WorldWideScience

Sample records for remaining oil resources

  1. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Kansas. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Kansas oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit the state of Kansas and the nation as a whole.

  2. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Louisiana: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Louisiana. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Louisiana oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Louisiana and the nation as a whole.

  3. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of California. Volume 2, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As a part of this larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of California. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to California's known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, California oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of California and the nation as a whole

  4. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas and Oklahoma. Volume 5, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma for five other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Kansas' known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma and the nation as a whole

  5. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of New Mexico and Wyoming. Volume 4, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of New Mexico and Wyoming. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to New Mexico's known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD ampersand D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD ampersand D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the states of New Mexico and Wyoming and the nation as a whole

  6. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Louisiana and Texas. Volume 3, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Louisiana and Texas. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS)

  7. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC's effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD ampersand D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic, social, and political benefits of improved oil recovery to the nation as a whole. Individual reports for major oil producing states have been separately published. The individual state reports include California, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). TORIS is a tested and verified system maintained and operated by the Department of Energy's Bartlesville Project Office. The TORTS system was used to evaluate over 2,300 major reservoirs in a consistent manner and on an individual basis, the results of which have been aggregated to arrive at the national total

  8. Volume 5: An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in piercement salt dome reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, H.; Rogers, M.; Becker, A.; Biglarbigi, K.; Brashear, J. [ICF Kaiser-ICF Information Technology, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) has among its missions the facilitation of the development of required technologies to maximize the potential economic recovery of domestic oil and gas resources--both offshore and onshore, especially from Federal lands. In planning its activities, the DOE/FE relies on a number of comprehensive analytical systems in order to target and prioritize its research and development (R and D) activities and to estimate the benefits of its programs. DOE/FE`s analytical system, however, lacks the capability to assess the potential of future technology advances on the exploration, development, and production of crude oil resources in the Federal offshore of the Gulf of Mexico. The objective of the present effort is to develop an analytical system to characterize a portion of the Gulf offshore resources--the remaining unrecovered mobile oil resource associated with piercement salt dome reservoirs (hereafter referred to as salt dome reservoirs), and to evaluate additional recovery potential and related economic benefits that could result from the application of improved technologies. As part of the present effort a comprehensive analytical system has been developed for the characterization and evaluation of unrecovered mobile oil associated with the salt dome reservoirs in Federal offshore Gulf of Mexico. The system consists of a comprehensive database containing detailed rock and fluid properties, geologic information, and production and development history for 1,289 major fields and reservoirs representing an estimated 60% of the salt dome resources in the region. In addition, two separate methodologies and related economic and predictive models have been developed for the evaluation of applicable recovery processes. The system is intended for use as part of DOE`s Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS).

  9. Resources and future supply of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaerstad, Jan; Johnsson, Filip

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines global oil resources and the future global oil supply/demand balance. The paper builds upon several comprehensive databases designed during the work and considerable efforts have been made to review what must be considered the most reliable data. Global oil resources have been investigated on three levels; country, company and field levels. Although no decisive conclusions or quantitative assessments can be made with respect to the global oil resource base, remaining resources appear to be sufficient to meet demand up to 2030 as projected in the 2006 (and 2007) world energy outlook by the IEA. Significant resources have already been discovered beyond proven reserves, many prospective regions remain to be fully explored and there are vast volumes of recoverable unconventional oil. However, it is also concluded that global supply of oil probably will continue to be tight, both in the medium term as well as in the long term mainly as a consequence of above-ground factors such as investment constraints, geopolitical tensions, limited access to reserves and mature super-giant fields. Production of unconventional oil and synthetic fuels is not believed to significantly alter this situation. Although an increasing number of recent reports have indicated an imminent or 'soon to come' peak in global oil supply, it has not been found that any of these reports have contributed with any new information on oil resources or oil supply ability. Nevertheless, there is a distinct possibility that global oil production may peak or plateau in a relatively near future, not caused by limited resources but because too many factors over long time constrain investments into exploration and production. The lack of transparency within the oil industry obviously prevents any accurate analysis of future production and supply ability. Moreover, our ability to analyse the sector will become more difficult in the future as oil increasingly will have to be sourced from

  10. What remains of the Arrow oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergy, G.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    In February 1970, the tanker Arrow became grounded 6.5 km off the north shore of Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia, and nearly 72,000 bbl of Bunker C fuel oil were released from the vessel during its subsequent breakup and sinking. The oil was washed ashore in various degrees over an estimated 305 km of the bay's 604-km shoreline, of which only 48 km were cleaned. In addition, the tanker Kurdistan broke in two in pack ice in March 1979 in the Cabot Strait area, spilling ca 54,000 bbl of Bunker C, some of which was later found at 16 locations along the northeast and east shorelines of Chedabucto Bay. In summer 1992, a systematic ground survey of the bay's shorelines was conducted using Environment Canada Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) procedures. Standard observations were made of oil distribution and width, thickness, and character of the oil residues in 419 coastal segments. Results from the survey are summarized. Oil was found to be present on 13.3 km of the shoreline, with heavy oiling restricted to 1.3 km primarily in the areas of Black Duck Cove and Lennox Passage. Some of this residual oil was identified as coming from the Arrow. Natural weathering processes account for removal of most of the spilled oil from the bay. Oil remaining on the shore was found in areas outside of the zone of physical wave action, in areas of nearshore mixing where fine sediments are not present to weather the oil through biophysical processes, or in crusts formed by oil weathered on the surface. The systematic description of oiled shorelines using the SCAT methodology proved very successful, even for such an old spill. 6 refs

  11. Distribution and quantitative assessment of world crude oil reserves and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Charles D.; Root, David H.; Dietzman, William D.

    1983-01-01

    World Demonstrated Reserves of crude oil are approximately 723 billion barrels of oil (BBO). Cumulative production is 445 BBO and annual production is 20 BBO. Demonstrated Reserves of crude-oil have declined over the past 10 years consistent with discoveries lagging production over the same period. The assessment of Undiscovered Resources shows a 90 percent probability that the amount discoverable lies between 321 and 1,417 BBO, 550 BBO being the most likely value. The most likely value for Ultimate recoverable resources is 1,718 BBO. The distribution of Ultimate Resources of crude oil will remain highly skewed toward the Middle East; no frontier areas that have potentials large enough to significantly affect present distribution are recognized. Rates of discovery have continued to decline over the past 20 years even though exploration activity has increased in recent years. Prudence dictates, therefore, that the low side of the assessment of Undiscovered Resources be responsibly considered and that alternate energy sources be a part of future planning. Extra-heavy oil and bitumen are assessed separately, with Reserves being figured as the annual productive capacity of installed facilities times 25 years. The annual production of extra-heavy oil is about 8 million barrels and of bitumen about 60 million barrels.

  12. Future Oil and Gas Resources of the World: A Coming Supply Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T. S.

    2002-05-01

    Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, the U.S. Geological Survey completed in 2000 a new assessment of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth. One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95 percent of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces, were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil, which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about .8 TBOE; world consumption is about .014 TBOE. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18 percent leaving about 82 percent of endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25 percent of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil and gas endowment

  13. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Appendix. Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    Volume ten contains the following appendices: overview of improved oil recovery methods which covers enhanced oil recovery methods and advanced secondary recovery methods; the benefits of improved oil recovery, selected data for the analyzed states; and list of TORIS fields and reservoirs.

  14. Oil and resource-backed aggression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    A common misperception about oil politics is that it has a uniform, monolithic effect on policy development. This paper argues that in fact the net political effect of oil varies dramatically depending on the nature of the petrostate. It shows that oil income, when combined with revolutionary governments in petrostates, generates strong incentives for foreign policy aggression and international conflict. The aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states is shown to have consequences in both military and economic spheres of international relations. Militarily, the aggressiveness of this type of state leads to a high rate of armed conflicts. Economically, the aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states shapes global oil markets and international economic relations. The argument is tested using statistical analysis of international conflicts and economic sanctions. The policy implications are then considered, focusing on the negative global impacts of dependence on oil consumption. - Research highlights: → A radical reconsideration of the link between oil and international conflict is needed. → Resource-backed aggression, not resource-competition, is the major source of conflict. → Petro-revolutionary states instigate 250% more military conflicts than typical states. → Petro-revolutionary states are also more frequently targeted for economic sanctions.

  15. Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinti, Jennifer [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Birgenheier, Lauren [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, Milind [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Facelli, Julio [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, Michal [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Miller, Jan [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); McLennan, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, Terry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Uchitel, Kirsten [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report summarizes the significant findings from the Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources program sponsored by the Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology Laboratory. There were four principle areas of research; Environmental, legal, and policy issues related to development of oil shale and oil sands resources; Economic and environmental assessment of domestic unconventional fuels industry; Basin-scale assessment of conventional and unconventional fuel development impacts; and Liquid fuel production by in situ thermal processing of oil shale Multiple research projects were conducted in each area and the results have been communicated via sponsored conferences, conference presentations, invited talks, interviews with the media, numerous topical reports, journal publications, and a book that summarizes much of the oil shale research relating to Utah’s Uinta Basin. In addition, a repository of materials related to oil shale and oil sands has been created within the University of Utah’s Institutional Repository, including the materials generated during this research program. Below is a listing of all topical and progress reports generated by this project and submitted to the Office of Science and Technical Information (OSTI). A listing of all peer-reviewed publications generated as a result of this project is included at the end of this report; Geomechanical and Fluid Transport Properties 1 (December, 2015); Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis (February, 2015); and Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach (November, 2014); Policy Issues Associated With Using Simulation to Assess Environmental Impacts (November, 2014); Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience (September, 2013); V-UQ of Generation 1 Simulator with AMSO Experimental Data (August, 2013); Lands with Wilderness Characteristics, Resource Management Plan Constraints, and Land Exchanges

  16. Canada's crude oil resources : crude oil in our daily lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    2001-10-01

    Created in 1975, the Petroleum Communication Foundation is a not-for-profit organization. The objective of the Foundation is to inform Canadians about the petroleum industry in Canada. It produces educational, fact-based publications and programs, employing a multi-stakeholder review process. The first section of this publication is devoted to crude oil and the benefits that are derived from it. It begins by providing a brief definition of crude oil, then moves to the many uses in our daily lives and the environmental impacts like air pollution, spills, and footprint on the land from exploration and production activities. Section 2 details the many uses of crude oil and identifies the major oil producing regions of Canada. A quick mention is made of non-conventional sources of crude oil. The search for crude oil is the topic of section 3 of the document, providing an overview of the exploration activities, the access rights that must be obtained before gaining access to the resource. The drilling of oil is discussed in section 4. Section 5 deals with issues pertaining to reservoirs within rocks, while section 6 covers the feeding of the refineries, discussing topics from the movement of oil to market to the refining of the crude oil, and the pricing issues. In section 7, the uncertain future is examined with a view of balancing the supply and demand, as crude oil is a non-renewable resource. Supplementary information is provided concerning additional publications published by various organizations and agencies. figs

  17. An Estimate of Recoverable Heavy Oil Resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2009-01-01

    The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the La Luna-Quercual Total Petroleum System encompasses approximately 50,000 km2 of the East Venezuela Basin Province that is underlain by more than 1 trillion barrels of heavy oil-in-place. As part of a program directed at estimating the technically recoverable oil and gas resources of priority petroleum basins worldwide, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the recoverable oil resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit. This estimate relied mainly on published geologic and engineering data for reservoirs (net oil-saturated sandstone thickness and extent), petrophysical properties (porosity, water saturation, and formation volume factors), recovery factors determined by pilot projects, and estimates of volumes of oil-in-place. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean volume of 513 billion barrels of technically recoverable heavy oil in the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the East Venezuela Basin Province; the range is 380 to 652 billion barrels. The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit thus contains one of the largest recoverable oil accumulations in the world.

