uncommon in the United Kingdom, but where they do occur they are likely to be major contributors to the radon problem within a building. Experience shows that most houses with high indoor radon levels can be remedied through the use of straightforward building works. These can be carried out by a builder or householder competent in DIY. The cost should not be excessive. Before reading this guide, for background information on radon, consult Radon: a householder's guide and Radon: a guide to reducing levels M your home, obtainable from local Environmental Health Officers or from the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The Government recommends that, if the average radon concentration in a dwelling exceeds 200 Bq/m 3 (the 'action' level), measures should be taken to reduce it. This guide assumes that radon measurements have been made in the building and that the annual average indoor radon level was shown to exceed the action level

  16. Remedial measures in Czech houses with high radium content in building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.; Thomas, J.

    1999-01-01

    Three groups of houses built from materials having elevated natural radioactivity content were found in the Czech republic. These are: 1) about hundred old houses in Jachymov (Joachimstal) in Northern Bohemia, where residues from factory producing uranium paints were used as plaster and mortar before the World War II (radium concentration up to 1 MBq/kg, indoor gamma dose rate up to 10-100 μGy/h); 2) some 20 000 family houses built from highly emanating aerated concrete with radium content 500-1000 Bq/kg (produced from flying ash) in the period 1963-1980; 3) more than 2000 family houses from slag concrete of radium content about 3 kBq/kg in average (indoor gamma dose rate up to 2 μGy/h) made in the period 1972-83. Remedy measures were undertaken with state financial support. Intervention levels were laid down 200 Bq/m 3 for EEC (equivalent equilibrium radon concentration - it is equivalent to radon gas concentration 500 Bq/m 3 ), 2 μGy/h for indoor gamma dose rate. Weighted sum of indoor radon and indoor gamma dose rate was used if the latter was above 0,5 μGy/h. The central heat recovery ventilation units were used largely as the remedy measures. Some houses were demolished, in some houses local contamination of plasters was removed. Other tested measures (removal of the contaminated building material in great amount, gamma shielding, wall coating, etc.) proved to be not effective or not acceptable in practice. (author)

  17. Methods of Evaluating Thermodynamic Properties of Landscape Cover Using Multispectral Reflected Radiation Measurements by the Landsat Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Puzachenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses methods of evaluating thermodynamic properties of landscape cover based on multi-spectral measurements by the Landsat satellites. Authors demonstrate how these methods could be used for studying functionality of landscapes and for spatial interpolation of Flux NET system measurements.

  18. Indoor radon in selected homes in Aburi Municipality: measurement uncertainty, decision analysis and remediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeboah, M. S.

    2014-07-01

    The main source of natural internal irradiation of man is radon and its decay products. In this study, the radon concentration levels in selected homes in Aburi of the Akuapim North Municipal Assembly in Eastern Region, Ghana were estimated using time-intergrated passive radon detector; LR-115 Type II solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) technique. The primary objective of the study was to measure radon levels in 30 selected homes in the Aburi municipality and determine the uncertainties associated with the measured radon concentrations in order to take a decision on remedial actions to be adopted in case of any abnormality using simple qualitative decision analysis method. Measurements were carried out from December, 2013 to March, 2014. After each month of exposure for a period of three months, the detectors were subjected to chemical etching in a 2.5M analytical grade of sodium hydroxide solution at (60 ± I )OC, for 90mins in a constant temperature water bath to enlarge the latent tracks produced by alpha particles from the decay of radon. The etched tracks were magnified using the microfiche reader and counted with a tally counter. The results obtained from the study revealed that concentration of radon in most of the selected homes in the Aburi municipality is low and it is within the internationally accepted action level of 100Bqm-3 set by WHO (2009). The analysis of the results established that the average radon concentrations vary in the range 23.72- 92.24Bqm -3 , 19.07-124.36 Bqm -3 and 31.63-123.87 Bqm -3 for month I, month 2 and month 3 respectively. The corresponding mean values are 46.77, 45.92 and 56.66 Bqm -3 respectively with standard deviations of ±2.18. ±2.38 and ±2.76. These gave a mean of 49.78 ± 12.50 for the three months. Two (2) of the rooms investigated had values above 20 % of the remedial action level of 100Bqm -3 in two of the months but with their average values slightly lower than the remedial action level. From the

  19. Critical Zone Services as a Measure for Evaluating the Trade-offs in Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone includes the range of biophysical processes occurring from the top of the vegetation canopy to the weathering zone below the groundwater table. These services (Field et al. 2015) provide a measure to value processes that support the goods and services from our landscapes. In intensively managed landscapes the provisioning and regulating services are being altered through anthropogenic energy inputs so as to derive more agricultural productivity from the landscapes. Land use change and other alterations to the environment result in positive and/or negative net Critical Zone services. Through studies in the Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes (IMLCZO), this research seeks to answer questions such as: Are perennial bioenergy crops or annual replaced crops better for the land and surrounding environment? How do we evaluate the products and services from the land for the energy and resources we put in? Before the economic valuation of Critical Zone services, these questions seemed abstract. However, with developments such as Critical Zone services and life cycle assessments, they are more concrete. To evaluate the trade-offs between positive and negative impacts, life cycle assessments are used to create an inventory of all the energy inputs and outputs in a landscape management system. Total energy is computed by summing the mechanical energy used to construct tile drains, fertilizer, and other processes involved in intensely managed landscapes and the chemical energy gained by the production of biofuels from bioenergy crops. A multi-layer canopy model (MLCan) computes soil, water, and nutrient outputs for each crop type, which can be translated into Critical Zone services. These values are then viewed alongside the energy inputs into the system to show the relationship between agricultural practices and their corresponding ecosystem and environmental impacts.

  20. Temporal patterns of lung cancer risk from radon and smoking - consequences to remediation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of uranium miners conducted since the late 1960s demonstrated that the risk depends on cumulated exposure in terms of working level months (WLM) integrating both duration of exposure and concentration of radon. It has been also demonstrated that the risk from radon decreases with time since exposure. The present analysis of temporal changes of relative risk is based on a model where the total individual exposure is partitioned into components in dependence on time. Exposure to radon is studied in a cohort of 9411 Czech uranium miners with 766 cases of lung cancer and in a residential study of 11 803 inhabitants exposed to radon in houses with 218 cases. In addition, temporal patterns of the risk from smoking are analyzed in a case-control study of patients from a major Prague hospital including 566 cases. For both carcinogens, the relative risk decreases with time since exposure. The risk from exposures before 20-34 years is 36% and 34% in comparison to period 5-19 for smoking and radon, respectively. The effect of exposures from more distant periods 35-49 is only 5% for smoking and 14% for radon in comparison to 5-19 years. This substantial decrease of relative risk with time may contribute to a better evaluation of remediation measures taken in houses and in the cost effectiveness of remediation. Combined effect of smoking and radon is studied by a nested case-control approach including 434 cases and 962 controls. Analyses of the joint effects of smoking and radon, conducted in the occupational and the residential studies, suggest a sub-multiplicative interaction. The relative risk from radon among non-smokers is higher by a factor of 2-3 in comparison to smokers, suggesting different patterns of lung deposition and clearance among smokers and non-smokers. (author)

  1. IMPROVED RISK ASSESSMENT AND REMEDIATION OF SOIL METALS BASED ON BIOAVAILABILITY MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavy metals in soils can comprise risk through plant uptake or soil ingestion. Recent research results and progress in understandings of risks and methods for soil metal remediation will be presented. Beneficial use of composts/bosolids plus limestone to remediate metal killed e...

  2. Application of in situ measurement for site remediation and final status survey of decommissioning KRR site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Bum; Nam, Jong Soo; Choi, Yong Suk; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In situ gamma spectrometry has been used to measure environmental radiation, assumptions are usually made about the depth distribution of the radionuclides of interest in the soil. The main limitation of in situ gamma spectrometry lies in determining the depth distribution of radionuclides. The objective of this study is to develop a method for subsurface characterization by in situ measurement. The peak to valley method based on the ratio of counting rate between the photoelectric peak and Compton region was applied to identify the depth distribution. The peak to valley method could be applied to establish the relation between the spectrally derived coefficients (Q) with relaxation mass per unit area (β) for various depth distribution in soil. The in situ measurement results were verified by MCNP simulation and calculated correlation equation. In order to compare the depth distributions and contamination levels in decommissioning KRR site, in situ measurement and sampling results were compared. The in situ measurement results and MCNP simulation results show a good correlation for laboratory measurement. The simulation relationship between Q and source burial for the source layers have exponential relationship for a variety depth distributions. We applied the peak to valley method to contaminated decommissioning KRR site to determine a depth distribution and initial activity without sampling. The observed results has a good correlation, relative error between in situ measurement with sampling result is around 7% for depth distribution and 4% for initial activity. In this study, the vertical activity distribution and initial activity of {sup 137}Cs could be identifying directly through in situ measurement. Therefore, the peak to valley method demonstrated good potential for assessment of the residual radioactivity for site remediation in decommissioning and contaminated site.

  3. Engineering evaluation/conceptual plan for the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit interim remedial measure. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This report presents an engineering evaluation and conceptual plan for an interim remedial measure (IRM) to address a uranium and technetium-99 groundwater plume in the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This report provides information regarding the need for an IRM and its potentially achievable objectives and goals. The report also evaluates alternatives to contain elevated concentrations of uranium and technetium-99 and to obtain information necessary to develop final remedial actions for the operable unit

  4. Assessing Vulnerability of Lake Erie Landscapes to Soil Erosion: Modelled and Measured Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosse, P.; Laamrani, A.; Feisthauer, N.; Li, S.

    2017-12-01

    Loss of soil from agricultural landscapes to Lake Erie via water erosion is a key transport mechanism for phosphorus bound to soil particles. Agriculture is the dominant land use in the Canadian side of the Lake Erie basin with approximately 75% of the 2.3 million hectares under crop or livestock production. The variable geography and diversity of agricultural production systems and management practices makes estimating risk of soil erosion from agricultural landscapes in the Canadian Lake Erie basin challenging. Risk of soil erosion depends on a combination of factors including the extent to which soil remains bare, which differs with crop type and management. Two different approaches of estimating the vulnerability of landscapes to soil erosion will be compared among Soil Landscapes of Canada in the Lake Erie basin: a modelling approach incorporating farm census and soil survey data, represented by the 2011 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Agri-Environmental Indicator for Soil Erosion Risk; and, a measured approach using remotely sensed data that quantifies the magnitude of bare and covered soil across the basin. Results from both approaches will be compared by scaling the national level (1:1 million) Soil Erosion Risk Indicator and the remotely sensed data (30x30 m resolution) to the quaternary watershed level.

  5. Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels: a BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radom levels in existing dwellings. It is aimed specifically at builders, surveyors and building specialists surveying for and prescribing remedial measures for dwellings. It supplements guidance available in 'The householders' guide to radon, obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the Department of the Environment. (Author)

  6. ABSCISSA ASSESSMENT WITH ALGAE: A COMPARISON OF LOCAL AND LANDSCAPE IMPAIRMENT MEASURES FOR BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT USING BENTHIC DIATOMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of rigorous biological assessments is dependent upon well-constructed abscissa, and various methods, both subjective and objective, exist to measure expected impairment at both the landscape and local scale. A new, landscape-scale method has recently been offered...

  7. Characterization and Remediation of Contaminated Sites:Modeling, Measurement and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, N. B.; Rao, P. C.; Poyer, I. C.; Christ, J. A.; Zhang, C. Y.; Jawitz, J. W.; Werth, C. J.; Annable, M. D.; Hatfield, K.

    2008-05-01

    The complexity of natural systems makes it impossible to estimate parameters at the required level of spatial and temporal detail. Thus, it becomes necessary to transition from spatially distributed parameters to spatially integrated parameters that are capable of adequately capturing the system dynamics, without always accounting for local process behavior. Contaminant flux across the source control plane is proposed as an integrated metric that captures source behavior and links it to plume dynamics. Contaminant fluxes were measured using an innovative technology, the passive flux meter at field sites contaminated with dense non-aqueous phase liquids or DNAPLs in the US and Australia. Flux distributions were observed to be positively or negatively correlated with the conductivity distribution, depending on the source characteristics of the site. The impact of partial source depletion on the mean contaminant flux and flux architecture was investigated in three-dimensional complex heterogeneous settings using the multiphase transport code UTCHEM and the reactive transport code ISCO3D. Source mass depletion reduced the mean contaminant flux approximately linearly, while the contaminant flux standard deviation reduced proportionally with the mean (i.e., coefficient of variation of flux distribution is constant with time). Similar analysis was performed using data from field sites, and the results confirmed the numerical simulations. The linearity of the mass depletion-flux reduction relationship indicates the ability to design remediation systems that deplete mass to achieve target reduction in source strength. Stability of the flux distribution indicates the ability to characterize the distributions in time once the initial distribution is known. Lagrangian techniques were used to predict contaminant flux behavior during source depletion in terms of the statistics of the hydrodynamic and DNAPL distribution. The advantage of the Lagrangian techniques lies in their

  8. Investigation regarding bridge expansion joints deterioration in pakistan and its remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajwad, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Concrete bridges are a vital part of highway infrastructure in Pakistan. The main problem that exists is the deterioration of most of them over the past 20 years or so. The main reason for this is the deviation from specified construction procedures and the negligence of the maintenance departments due to several reasons. At the moment National Highway Authority (NHA) owns about 5000 bridges in number across the country and according to a survey, about 30 percent of them are either not up to the mark or are out of service. The fund that NHA reserves every year for the maintenance purposes ranges from PKR 500 to 600 million which is very limited when it comes across the scope of the work. It means that expensive testing and retrofitting techniques that need to be implemented can never be achieved practically. This research is focused on case studies involving deterioration of bridge expansion joints only. All the deficiencies with their root causes and remedial measures are discussed in detail. The research is based upon wide experience of authors and will prove to be a cherished standard and beneficial reference article for working engineers engaged in fresh construction as well as renovation and repairs of concrete highway bridges. (author)

  9. Hazard classification for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit Phase 2 and 3 interim remedial measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, D.K.

    1996-04-01

    This safety assessment documents the Final Hazard Classification (FHC) for Phase 2 and 3 interim remedial measure (IRM) activities to be conducted in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The 200-ZP-1 Phase 2 and 3 IRM activities will involve the air stripping of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) from extracted groundwater using a packed-bed stripper column followed by gas-phase adsorption of the CCl 4 from the stripper off-gas onto a granular activated carbon (GAC) bed. The stripper is designed to be operated at a feedwater flow rate of up to 1,893 L/min (500 gal/min) and to remove 13.6 kg/day (30.0 lb/day) of CCl 4 . For Phase 2, which includes the initial year of operation, it is planned to operate the stripper at 568 L/min (150 gal/min). The process flow diagram for the Phase 2 and 3 system is shown

  10. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), and surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement

  11. The cost-effectiveness of remedial and preventative measures against radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Aanestad, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The indoor radon concentrations in Norway are among the highest in Europe. This is partly explained by the geology due to the large occurrences of radium rich soil and bedrock (e.g. alum shale and uranium rich granites), large occurrences of highly permeable unconsolidated sediments (e.g. moraines and eskers), and the construction of buildings due to the cold climate. An additional factor is the extensive use of highly permeable light expanded clay aggregates in the foundation construction. Entry of radon from the building ground is the dominant source of indoor radon in Norway. Based on the results of nation-wide surveys it has been concluded that most homes with high levels of radon are located on highly permeable sediments, and some of the homes on are sometimes very difficult and expensive to mitigate. In order to limit the mitigation costs it is therefore important the cost -effectiveness of measures is optimised. In this paper, the results of a Norwegian analysis of the cost -effectiveness of remedial measures in existing dwellings and preventative measures in new buildings will be presented. The analysis on measures in existing dwellings is based on data from approximately 1100 buildings which were mitigated by grants from the Government during the National Action Plan against Cancer between 1999 and 2003. The results show that the mitigation costs are significantly higher than earlier estimates based on controlled experiments in research projects, and it seem as though the mitigation costs have been significantly underestimated in earlier cost-effect analysis. There are several factor that have contributed to an increase of the mitigation costs and some of these factors will be discusses in more detail in this paper. The upper level for new dwellings is 200 Bq/m 3 and it is generally recommended by the Norwegian authorities that preventative measures are implemented in all new dwellings. By this strategy the costs of

  12. Evaluating the impact of distance measures on deforestation simulations in the fluvial landscapes of amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Maria; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Toivonen, Tuuli

    2014-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LUCC) models frequently employ different accessibility measures as a proxy for human influence on land change processes. Here, we simulate deforestation in Peruvian Amazonia and evaluate different accessibility measures as LUCC model inputs. We demonstrate how the selection, and different combinations, of accessibility measures impact simulation results. Out of the individual measures, time distance to market center catches the essential aspects of accessibility in our study area. The most accurate simulation is achieved when time distance to market center is used in association with distance to transport network and additional landscape variables. Although traditional Euclidean measures result in clearly lower simulation accuracy when used separately, the combination of two complementary Euclidean measures enhances simulation accuracy significantly. Our results highlight the need for site and context sensitive selection of accessibility variables. More sophisticated accessibility measures can potentially improve LUCC models' spatial accuracy, which often remains low.

  13. Remedial measures against high levels of radioactive cesium in Swedish lake fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, T.; Nilsson, Aa.; Haakanson, L.; Kvarnaes, H.

    1991-01-01

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) has provided funds for the testing of methods to reduce the concentration of radioactive cesium in fish. The main purpose of this report is to present to remedies tested and to give an account of the effect they had on the concentration of Cs-137 in fish. In addition, analyses are made of the lake-specific factors contributing to the Cs-uptake in fish in the tested lakes. The time interval between the remedies adopted and the latest fish analyses (about 2 years on average) is not sufficient to statistically establish the small effects of the remedies. A longer time series of data is required for this

  14. Peer Tutoring as a Remedial Measure for Slow Learners in a Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray (Arora Suranjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Slow Learner (SL is one who has the ability to learn necessary academic skills but at a rate and depth below average of the same age peers. Aims: To identify SL we have to judge them not just by their grade level, but by the fact that they master skills slowly, have difficulty following multistep directives, live in the present and do not have long term goals. The remedial measures for these SL were repetition, peer tutoring, enhancing their self-esteem and improve confidence. With correct monitoring, support and feedback from a teacher facilitator peer tutoring can provide deeper learning, reduce dropout, and improve social behavior. Objective: The aim was to identify SL and to peer tutor them. Material and Methods: In a group of 106 students in the first year of MBBS in a college in Mauritius 20 students were identified as SL, out of the other 86 students 2 to 3 students were selected as peer tutors. The sample size on which the questionnaire was used to determine slow learners were 106 out of which 20 were found to be slow learners. The peer tutors were selected among the 106 students. The facilitator trained the tutors. Conclusion: In our Institute we found an alarming 15-18% of SL. The SL responded positively to the peer tutoring and a significant number improved their academic performance. Peer tutoring has significant cognitive gains for both tutor and tutees. Peer tutoring improves selfconfidence, academic achievement, improves their attitude towards the subject matter and encourages greater persistence in completing tasks. Identifying SL has many pitfalls as we should confirm that they are not 'reluctant' or 'struggling' learners but SL.

  15. The use of field redox measurements in assessing remediation of ground water containing petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, S.D.; Gallinatti, J.D.; Honniball, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Field measurements of the reduction-oxidation (redox) condition of ground water were used to assess the effects of in situ remediation of ground water affected by petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated organic compounds at multiple sites in northern California. The redox condition of ground water, traditionally measured quickly and inexpensively using a meter that measures electrode potential (Eh), is a valuable parameter by which to assess the conditions that affect the relative stability of various chemicals in ground water. Although not specific to a given redox couple measurements obtained using the traditional Eh meter give a sense of the relative tendency for a ground water to be reducing or oxidizing by providing a measurement of the system Eh. Two cases demonstrate the use of ground water Eh measurements in assessing the effects of in situ ground water remediation. In the first case, ground water affected by petroleum hydrocarbons-gasoline (TPHg), and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) (ambient Eh of -100 to +100 millivolts [mv]) was treated by injecting hydrogen peroxide to supply oxygen to the subsurface environment and stimulate microbial activity. The second case involved remediation of ground water containing chlorinated organic compounds. In this case, a subsurface permeable ground water treatment wall containing granular iron was installed across the flow path of the affected ground water. The in situ chemical treatment, which successfully dechlorinates compounds such as trichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride, caused reducing conditions in the ground water, which resulted in the decrease in ground water Eh from am ambient reading of about -50 mv to about -400 mv

  16. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The subject Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses residual free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination suspected in the subsurface within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2). This IM/IRAP/EA also addresses radionuclide contamination beneath the 903 Pad at OU2. Although subsurface VOC and radionuclide contamination on represent a source of OU2 ground-water contamination, they pose no immediate threat to public health or the environment. This IM/IRAP/EA identifies and evaluates interim remedial actions for removal of residual free-phase VOC contamination from three different subsurface environments at OU2. The term ''residual'' refers to the non-aqueous phase contamination remaining in the soil matrix (by capillary force) subsequent to the passage of non-aqueous or free-phase liquid through the subsurface. In addition to the proposed actions, this IM/IRAP/EA presents an assessment of the No Action Alternative. This document also considers an interim remedial action for the removal of radionuclides from beneath the 903 Pad

  17. Future global manpower shortages in nuclear industries with special reference to india including remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh Hazra, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    -2050. Service sector in India accounts for about 50% of GDP which will continue to increase further and will provide more jobs and better paid jobs than core industries and there will be continued shift of choice of employment towards service sector creating deep gap of manpower resource requirement in basic and core industries. There are reports that some countries may have to abandon some future projects because of non availability skilled manpower in core industries. The installed capacity of nuclear power in India in the year 2052 will be about 200 G We from the present about 4 G We which will be a manifold increase. This will need about estimated 1,30,000 skilled manpower from the present about 12,000 persons in nuclear industries. Moreover, the need for competent persons in nuclear industries because of high safety requirements of nuclear installations will further add to the problem. The following short-term strategies to retain and attract new employees in nuclear industries may be envisaged amongst others: - Recruit employees prior to the departure of experienced technical staff to facilitate knowledge transfer in time. - Increase compensation and the number of higher level positions. - Increase permanent entry-level intake of skilled manpower taking into account historical turn-over rate. - Implement attractive student loan repayment programs by tying up with banks and financial institutions. - Implement well researched strategies and measures including reassessing the practical capacity which nations including India can achieve in power generation in future taking practical aspects of manpower shortage. - Implement advanced technology which requires lesser manpower. - Implement higher level of automation in nuclear industries. The paper aims to highlight the acute problems of future manpower shortages in nuclear industries globally with special reference to India and discusses some remedial measures which may be taken to address the issue. (author)

  18. Investigating everyday measures through exploratory talk: whole class plenary intervention and landscape study at grade four

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Sharada; Blomqvist, Charlotta

    2018-03-01

    We report an exploratory talk based, whole class plenary intervention, in relation to students' understanding of everyday measures and measurement, in a grade four classroom at a grade 4-6 school in Sweden. Extended, project related, teacher-researcher collaboration forms basis for such cultural historical activity theory or CHAT based efforts. As formative intervention, the conduct of the plenary is not pre-determined but embedded in ongoing curricular realities, with the agency of students and teacher promoted, pedagogical ideas reutilised and the role of researcher viewed as supporting design and growth of the intervention. Under Charlotta's guidance as teacher, the plenary is opportunity for her students to examine improbable scenarios such as, Can Eva and Anton measure the length of Sweden on foot, Can Lars and Iris measure their age in decimeters. A zone of proximal development is created, in which students make the transition from spontaneous to scientific concepts and learn how various units of measurement are objects-that-can-be-used-for-certain-purposes. With opportunity for critical and reflective inquiry, in a plenary designed to lead development, Charlotta's students look beyond the making of rote measurements and articulate a theory of measure in nascent terms. Such a landscape of teaching-learning is finally understood in terms of the nature of talk that was facilitated, the manner of pedagogy utilised, the style of teaching exercised and the kind of learning that was demanded of her students.

  19. Scaling point/plot measurements of greenhouse gas fluxes, balances and intensities to whole-farms and landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenstock, T.S.; Rufino, Mariana; Chirinda, N.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Reidsma, P.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of nutrient stocks and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes are typically collected at very local scales (<1 to 30 m2) and then extrapolated to estimate impacts at larger spatial extents (farms, landscapes, or even countries). Translating point measurements to higher levels of aggregation is

  20. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/ Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The subject Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses residual free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination suspected in the subsurface within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2). This IM/IRAP/EA also addresses radionuclide contamination beneath the 903 Pad at OU2. Although subsurface VOC and radionuclide contamination on represent a source of OU2 ground-water contamination, they pose no immediate threat to public health or the environment. This volume contains five appendices

  1. Modelling cadmium contamination in paddy soils under long-term remediation measures: Model development and stochastic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping

    2016-09-01

    A pollutant accumulation model (PAM) based on the mass balance theory was developed to simulate long-term changes of heavy metal concentrations in soil. When combined with Monte Carlo simulation, the model can predict the probability distributions of heavy metals in a soil-water-plant system with fluctuating environmental parameters and inputs from multiple pathways. The model was used for evaluating different remediation measures to deal with Cd contamination of paddy soils in Youxian county (Hunan province), China, under five scenarios, namely the default scenario (A), not returning paddy straw to the soil (B), reducing the deposition of Cd (C), liming (D), and integrating several remediation measures (E). The model predicted that the Cd contents of soil can lowered significantly by (B) and those of the plants by (D). However, in the long run, (D) will increase soil Cd. The concentrations of Cd in both soils and rice grains can be effectively reduced by (E), although it will take decades of effort. The history of Cd pollution and the major causes of Cd accumulation in soil were studied by means of sensitivity analysis and retrospective simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbon Balance at Landscape Level inferred fromTower CO2 Concentration Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Chen, B.; Higuchi, K.; Chan, D.; Shashkov, A.; Lin, H.; Liu, J.

    2003-04-01

    Terrestrial carbon sinks are considerable in the global carbon budget, but the accumulation of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is very small (~0.2% per year) relative to the total carbon stocks in forests. Currently, eddy-covariance instruments mounted on towers are the only reliable means to measure carbon balance of a land surface, albeit limited to small areas and not free of caveats. In our quest of understanding the collective performance of ecosystems under the changing climate, it is highly desirable to have the ability to acquire carbon cycle information for large areas (landscape) consisting of patches of different ecosystems. For this purpose we explored methodologies of inferring carbon cycle information from tower CO2 concentration measurements affected by large areas (100-10000 km2). An ecosystem model named Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is coupled with a carbon-specific Vertical Diffusion Scheme (VDS) in order to decipher temporal variations in CO2 for landscape-level photosynthesis and respiration information. The coupled BEPS-VDS is applied to a unique 9-year (1990-2000 with 1997-8 missing data) 5-minute CO2 record measured on a 40-m tower over boreal forests near Fraserdale, Ontario, Canada. Over the period, the mean diurnal amplitude of the measured CO2 at 40 m increased by 5.58 ppmv, or 28% in the growing season. The increase in nighttime ecosystem respiration, causing the increase in the daily maximum CO2 concentration, was responsible for 65% of the increase in the diurnal amplitude, i.e., 3.61 ppmv, corresponding to an increase in the mean daily air temperature by about 2.77 degC and precipitation by 5% over the same period. The rest (35%) is explained by the increase in ecosystem daytime photosynthesis, causing the decrease in the daily minimum CO2 concentration. As the nighttime stable boundary layer (SBL) (270-560 m) was much shallower than the daytime convective boundary layer (CBL) (1000-1600 m), the increase in

  3. Interim measure conceptual design for remediation at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility at Centralia, Kansas : pilot test and remedy implementation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-09

    This document presents an Interim Measure Work Plan/Design for the short-term, field-scale pilot testing and subsequent implementation of a non-emergency Interim Measure (IM) at the site of the former grain storage facility operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in Centralia, Kansas. The IM is recommended to mitigate both (1) localized carbon tetrachloride contamination in the vadose zone soils beneath the former facility and (2) present (and potentially future) carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the shallow groundwater beneath and in the immediate vicinity of the former CCC/USDA facility. Investigations conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory have demonstrated that groundwater at the Centralia site is contaminated with carbon tetrachloride at levels that exceed the Kansas Tier 2 Risk-Based Screening Level (RBSL) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. Groundwater sampling and analyses conducted by Argonne under a monitoring program approved by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) indicated that the carbon tetrachloride levels at several locations in the groundwater plume have increased since twice yearly monitoring of the site began in September 2005. The identified groundwater contamination currently poses no unacceptable health risks, in view of the absence of potential human receptors in the vicinity of the former CCC/USDA facility. Carbon tetrachloride contamination has also been identified at Centralia in subsurface soils at concentrations on the order of the Kansas Tier 2 RBSL of 200 {micro}g/kg in soil for the soil-to-groundwater protection pathway. Soils contaminated at this level might pose some risk as a potential source of carbon tetrachloride contamination to groundwater. To mitigate the existing contaminant levels and decrease the potential future concentrations of

  4. REACH-ER: a tool to evaluate river basin remediation measures for contaminants at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Griensven, Ann; Haest, Pieter Jan; Broekx, Steven; Seuntjens, Piet; Campling, Paul; Ducos, Geraldine; Blaha, Ludek; Slobodnik, Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    The European Union (EU) adopted the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in 2000 ensuring that all aquatic ecosystems meet ‘good status' by 2015. However, it is a major challenge for river basin managers to meet this requirement in river basins with a high population density as well as intensive agricultural and industrial activities. The EU financed AQUAREHAB project (FP7) specifically examines the ecological and economic impact of innovative rehabilitation technologies for multi-pressured degraded water bodies. For this purpose, a generic collaborative management tool ‘REACH-ER' is being developed that can be used by stakeholders, citizens and water managers to evaluate the ecological and economical effects of different remedial actions on waterbodies. The tool is built using databases from large scale models simulating the hydrological dynamics of the river basing and sub-basins, the costs of the measures and the effectiveness of the measures in terms of ecological impact. Knowledge rules are used to describe the relationships between these data in order to compute the flux concentrations or to compute the effectiveness of measures. The management tool specifically addresses nitrate pollution and pollution by organic micropollutants. Detailed models are also used to predict the effectiveness of site remedial technologies using readily available global data. Rules describing ecological impacts are derived from ecotoxicological data for (mixtures of) specific contaminants (msPAF) and ecological indices relating effects to the presence of certain contaminants. Rules describing the cost-effectiveness of measures are derived from linear programming models identifying the least-cost combination of abatement measures to satisfy multi-pollutant reduction targets and from multi-criteria analysis.

  5. Proposed plan for interim remedial measures at the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This proposed plan introduces the interim remedial measures for addressing contaminated soil at the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit, located at the Hanford Site. In addition, this plan includes a summary of other alternatives analyzed and considered for the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit. The EPA, DOE, and Washington State Dept. of Ecology believe that a combination of removal, treatment, and disposal technologies, where appropriate, would significantly reduce the potential threats to human health and the environment at the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit high-priority waste sites. The remedial actions described in this proposed plan are designed to minimize human health and ecological risks and ensure that additional contaminants originating from these waste sites are not transported to the groundwater. The 100-HR-1 Operable Unit contains the retention basin for the H reactor cooling system, process effluent trenches, the Pluto crib which received an estimated 260 gallons of radioactive liquid waste, process effluent pipelines, and solid waste sites used for the burial of decontaminated and decommissioned equipment from other facilities. Potential health threats would be from the isotopes of cesium, cobalt, europium, plutonium, and strontium, and from chromium, arsenic, lead, and chysene

  6. Integrating the pulse of the riverscape and landscape: modelling stream metabolism using continuous dissolved oxygen measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulsby, C.; Birkel, C.; Malcolm, I.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2013-12-01

    Stream metabolism is a fundamental pulse of the watershed which reflects both the in-stream environment and its connectivity with the wider landscape. We used high quality, continuous (15 minute), long-term (>3 years) measurement of stream dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations to estimate photosynthetic productivity (P) and system respiration (R) in forest and moorland reaches of an upland stream with peaty soils. We calibrated a simple five parameter numerical oxygen mass balance model driven by radiation, stream and air temperature, stream depth and re-aeration capacity. This used continuous 24-hour periods for the whole time series to identify behavioural simulations where DO simulations were re-produced sufficiently well to be considered reasonable representations of ecosystem functioning. Results were evaluated using a seasonal Regional Sensitivity Analysis and a co-linearity index for parameter sensitivity. This showed that >95 % of the behavioural models for the moorland and forest sites were identifiable and able to infer in-stream processes from the DO time series for almost half of all measured days at both sites. Days when the model failed to simulate DO levels successfully provided invaluable insight into time periods when other factors are likely to disrupt in-stream metabolic processes; these include (a) flood events when scour reduces the biomass of benthic primary producers, (b) periods of high water colour in higher summer/autumn flows and (c) low flow periods when hyporheic respiration is evident. Monthly P/R ratios <1 indicate a heterotrophic system with both sites exhibiting similar temporal patterns; with a maximum in February and a second peak during summer months. However, the estimated net ecosystem productivity (NPP) suggests that the moorland reach without riparian tree cover is likely to be a much larger source of carbon to the atmosphere (122 mmol C m-2 d-1) compared to the forested reach (64 mmol C m-2 d-1). The study indicates the value

  7. Be-10 measurements of soil balance and landscape stability in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balco, G.; Anders, A. M.; Finnegan, N. J.; Gran, K. B.; Mitchell, S. G.; Stone, J. O.

    2002-12-01

    We measured meteoric Be-10 in sediment from seven rivers in the Cascade and Olympic Mountains of Washington State, USA. Be-10 is produced in the atmosphere by cosmic-ray bombardment at an approximately known rate, and delivered to the soil surface by precipitation. Because it remains tightly bound to soil particles under near-neutral pH conditions, the amount of Be-10 leaving a catchment is equal to the average Be-10 concentration in stream sediment times the sediment flux. The ratio of the amount of Be-10 leaving a watershed to that delivered by rainfall thus provides a measure of whether soils in the catchment are accumulating or being depleted (the 'Erosion Index' of Brown, 1988). Sediment in these rivers has Be-10 concentrations of 1-10 x 107 atoms/g. Corresponding sediment yields, calculated by developing sediment rating curves from 20-40 yr. of discharge and sediment-concentration data, are 0.001-0.03 g/cm2/yr (equal to erosion rates of 6-150 m/Myr). Be-10 export/import ratios for all rivers are 0.2 +/- 0.1, indicating that Be-10, and by implication soils, have been accumulating in all basins over the time period represented by our gauge measurements. These values are exceptionally low relative to other basins worldwide. Taken with the observation that gauged sediment yields are lower than thermochronologic exhumation rates (125-500 m/Myr), they indicate that the landscape is currently re-establishing soil cover during a period of lower-than-average erosion rates. This suggests that erosion rates were likely much higher during glacial periods. Furthermore, we find no evidence that present land use is causing large-scale soil depletion in any of our river basins.

  8. Landscape Evolution Mechanisms in Gale Crater from In-Situ Measurement of Cosmogenic Noble Gas Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P.; Farley, K. A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Malespin, C.; Vasconcelos, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument onboard the Curiosity rover can measure the noble gas isotopes contained in drilled rock samples on Mars by heating these samples to 930°C. In combination with bulk chemistry measured by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS), cosmogenic nuclide production rates can be determined and an exposure age may be calculated. Three cosmogenic nuclides are measured: 3He, and 21Ne, which are produced via spallation of mainly O, Mg, Si, and Al (held mostly in detrital grains); and 36Ar, which is produced from neutron capture of 35Cl (held mostly in secondary materials). To date, three samples have been measured: Cumberland (CB), Windjana (WJ), and Mojave 2 (MJ2). CB yielded 3He, 21Ne, and 36Ar ages of 72 ± 15, 84 ± 28, and 79 ± 24 Ma, respectively [Farley et al., 2014]. Two aliquots of WJ gave error-weighted mean ages of 30 ± 27 Ma (3He), 54 ± 19 Ma (21Ne), and 63 ± 84 Ma (36Ar) [Vasconcelos et al., 2016]. These relatively young ages were interpreted to suggest that a scarp-retreat mechanism is responsible for erosion at both the CB and WJ localities. The most recent measurements on MJ2 do not include the 21Ne isotope because of an instrument issue at this mass. 3He observed in MJ2 is the highest of any sample yet measured, suggesting an exposure age of approximately 1 Ga. In contrast, the calculated exposure age from 36Ar appears to be less than 100 Ma (despite a high uncertainty due to isobaric H35Cl). This discrepancy could be explained by 1) a contribution of extraterrestrial 3He from interplanetary dust or meteoritic fragments, or 2) approximately 1 Ga of prior exposure to the detrital grains. In the latter case 36Ar accumulates only after the Cl-bearing secondary minerals are formed and exposed at the surface. In either scenario the 36Ar measurement provides the better estimate of the recent exposure history. The young upper limit for 36Ar at MJ2 is consistent with the scarp-retreat mechanism observed at CB and

  9. Methane emissions from termites - landscape level estimates and methods of measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hizbullah; Livesley, Stephen J.; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Arndt, Stefan K.

    2013-04-01

    Termites contribute between mound-building termite species diurnally and seasonally in tropical savannas in the Northern Territory, Australia. Our results showed that there were significant diel and seasonal variations of methane emissions from termite mounds and we observed large species-specific differences. On a diurnal basis, methane fluxes were least at the coolest time of the day and greatest at the warmest for all species for both wet and dry seasons. We observed a strong and significant positive correlation between methane flux and mound temperature for all species. Fluxes in the wet season were 5-26-fold greater than those in the dry season and this was related to population dynamics of the termites. We observed significant relationships between mound methane flux and mound carbon dioxide flux, enabling the prediction of methane flux from measured carbon dioxide flux. However, these relationships were clearly termite species specific. We also determined significant relationships between mound flux and gas concentration inside mound, for both gases, and for all termite species, thereby enabling the prediction of flux from measured mound internal gas concentration. However, these relationships were also termite species specific. Consequently, there was no generic relationship that would enable an easier prediction of methane flux from termite mounds. On a landscape scale we estimated that termites were a methane source of +0.24 kg methane-C ha-1 year-1 whilst savanna soils were a methane sink of 1.14 kg methane-C ha-1 year-1. Termites therefore only offset 21% of methane consumed by savanna soil resulting in net sink strength of -0.90 kg methane-C ha-1 year-1 for these savannas. Assuming a similar contribution of termites in the savannas and tropical rain forests worldwide, termites would globally produce around 27 Tg CO2-e year-1, which is 0.2% of the global methane source budget or an order of magnitude smaller than many of the previous estimates.

  10. Remediation measures at the former hazardous waste dump at Malsch near Heidelberg; Sanierung der ehemaligen Sonderabfalldeponie Malsch. Hydrogeologische Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanstein, P.; Hoetzl, H. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie

    1998-12-31

    The former hazardous waste deposit of Malsch is located south of Heidelberg at the eastern margin of the Upper Rhine Graben. Using a former clay pit about 700.000 m{sup 3} of partly high toxic organic and inorganic wastes were deposited from 1971 to 1984. A leakage from the deposit was first recognised in 1984. Detailed investigation showed that thin channel-like conglomerate layers intercalated in the clays and marls as well as faults are cropping out into the base of the deposit and cause a direct seepage of leachate. Contaminants pollute the downstream area over a distance of 500 m. Remediation measures adding up to 100 Mio. DM were carried out including the construction of a slurry wall encircling laterally the whole site, a surface cover with a multi-liner system as well as a pump and treat system for the leachate was installed and are now in operation. Model studies of the ground water flow including a 3-dimensional site model and a 2-dimensional regional model started during the remediation work. According to the complex geological situation specific procedures was applied to transform the heterogeneous tectonical structure into the numerical models. The balance of water flowing through the deposit was calculated by the piezometric heads to assess different remediation stages. In spite of the missing impervious base the calculation could prove that in connection of a certain pumping rate of the leachate the environment and especially the groundwater can be protected from further leakage. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die fruehere Sonderabfalldeponie Malsch wurde 1971 in einer stillgelegten Tongrube suedlich von Heidelberg am oestlichen Rand des Oberrheingrabens angelegt und bis 1984 betrieben. Insgesamt wurden ueber 700.000 m{sup 3} zum Teil hochtoxische organische und anorganische Sonderabfaelle abgelagert. Mit Abschluss der Deponierungsphase wurden Sickerwasseraustritte im westlichen Deponievorfeld festgelstellt. Ursache fuer die Undichtigkeiten waren geringmaechtige

  11. Disposable Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Whether we are a traditionalist or on the cutting edge of landscape care, we need to take a deep breath and think about what we are trying to achieve, before we select a specific treatment or practice for tree care. We should measure that treatment or practice against what we know about the tree system. I say "system" because the recent years of Modern...

  12. Measurement of air and VOC vapor fluxes during gas-driven soil remediation: bench-scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heonki; Kim, Taeyun; Shin, Seungyeop; Annable, Michael D

    2012-09-04

    In this laboratory study, an experimental method was developed for the quantitative analyses of gas fluxes in soil during advective air flow. One-dimensional column and two- and three-dimensional flow chamber models were used in this study. For the air flux measurement, n-octane vapor was used as a tracer, and it was introduced in the air flow entering the physical models. The tracer (n-octane) in the gas effluent from the models was captured for a finite period of time using a pack of activated carbon, which then was analyzed for the mass of n-octane. The air flux was calculated based on the mass of n-octane captured by the activated carbon and the inflow concentration. The measured air fluxes are in good agreement with the actual values for one- and two-dimensional model experiments. Using both the two- and three-dimensional models, the distribution of the air flux at the soil surface was measured. The distribution of the air flux was found to be affected by the depth of the saturated zone. The flux and flux distribution of a volatile contaminant (perchloroethene) was also measured by using the two-dimensional model. Quantitative information of both air and contaminant flux may be very beneficial for analyzing the performance of gas-driven subsurface remediation processes including soil vapor extraction and air sparging.

  13. Influence of Landscape Coverage on Measuring Spatial and Length Properties of Rock Fracture Networks: Insights from Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenzhuo; Lei, Qinghua

    2018-01-01

    Natural fractures are ubiquitous in the Earth's crust and often deeply buried in the subsurface. Due to the difficulty in accessing to their three-dimensional structures, the study of fracture network geometry is usually achieved by sampling two-dimensional (2D) exposures at the Earth's surface through outcrop mapping or aerial photograph techniques. However, the measurement results can be considerably affected by the coverage of forests and other plant species over the exposed fracture patterns. We quantitatively study such effects using numerical simulation. We consider the scenario of nominally isotropic natural fracture systems and represent them using 2D discrete fracture network models governed by fractal and length scaling parameters. The groundcover is modelled as random patches superimposing onto the 2D fracture patterns. The effects of localisation and total coverage of landscape patches are further investigated. The fractal dimension and length exponent of the covered fracture networks are measured and compared with those of the original non-covered patterns. The results show that the measured length exponent increases with the reduced localisation and increased coverage of landscape patches, which is more evident for networks dominated by very large fractures (i.e. small underlying length exponent). However, the landscape coverage seems to have a minor impact on the fractal dimension measurement. The research findings of this paper have important implications for field survey and statistical analysis of geological systems.

  14. The concept for development of the research network for the measurements of modern tectonic movements in Ksiaz Landscape Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Kasza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept for the development of research network for measurements of effects related to modern tectonic activity in the area of Ksiaz Landscape Park. The first evidences for the existence of displacements on the surfaces of discontinuity with event characteristic and the instruments used in the study were described. The way and shape of development of Ksiaz geodynamic polygon were characterized as well as the methodology and purpose of observations.