  18. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  19. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Jamal; Jafari, Yaghoob

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia. The physical and monetary balance sheets for crude oil and natural gas for the period 2000- 2007 was constructed. The net present value of expected future incomes to reflect the value of resource change was calculated based on a physical extraction and a resource rent scenario. Resource rent is gross operating surplus less the estimated user cost of produced capital in the crude oil and ...

  20. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Ventura Basin Province, California, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Lillis, Paul G.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-10-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geology-based assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in the part of the Ventura Basin Province that lies onshore or within State waters (within 3 miles of the shoreline) of California (fig. 1). Conventional oil and gas resources are those that have migrated upward into structural or stratigraphic traps from deep zones where the oil and gas is generated; water is present below the oil or gas. Continuous accumulations, in contrast, are those in which oil or gas is pervasively present in essentially all wells that penetrate them, that may not be structurally or stratigraphically trapped, and that typically lack oil-water or gas-water contacts. They are commonly produced with well-stimulation technology, such as hydraulic fracturing, referred to as “unconventional.” The same stimulation technology, however, is also used in many conventionally trapped accumulations. We estimated both the likely range of oil and gas volumes remaining to be discovered in accumulations similar to existing conventional oil and gas fields in the Ventura Basin Province (previously assessed by Keller [1995] as 1,060 million barrels of oil [MMBO], 1,900 billion cubic feet of gas [BCFG], and 60 million barrels of natural gas liquids [MMBNGL]), and the potential for oil and gas that might be present in a continuous accumulation at extreme depth in the floor of the basin.

  1. Financial development and oil resource abundance-growth relations: evidence from panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Siong Hook; Moradbeigi, Maryam

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates whether financial development dampens the negative impact of oil resource abundance on economic growth. Because of substantial cross-sectional dependence in our data, which contain a core sample of 63 oil-producing countries from 1980 through 2010, we use the common correlated effect mean group (CCEMG) estimator to account for the high degree of heterogeneity and drop the outlier countries. The empirical results reveal that oil resource abundance affects the growth rate in output contingent on the degree of development in financial markets. More developed financial markets can channel the revenues from oil into more productive activities and thus offset the negative effects of oil resource abundance on economic growth. Thus, better financial development can reverse resource curse or enhance resource blessing in oil-rich economies.

  2. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  3. Energetic dependency on the oil reserve- resources of crude oil in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marína Sidorová

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil belongs to the most important energy resources nowadays., However its reserves are the smallest in comparison with other energy resources as coal, gas or uranium. The world oil consumption continuously increases and within 20-year period there could be about one third. So, the consumption of combustibles will probably increase and the reserves will decrease. Promising are new resources or a better utilization of primary sources. It´s a question of a short time when world scientists should think about this indisputably worldwide problem and would provide an equivalent substitution with an available ecological solution.

  4. Natural Resources, Oil and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, Karel; Quarshie, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    This paper takes a critical look at the natural resource curse in countries in sub-Saharan Africa and it highlights the role of institutionalised authority. The paper first provides a comprehensive literature review of natural resource curse, Dutch disease and the role of oil resources in resource curse. This is follow by the description of the relevant economic factors in sub-Saharan Africa, which is taken as prime example of the region with both important oil and other natural resources and...

  5. Plant oil renewable resources as green alternatives in polymer science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, M.A.R.; Metzger, J.O.; Schubert, U.S.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization of plant oil renewable resources as raw materials for monomers and polymers is discussed and reviewed. In an age of increasing oil prices, global warming and other environmental problems (e.g. waste) the change from fossil feedstock to renewable resources can considerably contribute

  6. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Jamal, E-mail: jortman@ukm.my; Jafari, Yaghoob, E-mail: yaghoob.jafari@gmail.com [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Faculty of Economics and Management (Malaysia)

    2012-12-15

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  7. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Jamal; Jafari, Yaghoob

    2012-01-01

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000–2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  8. Natural resource injury at oil spills: A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    1993 is a critical time to review the actions taken at past spills and to formulate a new approach to natural resource injury at oil spills. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 has replaced the oil spill provisions of the Clean Water Act, and new regulations to govern natural resource damage assessments are due to be published by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) this year. The new law and regulations provide impetus for new directions. The new approach advocates cooperative damage assessments utilizing the new NOAA procedures. Litigation must be regarded as a last resort because it does not foster the goals of either the trustees or the oil industry. There are significant advantages to both trustees and industry from this approach

  9. World resources of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaterre, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    In a first part, the author outlines that the issue of density of an oil product raises the question of the validity of a counting approach based on volumes. As oil industries produce always less heavy products and always more light products, this means that always less oil is needed to produce a gallon or a litre of fuel out of a refinery. The author comments the evolution of crude oil extraction. In a second part, he outlines that hydrocarbon productions become always more complex with respect to their origin. Thus, during gas extraction, humid gases are recovered which contain an important part of hydrocarbons similar to light oil. These aspects and the development of shale gas exploitation will make the USA the first oil producer in the world whereas they still have to import heavy oil to feed their refineries. He discusses the level of reserves and production costs with respect to the product type or its extraction location. He discusses the evolution of the estimates of world ultimately recoverable resources (synthesis processes excluded). He comments the level of condensate extraction ratio of the main shale gas fields in the USA and outlines the cost of natural gas imports for France. He outlines the importance of GTL (gas to liquid) processes, the increasing importance of bio-fuels (notably isobutanol biosynthesis and terpene biosynthesis). In the third part, the author states that the barrel price should keep on increasing and, in the fourth part, proposes a list of issues which will impact the future of the oil market

  10. Biomarkers reveal sea turtles remained in oiled areas following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Bolten, Alan B.; Tucker, Anton D.; Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Reich, Kimberly J.; Addison, David S.; Mansfield, Katherine L.; Phillips, Katrina F.; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism. Keratin samples from the carapace of loggerhead sea turtles record the foraging history for up to 18 years, allowing us to evaluate the effect of the oil spill on sea turtle foraging patterns. Samples were collected from 76 satellite-tracked adult loggerheads in 2011 and 2012, approximately one to two years after the spill. Of the 10 individuals that foraged in areas exposed to surface oil, none demonstrated significant changes in foraging patterns post spill. The observed long-term fidelity to foraging sites indicates that loggerheads in the northern Gulf of Mexico likely remained in established foraging sites, regardless of the introduction of oil and chemical dispersants. More research is needed to address potential long-term health consequences to turtles in this region. Mobile marine organisms present challenges for researchers to monitor effects of environmental disasters, both spatially and temporally. We demonstrate that biological tissues can reveal long-term histories of animal behavior and provide critical pre-disaster baselines following an anthropogenic disturbance or natural disaster.

  11. Upgrading Unconventional Oil Resources with the EST Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbianco, Alberto; Meli, Salvatori; Panariti, Nicolleta; Rispoli, Giacomo

    2007-07-01

    We strongly believe that unconventional oils will play a much larger role in the growth of supply than is currently recognized. As a matter of fact, whereas the earth's conventional proven world oil reserves are 1.3 trillion barrels, extra-heavy plus bitumen resources amount to about 4 trillion barrels. The unconventional oils are characterized by low API gravity (<10), high viscosity and high concentration of poisons such as sulphur, nitrogen, metals, and asphaltenes. For this reason, a key role for the full exploitation of these hydrocarbon resources is played by the downstream processes that are required to upgrade and convert them into valuable products. In this scenario, Eni has developed a novel hydrocracking process (EST: Eni Slurry Technology) which is particularly well-suited for the conversion and upgrading of heavy feedstocks (conventional vacuum residues, extra-heavy oils and bitumen). EST employs nano-sized hydrogenation catalysts and an original process scheme that allow complete feedstock conversion to an upgraded synthetic crude oil (SCO) with an API gravity gain greater than 20 and avoid the production of residual by-products, such as pet-coke or heavy fuel oil. A Commercial Demonstration Unit (CDP) of 1200 bbl/d capacity is successfully operating in the Eni's Taranto refinery since November 2005. (auth)

  12. Washington's marine oil spill compensation schedule - simplified resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geselbracht, L.; Logan, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Washington State Preassessment Screening and Oil Spill Compensation Schedule Rule (Chapter 173-183 Washington Administrative Code), which simplifies natural resource damage assessment for many oil spill cases, became effective in May 1992. The approach described in the rule incorporates a number of preconstructed rankings that rate environmental sensitivity and the propensity of spilled oil to cause environmental harm. The rule also provides guidance regarding how damages calculated under the schedule should be reduced to take into account actions taken by the responsible party that reduce environmental injury. To apply the compensation schedule to marine estuarine spills, the resource trustees need only collect a limited amount of information such as type of product spilled, number of gallons spilled, compensation schedule subregions the spill entered, season of greatest spill impact, percent coverage of habitats affected by the spill, and actions taken by the responsible party. The result of adding a simplified tool to the existing assortment of damage assessment approaches is that resource trustees will now be able to assess damages for most oil spill cases and shift more effort than was possible in the past to resource restoration

  13. Corruption and reduced oil production: An additional resource curse factor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kasim, Farouk; Søreide, Tina; Williams, Aled

    2013-01-01

    Prominent contributions to the resource curse literature suggest weak governance and corruption are important factors behind the wide welfare variations observed among oil producing countries. How weak governance and corruption influence revenue management and expenditure decisions, as well as the possible welfare benefits derived from oil, are broadly discussed. How they impact upon volumes of oil produced has, however, attracted little attention. This paper combines a review of the resource curse and oil production literatures with findings from qualitative interviews with oil sector experts to appreciate the feasibility of connections between corruption and oil production below its potential. We make particular reference to environments where regulatory institutions or political accountability are weak and focus primarily on producer government and oil firm relations. Drawing on insights from geology, political science and economics, we suggest suboptimal production solutions can impact volumes of oil actually produced and create constraints on long term revenues for oil producing countries. We argue greater disclosure of information on oil production efficiency on a field-by-field and country-by-country basis will assist further investigation of the relationships between corruption and volumes of oil produced. - Highlights: ► We combine a literature review with qualitative interviews with oil experts. ► We focus on feasible connections between corruption and oil production levels. ► We suggest suboptimal production solutions can impact volumes of oil produced. ► Corruption may reinforce suboptimal oil production. ► More data on oil production efficiency by field and country will assist research

  14. GIS-and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Minnick, Matthew [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Geza, Mengistu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Murray, Kyle [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Mattson, Earl [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was awarded a grant by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a research project en- titled GIS- and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development in October of 2008. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a water resource geo-spatial infrastructure that serves as “baseline data” for creating solutions on water resource management and for supporting decisions making on oil shale resource development. The project came to the end on September 30, 2012. This final project report will report the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research. At meantime, the gamma version (also known as Version 4.0) of the geodatabase as well as other various deliverables stored on digital storage media will be send to the program manager at NETL, DOE via express mail. The key findings from the project activity include the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of the water resource throughout the Piceance Basin, water consumption with respect to oil shale production, and data gaps identified. Major accomplishments of this project include the creation of a relational geodatabase, automated data processing scripts (Matlab) for database link with surface water and geological model, ArcGIS Model for hydrogeologic data processing for groundwater model input, a 3D geological model, surface water/groundwater models, energy resource development systems model, as well as a web-based geo-spatial infrastructure for data exploration, visualization and dissemination. This research will have broad impacts of the devel- opment of the oil shale resources in the US. The geodatabase provides a “baseline” data for fur- ther study of the oil shale development and identification of further data collection needs. The 3D geological model provides better understanding through data interpolation and

  15. Shale Gas and Oil in Germany - Resources and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladage, Stefan; Blumenberg, Martin; Houben, Georg; Pfunt, Helena; Gestermann, Nicolai; Franke, Dieter; Erbacher, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    In light of the controversial debate on "unconventional" oil and gas resources and the environmental impacts of "fracking", the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) conducted a comprehensive resource assessment of shale gas and light tight oil in Germany and studied the potential environmental impacts of shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing from a geoscientific perspective. Here, we present our final results (BGR 2016), incorporating the majority of potential shale source rock formations in Germany. Besides shale gas, light tight oil has been assessed. According to our set of criteria - i.e. thermal maturity 0.6-1.2 %vitrinite reflectance (VR; oil) and >1.2 % VR (gas) respectively, organic carbon content > 2%, depth between 500/1000 m and 5000 m as well as a net thickness >20 m - seven potentially generative shale formations were indentified, the most important of them being the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Posidonia shale with both shale gas and tight oil potential. The North German basin is by far the most prolific basin. The resource assessment was carried out using a volumetric in-place approach. Variability inherent in the input parameters was accounted for using Monte-Carlo simulations. Technically recoverable resources (TRR) were estimated using recent, production-based recovery factors of North American shale plays and also employing Monte-Carlo simulations. In total, shale gas TRR range between 320 and 2030 bcm and tight oil TRR between 13 and 164 Mio. t in Germany. Tight oil potential is therefore considered minor, whereas the shale gas potential exceeds that of conventional resources by far. Furthermore an overview of numerical transport modelling approaches concerning environmental impacts of the hydraulic fracturing is given. These simulations are based on a representative lithostratigraphy model of the North-German basin, where major shale plays can be expected. Numerical hydrogeological modelling of frac fluid

  16. Material flow analysis for resource management towards resilient palm oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamahara, H.; Faisal, M.; Hasanudin, U.; Fujie, K.; Daimon, H.

    2018-03-01

    Biomass waste generated from palm oil mill can be considered not only as the feedstock of renewable energy but also as the nutrient-rich resources to produce organic fertilizer. This study explored the appropriate resource management towards resilient palm oil production by applying material flow analysis. This study was conducted based on two palm oil mills in Lampung, Indonesia. The results showed that the empty fruit bunch (EFB) has the largest potential in terms of amount and energy among the biomass waste. The results also showed that the palm oil mills themselves had already self-managed their energy consumption thatwas obtained from palm kernel shell and palm press fiber. Finally, this study recommended the several utilization options of EFB for improvement of soil sustainability to contribute towards resilient palm oil production.

  17. Site Selection and Resource Allocation of Oil Spill Emergency Base for Offshore Oil Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunbin; Liu, Jingxian; Wei, Lei; Wu, Weihuang

    2018-02-01

    Based on the analysis of the historical data about oil spill accidents in the Bohai Sea, this paper discretizes oil spilled source into a limited number of spill points. According to the probability of oil spill risk, the demand for salvage forces at each oil spill point is evaluated. Aiming at the specific location of the rescue base around the Bohai Sea, a cost-benefit analysis is conducted to determine the total cost of disasters for each rescue base. Based on the relationship between the oil spill point and the rescue site, a multi-objective optimization location model for the oil spill rescue base in the Bohai Sea region is established. And the genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem, and determine the emergency rescue base optimization program and emergency resources allocation ratio.

  18. Crude Oil Resource: A Blessing Or Curse To Nigeria – The Case Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude Oil Resource: A Blessing Or Curse To Nigeria – The Case Of The Niger Delta. S Tamuno, JM Felix. Abstract. This paper examines the question as to whether crude oil resource is a blessing or curse to Nigeria: The case of the Niger Delta Region. The paper traces the origin of oil exploration and exploitation from ...

  19. The U.S. Shale Oil and Gas Resource - a Multi-Scale Analysis of Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'sullivan, F.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, the large-scale production of natural gas, and more recently oil, from U.S. shale formations has had a transformative impact on the energy industry. The emergence of shale oil and gas as recoverable resources has altered perceptions regarding both the future abundance and cost of hydrocarbons, and has shifted the balance of global energy geopolitics. However, despite the excitement, shale is a resource in its nascency, and many challenges surrounding its exploitation remain. One of the most significant of these is the dramatic variation in resource productivity across multiple length scales, which is a feature of all of today's shale plays. This paper will describe the results of work that has looked to characterize the spatial and temporal variations in the productivity of the contemporary shale resource. Analysis will be presented that shows there is a strong stochastic element to observed shale well productivity in all the major plays. It will be shown that the nature of this stochasticity is consistent regardless of specific play being considered. A characterization of this stochasticity will be proposed. As a parallel to the discussion of productivity, the paper will also address the issue of "learning" in shale development. It will be shown that "creaming" trends are observable and that although "absolute" well productivity levels have increased, "specific" productivity levels (i.e. considering well and stimulation size) have actually falling markedly in many plays. The paper will also show that among individual operators' well ensembles, normalized well-to-well performance distributions are almost identical, and have remained consistent year-to-year. This result suggests little if any systematic learning regarding the effective management of well-to-well performance variability has taken place. The paper will conclude with an articulation of how the productivity characteristics of the shale resource are impacting on the resources

  20. The user cost of energy resource and its reasonable tax rate-A case of oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifan, Liu

    2017-12-01

    The development and use of natural resources bring about the externality of resources depletion, especially for non-renewable resources. This paper takes oil as an example to analyze the user cost of energy resource with EI Serafy User cost method, and discusses the rationality of the resource tax. Meanwhile, this paper determines oil resource tax rate in consideration of resource sustainable development. The results show that, the user cost of oil isn’t compensated fully, it is too low to make compensation to the environment and the profit of future generation, and the resource tax is a little low. At last of the paper, some conclusions and policy suggestions on resource tax reform are given.

  1. Geological characteristics and resource potentials of oil shale in Ordos Basin, Center China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunlai, Bai; Yingcheng, Zhao; Long, Ma; Wu-jun, Wu; Yu-hu, Ma

    2010-09-15

    It has been shown that not only there are abundant oil, gas, coal, coal-bed gas, groundwater and giant uranium deposits but also there are abundant oil shale resources in Ordos basin. It has been shown also that the thickness of oil shale is, usually, 4-36m, oil-bearing 1.5%-13.7%, caloric value 1.66-20.98MJ/kg. The resource amount of oil shale with burial depth less than 2000 m is over 2000x108t (334). Within it, confirmed reserve is about 1x108t (121). Not only huge economic benefit but also precious experience in developing oil shale may be obtained in Ordos basin.

  2. Oil sands geologists in an industry-school partnership : a resource and teaching opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, J.S.; Doram, T.