  15. First direct landscape-scale measurement of tropical rain forest Leaf Area Index, a key driver of global primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Clark; Paulo C. Olivas; Steven F. Oberbauer; Deborah A. Clark; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Leaf Area Index (leaf area per unit ground area, LAI) is a key driver of forest productivity but has never previously been measured directly at the landscape scale in tropical rain forest (TRF). We used a modular tower and stratified random sampling to harvest all foliage from forest floor to canopy top in 55 vertical transects (4.6 m2) across 500 ha of old growth in...

  16. Specific Remedy for Specific Problem: Measuring Service Quality in South African Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Johan; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan

    2010-01-01

    This study commences a process of developing a scale for the measurement of service quality in higher education in South Africa and also examines the relationship between the measures of service quality on the one hand and some other related variables such as intention to leave the university, trust in management of the university and the overall…

  17. Radon Remediation and Protective Measures in UK Buildings: The Work of the Building Research Establishment Ltd. (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.; Woolliscroft, M.

    1998-01-01

    The scope is described of work carried out by the Building Research Establishment Ltd (BRE) in the UK. BRE, funded by the UK Department of the Environment and the Regions (DETR), have been carrying out research into radon in UK buildings for over 10 years. Research has resulted in the successful development of a range of reliable, practical and cost effective radon remedial measures. The measures, which are described in a series of practical guides, are applicable to almost all building types found in the UK, and would be appropriate for use in many buildings found in other countries. The principal aims of this work have been to develop practical, cost effective and appropriate methods for reducing radon levels in existing buildings and to develop protective measures for new buildings. It is considered particularly important to ensure that measures recommended not only reduce radon levels, but that they do not cause adverse effects to the structure or indoor environment, whilst also being cost effective. A comprehensive series of field trials has been undertaken to test a variety of different solutions in more than 300 existing buildings and protective measures in more than 500 new buildings. To support the field trials BRE have a test house located in the South West of England which allows researchers access to a real house without causing considerable disruption to householders in conducting experiments. BRE have also carried out computer modelling work to try to understand the processes which cause radon entry, and how measures taken might affect these processes. A comprehensive database of work carried out in some 300 UK houses is also maintained. (author)

  18. Measuring the attractiveness of Dutch landscapes: identifying national hotspots using Google Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Sjerp; Buijs, Arjen; Langers, Fransje; Farjon, H.; van Hinsberg, Arjen; Sijtsma, Frans

    2013-01-01

    In a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) or an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), determining the value that the general public attaches to a landscape is often problematic. To aid the inclusion of this social value in such analyses, a Google Maps-based tool, called the HotSpotMonitor (HSM), was

  19. Measuring the effect of fuel treatments on forest carbon using landscape risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.A. Ager; M.A. Finney; A. McMahan; J. Carthcart

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire simulation modelling was used to examine whether fuel reduction treatments can potentially reduce future wildfire emissions and provide carbon benefits. In contrast to previous reports, the current study modelled landscape scale effects of fuel treatments on fire spread and intensity, and used a probabilistic framework to quantify wildfire effects on carbon...

  20. Measuring the distance from saddle points and driving to locate them over quantum control landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qiuyang; Riviello, Gregory; Rabitz, Herschel; Wu, Re-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Optimal control of quantum phenomena involves the introduction of a cost functional J to characterize the degree of achieving a physical objective by a chosen shaped electromagnetic field. The cost functional dependence upon the control forms a control landscape. Two theoretically important canonical cases are the landscapes associated with seeking to achieve either a physical observable or a unitary transformation. Upon satisfaction of particular assumptions, both landscapes are analytically known to be trap-free, yet possess saddle points at precise suboptimal J values. The presence of saddles on the landscapes can influence the effort needed to find an optimal field. As a foundation to future algorithm development and analyzes, we define metrics that identify the ‘distance’ from a given saddle based on the sufficient and necessary conditions for the existence of the saddles. Algorithms are introduced utilizing the metrics to find a control such that the dynamics arrive at a targeted saddle. The saddle distance metric and saddle-seeking methodology is tested numerically in several model systems. (paper)

  1. Alternative Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Alternative Remedies Font ... medical treatment prescribed by their healthcare provider. Using this type of alternative therapy along with traditional treatments is ...

  2. Genealogy Remediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2007-01-01

    Genealogical websites are becoming an increasingly popular genre on the Web. This chapter will examine how remediation is used creatively in the construction of family history. While remediation of different kinds of old memory materials is essential in genealogy, digital technology opens new...... possibilities. Genealogists use their private websites to negotiate family identity and hereby create a sense of belonging in an increasingly complex society. Digital technologies enhance the possibilities of coorporation between genealogists. Therefore, the websites are also used to present archival...

  3. Monitoring great ape and elephant abundance at large spatial scales: measuring effectiveness of a conservation landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Stokes

    Full Text Available Protected areas are fundamental to biodiversity conservation, but there is growing recognition of the need to extend beyond protected areas to meet the ecological requirements of species at larger scales. Landscape-scale conservation requires an evaluation of management impact on biodiversity under different land-use strategies; this is challenging and there exist few empirical studies. In a conservation landscape in northern Republic of Congo we demonstrate the application of a large-scale monitoring program designed to evaluate the impact of conservation interventions on three globally threatened species: western gorillas, chimpanzees and forest elephants, under three land-use types: integral protection, commercial logging, and community-based natural resource management. We applied distance-sampling methods to examine species abundance across different land-use types under varying degrees of management and human disturbance. We found no clear trends in abundance between land-use types. However, units with interventions designed to reduce poaching and protect habitats--irrespective of land-use type--harboured all three species at consistently higher abundance than a neighbouring logging concession undergoing no wildlife management. We applied Generalized-Additive Models to evaluate a priori predictions of species response to different landscape processes. Our results indicate that, given adequate protection from poaching, elephants and gorillas can profit from herbaceous vegetation in recently logged forests and maintain access to ecologically important resources located outside of protected areas. However, proximity to the single integrally protected area in the landscape maintained an overriding positive influence on elephant abundance, and logging roads--even subject to anti-poaching controls--were exploited by elephant poachers and had a major negative influence on elephant distribution. Chimpanzees show a clear preference for unlogged or

  4. A Study of the Spelling Errors committed by Students of English in Saudi Arabia: Exploration and Remedial Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paikar Fatima Mazhar Hameed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The craziness of English spelling has undeniably perplexed learners, especially in an EFL context as in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In these situations, among other obstacles, learners also have to tackle the perpetual and unavoidable problem of MT interference. Sadly, this perplexity takes the shape of a real problem in the language classroom where the English teacher has a tough time rationalizing with the learners why ‘cough’ is not spelt as /kuf/ or ‘knee’ has to do with a silent /k/. It is observed that students of English as second/foreign language in Saudi Arabia commit spelling errors that cause not only a lot of confusion to the teachers but also lower the self-esteem of the students concerned. The current study aims to identify the key problem areas as far as English spelling ability of Saudi EFL learners is concerned. It aims to also suggest remedial and pedagogical measures to improve the learners’ competence in this crucial, though hitherto, nascent skill area in the Saudi education system. Keywords: EFL; error-pattern, spelling instructions, orthography, phonology, vocabulary, language skills, language users

  5. Financial Distress in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES of Bangladesh: Determinants and Remedial Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial distress in SMEs is a common phenomenon across the world, which has been a subject matter of academicians, professionals and government. Although SMEs are contributing to the economy in the form of employment, supply of products and services by using indigenous technologies, social entrepreneurship, income generating activities etc. SMEs are found most vulnerable to the macro-economic as well as internal management crises. Consequently, they fall into financial distress. In view of this, the present study has been undertaken aiming at identifying the causes of financial distress in SMEs of Bangladesh. The study has employed both financial and statistical techniques for analyzing the data collected for the study. The study has identified some potential problem areas related to financial distress such as rate adequacy, sales trends, indebtedness, management capability, financial planning, etc. The study has also identified some most important causes of financial distress such as fund management & resource crunch, poor accounting system, poor financial control, poor productivity and profitability and management succession. The study has finally come out some strategic and policy related measures for both viable and financially distressed SMEs for preventing them from the exposition to financial and operating risk.

  6. Landscape Studio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Lundsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices.......Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices....

  7. Uranium ore mining in Spain with a focus on the closure and remediation measures in former production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, H.; Blunck, S.; Lopez Romero, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    In early 2000, the uranium ore mining activities in Spain ceased. Since the middle of the last century, Spain had pushed ahead its own production of uranium concentrate with the formation of several companies (ENUSA, J.E.N.). In that period, Spain produced around 6000 t of uranium. With the completion of the operations at Andujar, La Haba and Elephante as well as Quercus at Saelices el Chico, the corporate tasks have shifted from building-up of a strategic uranium reserve to remediation and subsequent use of the locations. The operations have reached different remediation phases. While at Saelices el Chico remediation is still proceeding, the Andujar and La Haba locations are undergoing a monitoring phase as agreed for all former operating facilities. The estimated closure and remediation costs for the three operating facilities described amount to approx. 85 mio. Euro. In all three cases dealt with, however, these limited financial resources have been sufficient to successfully implement a closure and remediation concept that minimizes the risks from the facilities of uranium ore mining and processing with regard to the environment. (orig.)

  8. Combining measures of dispersal to identify conservation strategies in fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Allison K; Haddad, Nick M

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the way in which habitat fragmentation disrupts animal dispersal is key to identifying effective and efficient conservation strategies. To differentiate the potential effectiveness of 2 frequently used strategies for increasing the connectivity of populations in fragmented landscapes-corridors and stepping stones-we combined 3 complimentary methods: behavioral studies at habitat edges, mark-recapture, and genetic analyses. Each of these methods addresses different steps in the dispersal process that a single intensive study could not address. We applied the 3 methods to the case study of Atrytonopsis new species 1, a rare butterfly endemic to a partially urbanized stretch of barrier islands in North Carolina (U.S.A.). Results of behavioral analyses showed the butterfly flew into urban and forested areas, but not over open beach; mark-recapture showed that the butterfly dispersed successfully through short stretches of urban areas (5 km) were a dispersal barrier, but shorter stretches of urban areas (≤5 km) were not. Although results from all 3 methods indicated natural features in the landscape, not urbanization, were barriers to dispersal, when we combined the results we could determine where barriers might arise: forests restricted dispersal for the butterfly only when there were long stretches with no habitat. Therefore, urban areas have the potential to become a dispersal barrier if their extent increases, a finding that may have gone unnoticed if we had used a single approach. Protection of stepping stones should be sufficient to maintain connectivity for Atrytonopsis new species 1 at current levels of urbanization. Our research highlights how the use of complementary approaches for studying animal dispersal in fragmented landscapes can help identify conservation strategies. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Measuring the effect of fuel treatments on forest carbon using landscape risk analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ager

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire simulation modelling was used to examine whether fuel reduction treatments can potentially reduce future wildfire emissions and provide carbon benefits. In contrast to previous reports, the current study modelled landscape scale effects of fuel treatments on fire spread and intensity, and used a probabilistic framework to quantify wildfire effects on carbon pools to account for stochastic wildfire occurrence. The study area was a 68 474 ha watershed located on the Fremont-Winema National Forest in southeastern Oregon, USA. Fuel reduction treatments were simulated on 10% of the watershed (19% of federal forestland. We simulated 30 000 wildfires with random ignition locations under both treated and untreated landscapes to estimate the change in burn probability by flame length class resulting from the treatments. Carbon loss functions were then calculated with the Forest Vegetation Simulator for each stand in the study area to quantify change in carbon as a function of flame length. We then calculated the expected change in carbon from a random ignition and wildfire as the sum of the product of the carbon loss and the burn probabilities by flame length class. The expected carbon difference between the non-treatment and treatment scenarios was then calculated to quantify the effect of fuel treatments. Overall, the results show that the carbon loss from implementing fuel reduction treatments exceeded the expected carbon benefit associated with lowered burn probabilities and reduced fire severity on the treated landscape. Thus, fuel management activities resulted in an expected net loss of carbon immediately after treatment. However, the findings represent a point in time estimate (wildfire immediately after treatments, and a temporal analysis with a probabilistic framework used here is needed to model carbon dynamics over the life cycle of the fuel treatments. Of particular importance is the long-term balance between emissions from the

  10. Measuring the effect of fuel treatments on forest carbon using landscape risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, A. A.; Finney, M. A.; McMahan, A.; Cathcart, J.

    2010-12-01

    Wildfire simulation modelling was used to examine whether fuel reduction treatments can potentially reduce future wildfire emissions and provide carbon benefits. In contrast to previous reports, the current study modelled landscape scale effects of fuel treatments on fire spread and intensity, and used a probabilistic framework to quantify wildfire effects on carbon pools to account for stochastic wildfire occurrence. The study area was a 68 474 ha watershed located on the Fremont-Winema National Forest in southeastern Oregon, USA. Fuel reduction treatments were simulated on 10% of the watershed (19% of federal forestland). We simulated 30 000 wildfires with random ignition locations under both treated and untreated landscapes to estimate the change in burn probability by flame length class resulting from the treatments. Carbon loss functions were then calculated with the Forest Vegetation Simulator for each stand in the study area to quantify change in carbon as a function of flame length. We then calculated the expected change in carbon from a random ignition and wildfire as the sum of the product of the carbon loss and the burn probabilities by flame length class. The expected carbon difference between the non-treatment and treatment scenarios was then calculated to quantify the effect of fuel treatments. Overall, the results show that the carbon loss from implementing fuel reduction treatments exceeded the expected carbon benefit associated with lowered burn probabilities and reduced fire severity on the treated landscape. Thus, fuel management activities resulted in an expected net loss of carbon immediately after treatment. However, the findings represent a point in time estimate (wildfire immediately after treatments), and a temporal analysis with a probabilistic framework used here is needed to model carbon dynamics over the life cycle of the fuel treatments. Of particular importance is the long-term balance between emissions from the decay of dead trees

  11. Estimating landscape-scale impacts of agricultural management on soil carbon using measurements and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipanski, M.; Rosenzweig, S. T.; Robertson, A. D.; Sherrod, L. A.; Ghimire, R.; McMaster, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture covers 40% of Earth's ice-free land area and has broad impacts on global biogeochemical cycles. While some agricultural management changes are small in scale or impact, others have the potential to shift biogeochemical cycles at landscape and larger scales if widely adopted. Understanding which management practices have the potential to contribute to climate change adaptation and mitigation while maintaining productivity requires scaling up estimates spatially and temporally. We used on-farm, long-term, and landscape scale datasets to estimate how crop rotations impact soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation rates under current and future climate scenarios across the semi-arid Central and Southern Great Plains. We used a stratified, landscape-scale soil sampling approach across 96 farm fields to evaluate crop rotation intensity effects on SOC pools and pesticide inputs. Replacing traditional wheat-fallow rotations with more diverse, continuously cropped rotations increased SOC by 17% and 12% in 0-10 cm and 0-20 cm depths, respectively, and reduced herbicide use by 50%. Using USDA Cropland Data Layer, we estimated soil C accumulation and pesticide reduction potentials of shifting to more intensive rotations. We also used a 30-year cropping systems experiment to calibrate and validate the Daycent model to evaluate rotation intensify effects under future climate change scenarios. The model estimated greater SOC accumulation rates under continuously cropped rotations, but SOC stocks peaked and then declined for all cropping systems beyond 2050 under future climate scenarios. Perennial grasslands were the only system estimated to maintain SOC levels in the future. In the Southern High Plains, soil C declined despite increasing input intensity under current weather while modest gains were simulated under future climate for sorghum-based cropping systems. Our findings highlight the potential vulnerability of semi-arid regions to climate change, which will be

  12. Tall tower landscape scale N2O flux measurements in a Danish agricultural and urban, coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Lequy, Émeline; Loubet, Benjamin; Pilegaard, Kim; Ambus, Per

    2015-04-01

    Both technical and natural processes emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) into the atmosphere. The abundant use of nitrogen (N) as fertiliser increases the concentration of reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and in the biosphere, i.e. in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Surplus Nr is distributed across linkages to other spheres until most of it is emitted to the atmosphere as NO, N2O or N2. A complete estimate of the effects from human activities on N2O emissions must therefore include all emissions, the direct emissions and the indirect emissions that happen in interlinked spheres. For this it is necessary to assess the fluxes at least at the landscape scale. The episodic nature and the large spatial variability make it difficult to estimate the direct and indirect emissions in a landscape. Modelling requires not only to include the highly variable microbial processes in the ecosystems that produce N2O but as well the accurate simulation of lateral Nr fluxes and their effects on N2O fluxes in places remote from the primary Nr sources. In this context tall tower N2O flux measurements are particularly useful as they integrate over larger areas and can be run, continuously without disturbing the fluxes. On the other hand these measurements can be difficult to interpret due to difficulties to measure the small concentration fluctuations in the atmosphere at small flux rates and to accurately attribute the measured flux at the tower to the area that generates the flux, i.e. the source area. The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) has established eddy covariance N2O flux measurements on a 125 m tall tower at its Risø Campus as part of the EU research infrastructure project the 'Integrated non-CO2 Greenhouse gas Observing System' (InGOS). The eddy covariance system consisted of a N2O/CO quantum cascade laser, Los Gatos, Mountain View, CA, USA and a 3D sonic anemometer (USA-1), Metek, Elmshorn, Germany. The Risø peninsula lies at the

  13. Pimp your landscape: a tool for qualitative evaluation of the effects of regional planning measures on ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Christine; Volk, Martin; Pietzsch, Katrin; Makeschin, Franz

    2010-12-01

    The article presents the platform "Pimp your landscape" (PYL), which aims firstly at the support of planners by simulating alternative land-use scenarios and by an evaluation of benefits or risks for regionally important ecosystem services. Second, PYL supports an integration of information on environmental and landscape conditions into impact assessment. Third, PYL supports the integration of impacts of planning measures on ecosystem services. PYL is a modified 2-D cellular automaton with GIS features. The cells have the major attribute "land-use type" and can be supplemented with additional information, such as specifics regarding geology, topography and climate. The GIS features support the delineation of non-cellular infrastructural elements, such as roads or water bodies. An evaluation matrix represents the core element of the system. In this matrix, values in a relative scale from 0 (lowest value) to 100 (highest value) are assigned to the land-use types and infrastructural elements depending on their effect on ecosystem services. The option to configure rules for describing the impact of environmental attributes and proximity effects on cell values and land-use transition probabilities is of particular importance. User interface and usage of the platform are demonstrated by an application case. Constraints and limits of the recent version are discussed, including the need to consider in the evaluation, landscape-structure aspects such as patch size, fragmentation and spatial connectivity. Regarding the further development, it is planned to include the impact of land management practices to support climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in regional planning.

  14. Messages, limitations and future needs of research into environmental impacts and mitigating and remediation measures of oil palm and forest land-use and land management in SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Bidin, Kawi; Nurhidayu, Siti; Nainar, Anand; Annammala, Kogilavani; Blake, William; Higton, Sam; Wall, Katy; Darling, Isabella

    2017-04-01

    SOR Programme is specifically testing the effectiveness of RSPO guidelines and possible improved land management measures. After a brief overview of some of the approaches and key findings of these studies, the paper focuses on some of the advantages, limitations and future needs of these studies. Important features of the projects are (1) the involvement of industry, Government and local people from the start in the projects, (2) the focus on the landscape scale and long-term (for example with use of current monitoring as well as a historical approach involving sediment dating and fingerprinting), (3) simultaneous consideration of impacts on a wide variety of environmental impacts, as impacts of land management practices can be beneficial to some but adverse to others. Key limitations and needs are then identified and discussed. The most important of these include how to reconcile the sometimes conflicting impacts of land management practices (and remedial measures) on different environmental parameters and concerns - what is good for Peter is sometimes very bad for Paul. A key need identified, therefore, is for methodologies to evaluate comparative environmental and socioeconomic benefits and costs of sometimes conflicting or alternative land management practices and options that emerge from usually separate scientific investigations of how to reduce impacts of, for example, soil erosion, landslide risk, streamwater pollution, atmospheric emissions, river ecology and landscape biodiversity (and its components). There is also a key need for involvement of social scientists in projects.

  15. Bioaccumulation in Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) as a measure of the EDTA remediation efficiency of metal-polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udovic, Metka; Drobne, Damjana; Lestan, Domen

    2009-01-01

    Leaching using EDTA applied to a Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil significantly reduced soil metal concentrations and the pool of metals in labile soil fractions. Metal mobility (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), phytoavailability (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extraction) and human oral-bioavailability (Physiologically Based Extraction Test) were reduced by 85-92%, 68-91% and 88-95%, respectively. The metal accumulation capacity of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea) was used as in vivo assay of metal bioavailability, before and after soil remediation. After feeding on metal contaminated soil for two weeks, P. scaber accumulated Pb, Zn and Cd in a concentration dependent manner. The amounts of accumulated metals were, however, higher than expected on the basis of extraction (in vitro) tests. The combined results of chemical extractions and the in vivo test with P. scaber provide a more relevant picture of the availability stripping of metals after soil remediation. - Bioaccumulation tests with Porcellio scaber isopods are proposed as a supplement to chemical extraction in assessing metal bioavailability before and after soil remediation.

  16. Farm nitrogen balances in six European agricultural landscapes – a method for farming system assessment, emission hotspot identification, and mitigation measure evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Bienkowski, J.; Bleeker, A.

    2012-01-01

    average was similar to those of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha−1yr−1, respectively) when landless poultry were included. However, the challenge remains how to account for indirect N surpluses and emissions from such farms with a large export of manure out of the landscape. We conclude that farm......–2009. This indicates that farm N surpluses may be used as an independent dataset for validation of measured and modelled N emissions in agricultural landscapes. However, no significant correlation was found to N measured in surface waters, probably because of the short time horizon of the study. A case study...

  17. Radiological assessment of past, present and potential sources to environmental contamination in the Southern Urals and strategies for remedial measures (SUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarkrog, A. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Simmonds, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Christensen, G. [Institute of Energy Technology (Norway); Salbu, B. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway (Norway)

    2000-12-01

    This report summarises work done on the SUCON Project during 1996-1999 (European Commission Contract No. FI4C-CT95-0001). The project has focused on three major objectives: 1) An assessment of the radiological consequences of the contamination of the South Urals and the Ob river system from the production of plutonium at 'Mayak', 2) The development of models to calculate doses to individuals and populations in the South Urals using environmental data, and 3) The intercomparison, harmonisation and standardisation of techniques used in dose reconstruction and specification of good practice in particular with regard to remedial measures. (au)

  18. Radiological assessment of past, present and potential sources to environmental contamination in the Southern Urals and strategies for remedial measures (SUCON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Simmonds, J.; Strand, P.; Christensen, G.; Salbu, B.

    2000-12-01

    This report summarises work done on the SUCON Project during 1996-1999 (European Commission Contract No. FI4C-CT95-0001). The project has focused on three major objectives: 1) An assessment of the radiological consequences of the contamination of the South Urals and the Ob river system from the production of plutonium at 'Mayak', 2) The development of models to calculate doses to individuals and populations in the South Urals using environmental data, and 3) The intercomparison, harmonisation and standardisation of techniques used in dose reconstruction and specification of good practice in particular with regard to remedial measures. (au)

  19. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan and Decision Document for the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an Interim Measure/Interim Remedial Action (IM/IRA) at the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This MIRA is to be conducted to provide information that will aid in the selection and design of final remedial actions at OU2 that will address removal of suspected free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination. The Plan involves investigating the removal of residual free-phase VOCs by in situ vacuum-enhanced vapor extraction technology at 3 suspected VOC source areas within OU2. VOC-contaminated vapors extracted from the subsurface would be treated by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and discharged. The Plan also includes water table depression, when applicable at the test sites, to investigate the performance of vapor extraction technology in the saturated zone. The Plan provides for treatment of any contaminated ground water recovered during the IM/IRA at existing RFP treatment facilities. The proposed MVIRA Plan is presented in the document entitled ''Proposed Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas, Operable Unit No. 2, '' dated 20 March 1992. Information concerning the proposed Subsurface IM/IRA was presented during a DOE Quarterly Review meeting held on 07 April 1992 and a public meeting held on 07 May 1992, at the Marriott Hotel in Golden, Colorado. The Responsiveness Summary presents DOE's response to all comments received at the public meeting, as well as those mailed to date to DOE during the public comment period

  20. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox

    2016-08-30

    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  1. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  2. Air-surface exchange measurements of gaseous elemental mercury over naturally enriched and background terrestrial landscapes in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Edwards

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first gaseous elemental mercury (GEM air-surface exchange measurements obtained over naturally enriched and background (−1 Hg terrestrial landscapes in Australia. Two pilot field studies were carried out during the Australian autumn and winter periods at a copper-gold-cobalt-arsenic-mercury mineral field near Pulganbar, NSW. GEM fluxes using a dynamic flux chamber approach were measured, along with controlling environmental parameters over three naturally enriched and three background substrates. The enriched sites results showed net emission to the atmosphere and a strong correlation between flux and substrate Hg concentration, with average fluxes ranging from 14 ± 1 ng m−2 h−1 to 113 ± 6 ng m−2 h−1. Measurements at background sites showed both emission and deposition. The average Hg flux from all background sites showed an overall net emission of 0.36 ± 0.06 ng m−2 h−1. Fluxes show strong relationships with temperature, radiation, and substrate parameters. A compensation point of 2.48, representative of bare soils was determined. For periods of deposition, dry deposition velocities ranged from 0.00025 cm s−1 to 0.0083 cm s−1 with an average of 0.0041 ± 0.00018 cm s−1, representing bare soil, nighttime conditions. Comparison of the Australian data to North American data suggests the need for Australian-specific mercury air-surface exchange data representative of Australia's unique climatic conditions, vegetation types, land use patterns and soils.

  3. An Evaluation of Fractal Surface Measurement Methods for Characterizing Landscape Complexity from Remote-Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan; Qiu, Hong-Lie; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Emerson, Charles W.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The rapid increase in digital data volumes from new and existing sensors necessitates the need for efficient analytical tools for extracting information. We developed an integrated software package called ICAMS (Image Characterization and Modeling System) to provide specialized spatial analytical functions for interpreting remote sensing data. This paper evaluates the three fractal dimension measurement methods: isarithm, variogram, and triangular prism, along with the spatial autocorrelation measurement methods Moran's I and Geary's C, that have been implemented in ICAMS. A modified triangular prism method was proposed and implemented. Results from analyzing 25 simulated surfaces having known fractal dimensions show that both the isarithm and triangular prism methods can accurately measure a range of fractal surfaces. The triangular prism method is most accurate at estimating the fractal dimension of higher spatial complexity, but it is sensitive to contrast stretching. The variogram method is a comparatively poor estimator for all of the surfaces, particularly those with higher fractal dimensions. Similar to the fractal techniques, the spatial autocorrelation techniques are found to be useful to measure complex images but not images with low dimensionality. These fractal measurement methods can be applied directly to unclassified images and could serve as a tool for change detection and data mining.

  4. Measurement and modeling of CO2 exchange over forested landscapes in India: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, S.; Dadhwal, V.

    2009-04-01

    The increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and its potential impact on global climate change is the subject of worldwide studies, political debates and international discussions. The concern led to the establishment of the Kyoto Protocol to curtail emissions and mitigate the possible global warming. The studies so far suggest that terrestrial biological sinks might be the low cost options for carbon sequestration, which can be used to partially offset the industrial CO2 emissions globally. In past, the effectiveness of terrestrial sink and the quantitative estimates of their sink strengths have relied mainly on the measurements of changes in carbon stocks across the world. Recent developments in flux tower based measurement techniques such as Eddy Covariance for assessing the CO2, H2O and energy fluxes provide tools for quantifying the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 on a continuous basis. These near real time measurements, when integrated with remote sensing, enable the up-scaling of the carbon fluxes to regional scale. More than 470 towers exist worldwide as of now. Indian subcontinent was not having any tower-based CO2 flux measurement system so far. The Indian Space Research Organization under its Geosphere Biosphere Programme is funding five eddy covariance towers for terrestrial CO2 flux measurements in different ecological regions of the country. The tower sites already planned are: (i) a mixed forest plantation (Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia catechu, Holoptelia integrifolia) at Haldwani in collaboration with DISAFRI, University of Tuscia, Italy and the Indian Council for Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehradun, (ii) a sal (Shorea robusta) forest in Doon valley Himalayan state of Uttarakhand in northern India, (ii) a teak (Tectona grandis) mixed forest at Betul in Madhya Pradesh in central India, (iv) an old teak plantation at Dandeli, and (v) a semi-evergreen forest at Nagarhole in Karnataka state in southern India. The three towers have been

  5. Study of application of protective measures for the public and remediation of contaminated areas in case of nuclear and / or radiological accidents in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Diogo Neves Gomes da

    2011-01-01

    Since the radiological accident in Goiania in 1987, the IRD (Institute of Radiological Protection and Dosimetry - IRD / CNEN) has been developing tools to support decision-making processes after a nuclear or radiological accident which leads to an environmental contamination and to an exposure of individuals the public These processes include the establishment of a supporting multicriteria model, which involves the application of protective and remediation measures of contaminated areas in tropical environments. In this study, it was performed an evaluation of the efficiency of these measures in order to determine the consequences of their implementation, based on results obtained from the code SIEM (Emergency Integrated System), which constitutes an environmental mode1 developed at IRD to simulate this type of accident. In order to perform this evaluation, it was first developed a database containing descriptions of various protection/remediation measures, which could be applied nationwide. Afterwards, some basic scenarios were established, considering the environmental, housing and food characteristics of the population of the vicinity of the nuclear power plants in Angra dos Reis (state of Rio de Janeiro). Thus, the accident simulations were carried out separately containing releases of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 131 I. The results showed that the dose reduction varies according to the extent and the timing of the remediation measure applied. Although it is possible to establish some basic guidelines, generic solutions are not recommended, since the resulting doses are highly dependent on the actual situation. Any decision-making process should be made case by case, according to the actual conditions of the affected area and to the occupation characteristics and use of the affected areas, considering the characteristics of the source term of contamination, the time of the year in which the accident occurs, the local agricultural practices and food habits of real people

  6. Leaf, branch, stand and landscape scale measurements of volatile organic compound fluxes from U. S. woodlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, A.; Greenberg, J.; Harley, P.; Helmig, D.; Klinger, L.; Vierling, L.; Zimmerman, P. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Atmospheric Chemistry Div.; Geron, C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Natural volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes were measured in three U.S. woodlands. Fluxes from individual leaves and branches were estimated with enclosure techniques and used to initialize and evaluate VOC emission model estimates. Ambient measurements were used to estimate above canopy fluxes for entire stands. A total of 78 VOCs were identified, with hexenol derivatives being the most commonly observed oxygenated compounds. There was also evidence of high rates of isoprene emission and high rates of monoterpenes in some genera of trees. Model predictions of diurnal variations were within + or - 35 per cent of observed flux variations. Fluxes predicted by a recent version of a biogenic emission model were within 10 per cent to 50 per cent of observed fluxes, leading to the conclusion that existing databases can provide isoprene and monoterpene emission rate potentials within acceptable limits for the dominant plant species at these three woodland sites. 21 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/ Environmental and Decision Document, South Walnut Creek Basin, Operable Unit No.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Water quality investigations have identified the presence of volatile organic compound (VOC) and radionuclide contamination of surface water at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). The subject interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses contaminated surface water in a portion of the South Walnut Creek drainage basin located within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU 2). There is no immediate threat to public health and the environment posed by this surface water contamination. The affected surface water is contained within the plant boundary by existing detention ponds, and is treated prior to discharge for removal of volatile contaminants and suspended particulates to which radionuclides, if present, are likely to absorb. However, there is a potential threat and the Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing this Surface Water IM/IRAP at the request of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Implementation of the Surface Water IM/IRA will enhance the DOE's efforts towards containing and managing contaminated surface water, and will mitigate downgradient migration of contaminants. Another factor in implementing this IM/IRA is the length of time it will take to complete the investigations and engineering studies necessary to determine the final remedy for OU 2. 44 refs., 23 figs., 14 tabs

  8. Assessment of radiation exposure and evaluation of remedial measures for the uranium mining and milling area of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Clerc, Jean-Jacques; Aitaliev, Anarkul

    2006-01-01

    The area of the town of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan, is polluted by radionuclides and heavy metals in tailing dumps and heaps resulting from the historic exploitation of uranium mines. Radioactive substances are stored in 23 tailings and 10 heaps situated along the Mailuu Suu River. The stability of many tailings is at risk. Attention is mostly directed to Tailing 3, because of its important radionuclide inventory and since threatened by the borders of a major landslide. In the frame of a European Commission-TACIS funded project, a radiological monitoring programme was set up and a radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city of Mailuu Suu, located downstream the tailings, or in the village of Kara Agach, partially located on a uranium mine-waste dump. The actual radiological situation is of no immediate concern for most of the population of Mailuu Suu. The actual external exposure and exposure from radon are, respectively, around 1.2 mSv a -1 and 5 mSv a -1 , at both locations. Ingestion dose was negligible for a critical group member living at Mailuu Suu. At Kara Agach, however, under the hypothesis that all food and fodder is cultivated locally, exposure from ingestion is much higher (∼10-30 mSv a -1 ). Additional dose from irrigation with Mailuu Suu river water is small in actual conditions ( -1 ). However, there is an important possibility that, triggered by an earthquake or a landslide, (part of the) tailing(s) content may be directed to the river Mailuu Suu. In case the content of Tailing 3 is thrust to river, calculated maximum doses are 45 and 77 mSv a -1 for an adult and a child, respectively, for an assumed exposure duration of 2 years. To impede the consequences of a potential disaster, under the TACIS project different remedial options were evaluated for Tailing 3 including in situ stabilisation and tailing translocation. Also more global remedial options for the Mailuu Suu River valley were proposed (translocation

  9. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    , and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... to translate positivist readings of the environment and hermeneutical perspectives on socioecological interaction into a common framework or terminology....

  10. Measuring landscape-scale spread and persistence of an invaded submerged plant community from airborne remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria J; Khanna, Shruti; Hestir, Erin L; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Ustin, Susan L

    2016-09-01

    Processes of spread and patterns of persistence of invasive species affect species and communities in the new environment. Predicting future rates of spread is of great interest for timely management decisions, but this depends on models that rely on understanding the processes of invasion and historic observations of spread and persistence. Unfortunately, the rates of spread and patterns of persistence are difficult to model or directly observe, especially when multiple rates of spread and diverse persistence patterns may be co-occurring over the geographic distribution of the invaded ecosystem. Remote sensing systematically acquires data over large areas at fine spatial and spectral resolutions over multiple time periods that can be used to quantify spread processes and persistence patterns. We used airborne imaging spectroscopy data acquired once a year for 5 years from 2004 to 2008 to map an invaded submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) community across 2220 km 2 of waterways in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA, and measured its spread rate and its persistence. Submerged aquatic vegetation covered 13-23 km 2 of the waterways (6-11%) every year. Yearly new growth accounted for 40-60% of the SAV area, ~50% of which survived to following year. Spread rates were overall negative and persistence decreased with time. From this dataset, we were able to identify both radial and saltatorial spread of the invaded SAV in the entire extent of the Delta over time. With both decreasing spread rate and persistence, it is possible that over time the invasion of this SAV community could decrease its ecological impact. A landscape-scale approach allows measurements of all invasion fronts and the spatial anisotropies associated with spread processes and persistence patterns, without spatial interpolation, at locations both proximate and distant to the focus of invasion at multiple points in time. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Applicability of geostatistical methods and optimization of data for assessing hydraulic and geological conditions as a basis for remediation measures in the Ronneburg ore mining district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, C.

    2001-01-01

    The remediation of the former Wismut mines in Thuringia has been planed and prepared since 1990. Objects of remediation are mines, tailing ponds and waste rock piles. Since more than 40 years of mining have had a great affect on the exploited aquifer, special emphasis is given to groundwater recharge so that minery-flooding is one of the conceivable remedial options. Controlled flooding supports minimising the expanded oxidation zone, which renders an immense pollutant potential, while at the same time the flooding reduces the quantity of acid mine water, that has to be treated. One of the main tasks of modelling the flooding progress is to determine and prognosticate the wateroutlet-places. Due to the inadequacy of the database from the production period, limited accuracy of the available data and because of the inherent uncertainty of approximations used in numerical modelling, a stochastic approach is prospected. The flooding predictions, i.e. modelling of hydrodynamical and hydrochemical conditions during and after completion of flooding predominantly depend on the spatial distribution of the hydraulic conductivity. In order to get a better understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of the Palaeozoic fractured rock aquifer, certain geostatistical interpolation methods are tested to achieve the best approach for describing the hydrogeological parameters in space. This work deals in detail with two selected geostatistical interpolation methods (ordinary and indicator kriging) and discusses their applicability and limitations including the application of the presented case. Another important target is the specification of the database and the improvement of consistency with statistical standards. The main emphasis lies on the spatial distribution of the measured hydraulic conductivity coefficient, its estimation at non-measured places and the influence of its spatial variability on modelling results. This topic is followed by the calculation of the estimation

  12. Remediation plans in family medicine residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audétat, Marie-Claude; Voirol, Christian; Béland, Normand; Fernandez, Nicolas; Sanche, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess use of the remediation instrument that has been implemented in training sites at the University of Montreal in Quebec to support faculty in diagnosing and remediating resident academic difficulties, to examine whether and how this particular remediation instrument improves the remediation process, and to determine its effects on the residents’ subsequent rotation assessments. Design A multimethods approach in which data were collected from different sources: remediation plans developed by faculty, program statistics for the corresponding academic years, and students’ academic records and rotation assessment results. Setting Family medicine residency program at the University of Montreal. Participants Family medicine residents in academic difficulty. Main outcome measures Assessment of the content, process, and quality of remediation plans, and students’ academic and rotation assessment results (successful, below expectations, or failure) both before and after the remediation period. Results The framework that was developed for assessing remediation plans was used to analyze 23 plans produced by 10 teaching sites for 21 residents. All plans documented cognitive problems and implemented numerous remediation measures. Although only 48% of the plans were of good quality, implementation of a remediation plan was positively associated with the resident’s success in rotations following the remediation period. Conclusion The use of remediation plans is well embedded in training sites at the University of Montreal. The residents’ difficulties were mainly cognitive in nature, but this generally related to deficits in clinical reasoning rather than knowledge gaps. The reflection and analysis required to produce a remediation plan helps to correct many academic difficulties and normalize the academic career of most residents in difficulty. Further effort is still needed to improve the quality of plans and to support teachers.

  13. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document for South Walnut Creek Basin (Operable Unit No. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an Interim Measure/Interim Remedial Action (IM/IRA) at the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This IM/IRA is to be conducted to minimize the release from these areas of hazardous substances that pose a potential threat to the public health and environment. The Plan involved the collection of contaminated surface water at specific locations, treatment by chemical precipitation, cross-flow membrane filtration and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption, and surface discharge of treated water. Information for the initial configuration of the Plan is presented in the document entitled ''Proposed Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan and Decision Document, 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas, Operable Unit No. 2'' (IM/IRAP) dated 26 September 1990. Information concerning the proposed Surface Water IM/IRA was presented during a public meeting held from 7 to 10 p.m., Tuesday, 23 October 1990, at the Westminster City Park Recreation Center in Westminster, Colorado. This Responsiveness Summary presents DOE's response to all comments received at the public meeting, as well as those mailed to DOE during the public comment period which ended 24 November 1990. There were a number of technical comments on the plan that DOE has addressed herein. It is noted that several major issues were raised by the comments. Regardless of the estimated low risk to the public from construction and water transport activities, the popular sentiment of the public, based on comments received, is strong concern over worker and public health risks from these activities. In the light of public and municipal concerns, DOE proposes to eliminate from this IM/IRA the interbasin transfer of Woman Creek seepage to the South Walnut Creek drainage and to address collection and treatment of contaminated South Walnut Creek and Woman Creek surface water under two separate IM/IRAs

  14. Remedial Measures for Erroneous Environmental Policies: Assessing Infrastructure Projects of Waste-to-Energy Incineration in Taiwan with a Case Study of the Taitung Incinerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lih-Ren Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan, like many other countries, often incentivizes private investors to participate in the construction of infrastructures for environmental protection. The build-operate-transfer (BOT or build-operate-own (BOO model of financing public infrastructure was introduced to Taiwan in the 1990s. Among them, the construction of incinerators to treat the municipal solid waste using the BOT/BOO model was quite a success in the beginning. With the socio-technical change of lifestyle and waste generation, the amount of amount of trash dropped dramatically. The policy failed eventually, however, because the government over-estimated the trash quantity and refrained from inter-municipality cooperation to treat trash efficiently. This failure triggered a rash of intense debates and legal disputes. In the case of the Taitung incinerator, the 26th incinerator located in southeastern Taiwan, the arbitration resulted in the government making significant compensation payments to the private sector. The finished construction was consequently converted into a “mothballed and pensioned off” facility. This study applies in-depth interviews and literature review to discuss aspects contributing to the policy failure and proposes some possible remedial measures. Five aspects are summarized, namely, the administrative organization’s rigid attitude, the irrationality of the BOT/BOO contracts, the loss of the spirit of BOO partnerships, the heavy financial burden on local government, and the abandonment of inter-municipality cooperation. The remedial measures for the policy failure are presented in the form of thorough policy evaluation, room for contract adjustments under the BOT/BOO model, encouragement of cross-boundary cooperation, and revision of the legal framework for implementing decentralization.

  15. Cartographic modeling of heterogeneous landscape for footprint analysis of Eddy Covariance Measurements (Central Forest and Central Chernozem reserves, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Daniil

    2014-05-01

    The topographical, soil and vegetation maps of FLUXNET study areas are widely used for interpretation of eddy covariance measurements, for calibration of biogeochemical models and for making regional assessments of carbon balance. The poster presents methodological problems and results of ecosystem mapping using GIS, remote sensing, statistical and field methods on the example of two RusFluxNet sites in the Central Forest (33° E, 56°30'N) and Central Chernozem (36°10' E, 51°36'N) reserves. In the Central Forest reserve tacheometric measurements were used for topographical and peat surveys of bogged sphagnum spruce forest of 20-hectare area. Its common borders and its areas affected by windfall were determined. The supplies and spatial distribution of organic matter were obtained. The datasets of groundwater monitoring measurements on ten wells were compared with each other and the analysis of spatial and temporal groundwater variability was performed. The map of typical ecosystems of the reserve and its surroundings was created on the basis of analysis of multi-temporal Landsat images. In the Central Chernozem reserve the GNSS topographical survey was used for flux tower footprint mapping (22 ha). The features of microrelief predetermine development of different soils within the footprint. Close relationship between soil (73 drilling site) and terrain attributes (DEM with 2.5 m) allowed to build maps of soils and soil properties: carbon content, bulk density, upper boundary of secondary carbonates. Position for chamber-based soil respiration measurements was defined on the basis of these maps. The detailed geodetic and soil surveys of virgin lands and plowland were performed in order to estimate the effect of agrogenic processes such as dehumification, compaction and erosion on soils during the whole period of agricultural use of Central Chernozem reserve area and around. The choice of analogous soils was based on the similarity of their position within the

  16. ABC 27-2 General bat activity measured with an ultrasound detector in a fragmented tropical landscape in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada, A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Bat tolerance to neotropical forest fragmentation may be related to ability by bats to use available habitats in the modified environmental matrix. This paper presents data on general bat activity (for three hours starting at dusk measured with an ultrasound detector in a fragmented landscape in the region of Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Bat activity was measured in continuous forests, forests fragments, forest-pasture edges, forest corridors, linear strips of vegetation, citrus groves, pastures and the vegetation present in local villages. The highest bat activity rates were recorded in the villages, in the forest fragments and in linear strips of vegetation. The lowest activity rates were detected in pasture habitats. Data suggest that native and man-made arboreal vegetation may be important for sustaining bat activity in fragmented landscapes.