    1999-01-01

    The province of Alberta has developed a credit course within their Career and Technology Studies Program on the earth science of oil sands for senior high school science students. The course helps students learn to apply basic sciences to earth science through workplace site visits, resource material and team work. This paper described the increasing demand for, and success of, industry-high school partnerships, and provided special emphasis on the Bowness Senior High School-Imperial Oil partnership in Calgary, Alberta. Imperial Oil Resources is a major producer of oil sands and an employer of earth scientists in a variety of careers in which a wide range of technologies is applied. Students enrolled in the credit study program visit the Imperial Oil Resources Research Centre on five different occasions to gain skills and qualities sought by the workplace including communication, adaptability, team work, and science literacy and its application. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  3. Natural resource damage assessments for oil spills: Status of rules and application to recent oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilliard, G.A.; Winfield, T.P.; Lebednik, P.A.; Markarian, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    The natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) process is based on the concept that all natural resources managed by government agencies or Indian tribes (trustees) are available to the public for its use and enjoyment. These resources have an economic value that can be affected by a spill of oil or other chemicals. The spiller or potentially responsible party (PRP) is responsible to the public, through the trustees, for paying damages and for restoration of the resource. The NRDA process should also determine the appropriate means of restoration, provide a cost for doing so and for conducting the NRDA, and should implement the appropriate restoration activities. The legal and regulatory authority behind NRDA in the USA is explained and reasons why PRPs should be concerned about NRDAs in the context of oil spills are presented. US Department of the Interior regulations describe two procedures for implementing a NRDA. A simplified procedure intended for small spills uses a computer model to generate a damage value. A more thorough and complicated procedure involves a number of phases and steps within the phases, and may include field sampling, data collection and analysis, and detailed evaluation of restoration alternatives. The NRDA experience in oil spills to date is reviewed and the future of NRDA is assessed. Examples cited include the 1988 Shell Oil spill from the Martinez Refinery, the Exxon Bayway pipeline leak of 1990, the Mega Borg spill in the Texas offshore, and the Exxon Valdez spill. It is speculated that trustees will focus on the NRDA process as a cooperative one that includes the trustees and PRPs, with the ultimate goal being restoration of the foregone services provided by natural resources. 5 refs., 1 fig

  4. Modeling Oil Exploration and Production: Resource-Constrained and Agent-Based Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsson, Kristofer

    2010-05-01

    Energy is essential to the functioning of society, and oil is the single largest commercial energy source. Some analysts have concluded that the peak in oil production is soon about to happen on the global scale, while others disagree. Such incompatible views can persist because the issue of 'peak oil' cuts through the established scientific disciplines. The question is: what characterizes the modeling approaches that are available today, and how can they be further developed to improve a trans-disciplinary understanding of oil depletion? The objective of this thesis is to present long-term scenarios of oil production (Paper I) using a resource-constrained model; and an agent-based model of the oil exploration process (Paper II). It is also an objective to assess the strengths, limitations, and future development potentials of resource-constrained modeling, analytical economic modeling, and agent-based modeling. Resource-constrained models are only suitable when the time frame is measured in decades, but they can give a rough indication of which production scenarios are reasonable given the size of the resource. However, the models are comprehensible, transparent and the only feasible long-term forecasting tools at present. It is certainly possible to distinguish between reasonable scenarios, based on historically observed parameter values, and unreasonable scenarios with parameter values obtained through flawed analogy. The economic subfield of optimal depletion theory is founded on the notion of rational economic agents, and there is a causal relation between decisions made at the micro-level and the macro-result. In terms of future improvements, however, the analytical form considerably restricts the versatility of the approach. Agent-based modeling makes it feasible to combine economically motivated agents with a physical environment. An example relating to oil exploration is given in Paper II, where it is shown that the exploratory activities of individual

  5. Pollution potential of oil-contaminated soil on groundwater resources in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literathy, P.; Quinn, M.; Al-Rashed, M.

    2003-01-01

    The only natural freshwater resource of Kuwait occurs as lenses floating on the saline groundwater in the northern part of the country, near to the oil fields. Rainwater is the only means of recharge of this limited groundwater resource. This groundwater is used as bottled drinking water and the fresh groundwater aquifer is considered as a strategic drinking water reserve for Kuwait. As a result of the 1991 Gulf War, the upper soil layer has been widely contaminated with crude oil and crude oil combustion products, which are potential pollutants likely affecting the groundwater resources. Significant efforts have been made to assess this pollution. These included: (a) a soil survey for assessing the soil contamination, and (b) leaching experiments to characterise the mobilization of the soil-associated pollutants. Fluorescence measurement techniques were used during field surveys as well as for laboratory testing. In addition, determination of the total extractable matter (TEM), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and GC/MS measurement of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed for the assessments. The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement, having good correlation with the other laboratory measurements, was proved to provide necessary information for the assessment of the oil-contamination level in the desert soil. The subsequent leaching test with water demonstrated the mobilization of the fluorescing compounds (e.g. PAHs), and the alteration in the leaching characteristics of the contamination during the long term environmental weathering of the oil. (author)

  6. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 1.6 billion barrels of undiscovered conventional oil and 17 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas in three geologic provinces of Thailand using a geology-based methodology. Most of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resource is estimated to be in the area known as offshore Thai Basin province.

  7. Dominant Middle East oil reserves critically important to world supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, J.P. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the location production, and transportation of the 60 million bbl of oil consumed in the world each day is of vital importance to relations between nations, as well as to their economic wellbeing. Oil has frequently been a decisive factor in the determination of foreign policy. The war in the Persian Gulf, while a dramatic example of the critical importance of oil, is just the latest of a long line of oil-influenced diplomatic/military incidents, which may be expected to continue. Assuming that the world's remaining oil was evenly distributed and demand did not grow, if exploration and development proceeded as efficiently as they have in the U.S., world oil production could be sustained at around current levels to about the middle of the next century. It then would begin a long decline in response to a depleting resource base. However, the world's remaining oil is very unevenly distributed. It is located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, mostly in the Persian Gulf, and much is controlled by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Scientific resource assessments indicate that about half of the world's remaining conventionally recoverable crude oil resource occurs in the Persian Gulf area. In terms of proved reserves (known recoverable oil), the Persian Gulf portion increase to almost two-thirds

  8. An outlook of Malaysian energy, oil palm industry and its utilization of wastes as useful resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, F.; Abdullah, N.; Gerhauser, H.; Shariff, A.

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia has an abundance of energy resources, both renewable and non-renewable. The largest non-renewable energy resource found in Malaysia is oil, and second, is natural gas, primarily liquefied natural gas. The production and consumption of oil, gas and coal in Malaysia are given in this paper. The energy demand and supply by source are also shown in relation to the country's fuel diversification policy. In order to reduce the overall dependence on a single source of energy, efforts were undertaken to encourage the utilization of renewable resources. Forest residue and oil palm biomass are found to be potentially of highest energy value and considered as the main renewable energy option for Malaysia. Palm oil and related products represent the second largest export of Malaysia. The total oil palm planted area in Malaysia has increased significantly in recent years. This paper gives a detailed representation of oil palm planted and produced together with its yield from the year 1976 onwards. The large amounts of available forest and palm oil residues resulting from the harvest can be utilized for energy generation and other by-products in a manner that also addresses environmental concerns related to current waste disposal methods. -- Highlights: →Palm oil and related products represent the second largest export of Malaysia. →Malaysia has an abundance of energy resources, both renewable and non-renewable. →Forest and oil palm residues are the main renewable energy option for Malaysia. →Efforts were undertaken to encourage the utilization of renewable resources.

  9. Considerations when ranking stochastically modeled oil sands resource models for mining applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etris, E.L. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Idris, Y.; Hunter, A.C. [Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Alberta's Athabasca oil sands deposit has been targeted as a major resource for development. Bitumen recovery operations fall into 2 categories, namely mining and in situ operations. Mining recovery is done above ground level and consists of open pit digging, disaggregation of the bitumen-saturated sediment through crushing followed by pipeline transport in a water-based slurry and then separation of oil, water and sediment. In situ recovery consists of drilling wells and stimulating the oil sands in the subsurface with a thermal treatment to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen and allow it to come to the surface. Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is the most popular thermal treatment currently in use. Resource models that simulate the recovery process are needed for both mining and in situ recovery operations. Both types can benefit from the advantages of a stochastic modeling process for resource model building and uncertainty evaluation. Stochastic modeling provides a realistic geology and allows for multiple realizations, which mining operations can use to evaluate the variability of recoverable bitumen volumes and develop mine plans accordingly. This paper described the processes of stochastic modelling and of determining the appropriate single realization for mine planning as applied to the Fort Hills oil sands mine which is currently in the early planning stage. The modeling exercise was used to estimate the in-place resource and quantify the uncertainty in resource volumes. The stochastic models were checked against those generated from conventional methods to identify any differences and to make the appropriate adaptations. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 16 figs.

  10. World oil and gas resources-future production realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Welcome to uncertainty was the phrase Jack Schanz used to introduce both layman and professionals to the maze of petroleum energy data that must be comprehended to achieve understanding of this critical commodity. Schanz was referring to the variables as he and his colleagues with Resources for the Future saw them in those years soon after the energy-awakening oil embargo of 1973. In some respects, the authors have made progress in removing uncertainty from energy data, but in general, we simply must accept that there are many points of view and many ways for the blindman to describe the elephant. There can be definitive listing of all uncertainties, but for this paper the authors try to underscore those traits of petroleum occurrence and supply that the author's believe bear most heavily on the understanding of production and resource availability. Because oil and gas exist in nature under such variable conditions and because the products themselves are variable in their properties, the authors must first recognize classification divisions of the resource substances, so that the reader might always have a clear perception of just what we are talking about and how it relates to other components of the commodity in question

  11. An oil production forecast for China considering economic limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Feng, Lianyong; Wang, Jianliang; Xiong, Yi; Tverberg, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that oil prices may not rise endlessly. Unconventional oil is likely to be especially affected by low prices because it tends to be high-priced to extract. To estimate the impact prices might have on future Chinese oil production, we develop a model in which only future unconventional oil production is affected by price. We analyze three price scenarios: Stays Low, Best Estimate, and Ever-Rising Prices. In these scenarios, remaining Ultimate Recoverable Resources (URR) are estimated to be 10%, 50%, and 90% of remaining Technically Recoverable Resources, respectively. Since oil price can be expected to affect the shape of the extraction curve, we spread estimated URR to year using models that do not assume that future production will ultimately produce a symmetric Hubbert-type curve (Multi-Cycle Generalized Weng Model and Stochastic Resource-Constrained Growth Model). In the Best Estimate Scenario, China's oil production is expected to reach a maximum of 226.79 million tons in 2020. In the Ever-Rising Prices Scenario, China's maximum oil production occurs in 2023. In the Stays Low Scenario, maximum production has already been reached. - Highlights: • China's conventional oil reached a peak in 2010 and has begun to decline. • Unconventional oil production will be especially adversely affected by low prices. • Rising selling price of oil may lead to recession, bringing prices back down. • China's total oil supply appears likely to peak about 2020. • Likely oil production is less than Technically Recoverable Resources.

  12. Evaluation of PAH depletion of subsurface Exxon Valdez oil residues remaining in Prince William Sound in 2007-2008 and their likely bioremediation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R. [Louisville Univ., Louisville, KY (United States); Bragg, J.R. [Creative Petroleum Solutions LLC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the extent of oil weathering at the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) sites and estimated the bioremediation potential for shoreline segments by examining the depletion of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) relative to an estimated applicability threshold of 70 per cent. The distribution of oil was examined by location and current ratios of nitrogen and non-polar oil in order to assess if biodegradation rates were nutrient-limited. The impact of sequestration on the effectiveness of bioremediation was also studied. Results of the study showed that the EVOS residues are patchy and infrequently found on sites that were heavily oiled in 1989. Only 0.4 per cent of the oil originally stranded in 1989 remained. The remaining EVOS residues are sequestered under boulder and cobble armour in areas with limited contact with flowing water. The study also showed that concentrations of nitrogen and dissolved oxygen in pore waters within strata adjacent to the sequestered oil can support biodegradation. Most remaining EVOS residues are highly weathered and biodegraded. It was concluded that nutrients added to the shorelines are unlikely to effectively contact the sequestered oil. 31 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  13. World resources of crude oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An abstract is given of a paper presented at the World Petroleum Congress 1991 on the world estimates of identified reserves and undiscovered resources for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Data are presented for Canada, Mexico, USA, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, USSR, Africa, Middle East, Asia/Oceania and Antartica. (UK).

  14. Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Eocene Green River Formation, a foundation for calculating recoverable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The recently completed assessment of in-place resources of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado; the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado; and the Greater Green River Basin Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah and their accompanying ArcGIS projects will form the foundation for estimating technically-recoverable resources in those areas. Different estimates will be made for each of the various above-ground and in-situ recovery methodologies currently being developed. Information required for these estimates include but are not limited to (1) estimates of the amount of oil shale that exceeds various grades, (2) overburden calculations, (3) a better understanding of oil shale saline facies, and (4) a better understanding of the distribution of various oil shale mineral facies. Estimates for the first two are on-going, and some have been published. The present extent of the saline facies in all three basins is fairly well understood, however, their original extent prior to ground water leaching has not been studied in detail. These leached intervals, which have enhanced porosity and permeability due to vugs and fractures and contain significant ground water resources, are being studied from available core descriptions. A database of all available xray mineralogy data for the oil shale interval is being constructed to better determine the extents of the various mineral facies. Once these studies are finished, the amount of oil shale with various mineralogical and physical properties will be determined.

  15. Industry remains stuck in a transitional mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garb, F.A.

    1991-01-01

    The near future for industry remains foggy for several obvious reasons. The shake-up of the Soviet Union and how the pieces will reform remains unclear. How successful efforts are to privatize government oil company operations around the world has yet to be determined. A long sought peace in the Middle East seems to be inching closer, but will this continue? If it does continue, what impact will it have on world energy policy? Will American companies, which are now transferring their attention to foreign E and P, also maintain an interest in domestic activities? Is the U.S. economy really on the upswing? We are told that the worst of the recession is over, but try telling this to thousands of workers in the oil patch who are being released monthly by the big players in domestic operations. This paper reports that 1992 should be a better year than 1991, if measured in opportunity. There are more exploration and acquisition options available, both domestically and internationally, than there have been in years. Probably more opportunities exist than there are players-certainly more than can be funded with current financial resources

  16. [Perilla resources of China and essential oil chemotypes of Perilla leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chang-Ling; Guo, Bao-Lin; Zhang, Chen-Wu; Zhang, Fen; Tian, Jing; Bai, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Shun-Nan

    2016-05-01

    This study, based on the findings for Perilla resources, aimed to describe the species, distribution, importance, features, utilization and status of quantitative Perilla resources in China. This not only helps people to know well about the existing resources and researching development, but also indicates the overall distribution, selection and rational use of Perilla resource in the future. According to the output types, Perilla resources are divided into two categories: wild resources and cultivated resources; and based on its common uses, the cultivated resources are further divided into medicine resources, seed-used resources and export resources. The distribution areas of wild resources include Henan, Sichuan, Anhui, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Hunan, Jiangsu and Zhejiang. The distribution areas of medicine resources are concentrated in Hebei, Anhui, Chongqing, Guangxi and Guangdong. Seed-used resources are mainly distributed in Gansu, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Chongqing and Yunnan. Export resource areas are mainly concentrated in coastal cities, such as Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang. For the further study, the essential oil of leaf samples from different areas were extracted by the steam distillation method and analyzed by GC-MS. The differences in essential oil chemotypes among different Perilla leaves were compared by analyzing their chemical constituents. The main 31 constituents of all samples included: perillaketone (0.93%-96.55%), perillaldehyde (0.10%-61.24%), perillene (52.15%), caryophyllene (3.22%-26.67%), and α-farnesene (2.10%-21.54%). These samples can be classified into following five chemotypes based on the synthesis pathways: PK-type, PA-type, PL-type, PP-type and EK-type. The chemotypes of wild resources included PK-type and PA-type, with PK-type as the majority. All of the five chemotypes are included in cultivated resources, with PA-type as the majority. Seed-used resources are all PK-type, and export resources are all PA-type. The P

  17. Modeling of response, socioeconomic, and natural resource damage costs for hypothetical oil spill scenarios in San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.; French McCay, D.; Whittier, N.; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Jennings, J.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of oil type, spill size, response strategy and location factors on oil spill response costs, with particular reference to the cost benefits of the use of dispersants. Modeling has been conducted for a hypothetical oil spill in San Francisco Bay to determine biological impacts, damages to natural resources and response costs. The SIMAP modeling software by the Applied Science Associates was used to model 3 spill sizes (20, 50 and 95 percentile by volume) and 4 types of oil (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). Response costs, natural resource damages and socioeconomic impact were determined based on spill trajectory and fate. Mechanical recovery-based operations carry higher response costs than dispersant-based operations. Response costs for diesel and gasoline spills make up 20 per cent of the total costs, compared to 43 per cent for crude and heavy fuel oil spills. Damages to natural resources are higher for spills of toxic lighter fuels such as gasoline and diesel because gasoline has a greater impact on the water column with less shoreline oiling, resulting in more damages to natural resources. Heavier oils have a greater impact on shorelines and higher response and socioeconomic costs. Although socioeconomic costs varied by location, they tend to be greater than response costs and natural resource damage costs. Proportions of the different costs were described with reference to various spill factors. Socioeconomic costs are 61, 76, 45 and 53 per cent respectively for gasoline, diesel, crude oil, and heavy fuel oil spills. 27 refs., 23 tabs., 5 figs

  18. The case for conserving oil resources: the fundamentals of supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    This article summarises the evidence for an oil price shock and argues that oil producers, both OPEC and non-OPEC, need to cut back oil production more, in order to conserve oil for the future and to avert sudden extreme movements in oil prices in the next five-to-ten years. Four physical fundamentals determine long-run changes in oil prices: supply, demand, technology and substitutes. We show that supply, technology and substitutes are limited and demand is growing strongly. As demand pushes against supply, prices will rise rapidly. It would be better to conserve oil now, in order to have a smoother transition to higher-priced oil in the future. In addition, oil is such a valuable resource for the worlds economies in general, that we should conserve it for future generations. The world, in its haste for economic growth, should support OPEC conservation efforts. (author)

  19. Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-01

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future

  20. Energy security: it's not only oil. Increasing and replacing oil resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.; Appert, O.

    2006-01-01

    The security of energy supplies is once again right at the top of the list of energy policy subjects, following the political tensions in the Middle East, as well as major electricity failures of recent years, the hurricanes of August and September 2005 and the gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine. Even if the system of strategic oil stocks managed by the International Energy Agency has proved to be efficient, today keywords for guarding against the risks are diversification (of energy, of its sources, its suppliers and of its supply lines) and flexibility. Dialogue with the producers is essential. It will be difficult to find substitutes for hydrocarbons (oil and natural gas) in the short and medium terms to meet the needs of transport and for the petrochemical industry; they are likely to represent, in the order of two-thirds of the total demand for the world energy by the year 2030. In order to replace oil resources, taking account of all the risks of climate change, technological innovation will play a major role and should allow us to benefit from today potentially unreliable hydrocarbon supplies for many more years, allowing our society sufficient time to develop other sources of energy, and to do so at a cost that is acceptable to everybody. (authors)

  1. World oil and gas resources: status and outlook - A rational attempt at an emotional issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burri, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the status of world oil and gas resources and attempts to provide a rational view of the situation and the prospects available. The author states that only about a quarter of the world's estimated ultimately recoverable oil resources and one eighth of the ultimate gas resources have been produced until today. Further, the author is of the opinion that very significant reserve additions are to be expected not only from the still existing exploration frontiers (e.g. deep water and Arctic fields) but even more so from new hydrocarbon detection tools, advanced recovery technology and from unconventional oil and gas resources. The price situation is discussed as are various developments that not only have a negative but also a positive impact on supplies. Reserves and unconventional resources are discussed, particularly from the pricing point of view. The effect of pricing on consumption is examined, as are new technologies for recovery and the potential available for future exploration

  2. World oil and gas resources: status and outlook - A rational attempt at an emotional issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burri, P.

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the status of world oil and gas resources and attempts to provide a rational view of the situation and the prospects available. The author states that only about a quarter of the world's estimated ultimately recoverable oil resources and one eighth of the ultimate gas resources have been produced until today. Further, the author is of the opinion that very significant reserve additions are to be expected not only from the still existing exploration frontiers (e.g. deep water and Arctic fields) but even more so from new hydrocarbon detection tools, advanced recovery technology and from unconventional oil and gas resources. The price situation is discussed as are various developments that not only have a negative but also a positive impact on supplies. Reserves and unconventional resources are discussed, particularly from the pricing point of view. The effect of pricing on consumption is examined, as are new technologies for recovery and the potential available for future exploration

  3. Validation of the natural resource damage assessment model using historical observations on oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.; Rines, H.