  17. The effect of remedial measures upon groundwater quality in connection with soil contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons and the related costs - by example of the City of Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mull, R.; Mull, J.; Pielke, M.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of remedial actions on the groundwater quality was investigated in the aquifer of the City of Hannover. The improvement of groundwater quality was related to the costs for the remedial actions. The attention was focussed on groundwater pollution by chlorinated hydrocarbons as the most important contaminants of groundwater in urban areas. (orig.)

  18. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    This article has a twofold ambition. It offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds—a former mining site in western Denmark—and a methodological discussion of how to write such a study. Exploring this specific industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different...... natural resources appear, we show that even what is recognized as resources shifts over time according to radically different and unpredictable agendas. This indicates that the Søby landscape is fundamentally volatile, as its resourcefulness has been seen interchangeably to shift between the brown coal...... business, inexpensive estates for practically savvy people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscape history, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that, at sites such as Søby, both natural resources and historical...

  19. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  20. Nordic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This Box Set NORDIC LANDSCAPE presents Nordic Territories, a project by Rasmus Hjortshøj, exploring the man-made landscapes of the coastal territories and the entanglement of society and nature in times where it is no longer merely mankind subjected to nature, but where nature is equally being...... territories is not only their transient nature, but also the warm currents of the Gulf Stream making these northern shorelines habitable for human settlements....

  1. Mold: Cleanup and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Cleanup and Remediation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... CDC and EPA on mold cleanup, removal and remediation. Cleanup information for you and your family Homeowner’s ...

  2. Application of different measures of bioavailability to support the derivation of risk-based remedial benchmarks for PHC-contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, G. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Risk estimates and exposure scenarios hardly ever take into consideration site-specific bioavailability of contaminants. Risk assessors frequently adopt the assumption that a contaminant in soils is 100 percent bioavailable, resulting in an overestimation of the risks associated with contamination. Remedial targets or benchmarks derived in light of this assumption are needlessly low and might be technically unattainable or prohibitive in terms of cost. This presentation discussed a research project whose goal was to develop a tool kit to measure or determine site-specific bioavailability of contaminants (PHCs) in soils to ecological receptors. Tools that were discussed included: biological measures such as toxicity tests, contaminant residues in tissues, and bioaccumulation tests. Chemical measures such as bioaccessibility tests and other biomimetic devices (SPMDs), biotic ligand modeling, and chemical extractions were also presented. Preliminary investigation results were provided. Other topics that were discussed included: single-species toxicity tests; preliminary comparisons; the site; bioaccumulation; and toxicity to earthworms. It was concluded that total soil and water-extractable concentrations did not correlate well with toxicity. tabs., figs.

  3. Application of Spaceborne Scatterometer for Mapping Freeze-Thaw State in Northern Landscapes as a Measure of Ecological and Hydrological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Zimmermann, Reiner; Way, JoBea; Frolking, Steve; Running, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Landscape freeze/thaw transitions coincide with marked shifts in albedo, surface energy and mass exchange, and associated snow dynamics. Monitoring landscape freeze/thaw dynamics would improve our ability to quantify the interannual variability of boreal hydrology and river runoff/flood dynamics. The annual duration of frost-free period also bounds the period of photosynthetic activity in boreal and arctic regions thus affecting the annual carbon budget and the interannual variability of regional carbon fluxes. In this study, we use the NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) to monitor the temporal change in the radar backscatter signature across selected ecoregions of the boreal zone. We have measured vegetation tissue temperatures, soil temperature profiles, and micrometeorological parameters in situ at selected sites along a north-south transect extending across Alaska from Prudhoe Bay to the Kenai Peninsula and in Siberia near the Yenisey River. Data from these stations have been used to quantify the scatterometer's sensitivity to freeze/thaw state under a variety of terrain and landcover conditions. Analysis of the NSCAT temporal response over the 1997 spring thaw cycle shows a 3 to 5 dB change in measured backscatter that is well correlated with the landscape springtime thaw process. Having verified the instrument's capability to monitor freeze/thaw transitions, regional scale mosaicked data are applied to derive temporal series of freeze/thaw transition maps for selected circumpolar high latitude regions. These maps are applied to derive areal extent of frozen and thawed landscape and demonstrate the utility of spaceborne radar for operational monitoring of seasonal freeze-thaw dynamics and associated biophysical processes for the circumpolar high latitudes.

  4. Topical Day on Site Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H [ed.

    1996-09-18

    Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions.

  5. Changing Landscapes, Changing Landscape's Story

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapka, Miloslav; Cudlínová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2003), s. 323-328 ISSN 0142-6397. [Symposium on Sustainable Landscapes in an Enlarged Europe. Nové Hrady, 12.09.2001-14.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 530 Grant - others:GA-(XE) QLK5-CT-2000-01211-SPRITE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Landscape stability * narrative approach * socio-economic typology Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation

  6. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies

  7. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  8. Radon remediation in irish schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synnott, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Commencing in 1998, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland carried out radon measurements in 3826 schools in the Republic of I reland on behalf of the Irish Department of Education and Science (D.E.S.). This represents approximately 97% of all schools in the country. Approximately 25% (984) schools had radon concentrations above the Irish national schools Reference Level for radon of 200 Bq/m 3 and required remedial work. The number of individual rooms with radon concentrations above 200 Bq/m 3 was 3020. Remedial work in schools commenced in early 2000. In general schools with maximum radon concentrations in the range 200 -400 Bq/m 3 in one or more rooms were remediated through the installation of passive systems such as an increase in permanent background ventilation mainly wall vents and trickle vents in windows. Schools with maximum radon concentrations greater than 400 Bq/m 3 were usually remediated through the provision of active systems mainly fan assisted sub -slab de pressurization or where this was not possible fan assisted under floor ventilation. The cost of the remedial programme was funded by central Government. Active systems were installed by specialized remedial contractors working to the specifications of a radon remedial expert appointed by the D.E.S. to design remedial systems for affected schools. Schools requiring increased ventilation were granted aided 190 pounds per affected room and had to organize the work themselves. In most schools radon remediation was successful in reducing existing radon concentrations to below the Reference Level. Average radon concentration reduction factors for sub-slab de pressurization systems and fan assisted fan assisted under floor ventilation ranged from 5 to 40 with greater reduction rates found at higher original radon concentrations. Increasing ventilation in locations with moderately elevated radon concentrations (200 - 400 Bq/m 3 ) while not as effective as active systems produced on

  9. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle

  10. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Management training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle

  11. Effects of remedial measures on long term transfer of radiocaesium from soil to agricultural products as calculated from Swedish field experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loensjoe, H.; Rosen, K.; Haak, E.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive studies on the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to agricultural products under long term field conditions have been performed in Sweden since 1961. Effects of various remedial measures to be taken after farm land contamination have been studied in long term microplot experiments, in ploughing experiments and in conventional field experiments in Chernobyl fallout areas. Furthermore, the transfer of radiocaesium in various farm ecosystems, as influenced by farm management practices and the line of production applied, has been calculated. Fertilization with potassium has been found to effectively reduce the transfer of radiocaesium from the soil to various crops. The best effects were found on peat and sandy soils in the Chernobyl fallout areas, where a reduction by a factor of 2-5 or more has been recorded. Also, on clay soils heavy K application was found to depress the Cs transfer appreciably. Placement of the nuclide below the normal ploughing depth reduced the Cs transfer by a factor of 2-3 as compared with the effect of a homogeneous distribution in the plough layer. With a combination of deep placement and K fertilization a reduction by a factor of 10 or more has been obtained. It seems possible to reduce the caesium transfer from soil to food by a factor of 5-10 by changing the line of production on a farm in various ways. (author). 12 refs, 5 tabs

  12. A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of flood management measures based on the concept of "retaining water in the landscape" in different European hydro-climatic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salazar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the effectiveness of flood management measures based on the concept known as "retaining water in the landscape". The investigated measures include afforestation, micro-ponds and small-reservoirs. A comparative and model-based methodological approach has been developed and applied for three meso-scale catchments located in different European hydro-climatological regions: Poyo (184 km2 in the Spanish Mediterranean, Upper Iller (954 km2 in the German Alps and Kamp (621 km2 in Northeast-Austria representing the Continental hydro-climate. This comparative analysis has found general similarities in spite of the particular differences among studied areas. In general terms, the flood reduction through the concept of "retaining water in the landscape" depends on the following factors: the storage capacity increase in the catchment resulting from such measures, the characteristics of the rainfall event, the antecedent soil moisture condition and the spatial distribution of such flood management measures in the catchment. In general, our study has shown that, this concept is effective for small and medium events, but almost negligible for the largest and less frequent floods: this holds true for all different hydro-climatic regions, and with different land-use, soils and morphological settings.

  13. Contemporary danish landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, H.; Brandt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring...

  14. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...

  15. Changing Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunby Gulbrandsen, Ib; Kamstrup, Andreas; Koed Madsen, Anders

    with an analysis of the changing organizational landscape created by new ICT’s like Google, Facebook, Wikipedia, iPods, smart phones and Wi-Fi. Based on five netno- and ethno-graphic investigations of the intertwinement of ICT’s and organizational work, we point to three features that have changed the scene: new...

  16. Landscape Response to the 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens: Using Historical Aerial Photography to Measure Surface Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, K.; Major, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry and point cloud comparison have fueled a proliferation of studies using modern imagery to monitor geomorphic change. These techniques also have obvious applications for reconstructing historical landscapes from vertical aerial imagery, but known challenges include insufficient photo overlap, systematic "doming" induced by photo-spacing regularity, missing metadata, and lack of ground control. Aerial imagery of landscape change in the North Fork Toutle River (NFTR) following the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens is a prime dataset to refine methodologies. In particular, (1) 14-μm film scans are available for 1:9600 images at 4-month intervals from 1980 - 1986, (2) the large magnitude of landscape change swamps systematic error and noise, and (3) stable areas (primary deposit features, roads, etc.) provide targets for both ground control and matching to modern lidar. Using AgiSoft PhotoScan, we create digital surface models from the NFTR imagery and examine how common steps in SfM workflows affect results. Tests of scan quality show high-resolution, professional film scans are superior to office scans of paper prints, reducing spurious points related to scan infidelity and image damage. We confirm earlier findings that cropping and rotating images improves point matching and the final surface model produced by the SfM algorithm. We demonstrate how the iterative closest point algorithm, implemented in CloudCompare and using modern lidar as a reference dataset, can serve as an adequate substitute for absolute ground control. Elevation difference maps derived from our surface models of Mount St. Helens show patterns consistent with field observations, including channel avulsion and migration, though systematic errors remain. We suggest that subtracting an empirical function fit to the long-wavelength topographic signal may be one avenue for correcting systematic error in similar datasets.

  17. 200-UP-1 groundwater remedial design/remedial action work plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This 200-UP-1 remedial design report presents the objective and rationale developed for the design and implementation of the selected interim remedial measure for the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit, located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

  18. Remediation of spatial processing disorder (SPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Kelley; Van Dun, Bram; Tomlin, Dani; Dowell, Richard; Rance, Gary

    2018-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of deficit-specific remediation for spatial processing disorder, quantify effects of remediation on functional listening, and determine if remediation is maintained. Participants had SPD, diagnosed using the Listening in Spatialised Noise-Sentences test. The LiSN and Learn software was provided as auditory training. Post-training, repeat LiSN-S testing was conducted. Questionnaires pre- and post-training acted as subjective measures of remediation. A late-outcome assessment established long-term effects of remediation. Sixteen children aged between 6;3 [years; months] and 10;0 completed between 20 and 146 training games. Post-training LiSN-S improved in measures containing spatial cues (p ≤ 0.001) by 2.0 SDs (3.6 dB) for DV90, 1.8 SDs for SV90 (3.2 dB), 1.4 SDs for spatial advantage (2.9 dB) and 1.6 SDs for total advantage (3.3 dB). Improvement was also found in the DV0 condition (1.4 dB or 0.5 SDs). Post-training changes were not significant in the talker advantage measure (1.0 dB or 0.4 SDs) or the SV0 condition (0.3 dB or 0.1 SDs). The late-outcome assessment demonstrated improvement was maintained. Subjective improvement post-remediation was observed using the parent questionnaire. Children with SPD had improved ability to utilise spatial cues following deficit-specific remediation, with the parent questionnaire sensitive to remediation. Effects of the remediation also appear to be sustained.

  19. DOE's Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Stenner, R.D.; Welty, C.G. Jr.; Needels, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) is presently developing and implementing the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) to overview DOE's Remedial Action programs. APRA's objective is to ensure the adequacy of environmental, safety and health (ES and H) protection practices within the four DOE Remedial Action programs: Grand Junction Remedial Action Program (GJRAP), Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP), Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), and Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). APRA encompasses all ES and H practices of DOE and its contractors/subcontractors within the four Remedial Action programs. Specific activities of APRA include document reviews, selected site visits, and program office appraisals. Technical support and assistance to OOS is being provided by APRA contractors in the evaluation of radiological standards and criteria, quality assurance measures, radiation measurements, and risk assessment practices. This paper provides an overview of these activities and discusses program to date, including the roles of OOS and the respective contractors. The contractors involved in providing technical support and assistance to OOS are Aerospace Corporation, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  20. DOE's Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Stenner, R.D.; Welty, C.G. Jr.; Needels, T.S.

    1984-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) is presently developing and implementing the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) to overview DOE's Remedial Action programs. APRA's objective is to ensure the adequacy of environmental, safety and health (ES and H) protection practices within the four DOE Remedial Action programs: Grand Junction Remedial Action Program (GJRAP), Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP), Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), and Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). APRA encompasses all ES and H practices of DOE and its contractors/subcontractors within the four Remedial Action programs. Specific activities of APRA include document reviews, selected site visits, and program office appraisals. Technical support and assistance to OOS is being provided by APRA contractors in the evaluation of radiological standards and criteria, quality assurance measures, radiation measurements, and risk assessment practices. This paper provides an overview of these activities and discusses progress to date, including the roles of OOS and the respective contractors. The contractors involved in providing technical support and assistance to OOS are Aerospace Corporation, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  1. Bioavailability enhanced rhizosphere remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, A.; Vorobyov, A.; Zharikov, G.; Ermolenko, Z.; Dyadishchev, N.; Borovick, R.; Sokolov, M.; Ortega-Calvo, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Aliphatic, aromatic and polycyclic aromatic oil hydrocarbons are structurally complicated man-caused pollutants that are constantly brought into biosphere. Oil production in Russia, so as all over the world, is connected with pollution of biotopes, ecosystems and agro-landscapes. Presently large funds are allocated either for oil leak prevention or for discharged oil gathering. At the same time, in spite of large necessity in technologies for efficient reconstruction of soil bio-productivity, reliable regional systems of their remediation in situ have not been developed yet. One such method is rhizosphere remediation, a biotechnology, based on the functioning of plant-microbial complexes. Little is known about bioavailability in phyto-remediation systems. Specific bioavailability-promoting mechanisms, operating in soil with hydrocarbon-degrading populations, may be responsible for increased rates of pollutant transformation (increased bacterial adherence to the pollutants, production of bio-surfactants by bacteria or by plants, possible role of chemotaxis). In the course of work collection of 42 chemo-tactically active bio-surfactant producing strain-degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was created. Two representative strains were selected for detailed chemotaxis studies with PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene), bacterial lipopolysaccharide and root exudates from seven different plants. These strains are produce the bio-surfactants (rhamno-lipid). The chemotactic response was quantified with a capillary and densitometric chemotaxis assay. Surface tension of cultural liquid was measured after cultivation of strains in the presence of hexadecane or phenanthrene with the use of a ring tensiometer. Before measuring of surface tension microbial cells were collected from liquid culture by centrifugation. Total petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil were analyzed by infra-red spectroscopy method. PAHs

  2. Bioavailability enhanced rhizosphere remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, A.; Vorobyov, A.; Zharikov, G.; Ermolenko, Z.; Dyadishchev, N.; Borovick, R.; Sokolov, M. [Research Centre for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Ortega-Calvo, J.J. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Aliphatic, aromatic and polycyclic aromatic oil hydrocarbons are structurally complicated man-caused pollutants that are constantly brought into biosphere. Oil production in Russia, so as all over the world, is connected with pollution of biotopes, ecosystems and agro-landscapes. Presently large funds are allocated either for oil leak prevention or for discharged oil gathering. At the same time, in spite of large necessity in technologies for efficient reconstruction of soil bio-productivity, reliable regional systems of their remediation in situ have not been developed yet. One such method is rhizosphere remediation, a biotechnology, based on the functioning of plant-microbial complexes. Little is known about bioavailability in phyto-remediation systems. Specific bioavailability-promoting mechanisms, operating in soil with hydrocarbon-degrading populations, may be responsible for increased rates of pollutant transformation (increased bacterial adherence to the pollutants, production of bio-surfactants by bacteria or by plants, possible role of chemotaxis). In the course of work collection of 42 chemo-tactically active bio-surfactant producing strain-degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was created. Two representative strains were selected for detailed chemotaxis studies with PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene), bacterial lipopolysaccharide and root exudates from seven different plants. These strains are produce the bio-surfactants (rhamno-lipid). The chemotactic response was quantified with a capillary and densitometric chemotaxis assay. Surface tension of cultural liquid was measured after cultivation of strains in the presence of hexadecane or phenanthrene with the use of a ring tensiometer. Before measuring of surface tension microbial cells were collected from liquid culture by centrifugation. Total petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil were analyzed by infra-red spectroscopy method. PAHs

  3. Present status of the Zavratec remediation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Stepisnik, M.; Mele, I.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 the responsibility for the remediation of the temporary storage of radioactive waste near Zavratec was assigned to the Agency for Radwaste Management. The project was divided into two phases. First, in a study, different options for remediation were considered. In the second phase, performed in 1996, the measurements, inventorying and repacking of radioactive waste were carried out. Simultaneously with these activities a programme for covering public relations was prepared. One of the results of the public relation campaign is also a 15-minute video film, which was prepared from documentary material recorded during remedial activities, and will be presented here. (author)

  4. Establishment of criteria for classification of area remediation measures contaminated after an eventual radiation accident in Angra dos Reis, RJ, nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Diogo Neves Gomes da

    2016-01-01

    When a radiological or nuclear accident that leads to the release of radioactive material to the environment occurs, it is important to implement protective and remediation measures in order to reduce human exposure to radionuclides. Therefore, it is necessary that the procedures to be chosen by the affected country authorities are the most efficient ones, which can only be defined based on previously established criteria. In Brazil, since the radiological accident in Goiania, in 1987, the development of tools to support decision-making in emergencies of this nature was started. The main objective of this work was to establish an acting basis for contaminated areas, in order to protect the individuals of public in case of any accident related to Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant, in the municipality of Angra dos Reis (RJ), which leads to contamination to the environment and the consequent exposure of local population or from more distant regions to ionizing radiation. Initially, the high-risk areas near the location of the nuclear power plant were defined. Typical urban environments found in the main cities of these municipalities were surveyed, including homes, streets and recreation areas. The main characteristics of the study area were evaluated using images from Google Earth® and web pages of the municipalities. After the types of areas to be simulated were selected, these were quantified in terms of the number of residents, the size of the streets, and the number of trees, among others, per unit area. Considering the different housing characteristics for the selected municipalities, six main standard scenarios were developed for urban areas, including homes with different shielding, buildings and parks. The simulation of the procedures for each scenario was made with SIEM model, developed by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), formed by the integration of various models including CORAL, focusing on agricultural areas

  5. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of how heavy metals can be found in the soil and the theory of electrodialytic remediation. Basically electrodialytic remediation works by passing electric current through the soil, and the heavy metals in ionic form will carry some of the current. Ion-exchange membranes...... prevents the protons and the hydroxides ions from the electrode processes to enter the soil. The heavy metals are collected in a concentration compartment, which is separated from the soil by ion-exchange membranes. Examples from remediation experiments are shown, and it is demonstrated that it is possible...... to remediate soil polluted with heavy metals be this method. When adding desorbing agents or complexing agents, chosing the right current density, electrolyte and membranes, the proces can be optimised for a given remediation situation. Also electroosmosis is influencing the system, and if extra water...

  6. Live/Dead Comparisons of Ostracodes in Temperate Lakes Reveal Evidence of Human Impact and Provides a Tool to Measure the Progress of Remediation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spergel, J.; Kimball, K. C.; Fitzpatrick, S. A.; Michelson, A. V.; Leonard-Pingel, J.

    2015-12-01

    Lake ecosystems face a multitude of environmental threats including: eutrophication, overfishing, and heavy metal pollution. Tools to identify lakes impacted by human activity and quantify that impact are needed to combat their environmental degradation. One such promising tool has been the comparison between living communities and associated time-averaged death assemblages of mollusks in marine environments. Here we extend the reach of such live/dead comparisons using ostracodes in temperate lakes. We sampled six lakes in Wisconsin for living communities and associated death assemblages of ostracodes: two lakes impacted by human activity, two relatively "pristine" lakes, and two remediated lakes. We took sixteen grab samples of the upper centimeter of sediment in each lake, capturing simultaneously living benthic ostracodes and discarded valves of dead ostracodes. We found that impacted lakes had lower live/dead fidelity in taxonomic composition and rank-order abundance distributions and greater within-lake variation in death assemblages than "pristine" lakes. Additionally, the living communities in the impacted lakes tended to be lower in species richness and have lower evenness than "pristine" lakes. Remediated lakes displayed similar live/dead fidelity in taxonomic composition and rank-abundance distributions to "pristine" lakes and had lower within-lake variation in death assemblages than impacted lakes. Remediated lakes also contained living communities that tended to be richer and more even than impacted lakes. The lower live/dead fidelity of ostracodes in impacted lakes indicate live/dead ostracode comparisons can provide a tool to identify lake ecosystems impacted by humans. The similar results of remediated and "pristine" lakes indicate remediation efforts in these lakes have been successful in alleviating environmental impact detrimental to ostracode communities. This result indicates live/dead comparisons of ostracodes can be a useful tool to monitor

  7. Chaos and remedial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbraith, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Current research into the nature of chaos indicates that even for systems that are well known and easily modeled, slight changes in the scale used to measure the input have unpredictable results in the model output. The conduct of a remedial investigation (RI) is dictated by well-established rules of investigation and management, yet small changes in project orientation, regulatory environment, or site conditions have unpredictable consequences to the project. The consequences can lead to either brilliant success or utter failure. The chaotic effect of a change in scale is most often illustrated by an exercise in measuring the length of the coast of Great Britain. If a straight ruler 10-kilometers long is used, the sum of the 10-kilometer increments gives the length of the coast. If the ruler is changed to five kilometers long and the exercise is repeated, the sum of the five-kilometer increments will not be the same as the sum of the 10-kilometer increments. Nor is there a way to predict what the length of the coast will be using any other scale. Several examples from the Fernald Project RI are used to illustrate open-quotes changes in scaleclose quotes in both technical and management situations. Given that there is no way to predict the outcome of scale changes in a RI, technical and project management must be alert to the fact that a scale has changed and the investigation is no longer on the path it was thought to be on. The key to success, therefore, is to develop specific units of measure for a number of activities, in addition to cost and schedule, and track them regularly. An example for tracking a portion of the field investigation is presented. The determination of effective units of measure is perhaps the most difficult aspect of any project. Changes in scale sometimes go unnoticed until suddenly the budget is expended and only a portion of the work is completed. Remedial investigations on large facilities provide new and complex challenges

  8. Cuban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Portela, Armando

    This accessible book offers a vivid geographic portrait of Cuba, exploring the island’s streetscapes, sugar cane fields, beaches, and rural settlements; its billboards, government buildings, and national landmarks. The authors illuminate how natural and built landscapes have shaped Cuban identity...... (cubanidad), and vice versa. They provide a unique perspective on Cuba’s distinct historical periods and political economies, from the colonial period through republicanism and today’s socialist era. Compelling topics include the legacies of slavery and the sugar industry, the past and future of urban...

  9. A Classification of Landscape Services to Support Local Landscape Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vallés-Planells

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem services approach has been proven successful to measure the contributions of nature and greenery to human well-being. Ecosystems have an effect on quality of life, but landscapes also, as a broader concept, may contribute to people's well-being. The concept of landscape services, compared to ecosystem services, involves the social dimension of landscape and the spatial pattern resulting from both natural and human processes in the provision of benefits for human-well being. Our aim is to develop a classification for landscape services. The proposed typology of services is built on the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES and on a critical review of existing literature on human well-being dimensions, existing ecosystem service classifications, and landscape perception. Three themes of landscape services are defined, each divided into several groups: provisioning, regulation and maintenance, cultural and social life fulfillment, with the latter focusing on health, enjoyment, and personal and social fulfillment. A special emphasis is made on cultural services, which are especially important when applied to landscape and which have received less attention.

  10. Remediation of Math Anxiety in Preservice Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkle, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the level of math anxiety in preservice elementary teachers, and then to determine if remediation methods would lower the measured level of anxiety in these same preservice teachers. The 10-day study provided an intense remediation using a time-series design to measure change on the Revised Math Anxiety…

  11. PESP Landscaping Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscaping practices can positively or negatively affect local environments and human health. The Landscaping Initiative seeks to enhance benefits of landscaping while reducing need for pesticides, fertilizers, etc., by working with partners.

  12. Lessons Learned from Environmental Remediation Programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-15

    by raising key points such as the requirement to develop a national or even regional prioritization of remediation measures in order to spend limited resources with the highest effect. It is noted that remediation objectives will ideally be defined a priori, i.e. before the design of any technical solution, and it is crucial to recognize that remediation activities are not just determined by radiological or health risks. In many cases, other factors will prevail in the definition of the adopted strategy, and public perception will always be a key driver. (author)

  13. Lessons Learned from Environmental Remediation Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    by raising key points such as the requirement to develop a national or even regional prioritization of remediation measures in order to spend limited resources with the highest effect. It is noted that remediation objectives will ideally be defined a priori, i.e. before the design of any technical solution, and it is crucial to recognize that remediation activities are not just determined by radiological or health risks. In many cases, other factors will prevail in the definition of the adopted strategy, and public perception will always be a key driver. (author)

  14. Superfund Green Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of site cleanup and incorporating options – like the use of renewable energy resources – to maximize the environmental benefits of cleanups.

  15. Waste minimization applications at a remediation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allmon, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) owned by the Department of Energy was used for the processing of uranium. In 1989 Fernald suspended production of uranium metals and was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL). The site's mission has changed from one of production to environmental restoration. Many groups necessary for producing a product were deemed irrelevant for remediation work, including Waste Minimization. Waste Minimization does not readily appear to be applicable to remediation work. Environmental remediation is designed to correct adverse impacts to the environment from past operations and generates significant amounts of waste requiring management. The premise of pollution prevention is to avoid waste generation, thus remediation is in direct conflict with this premise. Although greater amounts of waste will be generated during environmental remediation, treatment capacities are not always available and disposal is becoming more difficult and costly. This creates the need for pollution prevention and waste minimization. Applying waste minimization principles at a remediation site is an enormous challenge. If the remediation site is also radiologically contaminated it is even a bigger challenge. Innovative techniques and ideas must be utilized to achieve reductions in the amount of waste that must be managed or dispositioned. At Fernald the waste minimization paradigm was shifted from focusing efforts on source reduction to focusing efforts on recycle/reuse by inverting the EPA waste management hierarchy. A fundamental difference at remediation sites is that source reduction has limited applicability to legacy wastes but can be applied successfully on secondary waste generation. The bulk of measurable waste reduction will be achieved by the recycle/reuse of primary wastes and by segregation and decontamination of secondary wastestreams. Each effort must be measured in terms of being economically and ecologically beneficial

  16. Landscape characterization and biodiversity research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, V.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Offerman, H. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Geography Dept.; Frohn, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Gardner, R.H. [Appalachian Environmental Lab., Frostburg, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Rapid deforestation often produces landscape-level changes in forest characteristics and structure, including area, distribution, and forest habitat types. Changes in landscape pattern through fragmentation or aggregation of natural habitats can alter patterns of abundance for single species and entire communities. Examples of single-species effects include increased predation along the forest edge, the decline in the number of species with poor dispersal mechanisms, and the spread of exotic species that have deleterious effects (e.g., gypsy moth). A decrease in the size and number of natural habitat patches increases the probability of local extirpation and loss of diversity of native species, whereas a decline in connectivity between habitat patches can negatively affect species persistence. Thus, there is empirical justification for managing entire landscapes, not just individual habitat types, in order to insure that native plant and animal diversity is maintained. A landscape is defined as an area composed of a mosaic of interacting ecosystems, or patches, with the heterogeneity among the patches significantly affecting biotic and abiotic processes in the landscape. Patches comprising a landscape are usually composed of discrete areas of relatively homogeneous environmental conditions and must be defined in terms of the organisms of interest. A large body of theoretical work in landscape ecology has provided a wealth of methods for quantifying spatial characteristics of landscapes. Recent advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems allow these methods to be applied over large areas. The objectives of this paper are to present a brief overview of common measures of landscape characteristics, to explore the new technology available for their calculation, to provide examples of their application, and to call attention to the need for collection of spatially-explicit field data.

  17. MGP site remediation: Working toward presumptive remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs) were prevalent in the United States during the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries. MGPs produced large quantities of waste by-products, which varied depending on the process used to manufacture the gas, but most commonly were tars and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. There are an estimated 3,000 to 5,000 abandoned MGP sites across the United States. Because these sites are not concentrated in one geographic location and at least three different manufacturing processes were used, the waste characteristics are very heterogeneous. The question of site remediation becomes how to implement a cost-effective remediation with the variety of cleanup technologies available for these sites. Because of the significant expenditure required for characterization and cleanup of MGP sites, owners and regulatory agencies are beginning to look at standardizing cleanup technologies for these sites. This paper discusses applicable cleanup technologies and the attitude of state regulatory agencies towards the use of presumptive remedies, which can reduce the amount of characterization and detailed analysis necessary for any particular site. Additionally, this paper outlines the process of screening and evaluating candidate technologies, and the progress being made to match the technology to the site

  18. Remediation of sites with dispersed radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    To respond to the needs of Member States, the IAEA launched an environmental remediation project to deal with the problems of radioactive contamination worldwide. The IAEA environmental remediation project includes an IAEA Coordinated Research Project, as well as the participation of IAEA experts in concrete remediation projects when requested by individual Member States. The IAEA has prepared several documents dedicated to particular technical or conceptual areas, including documents on the characterization of contaminated sites, technical and non-technical factors relevant to the selection of a preferred remediation strategy and technique, overview of applicable techniques for environmental remediation,, options for the cleanup of contaminated groundwater and planning and management issues. In addition, a number of other IAEA publications dealing with related aspects have been compiled under different IAEA projects; these include TECDOCs on the remediation of uranium mill tailings, the decontamination of buildings and roads and the characterization of decommissioned sites. Detailed procedures for the planning and implementation of remedial measures have been developed over the past decade or so. A critical element is the characterization of the contamination and of the various environmental compartments in which it is found, in order to be able to evaluate the applicability of remediation techniques. The chemical or mineralogical form of the contaminant will critically influence the efficiency of the remediation technique chosen. Careful delineation of the contamination will ensure that only those areas or volumes of material that are actually contaminated are treated. This, in turn, reduces the amount of any secondary waste generated. The application of a remediation technique requires holistic studies examining the technical feasibility of the proposed measures, including analyses of their impact. Consequently, input from various scientific and engineering

  19. Use of video surveillance to measure the influences of habitat management and landscape composition on pollinator visitation and pollen deposition in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Phillips

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo production relies on insect-mediated pollination, which is provided by managed and wild pollinators. The goals of this study were to measure the visitation frequency, longevity and temporal activity patterns of pumpkin pollinators and to determine if local habitat management and landscape composition affected this pollination service. We used video surveillance to monitor bee acitivty within male and female pumpkin flowers in 2011 and 2012 across a pollination window of 0600–1200 h. We also quantified the amount of pollen deposited in female flowers across this time period. In 2011, A. mellifera made significantly more floral visits than other bees, and in 2012 Bombus spp. was the dominant pumpkin pollinator. We found variation in visitation among male and female pumpkin flowers, with A. mellifera visiting female flowers more often and spending longer per visit within them than male flowers in both 2011 and 2012. The squash bee P. pruinosa visited male flowers more frequently in 2012, but individuals spent equal time in both flower sexes. We did not find variation in the timing of flower visitation among species across the observed pollination window. In both 2011 and 2012 we found that the majority of pollen deposition occurred within the first two hours (0600–0800 h of observation; there was no difference between the pollen deposited during this two-hour period and full pollination window (0600–1200 h. Local additions of sweet alyssum floral strips or a field buffer strip of native wildflowers did not have an effect on the foraging activity of bees or pollen deposition. However, semi-natural and urban habitats in the surrounding landscape were positively correlated with the frequency of flower visitation by wild pollinators and the amount of pollen deposited within female flowers.

  20. Use of video surveillance to measure the influences of habitat management and landscape composition on pollinator visitation and pollen deposition in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Benjamin W; Gardiner, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) production relies on insect-mediated pollination, which is provided by managed and wild pollinators. The goals of this study were to measure the visitation frequency, longevity and temporal activity patterns of pumpkin pollinators and to determine if local habitat management and landscape composition affected this pollination service. We used video surveillance to monitor bee acitivty within male and female pumpkin flowers in 2011 and 2012 across a pollination window of 0600-1200 h. We also quantified the amount of pollen deposited in female flowers across this time period. In 2011, A. mellifera made significantly more floral visits than other bees, and in 2012 Bombus spp. was the dominant pumpkin pollinator. We found variation in visitation among male and female pumpkin flowers, with A. mellifera visiting female flowers more often and spending longer per visit within them than male flowers in both 2011 and 2012. The squash bee P. pruinosa visited male flowers more frequently in 2012, but individuals spent equal time in both flower sexes. We did not find variation in the timing of flower visitation among species across the observed pollination window. In both 2011 and 2012 we found that the majority of pollen deposition occurred within the first two hours (0600-0800 h) of observation; there was no difference between the pollen deposited during this two-hour period and full pollination window (0600-1200 h). Local additions of sweet alyssum floral strips or a field buffer strip of native wildflowers did not have an effect on the foraging activity of bees or pollen deposition. However, semi-natural and urban habitats in the surrounding landscape were positively correlated with the frequency of flower visitation by wild pollinators and the amount of pollen deposited within female flowers.

  1. Soil erosion risk as a measure of the effects of land pattern changes on runoff processes in the landscape – case studies from Lower Austria and Central Bohemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devátý, Jan; Strauss, Peter; Hoesl, Rosemarie; Dostal, Tomas; Krása, Josef

    2015-04-01

    Changes in land use, landscape structure and agricultural technologies affect number of soil characteristics as well as rainfall-runoff processes in the landscape. Soil erosion and sediment transport can be easily used for documentation and quantification of the impacts of land use development in time. Extent and structure of arable land within a landscape is driven by technological, social and political, factors and differs between countries. However land structure development is more or less natural process and is driven under normal conditions mainly by climatic and economic forces, the effects of political development is very well documented on different sides of the former iron curtain. There is unique chance to compare the trends in historical development during different historical periods given by both of economic and political forces and to search for optimum land structure, using rainfall-runoff processes as a measure. Land structure analysis and soil erosion risk assessment was carried out for two areas of interest and series of historical periods: • Lower Austrian municipality of Kleinweikersdorf (580 ha) - 1822, 1945, 1966, 1990, 2008 • part of Botic river watershed in Central Bohemia (810 ha) - 1841, 1953, 1971, 1989, 2003, 2013 Land use delimitation and field plots spatial definition was digitized from available data sources (Historical Cadastral maps and aerial photographs). Changes in crop properties and management practices were also taken into account based on historical information. Comparison between time periods shows that political actions can cause substantial impact on field plot sizes. At the Austrian area of interest the number of arable field plot continually decreases from 1203 (in 1822) to 371 (in 2008) whereas at the Czech area of interest the initial number of 469 parcels (in 1841) decreases to 32 (in 1989) and then rises again in the last two time periods. While the trend of rising average parcel size in Austria is continuous

  2. Governing Forest Landscape Restoration: Cases from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora van Oosten

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscape restoration includes both the planning and implementation of measures to restore degraded forests within the perspective of the wider landscape. Governing forest landscape restoration requires fundamental considerations about the conceptualisation of forested landscapes and the types of restoration measures to be taken, and about who should be engaged in the governance process. A variety of governance approaches to forest landscape restoration exist, differing in both the nature of the object to be governed and the mode of governance. This paper analyses the nature and governance of restoration in three cases of forest landscape restoration in Indonesia. In each of these cases, both the original aim for restoration and the initiators of the process differ. The cases also differ in how deeply embedded they are in formal spatial planning mechanisms at the various political scales. Nonetheless, the cases show similar trends. All cases show a dynamic process of mobilising the landscape’s stakeholders, plus a flexible process of crafting institutional space for conflict management, negotiation and decision making at the landscape level. As a result, the landscape focus changed over time from reserved forests to forested mosaic lands. The cases illustrate that the governance of forest landscape restoration should not be based on strict design criteria, but rather on a flexible governance approach that stimulates the creation of novel public-private institutional arrangements at the landscape level.

  3. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.

    1989-09-01

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords

  4. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.

    1989-09-01

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords.

  5. Passive remediation strategies for petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, L.G.; Cullen, S.J.; Eccles, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The US EPA is becoming increasingly aware of costs and the limited success of existing remediation strategies. Research teams within the US EPA believe that if passive remediation can be successfully demonstrated, it is a candidate for best available technology. Passive remediation, however, must be demonstrated through the use of monitoring techniques, which demonstrate: contaminants are not moving in the dissolved, adsorbed or free product phase; and contamination is biodegrading in-place. This paper presents a concise monitoring and analysis strategy for passive remediation. Specifically, the paper presents the accuracy, precision and operating range of neutron moderation techniques as a low cost, real-time screening tool to measure the migration of the dissolved phase in soil moisture, the stabilized adsorbed phase and free product movement. In addition, the paper identifies the capillary pressure range through which the dissolved phase will move and identifies techniques for satisfying the risk analysis that movement is not taking place. The rationale for passive remediation taking place is confirmed through a discussion of gas ratios associated with bacterial assimilation of hydrocarbons. Gas ratios which are relatively constant above ground are highly inverted in the subsurface at contamination sites. The use of frequent screening of a vertical geologic profile using least cost techniques and the infrequent analysis of soil gas ratios provides the required data upon which the public will accept passive remediation as best available technology at a particular site. The paper points out that neutron moderation is a high candidate vadose zone monitoring device and identifies alternative techniques using resistivity and dielectric constants, which are in the developmental stage. The economic implications for passive remediation are enormous relative to the excavation and remediation strategies which are currently in use

  6. Assessing soil erosion at landscape level: A step forward in the up-scaling of 137Cs measurements through the use of in-situ lanthanum bromide scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Basil C.; Darby, Iain G.; Toloza, Arsenio; Mabit, Lionel; Kaiser, Ralf B.; Dercon, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Measuring Fallout Radionuclides (FRN), in particular 137Cs, is a well-established method to estimate soil erosion and deposition in agricultural landscapes. While extremely sensitive, laboratory based gamma-ray spectrometry requires careful handling and preparation of measurement samples with a lengthy measuring time (~1 day), In-situ gamma-ray spectrometry can give near instantaneous results, allowing prompt decisions to be made and identification of critical spots of soil erosion, while the equipment is in the field. The aim of this investigation was to compare the precision of the in-situ FRN measurements, made by a cost-effective lanthanum bromide (LaBr3 (Ce)) scintillation detector of 137Cs against those from conventional (high-purity germanium HPGe detector) but laborious laboratory based gamma-ray spectrometry for assessing soil erosion. As preliminary test, five cores of a gleyic Cambisol - per increments of 5 cm until 1 m depth - were collected at the experimental research station of the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety located in Grabenegg 130 km west of Vienna. Three soil cores were sampled at the study site and, in the vicinity of this experimental site, two additional cores were collected at two different undisturbed reference sites. Laboratory gamma analyses were carried out during 50 000 seconds using a HPGe coaxial detector. The gamma measurements performed at the laboratory confirmed the undisturbed status of the two selected reference sites (i.e. exponential decrease with depth of the 137Cs content). Using the surface area of the sampling tool, the 137Cs areal activities of the cores sampled in the study site have been established at 2134±465 Bq m-2, 1835±356 Bq m-2 and 2553±340 Bq m-2, and, for the two reference sites at 3221±444 Bq m-2 and 3946±527 Bq m-2. At the same location and prior to collect the five soil cores, in-situ measurements using a lanthanum bromide (LaBr3 (Ce)) scintillator were performed. The detector was placed

  7. Understanding the whole city as landscape. A multivariate approach to urban landscape morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Stiles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Landscape Convention implies a requirement for signatory states to identify their urban landscapes which goes beyond the traditional focus on individual parks and green spaces and the links between them. Landscape ecological approaches can provide a useful model for identifying urban landscape types across a whole territory, but the variables relevant for urban landscapes are very different to those usually addressing rural areas. This paper presents an approach to classifying the urban landscape of Vienna that was developed in a research project funded by the Austrian Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology: ‘Urban Fabric and Microclimate Response’. Nine landscape types and a number of sub-types were defined, using a multivariate statistical approach which takes account of both morphological and urban climate related variables. Although the variables were selected to objectively reflect the factors that could best represent the urban climatic characteristics of the urban landscape, the results also provided a widely plausible representation of the structure of the city’s landscapes. Selected examples of the landscape types that were defined in this way were used both to simulate current microclimatic conditions and also to model the effects of possible climatic amelioration measures. Finally the paper looks forward to developing a more general-purpose urban landscape typology that allows investigating a much broader complex of urban landscape functions.

  8. Landscape genetics as a tool for conservation planning: predicting the effects of landscape change on gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, Maarten J; Keller, Daniela; Holderegger, Rolf; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Kienast, Felix; Bolliger, Janine

    2014-03-01

    For conservation managers, it is important to know whether landscape changes lead to increasing or decreasing gene flow. Although the discipline of landscape genetics assesses the influence of landscape elements on gene flow, no studies have yet used landscape-genetic models to predict gene flow resulting from landscape change. A species that has already been severely affected by landscape change is the large marsh grasshopper (Stethophyma grossum), which inhabits moist areas in fragmented agricultural landscapes in Switzerland. From transects drawn between all population pairs within maximum dispersal distance (landscape composition as well as some measures of habitat configuration. Additionally, a complete sampling of all populations in our study area allowed incorporating measures of population topology. These measures together with the landscape metrics formed the predictor variables in linear models with gene flow as response variable (F(ST) and mean pairwise assignment probability). With a modified leave-one-out cross-validation approach, we selected the model with the highest predictive accuracy. With this model, we predicted gene flow under several landscape-change scenarios, which simulated construction, rezoning or restoration projects, and the establishment of a new population. For some landscape-change scenarios, significant increase or decrease in gene flow was predicted, while for others little change was forecast. Furthermore, we found that the measures of population topology strongly increase model fit in landscape genetic analysis. This study demonstrates the use of predictive landscape-genetic models in conservation and landscape planning.

  9. To fail is human: remediating remediation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalet, Adina; Chou, Calvin L; Ellaway, Rachel H

    2017-12-01

    Remediating failing medical learners has traditionally been a craft activity responding to individual learner and remediator circumstances. Although there have been moves towards more systematic approaches to remediation (at least at the institutional level), these changes have tended to focus on due process and defensibility rather than on educational principles. As remediation practice evolves, there is a growing need for common theoretical and systems-based perspectives to guide this work. This paper steps back from the practicalities of remediation practice to take a critical systems perspective on remediation in contemporary medical education. In doing so, the authors acknowledge the complex interactions between institutional, professional, and societal forces that are both facilitators of and barriers to effective remediation practices. The authors propose a model that situates remediation within the contexts of society as a whole, the medical profession, and medical education institutions. They also outline a number of recommendations to constructively align remediation principles and practices, support a continuum of remediation practices, destigmatize remediation, and develop institutional communities of practice in remediation. Medical educators must embrace a responsible and accountable systems-level approach to remediation if they are to meet their obligations to provide a safe and effective physician workforce.

  10. Evaluation of critical pathways, radionuclides, and remedial measures for reducing the radiological dose to returning populations at a former nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W. L., LLNL

    1997-11-01

    Bikini Island, the major residence island at Bikini Atoll, was contaminated with radioactive fallout as a result of the BRAVO test conducted on March 1, 1954. We have identified the critical radionuclides and supplied radiological data needed to develop dose estimates for all possible exposure pathways. These estimates show that the major dose to returning populations would result from ingestion of cesium-137 (137 Cs) in locally grown terrestrial foods where the predicted population average effective dose exceeds current federal guidelines. Consequently, we designed several long-term field experiments to develop and evaluate methods to reduce the 137 Cs content in locally grown foods.This paper gives a general outline of the remediation experiments with a more detailed description of a preferred combined option. Our comparative evaluation on various remedial methods show that the combined option--potassium treatment of the entire islands with limited excavation of soil in village an d housing areas--will be effective in reducing the dose to about 10% of pretreatment levels, and offers very significant benefits with respect to adverse environmental impacts as well as savings in overall costs, time, and required expert resources.

  11. Incorporating landscape elements into a connectivity measure: a case study for the speckled wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, J.P.; Adriaensen, F.; Matthysen, E.

    2003-01-01

    In spatial studies of populations, Euclidean distance is commonly used to measure the structural connectivity between habitat patches. The role of the matrix on patch connectivity is thereby ignored. However, the importance of the matrix for (dispersal) movement is increasingly being acknowledged.

  12. Environmental Remediation Data Management Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierowski, J. V.; Henry, L. G.; Dooley, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    Computer software tools for data management can improve site characterization, planning and execution of remediation projects. This paper discusses the use of two such products that have primarily been used within the nuclear power industry to enhance the capabilities of radiation protection department operations. Advances in digital imaging, web application development and programming technologies have made development of these tools possible. The Interactive Visual Tour System (IVTS) allows the user to easily create and maintain a comprehensive catalog containing digital pictures of the remediation site. Pictures can be cataloged in groups (termed ''tours'') that can be organized either chronologically or spatially. Spatial organization enables the user to ''walk around'' the site and view desired areas or components instantly. Each photo is linked to a map (floor plan, topographical map, elevation drawing, etc.) with graphics displaying the location on the map and any available tour/component links. Chronological organization enables the user to view the physical results of the remediation efforts over time. Local and remote management teams can view these pictures at any time and from any location. The Visual Survey Data System (VSDS) allows users to record survey and sample data directly on photos and/or maps of areas and/or components. As survey information is collected for each area, survey data trends can be reviewed for any repetitively measured location or component. All data is stored in a Quality Assurance (Q/A) records database with reference to its physical sampling point on the site as well as other information to support the final closeout report for the site. The ease of use of these web-based products has allowed nuclear power plant clients to plan outage work from their desktop and realize significant savings with respect to dose and cost. These same tools are invaluable for remediation and decommissioning planning of any scale and for recording

  13. The landscape degradation in the mining sites with suspended activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca IONCE

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The extracting industry, through its extraction activities, of shipping the ores, of breaking the ores, of preparing the practical substances, of stowing the useless rock, of transporting the practical substances, etc. might modify the area’s relief and the quality of ground, of thesurface waters and of the air. Suceava County has an old tradition of mining, where the results of this activity are visible, especially the visual point of view, and where not taking certain measures of ecological remediation will emphasize the disappointing image of the landscape within the areas of mining activity performing.The predominant mountainous landscape, in which mining activities have been held, is being affected also by the abandoned industrial and administrative buildings, in an advanced degradation state.The hydrographic system, very rich in mining areas, has its water quality affected by the acid rock drainage- phenomenon which appeared in many mining waste deposits.

  14. Remediating a design tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rädle, Roman; Klokmose, Clemens N.

    2018-01-01

    digital sticky notes setup. The paper contributes with a nuanced understanding of what happens when remediating a physical design tool into digital space, by emphasizing focus shifts and breakdowns caused by the technology, but also benefits and promises inherent in the digital media. Despite users......' preference for creating physical notes, handling digital notes on boards was easier and the potential of proper documentation make the digital setup a possible alternative. While the analogy in our remediation supported a transfer of learned handling, the users' experiences across technological setups impact......Sticky notes are ubiquitous in design processes because of their tangibility and ease of use. Yet, they have well-known limitations in professional design processes, as documentation and distribution are cumbersome at best. This paper compares the use of sticky notes in ideation with a remediated...

  15. Thermal soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental properties and business aspects of thermal soil remediation are described. Thermal soil remediation is considered as being the best option in cleaning contaminated soil for reuse. The thermal desorption process can remove hydrocarbons such as gasoline, kerosene and crude oil, from contaminated soil. Nelson Environmental Remediation (NER) Ltd. uses a mobile thermal desorption unit (TDU) with high temperature capabilities. NER has successfully applied the technology to target heavy end hydrocarbon removal from Alberta's gumbo clay in all seasons. The TDU consist of a feed system, a counter flow rotary drum kiln, a baghouse particulate removal system, and a secondary combustion chamber known as an afterburner. The technology has proven to be cost effective and more efficient than bioremediation and landfarming

  16. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1997-01-01

    It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective......It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective...

  17. Environmental remediation activities at WISMUT GmbH, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Miyasaka, Yasuhiko; Yamana, Hajimu

    2007-01-01

    The WISMUT GmbH has carried out environmental remediation activities since 1991 in former GDR (German Democratic Republic) to rehabilitate the environment and landscape which have been adversely affected by decades of unrestrained mining and processing of uranium ores. It is worthy of being mentioned especially that WISMUT GmbH's sites including waste rock dump, mill tailings pond, open pit mine and water treatment facilities with an area of 3,700ha have been rehabilitated practically and extensively, and these activities are planned to terminate in 2015 except for the water treatment. For safety assessment after remediation, the value of 1mSv/y (in excess of the background level) is applied to as an individual effective dose, from the recommendation of ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). This report shows a summary of environmental remediation activities carried out by the WISMUT GmbH and related regulatory laws. (author)

  18. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... the three dimensions into a continuous “cultural landscape index” that allows for a characterization of Europe's rural landscapes. The characterization identifies hotspots of cultural landscapes, where all three dimensions are present, such as in the Mediterranean. On the other hand, Eastern and Northern...

  19. Measures for radiation prevention and remediation of islightly radioactive contaminated sites by phytoremediation and subsequent utilization of the loaded plant residues (PHYTOREST). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willscher, Sabine; Werner, Peter; Jablonski, Lukasz; Wittig, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    In the presented scientific research project, the radiation protection of soil surfaces impacted by former industrial utilization or mining was investigated. This radiation protection of the contaminated soil surfaces was carried out by bioremediation techniques. The soil surfaces include larger agricultural or forestry areas useful for the production of sustainable plant-based raw materials and renewable energies. The contaminated areas show a positive climatic water balance with a subsequent impact of SM/R contaminants onto the adjacent ground water. During this scientific research project, the introduction of sustainable, biosphere conserving methods for a long-term remediation of slightly to moderately HM/R- contaminated areas was investigated; these areas are characterized by a radiotoxic amplifying potential due to a continued occurrence of radionuclides and heavy metals/ metalloids. The insights into transfer processes from the soil substrate over the mediating soil water phase and by microbes into the plant roots, into the shoots and the leaves of the plants represent necessary requirements for the control of SM/R transfer into the plants and its optimization. In this research project, considerable investigations were carried out for the understanding of binding of HM/R in the different plant compartments, also depending on different soil additives. The obtained first scientific results and their practical applicability were transformed onto experimental soil areas under natural field conditions. The transfer processes could be optimized and finally bioremediation efficiency could be enhanced due to the accompanying modifications (different soil additives of the field experiments). This new remediation method, further developed to a field application, represents a new tool for the stabilization / and extraction of HM/R on the field site and improves the efficiency of bioremediation processes. A pacification of the large areas with slightly to medium

  20. Quantitative analyses of empirical fitness landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szendro, Ivan G; Franke, Jasper; Krug, Joachim; Schenk, Martijn F; De Visser, J Arjan G M

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a fitness landscape is a powerful metaphor that offers insight into various aspects of evolutionary processes and guidance for the study of evolution. Until recently, empirical evidence on the ruggedness of these landscapes was lacking, but since it became feasible to construct all possible genotypes containing combinations of a limited set of mutations, the number of studies has grown to a point where a classification of landscapes becomes possible. The aim of this review is to identify measures of epistasis that allow a meaningful comparison of fitness landscapes and then apply them to the empirical landscapes in order to discern factors that affect ruggedness. The various measures of epistasis that have been proposed in the literature appear to be equivalent. Our comparison shows that the ruggedness of the empirical landscape is affected by whether the included mutations are beneficial or deleterious and by whether intragenic or intergenic epistasis is involved. Finally, the empirical landscapes are compared to landscapes generated with the rough Mt Fuji model. Despite the simplicity of this model, it captures the features of the experimental landscapes remarkably well. (paper)

  1. Visualizing phylogenetic tree landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgenbusch, James C; Huang, Wen; Gallivan, Kyle A

    2017-02-02

    Genomic-scale sequence alignments are increasingly used to infer phylogenies in order to better understand the processes and patterns of evolution. Different partitions within these new alignments (e.g., genes, codon positions, and structural features) often favor hundreds if not thousands of competing phylogenies. Summarizing and comparing phylogenies obtained from multi-source data sets using current consensus tree methods discards valuable information and can disguise potential methodological problems. Discovery of efficient and accurate dimensionality reduction methods used to display at once in 2- or 3- dimensions the relationship among these competing phylogenies will help practitioners diagnose the limits of current evolutionary models and potential problems with phylogenetic reconstruction methods when analyzing large multi-source data sets. We introduce several dimensionality reduction methods to visualize in 2- and 3-dimensions the relationship among competing phylogenies obtained from gene partitions found in three mid- to large-size mitochondrial genome alignments. We test the performance of these dimensionality reduction methods by applying several goodness-of-fit measures. The intrinsic dimensionality of each data set is also estimated to determine whether projections in 2- and 3-dimensions can be expected to reveal meaningful relationships among trees from different data partitions. Several new approaches to aid in the comparison of different phylogenetic landscapes are presented. Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) and a stochastic gradient decent (SGD) optimization method give the best representation of the original tree-to-tree distance matrix for each of the three- mitochondrial genome alignments and greatly outperformed the method currently used to visualize tree landscapes. The CCA + SGD method converged at least as fast as previously applied methods for visualizing tree landscapes. We demonstrate for all three mtDNA alignments that 3D

  2. Chernobyl radioactivity impacts and remediation of forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennie, C.D.; Baweja, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the results of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the impacts of strontium, cesium, and plutonium on forestry ecosystems, the toxicity of the radionuclides, remediation techniques such as upgrading the soils with the addition of potassium and calcium, and other possible measures for remediation, based primarily on the Bikini Atoll model.

  3. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2006-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  4. Modularizing Remedial Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    As remedial mathematics education has become an increasingly important topic of conversation in higher education. Mathematics departments have been put under increased pressure to change their programs to increase the student success rate. A number of models have been introduced over the last decade that represent a wide range of new ideas and…

  5. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  6. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  7. Catalysts for Environmental Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, B. L.; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2013-01-01

    The properties of catalysts used in environmental remediation are described here through specific examples in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. In the area of heterogeneous catalysis, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx was used as an example reaction with vanadia and tungsta...

  8. 2014 Ohio Remediation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In fulfillment of Ohio Revised Code 3333.041 (A) (1) the Chancellor has published a listing by school district of the number of the 2013 high school graduates who attended a state institution of higher education in academic year 2013-2014 and the percentage of each district's graduates required by the institution to enroll in a remedial course in…

  9. The Remediation of Nosferatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghellal, Sabiha; Morrison, Ann; Hassenzahl, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present The Remediation of Nosferatu, a location based augmented reality horror adventure. Using the theory of fictional universe elements, we work with diverse material from Nosferatu’s horror genre and vampire themes as a case study. In this interdisciplinary research we...

  10. Calculation of Configurational Entropy in Complex Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Cushman

    2018-04-01

    configurational entropy of a landscape is highly related to the dimensionality of the landscape, the number of cover classes, the evenness of landscape composition across classes, and landscape heterogeneity. These advances provide a means for researchers to directly estimate the frequency distribution of all possible macrostates of any observed landscape, and then directly calculate the relative configurational entropy of the observed macrostate, and to understand the ecological meaning of different amounts of configurational entropy. These advances enable scientists to take configurational entropy from a concept to an applied tool to measure and compare the disorder of real landscapes with an objective and unbiased measure based on entropy and the second law.

  11. Research using energy landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hack Jin

    2007-01-01

    Energy landscape is a theoretical tool used for the study of systems where cooperative processes occur such as liquid, glass, clusters, and protein. Theoretical and experimental researches related to energy landscape are introduced in this review

  12. The Q-Sort method: use in landscape assessment research and landscape planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    David G. Pitt; Ervin H. Zube

    1979-01-01

    The assessment of visual quality inherently involves the measurement of perceptual response to landscape. The Q-Sort Method is a psychometric technique which produces reliable and valid interval measurements of people's perceptions of landscape visual quality as depicted in photographs. It is readily understood by participants across a wide range of age groups and...

  13. The European nanometrology landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E S; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  14. The European nanometrology landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard K.; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E. S.; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  15. The European nanometrology landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger; Dirscherl, Kai; Morazzani, Valerie; Pidduck, Allan; Unger, Wolfgang E S

    2011-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  16. The European nanometrology landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew [National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom); Burke, Theresa [European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (United Kingdom); Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Dirscherl, Kai [Danish Fundamental Metrology (Denmark); Morazzani, Valerie [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (France); Pidduck, Allan [QinetiQ (United Kingdom); Unger, Wolfgang E S, E-mail: richard.leach@npl.co.uk [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany)

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  17. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis Report identifies the initial states of the system and the desired final states of the system. The Mission Analysis Report identifies target measures of success appropriate to program-level accomplishments. It also identifies program-level requirements and major system boundaries and interfaces

  18. Chapter 9. The landscape sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larivaille, Pierrette

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the electric industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter devoted to the 'landscape' includes a section covering the electricity generating facilities, and among these, the nuclear power stations. The studies carried out on the main units of insertion into the site are presented, particularly the landscaping involved in setting up a power station [fr

  19. Lines of landscape organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a landscape analysis of the earliest linear landscape boundaries on Skovbjerg Moraine, Denmark, during the first millennium BC. Using Delaunay triangulation as well as classic distribution analyses, it demonstrates that landscape boundaries articulated already established use-pa...

  20. Dynamic monitoring of landscape patterns and ecological processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Landscape patterns and ecological processes have been in long-term research focus in the field of landscape ecology, but how to measure their quantitative relations is still open. This work chooses the Hulunbeier grassland as the study area where ecosystem shows high vulnerability, frequent evolvement of landscape ...

  1. Flowscapes : Infrastructure as landscape, landscape as infrastructure. Graduation Lab Landscape Architecture 2012/2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.; De Vries, C.

    2012-01-01

    Flowscapes explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure, and is focused on landscape architectonic design of transportation-, green- and water infrastructures. These landscape infrastructures are considered armatures for urban and rural development. With

  2. Urban landscape architecture design under the view of sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, WeiLin

    2017-08-01

    The concept of sustainable development in modern city landscape design advocates landscape architecture, which is the main development direction in the field of landscape design. They are also effective measures to promote the sustainable development of city garden. Based on this, combined with the connotation of sustainable development and sustainable design, this paper analyzes and discusses the design of urban landscape under the concept of sustainable development.

  3. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil has been demonstrated for saturated and unsaturated sand in preliminary experiments using a novel transport visualization technique. Large anionic organic dyes were mixed with a portion of soil and the rate of electromigration of the dye in an imposed electric field was monitored photographically. One of the fastest current-normalized electromigration rates was measured in the driest sand, which contained 7% water by weight. This moisture content is typical of the moisture content in the unsaturated zone of subsurface native soils found in New Mexico. The characteristics of the electromigration were similar in both the saturated and unsaturated sand. The leading edge of the dye migration front was diffuse while the trailing edge was sharp and concentrated. This and other observed behavior may indicate a concentration effect, where the electromigration rate of dilute dye is greater than that of concentrated dye. The soil left after the trailing edge passed seemed to contain no residual dye in both the saturated and unsaturated cases. The success of demonstrating electromigration of large molecules in unsaturated soil is encouraging and indicates that it may be feasible to remediate in situ anionic heavy metals such as chromate from unsaturated soil with electrokinetic techniques. 23 refs., 7 figs

  4. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil has been demonstrated for saturated and unsaturated sand in preliminary experiments using a novel transport visualization technique. Large anionic organic dyes were mixed with a portion of soil and the rate of electromigration of the dye in an imposed electric field was monitored photographically. One of the fastest current-normalized electromigration rates was measured in the driest sand, which contained 7% water by-weight. This moisture content is typical of the moisture content in the unsaturated zone of subsurface native soils found in New Mexico. The characteristics of the electromigration were similar in both the saturated and unsaturated sand. The leading edge of the dye migration front was diffuse while the trailing edge was sharp and concentrated. This and other observed behavior may indicate a concentration effect, where the electromigration rate of dilute dye is greater than that of concentrated dye. The soil left after the trailing edge passed seemed to contain no residual dye in both the saturated and unsaturated cases. The success of demonstrating electromigration of large molecules in unsaturated soil is encouraging and indicates that it may be feasible to remediate in situ anionic heavy metals such as chromate from unsaturated soil with electrokinetic techniques

  5. Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John; Olsen, Wade

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews programs at NASA aimed at development at Remediation Technology development for removal of environmental pollutants from NASA sites. This is challenging because there are many sites with different environments, and various jurisdictions and regulations. There are also multiple contaminants. There must be different approaches based on location and type of contamination. There are other challenges: such as costs, increased need for resources and the amount of resources available, and a regulatory environment that is increasing.

  6. Remediating MGP brownfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Before natural gas pipelines became widespread in this country, gas fuel was produced locally in more than 5,000 manufactured gas plants (MGPs). The toxic wastes from these processes often were disposed onsite and have since seeped into the surrounding soil and groundwater. Although the MGPs--commonly called gas plants, gas-works or town gas plants--have closed and most have been demolished, they have left a legacy of environmental contamination. At many MGP sites, underground storage tanks were constructed of wood or brick, with process piping and equipment which frequently leaked. Waste materials often were disposed onsite. Releases of coal tars, oils and condensates produced within the plants contributed to a wide range of contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, benzene and cyanide. Remediation of selected MGP sites has been sporadic. Unless the site has been identified as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) Superfund site, the regulatory initiative to remediate often remains with the state in which the MGP is located. A number of factors are working to change that picture and to create a renewed interest in MGP site remediation. The recent Brownfield Initiative by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is such an example

  7. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress

  8. Quality assurance plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase 1 -- Interim corrective measures and Phase 2 -- Purge and trap reactive gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) identifies and describes the systems utilized by the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project (MSRERP) personnel to implement the requirements and associated applicable guidance contained in the Quality Program Description Y/QD-15 Rev. 2 (Energy Systems 1995f). This QAP defines the quality assurance (QA) requirements applicable to all activities and operations in and directly pertinent to the MSRERP Phase 1--Interim Corrective Measures and Phase 2--Purge and Trap objectives. This QAP will be reviewed, revised, and approved as necessary for Phase 3 and Phase 4 activities. This QAP identifies and describes the QA activities and procedures implemented by the various Oak Ridge National Laboratory support organizations and personnel to provide confidence that these activities meet the requirements of this project. Specific support organization (Division) quality requirements, including the degree of implementation of each, are contained in the appendixes of this plan

  9. Risk evaluation of remedial alternatives for the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.W.; Lane, N.K.; Swenson, L.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment is one of the many tools used to evaluate and select remedial alternatives and evaluate the risk associated with selected remedial alternatives during and after implementation. The risk evaluation of remedial alternatives (RERA) is performed to ensure selected alternatives are protective of human health and the environment. Final remedy selection is promulgated in a record of decision (ROD) and risks of the selected alternatives are documented. Included in the ROD documentation are the risk-related analyses for long-term effectiveness, short-term effectiveness, and overall protection of human health and the environment including how a remedy will eliminate, reduce or control risks and whether exposure will be reduced to acceptable levels. A major goal of RERA in the process leading to a ROD is to provide decision-makers with specific risk information that may be needed to choose among alternatives. For the Hanford Site, there are many considerations that must be addressed from a risk perspective. These include the large size of the Hanford Site, the presence of both chemical and radionuclide contamination, one likelihood of many analogues sites, public and worker health and safety, and stakeholder concern with ecological impacts from site contamination and remedial actions. A RERA methodology has been promulgated to (1) identify the points in the process leading to a ROD where risk assessment input is either required or desirable and (2) provide guidance on how to evaluate risks associated with remedial alternatives under consideration. The methodology and evaluations parallel EPA guidance requiring consideration of short-term impacts and the overall protectiveness of remedial actions for evaluating potential human health and ecological risks during selection of remedial alternatives, implementation of remedial measures, and following completion of remedial action

  10. Landscape Sustainability in a Sonoran Desert City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A. Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to discuss concepts of landscape sustainability in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Phoenix is situated in the greater Salt River Valley of the lower Sonoran Desert in the southwest United States. In this paper I use the ecological frameworks of ecosystem services and resiliency as a metric for understanding landscape sustainability. An assessment of landscape sustainability performance benchmarks were made by surveying research findings of scientists affiliated with the Central Arizona Phoenix Long Term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER. In Phoenix, present day emphases on cultural, aesthetic, and habitat formation ecosystem services within an arid ecoregion of low natural resilience coupled to a complex matrix of socioeconomic stratification, excessive landscape water use and pruning practices has had the undesired effect of degrading landscape sustainability. This has been measured as mixed patterns of plant diversity and human-altered patterns of carbon regulation, microclimate control, and trophic dynamics. In the future, sustainable residential landscaping in desert cities such as Phoenix may be fostered through use of water-conserving irrigation technologies, oasis-style landscape design motifs, recycling of landscape green waste, and conservative plant pruning strategies.

  11. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls affected by U.S. nuclear testing: all exposure pathways, remedial measures, and environmental loss of (137)Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F

    2010-01-01

    Radiation doses calculated for people resettling Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll, Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll, and Utrōk Island at Utrōk Atoll are presented. Residence is assumed to begin in 2010. In previous dose assessments it was shown that (137)Cs accounts for about 98% of the total dose for returning residents. About 85 to 90% (depending on the atoll) is via consumption of locally grown foods containing (137)Cs, and about 10 to 15% is due to external exposure from (137)Cs in the soil. These assessments were made using only the radiological half-life of (137)Cs (30.1 y). We have shown since that there is an environmental loss of (137)Cs from soil to groundwater that results in a more rapid loss of (137)Cs from the atoll ecosystem. The mean effective half-life of (137)Cs at the atolls is 8.5 y. Moreover, treatment of coconut trees with potassium (K) reduces (137)Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat at Bikini Atoll to about 5% of pretreatment concentrations. The magnitude of reduction is dependent on the concentration of (137)Cs in soil, and thereby in food crops, and is less for Enjebi and Rongelap Islands than for Bikini Island. Treatment of food crops and fruit trees with K and removal of the top 15 cm of soil around houses and community buildings prior to construction to reduce external exposure where people spend most of their time has been presented to the communities as a "Combined Option" remediation strategy. Doses presented here are calculated using the Combined Option, effective half-life of (137)Cs at the atolls, and a diet of both imported and local foods. The average natural background dose in the Marshall Islands, plus the anthropogenic nuclear test-related dose at Bikini, Enjebi, and Rongelap Islands, is less for each of the islands than the average background dose in the U.S. and Europe.

  12. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  13. DOE'S remedial action assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welty, C.G. Jr.; Needels, T.S.; Denham, D.H.

    1984-10-01

    The formulation and initial implementation of DOE's Assurance Program for Remedial Action are described. It was initiated in FY 84 and is expected to be further implemented in FY 85 as the activities of DOE's Remedial Action programs continue to expand. Further APRA implementation will include additional document reviews, site inspections, and program office appraisals with emphasis on Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program and Surplus Facilities Management Program

  14. [Cognitive remediation and nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenin-King, Palmyre; Thomas, Fanny; Braha-Zeitoun, Sonia; Bouaziz, Noomane; Januel, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Therapies based on cognitive remediation integrate psychiatric care. Cognitive remediation helps to ease cognitive disorders and enable patients to improve their day-to-day lives. It is essential to complete nurses' training in this field. This article presents the example of a patient with schizophrenia who followed the Cognitive Remediation Therapy programme, enabling him to access mainstream employment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Deterring and remedying employee theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzogany, Bill; Mueller, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Employee theft of patient-related information for personal financial gain is a serious threat to the success and financial viability of many healthcare providers. You can safeguard your financial interest in your patient base by taking three preventative measures designed to dissuade your employees from stealing from you. The first step is the implementation of policies and procedures that inform your employees that patient-related information is a valuable business asset that you vigorously protect from misappropriation. The second step is strictly limiting and monitoring employee access to patient-related information. The third step is educating your employees of the potential legal consequences to them in the event they steal from you and, in the event of theft, pursuing all legal remedies available to you.

  16. Bioelectrical Perchlorate Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, C.; Achenbach, L. A.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    low-level perchlorate (100 μg.L-1) influent as well as mixed-waste influents more typically found in the environment containing both nitrate and perchlorate. Through extended periods of operation (>70 days), no loss in treatment efficiency was noted and no measurable growth in biomass was observed. Gas phase analysis indicated that low levels of H2 produced at the cathode surface through electrolysis can provide enough reducing equivalents to mediate this metabolism. The results of these studies demonstrate that perchlorate remediation can be facilitated through the use of a cathode as the primary electron donor, and that continuous treatment in such a system approaches current industry standards. This has important implications for the continuous treatment of this critical contaminant in industrial waste streams and drinking water. Such a process has the advantage of long-term, low-maintenance operation with ease of online monitoring and control while limiting the injection of additional chemicals into the water treatment process and outgrowth of the microbial populations. This would negate the need for the continual removal and disposal of biomass produced during treatment and also the downstream issues associated with corrosion and biofouling of distribution systems and the production of toxic disinfection byproducts.

  17. Variability in Surface BRDF at Different Spatial Scales (30m-500m) Over a Mixed Agricultural Landscape as Retrieved from Airborne and Satellite Spectral Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Miguel O.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Poudyal, Rajesh; Wang, Zhuosen; King, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, the role of multiangle 1 remote sensing has been central to the development of algorithms for the retrieval of global land surface properties including models of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), albedo, land cover/dynamics, burned area extent, as well as other key surface biophysical quantities represented by the anisotropic reflectance characteristics of vegetation. In this study, a new retrieval strategy for fine-to-moderate resolution multiangle observations was developed, based on the operational sequence used to retrieve the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5 reflectance and BRDF/albedo products. The algorithm makes use of a semiempirical kernel-driven bidirectional reflectance model to provide estimates of intrinsic albedo (i.e., directional-hemispherical reflectance and bihemispherical reflectance), model parameters describing the BRDF, and extensive quality assurance information. The new retrieval strategy was applied to NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) data acquired during the 2007 Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) over the well-instrumented Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site in Oklahoma, USA. For the case analyzed, we obtained approx.1.6 million individual surface bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) retrievals, from nadir to 75deg off-nadir, and at spatial resolutions ranging from 3 m - 500 m. This unique dataset was used to examine the interaction of the spatial and angular 18 characteristics of a mixed agricultural landscape; and provided the basis for detailed assessments of: (1) the use of a priori knowledge in kernel-driven BRDF model inversions; (2) the interaction between surface reflectance anisotropy and instrument spatial resolution; and (3) the uncertainties that arise when sub-pixel differences in the BRDF are aggregated to a moderate resolution satellite

  18. Why Landscape Beauty Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Krebs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This philosophical paper explores the aesthetic argument for landscape conservation. The main claim is that the experience of beautiful landscapes is an essential part of the good human life. Beautiful landscapes make us feel at home in the world. Their great and irreplaceable value lies therein. To establish this claim, the concepts of landscape and “Stimmung” are clarified. It is shown how “Stimmung” (in the sense of mood is infused into landscape (as atmosphere and how we respond to it aesthetically. We respond by resonating or feeling at home. The paper ends by indicating how art can help us to better appreciate landscape beauty. This is done by way of an example from contemporary nature poetry, Michael Donhauser’s Variationen in Prosa, which begins with “Und was da war, es nahm uns an” (“And what was there accepted us”.

  19. Remediating Remediation: From Basic Writing to Writing across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article challenges faculty members and administrators to rethink current definitions of remediation. First year college students are increasingly placed into basic writing courses due to a perceived inability to use English grammar correctly, but it must be acknowledged that all students will encounter the need for remediation as they attempt…

  20. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    ‘Re-thinking interaction between landscape and urban buildings’ participates in an interdisciplinary discourse about the theoretical and practical advantages of openly juxtaposing landscape and architecture without having one more advanced in importance. Recently, the greenification of buildings...... demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary...

  1. Some aspects of remediation of contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Korobova, Elena; Abreu, Manuela; Bini, Claudio; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Roca, Núria

    2014-05-01

    Soils are essential components of the environment, a limited precious and fragile resource, the quality of which should be preserved. The concentration, chemical form and distribution of potential harmful elements in soils depends on parent rocks, weathering, soil type and soil use. However, their concentration can be altered by mismanagement of industrial and mining activities, energy generation, traffic increase, overuse of agrochemicals, sewage sludge and waste disposal, causing contamination, environmental problems and health concerns. Heavy metals, some metalloids and radionuclides are persistent in the environment. This persistence hampers the cost/efficiency of remediation technologies. The choice of the most appropriate soil remediation techniques depends of many factors and essentially of the specific site. This contribution aims to offer an overview of the main remediation methods in contaminated soils. There are two main groups of technologies: the first group dealing with containment and confinement, minimizing their toxicity, mobility and bioavailability. Containment measures include covering, sealing, encapsulation and immobilization and stabilization. The second group, remediation with decontamination, is based on the remotion, clean up and/or destruction of contaminants. This group includes mechanical procedures, physical separations, chemical technologies such as soil washing with leaching or precipitation of harmful elements, soil flushing, thermal treatments and electrokinetic technologies. There are also two approaches of biological nature: bioremediation and phytoremediation. Case studies from Chile, Ecuador, Italy, Korea, Peru, Portugal, Russia and Spain, will be discussed in accordance with the time available.

  2. Remedial action technology - arid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; DePoorter, G.L.; Nyhan, J.W.; Perkins, B.A.; Lane, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    A summary is presented of the low-level waste remedial action program at Los Alamos. The experimental design and progress is described for the experiments on second generation intrusion barriers, subsidence effects on SLB components, moisture cycling effects on chemical transport, and erosion control methodologies. The soil moisture data from the bio-intrusion and moisture cycling experiments both demonstrate the overwhelming importance of vegetation in minimizing infiltration of water through trench covers and backfill. Evaporation, as a water loss component in trench covers, is only effective in reducing soil moisture within 40 cm of the trench cover surface. Moisture infiltrating past the zone of evaporation in unvegetated or poorly vegetated trench covers is in storage and accumulates until drainage out of the soil profile occurs. Judicious selection of vegetation species for revegetating a low-level waste site may prevent infiltration of moisture into the trench and, when coupled with other design features (i.e. trench cover slope, tilling and seeding practice), may greatly reduce problems with erosion. Standard US Department of Agriculture erosion plots, when coupled with a state-of-the-art water balance and erosion model (CREAMS) promises to be highly useful in screening proposed remedial action cover designs for low-level waste sites. The erosion plot configuration allows for complete accounting of the water balance in a soil profile. This feature enables the user to optimize cover designs to minimize erosion and infiltration of water into the trench

  3. Lasagna trademark soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    Lasagna trademark is an integrated, in situ remediation technology being developed which remediates soils and soil pore water contaminated with soluble organic compounds. Lasagna trademark is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils where electroosmosis can move water faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods, with very low power consumption. The process uses electrokinetics to move contaminants in soil pore water into treatment zones where the contaminants can be captured and decomposed. Initial focus is on trichloroethylene (TCE), a major contaminant at many DOE and industrial sites. Both vertical and horizontal configurations have been conceptualized, but fieldwork to date is more advanced for the vertical configuration. Major features of the technology are electrodes energized by direct current, which causes water and soluble contaminants to move into or through the treatment layers and also heats the soil; treatment zones containing reagents that decompose the soluble organic contaminants or adsorb contaminants for immobilization or subsequent removal and disposal; and a water management system that recycles the water that accumulates at the cathode (high pH) back to the anode (low pH) for acid-base neutralization. Alternatively, electrode polarity can be reversed periodically to reverse electroosmotic flow and neutralize pH

  4. Measures of the EU Agri-Environmental Protection Scheme (GAEPS) and their impacts on the visual acceptability of Finnish agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvanainen, Liisa; Ihalainen, Marjut; Hietala-Koivu, Reija; Kolehmainen, Osmo; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Nousiainen, Ismo; Helenius, Juha

    2002-11-01

    As a member of the European Union, Finland has committed itself to creating an environmental policy for agriculture. The aims of this study were to evaluate visual impacts of the General Agri-Environmental Protection Scheme (GAEPS) and Supplementary Protection Scheme (SPS) and general attitudes towards some activities in those policies and furthermore to examine the suitability of the method of Alho et al. (2001) for the scenic beauty assessment. The study areas consisted of three original, untreated, and 15 modified rural landscapes representing a variety of different activities. The scenic beauty of the landscapes was evaluated through pairwise comparisons of the responses of 68 people. Furthermore, attitudes towards environmental values, water protection, buffer strips and subsidies to agriculture were obtained. The respondents found the maintained buffer strips more pleasing than unmaintained strips and considered that the quality of watercourses was increased by buffer strips along them. A suitable width for the buffer strip along main ditches, brooks and waterways was regarded, on average, to be wider than the current recommendations. Although the opinions of farmers were basically in line with the existing recommendations, farmers' opininons on the second and third most important effects of buffer strips, an increase in weeds and a decrease in cultivated land, clearly differed from those of the other respondents. Afforestation, lack of building maintenance and abandoned fields were considered to be the most important factors impacting rural landscapes. This study indicates that the Finnish Agri-Environmental Protection Schemes have had positive impacts on the visual quality of landscapes. Attitudes towards other impacts are contradictory. This study also showed the improvement of the Alho et al. (2001) method in these kinds of studies relative to other methods of pairwise comparisons.

  5. Surface fluxes in heterogeneous landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay Hasager, C

    1997-01-01

    The surface fluxes in homogeneous landscapes are calculated by similarity scaling principles. The methodology is well establish. In heterogeneous landscapes with spatial changes in the micro scale range, i e from 100 m to 10 km, advective effects are significant. The present work focus on these effects in an agricultural countryside typical for the midlatitudes. Meteorological and satellite data from a highly heterogeneous landscape in the Rhine Valley, Germany was collected in the large-scale field experiment TRACT (Transport of pollutants over complex terrain) in 1992. Classified satellite images, Landsat TM and ERS SAR, are used as basis for roughness maps. The roughnesses were measured at meteorological masts in the various cover classes and assigned pixel by pixel to the images. The roughness maps are aggregated, i e spatially averaged, into so-called effective roughness lengths. This calculation is performed by a micro scale aggregation model. The model solves the linearized atmospheric flow equations by a numerical (Fast Fourier Transform) method. This model also calculate maps of friction velocity and momentum flux pixel wise in heterogeneous landscapes. It is indicated how the aggregation methodology can be used to calculate the heat fluxes based on the relevant satellite data i e temperature and soil moisture information. (au) 10 tabs., 49 ills., 223 refs.

  6. Challenges in complementing data from ground-based sensors with satellite-derived products to measure ecological changes in relation to climate – lessons from temperate wetland-upland landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Alisa L.; Sadinski, Walter J.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Roth, Mark F.

    2018-01-01

    Assessing climate-related ecological changes across spatiotemporal scales meaningful to resource managers is challenging because no one method reliably produces essential data at both fine and broad scales. We recently confronted such challenges while integrating data from ground- and satellite-based sensors for an assessment of four wetland-rich study areas in the U.S. Midwest. We examined relations between temperature and precipitation and a set of variables measured on the ground at individual wetlands and another set measured via satellite sensors within surrounding 4 km2 landscape blocks. At the block scale, we used evapotranspiration and vegetation greenness as remotely sensed proxies for water availability and to estimate seasonal photosynthetic activity. We used sensors on the ground to coincidentally measure surface-water availability and amphibian calling activity at individual wetlands within blocks. Responses of landscape blocks generally paralleled changes in conditions measured on the ground, but the latter were more dynamic, and changes in ecological conditions on the ground that were critical for biota were not always apparent in measurements of related parameters in blocks. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of decisions and assumptions we made in applying the remotely sensed data for the assessment and the value of integrating observations across scales, sensors, and disciplines.

  7. Landscape predictions from cosmological vacuum selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Yang, Sheng

    2007-04-23

    In Bousso-Polchinski models with hundreds of fluxes, we compute the effects of cosmological dynamics on the probability distribution of landscape vacua. Starting from generic initial conditions, we find that most fluxes are dynamically driven into a different and much narrower range of values than expected from landscape statistics alone. Hence, cosmological evolution will access only a tiny fraction of the vacua with small cosmological constant. This leads to a host of sharp predictions. Unlike other approaches to eternal inflation, the holographic measure employed here does not lead to staggering, an excessive spread of probabilities that would doom the string landscape as a solution to the cosmological constant problem.

  8. Landscape predictions from cosmological vacuum selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Yang, I-S.

    2007-01-01

    In Bousso-Polchinski models with hundreds of fluxes, we compute the effects of cosmological dynamics on the probability distribution of landscape vacua. Starting from generic initial conditions, we find that most fluxes are dynamically driven into a different and much narrower range of values than expected from landscape statistics alone. Hence, cosmological evolution will access only a tiny fraction of the vacua with small cosmological constant. This leads to a host of sharp predictions. Unlike other approaches to eternal inflation, the holographic measure employed here does not lead to staggering, an excessive spread of probabilities that would doom the string landscape as a solution to the cosmological constant problem

  9. Remediation planning and risk assessment support through data fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Coleman Research's Data Fusion Modeling (DFM) services gives one the ability to use large geophysical and hydrological data sets, which include direct and indirect measurements, to obtain a unified mathematical model of the geology and hydrology at one's site. Coleman Research (CRC) has adapted highly stable and efficient statistical inversion techniques, developed over the past 20 years, to provide a 3D site model with quantified uncertainty based on state-of-the-art modeling codes. This site model supports risk assessment and remediation planning with enhanced numerical accuracy for tradeoff studies of alternate remediation strategies. Further, DFM supports real time model updates during remediation and site investigation

  10. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss - herbal remedies and supplements; Obesity - herbal remedies; Overweight - herbal remedies ... health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  11. 40 CFR 300.435 - Remedial design/remedial action, operation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... features of the selected remedy with respect to scope, performance, or cost. To amend the ROD, the lead...) Include appropriate language in the solicitation requiring potential prime contractors to submit... protection of human health and the environment, the operation of such treatment or other measures for a...

  12. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...

  13. Site remediation: The naked truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloway, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of any company faced with an environmental site remediation project is to perform the cleanup effectively at the lowest possible cost. Today, there are a variety of techniques being applied in the remediation of sites involving soils and sludges. The most popular include: stabilization, incineration, bioremediation and off-site treatment. Dewatering may also play an integral role in a number of these approaches. Selecting the most cost-effective technique for remediation of soils and sludges can be a formidable undertaking, namely because it is often difficult to quantify certain expenses in advance of the project. In addition to providing general cost guidelines for various aspects of soil and sludge remediation, this paper will show how some significant cost factors can be affected by conditions related to specific remediation projects and the cleanup technology being applied

  14. IAEA Remediation Mission Issues Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international experts today completed their assessment of the strategy and plans being considered by the Japanese authorities to remediate the areas off-site TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Their Final Report, delivered to the Japanese authorities, is available here. ''A lot of good work, done at all levels, is on-going in Japan in the area of environmental remediation,'' said Juan Carlos Lentijo, Team Leader and General Director for Radiation Protection at Spain's nuclear regulatory authority. In the report, Japan is encouraged to continue its remediation efforts, taking into account the advice provided by the Mission. ''In the early phases of the Fukushima Daiichi accident, a very cautious approach was adopted by the Japanese authorities in terms of dealing with the handling of residue materials. It is considered right to do so,'' Lentijo said. ''However, at this point in time, we see that there is room to take a more balanced approach, focussing on the real priority areas, classifying residue materials and adopting appropriate remediation measures on the basis of the results of safety assessments for each specific situation.'' The IAEA stands ready to support Japan as it continues its efforts to remediate the environment in the area off-site the Fukushima Daiichi NPP. The IAEA sent the mission to Japan from 7 to 15 October 2011 following a request from the country's government. The mission, comprising 12 international and IAEA experts from several countries, visited numerous locations in the Fukushima Prefecture and conducted meetings in Tokyo and Fukushima with Japanese officials from several ministries and institutions. A Preliminary Summary Report was issued on 14 October. Background The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP has led to elevated levels of radiation over large areas. The Government of Japan has been formulating a strategy and plans to implement countermeasures to remediate these areas. The IAEA

  15. Landscape genetics of high mountain frog metapopulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M.A.; Dezzani, R.; Pilliod, D.S.; Storfer, A.