    1995-01-01

    The Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) was developed by Applied Science Associates to simulate the fate and effects of oil and chemical spills into estuarine and marine environments. The US Department of the Interior has proposed the NRDAM/CME for use in Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) regulations under CERCLA. As part of the evaluation of model performance, the NRDAM/CME has been validated with observational data from case histories of oil spills, including the Exxon Valdez, World Prodigy, Mega Borg, Apex Houston and a number of others. Primarily, the data available for validation were of oil slick trajectory and coverage (e.g., overflight maps), length of shoreline oiled, area of marshes oiled, and a number of oiled birds recovered. Model performance was dependent on the accuracy of available wind and current data (the primary forces affecting fate) and bird abundances. Where these data sources were good (relatively well quantified), model performance was excellent. Results of the model simulations also provide an interesting sensitivity analysis and indications of relative effects of oil under various spill scenarios and conditions

  4. Lack of oil and gas resources leads to concentration on coal and nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-20

    The Bulgarian energy sector is characterised by a marked shortage of domestic resources. The country has no oil to speak of, no gas, relatively little hydro potential compared with its neighbours, and the one resource it does have in fair abundance - coal - is of the poorest quality. This poverty of resources has led to an extraordinary dependence on the Soviet Union for supplies of every resource and for technology to utilise them. Most oil, all gas, some electricity and even significant quantities of coal are all imported from the USSR. There is little Bulgaria can do about its oil needs for the transport sector, but otherwise current policy is to concentrate development in the nuclear and coal sectors. One of the main thrusts of the energy policy is to continue expansion of coal, largely opencast lignite deposits, in order to feed thermal power stations and, when clean coal technology is developed, to use coal in CHP plants. The country uses a small amount of natural gas but no development is foreseen; instead district heating is considered a more efficient use of resources. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L.; Dauben, D.L.

    1991-10-01

    NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K ampersand A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs

  6. Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Dauben, D.L. (K and A Energy Consultants, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States))

    1991-10-01

    NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

  7. Ghana and the Oil Sector: Beyond the Resource Curse?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellerin, Mathieu

    2015-09-01

    Four years after the Jubilee block went into production, we can make an initial assessment of the governance of Ghana's oil resources. In terms of its institutional structure, Ghana is seen as a model for the entire continent. This structure is certainly not an empty shell and serves as an effective regulator for this strategic sector and, singularly, for the use of oil revenues. Although this framework clearly has its limitations, as highlighted in this paper, the balance sheet is a positive one and there have been notable improvements since 2011. The relative success of this governance is a direct consequence of Ghana's political maturity. This is evidenced by the preeminent role played by Parliament and civil society in formulating, implementing, monitoring and continuously improving this framework for governance. Conditions seem to be reunited for Ghana to transform its oil potential into opportunities for success. However, this is not the case, and this is due to economic obstacles as much as a Ghanaian sense of disillusion concerning oil exploitation and the benefits thereof. (author)

  8. China's oil resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesegart, K

    1981-03-01

    The United Nations International Meeting on Petroleum Geology is being held this month from 18-25 in China, a country whose oil reserves up to mid-sixties had been judged by foreign observers to be minute and the development of her oil sector of no major importance. Today, with an annual crude output of 106 mn tons, China already ranks ninth among the world's oil producers. And, with the prospect of a further advance towards leadership among producers and exporters of the coveted energy material, the West is showing growing interest in China's energy potential. How real is this prospect forms the subject of this article. 3 tables.

  9. Technological advancements revitalize conventional oil sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, L.

    2000-01-01

    Maturing reserves in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is resulting in a gradual shift of focus from huge new discoveries and wildcat gushers to developing new technologies for exploration and enhanced recovery techniques of production, keeping costs down and reducing environmental impacts, as a means of keeping conventional oil plays a viable force in the oil and gas industry. The value in refocusing efforts towards technology development is given added weight by a recent announcement by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, which stated that in addition to the oil sands and offshore oil and gas developments, one of the country's largest undeveloped oil resource is the 70 per cent of discovered crude oil in western Canadian pools that cannot be recovered by current conventional production techniques. Therefore, development of new technologies to exploit these currently unrecoverable resources is a matter of high priority. To remain competitive, the new techniques must also lower the cost of recovering oil from these sources, given that the cost of oil production in Canada is already higher than that in most other competing countries

  10. Watered down : overcoming federal inaction on the impact of oil sands development to water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droitsch, D.

    2009-11-01

    The oil sands industry is having a negative impact on Canada's fresh water resources and aquatic ecosystems. Members of the Government of the Northwest Territories (NT) and experts from scientific, non-governmental, and First Nations groups have stated at federal hearings that the federal government must involve itself in the protection of Canada's water resources. This report discussed compelling testimony from recent federal hearings by the House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development.The federal government must establish enforceable standards for key toxic substances created by oil sands activity. A water-sharing agreement must be established between Alberta, NT, Saskatchewan, and First Nations governments. Other recommendations included the establishment of a peer-reviewed assessment of the health impacts of industrial oil sands development on First Nations communities; the establishment of cumulative effects assessment procedures; the identification and protection of listed species at risk; and the establishment of proactive measures designed to ensure that oil sands operators pay for the environmental damage caused to water resources. 94 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Resource Wars’ in the Post-Cold War Era: The Persian Gulf Oil, US, and the Iraq War

    OpenAIRE

    S Naji

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the strategic region of the Persian Gulf and its oil resources, the US energy policy, and the Iraq War as a case in point. It refers to the importance of the Persian Gulf oil in the US policies and the US geopolitical practices to launch conflicts and wars in the post-Cold War era that scholars have categorized as “resource wars.” Reviewing relevant studies has revealed that amongst the natural resources oil as the most vital commodity has always played a major role in ...

  12. The Utilization Of Resources And Regulation Along With Companys Strategies In Managing Oil And Natural Gas Industry In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Rahardjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas production in Indonesia has been declined since 1995 up to now the effort to increase the production has been done but it does not result yet. In contrast day by day the investment is getting increased and huge on the other hands it becomes a problem and a challenge for Indonesia to meet oil needs as raw material for refined fuel oil either for transportation or industries. Day by day the needs of refined fuel oil is getting increased and huge as it is correlated to the increasing of the number of motorcycles either two-wheeled or four-wheeled as well as the increasing of oil and gas or non-oil and gas industries. Oil and natural industry Resource Base has specific characteristics those are internal factor that uses resource such as high technology huge investment cost as well as competent human resources. Besides the external factor those are good regulations either in the central and regional levels as well as the sector which is very important toward the production performance and the of company managements strategies to manage this industry. This paper attempts to figure out the impact of internal factor in the form of resources and external factor in the form of regulation as well as the effect of production performance toward petroleum companies of upstream sectors in Indonesia and managements role especially petroleum industrialists in managing the company. The wane of oil production and the increasing of refined fuel oil need in Indonesia as well as the increasing of oil production cost then it will affect the industrialists strategies in managing the companies. The resources consist of human resource oil reserve as well as petroleum technologies. While regulation consists of law central and regional government regulations and rules in oil and gas sector. Whereas the companys strategies are explained by production volume and selling volume of oil. Companys performance which sets to work in upstream sector is influenced by

  13. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Zyryanka Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Zyryanka Basin Province as part of the 2008 USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated on the Omolon superterrane of the Kolyma block. The one assessment unit (AU) that was defined for this study, called the Zyryanka Basin AU, which coincides with the province, was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the Zyryanka Basin Province are ~72 million barrels of crude oil, 2,282 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 61 million barrels of natural-gas liquids. About 66 percent of the study area and undiscovered petroleum resources are north of the Arctic Circle.

  14. Fate of oil determinations under Arctic conditions: The Komi Pipeline oil spill experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeau, R.J.; Hansen, O.

    1995-01-01

    The rationale developed by a United Nations team to estimate the fate and transport of spilled oil remaining on the ground in the Pechora River basin in Russia following the Komi Pipeline spill disaster, was presented. The team consisted of experts from Norway, Canada, the United States and the European Union. Detailed background of the spill event, petroleum industry setting, geographic setting and hydrology of the regions was presented. Nine contaminated sites were identified. A worst case scenario was developed for the fate of the spilled oil. It was estimated that 93 000 - 97 000 tonnes of oil remained on the ground. Further pollution of the environment outside of Russia was considered unlikely under the circumstances, but petroleum contamination of the drinking water, tar balls and residual oil were expected to continue to persist in the affected area for many months. The UN team concluded that chronic pollution posed a significant threat to the region's natural resources. 4 refs., 3 figs

  15. World nonrenewable conventional energy resources as of December 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Energy analysts present year-end 1982 estimates for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the non-renewable convectional energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also given for several annual growth rates. The world's proved and currently recoverable natural gas reserves amount to 2649-3250 trillion CF; the estimated total remaining recoverable is 6693-7462 TCF. In 1982, 54 TCF of gas was produced for a cumulative production of 1320 TCF (not counting vented or flared gas)

  16. Oil. From mineral resource treasure to resource plague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabezas, M.

    2006-01-01

    Rising oil prices in the seventies resulted, also because of overspending, in disappointing economic development in the oil-producing countries. Although policy reactions to the current rise of the oil prices did not have that effect so far, there is the danger for financial instability [nl

  17. Climate-wise choices in a world of oil abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R.; Masnadi, Mohammad S.; Englander, Jacob G.; Koomey, Jonathan; Gordon, Deborah

    2018-04-01

    Constrained oil supply has given way to abundance at a time when strong action on climate change is wavering. Recent innovation has pushed US oil production to all-time heights and driven oil prices lower. At the same time, attention to climate policy is wavering due to geopolitical upheaval. Nevertheless, climate-wise choices in the oil sector remain a priority, given oil’s large role in modern economies. Here we use a set of open-source models along with a detailed dataset comprising 75 global crude oils (~25% of global production) to estimate the effects of carbon intensity and oil demand on decadal scale oil-sector emissions. We find that oil resources are abundant relative to all projections of 21st century demand, due to large light-tight oil (LTO) and heavy oil/bitumen (HOB) resources. We then investigate the ‘barrel forward’ emissions from producing, refining, and consuming all products from a barrel of crude. These oil resources have diverse life-cycle-greenhouse gas (LC-GHG) emissions impacts, and median per-barrel emissions for unconventional resources vary significantly. Median HOB life cycle emissions are 1.5 times those of median LTO emissions, exceeding them by 200 kgCO2eq./bbl. We show that reducing oil LC-GHGs is a mitigation opportunity worth 10–50 gigatonnes CO2 eq. cumulatively by 2050. We discuss means to reduce oil sector LC-GHGs. Results point to the need for policymakers to address both oil supply and oil demand when considering options to reduce LC-GHGs.