    2010-01-01

    Explaining functional connectivity among occupied habitats is crucial for understanding metapopulation dynamics and species ecology. Landscape genetics has primarily focused on elucidating how ecological features between observations influence gene flow. Functional connectivity, however, may be the result of both these between-site (landscape resistance) landscape characteristics and at-site (patch quality) landscape processes that can be captured using network based models. We test hypotheses of functional connectivity that include both between-site and at-site landscape processes in metapopulations of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) by employing a novel justification of gravity models for landscape genetics (eight microsatellite loci, 37 sites, n = 441). Primarily used in transportation and economic geography, gravity models are a unique approach as flow (e.g. gene flow) is explained as a function of three basic components: distance between sites, production/attraction (e.g. at-site landscape process) and resistance (e.g. between-site landscape process). The study system contains a network of nutrient poor high mountain lakes where we hypothesized a short growing season and complex topography between sites limit R. luteiventris gene flow. In addition, we hypothesized production of offspring is limited by breeding site characteristics such as the introduction of predatory fish and inherent site productivity. We found that R. luteiventris connectivity was negatively correlated with distance between sites, presence of predatory fish (at-site) and topographic complexity (between-site). Conversely, site productivity (as measured by heat load index, at-site) and growing season (as measured by frost-free period between-sites) were positively correlated with gene flow. The negative effect of predation and positive effect of site productivity, in concert with bottleneck tests, support the presence of source-sink dynamics. In conclusion, gravity models provide a

  16. Nutrient uptake dynamics across a gradient of nutrient concentrations and ratios at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Catherine A.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Conine, Andrea L.; Lipshutz, Sondra M.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding interactions between nutrient cycles is essential for recognizing and remediating human impacts on water quality, yet multielemental approaches to studying nutrient cycling in streams are currently rare. Here we utilized a relatively new approach (tracer additions for spiraling curve characterization) to examine uptake dynamics for three essential nutrients across a landscape that varied in absolute and relative nutrient availability. We measured nutrient uptake for soluble reactive phosphorous, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen in 16 headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains, New York. Across the landscape, ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus had shorter uptake lengths and higher uptake velocities than nitrate-nitrogen. Ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus uptake velocities were tightly correlated, and the slope of the relationship did not differ from one, suggesting strong demand for both nutrients despite the high ambient water column dissolved inorganic nitrogen: soluble reactive phosphorus ratios. Ammonium-nitrogen appeared to be the preferred form of nitrogen despite much higher nitrate-nitrogen concentrations. The uptake rate of nitrate-nitrogen was positively correlated with ambient soluble reactive phosphorus concentration and soluble reactive phosphorus areal uptake rate, suggesting that higher soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations alleviate phosphorus limitation and facilitate nitrate-nitrogen uptake. In addition, these streams retained a large proportion of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen supplied by the watershed, demonstrating that these streams are important landscape filters for nutrients. Together, these results (1) indicated phosphorus limitation across the landscape but similarly high demand for ammonium-nitrogen and (2) suggested that nitrate-nitrogen uptake was influenced by variability in soluble reactive phosphorus availability and preference for

  17. Influence of natural temperature gradients on measurements of xylem sap flow with thermal dissipation probes. 1. Field observations and possible remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, F; Rocheteau, A

    2002-06-01

    The thermal dissipation method is simple and widely used for measuring sap flow in large stems. As with several other thermal methods, natural temperature gradients are assumed to be negligible in the sapwood being measured. We studied the magnitude and variability of natural temperature gradients in sapwood of Acacia trees growing in the Sahelian zone of Senegal, analyzed their effects on sap flow measurements, and investigated possible solutions. A new measurement approach employing cyclic heating (45 minutes of heating and 15 minutes of cooling; 45/15) was also tested. Three-day measurement sequences that included 1 day without heating, a second day with continuous heating and a third day with cyclic heating were recorded during a 6.5-month period using probes installed at three azimuths in a tree trunk. Natural temperature gradients between the two probes of the sensor unit, spaced 8 to 10 cm vertically, were rarely negligible (i.e., solar radiation and low sap flow rate. However, for all applications of the thermal dissipation method, it is wise to check regularly for natural temperature gradients by switching off the heater.

  18. Biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural industrialization alters rural landscapes in Europe, causing large-scale and rapid loss of important biodiversity. The principal instruments to protect farmland biodiversity are various agri-environmental measures (AEMs) in the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). However, growing awareness of shortcomings to CAP biodiversity integration prompts examination of causes and potential solutions. This thesis assesses the importance of structural heterogeneity of crop and non-crop habi...

  19. Inland drift sand landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these

  20. Principles of landscape architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, TU Delft considers urbanism as a planning and design oriented activity towards urban and rural landscapes. It aims to enhance, restore or create landscapes from a perspective of sustainable development, so as to guide,

  1. Nature and landscape protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with National Council of the Slovak Republic Act N. 287/1994 Coll. on Nature and Landscape Protection, the system of complex nature landscape protection has been designed based on five levels of protection. Categories of protected areas as well as cultural monuments in the Slovak Republic are reviewed.Slovak contribution to the world heritage is included

  2. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-01-01

    The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive concept...

  3. Glossary on agricultural landscapes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, A.; Centeri, C.; Renes, J.; Roth, M.; Printsman, A.; Palang, H.; Benito Jorda, M.-D.; Verlarde, M.D.; Kruckenberg, H.

    2010-01-01

    T he following glossary of terms related to the European agricultural landscape shall serve as a common basis for all parties, working in or on agricultural landscapes. Some of the terms are quite common and sometimes used in our every day language, but they often have different meanings in

  4. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews of the literature support the idea that cognitive deficits observed in a large percentage of patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the cognitive performance deficit and functional disability associated with the disease. The grow- ing importance of neurocognition in Psychiatry, especially with regard to planning strategies and rehabilitative therapies to improve the prognosis of patients contrib- utes to the interest of achieving this literature review on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. In this work, drawn from research in the areas of schizophrenia, cog- nition, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive remediation (2000-2012 through PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration, it is intended, to describe the types of psychological and behavioral therapies recommended in the treatment of cognitive disabilities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight the clinical and scientific evidence of each of these therapies, as their effect on cognitive performance, symptoms and functionality in patients with schizophrenia.

  5. Statistical topography of fitness landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    Fitness landscapes are generalized energy landscapes that play an important conceptual role in evolutionary biology. These landscapes provide a relation between the genetic configuration of an organism and that organism’s adaptive properties. In this work, global topographical features of these fitness landscapes are investigated using theoretical models. The resulting predictions are compared to empirical landscapes. It is shown that these landscapes allow, at least with respe...

  6. Fine-resolution repeat topographic surveying of dryland landscapes using UAS-based structure-from-motion photogrammetry: Assessing accuracy and precision against traditional ground-based erosion measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillian, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Elaksher, Ahmed; Duniway, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry from unmanned aerial system (UAS) imagery is an emerging tool for repeat topographic surveying of dryland erosion. These methods are particularly appealing due to the ability to cover large landscapes compared to field methods and at reduced costs and finer spatial resolution compared to airborne laser scanning. Accuracy and precision of high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from UAS imagery have been explored in many studies, typically by comparing image coordinates to surveyed check points or LiDAR datasets. In addition to traditional check points, this study compared 5 cm resolution DTMs derived from fixed-wing UAS imagery with a traditional ground-based method of measuring soil surface change called erosion bridges. We assessed accuracy by comparing the elevation values between DTMs and erosion bridges along thirty topographic transects each 6.1 m long. Comparisons occurred at two points in time (June 2014, February 2015) which enabled us to assess vertical accuracy with 3314 data points and vertical precision (i.e., repeatability) with 1657 data points. We found strong vertical agreement (accuracy) between the methods (RMSE 2.9 and 3.2 cm in June 2014 and February 2015, respectively) and high vertical precision for the DTMs (RMSE 2.8 cm). Our results from comparing SfM-generated DTMs to check points, and strong agreement with erosion bridge measurements suggests repeat UAS imagery and SfM processing could replace erosion bridges for a more synoptic landscape assessment of shifting soil surfaces for some studies. However, while collecting the UAS imagery and generating the SfM DTMs for this study was faster than collecting erosion bridge measurements, technical challenges related to the need for ground control networks and image processing requirements must be addressed before this technique could be applied effectively to large landscapes.

  7. Neogeomorphology, prediction, and the anthropic landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.

    The surface of the earth is undergoing profound change due to human impact. By some measures the level of human impact is comparable to the effects of major classical geomorphic processes such as fluvial sediment transport. This change is occurring rapidly, has no geologic precedent, and may represent an irreversible transition to a new and novel landscape with which we have no experience. For these reasons prediction of future landscape evolution will be of increasing importance. The combination of physical and social forces that drive modern landscape change represents the Anthropic Force. Neogeomorphology is the study of the Anthropic Force and its present and likely future effects on the landscape. Unique properties associated with the Anthropic Force include consciousness, intention and design. These properties support the occurrence of nonclassical geomorphic phenomena, such as landscape planning, engineering, and management. The occurrence of short time-scale phenomena induced by anthropic landscape change, the direct effects of this change on society, and the ability to anticipate and intentionally influence the future trajectory of the global landscape underscore the importance of prediction in a neogeomorphic world.

  8. Urban Landscape Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Steiner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities present significant opportunities for new landscape perspectives that can help inform conservation and development decisions. Early in the twenty-first century, the majority of the planet’s population became urban as more people lived in city-regions for the first time in our history. As the global population increases, so does this urbanization. The environmental challenges of population and urban growth are profound. Landscapes represent a synthesis of natural and cultural processes. Cities are certainly cultural phenomena. Historically, cities provided refuge from nature. The expanding field of urban ecology, coupled with landscape ecology, can enhance how the dual natural and cultural dimensions of landscapes in cities are understood. Furthermore, concepts such as ecosystem services and green infrastructure are proving useful for urban landscape planning and design. Examples from Dayton, Ohio; Brooklyn, New York; and Austin, Texas are presented.

  9. Uranium City radiation reduction program: further efforts at remedial measures for houses with block walls, concrete porosity test results, and intercomparison of Kuznetz method and Tsivoglau method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubrich, E.; Leung, M.K.; Mackie, R.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt was made to reduce the levels of radon in a house in Uranium City by mechanically venting the plenums in the concrete block basement walls, with little success. A table compares the results obtained by measuring the radon WL using the Tsivoglau and the Kuznetz methods

  10. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  11. Object reasoning for waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, K.A.; Bohn, S.J.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-08-01

    A large number of contaminated waste sites across the United States await size remediation efforts. These sites can be physically complex, composed of multiple, possibly interacting, contaminants distributed throughout one or more media. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) is being designed and developed to support decisions concerning the selection of remediation alternatives. The goal of this system is to broaden the consideration of remediation alternatives, while reducing the time and cost of making these considerations. The Remedial Action Assessment System is a hybrid system, designed and constructed using object-oriented, knowledge- based systems, and structured programming techniques. RAAS uses a combination of quantitative and qualitative reasoning to consider and suggest remediation alternatives. The reasoning process that drives this application is centered around an object-oriented organization of remediation technology information. This paper describes the information structure and organization used to support this reasoning process. In addition, the paper describes the level of detail of the technology related information used in RAAS, discusses required assumptions and procedural implications of these assumptions, and provides rationale for structuring RAAS in this manner. 3 refs., 3 figs

  12. Landscape features influence gene flow as measured by cost-distance and genetic analyses: a case study for giant pandas in the Daxiangling and Xiaoxiangling Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fuwen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene flow maintains genetic diversity within a species and is influenced by individual behavior and the geographical features of the species' habitat. Here, we have characterized the geographical distribution of genetic patterns in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca living in four isolated patches of the Xiaoxiangling and Daxiangling Mountains. Three geographic distance definitions were used with the "isolation by distance theory": Euclidean distance (EUD, least-cost path distance (LCD defined by food resources, and LCD defined by habitat suitability. Results A total of 136 genotypes were obtained from 192 fecal samples and one blood sample, corresponding to 53 unique genotypes. Geographical maps plotted at high resolution using smaller neighborhood radius definitions produced large cost distances, because smaller radii include a finer level of detail in considering each pixel. Mantel tests showed that most correlation indices, particularly bamboo resources defined for different sizes of raster cell, were slightly larger than the correlations calculated for the Euclidean distance, with the exception of Patch C. We found that natural barriers might have decreased gene flow between the Xiaoxiangling and Daxiangling regions. Conclusions Landscape features were found to partially influence gene flow in the giant panda population. This result is closely linked to the biological character and behavior of giant pandas because, as bamboo feeders, individuals spend most of their lives eating bamboo or moving within the bamboo forest. Landscape-based genetic analysis suggests that gene flow will be enhanced if the connectivity between currently fragmented bamboo forests is increased.

  13. French uranium mining sites remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, M.

    2002-01-01

    Following a presentation of the COGEMA's general policy for the remediation of uranium mining sites and the regulatory requirements, the current phases of site remediation operations are described. Specific operations for underground mines, open pits, milling facilities and confining the milled residues to meet long term public health concerns are detailed and discussed in relation to the communication strategies to show and explain the actions of COGEMA. A brief review of the current remediation situation at the various French facilities is finally presented. (author)

  14. Tensor modes on the string theory landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    We attempt an estimate for the distribution of the tensor mode fraction r over the landscape of vacua in string theory. The dynamics of eternal inflation and quantum tunneling lead to a kind of democracy on the landscape, providing no bias towards large-field or small-field inflation regardless of the class of measure. The tensor mode fraction then follows the number frequency distributions of inflationary mechanisms of string theory over the landscape. We show that an estimate of the relative number frequencies for small-field vs large-field inflation, while unattainable on the whole landscape, may be within reach as a regional answer for warped Calabi-Yau flux compactifications of type IIB string theory.

  15. Tensor modes on the string theory landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphal, Alexander

    2012-06-15

    We attempt an estimate for the distribution of the tensor mode fraction r over the landscape of vacua in string theory. The dynamics of eternal inflation and quantum tunneling lead to a kind of democracy on the landscape, providing no bias towards large-field or small-field inflation regardless of the class of measure. The tensor mode fraction then follows the number frequency distributions of inflationary mechanisms of string theory over the landscape. We show that an estimate of the relative number frequencies for small-field vs large-field inflation, while unattainable on the whole landscape, may be within reach as a regional answer for warped Calabi-Yau flux compactifications of type IIB string theory.

  16. Colloid remediation in groundwater by polyelectrolyte capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.; Rao, S.; Jain, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing study to characterize groundwater colloids, to understand the geochemical factors affecting colloid transport in groundwater, and to develop an in-situ colloid remediation process. The colloids and suspended particulate matter used in this study were collected from a perched aquifer site that has radiation levels several hundred times the natural background and where previous researchers have measured and reported the presence of radiocolloids containing plutonium and americium. At this site, radionuclides have spread over several kilometers. Inorganic colloids collected from water samples are characterized with respect to concentration, mineralogy, size distribution, electrophoretic mobility (zeta potential), and radioactivity levels. Presented are the methods used to investigate the physiochemical factors affecting colloid transport and the preliminary analytical results. Included below are a description of a colloid transport model and the corresponding computational code, water analyses, characterization of the inorganic colloids, and a conceptual description of a process for in-situ colloid remediation using the phenomenon of polyelectrolyte capture

  17. A multispecies framework for landscape conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, W Scott; Donovan, Therese M

    2011-10-01

    Rapidly changing landscapes have spurred the need for quantitative methods for conservation assessment and planning that encompass large spatial extents. We devised and tested a multispecies framework for conservation planning to complement single-species assessments and ecosystem-level approaches. Our framework consisted of 4 elements: sampling to effectively estimate population parameters, measuring how human activity affects landscapes at multiple scales, analyzing the relation between landscape characteristics and individual species occurrences, and evaluating and comparing the responses of multiple species to landscape modification. We applied the approach to a community of terrestrial birds across 25,000 km(2) with a range of intensities of human development. Human modification of land cover, road density, and other elements of the landscape, measured at multiple spatial extents, had large effects on occupancy of the 67 species studied. Forest composition within 1 km of points had a strong effect on occupancy of many species and a range of negative, intermediate, and positive associations. Road density within 1 km of points, percent evergreen forest within 300 m, and distance from patch edge were also strongly associated with occupancy for many species. We used the occupancy results to group species into 11 guilds that shared patterns of association with landscape characteristics. Our multispecies approach to conservation planning allowed us to quantify the trade-offs of different scenarios of land-cover change in terms of species occupancy. Conservation Biology © 2011 Society for Conservation Biology. No claim to original US government works.

  18. Welfare Landscape and Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2017-01-01

    Danish housing developments of the post-war era were a cornerstone in the implementation of the welfare vision and the overall urban and landscape planning in the post-war period. The new city was a horizontal city and – as it will be my primary ambition to show – a green and landscape-like city....... The landscape came, in Denmark, to play a prominent role and became synonymous with ‘The Good Life’, but it also presented a number of moral imperatives. The article concerns how communities and community feelings found their expression in the Danish ‘welfare landscapes’....

  19. Weathering and landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkington, Alice V.; Phillips, Jonathan D.; Campbell, Sean W.

    2005-04-01

    In recognition of the fundamental control exerted by weathering on landscape evolution and topographic development, the 35th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium was convened under the theme of Weathering and Landscape Evolution. The papers and posters presented at the conference imparted the state-of-the-art in weathering geomorphology, tackled the issue of scale linkage in geomorphic studies and offered a vehicle for interdisciplinary communication on research into weathering and landscape evolution. The papers included in this special issue are encapsulated here under the general themes of weathering mantles, weathering and relative dating, weathering and denudation, weathering processes and controls and the 'big picture'.

  20. Final remediation of the provisional storage near Zavratec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.

    2000-01-01

    In the Western part of Slovenia near the village of Zavratec radioactive waste from the decontamination of the Oncological Institute has been stored in an old abandoned military barracks for many decades. The ARAO Agency had been assigned to remediate this provisional storage. In 1996 the first phase of the remediation was concluded, in which the measurements, inventorying and repacking of radioactive waste were carried out. At the end of this phase the waste was restored. After three years of suspension, the remedial work continued in autumn 1999 with the separation of radioactive from non-radioactive waste and transportation of all radioactive waste to the Slovenian central storage for small producers near Ljubljana. At the beginning of the year 2000 the old storage near Zavratec was completely decontaminated to be released for unrestricted use. The preparation for and the implementation of remedial actions are presented in the paper. (author)

  1. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2007-09-26

    This Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Remedial Action Report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 of the INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan. The agency prefinal inspection of the ICDF Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF) was completed in June of 2005. Accordingly, this report has been developed to describe the construction activities completed at the ICDF along with a description of any modifications to the design originally approved for the facility. In addition, this report provides a summary of the major documents prepared for the design and construction of the ICDF, a discussion of relevant requirements and remedial action objectives, the total costs associated with the development and operation of the facility to date, and identification of necessary changes to the Agency-approved INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan and the ICDF Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan.

  2. Approaches for assessing sustainable remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment, while minimizing the indirect cost of remediation to the environment, society and economy. This paper presents an overview of available approaches for assessing the sustainability of alternative...... remediation strategies for a contaminated site. Most approaches use multi-criteria assessment methods (MCA) to structure a decision support process. Different combinations of environmental, social and economic criteria are employed, and are assessed either in qualitative or quantitative forms with various...... tools such as life cycle assessment and cost benefit analysis. Stakeholder involvement, which is a key component of sustainable remediation, is conducted in various ways. Some approaches involve stakeholders directly in the evaluation or weighting of criteria, whereas other approaches only indirectly...

  3. Plant-based remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar (ed.) [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment Division

    2013-11-01

    A valuable source of information for scientists in the field of environmental pollution and remediation. Describes the latest biotechnological methods for the treatment of contaminated soils. Includes case studies and protocols. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.

  4. A responsible remediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with an approach to cleaning up the residue of 150 years of intense urban and industrial development in the United States. The discussion focuses on several choices and strategies that business can adopt given the existing environmental laws and the socio-economic trends of the 1990's. The thesis of this paper is that the best business strategy for dealing with environmental liabilities is to act affirmatively and aggressively. An aggressive, pro-active approach to environmental remediation liabilities makes good business sense. It allows a company to learn the true size of the problem early. Early assessment and prioritization allows one to control the course and conduct of the cleanup. Early voluntary action is always viewed favorably by agencies. It gives one control over spending patterns which has value in and of itself. Voluntary cleanups are certainly faster and invariably more efficient. And they attain clearly acceptable standards. The volunteering company that takes the lead in a multi-party site finds that the courts are supportive in helping the volunteer collect from recalcitrant polluters. All of these pluses have a direct and positive impact on the bottom line and that means that the aggressive approach is the right thing to do for both stockholders and the communities where a business exists

  5. Opium the Best Remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Merskey

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sydenham was the leading English physician of the 17th century and probably to the present time. He was using a well tried remedy. It had been known by then for about 4000 years, frequently mentioned by Hippocrates, and recognized in use in medieval Europe where it probably came through Arabic traders and was well established in use in Paris by the 12th century (2. Professional concerns up to the time of Sydenham were not about addiction. As can be seen from his text, they were about whether the drug was available in adequate preparations, whether there was any difference between opium and other narcotics, particularly comparing the natural juice with "its artificial preparations" (1 (all of which he thought to be about equal in effect, whether it was stimulant or restorative and invigorating, and whether it was being properly used for all the conditions in which it could be helpful. Addiction, dependence and insanity are not mentioned, although the fact that it could occasionally promote excitement ("frenzy" was known.

  6. Landscape metrics application in ecological and visual landscape assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Suzana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of landscape-ecological approach application in spatial planning provides exact theoretical and empirical evidence for monitoring ecological consequences of natural and/or anthropogenic factors, particularly changes in spatial structures caused by them. Landscape pattern which feature diverse landscape values is the holder of the unique landscape character at different spatial levels and represents a perceptual domain for its users. Using the landscape metrics, the parameters of landscape composition and configuration are mathematical algorithms that quantify the specific spatial characteristics used for interpretation of landscape features and processes (physical and ecological aspect, as well as forms (visual aspect and the meaning (cognitive aspect of the landscape. Landscape metrics has been applied mostly in the ecological and biodiversity assessments as well as in the determination of the level of structural change of landscape, but more and more applied in the assessment of the visual character of the landscape. Based on a review of relevant literature, the aim of this work is to show the main trends of landscape metrics within the aspect of ecological and visual assessments. The research methodology is based on the analysis, classification and systematization of the research studies published from 2000 to 2016, where the landscape metrics is applied: (1 the analysis of landscape pattern and its changes, (2 the analysis of biodiversity and habitat function and (3 a visual landscape assessment. By selecting representative metric parameters for the landscape composition and configuration, for each category is formed the basis for further landscape metrics research and application for the integrated ecological and visual assessment of the landscape values. Contemporary conceptualization of the landscape is seen holistically, and the future research should be directed towards the development of integrated landscape assessment

  7. Landscape genetics and limiting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...

  8. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary...... is becoming a standard in contemporary architecture. Merging architecture and landscape has turned into a principle for an ecological / sustainable architecture. Yet, my aspiration is to achieve a wider interaction involving an application of a wider range of perspectives, such as: urban identity, social......‘Re-thinking interaction between landscape and urban buildings’ participates in an interdisciplinary discourse about the theoretical and practical advantages of openly juxtaposing landscape and architecture without having one more advanced in importance. Recently, the greenification of buildings...

  9. PNW Hydrologic Landscape Class

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate change....

  10. Appropriate complexity landscape modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Passalacqua, Paola; Getz, Wayne M.; Rose, Kenneth A.; Liang, Man

    Advances in computing technology, new and ongoing restoration initiatives, concerns about climate change's effects, and the increasing interdisciplinarity of research have encouraged the development of landscape-scale mechanistic models of coupled ecological-geophysical systems. However,

  11. Exploring Energy Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, David J.

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in the potential energy landscapes approach are highlighted, including both theoretical and computational contributions. Treating the high dimensionality of molecular and condensed matter systems of contemporary interest is important for understanding how emergent properties are encoded in the landscape and for calculating these properties while faithfully representing barriers between different morphologies. The pathways characterized in full dimensionality, which are used to construct kinetic transition networks, may prove useful in guiding such calculations. The energy landscape perspective has also produced new procedures for structure prediction and analysis of thermodynamic properties. Basin-hopping global optimization, with alternative acceptance criteria and generalizations to multiple metric spaces, has been used to treat systems ranging from biomolecules to nanoalloy clusters and condensed matter. This review also illustrates how all this methodology, developed in the context of chemical physics, can be transferred to landscapes defined by cost functions associated with machine learning.

  12. Digital landscapes of imagination

    OpenAIRE

    Starlight Vattano

    2014-01-01

    Urban landscapes that exist in the expression of an imaginative sequence define their shape through the digital representation. These hyperreal dimensions, combine imagination and representation as constituents a new reality, which follows the utopian, suprematist and constructivist theories, where the two-dimensional dynamics is transformed into an infinite space in which the imagination creates new forms. Although interpretations of the urban landscape film, put in place a correspondence be...

  13. Titan Polar Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing Cassini-era observations and studies of Titan it is clear that the intensity and distribution of surface processes (particularly fluvial erosion by methane and Aeolian transport) has changed through time. Currently however, alternate hypotheses substantially differ among specific scenarios with respect to the effects of atmospheric evolution, seasonal changes, and endogenic processes. We have studied the evolution of Titan's polar region through a combination of analysis of imaging, elevation data, and geomorphic mapping, spatially explicit simulations of landform evolution, and quantitative comparison of the simulated landscapes with corresponding Titan morphology. We have quantitatively evaluated alternate scenarios for the landform evolution of Titan's polar terrain. The investigations have been guided by recent geomorphic mapping and topographic characterization of the polar regions that are used to frame hypotheses of process interactions, which have been evaluated using simulation modeling. Topographic information about Titan's polar region is be based on SAR-Topography and altimetry archived on PDS, SAR-based stereo radar-grammetry, radar-sounding lake depth measurements, and superposition relationships between geomorphologic map units, which we will use to create a generalized topographic map.

  14. Laboratory/industry partnerships for environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskid, N.J.; Zussman, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    There are two measures of ''successful'' technology transfer in DOE's environmental restoration and waste management program. The first is remediation of DOE sites, and the second is commercialization of an environmental remediation process or product. The ideal case merges these two in laboratory/industry partnerships for environmental remediation. The elements to be discussed in terms of their effectiveness in aiding technology transfer include: a decision-making champion; timely and sufficient funding; well organized technology transfer function; well defined DOE and commercial markets; and industry/commercial partnering. Several case studies are presented, including the successful commercialization of a process for vitrification of low-level radioactive waste, the commercial marketing of software for hazardous waste characterization, and the application of a monitoring technique that has won a prestigious technical award. Case studies will include: vitrification of low-level radioactive waste (GTS Duratek, Columbia, MD); borehole liner for emplacing instrumentation and sampling groundwater (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Santa Fe, NM); electronic cone penetrometer (Applied Research Associates, Inc., South Royalton, VT); and software for hazardous waste monitoring ConSolve, Inc. (Lexington, MA). The roles of the Department of Energy and Argonne National Laboratory in these successes will be characterized

  15. Environmental Modelling of Remediation of Urban Contaminated Areas. Report of the Urban Remediation Working Group of EMRAS Theme 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety) programme was concerned with remediation assessment for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. Types of events that could result in dispersal or deposition of radionuclides in an urban situation include both intentional and unintentional events, and releases could range from major events involving a nuclear facility to small events such as a transportation accident. The primary objective of the Urban Remediation Working Group was (1) to test and improve the prediction of dose rates and cumulative doses to humans for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides, including prediction of changes in radionuclide concentrations or dose rates as a function of location and time; (2) to identify the most important pathways for human exposure; and (3) to predict the reduction in radionuclide concentrations, dose rates, or doses expected to result from various countermeasures or remediation efforts. Specific objectives of the Working Group have included (1) the identification of realistic scenarios for a wide variety of situations, (2) comparison and testing of approaches and models for assessing the significance of a given contamination event and for guiding decisions about countermeasures or remediation measures implemented to reduce doses to humans or to clean up the contaminated area, and (3) improving the understanding of processes and situations that affect the spread of contamination to aid in the development of appropriate models and parameter values for use in assessment of these situations. The major activities of the Working Group have included three areas. The first of these was a review of the available modelling approaches and computer models for use in assessing urban contamination and potential countermeasures or remediation activities. The second area of work was a modelling exercise based on data

  16. Corrosion of aluminum components and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.T.; Khalique, A.; Malik, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum has versatile physical properties, mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, and is used in special applications like aerospace, automobiles and other strategic industries. The outdoor exposed structural components of aluminum have very good corrosion resistance due to the thick oxide layer (0.2 -0.4 micro). This study involves the corrosion of aluminum based components, though aluminum is protected by an oxide layer but due to extreme weather and environmental conditions the oxide layer was damaged. The corroded product was removed, pits or cavities formed due to the material removal were filled with epoxy resins and acrylic-based compounds containing fibreglass as reinforcement. Optimum results were obtained with epoxy resins incorporated with 5% glass fibers. The inner surface of the components was provided further protection with a cellulose nitrate compound. (author)

  17. Corruption in India: Causes and Remedial Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Nabi Naz

    2017-01-01

    After independence, the popular belief that Gandhian will not indulge in corruption got a setback, post-independence setup paved the way for heavy corruption. The menace which would have dealt with strong legal provisions has become a way of life of Indian society. Corruption is recognized as the single biggest problem facing the country today. It undermines democracy and rule of law, violates human rights, distorts market and corrodes the moral fibre of people. The paper discusses the causes...

  18. New infrastructures, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nifosì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New infrastructures, new landscapes AbstractThe paper will discuss one recent Italian project that share a common background: the relevance of the existing maritime landscape as a non negotiable value. The studies will be discussed in details a feasibility study for the new port in Monfalcone. National infrastructural policies emphasize competitiveness and connection as a central issue incultural, economic and political development of communities . Based on networks and system development along passageways that make up the European infrastructural armor; the two are considered at the meantime as cause and effect of "territorialisation”. These two views are obviously mutually dependent. It's hard to think about a strong attractiveness out of the network, and to be part of the latter encourages competitiveness. Nonetheless this has proved to be conflictual when landscape values and the related attractiveness are considered.The presented case study project, is pursuing the ambition to promote a new approach in realizing large infrastructures; its double role is to improve connectivity and to generate lasting and positive impact on the local regions. It deal with issues of inter-modality and the construction of nodes and lines which connects Europe, and its markets.Reverting the usual approach which consider landscape project as as a way to mitigate or to compensate for the infrastructure, the goal is to succeed in realizing large infrastructural works by conceiving them as an occasion to reinterpret a region or, as extraordinary opportunities, to build new landscapes.The strategy proposed consists in achieving structural images based on the reinforcement of the environmental and historical-landscape systems. Starting from the reinterpretation of local maritime context and resources it is possible not just to preserve the attractiveness of a specific landscape but also to conceive infrastructure in a more efficient way. 

  19. Semiotics in landscape design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Jorgensen

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper claims that concepts of language can help us create better and more relevant landscape design. It is based on research undertaken by Karsten Jørgensen (1989, and subsequent studies carried out at the department of Land Use and Landscape Planning at the Agricultural University in Norway. The 'signs' that constitute the design language are categorised using the analytical vocabulary of landscape design; for example, elements, materials, effects and shapes. Studies of these signs are based on elements of semiotics and cognitive science, especially the Umwelt-theories developed by Jakob von Uexküll (Hoffmeyer 1994. We are constantly exposed to numerous signs of different kinds. Everywhere in society we see signs around us; for example, traffic signs, advertising signs and logos. It is therefore relevant to introduce the term 'semiosphere' in order to focus on the significance of semiosis at all levels of activity in the world, from cellular activities, to complex systems of development such as those found in a population. This study focuses on the semantic aspects of landscape architecture. In explaining the meaning of a statement, it is useful to have a set of rules or 'codes' to correlate a specific expression with a specific interpretation. These codes may be based on conventions, or on similarity between or stylisation of objects, such as natural or cultural landscapes. In any case, they are based on the interpreter's language and 'mind-structure'. At a general level, it is only possible to study sign content. To analyse meaning in landscape design you have to look at the context; for example, the overall composition of a garden or park and the situation, which includes the interpreter's cultural background, their experiences and so on. In other words, you have to analyse a specific case to be able to speak reasonably about meaning in landscape (designs.

  20. European landscape architecture and territorial strategies for water landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    2010-01-01

    This article sums up the author’s lecture at the 2009 Sydney Resilient Water Landscapes Symposium and presents a series of realized or planned European landscape architectural and urbanistic projects on water landscapes taken from the recently published book On Site/ Landscape Architecture Europe...... and accompanying reflections. The hypothesis is that further scientific research can help defining weaknesses and strengths of the existing water landscape designs in terms of resilience, extract principles and tools, improve the weak ones and communicate the strong ones and develop general quality criteria...... and tools for future resilient water landscapes....

  1. Geomorpho-Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    Landscape is the object of human perceptions, being the image of spatial organization of elements and structures: mankind lives the first approach with the environment, viewing and feeling the landscape. Many definitions of landscape have been given over time: in this case we refer to the Landscape defined as the result of interaction among physical, biotic and anthropic phenomena acting in a different spatial-temporal scale (Foreman & Godron) Following an Aristotelic approach in studying nature, we can assert that " Shape is synthesis": so it is possible to read the land features as the expression of the endogenous and exogenous processes that mould earth surfaces; moreover, Landscape is the result of the interaction of natural and cultural components, and conditions the spatial-temporal development of a region. The study of the Landscape offers results useful in order to promote sustainable development, ecotourism, enhancement of natural and cultural heritage, popularization of the scientific knowledge. In Italy, a very important GIS-based tool to represent the territory is the "Carta della Natura" ("Map of Nature", presently coordinated by the ISPRA) that aims at assessing the state of the whole Italian territory, analyzing Landscape. The methodology follows a holistic approach, taking into consideration all the components of a landscape and then integrating the information. Each individual landscape, studied at different scales, shows distinctive elements: structural, which depend on physical form and specific spatial organization; functional, which depend on relationships created between biotic and abiotic elements, and dynamic, which depend on the successive evolution of the structure. The identification of the landscape units, recognized at different scales of analysis, allows an evaluation of the state of the land, referring to the dual risk/resource which characterizes the Italian country. An interesting opportunity is to discover those areas of unusual

  2. HANFORD GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    geographically dispersed community is united in its desire to protect the Columbia River and have a voice in Hanford's future. This paper presents the challenges, and then discusses the progress and efforts underway to reduce the risk posed by contaminated groundwater at Hanford. While Hanford groundwater is not a source of drinking water on or off the Site, there are possible near-shore impacts where it flows into the Columbia River. Therefore, this remediation is critical to the overall efforts to clean up the Site, as well as protect a natural resource.

  3. The benefits from environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W.E.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental remediation projects inevitably take place against a backdrop of overall social goals and values. These goals can include, for example, full employment, preservation of the cultural, economic and archaeological resources, traditional patterns of land use, spiritual values, quality of life factors, biological diversity, environmental and socio-economic sustainability, protection of public health. Different countries will have different priorities, linked to the overall set of societal goals and the availability of resources, including funding, man-power and skills. These issues are embedded within both a national and local socio-cultural context, and will shape the way in which the remediation process is structured in any one country. The context will shape both the overall objectives of a remediation activity within the framework of competing societal goals, as well as generate constraints on the decision making process. Hence, the overall benefit of a remediation project is determined by its overall efficiency and effectiveness within the given legal, institutional, and governance framework, under the prevailing socio-economic boundary conditions, and balancing technology performance and risk reduction with fixed or limited budgetary resources, and is not simply the result of the technical remediation operation itself. (author)

  4. From uranium mine to fishing lake: Environmental remediation in France’s Limousin region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2016-01-01

    Artificial lakes, fishing spots and solar farms dot the landscape in France’s Limousin region, where uranium operations have gradually come to an end. This transformation would not have been possible without stakeholder involvement, transparent processes and well-coordinated activities, said Yves Marignac, the coordinator of the French Pluralistic Expert Group (GEP), involved with remediation activities in the region. The local population had an important consultative role during the environmental remediation programme, and they now use the former mining sites for recreation. “A consultative approach to remediation management is key to having the people’s support when we had to deal with the closing of the uranium mining sites in Limousin,” Marignac said. Uniquely, the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were the driving force behind broadening the scope of environmental remediation, he added. An important factor for any successful remediation project is public engagement in the decision-making process. The local communities have the most interest in successful environmental remediation, and they need to get satisfactory answers to questions on why, when and how will it impact them. “Their involvement is vital and necessary to ensure technically sound and socially acceptable decisions,” Marignac said

  5. From uranium mine to fishing lake: Environmental remediation in France’s Limousin region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2016-01-01

    Artificial lakes, fishing spots and solar farms dot the landscape in France’s Limousin region, where uranium operations have gradually come to an end. This transformation would not have been possible without stakeholder involvement, transparent processes and well-coordinated activities, said Yves Marignac, the coordinator of the French Pluralistic Expert Group (GEP), involved with remediation activities in the region. The local population had an important consultative role during the environmental remediation programme, and they now use the former mining sites for recreation. “A consultative approach to remediation management is key to having the people’s support when we had to deal with the closing of the uranium mining sites in Limousin,” Marignac said. Uniquely, the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were the driving force behind broadening the scope of environmental remediation, he added. An important factor for any successful remediation project is public engagement in the decision-making process. The local communities have the most interest in successful environmental remediation, and they need to get satisfactory answers to questions on why, when and how will it impact them. “Their involvement is vital and necessary to ensure technically sound and socially acceptable decisions,” Marignac said.

  6. Biogenic VOC Emissions from Tropical Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, A.; Greenberg, J.; Harley, P.; Otter, L.; Vanni Gatti, L.; Baker, B.

    2003-04-01

    Biogenic VOC have an important role in determining the chemical composition of atmosphere. As a result, these compounds are important for visibility, biogeochemical cycling, climate and radiative forcing, and the health of the biosphere. Tropical landscapes are estimated to release about 80% of total global biogenic VOC emissions but have been investigated to lesser extent than temperate regions. Tropical VOC emissions are particularly important due to the strong vertical transport and the rapid landuse change that is occurring there. This presentation will provide an overview of field measurements of biogenic VOC emissions from tropical landscapes in Amazonia (Large-scale Biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia, LBA) Central (EXPRESSO) and Southern (SAFARI 2000) Africa, Asia and Central America. Flux measurement methods include leaf-scale (enclosure measurements), canopy-scale (above canopy tower measurements), landscape-scale (tethered balloon), and regional-scale (aircraft measurements) observations. Typical midday isoprene emission rates for different landscapes vary by more than a factor of 20 with the lowest emissions observed from degraded forests. Emissions of alpha-pinene vary by a similar amount with the highest emissions associated with landscapes dominated by light dependent monoterpene emitting plants. Isoprene emissions tend to be higher for neotropical forests (Amazon and Costa Rica) in comparison to Africa and Asian tropical forests but considerable differences are observed within regions. Strong seasonal variations were observed in both the Congo and the Amazon rainforests with peak emissions during the dry seasons. Substantial emissions of light dependent monoterpenes, methanol and acetone are characteristic of at least some tropical landscapes.

  7. Prioritizing ecological restoration among sites in multi-stressor landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeson, Thomas M; Smith, Sigrid D P; Allan, J David; McIntyre, Peter B

    2016-09-01

    Most ecosystems are impacted by multiple local and long-distance stressors, many of which interact in complex ways. We present a framework for prioritizing ecological restoration efforts among sites in multi-stressor landscapes. Using a simple model, we show that both the economic and sociopolitical costs of restoration will typically be lower at sites with a relatively small number of severe problems than at sites with numerous lesser problems. Based on these results, we propose using cumulative stress and evenness of stressor impact as complementary indices that together reflect key challenges of restoring a site to improved condition. To illustrate this approach, we analyze stressor evenness across the world's rivers and the Laurentian Great Lakes. This exploration reveals that evenness and cumulative stress are decoupled, enabling selection of sites where remediating a modest number of high-intensity stressors could substantially reduce cumulative stress. Just as species richness and species evenness are fundamental axes of biological diversity, we argue that cumulative stress and stressor evenness constitute fundamental axes for identifying restoration opportunities in multi-stressor landscapes. Our results highlight opportunities to boost restoration efficiency through strategic use of multi-stressor datasets to identify sites that maximize ecological response per stressor remediated. This prioritization framework can also be expanded to account for the feasibility of remediation and the expected societal benefits of restoration projects. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive conceptual and co-relational frameworks. Three “higher order” dimensions frame the review’s conceptual organization, facilitating the organization of subordinate/subtopical areas of interest useful for comparative analysis. Comparative analysis of the literature suggests an uneven clustering of discipline-related subject matter across the literature’s “higher order” dimensions, with a much smaller body of literature related to landscape architecture confined primarily to topics associated with the dispersion of global phenomena. A subcomponent of this smaller body of literature is associated with other fields of study, but inferentially related to landscape architecture. The review offers separate references and bibliographies for globalization literature in general and globalization and landscape architecture literature, specifically.

  9. Geostatistics and cost-effective environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous sites within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex have been contaminated with various radioactive and hazardous materials by defense-related activities during the post-World War II era. The perception is that characterization and remediation of these contaminated sites will be too costly using currently available technology. Consequently, the DOE Office of Technology Development has funded development of a number of alternative processes for characterizing and remediating these sites. The former Feed-Materials Processing Center near Fernald, Ohio (USA), was selected for demonstrating several innovative technologies. Contamination at the Fernald site consists principally of particulate uranium and derivative compounds in surficial soil. A field-characterization demonstration program was conducted during the summer of 1994 specifically to demonstrate the relative economic performance of seven proposed advanced-characterization tools for measuring uranium activity of in-situ soils. These innovative measurement technologies are principally radiation detectors of varied designs. Four industry-standard measurement technologies, including conventional, regulatory-agency-accepted soil sampling followed by laboratory geochemical analysis, were also demonstrated during the program for comparative purposes. A risk-based economic-decision model has been used to evaluate the performance of these alternative characterization tools. The decision model computes the dollar value of an objective function for each of the different characterization approaches. The methodology not only can assist site operators to choose among engineering alternatives for site characterization and/or remediation, but also can provide an objective and quantitative basis for decisions with respect to the completeness of site characterization

  10. Spectral induced polarization for monitoring electrokinetic remediation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Losito, Gabriella

    2015-12-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an emerging technology for extracting heavy metals from contaminated soils and sediments. This method uses a direct or alternating electric field to induce the transport of contaminants toward the electrodes. The electric field also produces pH variations, sorption/desorption and precipitation/dissolution of species in the porous medium during remediation. Since heavy metal mobility is pH-dependent, the accurate control of pH inside the material is required in order to enhance the removal efficiency. The common approach for monitoring the remediation process both in laboratory and in the field is the chemical analysis of samples collected from discrete locations. The purpose of this study is the evaluation of Spectral Induced Polarization as an alternative method for monitoring geochemical changes in the contaminated mass during remediation. The advantage of this technique applied to field-scale is to offer higher resolution mapping of the remediation site and lower cost compared to the conventional sampling procedure. We carried out laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments on fine-grained marine sediments contaminated by heavy metal and we made Spectral Induced Polarization measurements before and after each treatment. Measurements were done in the frequency range 10- 3-103 Hz. By the deconvolution of the spectra using the Debye Decomposition method we obtained the mean relaxation time and total chargeability. The main finding of this work is that a linear relationship exists between the local total chargeability and pH, with good agreement. The observed behaviour of chargeability is interpreted as a direct consequence of the alteration of the zeta potential of the sediment particles due to pH changes. Such relationship has a significant value for the interpretation of induced polarization data, allowing the use of this technique for monitoring electrokinetic remediation at field-scale.

  11. Spatial modelling of landscape aesthetic potential in urban-rural fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Yohan; Clauzel, Céline; Foltête, Jean-Christophe

    2016-10-01

    The aesthetic potential of landscape has to be modelled to provide tools for land-use planning. This involves identifying landscape attributes and revealing individuals' landscape preferences. Landscape aesthetic judgments of individuals (n = 1420) were studied by means of a photo-based survey. A set of landscape visibility metrics was created to measure landscape composition and configuration in each photograph using spatial data. These metrics were used as explanatory variables in multiple linear regressions to explain aesthetic judgments. We demonstrate that landscape aesthetic judgments may be synthesized in three consensus groups. The statistical results obtained show that landscape visibility metrics have good explanatory power. Ultimately, we propose a spatial modelling of landscape aesthetic potential based on these results combined with systematic computation of visibility metrics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Developing Sediment Remediation Goals at Superfund Sites Based on Pore Water for the Protection of Benthic Organisms from Direct Toxicity to Non-ionic Organic Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A methodology for developing remediation goals for sites with contaminated sediments is provided. The remediation goals are based upon the concentrations of chemicals in the sediment interstitial water measured using the passive sampling technique. The passive sampling technique ...