  18. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  19. Investigating the barriers of the green human resource management implementation in oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Fayyazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need for the integration of environmental management into Human Resource Management (HRM practices; such effort is known as Green HRM initiatives. The aim of this study is to identify barriers of green human resource management in Iran's oil industry. For this purpose, mixed method has been used. In the article, existing literature was examined and questions were designed and 12 experts of international oil industry were interviewed. The aim of these interviews was to design questionnaire and collects the necessary information. To examine the reliability of the questionnaires, Cronbach alpha coefficient was equal to 0.732, which validated the reliability of the questionnaire. Finally, the questionnaires were shared among 31 members of oil's experts and HR managers. The results of the study have shown that the lack of comprehensive plan to implement green HRM and ambiguous of green values were in the highest level and they were considered as the most important barriers. Furthermore, staff resistance had the lowest importance.

  20. Peak oil demand: the role of fuel efficiency and alternative fuels in a global oil production decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R; Millard-Ball, Adam; Ganser, Matthew; Gorelick, Steven M

    2013-07-16

    Some argue that peak conventional oil production is imminent due to physical resource scarcity. We examine the alternative possibility of reduced oil use due to improved efficiency and oil substitution. Our model uses historical relationships to project future demand for (a) transport services, (b) all liquid fuels, and (c) substitution with alternative energy carriers, including electricity. Results show great increases in passenger and freight transport activity, but less reliance on oil. Demand for liquids inputs to refineries declines significantly after 2070. By 2100 transport energy demand rises >1000% in Asia, while flattening in North America (+23%) and Europe (-20%). Conventional oil demand declines after 2035, and cumulative oil production is 1900 Gbbl from 2010 to 2100 (close to the U.S. Geological Survey median estimate of remaining oil, which only includes projected discoveries through 2025). These results suggest that effort is better spent to determine and influence the trajectory of oil substitution and efficiency improvement rather than to focus on oil resource scarcity. The results also imply that policy makers should not rely on liquid fossil fuel scarcity to constrain damage from climate change. However, there is an unpredictable range of emissions impacts depending on which mix of substitutes for conventional oil gains dominance-oil sands, electricity, coal-to-liquids, or others.

  1. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province as part of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) program. The province is situated in the Russian Federation and is located between the Taimyr Peninsula and the Novosibirsk (New Siberian) Islands. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined for this study: the West Laptev Grabens AU, the East Laptev Horsts AU, and the Anisin-Novosibirsk AU, two of which were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The East Laptev Horsts AU was not quantitatively assessed. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered oil and gas for the Laptev Sea Shelf Province are approximately 3 billion barrels of crude oil, 32 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and <1 billion barrels of natural gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  2. Oil resource panel finds more oil in United States by adding dollars and advancing recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Three years ago, the experts figures the US had only 49.4 Bbo in undiscovered, recoverable reserves. Now, there's more undiscovered resources and more reserve growth. Those figures include present proved reserves of 25 Bbo. They also include undiscovered recoverable resources ranging from 43 Bbo to 90 Bbo and reserve growth in existing fields ranging from 31 Bbo to 89 Bbo. Those are the estimates from a panel of oil resource analysts assembled August 31 and September 1 by the University of Texas at Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology and the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research. At current US production of 2.7 Bbo/year, the estimate gives the US a supply lasting from 35 to 75 years

  3. Britain's North Sea oil and gas production: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    The size and longevity of Britain's offshore hydrocarbons resources have been underestimated. Gas reserves were seriously under-exploited for almost 20 years from the late 1960s, given a belief that gas should be used only as a premium fuel and in the context of an uncompetitive market. Oil reserves' development and production has suffered from time to time from inappropriate politico-economic conditions. Nevertheless, offshore oil and gas has come to dominate the UK's energy production over the past 20 years and currently accounts for 85% of the country's total energy output. Fears for resources' exhaustion remain unjustified, as the industry continues to replace oil and gas reserves used each year. The North Sea is still not comprehensively explored: the continuation of the process will enable oil production to remain at high levels and that of gas to expand further. Supplementary output from the new west of Shetland province will become progressively more important after 2000. But continued intensive production overall depends on the maintenance of attractive politico-economic conditions and on present oil prices. It also requires the European gas market to remain firm but, ironically, the planned flow of UK gas to the mainland constitutes a threat to this condition. (Author)

  4. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Susitna Basin, southern Alaska, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Potter, Christopher J.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Shah, Anjana K.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Valin, Zenon C.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Haines, Seth S.; Higley, Debra K.; Houseknecht, David W.; Le, Phuong A.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.

    2018-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Susitna Basin of southern Alaska. Using a geology-based methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of about 2 million barrels of oil and nearly 1.7 trillion cubic feet of gas may be found in this area.

  5. SOLVENT-BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES TO DEVELOP WEST SAK ALASKA NORTH SLOPE HEAVY OIL RESOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David O. Ogbe; Tao Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A one-year research program is conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying solvent-based enhanced oil recovery processes to develop West Sak and Ugnu heavy oil resources found on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The project objective is to conduct research to develop technology to produce and market the 300-3000 cp oil in the West Sak and Ugnu sands. During the first phase of the research, background information was collected, and experimental and numerical studies of vapor extraction process (VAPEX) in West Sak and Ugnu are conducted. The experimental study is designed to foster understanding of the processes governing vapor chamber formation and growth, and to optimize oil recovery. A specially designed core-holder and a computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to measure the in-situ distribution of phases. Numerical simulation study of VAPEX was initiated during the first year. The numerical work completed during this period includes setting up a numerical model and using the analog data to simulate lab experiments of the VAPEX process. The goal was to understand the mechanisms governing the VAPEX process. Additional work is recommended to expand the VAPEX numerical study using actual field data obtained from Alaska North Slope.

  6. Must producers earn a resource rent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    In petroleum producing countries it has been a prevailing opinion that a resource rent should be earned by petroleum producers due to the commodities' non-renewable nature. An important element in this logic is that the supply of oil and natural gas is limited to relatively few places in the world. As the resources are exploited, the remaining reserves are reduced. What is extracted today cannot be extracted tomorrow. Rationing of the scarce resource takes place through pricing mechanisms. Due to the scarcity the consumers must pay a higher price than the marginal production costs, so that the amounts supplied and demanded become equal. Most producers of oil and gas and not just the ones that produce the cheapest, have therefore until now earned an economic rent

  7. Joint exploration and development: A self-salvation road to sustainable development of unconventional oil and gas resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Commercial production of unconventional oil and gas resources will not be easily achieved without large-scale engineering measures, let alone the additional operation cost, increasingly stricter requirement for safety and environment, fluctuating low oil and gas prices, etc., defeating the confidence of those investors. Therefore, unconventional measures are urgently needed to guide the exploration and exploitation of unconventional oil and gas resources. Thus, we put forward the concept of joint exploration and development by integrating research methodologies and operating techniques for a variety of oil and gas resources to simultaneously achieve analysis, construction, gathering and exploitation of multiple hydrocarbon sources. In this way, the annoying interference between the produced mixture of hydrocarbon flow resulting in the reduction of single-well flowrate will be possibly turned into a dynamic mutual force to enhance the well's flowrate. We also point out that the inevitability of joint exploration and development is determined by the occurrence conditions of oil and gas resources, its feasibility relies on the advancement of technologies, and its arduous and long-term nature is attributed to the current energy market and environment. In spite of various problems and difficulties, we believe that joint exploration and development will be a feasible option to achieve both cost reduction and production & benefit enhancement, boost investors' confidence, raise energy comprehensive utilization, and enhance energy supply efficiency. In conclusion, the advantages of joint exploration and development outweigh its disadvantages for both countries and enterprises.

  8. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, north of the Arctic Circle, as part of the Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated between the Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt and the Siberian craton. The one assessment unit (AU) defined for this study—the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep AU—was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep in the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province are ~400 million barrels of crude oil, 1.3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 40 million barrels of natural-gas liquids, practically all (99.49 percent) of which is north of the Arctic Circle.

  9. DEEP HANGING WALL TRAPS-THE REMAINING PROMISSING TARGETS FOR OIL EXPLORATION IN THE NIGER DELTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oton, S.W

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the most dominant types of Hydrocarbon types found in the petroliferous Niger Delta are the classical rollover anticlinical traps 'I of oil exploration in the delta, these easy-to-find rollover structures are getting exhausted. They are most numerous at shallow depths in the younger delta front sedimentary sequence. Generally, during this primary oil exploration stage, oil and gas exploration have been concentrated in the shallow depths where they are easy to reach, easy to explore and easy to produce. This means that the present and future exploration campaigns in the Niger Delta should be directed towards other types of hydrocarbon trapping mechanisms that have been mapped in the delta. Many exploration models have been used and oil has been found in at least nine types of traps in the Niger Delta. The contrary (or anitithetic) fault model was used at the close of the last century. This model is so called because the controlling antithetic fault has a regional dip contrary to the structure-building growth fault with which it is associated. These faults, which are widespread in the Niger Delta, are easy to map especially on the Petro geological model. In this period, several promising hydrocarbon accumulations trapped against antithetic faults were discovered and tested. These hydrocarbon targets also seem fully explored and exhausted now. Recently, from modern high resolution 2-D and 3-D seismic data a lot of good prospects have been mapped and drilled in the deep horizon. In the last few years, a lot of unexplored oil have been discovered and tested in the deep horizons. They are mostly in hanging wall traps, at depth below 4,000 meters. This shows that most of the remaining undiscovered hydrocarbons in the Niger Delta may well be in these deep hanging wall traps between 4,000 and close to 5,600 meters. A definite search for deep-seated hanging wall traps is therefore recommended in a bid to find more new reservoirs and thereby increase the

  10. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  11. A systematic framework for CAFD and resources allocation optimisation using MINLP in vegetable oil processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Sarup, Bent; Sin, Gürkan

    Although being a mature and well established industry segment, over the last few decades the vegetable oil industry has been facing many important new challenges due to emerging new products (such as biodiesel and nutraceuticals compounds), as well as new trends and regulations with regards....... In this paper, a systematic framework for Computer-Aided Flowsheet Syntesis and Design (CAFD) and resources allocation for the vegetable oil sector is presented. In the framework a Mixed Integer Non Linear Programming (MINLP) problem is formulated and solved for a soybean processing case study, to determine...... the optimal processing network for vegetable oil extraction and refining (including biodiesel production and various options for byproducts valorization), as well as the optimal material flows to each processing step. In order to optimize the resources needed to solve such a large and complex problem...