  13. Managed and natural landscapes: what do people like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur W. Magill

    1992-01-01

    Visitors to wildland areas of the United States see an untold variety of natural and manmade features that comprise our national landscape. Efforts to assess public perceptions and concerns about the land and its management led to development of sensitivity levels that were presumed to be a measure of viewer concern for what they saw in the landscape. Sensitivity...

  14. In situ soil remediation using electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, M.F.; Surma, J.E.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-11-01

    Electrokinetics is emerging as a promising technology for in situ soil remediation. This technique is especially attractive for Superfund sites and government operations which contain large volumes of contaminated soil. The approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The transport mechanisms include electroosmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. The feasibility of using electrokinetics to move radioactive 137 Cs and 60 Co at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, is discussed. A closed cell is used to provide in situ measurements of 137 Cs and 60 Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results of ionic movement, along with the corresponding current response, are presented

  15. A remedial alternative prioritization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, S.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This study develops and tests a technique for evaluating and prioritizing alternative remedial actions for hazardous waste sites. The method is based on criteria involving risk, benefit and cost, and identifies the most cost-effective solution to a given remedial problem. Four sites on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) property in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, were used in a case study to develop and test the method. Results of the case study indicate that even if the cap providing in situ containment must be replaced every 10 years, it is a superior alternative to total excavation of the waste sites

  16. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    groundwater tainted by chlorinated solvents once used to clean rocket engine components. The award-winning innovation (Spinoff 2010) is now NASA s most licensed technology to date. PCBs in paint presented a new challenge. Removing the launch stand for recycling proved a difficult operation; the toxic paint had to be fully stripped from the steel structure, a lengthy and costly process that required the stripped paint to be treated before disposal. Noting the lack of efficient, environmentally friendly options for dealing with PCBs, Quinn and her colleagues developed the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS). AMTS is a paste consisting of a solvent solution containing microscale particles of activated zero-valent metal. When applied to a painted surface, the paste extracts and degrades the PCBs into benign byproducts while leaving the paint on the structure. This provides a superior alternative to other methods for PCB remediation, such as stripping the paint or incinerating the structure, which prevents reuse and can release volatized PCBs into the air. Since its development, AMTS has proven to be a valuable solution for removing PCBs from paint, caulking, and various insulation and filler materials in older buildings, naval ships, and former munitions facilities where the presence of PCBs interferes with methods for removing trace explosive materials. Miles of potentially toxic caulking join sections of runways at airports. Any of these materials installed before 1979 potentially contain PCBs, Quinn says. "This is not just a NASA problem," she says. "It s a global problem."

  17. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel; Nielsen, Tom; Daugaard, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The article presents an attempt to develop alternatives to the dominant planning and design principles used in building and rebuilding the contemporary urban landscape. The basic idea is that the ‘forces of modernisation’ driving current development might result in a broader and more interesting...... for contemporary urban landscape design practice....... to the task of constructing and improving things. With this goal, a set of objectives based in important insights from recent urban theory are formulated constituting the normative spine of the analysis of a number of found situations as basis for formulating eight generic concepts of qualification...

  18. Digital landscapes of imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starlight Vattano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes that exist in the expression of an imaginative sequence define their shape through the digital representation. These hyperreal dimensions, combine imagination and representation as constituents a new reality, which follows the utopian, suprematist and constructivist theories, where the two-dimensional dynamics is transformed into an infinite space in which the imagination creates new forms. Although interpretations of the urban landscape film, put in place a correspondence between reality and virtuality, into the modeling of spatial movements, from which do not arise contraries, but only interdependencies. It is a particular type of representation that takes shape via the digital in motion and provides new tools for urban representation.

  19. Imagine A Collective Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Silvia Campanini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Iceland plays a key role in the circumpolar context. The research investigates the fields of both the icelandic cultural landscape perception and the icelandic cultural identity. It considers the book Ultima thule; or, a summer in Iceland and Ólafur Elíasson art works as two sides of a same medal: the Iceland on the brain concept (F. Burton. The transition from a cultural identity to a collective landscape identity is investigated analysing Imagine J. Lennon's song which inspired Yõko Ono's work art titled Imagine Peace Tower.

  20. GIS-based landscape design research: Stourhead landscape garden as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Nijhuis

    2017-11-01

    analysed, such as the visible form and the shape of the walk, and serves as the basis for the landscape architectonic analysis in which GIS is used as the primary analytical tool.  GIS-based design research has the possibility to cultivate spatial intelligence in landscape architecture through three fields of operation: • GIS-based modelling: description of existing and future landscape architectonic compositions in digital form; • GIS-based analysis: exploration, analysis and synthesis of landscape architectonic compositions in order to reveal latent architectonic relationships and principles, while utilizing the processing capacities and possibilities of computers for ex-ante and ex-post simulation and evaluation; • GIS-based visual representation: representation of (virtual landscape architectonic compositions in space and time, in order to retrieve and communicate information and knowledge of the landscape design.  Though there are limitations, this study exemplifies that GIS is a powerful instrument to acquire knowledge from landscape architectonic compositions. The study points out that the application of GIS in landscape design research can be seen as an extension of the fundamental cycle of observation, visual representation, analysis and interpretation in the process of knowledge acquisition, with alternative visualisations and digital landscape models as important means for this process. Using the calculating power of computers, combined with inventive modelling, analysis and visualisation concepts in an interactive process, opened up possibilities to reveal new information and knowledge about the basic, spatial, symbolic and programmatic form of Stourhead. GIS extended the design researchers’ perception via measurement, simulation and experimentation, and at the same time offered alternative ways of understanding the landscape architectonic composition. This gave rise to the possibility of exploring new elements in the framework of landscape design

  1. Remedial activities effectiveness verification in tailing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluson, J; Thinova, L; Neznal, M; Svoboda, T

    2015-06-01

    The complex radiological study of the basin of sludge from the uranium ore mining and preprocessing was done. Air kerma rates (including its spectral analysis) at the reference height of 1 m above ground over the whole area were measured and radiation fields mapped during two measuring campaigns (years 2009 and 2014). K, U and Th concentrations in sludge and concentrations in depth profiles (including radon concentration and radon exhalation rates) in selected points were determined using gamma spectrometry for in situ as well as laboratory samples measurement. Results were used for the analysis, design evaluation and verification of the efficiency of the remediation measures. Efficiency of the sludge basin covering by the inert material was modelled using MicroShield code. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Remedial activities effectiveness verification in tailing areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluson, J.; Thinova, L.; Svoboda, T.; Neznal, M.

    2015-01-01

    The complex radiological study of the basin of sludge from the uranium ore mining and preprocessing was done. Air kerma rates (including its spectral analysis) at the reference height of 1 m above ground over the whole area were measured and radiation fields mapped during two measuring campaigns (years 2009 and 2014). K, U and Th concentrations in sludge and concentrations in depth profiles (including radon concentration and radon exhalation rates) in selected points were determined using gamma spectrometry for in situ as well as laboratory samples measurement. Results were used for the analysis, design evaluation and verification of the efficiency of the remediation measures. Efficiency of the sludge basin covering by the inert material was modelled using MicroShield code. (authors)

  3. Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Close, David

    2015-01-01

    Because of the permanency of trees and their importance in the landscape, care must be taken to select the best species for each situation. This publication goes over how to choose landscape trees that are shade tolerant.

  4. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 18. Part 1B: Citations with abstracts, sections 10 through 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3,638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (2) DOE D and D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized sites Remedial Action Program; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluation; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues.

  5. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 18. Part 1A: Citations with abstracts, sections 1 through 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3,638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration program; (2) DOE D and D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluation; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues.

  6. Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites.

  7. Steam Injection For Soil And Aquifer Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide to those involved in assessing remediation technologies for specific sites basic technical information on the use of steam injection for the remediation of soils and aquifers that are contaminated by...

  8. Key Principles of Superfund Remedy Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance on the primary considerations of remedy selection which are universally applicable at Superfund sites. Key guidance here include: Rules of Thumb for Superfund Remedy Selection and Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment.

  9. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    Important process parameters to optimize in electrokinetic soil remediation are those influencing remediation time and power consumption since these directly affect the cost of a remediation action. This work shows how the electrokinetic remediation (EKR) process could be improved by implementing...... bipolar electrodes in the porous material. The bipolar electrodes in EKR meant two improvements: (1) a shorter migration pathway for the contaminant, and (2) an increased electrical conductivity in the remediation system. All together the remediation proceeded faster with lower electrical resistance than...... in similar experiments but without the bipolar electrodes. The new electrokinetic remediation design was tested on copper mine tailings with different applied electric fields, remediation times and pre-treatment. The results showed that the copper removal was increased from 8% (applying 20V for 8 days...

  10. Development of subsurface characterization method for decommissioning site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Bum; Nam, Jong Soo; Choi, Yong Suk; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In situ measurement of peak to valley method based on the ratio of counting rate between the full energy peak and Compton region was applied to identify the depth distribution of 137Cs. The In situ measurement and sampling results were applied to evaluate a residual radioactivity before and after remediation in decommissioning KRR site. Spatial analysis based on the Geostatistics method provides a reliable estimating the volume of contaminated soil with a graphical analysis, which was applied to the site characterization in the decommissioning KRR site. The in situ measurement and spatial analysis results for characterization of subsurface contamination are presented. The objective of a remedial action is to reduce risks to human health to acceptable levels by removing the source of contamination. Site characterization of the subsurface contamination is an important factor for planning and implementation of site remediation. Radiological survey and evaluation technology are required to ensure the reliability of the results, and the process must be easily applied during field measurements. In situ gamma-ray spectrometry is a powerful method for site characterization that can be used to identify the depth distribution and quantify radionuclides directly at the measurement site. The in situ measurement and Geostatistics method was applied to the site characterization for remediation and final status survey in decommissioning KRR site.

  11. A methodology for creating greenways through multidisciplinary sustainable landscape planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Selma Beatriz; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Teles, Rui; Espírito-Santo, Maria Dalila

    2010-01-01

    This research proposes a methodology for defining greenways via sustainable planning. This approach includes the analysis and discussion of culture and natural processes that occur in the landscape. The proposed methodology is structured in three phases: eco-cultural analysis; synthesis and diagnosis; and proposal. An interdisciplinary approach provides an assessment of the relationships between landscape structure and landscape dynamics, which are essential to any landscape management or land use. The landscape eco-cultural analysis provides a biophysical, dynamic (geomorphologic rate), vegetation (habitats from directive 92/43/EEC) and cultural characterisation. The knowledge obtained by this analysis then supports the definition of priority actions to stabilise the landscape and the management measures for the habitats. After the analysis and diagnosis phases, a proposal for the development of sustainable greenways can be achieved. This methodology was applied to a study area of the Azambuja Municipality in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Portugal). The application of the proposed methodology to the study area shows that landscape stability is crucial for greenway users in order to appreciate the landscape and its natural and cultural elements in a sustainable and healthy way, both by cycling or by foot. A balanced landscape will increase the value of greenways and in return, they can develop socio-economic activities with benefits for rural communities. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A DEFINITION OF AUTHENTICITY CONCEPT IN CONSERVATION OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Fadaei Nezhad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cultural landscape can be defined as the result of human interaction with nature over time, which has led to the formation of the many and diverse layers of value. Currently, the UNESCO World Heritage Centre has a unique role among other scientific associations. In recent years, the World Heritage Center has put efforts into developing a framework and measures for evaluation and management of cultural landscapes. Moreover, the concept of authenticity; as the transmitter of values and significance of cultural landscape, is considered as the key component in the process of cultural landscape conservation. A lot of scientific resources have pointed out the importance of authenticity in the process of conserving cultural landscapes. However, the role of authenticity within the domain of conservation of cultural landscapes has received little attention. One of the main reasons can be lack of adaptation between conventional definitions of UNESCO and international documents concerning the authenticity for including the flexible and dynamic structure of cultural landscapes around the world. Therefore, this paper seeks to explore and develop a flexible framework in order to redefine the concept of authenticity in relation to cultural landscapes, which has some overlaps with UNESCO definitions despite its differences. For developing this framework, Iranian-Islamic philosophy of Mollasadra is applied and described with some examples of cultural landscapes in Iran.

  13. Electrodialytic Remediation of Copper Mine Tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields.......This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields....

  14. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Clemmensen, Thomas; Daugaard, Morten; Nielsen, Tom

    This paper is based on a research project aimed at contributing to the qualification of the aesthetical value of the contemporary urban landscape. We see our work as part of a tradition within the architectural profession of making explorative projects, which combines analysis of the contemporary...

  15. A landscape analysis plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Fleenor

    2002-01-01

    A Landscape Analysis Plan (LAP) sets out broad guidelines for project development within boundaries of the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project. The plan must be a dynamic, living document, subject to change as new information arises over the course of this very long-term project (several decades). Two watersheds, each of 32,000 acres, were dedicated to...

  16. Ecology, recreation and landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchell, J E

    1983-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the problems of combining mass tourism in certain countries of Western Europe and environmental protection (OOS) requirements. The ecological damage from recreation is examined and the throughput of the medium is evaluated. The author proposes development of regulable, managable and controllable recreation use of natural resources and landscapes using selective advertising of the recreation sites.

  17. Landscape Planning of Schoolyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeva, A.; Khrapko, O.; Ivanova, O.

    2017-11-01

    The optimal landscape architecture planning of schoolyards allows for creation of favorable conditions for children personal development and physical fitness. The key principles of schoolyard landscape planning, same as for other areas intended for children, are as follows: establishment of a favorable microclimate, safety, aesthetic and educational environment. Green spaces play an essential role in this respect as they are essential to sanitary, hygienic, structural, and spatial planning performing decorative, artistic, cognitive, and educational functions in these areas. Various types of landscape plantings are used in school areas: borders, lawns, beds, vines, ornamental arrangements, and various potted plants. Children’s safety is the key principle when selecting a landscape design type and the plants’ range. Any allergenic, poisonous, thorny, strong-smelling or life-threatening plants are excluded. Plants on school grounds can serve as visual aids for studies. Drought-resistant, attractive, colorful, abundantly blooming plants with variable leaf texture are preferred. Ornamental trees and shrubs as well as perennials and annuals provide a broad plant range for school grounds.

  18. Landscape Assessment (LA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Key; Nathan C. Benson

    2006-01-01

    Landscape Assessment primarily addresses the need to identify and quantify fire effects over large areas, at times involving many burns. In contrast to individual case studies, the ability to compare results is emphasized along with the capacity to aggregate information across broad regions and over time. Results show the spatial heterogeneity of burns and how fire...

  19. Landscapes in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padfield, Rory; Drew, Simon; Syayuti, Khadijah; Page, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Kangayatkarasu, Nagulendran; Sayok, Alex; Hansen, Sune; Schouten, Greetje; Maulidia, Martha; Papargyropoulou, Effie; Tham, Mun Hou

    2016-01-01

    The recent Southeast Asian haze crisis has generated intense public scrutiny over the rate, methods and types of landscape change in the tropics. Debate has centred on the environmental impacts of large-scale agricultural expansion, particularly the associated loss of high carbon stock forest and

  20. Green Chemistry and Environmental Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Nutrient remediation and recovery is a growing concern for two key reasons: (i) the prevention of harmful algal bloom proliferation, and (ii) the recycling of nutrients (e.g., phosphates) as they are non-renewable resources which are quickly being depleted. A wide range...

  1. Academic Intervention: Acceleration and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Barbara Gail

    2016-01-01

    Eighth grade math students must pass a standards based test to be promoted to the next grade. Students who were at risk of failing the state's annual test faced impending retention. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to see if an intensive nine-week (55 min per day) remedial Math Connection (MC) class for 67 suburban, eighth grade…

  2. Integrated remediation of soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykes, R.S.; Howles, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Remediation of sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals frequently focuses on a single phase of the chemical in question. This paper describes an integrated approach to remediation involving selection of complimentary technologies designed to create a remedial system which achieves cleanup goals in affected media in the shortest possible time consistent with overall environmental protection

  3. 32 CFR 310.47 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil remedies. 310.47 Section 310.47 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.47 Civil remedies. In addition to specific remedial...

  4. New Mexico English Remediation Taskforce Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2016

    2016-01-01

    In March, 2016, the state of New Mexico established a Remediation Task Force to examine remediation reform efforts across the state's higher education institutions. On March 11, the Task Force met for the "New Mexico Corequisite Remediation at Scale Policy Institute" in order to learn about the results of the latest national reform…

  5. Remediation: Higher Education's Bridge to Nowhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete College America, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The intentions were noble. It was hoped that remediation programs would be an academic bridge from poor high school preparation to college readiness. Sadly, remediation has become instead higher education's "Bridge to Nowhere." This broken remedial bridge is travelled by some 1.7 million beginning students each year, most of whom will…

  6. A comparison of pre- and post-remediation water quality, Mineral Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, R.L.; Bencala, K.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Walton-Day, K.; Verplanck, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Pre- and post-remediation data sets are used herein to assess the effectiveness of remedial measures implemented in the headwaters of the Mineral Creek watershed, where contamination from hard rock mining has led to elevated metal concentrations and acidic pH. Collection of pre- and post-remediation data sets generally followed the synoptic mass balance approach, in which numerous stream and inflow locations are sampled for the constituents of interest and estimates of streamflow are determined by tracer dilution. The comparison of pre- and post-remediation data sets is confounded by hydrologic effects and the effects of temporal variation. Hydrologic effects arise due to the relatively wet conditions that preceded the collection of pre-remediation data, and the relatively dry conditions associated with the post-remediation data set. This difference leads to a dilution effect in the upper part of the study reach, where pre-remediation concentrations were diluted by rainfall, and a source area effect in the lower part of the study reach, where a smaller portion of the watershed may have been contributing constituent mass during the drier post-remediation period. A second confounding factor, temporal variability, violates the steady-state assumption that underlies the synoptic mass balance approach, leading to false identification of constituent sources and sinks. Despite these complications, remedial actions completed in the Mineral Creek headwaters appear to have led to improvements in stream water quality, as post-remediation profiles of instream load are consistently lower than the pre-remediation profiles over the entire study reach for six of the eight constituents considered (aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, and zinc). Concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc remain above chronic aquatic-life standards, however, and additional remedial actions may be needed. Future implementations of the synoptic mass balance approach should be

  7. Surface water management at a mixed waste remediation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlotzhauer, D.S.; Warbritton, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) deals with chemical and radiological contaminants. MK-Ferguson Company is managing the project under contract with the US Department of Energy. Remedial activities include demolishing buildings, constructing material storage and staging areas, excavating and consolidating waste materials, and treating and disposing of the materials in a land disposal facility. Due to the excavation and construction required during remediation, a well-planned surface water management system is essential. Planning involves characterization of source areas and surface water transport mechanisms and identification of applicable regulations. System components include: erosion control sediment control, flow attenuation, and management of contaminated water. Combinations of these components may be utilized during actual construction and remediation to obtain optimum control. Monitoring is performed during implementation in order to assess the effectiveness of control measures. This management scheme provides for comprehensive management of surface water at this site by providing control and/or treatment to appropriate standards. Although some treatment methodologies for contaminated water are specific to site contaminants, this comprehensive program provides a management approach which is applicable to many remedial projects in order to minimize contaminant release and meet Clean Water Act requirements

  8. Cognitive remediation therapy for older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a large body of research on cognitive interventions for older adults the review which suggests the following: (1 Cognition remediation therapy is indicated for healthy elderly, and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI, early dementia, brain disease and injury, and severe mental illness (SMI. (2 Studies on healthy elderly demonstrate that with cognitive training (CT, cognitive stimulation (CS, and/or cognitive rehabilitation (CR age-related cognitive decline can be reversed, at least partially if not fully, even in advanced age, with improved social functioning and quality of life. Better results are obtained if cognitive remediation therapy (CRT is combined with vocational/psychosocial rehabilitation. Generalization of training to activities of daily living (ADL and to secondary outcome measures such as quality of life and self-esteem are issues that need to be addressed in older adults. (3 Research in MCI has indicated that CRT, especially memory training, has some role. Future studies should place focus on the assessment of dose-response relationship, training generalization, and ecologically relevant approaches. (4 Findings of earlier work in early-stage dementia were frustrating, more recent work, especially randomized controlled trials of high quality, has provided a ray of rope with respect to effectiveness of CT and CR. Further well-designed studies are required to provide more definitive evidence. (5 Significant therapeutic effects of CR have been observed on cognitive function and ADL in the elderly patients with stroke. Routine screening for stroke patients and those with brain injury for cognitive impairment is recommended. (6 Available research provides evidence that cognitive remediation benefits people with SMI, and when combined with psychiatric rehabilitation this benefit generalizes to functioning. Elderly with SMI need special focus. Further needs to be carried out on older people with SMI.

  9. Large-eddy simulations of surface-induced turbulence and its implications to the interpretation of eddy-covariance measurements in heterogeneous landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, G.; Kenny, W.; Morin, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    We used the RAMS-based Forest Large Eddy Simulations (RAFLES) to evaluate the sensitivity of eddy covariance measurements to land-surface discontinuity. While the sensitivity of eddy covariance measurements to surface heterogeneity is well known, it is, in most cases, no feasible to restrict measurements only to sites where the surface include undisturbed and homogeneous land cover over vast distances around the observation tower. The common approach to handle surface heterogeneity is to use a footprint model and reject observations obtained while the source of observed signal is from a mixture of land-use types, and maintain only measurements where the signal originates mostly from the land-use type of interest. We simulated two scenarios - measurements of fluxes from a small forest-surrounded lake, and measurements near a forest edge. These are two very common scenarios where measurements are bound to be affected by heterogeneity - measurements in small lakes, will, by definition, be in some non-negligible proximity or the lake edge; forest edges are common in any forest, near the forest patch edge but also around disturbed patches and forest gaps. We identify regions where the surface heterogeneity is creating persistent updraft or downdraft. A non-zero mean vertical wind is typically neglected in eddy-covariance measurements. We find that these circulations lead to both vertical and horizontal advection that cannot be easily measured by a single eddy-covariance tower. We identify downwind effects, which are well known, but also quantify the upwind effects. We find that surface-induced circulations may affect the flux measured from a tower up to several canopy heights ahead of the discontinuity. We used the High-resolution Volatile Organic Compound Atmospheric Chemistry in Canopies (Hi-VACC) model to determine the actual measurement footprints throughout the RAFLES domain. We estimated the land-cover type distribution of the source signal at different virtual

  10. Landscape Evolution Modelling-LAPSUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baartman, J. E. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Schoorl, J. M.; Claessens, L.; Viveen, W.; Gorp, W. van; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-07-01

    Landscape evolution modelling can make the consequences of landscape evolution hypotheses explicit and theoretically allows for their falsification and improvement. ideally, landscape evolution models (LEMs) combine the results of all relevant landscape forming processes into an ever-adapting digital landscape (e.g. DEM). These processes may act on different spatial and temporal scales. LAPSUS is such a LEM. Processes that have in different studies been included in LAPSUS are water erosion and deposition, landslide activity, creep, solidification, weathering, tectonics and tillage. Process descriptions are as simple and generic as possible, ensuring wide applicability. (Author) 25 refs.

  11. Landscape Evolution Modelling-LAPSUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baartman, J. E. M.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Schoorl, J. M.; Claessens, L.; Viveen, W.; Gorp, W. van; Veldkamp, A.

    2009-01-01

    Landscape evolution modelling can make the consequences of landscape evolution hypotheses explicit and theoretically allows for their falsification and improvement. ideally, landscape evolution models (LEMs) combine the results of all relevant landscape forming processes into an ever-adapting digital landscape (e.g. DEM). These processes may act on different spatial and temporal scales. LAPSUS is such a LEM. Processes that have in different studies been included in LAPSUS are water erosion and deposition, landslide activity, creep, solidification, weathering, tectonics and tillage. Process descriptions are as simple and generic as possible, ensuring wide applicability. (Author) 25 refs.

  12. Arsenic in the groundwater: Occurrence, toxicological activities, and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S K; Mishra, V K; Damodaran, T; Sharma, D K; Kumar, Parveen

    2017-04-03

    Arsenic (As) contamination in groundwater has become a geo-environmental as well as a toxicological problem across the globe affecting more than 100-million people in nearly 21 countries with its associated disease "arsenicosis." Arsenic poisoning may lead to fatal skin and internal cancers. In present review, an attempt has been made to generate awareness among the readers about various sources of occurrence of arsenic, its geochemistry and speciation, mobilization, metabolism, genotoxicity, and toxicological exposure on humans. The article also emphasizes the possible remedies for combating the problem. The knowledge of these facts may help to work on some workable remedial measure.

  13. Remediation of contaminated areas. An overview of international guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1999-01-01

    techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps:-characterisation of relevant contaminated sites -identification and characterisation of relevant...... contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areasconsidered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Criteria for clean-up of contaminated land and criteria for protection of the public...

  14. Remediation of uranium contaminated water and soil by PIMS approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, S.; Raicevic, J.; Smiciklas, I. . E-mail address of corresponding author: raich@beotel.yu; Raicevic, S.)

    2005-01-01

    Contamination of soil by uranium (U) represents a permanent threat for food and water resources. For this reason, remediation is a very important measure for protection of the health of the population living in the vicinity of these contaminated sites. Phosphate- Induced Metal Stabilization (PIMS) represents one of the powerful methods for remediation of soil and water contaminated by U, including depleted uranium (DU). By this approach it is possible to stabilize metals in the form of phosphate phases and other low soluble phases that are stable over geological time. PIMS is based on application of a special form of apatite of biological origin, Apatite II, to clean up metal and radionuclide contamination, in situ or ex situ. This biogenic apatite can be emplaced as a down-gradient permeable reactive barrier, mixed into contaminated soil or waste or used as a disposal liner. Here we will briefly describe the PIMS remediation protocol. (author)

  15. Cost considerations in remediation and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, J.T.; Huddleston, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Opportunities for assessing the costs associated with the reclamation and remediation of sites contaminated by oilfield wastes are discussed. The savings can be maximized by paying close attention to five different aspects of the overall site remediation and disposal process. These are: (1) highly focused site assessment, (2) cost control of treatment and disposal options, (3) value added cost benefits, (4) opportunities to control outside influences during the remedial process, and (5) opportunities for managing long-term liabilities and residual risk remaining after the remedial program is completed. It is claimed that addressing these aspects of the process will ultimately lower the overall cost of site remediation and waste disposal

  16. Methods of radon remediation in Finnish dwellings; Asuntojen radonkorjauksen menetelmaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-12-01

    A study was made of remedial measures taken in dwellings with high indoor radon concentrations and the results obtained. The data regarding the remedial measures taken in 400 dwellings was obtained from a questionnaire study. The mean annual average indoor radon concentration before the remedies was 1.500 Bq/m{sup 3}, the concentration exceeding in nearly every house the action level of 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. After the measures were taken the mean indoor radon concentration was 500 Bq/m{sup 3}. The resulting indoor radon concentration was less than 400 Bq/m{sup 3} in 60 percent of the dwellings. The best results were achieved using sub-slab-suction and radon well. These methods effectively decrease both the flow of radon bearing air from soil into dwellings and the radon concentration of leakage air. Typical reduction rates in radon concentration were 70-95 percent. The action level was achieved in more than 70 percent of the houses. Sealing the entry routes and improvement of the ventilation resulted typically in reduction rates of 10-50 percent. The goal of the report is to give useful information for the house owners, the do-it-yourself-mitigators, the mitigation firms and the local authorities. The report includes practical guidance, price information and examples of remedial measures. (13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.).

  17. Remediation of the Lermontov mining site in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotkov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    For 40 years, uranium mines were operated in the direct vicinity of the spas of Mineralnyje Wody, Pjatigorsk, Kislowodsk, Jessentuki and Zheleznowodsk by the Almaz company. Now that the mines have been abandoned, the spa region is surrounded by contaminated land. Remedial measures are projected in accordance with radiation protection standards [de

  18. Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia: Understanding the Biological Correlates and Remediation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Adarsh; Shukla, Rashmi

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are one of the core symptoms of schizophrenia that evolve during the course of schizophrenia, after being originated even before the onset of illness. Existing pharmacological and biological treatment modalities fall short to meet the needs to improve the cognitive symptoms; hence, various cognitive remediation strategies have been adopted to address these deficits. Research evidences suggest that cognitive remediation measures improve the functioning, limit disability bettering the quality of life. The functional outcomes of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia are resultant of neurobiological changes in specific brain areas. Recent years witnessed significant innovations in cognitive remediation strategies in schizophrenia. This comprehensive review highlights the biological correlates of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and the remedial measures with evidence base. PMID:29397662

  19. Current state and future prospects of remedial soil protection. Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenstein, Joerg

    2009-08-15

    The legal basis for soil protection in the Federal Republic of Germany is: -The Act on Protection against Harmful Changes to Soil and on Rehabilitation of Contaminated Sites (Federal Soil Protection Act) (Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz - BBodSchG) of 1998 [1] -The Federal Soil Protection and Contaminated Sites Ordinance (BBodSchV) of 1999 [2]. In Germany, the Federal Government has legislative competence in the field of soil protection. The Lander (German federal states), in turn, are responsible for enforcement of the BBodSchG and the BBodSchV; they may also issue supplementary procedural regulations. According to Article 1 BBodschG, the purpose of the Act is inter alia to protect and restore the functions of the soil on a permanent sustainable basis. These actions shall include prevention of harmful soil changes as well as rehabilitating soil, contaminated sites and waters contaminated by such sites in such a way that any contamination remains permanently below the hazard threshold. Whilst prevention aims to protect and preserve soil functions on a long-term basis, the object of remediation is mainly to avert concrete hazards in a spatial, temporal and manageable causative context. ''Remedial soil protection'' encompasses a tiered procedure in which a suspicion is verified successively and with least-possible effort and in which the circumstances of the individual case at hand are taken into account in deciding whether or not a need for remediation exists. It comprises the systematic stages of identifying, investigating and assessing suspect sites and sites suspected of being contaminated with a view to their hazard potential, determining whether remediation is necessary, remediating identified harmful soil changes and contaminated sites, and carrying out, where necessary, aftercare measures following final inspection of the remedial measure. (orig.)

  20. IAEA Remediation Mission to Japan Concludes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international experts today completed a preliminary assessment of the strategy and plans being considered by the Japanese authorities to remediate the areas off-site the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant reported to have elevated levels of radiation. The IAEA dispatched the mission to Japan on 7 October following a request from the country's Government. The mission, comprising 12 international and IAEA experts from several countries, visited numerous locations in the Fukushima Prefecture and conducted meetings in Tokyo and Fukushima with Japanese officials from several Ministries and institutions. ''The meetings held and visits made by the team over the last eight days gave us a first-hand appreciation of the extraordinary efforts and dedication on the part of Japanese people in their effort to remediate the areas affected by elevated levels of radiation in the Fukushima Prefecture,'' says Mr. Juan Carlos Lentijo, Team Leader and General Director for Radiation Protection at Spain's nuclear regulatory authority. ''As Japan continues its current remediation efforts, it is our belief that this work will bring relief to the populations who are affected by the consequences of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.'' In a Preliminary Summary Report delivered to Japanese authorities today, the team prepared a set of conclusions including, though not limited to, the following: - Japan developed an efficient program for remediation - allocating the necessary legal, financial and technological resources to bring relief to the people affected by the accident, with priority being given to children. The Team was impressed with the strong commitment to the remediation effort from all institutions and parties involved, including the public; - Japan has also taken practical measures to inform the public and involve residents and local institutions in the process of defining its remediation strategy; - Japan is advised to avoid

  1. Driving the Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Technological modification of the earth's surface (e.g., agriculture, urbanization) is an old story in human history, but what about the future? The future of landscape in an accelerating technological world, beyond a relatively short time horizon, lies hidden behind an impenetrable veil of complexity. Sufficiently complex dynamics generates not only the trajectory of a variable of interest (e.g., vegetation cover) but also the environment in which that variable evolves (e.g., background climate). There is no way to anticipate what variables will define that environment—the dynamics creates its own variables. We are always open to surprise by a change of conditions we thought or assumed were fixed or by the appearance of new phenomena of whose possible existence we had been unaware or thought unlikely. This is especially true under the influence of technology, where novelty is the rule. Lack of direct long-term predictability of landscape change does not, however, mean we cannot say anything about its future. The presence of persistence (finite time scales) in a system means that prediction by a calibrated numerical model should be good for a limited period of time barring bad luck or faulty implementation. Short-term prediction, despite its limitations, provides an option for dealing with the longer-term future. If a computer-controlled car tries to drive itself from New York to Los Angeles, no conceivable (or possible) stand-alone software can be constructed to predict a priori the space-time trajectory of the vehicle. Yet the drive is normally completed easily by most drivers. The trip is successfully completed because each in a series of very short (linear) steps can be "corrected" on the fly by the driver, who takes her cues from the environment to keep the car on the road and headed toward its destination. This metaphor differs in a fundamental way from the usual notion of predicting geomorphic change, because it involves a goal—to reach a desired

  2. Ecological Functions of Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryushin, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    Ecological functions of landscapes are considered a system of processes ensuring the development, preservation, and evolution of ecosystems and the biosphere as a whole. The concept of biogeocenosis can be considered a model that integrates biotic and environmental functions. The most general biogeocenotic functions specify the biodiversity, biotic links, self-organization, and evolution of ecosystems. Close interaction between biocenosis and the biotope (ecotope) is ensured by the continuous exchange of matter, energy, and information. Ecotope determines the biocenosis. The group of ecotopic functions includes atmospheric (gas exchange, heat exchange, hydroatmospheric, climate-forming), lithospheric (geodynamic, geophysical, and geochemical), hydrologic and hydrogeologic functions of landscape and ecotopic functions of soils. Bioecological functions emerge as a result of the biotope and ecotope interaction; these are the bioproductive, destructive, organoaccumulative, biochemical (gas, concentration, redox, biochemical, biopedological), pedogenetic, and energy functions

  3. Conceiving Landscape through Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsø, Mads; Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    This article shows how the media of film can be integrated, explored and can add value to architectural design studios and practice. It elucidates how film may offer an alternative position in architecture, where landscapes and cities are thought, planned and developed in closer relation...... to their spatial and sensory effects on humans. It underscores that the film camera can work as a kind of amplifier of how we, with our bodies, perceive space and project space. In the “Landscape Film” Studio at University of Copenhagen the film medium was tested as a combined registration and design tool...... for a new Nature Park south of Copenhagen. The final studio films and designs show how resonate recordings of sound, time and a bodily presence may simulate an Einfühling that inspires an alternative architecture of relations: the ambient, the changeable and the volatile. They also emphasize that an ability...

  4. Landscape & Imagination: riflettere insieme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Zoppi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Paris, at La Villette University, was four-days of debate on 2-4 Mai 2013, in which faculty members of all the world discussed on methods and experiences in teaching landscape. The conference was organized in multiple sessions: history, theories, representation, process, science and governance. All the fields discussed were related to the main problem of the identity of territories in the landscape project -from the theories to the practices- and applied in a very large range of different situations: from the rural world between conservation and transformations to the coastal areas under the pressure of tourism, from the ecology in the city life renovation to the land use control and project by community and the emergency management in natural catastrophes.

  5. New IAEA guidelines on environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency, A2444, Seibersdorf (Austria); Howard, Brenda [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, LA1 4AP, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Kashparov, Valery [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, 08162, 7, Mashinobudivnykiv str., Chabany, Kyivo-Svyatoshin region, Kyiv (Ukraine); Sanzharova, Natalie [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Russian Federation, 249032, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry Department-Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In response to the needs of its Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published many documents covering different aspects of remediation of contaminated environments. These documents range from safety fundamentals and safety requirements to technical documents describing remedial technologies. Almost all the documents on environmental remediation are related to uranium mining areas and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. IAEA radiation safety standards on remediation of contaminated environments are largely based on these two types of remediation. The exception is a document related to accidents, namely the IAEA TRS No. 363 'Guidelines for Agricultural Countermeasures Following an Accidental Release of Radionuclides'. Since the publication of TRS 363, there has been a considerable increase in relevant information. In response, the IAEA initiated the development of a new document, which incorporated new knowledge obtained during last 20 years, lessons learned and subsequent changes in the regulatory framework. The new document covers all aspects related to the environmental remediation from site characterisation to a description of individual remedial actions and decision making frameworks, covering urban, agricultural, forest and freshwater environments. Decisions taken to commence remediation need to be based on an accurate assessment of the amount and extent of contamination in relevant environmental compartments and how they vary with time. Major aspects of site characterisation intended for remediation are described together with recommendations on effective sampling programmes and data compilation for decision making. Approaches for evaluation of remedial actions are given in the document alongside the factors and processes which affect their implementation for different environments. Lessons learned following severe radiation accidents indicate that remediation should be considered with respect to many different

  6. Combinatorial vector fields and the valley structure of fitness landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Bärbel M R; Stadler, Peter F

    2010-12-01

    Adaptive (downhill) walks are a computationally convenient way of analyzing the geometric structure of fitness landscapes. Their inherently stochastic nature has limited their mathematical analysis, however. Here we develop a framework that interprets adaptive walks as deterministic trajectories in combinatorial vector fields and in return associate these combinatorial vector fields with weights that measure their steepness across the landscape. We show that the combinatorial vector fields and their weights have a product structure that is governed by the neutrality of the landscape. This product structure makes practical computations feasible. The framework presented here also provides an alternative, and mathematically more convenient, way of defining notions of valleys, saddle points, and barriers in landscape. As an application, we propose a refined approximation for transition rates between macrostates that are associated with the valleys of the landscape.

  7. Lead remediation and changes in human lead exposure: some physiological and biokinetic dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushak, Paul

    2003-02-15

    This paper presents a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the various aspects of lead remediation effectiveness with particular reference to human health risk assessment. One of the key elements of lead remediation efforts at such sites as those under the Superfund program deals with populations at elevated exposure and toxicity risk in the proximity of, or at, the site of remediation, especially remediation workers, workers at other tasks on sites that were remediated down to some action level of lead concentration in soils, and groups at risk in nearby communities. A second element has to do with how one measures or models lead exposure changes with special reference to baseline and post-remediation conditions. Various biomarkers of lead exposure can be employed, but their use requires detailed knowledge of what results using each means. The most commonly used approach is measurement of blood lead (Pb-B). Recognized limitations in the use of Pb-B has led to the use of predictive Pb exposure models, which are less vulnerable to the many behavioral, physiological, and environmental parameters that can distort isolated or 'single shot' Pb-B testings. A third aspect covered in this paper presents various physiological factors that affect the methods by which one evaluates Pb remediation effectiveness. Finally, this article offers an integrated look at how lead remediation actions directed at one lead source or pathway affect the total lead exposure picture for human populations at elevated lead exposure and toxicity risk.

  8. Energy landscapes shape animal movement ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Emily L C; Wilson, Rory P; Rees, W Gareth; Grundy, Edward; Lambertucci, Sergio A; Vosper, Simon B

    2013-09-01

    The metabolic costs of animal movement have been studied extensively under laboratory conditions, although frequently these are a poor approximation of the costs of operating in the natural, heterogeneous environment. Construction of "energy landscapes," which relate animal locality to the cost of transport, can clarify whether, to what extent, and how movement properties are attributable to environmental heterogeneity. Although behavioral responses to aspects of the energy landscape are well documented in some fields (notably, the selection of tailwinds by aerial migrants) and scales (typically large), the principles of the energy landscape extend across habitat types and spatial scales. We provide a brief synthesis of the mechanisms by which environmentally driven changes in the cost of transport can modulate the behavioral ecology of animal movement in different media, develop example cost functions for movement in heterogeneous environments, present methods for visualizing these energy landscapes, and derive specific predictions of expected outcomes from individual- to population- and species-level processes. Animals modulate a suite of movement parameters (e.g., route, speed, timing of movement, and tortuosity) in relation to the energy landscape, with the nature of their response being related to the energy savings available. Overall, variation in movement costs influences the quality of habitat patches and causes nonrandom movement of individuals between them. This can provide spatial and/or temporal structure to a range of population- and species-level processes, ultimately including gene flow. Advances in animal-attached technology and geographic information systems are opening up new avenues for measuring and mapping energy landscapes that are likely to provide new insight into their influence in animal ecology.

  9. Communication activities during remediation project of Zavratec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukovica, T.; Mele, I.

    1996-01-01

    The remediation project of temporary storage of radioactive waste near village Zavratec is under way. The Agency for Radwaste Management was assigned to perform this project by the Slovenian government. Radioactive waste was stored on site of Zavratec in 1961. That year an accident has occurred at Oncological institute in Ljubljana in which several rooms and some equipment have been contaminated by the content of radium applicator. Radioactive waste from decontamination was transported and stored in an old Italian military barrack near village Zavratec. The storage became known to public in eighties by the TV report. Since that time it is frequently the subject of public polemics and discussions. This year the first part of remediation project, i.e. the activity measurements and sorting of radioactive waste is taking place. It is planned to conclude the project next year. For successful realization of the project the PR activities, specially the communication with the local community, are of great importance. Special plan of these activities has been prepared by the Agency for Radwaste Management in early stage of the project. Initial activities have already been successfully realized. In this paper the communication plan is presented and most important elements of this plan are briefly described. (author)

  10. Verification Survey of Uranium Mine Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, Stager

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) contracted an independent verification of an intensive gamma radiation survey conducted by a mining company to demonstrate that remediation of disturbed areas was complete. This site was the first of the recent mines being decommissioned in Canada and experience gained here may be applied to other mines being decommissioned in the future. The review included examination of the site-specific basis for clean-up criteria and ALARA as required by CNSC guidance. A paper review of the company report was conducted to determine if protocols were followed and that the summarized results could be independently reproduced. An independent verification survey was conducted on parts of the site and comparisons were made between gamma radiation measurements from the verification survey and the original company survey. Some aspects of data collection using rate meters linked to GPS data loggers are discussed as are aspects for data management and analyses methods required for the large amount of data collected during these surveys. Recommendations were made for implementation of future surveys and reporting the data from those surveys in order to ensure that remediation was complete. (authors)

  11. Automated sample analysis and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollen, R.; Settle, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Contaminant Analysis Automation Project is developing an automated chemical analysis system to address the current needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE). These needs focus on the remediation of large amounts of radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes stored, buried and still being processed at numerous DOE sites. This paper outlines the advantages of the system under development, and details the hardware and software design. A prototype system for characterizing polychlorinated biphenyls in soils is also described

  12. Environmental remediation of the Wismut legacy and utilization of the reclaimed areas, waste rock piles and tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, M.; Jakubick, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1945 and reunification (1989) of Germany more than 232 000 t of U 3 O 8 has been produced in Saxony and Thuringia, East Germany. This affected an area of approximately 100 km 2 and left behind an extensive legacy of contaminated operations areas, underground and open pit mines, waste rock piles and tailings ponds. Following reunification, DM 13 billion (Euro 6.6 billion) were committed (and later revised to Euro 6.2 billion) to remediation of the liabilities and the government owned corporation, Wismut GmbH entrusted with the implementation of the Environmental Remediation (ER) of the liabilities. The prime goal of the ER Project follows from the legal requirements to abate health risks, mitigate existing and prevent future environmental damages. During the investigations and assessment of risks, development of remediation concepts, adoption of suitable technologies and work procedures as well as physical implementation of the remedial measures extensive use was made of international (mostly US and Canadian) ER experience. The extent of remedial measures was based on object-specific Environmental Assessments rather than on uniformly applied health/environmental standards. The ER workflow is more an iterative process than a linear succession of tasks, such as common for civil engineering projects. The internal (technical) parts of the problems were partly resolved by using Conceptual Site Models (CSM) for selection and prioritization of remedial measures. Reclamation of the waste rock piles is by covering in situ, relocation to a central pile or backfilling into an open pit. The backfilling of the open pit at Ronneburg with acid generating waste rock has been optimized from a geochemical point of view. For tailings ponds reclamation in form of dry landforms is being followed. To increase release (and reuse) of scrap metal from demolition, a fast and reliable method of discrimination of the non-contaminated metal has been developed. The flooding of

  13. Hanford Sitewide Groundwater Remediation Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knepp, A.J.; Isaacs, J.D.

    1997-09-01

    This document fulfills the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-13-81, to develop a concise statement of strategy that describe show the Hanford Site groundwater remediation will be accomplished. The strategy addresses objectives and goals, prioritization of activities, and technical approaches for groundwater cleanup. The strategy establishes that the overall goal of groundwater remediation on the Hanford Site is to restore groundwater to its beneficial uses in terms of protecting human health and the environment, and its use as a natural resource. The Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group established two categories for groundwater commensurate with various proposed landuses: (1) restricted use or access to groundwater in the Central Plateau and in a buffer zone surrounding it and (2) unrestricted use or access to groundwater for all other areas. In recognition of the Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group and public values, the strategy establishes that the sitewide approach to groundwater cleanup is to remediate the major plumes found in the reactor areas that enter the Columbia River and to contain the spread and reduce the mass of the major plumes found in the Central Plateau

  14. Strategic planning for remediation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapp, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Remediation projects may range from a single leaking storage tank to an entire plant complex or producing oil and gas field. Strategic planning comes into play when the contamination of soil and groundwater is extensive. If adjacent landowners have been impacted or the community at large is concerned about the quality of drinking water, then strategic planning is even more important. (1) To manage highly complex interrelated issues--for example, the efforts expended on community relations can alter public opinion, which can impact regulatory agency decisions that affect cleanup standards, which can...and so on. (2) To ensure that all potential liabilities are managed--for example, preparation for the defense of future lawsuits is essential during site investigation and remediation. (3) To communicate with senior management--when the remediation team provides a strategic plan that includes both technical and business issues, senior management has the opportunity to become more involved and make sound policy decisions. The following discusses the elements of a strategic plan, who should participate in it, and the issues that should be considered

  15. Status report: Fernald site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.R. Jr.; Saric, J.A.; Schneider, T.; Yates, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Fernald site is rapidly transitioning from a Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study (RI/FS) site to one where design and construction of the remedies dominates. Fernald is one of the first sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex to accomplish this task and real physical progress is being made in moving the five operable units through the CERCLA process. Two of the required Records of Decision (ROD) are in hand and all five operable units will have received their RODs (IROD for OU3) by the end of 1995. Pre-design investigations, design work or construction are now in progress on the operable units. The lessons learned from the work done to date include implementing innovations in the RI and FS process as well as effective use of Removal Actions to begin the actual site remediation. Also, forging close working relationships with the Federal and State Regulators, citizens action groups and the Fernald Citizens Task Force has helped move the program forward. The Fernald successes have been achieved by close coordination and cooperation among all groups working on the projects and by application of innovative technologies within the decision making process

  16. Landscape metrics for three-dimension urban pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M.; Hu, Y.; Zhang, W.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how landscape pattern determines population or ecosystem dynamics is crucial for managing our landscapes. Urban areas are becoming increasingly dominant social-ecological systems, so it is important to understand patterns of urbanization. Most studies of urban landscape pattern examine land-use maps in two dimensions because the acquisition of 3-dimensional information is difficult. We used Brista software based on Quickbird images and aerial photos to interpret the height of buildings, thus incorporating a 3-dimensional approach. We estimated the feasibility and accuracy of this approach. A total of 164,345 buildings in the Liaoning central urban agglomeration of China, which included seven cities, were measured. Twelve landscape metrics were proposed or chosen to describe the urban landscape patterns in 2- and 3-dimensional scales. The ecological and social meaning of landscape metrics were analyzed with multiple correlation analysis. The results showed that classification accuracy compared with field surveys was 87.6%, which means this method for interpreting building height was acceptable. The metrics effectively reflected the urban architecture in relation to number of buildings, area, height, 3-D shape and diversity aspects. We were able to describe the urban characteristics of each city with these metrics. The metrics also captured ecological and social meanings. The proposed landscape metrics provided a new method for urban landscape analysis in three dimensions.

  17. Identification Of Minangkabau Landscape Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrina, M.; Gunawan, A.; Aris, Munandar

    2017-10-01

    Minangkabau is one of cultures in indonesia which occupies landscape intact. Landscape of Minangkabau have a very close relationship with the culture of the people. Uniqueness of Minangkabau culture and landscape forming an inseparable characterunity. The landscape is necessarily identified to know the inherent landscape characters. The objective of this study was to identify the character of the Minangkabau landscape characterizes its uniqueness. The study was conducted by using descriptive method comprised literature review and field observasion. Observed the landscape characters comprised two main features, they were major and minor features. Indetification of the features was conducted in two original areas (darek) of the Minangkabau traditional society. The research results showed that major features or natural features of the landscape were predominantly landform, landcover, and hidrology. All luhak (districts) of Minangkabau showed similar main features such as hill, canyon, lake, valley, and forest. The existence of natural features such as hills, canyon and valleys characterizes the nature of minangkabau landscape. Minor features formed by Minangkabau cultural society were agricultural land and settlement. Rumah gadang (big house) is one of famous minor features characterizes the Minangkabau culture. In addition, several historical artefacts of building and others structure may strengthen uniqueness of the Minangkabau landscape character, such as The royal palace, inscription, and tunnels.

  18. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  19. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  20. An analysis on remediation characteristics of soils contaminated with Co for in-situ application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. N.; Won, H. J.; Kweun, H. S.; Shon, J. S.; Oh, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    The solvent flushing apparatus for in-situ soil remediation was designed. After the soil around nuclear facilities was sampled and compulsorily contaminated by Co solution, the remediation characteristics by solvent flushing were analyzed. Meanwhile, the nonequilibrium sorption code was developed for modelling of the soil remediation by solvent flushing, and input parameters needed for modelling were measured by laboratory experiment. Experimental results are as follows: The soil around nuclear facilities belongs to Silt Loam including a lot of silt and sand. When water was used as a solvent, the higher was the hydraulic conductivity, the higher the efficiency of soil remediation was. The values calculated by the nonequilibrium sorption code agreed with experimental values more exactly than the values calculated by the equilibrium sorption code. When citric acid was used as a solvent, the soil remediation efficiency by citric acid showed 1.65 times that by water

  1. Integrated landscape initiatives in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Martín, María; Bieling, Claudia; Hart, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Landscapes are linked to human well-being in a multitude of ways, some of which are challenged by global market forces and traditional management approaches. In response to this situation there has been a rise in local initiatives to sustain the values of landscape. The aim of this paper is to pr......Landscapes are linked to human well-being in a multitude of ways, some of which are challenged by global market forces and traditional management approaches. In response to this situation there has been a rise in local initiatives to sustain the values of landscape. The aim of this paper...... searches and canvassing of European umbrella organisations; followed by an online survey of representatives from the identified initiatives (n??=??71). Our results show that the most relevant characteristics of integrated landscape initiatives in Europe are: a holistic approach to landscape management...

  2. Flowscapes: Designing infrastructure as landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important agents that facilitate processes that shape the built environment and its contemporary landscapes. With movement and flows at the core, these landscape infrastructures facilitate aesthetic, functional,...

  3. Modelling Geomorphic Systems: Landscape Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Valters, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Landscape evolution models (LEMs) present the geomorphologist with a means of investigating how landscapes evolve in response to external forcings, such as climate and tectonics, as well as internal process laws. LEMs typically incorporate a range of different geomorphic transport laws integrated in a way that simulates the evolution of a 3D terrain surface forward through time. The strengths of LEMs as research tools lie in their ability to rapidly test many different hypotheses of landscape...

  4. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography: Volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P.; Fowler, J.W.

    1986-09-01

    The 644 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the seventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, and (9) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 7 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. References are arranged alphabetically by leading author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms and abbreviations

  5. Lead dust in Broken Hill homes: effect of remediation on indoor lead levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreland, F; Lyle, D M

    2006-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether home remediation effectively reduced indoor lead levels in Broken Hill, a long-established silver-lead-zinc mining town in outback Australia. A before-after study of the effect of home remediation on indoor lead levels was embedded into a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of remediation for reducing elevated blood lead levels in young children. Moist towelettes were used to measure lead loading (microg/m2) on internal windowsills and internal and entry floors of 98 homes; samples were collected before, immediately after, and 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 months after remediation. Data were log(10) transformed for the analysis. Remediation reduced average indoor lead levels by approximately 50%, and lead levels remained low for the duration of the follow-up period (10 months). The greatest gains were made in homes with the highest initial lead levels; homes with low preremediation lead levels showed little or no benefit. Before remediation, homes located in areas with high soil lead levels or with "poor" dust proofing had higher lead levels than those in areas with lower soil lead levels or with "medium" or "good" dust proofing; these relative differences remained after remediation. There was no evidence that lead loading was reduced by an increased opportunity to become aware of lead issues. We conclude that remediation is an effective strategy for reducing the lead exposure of children living in homes with high indoor lead levels.

  6. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 6. A selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P.

    1985-09-01

    This bibliography of 683 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the sixth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Facilities Contaminated with Natural Radioactivity; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) Technical Measurements Center; and (9) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 7 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate affiliation or by publication description.

  7. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 6. A selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P.

    1985-09-01

    This bibliography of 683 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the sixth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Facilities Contaminated with Natural Radioactivity; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) Technical Measurements Center; and (9) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 7 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate affiliation or by publication description

  8. Effectiveness of Conservation Measures in Reducing Runoff and Soil Loss Under Different Magnitude-Frequency Storms at Plot and Catchment Scales in the Semi-arid Agricultural Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T X

    2016-03-01

    In this study, multi-year stormflow data collected at both catchment and plot scales on an event basis were used to evaluate the efficiency of conservation. At the catchment scale, soil loss from YDG, an agricultural catchment with no conservation measures, was compared with that from CZG, an agricultural catchment with an implementation of a range of conservation measures. With an increase of storm recurrence intervals in the order of 20 years, the mean event sediment yield was 639, 1721, 5779, 15191, 19627, and 47924 t/km(2) in YDG, and was 244, 767, 3077, 4679, 8388, and 15868 t/km(2) in CZG, which represented a reduction effectiveness of 61.8, 55.4, 46.7, 69.2, 57.2, and 66.8 %, respectively. Storm events with recurrence intervals greater than 2 years contributed about two-thirds of the total runoff and sediment in both YDG and CZG catchments. At the plot scale, soil loss from one cultivated slopeland was compared with that from five conservation plots. The mean event soil loss was 1622 t/km(2) on the cultivated slopeland, in comparison to 27.7 t/km(2) on the woodland plot, 213 t/km(2) on the grassland plot, 467 t/km(2) on the alfalfa plot, 236 t/km(2) on the terraceland plot, and 642 t/km(2) on the earthbank plot. Soil loss per unit area from all the plots was significantly less than that from the catchments for storms of all categories of recurrence intervals.

  9. Carbonate landscapes evolution: Insights from 36Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, Vincent; Thomas, Franck; Ollivier, Vincent; Bellier, Olivier; Shabanian, Esmaeil; Miramont, Cécile; Fleury, Jules; Benedetti, Lucilla; Guillou, Valéry; Aster Team

    2017-04-01

    Carbonate landscapes cover a significant fraction of the Earth surface, but their long-term dynamics is still poorly understood. When comparing with the situation in areas underlain by quartz-rich lithologies, where the routine use of 10Be-derived denudation rates has delivered fundamental insights on landscape evolution processes, this knowledge gap is particularly notable. Recent advances in the measurement of 36Cl and better understanding of its production pathways has opened the way to the development of a similar physically-based and quantitative analysis of landscape evolution in carbonate settings. However, beyond these methodological considerations, we still face fundamental geomorphological open questions, as for example the assessment of the importance of congruent carbonate dissolution in long-wavelength topographic evolution. Such unresolved problems concerning the relative importance of physical and chemical weathering processes lead to question the applicability of standard slope-dependent Geomorphic Transport Laws in carbonate settings. These issues have been addressed studying the geomorphological evolution of selected limestone ranges in Provence, SE France, where 36Cl concentration measurements in bedrock and stream sediment samples allow constraining denudation over 10 ka time-scale. We first identify a significant denudation contrast between the summit surface and the flanks of the ranges, pointing to a substantial contribution of gravity-driven processes to the landscape evolution, in addition to dissolution. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the relationships between hillslope morphology and hilltop denudation allow to identify a fundamental transition between two regimes: (1) a dynamics where hillslope evolution is controlled by linear diffusive downslope regolith transport; and, (2) a domain where denudation is limited by the rate at which physical and chemical weathering processes can produce clasts and lower the hilltop. Such an abrupt

  10. Energy landscape Allgaeu; Energielandschaft Allgaeu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-01

    In tandems with questions on the energy policy turnaround, the topics cultural landscape history, morphology, actual land use, tourism, settlement development or infrastructure are summarized in regional concepts and designs to a consistent landscape. Thus, a true integration of renewable energies in the landscape enhances existing or creates completely new landscape qualities. Energy supply shall be understood as a component of the every day life world. The energy supply shall not be hidden any more, but it rather should be communicated as the brand 'Allgaeu'.

  11. The Value of Landscape Essence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Marques Freire

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to interpreting the landscape is examined by accepting its complexity through inductive reasoning. While attempting to identify the essence of the landscape in the city and municipality of Óbidos, Portugal, several architectural recommendations of Venturi (2004 have been adapted as a framework for understanding this landscape. These will then guide the process of landscape transformation through:•••using the concepts of closed and contained spaces and the concept of fluid space;•recognising the existence of interstitial open spaces;•using those elements which are common to the distinct typologies of space;•defining the components that should be respected and those that can be respected;•observing landscape as a whole , while emphasising the relationship between the parts and the whole; and•rejecting simplification in the landscape transformation process.valuing the ambiguity incorporating the complexity Underlying this approach is the belief that the process of transformation must be based on the essence of each landscape. This implies the use of elements and structures of the landscape which are related to ecological, morphological and cultural systems. These elements and structures represent points of reference which should be considered in the process of landscape transformation.

  12. The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeyer, F. de; Van Dyck, E.; Janssens, J.P.; Duliere, A.; Fondaire, D.; Bodart, O.

    2005-01-01

    In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally established

  13. The soil remediation fund for petrol stations in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeyer, F. de; Van Dyck, E. [OVAM, Mechelen (Belgium); Janssens, J.P.; Duliere, A. [BIM, Brussel (Belgium); Fondaire, D. [DGRNE, Liege (Belgium); Bodart, O. [Governement Wallon, Namur (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    In the Flemish, Brussels-Capital and Walloon Region, petrol stations are subjected to strict operating standards, to avoid soil contamination as much as possible in the future. Besides these operating requirements, regional authorities also issued regulations regarding the remediation of contaminated soils. For many petrol stations operators, land owners and users, these rules and regulations are a heavy financial burden. As a result, the soil contamination threaten to become a public charge, due to a lack of adequate remediation by the stakeholders. After years of negotiating between the petroleum industry and the government the negotiations finally resulted in a cooperation agreement between the Federal Government, the Flemish, Walloon and Brussels-Capital Regions regarding the execution and financing of the remediation of contaminated soil at petrol stations. The cooperation agreement, signed in Brussels on 13 December 2002 and approved by all Regions and the Federal Government, makes it possible to provide a structured approach for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium. In the cooperation agreement the establishment of an Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee is provided to guarantee the fund's independence and to observe the fund's operation. The official start is given through the accreditation of BOFAS by the Inter-regional Soil Remediation Committee. To calculate the amount that would be necessary for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations and the contribution to the fund, an economical research has been carried out. This research indicated that the total cost for the remediation of the soil contamination at petrol stations in Belgium is situated between 400 and 450 million EUR. BOFAS has calculated that 5.000 petrol stations can comply with the conditions mentioned in the cooperation agreement. Operators, Owners or Actual users can submit an application if they comply with the legally

  14. Impressionist Landscape Cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Stella W.

    2018-05-01

    Cartography helps to show us the world in which we reside by providing us a framework to explore space. We can select myriad themes to represent what is relevant to our lives: physical characteristics, human behaviors, hazards, opportunities. Themes are represented on a continuum between real-world images and pure abstractions. How we define cartography and what we expect from it changes with society and technology. We are now inundated with data but we still struggle with expressing our personal geographic experiences through cartography. In this age of information we have become more cognizant of our individual experience of place and our need to determine our own paths and therefore create our own maps. In order to reflect our journey we can add individual details to cartographic products or generalize information to concentrate on what is meaningful to us. Since time and space are interrelated we experience geography by viewing the landscape as changing scenes over time. This experience is both spatial and temporal since we experience geography by moving through space. Experiencing each scene is a separate event. This paper expands the personalization of maps to include our impressions of the travel experience. Rather than add art to cartography it provides geographic reference to art. It explores the use of a series of quick sketches drawn while traveling along roads using a single drawing pad to produce a time series of interpreted landscapes. With the use of geographic time stamps from global positioning systems these sketches are converted from a drawing to a map documenting the path of movement. Although the map scale varies between sketch entries each scene impression can be linked to one or more maps of consistent scale. The result is an artistic piece that expresses a dynamic geographic experience that can be viewed in conjunction with more traditional maps. Unlike mental maps which are constructed from memory, these maps reflect our direct impressions

  15. Site remediation guided by risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBean, E.A.; Gowing, A.; Pieczonka, G.

    2002-01-01

    parameters or biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF)). An example would be fish tissue concentrations projected from creek sediment concentrations were found to be approximately a magnitude higher than the measured fish tissue concentrations. Using the calculated exposures or daily chemical intake for the human receptors, the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks are calculated for each receptor population. If these calculated risks exceed the target risk values (0.2 for non-carcinogenic risk and 1.0E-06 for carcinogenic risk), these evaluated exposure pathways were identified as needing remediation or management to reduce the risk below the target risk values. For the ecological receptors, an ecological screening quotient (ESQ) was calculated based on the ratio of the daily dose ingested by the receptor and a toxic reference value. If the ESQ was above 1.0, the exposure pathway was identified as potentially needing remediation. During the RA process, the impact that the uncertainties (modelled ambient air or tissue concentrations) has on the calculated risk values, can also be evaluated. For example, in an ecological RA, the consumption of one food item such as benthic invertebrates may have a significant impact on higher ecological receptors as a result of biomagnification up the food chain. Obtaining site-specific information (i.e. benthic tissue concentrations) to replace the use of literature-based uptake factors in the re-evaluation of the risk estimate may eliminate or reduce the risk estimate. Then this revised risk estimate would provide a more site-specific cleanup value than the first risk estimate which might have resulted in a more costly remediation or management alternative. (author)

  16. Age-dependent decay in the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    The picture of the 'multiverse' arising in diverse cosmological scenarios involves transitions between metastable vacuum states. It was pointed out by Krauss and Dent that the transition rates decrease at very late times, leading to a dependence of the transition probability between vacua on the age of each vacuum region. I investigate the implications of this non-Markovian, age-dependent decay on the global structure of the spacetime in landscape scenarios. I show that the fractal dimension of the eternally inflating domain is precisely equal to 3, instead of being slightly below 3, which is the case in scenarios with purely Markovian, age-independent decay. I develop a complete description of a non-Markovian landscape in terms of a nonlocal master equation. Using this description I demonstrate by an explicit calculation that, under some technical assumptions about the landscape, the probabilistic predictions of our position in the landscape are essentially unchanged, regardless of the measure used to extract these predictions. I briefly discuss the physical plausibility of realizing non-Markovian vacuum decay in cosmology in view of the possible decoherence of the metastable quantum state.

  17. Landscape encodings enhance optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Klemm

    Full Text Available Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state.

  18. The Anti-Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    There have always been some uninhabitable places, but in the last century human beings have produced many more of them. These anti-landscapes have proliferated to include the sandy wastes of what was once the Aral Sea, severely polluted irrigated lands, open pit mines, blighted nuclear zones...... that no longer sustain life. This history includes T. S. Eliot’s Wasteland and Cormac McCarthy’s The Road as well as air pollution, recycled railway lines, photography and landfills. It links theories of aesthetics, politics, tourism, history, geography, and literature into the new synthesis of the environmental...

  19. Landscapes of the Anthropocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    since the 1840s, when indigenous forests were transformed into improved landscapes of sown grass. The chapter is shaped by a broad question. What can be learned from this place about the ways in which people have exercised and are coming to terms with what Gibson-Graham and Roelvink describe as our...... of the shifting balance of ecological agency in favour of humans during the Anthropocene. Banks Peninsula on the east coast of New Zealand’s South Island was first settled by Polynesian peoples within the last few hundred years. The nature of their footprint contrasts with the dramatic change wrought by Europeans...

  20. Stonehenge and its Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    In the 1960s and 1970s, Stonehenge polarized academic opinion between those (mainly astronomers) who claimed it demonstrated great astronomical sophistication and those (mainly archaeologists) who denied it had anything to do with astronomy apart from the solstitial alignment of its main axis. Now, several decades later, links to the annual passage of the sun are generally recognized as an essential part of the function and meaning not only of Stonehenge but also of several other nearby monuments, giving us important insights into beliefs and actions relating to the seasonal cycle by the prehistoric communities who populated this chalkland landscape in the third millennium BC Links to the moon remain more debatable.

  1. Reprogramming the chromatin landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Tina B; Voss, Ty C; Sung, Myong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    , mechanistic details defining the cellular interactions between ER and GR are poorly understood. We investigated genome-wide binding profiles for ER and GR upon coactivation and characterized the status of the chromatin landscape. We describe a novel mechanism dictating the molecular interplay between ER...... and GR. Upon induction, GR modulates access of ER to specific sites in the genome by reorganization of the chromatin configuration for these elements. Binding to these newly accessible sites occurs either by direct recognition of ER response elements or indirectly through interactions with other factors...

  2. Landscape Encodings Enhance Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Konstantin; Mehta, Anita; Stadler, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Hard combinatorial optimization problems deal with the search for the minimum cost solutions (ground states) of discrete systems under strong constraints. A transformation of state variables may enhance computational tractability. It has been argued that these state encodings are to be chosen invertible to retain the original size of the state space. Here we show how redundant non-invertible encodings enhance optimization by enriching the density of low-energy states. In addition, smooth landscapes may be established on encoded state spaces to guide local search dynamics towards the ground state. PMID:22496860

  3. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse

    2008-01-01

    This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. A newly designed remediation cell, where the solids were kept in suspension by airflow, was tested. The results show that electric current could remove copper from suspended tailings...... efficiency from 1% to 80% compared to experiments with no stirring but with the same operational conditions. This showed the crucial importance of having the solids in suspension and not settled during the remediation....

  4. Landscapes of human evolution: models and methods of tectonic geomorphology and the reconstruction of hominin landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Geoffrey N; Reynolds, Sally C; King, Geoffrey C P

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines the relationship between complex and tectonically active landscapes and patterns of human evolution. We show how active tectonics can produce dynamic landscapes with geomorphological and topographic features that may be critical to long-term patterns of hominin land use, but which are not typically addressed in landscape reconstructions based on existing geological and paleoenvironmental principles. We describe methods of representing topography at a range of scales using measures of roughness based on digital elevation data, and combine the resulting maps with satellite imagery and ground observations to reconstruct features of the wider landscape as they existed at the time of hominin occupation and activity. We apply these methods to sites in South Africa, where relatively stable topography facilitates reconstruction. We demonstrate the presence of previously unrecognized tectonic effects and their implications for the interpretation of hominin habitats and land use. In parts of the East African Rift, reconstruction is more difficult because of dramatic changes since the time of hominin occupation, while fossils are often found in places where activity has now almost ceased. However, we show that original, dynamic landscape features can be assessed by analogy with parts of the Rift that are currently active and indicate how this approach can complement other sources of information to add new insights and pose new questions for future investigation of hominin land use and habitats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 8 Air-Based Remediation Technology Selection Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  6. The changing landscape for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinig, S J; Quon, A S; Meyer, R E; Korn, D

    1999-06-01

    The authors review the history of U.S. clinical research and identify the profound changes stemming from advancements in the biomedical sciences, the recent transformation in the organization and financing of health care delivery, and the increasing application of information technologies. They observe that the enterprise must reorganize to account for the changed landscape, but there is a lack of the data necessary to monitor change and determine the extent to which clinical research is successfully realigning and sustaining itself. The authors discuss the evolving definition, scope, and venues for clinical research, and review previous analyses of clinical research's difficulties and remedies proposed: shared responsibility in the financing of academic medicine, support by federal and private health insurers for routine costs of patient care in clinical trials, and strengthened collaboration between and among industry, academia, insurers, and government. The authors conclude by describing two major initiatives to foster clinical investigation in the new landscape. The first is the Clinical Research Summit Project, a convocation of representative stakeholders from the health care system with an interest in clinical research, whose charge will be to formulate a national agenda for clinical research that has the broad-based support of the stakeholders. Among the challenges of this undertaking are the needs to identify new and stable sources of support for clinical research infrastructure, assess the future workforce needs for clinical investigation, and devise new methods to ensure the continued vitality and account-ability of clinical research. The second is the Clinical Research Task Force, an initiative of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), which is already exploring and advising on how AAMC member organizations can best strengthen their capacity to support clinical research programs in the current scientific, health care delivery, and financial

  7. Editorial: Mapping the Intellectual Landscape of Landscape and Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Wei-Ning. Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Maps are central to our understanding of landscapes. When this Editorship began to revise the journal's Aims and Scope for presentation in a forthcoming editorial, we sought ways in which we could identify the core knowledge base and boundaries, however permeable, of what the journal community considers to be Landscape and Urban Planning (LAND). Strategically, we...

  8. Landscape Painting in Evaluation of Changes in Landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lacina, Jan; Halas, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2015), s. 60-68 ISSN 1803-2427 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : landscape painting * landscape ecology * land-use changes * biodiversity Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jlecol.2015.8.issue-2/jlecol-2015-0009/jlecol-2015-0009. xml

  9. Basewide Groundwater Operable Unit. Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    units would be reused in the remedy. Contingency measures to be included in the remedy are potential metals removal prior to water end use, potential...onbase reuse of a portion of the water, and wellhead treatment on offbase supply wells. The contingency measures will only be implemented if necessary...94 LEGEND Ouatmar aluvi dposts agua Frmaion(cosoldatd aluval epoits W iead rdetilnsMhte omtin(neitccnlmeae ansoe9ndkeca F 70 Quvatei-lernayalvu e pk

  10. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Green PCB Remediation from Sediment Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An ongoing problem facing the global environmental community including NASA centers is the removal and remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PCBs were...

  12. Horizontal wells in subsurface remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losonsky, G.; Beljin, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on horizontal wells which offer an effective alternative to vertical wells in various environmental remediation technologies. Hydrogeological advantages of horizontal wells over vertical wells include a larger zone of influence, greater screen length, higher specific capacity and lower groundwater screen entrance velocity. Because of these advantages, horizontal wells can reduce treatment time and costs of groundwater recovery (pump-and-treat), in situ groundwater aeration (sparging) and soil gas extraction (vacuum extraction). Horizontal wells are also more effective than vertical wells in landfill leachate collection (under-drains), bioremediation, and horizontal grout injection

  13. Tank Waste Remediation System Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robershotte, M.A.; Dirks, L.L.; Seaver, D.A.; Bothers, A.J.; Madden, M.S.

    1995-06-01

    The scope, number and complexity of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) decisions require an integrated, consistent, and logical approach to decision making. TWRS has adopted a seven-step decision process applicable to all decisions. Not all decisions, however, require the same degree of rigor/detail. The decision impact will dictate the appropriate required detail. In the entire process, values, both from the public as well as from the decision makers, play a key role. This document concludes with a general discussion of the implementation process that includes the roles of concerned parties

  14. Acid rock drainage passive remediation using alkaline clay: Hydro-geochemical study and impacts of vegetation and sand on remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Fernando; Wen, Yipei; Liang, Xu

    2018-10-01

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) is one of the most adverse environmental problems of the mine industry, especially in regions with an abundance of coal refuse (CR) deposits (e.g. the Northern Appalachian Coalfield in the USA) where surface and ground waters are affected by this pollution due to the acidity and high content of sulfates and heavy metals. This study explores the effectiveness of the ARD passive remediation method using alkaline clay (AC) through a series of static and long-term kinetic laboratory experiments (over three years) complemented with field measurements and geochemical modeling. Two important issues associated with this passive and auto-sustainable ARD remediation method were investigated: 1) the hydrogeochemical study of the mixture in terms of the percentages of AC and CR, and, 2) impacts of vegetation cover and a saturated sand barrier on the remediation. Both the field measurements and the samples used for the experiments came from a local coal waste site. Through the analysis of the field measurements and the outcome of the laboratory experiments and the geochemical modeling, alkaline clay proved to be an effective remediation material for ARD, in terms of achieving a neutral pH in the leachate and immobilization of sulfate and metals such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd, Co. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that the use of vegetation and a saturated sand barrier are beneficial. Vegetation acted as a phytoaccumulation/phytoextraction agent, causing an additional immobilization of metals. The saturated sand barrier blocked downward the oxygen and water diffusion, reducing pyrite oxidation rates. The proposed remediation approach ensures that the acidity consumption will likely occur before all the alkalinity is exhausted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cultural Landscape and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Haaland

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus on the way Nepalese migrants in Myanmar use features of the natural environment in their homeland in metaphoric constructions of a cultural landscape expressing ethnic identity. It is through such "symbolic work" that perceptions of "ethnoscapes" are shaped and indoctrinated. Although the appeal is to symbols that can serve to foster the importance of Nepaliness as a basis for belonging to an imagined community, this does not mean that the caste/ethnicity interaction boundaries are broken down. It does mean however that sectors of activities where such boundaries are made relevant have been changed and so has the cultural content organized through such interaction boundaries. Ethnoscapes do not exist by themselves from a 'primordial' past; they require ongoing expression and confirmation. Features of a natural environment most migrants have never seen is used as sources for spinning compelling webs of significance extolling the values of belonging to a group that shares a common past in that environment. I shall here present material of an ethnoscape very different from what is experienced in Nepal, namely Nepalese multi-caste/ethnic communities among Kachins, Shans, Burmese, Indian and Chinese traders in the Kachin state of Northern Myanmar. Keywords: Nepali migrants; Myanmar; ethnic identity; cultural landscape DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4515 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.99-110

  16. The Data Science Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzel, C.

    2017-12-01

    Modern scientific data continue to increase in volume, variety, and velocity, and though the hype of big data has subsided, its usefulness for scientific discovery has only just begun. Harnessing these data for new insights, more efficient decision making, and other mission critical uses requires a combination of skills and expertise, often labeled data science. Data science can be thought of as a combination of statistics, computation and the domain from which the data relate, and so is a true interdisciplinary pursuit. Though it has reaped large benefits in companies able to afford the high cost of the severely limited talent pool, it suffers from lack of support in mission driven organizations. Not purely in any one historical field, data science is proving difficult to find a home in traditional university academic departments and other research organizations. The landscape of data science efforts, from academia, industry and government, can be characterized as nascent, enthusiastic, uneven, and highly competitive. Part of the challenge in documenting these trends is the lack of agreement about what data science is, and who is a data scientist. Defining these terms too closely and too early runs the risk of cutting off a tremendous amount of productive creativity, but waiting too long leaves many people without a sustainable career, and many organizations without the necessary skills to gain value from their data. This talk will explore the landscape of data science efforts in the US, including how organizations are building and sustaining data science teams.

  17. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  18. Branches of the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, Michael; O'Neil, Deva; Sun Zheng

    2005-01-01

    With respect to the question of supersymmetry breaking, there are three branches of the flux landscape. On one of these, if one requires small cosmological constant, supersymmetry breaking is predominantly at the fundamental scale; on another, the distribution is roughly flat on a logarithmic scale; on the third, the preponderance of vacua are at very low scale. A priori, as we will explain, one can say little about the first branch. The vast majority of these states are not accessible even to crude, approximate analysis. On the other two branches one can hope to do better. But as a result of the lack of access to branch one, and our poor understanding of cosmology, we can at best conjecture about whether string theory predicts low energy supersymmetry or not. If we hypothesize that are on branch two or three, distinctive predictions may be possible. We comment of the status of naturalness within the landscape, deriving, for example, the statistics of the first branch from simple effective field theory reasoning

  19. Urban landscape as palimpsest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Gabriel Vâlceanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current urban morphology and the identity building of the city construction can be designed as a palimpsest; the spatial development stages of urban systems represent the result of their evolution over time. The characteristics of urban palimpsest depend mainly on the emergent factors that influenced the territorial dynamics and the configuration of urban bodies. Urban life and its quality are directly influenced by spatial and temporal factors of the city evolution. For this reason the study aims to achieve a research to explain the concept of urban palimpsest and the current morphology of urban tissue because they are products of landscape transformations along the history. The current knowledge on urban palimpsest characteristics is very important and useful to plan the current and future evolution of urban systems. The case study presents a vast view on the history of spatial development and urban system as well as a dynamics of the landscape interconditioned by the elements of such development in the context of reference historical eras

  20. Norwegian millstone quarry landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldal, Tom; Meyer, Gurli; Grenne, Tor

    2013-04-01

    Rotary querns and millstones were used in Norway since just after the Roman Period until the last millstone was made in the 1930s. Throughout all this time millstone mining was fundamental for daily life: millstones were needed to grind grain, our most important food source. We can find millstone quarries in many places in the country from coast to mountain. Some of them cover many square kilometers and count hundreds of quarries as physical testimonies of a long and great production history. Other quarries are small and hardly visible. Some of this history is known through written and oral tradition, but most of it is hidden and must be reconstructed from the traces we can find in the landscape today. The Millstone project has put these quarry landscapes on the map, and conducted a range of case studies, including characterization of archaeological features connected to the quarrying, interpretation of quarrying techniques and evolution of such and establishing distribution and trade patterns by the aid of geological provenance. The project also turned out to be a successful cooperation between different disciplines, in particular geology and archaeology.

  1. Some Similarities and Differences Between Compositions Written by Remedial and Non-Remedial College Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Elizabeth B.; House, William J.

    The essays composed by 84 remedial and 77 nonremedial college freshmen were analyzed for some features proposed by Mina Shaughnessy as being characteristic of basic writers. The students were enrolled in either a beginning remedial class (098), a class at the next level of remediation (099), or a regular English class (101). The essays were…

  2. Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture is an overview course for landscape architecture students interested in sustainability in landscape architecture and how it might apply to smart growth principles in urban, suburban, and rural areas

  3. Human health and other risk drivers to prioritize site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, T.; Connor, J. [Groundwater Services Inc, Houston, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Remedial actions at soil and groundwater cleanup sites have traditionally been addressed on an individual, case-by-case basis, as needed to address regulatory requirements. However, effective management of large portfolios of remediation sites (such as hundreds or thousands of underground storage tank sites owned by a single company) requires coordination and prioritisation of individual site response actions to optimise the degree of risk reduction achieved with available resources. To meet these management objectives, two new risk-based management tools have been developed and implemented by the authors: i) a simple risk-based classification system, that can be employed to prioritise response actions, identify key risk drivers, and measure risk reduction progress over time for the full site portfolio; and ii) a lifecycle cost management system that can be employed to forecast remediation spending and optimise risk reduction benefits. For use in prioritising response actions at remediation sites, 'risk' is defined as the negative consequence of no action. (orig.)

  4. Inactive Tanks Remediation Program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Remediation Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed fimn service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA and CERCLA requirements. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) will be addressed in choosing a remediation alternative. Preference will be given to remedies that are highly reliable and provide long-term protection. Efforts will be directed toward permanently and significantly reducing the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous substances, pollutants, and contaminants associated with the tank systems. Where indicated by operational or other restraints, interim measures short of full and complete remediation may be taken to maintain human health and ecological risks at acceptable levels until full remediation can be accomplished

  5. Changing wind-power landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    of determining the likely visual-impact on landscapes and population, taking into account that there is no clear threshold for perceived adverse visual-impact. A geographical information system (GIS) has been used to build a regional landscape model for Northern Jutland County, which is used to assess visibility...

  6. Marc Treib: Representing Landscape Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    The editor of Representing Landscape Architecture, Marc Treib, argues that there is good reason to evaluate the standard practices of representation that landscape architects have been using for so long. In the rush to the promised land of computer design these practices are now in danger of being...

  7. Caribbean landscapes and their biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Lugo; E. H. Helmer; E. Santiago Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Both the biodiversity and the landscapes of the Caribbean have been greatly modified as a consequence of human activity. In this essay we provide an overview of the natural landscapes and biodiversity of the Caribbean and discuss how human activity has affected both. Our Caribbean geographic focus is on the insular Caribbean and the biodiversity focus is on the flora,...

  8. Future landscapes: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Stanturf

    2015-01-01

    The global magnitude of degraded and deforested areas is best approached by restoring landscapes. Heightened international perception of the importance of forests and trees outside forests (e.g., woodlands, on farms) demands new approaches to future landscapes. The current need for forest restoration is two billion ha; most opportunities are mosaic restoration in the...

  9. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  10. Contingent Diversity on Anthropic Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Balée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally modern human beings have lived in Amazonia for thousands of years. Significant dynamics in species turnovers due to human-mediated disturbance were associated with the ultimate emergence and expansion of agrarian technologies in prehistory. Such disturbances initiated primary and secondary landscape transformations in various locales of the Amazon region. Diversity in these locales can be understood by accepting the initial premise of contingency, expressed as unprecedented human agency and human history. These effects can be accessed through the archaeological record and in the study of living languages. In addition, landscape transformation can be demonstrated in the study of traditional knowledge (TK. One way of elucidating TK distinctions between anthropic and nonanthropic landscapes concerns elicitation of differential labeling of these landscapes and more significantly, elicitation of the specific contents, such as trees, occurring in these landscapes. Freelisting is a method which can be used to distinguish the differential species compositions of landscapes resulting from human-mediated disturbance vs. those which do not evince records of human agency and history. The TK of the Ka’apor Indians of Amazonian Brazil as revealed in freelisting exercises shows differentiation of anthropogenic from high forests as well as a recognition of diversity in the anthropogenic forests. This suggests that the agents of human-mediated disturbance and landscape transformation in traditional Amazonia encode diversity and contingency into their TK, which encoding reflects past cultural influence on landscape and society over time.

  11. Study of application of protective measures for the public and remediation of contaminated areas in case of nuclear and / or radiological accidents in Brazil; Estudo da aplicacao de medidas de protecao para o publico e de remediacao de areas contaminadas em caso de acidentes nucleares e/ou radiologicos no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Diogo Neves Gomes da

    2011-07-01

    Since the radiological accident in Goiania in 1987, the IRD (Institute of Radiological Protection and Dosimetry - IRD / CNEN) has been developing tools to support decision-making processes after a nuclear or radiological accident which leads to an environmental contamination and to an exposure of individuals the public These processes include the establishment of a supporting multicriteria model, which involves the application of protective and remediation measures of contaminated areas in tropical environments. In this study, it was performed an evaluation of the efficiency of these measures in order to determine the consequences of their implementation, based on results obtained from the code SIEM (Emergency Integrated System), which constitutes an environmental mode1 developed at IRD to simulate this type of accident. In order to perform this evaluation, it was first developed a database containing descriptions of various protection/remediation measures, which could be applied nationwide. Afterwards, some basic scenarios were established, considering the environmental, housing and food characteristics of the population of the vicinity of the nuclear power plants in Angra dos Reis (state of Rio de Janeiro). Thus, the accident simulations were carried out separately containing releases of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and 131 I. The results showed that the dose reduction varies according to the extent and the timing of the remediation measure applied. Although it is possible to establish some basic guidelines, generic solutions are not recommended, since the resulting doses are highly dependent on the actual situation. Any decision-making process should be made case by case, according to the actual conditions of the affected area and to the occupation characteristics and use of the affected areas, considering the characteristics of the source term of contamination, the time of the year in which the accident occurs, the local agricultural practices and food habits of

  12. Long term performance of different radon remedial methods in Sweden

    CERN Document Server

    Clavensjoe, B

    2002-01-01

    The object of this project was to investigate the long time effectiveness of different radon remedial methods. The ten years project started 1991. From start the investigation comprised of 105 dwellings (91 single-family houses and 14 flats in multi-family buildings). In all of the dwellings remedial measures were carried out in the eighties. Before and immediately after the reduction the local measured the radon concentrations. New measurements of the radon concentrations have been made every third year; in 1991, 1994, 1997 and in 2000. Twelve different radon remedial methods and method combinations were used. The radon sources were building materials as well as sub-soils. In all of the dwellings the radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track films during 3 months (January-March) measurements and in half of them the air change rates by passive tracer gas methods. The results of the 2000 and the 1991 (within brackets) studies showed that the radon concentration was up to 200 Bq/m sup 3 in 54 (54) sin...

  13. Soil remediation process and system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monlux, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for remediation of soil containing up to about 30,000 ppm hydrocarbon contaminants. It comprises: providing hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in a divided condition of minus 1 1/2 double-prime to a first confined zone where it is exposed to an open flame; heating while agitating the contaminated soil in an oxidizing atmosphere in the first zone to a temperature below soil ignition within a range of from about 375 degrees F. to about 750 degrees F. for a time sufficient to drive off as vapors a substantial percentage of the hydrocarbon contaminates from the soil; passing hot gases containing the hydrocarbon contaminates from the soil; passing hot gases containing the hydrocarbon vapors from the first zone to a second zone; recovering heat from the hot gases in the second zone to condense a substantial percentage of the hydrocarbon vapors as liquid hydrocarbons; recovering the liquid hydrocarbons; and removing the soil from the first zone as remediated soil having below about 1000 ppm hydrocarbon contaminants

  14. Solar One demolition and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Solar One was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of generating electrical energy from solar power using a central receiver concept. An array of heliostats focused sunlight onto a central receiver, which superheated water to produce steam. Although Solar One was successful, the oil-based Thermal Storage System (TSS), used to store heat energy for power generation at night, was not efficient. When the TSS was demolished for the installation of a more efficient molten salt system, a major effort was made to salvage or recycle all of its equipment and materials. During TSS demolition, approximately 7 tons of aluminum shielding and 205 tons of steel were salvaged as scrap metal; 200 tons of concrete was used for erosion protection along the Mohave River banks; 150,000 gallons of oil was recycled and 100 tons of equipment was salvaged for use at other facilities. During remediation, approximately 9,000 tons of oil contaminated sand, gravel and soil was recycled into approximately 10,000 tons of asphalt concrete and used to pave a nearby 5-acre parking lot at Barstow College. This not only reduced project remediation costs, but also met environmental requirements and provided a much needed community service. Of the estimated 11,864 tons of equipment and material from the TSS, less than 1% was disposed of at a landfill

  15. Influence of landscape structure on reef fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grober-Dunsmore, R.; Frazer, T.K.; Beets, J.P.; Lindberg, W.J.; Zwick, P.; Funicelli, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    Management of tropical marine environments calls for interdisciplinary studies and innovative methodologies that consider processes occurring over broad spatial scales. We investigated relationships between landscape structure and reef fish assemblage structure in the US Virgin Islands. Measures of landscape structure were transformed into a reduced set of composite indices using principal component analyses (PCA) to synthesize data on the spatial patterning of the landscape structure of the study reefs. However, composite indices (e.g., habitat diversity) were not particularly informative for predicting reef fish assemblage structure. Rather, relationships were interpreted more easily when functional groups of fishes were related to individual habitat features. In particular, multiple reef fish parameters were strongly associated with reef context. Fishes responded to benthic habitat structure at multiple spatial scales, with various groups of fishes each correlated to a unique suite of variables. Accordingly, future experiments should be designed to test functional relationships based on the ecology of the organisms of interest. Our study demonstrates that landscape-scale habitat features influence reef fish communities, illustrating promise in applying a landscape ecology approach to better understand factors that structure coral reef ecosystems. Furthermore, our findings may prove useful in design of spatially-based conservation approaches such as marine protected areas (MPAs), because landscape-scale metrics may serve as proxies for areas with high species diversity and abundance within the coral reef landscape. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  16. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Kun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world.

  17. 300-FF-1 remedial design report/remedial action work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, F.W.

    1997-02-01

    The 300 Area has been divided into three operable units 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-5 all of which are in various stages of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process. The 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the subject of this report, includes liquid waste disposal sites, landfills, and a burial ground. This Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan (RDR/RAWP) provides a summary description of each waste site included in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the basis for remedial actions to be taken, and the remedial action approach and management process for implementing these actions. The remedial action approach and management sections provide a description of the remedial action process description, the project schedule, the project team, required planning documentation, the remedial action change process, the process for verifying attainment of the remedial action goals, and the required CERCLA and RCRA closeout documentation. Appendix A provides additional details on each waste site. In addition to remediation of the waste sites, waste generated during the remedial investigation/feasibility study portions of the project will also be disposed at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Appendix B provides a summary of the modeling performed in the 300-FF-1 Phase 3 FS and a description of the modeling effort to be used to show attainment of the remedial action goals. Appendix C provides the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for all sampling and field-screening activities performed during remediation and for verification of attainment with the remedial action goals. Appendix D provides the public involvement plan, prepared to ensure information is provided to the public during remedial design and remedial action processes

  18. 300-FF-1 remedial design report/remedial action work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, F.W.

    1997-02-01

    The 300 Area has been divided into three operable units 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-5 all of which are in various stages of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process. The 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the subject of this report, includes liquid waste disposal sites, landfills, and a burial ground. This Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan (RDR/RAWP) provides a summary description of each waste site included in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the basis for remedial actions to be taken, and the remedial action approach and management process for implementing these actions. The remedial action approach and management sections provide a description of the remedial action process description, the project schedule, the project team, required planning documentation, the remedial action change process, the process for verifying attainment of the remedial action goals, and the required CERCLA and RCRA closeout documentation. Appendix A provides additional details on each waste site. In addition to remediation of the waste sites, waste generated during the remedial investigation/feasibility study portions of the project will also be disposed at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Appendix B provides a summary of the modeling performed in the 300-FF-1 Phase 3 FS and a description of the modeling effort to be used to show attainment of the remedial action goals. Appendix C provides the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for all sampling and field-screening activities performed during remediation and for verification of attainment with the remedial action goals. Appendix D provides the public involvement plan, prepared to ensure information is provided to the public during remedial design and remedial action processes.

  19. Effects of landscape composition and configuration on pollination in a native herb: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekroos, Johan; Jakobsson, Anna; Wideen, Joel; Herbertsson, Lina; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G

    2015-10-01

    Bumble bee abundance in agricultural landscapes is known to decrease with increasing distance from seminatural grasslands, but whether the pollination of bumble-bee-pollinated wild plants shows a similar pattern is less well known. In addition, the relative effects of landscape composition (landscape heterogeneity) and landscape configuration (distance from seminatural grassland) on wild plant pollination, and the interaction between these landscape effects, have not been studied using landscape-level replication. We performed a field experiment to disentangle these landscape effects on the pollination of a native herb, the sticky catchfly (Lychnis viscaria), while accounting for the proportion of oilseed rape across landscapes and the local abundance of bee forage flowers. We measured pollen limitation (the degree to which seed set is pollen-limited), seed set, and seed set stability using potted plants placed in landscapes that differed in heterogeneity (composition) and distance from seminatural grassland (configuration). Pollen limitation and seed set in individual plants did not respond to landscape composition, landscape configuration, or proportion of oilseed rape. Instead, seed set increased with increasing local bee forage flower cover. However, we found within-plant variability in pollen limitation and seed set to increase with increasing distance from seminatural pasture. Our results suggest that average within-plant levels of pollen limitation and seed set respond less swiftly than the within-plant variability in pollen limitation and seed set to changes in landscape configuration. Although landscape effects on pollination were less important than predicted, we conclude that landscape configuration and local habitat characteristics play larger roles than landscape composition in the pollination of L. viscaria.

  20. Radon remediation of dwellings with suspended timber floors -case studies from the Building Research Establishment (UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, P.; Stephen, R.

    1994-01-01

    Dwellings with suspended floors and high radon levels are proving difficult to remediate. This paper reports on the experience of the Building Research Establishment in dealing with such dwellings. Brief details of the remediation of 14 houses are given, and comparisons are made between the effectiveness of the different techniques adopted. Natural ventilation, mechanical supply ventilation and mechanical extract ventilation are three techniques that have been used successfully as radon remedial measures. Preliminary results suggest that supply ventilation is more effective than extract ventilation. (author)

  1. An Expert support model for ex situ soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.; Frankhuizen, E.M.; Wit, de J.C.; Pijls, C.G.J.M.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an expert support model recombining knowledge and experience obtained during ex situ soil remediation. To solve soil remediation problems, an inter-disciplinary approach is required. Responsibilities during the soil remediation process, however, are increasingly decentralised,

  2. Remediation of the Maxey Flats Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes issues associated with remedial action of Maxey Flats, a low-level radioactive waste disposal site from 1963-1977, located in Fleming County, Kentucky. Present remedial action alternatives being considered are discussed along with emergency plans, ground water monitoring plans, and budgets

  3. Foreword Special Issue on Electrokinetic remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loch, J.P.G.; Lima, A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Since the first symposium on Electro-remediation (EREM) in 1997 at the École des Mines d’Albi, in Albi, France, much international attention, interest and progress have been generated in the science and technology of electro-remediation of contaminated soils, sediments and construction

  4. Remedial principles and meaningful engagement in education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article evaluates the meaningful engagement doctrine in the education rights jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court in the light of a set of normative principles developed by Susan Sturm for evaluating participatory public law remedies. It commences by identifying four principles for evaluating participatory remedies ...

  5. Laboratory Experiment on Electrokinetic Remediation of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed-Ali, Alya H.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is a method of decontaminating soil containing heavy metals and polar organic contaminants by passing a direct current through the soil. An undergraduate chemistry laboratory is described to demonstrate electrokinetic remediation of soil contaminated with copper. A 30 cm electrokinetic cell with an applied voltage of 30…

  6. 14 CFR 1212.800 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1212.800 Section 1212.800... Comply With Requirements of This Part § 1212.800 Civil remedies. Failure to comply with the requirements of the Privacy Act and this part could subject NASA to civil suit under the provisions of 5 U.S.C...

  7. 10 CFR 1008.15 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1008.15 Section 1008.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) Requests for Access or Amendment § 1008.15 Civil remedies. Subsection (g) of the Act provides that an individual may bring suit...

  8. Steam and electroheating remediation of tight soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balshaw-Biddle, K.; Oubre, C.L.; Ward, C.H. [eds.; Dablow, J.F. III; Pearce, J.A.; Johnson, P.C.

    2000-07-01

    In the past few decades the need for soil remediation has become urgent, even more necessary--innovative, cost effective methods. Steam and Electroheating Remediation of Tight Soils presents the results of a field study testing the cleanup of semi-volatile fuels from tight soils using combination of hydraulic fracturing and soil heating technologies.

  9. 40 CFR 85.1803 - Remedial Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1803 Remedial Plan. (a) When any manufacturer is... the total parts requirement of each person who is to perform the repair under the remedial plan to be...: (i) The recall campaign number; and (ii) A code designating the campaign facility at which the repair...

  10. Data anonymization patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and (iv the topics emerging most often in patent titles. Patents from the PatSeer database relating to data anonymization from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed. We used the longitudinal approach in combination with text mining techniques to develop a data anonymization patent landscape. The results indicated the following. The number of single patent families is growing with a high increase after 2010, thus indicating a positive trend in the area of patenting data anonymization solutions. The majority of patenting activities relate to the G Physics section. Organizations from the USA and Japan assigned the majority of patents related to data anonymization. The results of text mining indicate that the most often used word in titles of data anonymization patents are “anonym*, “method”, “data” and “system”. Several additional words that indicated the most frequent topics related to data anonymization were: “equipment”, “software”, “protection”, “identification”, or “encryption”, and specific topics such as “community”, “medical”, or “service”.

  11. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  12. The use of historical imagery in the remediation of an urban hazardous waste site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E.T.

    2011-01-01

    The information derived from the interpretation of historical aerial photographs is perhaps the most basic multitemporal application of remote-sensing data. Aerial photographs dating back to the early 20th century can be extremely valuable sources of historical landscape activity. In this application, imagery from 1918 to 1927 provided a wealth of information about chemical weapons testing, storage, handling, and disposal of these hazardous materials. When analyzed by a trained photo-analyst, the 1918 aerial photographs resulted in 42 features of potential interest. When compared with current remedial activities and known areas of contamination, 33 of 42 or 78.5% of the features were spatially correlated with areas of known contamination or other remedial hazardous waste cleanup activity.

  13. Site remediation techniques in India: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomitra Banerjee; Miller Jothi

    2013-01-01

    India is one of the developing countries operating site remediation techniques for the entire nuclear fuel cycle waste for the last three decades. In this paper we intend to provide an overview of remediation methods currently utilized at various hazardous waste sites in India, their advantages and disadvantages. Over the years the site remediation techniques have been well characterized and different processes for treatment, conditioning and disposal are being practiced. Remediation Methods categorized as biological, chemical or physical are summarized for contaminated soils and environmental waters. This paper covers the site remediation techniques implemented for treatment and conditioning of wastelands arising from the operation of nuclear power plant, research reactors and fuel reprocessing units. (authors)

  14. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This conference provided an opportunity for industry, practitioners, researchers and regulators to discuss technical issues in environmental remediation research and the latest innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. Cost effective in-situ and ex-situ soil reclamation strategies were presented along with groundwater and surface water remediation strategies in 13 sessions entitled: hydrocarbon contamination; salt management; liability management; chemical oxidation; light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL); Montreal Center of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation; Alberta government updates; phytoremediation; natural attenuation; Lake Wabamun; ex-situ remediation; in-situ remediation; and, miscellaneous issues. Technological solutions for erosion control and water clarification were highlighted. The conference featured 52 presentations, of which 17 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  15. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses....... The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...

  16. Groundwater remediation in the Straz leaching operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.

    2001-01-01

    The locality affected by consequences of the chemical mining of the uranium during underground leaching 'in situ' is found in the area of the Czech Republic in the northeastern part of the Ceska Lipa district. In the contribution the complex groundwater remediation project is discussed. First, the risks of the current state are expressed. Then the alternatives of remediation of the both Cenomanian and Turonian aquifers are presented. Evaluation of the remediation alternatives with the view to the time-consumption, economy, ecology and the elimination of unacceptable risks for the population and environment is done. Finally, the present progress of remediation and the conception of remediation of chemical mining on deposit of Straz pod Ralskem are presented. (orig.)

  17. Remediation of spent block in Uvanas deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurgaziev, M.A.; Iskakov, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 by 'Kazatomprom' and 'Mining company' board decision, the branch of 'Mining company', 'Steppe ore management body' is reorganized in structure subdivision, the basic activity of which is organization and carrying out remediation works on spent blocks of PSV uranium deposit. In 2002 works are completed on OVOS for operating deposits Uvanas, Kanjugan, Northern Karamurun and Eastern Minkuduk. The results of present work were reported in IAEA conference. The working project 'Remediation of spent blocks of PSV uranium deposit PV-17 polygon of Steppe ore management body' approved in 2005 was developed for carrying out the remediation works. Works funding were carried out from liquidation fund of the current deposit established in accordance with the Republic of Kazakhstan law 'About interior and interior use'. Deposits remediation is the part of deposit operation life cycle which obliges to operate deposits with minimum expenditures for remediation.

  18. LCA of Soil and Groundwater Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Owsianiak, Mikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Today, there is increasing interest in applying LCA to support decision-makers in contaminated site management. In this chapter, we introduce remediation technologies and associated environmental impacts, present an overview of literature findings on LCA applied to remediation technologies...... and present methodological issues to consider when conducting LCAs within the area. Within the field of contaminated site remediation , a terminology distinguishing three types of environmental impacts: primary, secondary and tertiary, is often applied. Primary impacts are the site-related impacts due...... and efficiency of remediation, which are important for assessment or primary impacts; (ii) robust assessment of primary impacts using site-specific fate and exposure models; (iii) weighting of primary and secondary (or tertiary) impacts to evaluate trade-offs between life cycle impacts from remediation...

  19. Spectral Characteristics of Salinized Soils during Microbial Remediation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuang; Shen, Guang-rong; Zhi, Yue-e; Wang, Zi-jun; Zhu, Yun; Li, Xian-hua

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the spectral reflectance of saline soils, the associated soil salt content (SSC) and the concentrations of salt ions were measured and analysed by tracing the container microbial remediation experiments for saline soil (main salt is sodium chloride) of Dongying City, Shandong Province. The sensitive spectral reflectance bands of saline soils to SSC, Cl- and Na+ in the process of microbial remediation were analysed. The average-dimension reduction of these bands was conducted by using a combination of correlation coefficient and decision coefficient, and by gradually narrowing the sampling interval method. Results showed that the tendency and magnitude of the average spectral reflectance in all bands of saline soils during the total remediation processes were nearly consistent with SSC and with Cl- coocentration, respectively. The degree of salinity of the soil, including SSC and salt ion concentrations, had a significant positive correlation with the spectral reflectance of all bands, particularly in the near-infrared band. The optimal spectral bands of SSC were 1370 to 1445 nm and 1447 to 1608 nm, whereas the optimal spectral bands of Cl- and Na+ were 1336 to 1461 nm and 1471 to 1561 nm, respectively. The relationship model among SSC, soil salt ion concentrations (Cl- and Na+) and soil spectral reflectance of the corresponding optimal spectral band was established. The largest R2 of relationship model between SSC and the average reflectance of associated optimal band reached to 0.95, and RMSEC and RMSEP were 1.076 and 0.591, respectively. Significant statistical analysis of salt factors and soil reflectance for different microbial remediation processes indicated that the spectral response characteristics and sensitivity of SSC to soil reflectance, which implied the feasibility of high spectrum test on soil microbial remediation monitoring, also provided the basis for quick nondestructive monitoring soil bioremediation process by soil spectral

  20. [Landscape classification: research progress and development trend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fa-Chao; Liu, Li-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Landscape classification is the basis of the researches on landscape structure, process, and function, and also, the prerequisite for landscape evaluation, planning, protection, and management, directly affecting the precision and practicability of landscape research. This paper reviewed the research progress on the landscape classification system, theory, and methodology, and summarized the key problems and deficiencies of current researches. Some major landscape classification systems, e. g. , LANMAP and MUFIC, were introduced and discussed. It was suggested that a qualitative and quantitative comprehensive classification based on the ideology of functional structure shape and on the integral consideration of landscape classification utility, landscape function, landscape structure, physiogeographical factors, and human disturbance intensity should be the major research directions in the future. The integration of mapping, 3S technology, quantitative mathematics modeling, computer artificial intelligence, and professional knowledge to enhance the precision of landscape classification would be the key issues and the development trend in the researches of landscape classification.

  1. Light Pollution Responses and Remedies

    CERN Document Server

    Mizon, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Light pollution is a major threat to astronomy across the entire developed world. The night sky that most of us can see bears little relationship to the spectacular vistas that our ancestors have gazed at for tens of thousands of years. It is ironic that as our understanding of the universe has improved, our ability to see it has been dramatically reduced by the skyglow of our civilization. In the second edition of Light Pollution - Responses and Remedies, Bob Mizon delves into the history and practice of lighting and how its misue has not only stolen the stars, but blighted our lives and those of our fellow-creatures on this planet. This book suggests how we can win back the night sky and at the same time save energy and money, improve our health, and even lower crime rate! It also includes a list of targets for urban stargazers, and recommendations for ensuring sane lighting worldwide.

  2. Introduction: Mediating and Remediating Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    In this second volume we explore how people, groups and institutions deal with death through processes of mediation (the presentation of something through media), remediation (the representation of one medium in another, see below) and mediatization (the process through which core elements...... of a social or cultural activity assume media form, see below). The volume presents a wide variety of ethnographies of death from Norway, Finland, Sweden, the US, Papua New Guinea, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Libya, Tibet, Uganda and Denmark as well as a number of online sites and social media material....... These are analyzed through a vast number of theoretical and analytical perspectives in order to investigate how very diverse practices surrounding death and dying - mourning and commemoration, ritualization, politicization, re-enactment, traditionalization, activism or documentarism: private or public, offline...

  3. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  4. Landscape pattern metrics and regional assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, R. V.; Riitters, K.H.; Wickham, J.D.; Jones, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of remote imagery data, geographic information systems software, and landscape ecology theory provides a unique basis for monitoring and assessing large-scale ecological systems. The unique feature of the work has been the need to develop and interpret quantitative measures of spatial pattern-the landscape indices. This article reviews what is known about the statistical properties of these pattern metrics and suggests some additional metrics based on island biogeography, percolation theory, hierarchy theory, and economic geography. Assessment applications of this approach have required interpreting the pattern metrics in terms of specific environmental endpoints, such as wildlife and water quality, and research into how to represent synergystic effects of many overlapping sources of stress.

  5. RTE and landscape; RTE et le paysage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    The lines are essential for the smooth operation of the electrical system. For the great majority, they are overhead. Insertion into the landscape is one of the approaches to the RTE (French manager of the electricity transportation network) environmental policy. The integration of an overhead line means finding the best possible path, taking into consideration the geography, the residential areas, the natural environment and the economic activity zones (farming, existing infrastructures and easements), landscapes and sites. The various routing possibilities are investigated in deliberation with the government services, the local councils and the different voluntary organisations concerned to find the best route. Once validated by the prefect, it is submitted to a public inquiry. The choice of the most suitable technical solution will then include mitigation measures as shown by the examples given in this brochure: line integration (traditional lines, vegetable screen, painted towers, specific towers, tower competition, particular cases, substation incoming feeders), line burial (technology, cost comparison), substation insertion.

  6. Statistical predictions from anarchic field theory landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, Vijay; Boer, Jan de; Naqvi, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Consistent coupling of effective field theories with a quantum theory of gravity appears to require bounds on the rank of the gauge group and the amount of matter. We consider landscapes of field theories subject to such to boundedness constraints. We argue that appropriately 'coarse-grained' aspects of the randomly chosen field theory in such landscapes, such as the fraction of gauge groups with ranks in a given range, can be statistically predictable. To illustrate our point we show how the uniform measures on simple classes of N=1 quiver gauge theories localize in the vicinity of theories with certain typical structures. Generically, this approach would predict a high energy theory with very many gauge factors, with the high rank factors largely decoupled from the low rank factors if we require asymptotic freedom for the latter.

  7. The remediation of tributyltin-contaminated dredgins and waters

    OpenAIRE

    Gkenakou, Evgenia-Varvara

    2008-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a pollutant, mainly introduced to the environment as a marine anti-fouling agent. The aim of this work was to assess and develop sustainable and cost-effective remediation technologies for TBT-contaminated dredged materials. For this purpose, analytical methods were developed for sediments and sediment leachates.For the sediments, a triple extraction followed by derivatisation and measurement by gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detection was employed, avoi...

  8. Experience with remediation implementation at railroad station Freital-Potschappel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streubel, G.; Tottewitz, K.

    1995-01-01

    As a result of the measuring activities for the contaminated sites cadastre, the Saxonian Landesamt fuer Umwelt und Geologie requested the Deutsche Bahn AG as the responsible site owner to clean up the radioactively contaminated surfaces open to the general public. In response, the Deutsche Bahn AG commissioned the TUeV Sachsen GmbH to carry out the remediation work. The lecture reports on aspects of main interest and experience obtained in these activities. (orig./DG) [de

  9. Environmental impact of differently remediated hard coal overburden and tailings dumps a few decades after remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willscher, S.; Felix, M.; Sohr, A.

    2010-01-01

    Coal mining in the Saxony region of Germany has caused heavy metal and arsenic pollution in adjacent groundwater and surface waters. Coal waste dumping sites are leaching heavy metals and metalloids in the form of fine precipitates into local rivers. This paper studied the different remediation strategies used at 3 different dump sites in the area. The aim of the study was to determine the environmental impact of the dumps and evaluate the long-term effects of remediation measures. The dumps consisted of coarse to fine-grained materials from former processing activities, and contained pyrite in varying concentrations. Samples from different depth as well as groundwater samples were taken from the sites and investigated for their mechanical, geological, geochemical, biogeochemical, and physico-chemical characteristics. Seepage formation rates and contaminant loads at the dump sites were compared. The study showed that the revegetation of dump surfaces can help to prevent against erosion, but cannot prevent acid mine drainage (AMD) generation. The additional seals and covers placed at 2 of the dumps resulted in a high reduction of seepage waters, and almost no acidification of dump materials. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Novel sorbents for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Werner, David

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the major environmental problems is the pollution of aquatic systems and soil by persistent pollutants. Persistent pollutants have been found widespread in sediments, surface waters, and drinking water supplies. The removal of pollutants can be accomplished prior to their discharge to receiving bodies or by immobilizing them onto soil. Sorption is the most commonly applied process, and activated carbons have been widely used. Rapid progress in nanotechnology and a new focus on biomass-based instead of non-renewable starting materials have produced a wide range of novel engineered sorbents including biosorbents, biochars, carbon-based nanoparticles, bio-nano hybrid materials, and iron-impregnated activated carbons. Sorbent materials have been used in environmental remediation processes and especially in agricultural soil, sediments and contaminated soil, water treatment, and industrial wastewater treatment. Furthermore, sorbents may enhance the synergistic action of other processes, such as volatilization and biodegradation. Novel sorbents have been employed for the removal or immobilization of persistent pollutants such as and include heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg), halogenated organic compounds, endocrine disrupting chemicals, metalloids and non-metallic elements, and other organic pollutants. The development and evaluation of novel sorbents requires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing environmental, nanotechnology, physical, analytical, and surface chemistry. The necessary evaluations encompass not only the efficiency of these materials to remove pollutants from surface waters and groundwater, industrial wastewater, polluted soils and sediments, etc., but also the potential side-effects of their environmental applications. The aim of this work is to present the results of the use of biochar and impregnated carbon sorbents for the removal of organic pollutants and metals. Furthermore, the new findings from the forthcoming session

  11. Remedial transactions curtailment via optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Viktor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The new method developed in this paper is aiming at transmission congestion management (CM. The new, Optimal Transactions Management method (OTM, is based on linear programming (LP, DC load flow (DCLF and linear security constraints. The OTM method is embedded in Available Transfer Capabilities (ATCs and Power Transfer Distribution Factors (PTDFs definitions' environment. Well-suited for both preventive and corrective modes of operation, the OTM method aids transmission system operator in running a congested power system network, where congestions are due to transactions. Potential congestion threat is solved by finding the 'culprit' transaction and its optimal reduction. Besides the proposed downsizing of scheduled and/or committed transactions, controls of the OTM method also include redispatching of generation and load levels. The task is to establish a system state without constraint violations. To ensure the feasible network solution, both DC and AC power flows are used. The common 5 nodes/7 lines Ward&Hale sample power system is used to clarify the OTM method. Besides, six other power system networks including the real-life power system network of Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro (part of the South East Europe - SEE grid are used to test remedial potentials and CPU-time performances of the method. The 24-hour daily demand diagram is used with all test networks to study the effects of transactions as they are being superimposed to the regional grid. The remedial, transactions-curtailing OTM method is found well suited for market-related analyses precluding the hour-ahead, the day-ahead dispatch, as well as the real-time generation dispatch. It could also suit for the novel, Day Ahead Congestion Forecast (DACF procedure used in power markets. .

  12. Flow assurance intervention, hydrates remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Christopher S. [Oceaneering International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper addresses the issues of removing hydrates in sub sea flow lines and associated equipment with an Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) of opportunity and a multi-service-vessel (MSV). The paper is split into three topics: the equipment used with the ROV, assessing the interface points and handling fluids produced from drawing down the pressure. Each section is explained thoroughly and backed up with real world experience. The equipment section details information from actual jobs performed and why the particular components were utilized. The system is generally contained in an ROV mounted skid. Pumps are utilized to draw down the pressure inside the hydrated section of equipment, removing one of the three necessary components for hydrates formation. Once the section is pumped down, several options exist for handling the fluids pumped out of the system: pumping to surface, re-injection into the well, or injection into an operating flow line. This method of hydrates remediation is both economical and timely. Hydrate blockages form in low temperatures and high pressures. Reducing the pressure or increasing the temperature so the conditions lie to the right of the hydrate dissociation curve will slowly decompose the blockage. Depressurization and the use of MEG or methanol will give favorable conditions to remove the hydrate plug. Oceaneering has the capabilities to remove hydrates using the FRS in conjunction with an installation vessel to dispose of the gas and fluid removed from the flow line. Hydrate remediation techniques should be implemented into the initial design to reduce costs later. The cost of stopped production combined with the day rate for equipment needed for hydrate removal outweighs the costs if no technique is utilized. (author)

  13. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hart, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS trademark) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project. During Phase 2, the basic nitrification process design was modified to meet the specific needs of the new waste streams available at Paducah. The system design developed for Paducah has significantly enhanced the processing capabilities of the Vortec vitrification process. The overall system design now includes the capability to shred entire drums and drum packs containing mud, concrete, plastics and PCB's as well as bulk waste materials. This enhanced processing capability will substantially expand the total DOE waste remediation applications of the technology

  14. Site characterization techniques used in environmental remediation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    As a result of decades of nuclear energy research, weapons production, as well as ongoing operations, a significant amount of radioactive contamination has occurred throughout the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex. DOE facility are in the process of assessing and potentially remediating various sites according to the regulations imposed by a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent order (FFA/CO) between DOE, the state in which the facility is located, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In support of these active site remediation efforts, the DOE has devoted considerable resources towards the development of innovative site characterization techniques that support environmental restoration activities. These resources and efforts have focused on various aspects of this complex problem. Research and technology development conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has resulted in the ability and state-of-the-art equipment required to obtain real-time, densely spaced, in situ characterization data (i.e. detection, speciation, and location) of various radionuclides and contaminants. The Remedial Action Monitoring System (RAMS), developed by the INEEL, consists of enhanced sensor technology, measurement modeling and interpretation techniques, and a suite of deployment platforms which can be interchanged to directly support remedial cleanup and site verification operations. In situ characterization techniques have advanced to the point where they are being actively deployed in support of remedial operations. The INEEL has deployed its system at various DOE and international sites. The deployment of in situ characterization systems during environmental restoration operations has shown that this approach results in several significant benefits versus conventional sampling techniques. A flexible characterization system permits rapid modification to satisfy physical site conditions, available site resources

  15. Environmental remediation for the upstream of Yotsugi Mill Tailings Pond, Ningyo-toge Uranium Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hiroshi; Torikai, Kazuyoshi; Fukushima, Shigeru; Sakao, Ryota; Taki, Tomihiro; Sato, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Atsushi

    2016-03-01

    Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center has been conducting environmental remediation of the Ningyo-toge Uranium Mine, after decades of mine-related activities including uranium exploration, mining and test milling were terminated. The main purposes of the remediation are to take measures to ensure safety and radiation protection from the exposure pathways to humans in future, and to prevent the occurrence of mining pollution. As part of the remediation, upstream part of the Yotsugi Mill Tailings Pond, the highest prioritized facility among all of the mine-related facilities, has been remediated to fiscal year 2012. In the remediation, multi-layered capping has been constructed using natural material on ground surface, after specifications and whole remediation procedure being examined in terms of long-term stability, radiation protection, economics, and other aspects. Monitoring has been carried out to confirm the effectiveness of the capping, in terms of settlement, underground temperature, dose-rate and radon exhalation rate. Monitoring of drainage volume of penetrated rainwater is planned to begin in future. Accumulated data will be examined and its result will be used for remediation of downstream part of the Pond. (author)

  16. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Chilton, B.D.; Baldauf, M.F.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography of 756 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fifth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; and (7) Technical Measurements Center. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 4, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The Appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms

  17. Remedial Action Assessment System: A computer-based methodology for conducting feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.K.; Buelt, J.L.; Stottlemyre, J.A.

    1991-02-01

    Because of the complexity and number of potential waste sites facing the US Department of Energy (DOE) for potential cleanup, DOE is supporting the development of a computer-based methodology to streamline the remedial investigation/feasibility study process. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS), can be used for screening, linking, and evaluating established technology processes in support of conducting feasibility studies. It is also intended to do the same in support of corrective measures studies. The user interface employs menus, windows, help features, and graphical information while RAAS is in operation. Object-oriented programming is used to link unit processes into sets of compatible processes that form appropriate remedial alternatives. Once the remedial alternatives are formed, the RAAS methodology can evaluate them in terms of effectiveness, implementability, and cost. RAAS will access a user-selected risk assessment code to determine the reduction of risk after remedial action by each recommended alternative. The methodology will also help determine the implementability of the remedial alternatives at a site and access cost estimating tools to provide estimates of capital, operating, and maintenance costs. This paper presents the characteristics of two RAAS prototypes currently being developed. These include the RAAS Technology Information System, which accesses graphical, tabular and textual information about technologies, and the main RAAS methodology, which screens, links, and evaluates remedial technologies. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764

  19. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764.

  20. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P. T.; Webb, J. R.; Knox, N. P.; Goins, L. F.; Harrell, R. E.; Mallory, P. K.; Cravens, C. D.

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764.

  1. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Chilton, B.D.; Baldauf, M.F.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography of 756 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fifth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; and (7) Technical Measurements Center. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 4, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The Appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms.

  2. Cleaning up a toxic legacy: Environmental remediation of former uranium production sites in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 60 abandoned uranium production sites dot the landscape and represent a hazard to the environment and inhabitants throughout rural Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Each site poses a challenge for local and national governments that lack technical expertise and resources for remediation. The sites were used to produce uranium until the 1990s. They were built before proper regulatory infrastructure was in place to ensure eventual decommissioning, so leftover residues with long-lived radioactive and highly toxic chemical contaminants still pose substantial risks to the health of the public and the environment.

  3. Cleaning up a toxic legacy: Environmental remediation of former uranium production sites in Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 60 abandoned uranium production sites dot the landscape and represent a hazard to the environment and inhabitants throughout rural Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Each site poses a challenge for local and national governments that lack technical expertise and resources for remediation. The sites were used to produce uranium until the 1990s. They were built before proper regulatory infrastructure was in place to ensure eventual decommissioning, so leftover residues with long-lived radioactive and highly toxic chemical contaminants still pose substantial risks to the health of the public and the environment

  4. Landscape services as boundary concept in landscape governance: Building social capital in collaboration and adapting the landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, Judith; Opdam, Paul; Rooij, Van Sabine; Steingröver, Eveliene

    2017-01-01

    The landscape services concept provides a lens to study relations within the social-ecological networks that landscapes are, and to identify stakeholders as either providers or beneficiaries. However, landscape services can also be used as a boundary concept in collaborative landscape governance. We

  5. IAEA Expert Remediation Mission to Japan Issues Preliminary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    food safety measures has protected consumers and improved consumer confidence in farm produce. A comprehensive programme to monitor fresh water sources such as rivers, lakes and ponds is ongoing, including extensive food monitoring of both wild and cultivated freshwater fish. The Mission encouraged the Japanese government to strengthen its efforts to explain to the public that an additional individual radiation dose of 1 millisievert per year (mSv/y), which it has announced as a long-term goal, cannot be achieved in a short time by decontamination work alone. In remediation situations, with appropriate consideration of the prevailing circumstances, any level of individual radiation dose in the range of 1 to 20 mSv/y is acceptable and in line with international standards and the recommendations of the relevant international organisations such as the IAEA, International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and World Health Organisation (WHO). The Mission encouraged the relevant institutions in Japan to assess the role that the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) could play in the independent review of the remediation activities, particularly those required for the long term. The Mission also encouraged the relevant organisations to conduct safety assessments of the facilities and activities for the long-term management of contaminated materials, and to allow for their independent review. The Mission Team acknowledged that the Japanese authorities have implemented a practical option for remediating the region's extensive forest areas, taking a limited approach by removing material under the trees in a 20-meter buffer strip adjacent to residences, farmland and public spaces. It recommended concentrating efforts on areas that bring the greatest benefit in reducing doses to the public, while avoiding damage to the ecological functioning of the forest where possible. The 16-person team

  6. Multifunctional landscape practice and accessibility in manorial landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    . However classical manorial estates seems to represent an opposite trend. Allthough working at the same market conditions as other large specialized holdings developed through the process of structural rationalization, they have often maintained and elaborated a land use strategy based on a multifunctional...... use of the potential ecosystem services present within their domain. The targeted combination of agriculture, forestry, hunting rents, rental housing, and a variety of recreational activities influences makes a certain public accessibility to an integrated part of this strategy, diverging from...... the multifunctional landscape strategy supporting a certain public access. A study of this thesis is presented based on an analysis of multifunctionality, landscape development and accessibility in Danish Manorial landscapes and eventual linkages between their multifunctional landscape strategy, their history...

  7. Beyond Landscape MacArchitecture: new languages, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Rackham

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The sine qua non of landscape architecture is respect for the genius loci, but even in the landscape, as in architecture and society more generally, a process of cultural homogenisation has been taking place. Against this process, a resurgence of interest in minority languages in Europe can be seen as an assertion of pride, and a desire to preserve difference. In Scotland, landscape architects are attempting to reinterpret Scottish and northern European urban design influences and materials: in effect to develop a new regional dialect for the new landscapes. Rooted in sound design principles and materials which respond to and reflect the climate, way of life and traditions of the place, design languages can communicate effectively about cultural values and differences.

  8. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Emma; Sadler, Jon P.; Telfer, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

  9. Policy and Strategies for Environmental Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In the environmental remediation of a given site, concerned and interested parties have diverse and often conflicting interests with regard to remediation goals, the time frames involved, reuse of the site, the efforts necessary and cost allocation. An environmental remediation policy is essential for establishing the core values on which remediation is to be based. It incorporates a set of principles to ensure the safe and efficient management of remediation situations. Policy is mainly established by the national government and may become codified in the national legislative system. An environmental remediation strategy sets out the means for satisfying the principles and requirements of the national policy. It is normally established by the relevant remediation implementer or by the government in the case of legacy sites. Thus, the national policy may be elaborated in several different strategies. To ensure the safe, technically optimal and cost effective management of remediation situations, countries are advised to formulate an appropriate policy and strategies. Situations involving remediation include remediation of legacy sites (sites where past activities were not stringently regulated or adequately supervised), remediation after emergencies (nuclear and radiological) and remediation after planned ongoing operation and decommissioning. The environmental policy involves the principles of justification, optimization of protection, protection of future generations and the environment, efficiency in the use of resources, and transparent interaction with stakeholders. A typical policy will also take into account the national legal framework and institutional structure and applicable international conventions while providing for the allocation of responsibilities and resources, in addition to safety and security objectives and public information and participation in the decision making process. The strategy reflects and elaborates the goals and requirements set

  10. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  11. Studying landscape architecture in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2010-01-01

    s demanded large numbers of landscape architects. Today landscape architecture education addresses current challenges of climate change and the need for sustainable development where an understanding of natural systems is seen as essential for future urbanisation processes in evermore innovative......Landscape architecture is a well-established profession in Denmark. From the early 20th Century the profession developed steadily. However, it was 1960 before a separate education was established. This proved timely as the immense physical development of the Danish welfare state of the 1970s and 80...

  12. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  13. Connecting Brabant's cover sand landscapes through landscape history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskes, Erik; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Harthoorn, Jaap; Maes, Bert; Leenders, Karel; de Jongh, Piet; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van den Oetelaar, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Noord-Brabant has the largest variety of cover sand landscapes in The Netherlands, and probably in Western Europe. During the Last Ice Age the area was not covered by land ice and a polar desert developed in which sand dunes buried the existing river landscapes. Some of these polar dune landscapes experienced a geomorphological and soil development that remained virtually untouched up to the present day, such as the low parabolic dunes of the Strabrechtse Heide or the later and higher dunes of the Oisterwijkse Vennen. As Noord-Brabant lies on the fringe of a tectonic basin, the thickness of cover sand deposits in the Centrale Slenk, part of a rift through Europe, amounts up to 20 metres. Cover sand deposits along the fault lines cause the special phenomenon of 'wijst' to develop, in which the higher grounds are wetter than the boarding lower grounds. Since 4000 BC humans settled in these cover sand landscapes and made use of its small-scale variety. An example are the prehistoric finds on the flanks and the historic towns on top of the 'donken' in northwest Noord-Brabant, where the cover sand landscapes are buried by river and marine deposits and only the peaks of the dunes protrude as donken. Or the church of Handel that is built beside a 'wijst' source and a site of pilgrimage since living memory. Or the 'essen' and plaggen agriculture that developed along the stream valleys of Noord-Brabant from 1300 AD onwards, giving rise to geomorphological features as 'randwallen' and plaggen soils of more than a metre thickness. Each region of Brabant each has its own approach in attracting tourists and has not yet used this common landscape history to connect, manage and promote their territories. We propose a landscape-historical approach to develop a national or European Geopark Brabants' cover sand landscapes, in which each region focuses on a specific part of the landscape history of Brabant, that stretches from the Late Weichselian polar desert when the dune

  14. Remediation of Steel Slag on Acidic Soil Contaminated by Heavy Metal

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Haihong; Li, Fuping; Guan, Xiang; Li, Zhongwei; Yu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    The technology of in situ immobilization with amendments is an important measure that remediates the soil contaminated by heavy metal, and selecting economical and effective modifier is the key. The effects and mechanism of steel slag, the silicon-rich alkaline by-product which can remediate acidic soil contaminated by heavy metal, are mainly introduced in this paper to provide theory inferences for future research. Firstly, the paper analyzes current research situation of in situ immobilizat...

  15. Determining site-specific background level with geostatistics for remediation of heavy metals in neighborhood soils

    OpenAIRE

    Tammy M. Milillo; Gaurav Sinha; Joseph A. Gardella Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The choice of a relevant, uncontaminated site for the determination of site-specific background concentrations for pollutants is critical for planning remediation of a contaminated site. The guidelines used to arrive at concentration levels vary from state to state, complicating this process. The residential neighborhood of Hickory Woods in Buffalo, NY is an area where heavy metal concentrations and spatial distributions were measured to plan remediation. A novel geostatistics based decision ...

  16. Bioassay responses and effects on benthos after pilot remediations in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besten, Pieter J. den; Brink, Paul J. van den

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and biological monitoring was carried out for 5 years following pilot remediations at two locations in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The remediations consisted of partial excavation of the contaminated sediments, followed by applying a clean layer of sandy material on top. After the remediation, a new silty sediment top layer was formed exhibiting a lower toxicity in five sediment/sediment pore water bioassays. Compared to the unremediated sites, lower metal and PAH concentrations were found at the remediated sites, but in one location at the same time elevated HCH, PCB and HCB levels were recorded. One year after the remediation, the differences became smaller, although effects-based classification showed that the remediated site showed a higher quality up to the last year. In both remediated sites a rapid recolonization of nematodes, oligochaetes and chironomids was observed, while the recolonization by bivalves was slower. A few years after the remediation the differences decrease. - Capping contaminated sediments can be an effective remediation measure in two large river deltas

  17. Bioassay responses and effects on benthos after pilot remediations in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besten, Pieter J. den [Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment (RIZA), Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, PO Box 17, 8200 AA Lelystad (Netherlands)]. E-mail: p.dbesten@riza.rws.minvenw.nl; Brink, Paul J. van den [Alterra Green World Research, Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2005-07-15

    Chemical and biological monitoring was carried out for 5 years following pilot remediations at two locations in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The remediations consisted of partial excavation of the contaminated sediments, followed by applying a clean layer of sandy material on top. After the remediation, a new silty sediment top layer was formed exhibiting a lower toxicity in five sediment/sediment pore water bioassays. Compared to the unremediated sites, lower metal and PAH concentrations were found at the remediated sites, but in one location at the same time elevated HCH, PCB and HCB levels were recorded. One year after the remediation, the differences became smaller, although effects-based classification showed that the remediated site showed a higher quality up to the last year. In both remediated sites a rapid recolonization of nematodes, oligochaetes and chironomids was observed, while the recolonization by bivalves was slower. A few years after the remediation the differences decrease. - Capping contaminated sediments can be an effective remediation measure in two large river deltas.

  18. LANDSCAPE PLANNING IN UKRAINE: THE FIRST LANDSCAPE-PLANNING PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Rudenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the first, in Ukraine; project on landscape planning widely accepted in European countries. Under the project implemented in 2010–2013, a landscape-planning program has been developed for the Cherkassy oblast. This is the first document of this kind in Ukraine. The program is mainly based on the experience of the German and Russian schools of landscape planning and on research and assessment conducted by the authors, which allowed identifying approaches to landscape planning, principles of the national policy, and characteristics and potential of environmentally friendly planning in Ukraine. The paper discusses the main phases of the work on the development of the landscape program for the oblast. It also identifies the main stages and key concepts and principles of landscape planning. The paper presents the results of integrated research on the identification and classification of conflicts in land use and the integral concept of the developmental goals for the oblast. The results can be the foundation for adopting management decisions and development of action plans for the lower hierarchal branches.

  19. Remedial action of radium contaminated residential properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.; Eng, J.

    1986-01-01

    Since November 1983, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) have been in the process of identifying properties in Montclair, Glen Ridge and West Orange, New Jersey, which were built over radium contaminated soil landfilled areas. Elevated indoor radon concentrations prompted the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to issue a health advisory which included permanent remediation of radon progeny levels in excess of 0.02 Working Levels within two years of discovery. In order to expedite remedial action, NJDEP undertook a ten million dollar cleanup program. Remedial Action at the 12 residential properties encountered some unanticipated problems despite the efforts of numerous government agencies and their contractors to characterize the contamination as much as possible prior to remediation. Some of the unanticipated issues include contamination from other radionuclides, underestimation of removal volumes, and controversy over the transportation and disposal of the radium contaminated soil at a commercial facility in Nevada. This paper will review the approach taken by NJDEP to the remedial action for radium contaminated soil, discuss some of the issues encountered during the remedial action, and provide post remedial action data

  20. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss the remediation of contaminated sites. It was attended by all industry sectors that have an interest in learning about technical issues in environmental remediation research and the latest innovations in soil and groundwater remediation and industrial pollutant treatments. Cost effective in-situ and ex-situ soil reclamation strategies were presented along with groundwater and surface water remediation strategies. The diversified sessions at this conference were entitled: regulatory update; Montreal Centre of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation; soil and groundwater remediation through the Program of Energy Research and Development at Environment Canada; technology from the Netherlands; bioremediation; hydrocarbons; in-situ remediation; phytoremediation; salt management; unique locations; and, miscellaneous issues. Some areas and case studies covered in the presentations included: biological and non-biological treatments; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; electrochemical remediation; and membrane technology. The conference featured 63 presentations, of which 23 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.