  12. The Petroleum resources on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This resource report provides a survey of petroleum resources on the NCS. Content: Resource account; Unconventional oil and gas resources; Future oil and gas production; Challenges for producing fields; Discoveries; Undiscovered resources; Curbing greenhouse gas emissions; Technology and talent; Exploration and new areas; How undiscovered resources are calculated; The NPD's project database; Play analysis; Changes to and reductions in estimated undiscovered resources; Unconventional petroleum resources; Many wells, Increased exploration, Every little helps; Varied discovery success; Sub-basalt in the Norwegian Sea; High exploration costs; Profitable exploration; Unopened areas - mostly in the far north; Resource base; Small discoveries; Location; Development solutions, Profitability of discoveries; Things may take time; Area perspective; Development of production; Remaining reserves and resources in fields; Target for reserve growth; Existing technology; Water and gas injection; Drilling and wells; Infrastructure challenges; New methods and technology; Challenges for pilot projects; Long-term thinking and creativity. (eb)

  13. Mining and oil. Oil shale's contribution to future oil supply; Bergbau und Oel. Der Beitrag des Oelschiefers zur Oelversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Eike von der [Linden Advisory, Dreieich (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Crude oil contributes in Germany and globally approximately one third to the consumption of primary energies and actually is and in the foreseeable future will be the most important energy source. Recently shale oil as an unconventional oil has gained attention in public discussions. Depending on temperatures oil shale contains either already matured fluid shale oil or immature waxy kerogen. For determination of kerogen containing oil shale and shale oil common definitions for fluid hydrocarbons will be presented. Fluid hydrocarbons (molecular chains > C{sub 5}H{sub 12}) originate from animal substance which had been settled millions of years in sediments on sea- or lakebeds under anaerobic conditions. High pressure and high temperatures effect conversion to hydrocarbons. With sufficient permeability the liquid hydrocarbons migrate from the sediment as the source rock and get assembled in porous rocks under the cover of an impermeable rock strata, in so called entrapment structures. In case there is no impermeable rock strate the hydrocarbons will diffuse into the atmosphere. The hydrocarbons in entrapment structures are called conventional oil and are extracted by drilling wells. The extractable oil as part of the oil in place depends on the viscosity of the oil, the permeability of the host rock and applied exploitation methods which can affect pressure, viscosity and permeability. The exploitation achieves 30 to 50% of the oil in place. When the source rock consisting of strata hundreds of meters thick is not sufficiently permeable the matured hydrocarbons remain at its place of origination. These hydrocarbons are called shale oil and belong to the unconventional oil resources. For exploitation of shale oil by wells the source rock must be treated by intensive energy input, amongst others, by fracking which creates artificial permeability and by pressure which affects migration of the hydrocarbons to the well. The exploitation methods for shale oil do not

  14. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources of the Cooper Basin, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2016-07-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean continuous resources of 482 million barrels of oil and 29.8 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper Basin of Australia.

  15. Global resources and energy trade. An overview for coal, natural gas, oil and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remme, U.; Blesl, M.; Fahl, U.

    2007-07-15

    Despite efforts to improve energy effi-ciency and increase the usage of renewable energy carriers, fossil fuels and nuclear energy will continue to be important sources of global energy supply for the coming decades. Present global oil and gas supply is characterized by a concentration of production in a few world areas, mainly the Middle East and the Former Soviet Union, and a transport from these regions to the industrialized countries. Depletion of conventional reserves, especially oil, in combination with a surge for energy in emerging economies, as China and India, how-ever, is expected to change this picture in the future: unconventional resources in other world regions may be exploited to cover the surge energy demand, infrastructure for energy transport along new routes may have to be established. To provide a data base for such ques-tions, this report gives an overview of the current global resource situation for coal, natural gas, oil and uranium. In the first part, an assessment of the con-ventional and unconventional reserves and resources as well as their supply costs is given for the different regions of the world. The second part describes the current energy trade infrastructure between world regions and estimates the costs for existing and new trade links between these regions. (orig.)

  16. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last 6 months (July 2004-December 2004) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the US: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources of the Baltic Depression Province, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 282 million barrels of conventional oil, 576 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 1.3 billion barrels of continuous oil, and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Baltic Depression Province.

  18. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cretaceous Nanushuk and Torok Formations, Alaska North Slope, and summary of resource potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Lease, Richard O.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Rouse, William A.; Jarboe, Palma B.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Heller, Samuel; Craddock, William H.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Smith, Rebecca; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2017-12-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 8.7 billion barrels of oil and 25 trillion cubic feet of natural gas (associated and nonassociated) in conventional accumulations in the Cretaceous Nanushuk and Torok Formations in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, adjacent State and Native lands, and State waters. The estimated undiscovered oil resources in the Nanushuk and Torok Formations are significantly higher than previous estimates, owing primarily to recent, larger than anticipated oil discoveries.

  19. Human-resource planning in the Venezuelan oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, S J.V.

    1985-01-01

    Because the economy of Venezuela is heavily dependent on its oil industry, the company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. was chosen for the detailed study. It was found that the system in use in the period 1980-81 was defective in that it did not address the serious medium- and long-term issues of manpower supply in a country seriously short of the skills needed. There was a lack of linkage between human resource planning and the corporation's long term objectives. Too much emphasis was being placed on quantitative, and too little on qualitative approaches to the problem. A new approach was developed to complement the existing shorter term quantitative approach. This involved a direct and active interaction with corporate planning. Within this framework a qualitative method of human resource planning was proposed and implemented. It has proved its usefulness in defining the type of personnel required by the organization in the distant future.

  20. Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, L.; Newbery, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF TIGHT OIL RESOURCES IN USA: PROFITABILITY OF EXPLOITATION AND EFFECT OF MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS IN VOLATILE OIL PRICE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Strpić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale development of tight oil resources in US started after 2010. with following five-year period of favorable steady increase in crude oil price. During this relatively short expansion cycle, operating and capital expenses changed drastically for main tight oil plays due to technological improvements in both well drilling and completion, expansion of service sector as well as loose government monetary policy which allowed favorable financing. This paper analyzed trends in costs during expansion period, as well as correlation of oil price to number of operating rigs and production quotas. After 2008/2009. world financial crisis economy recovery in US was somewhat sluggish and it caused extreme volatile environment in both equity and commodity markets. In such volatile environment intra-day crude oil prices, as well as other commodities and equities, show significant reaction to monthly published macroeconomic indicator reports, which give better overviews of trends in economic recovery. Prior to announcement, these reports always have forecasted value determined by consensus among market analysts. Therefore, any positive or negative surprise in real value tends to influence price of oil. This paper investigated influence of such macroeconomic reports to closing intraday oil price, as well as effect of other important daily market indices. Analysis showed that only Producer Price Index (PPI, among other indicators, has statistical significance of affecting intraday closing oil price.

  2. The Alberta dilemma: optimal sharing of a water resource by an agricultural and an oil sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaudet, G.; Moreaux, M.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We fully characterize the optimal time paths of production and water usage by an agricultural and an oil sector that share a limited water resource. We show that for any given water stock, if the oil stock is sufficiently large, it will become optimal to have a phase during which the agricultural

  3. Microbial Desulfurization of a Crude Oil Middle-Distillate Fraction: Analysis of the Extent of Sulfur Removal and the Effect of Removal on Remaining Sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M. J.; Lee, M. K.; Prince, R. C.; Garrett, K. K.; George, G. N.; Pickering, I. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 was evaluated for its ability to desulfurize a 232 to 343°C middle-distillate (diesel range) fraction of Oregon basin (OB) crude oil. OB oil was provided as the sole source of sulfur in batch cultures, and the extent of desulfurization and the chemical fate of the residual sulfur in the oil after treatment were determined. Gas chromatography (GC), flame ionization detection, and GC sulfur chemiluminesce detection analysis were used to qualitatively evaluate the effect of Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 treatment on the hydrocarbon and sulfur content of the oil, respectively. Total sulfur was determined by combustion of samples and measurement of released sulfur dioxide by infrared absorption. Up to 30% of the total sulfur in the middle distillate cut was removed, and compounds across the entire boiling range of the oil were affected. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption-edge spectroscopy was used to examine the chemical state of the sulfur remaining in the treated OB oil. Approximately equal amounts of thiophenic and sulfidic sulfur compounds were removed by ECRD-1 treatment, and over 50% of the sulfur remaining after treatment was in an oxidized form. The presence of partially oxidized sulfur compounds indicates that these compounds were en route to desulfurization. Overall, more than two-thirds of the sulfur had been removed or oxidized by the microbial treatment. PMID:9872778

  4. The U.S. natural gas and oil resource base is abundant; but can we produce what the country needs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies agree that the United States has abundant resources of gas and oil left to find and produce over the next 50--75 years -- if its exploration and production companies are given the resources to do the job. The NPC's estimate of 1,295 TCF of natural gas (advanced technology case) represents a resource/present production ration of 68 years. A similar estimate for oil gives 62 years. Furthermore, these resource estimates have been increasing through the 1980s, as the effects of new geological, geophysical, and engineering technologies has become more apparent. However, only 30% of this tremendous resource will be available under today's business-as-usual economic regime. The rest of the resource will be accessed if: (1) tax policies (and financial and trade policies) are adopted to stabilize prices and stimulate exploration and production (estimated 27% of the resource base); (2) technology is developed, transferred, and used (17%); (3) environmental regulation is held to a balanced level, considers economic costs as well as environmental benefits, and is applied consistently (13%); (4) access to Federal lands is eased for environmentally responsible drilling and development (13%). To convert America's gas and oil resources into delivered products in a timely manner, assuring the nation's gas users of a reliable supply -- and contribute up to $8.7 trillion to the nation's economy -- a doubling of industry effort is required, even at today's high levels of finding and producing efficiency. Coordinated action by industry, government, and the investment community is required to secure the future development of energy supplies. Government in particular must develop policies that encourage the needed investment in America's natural gas and oil

  5. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2005-07-01

    This report summarizes activities that have taken place in the last six (6) months (January 2005-June 2005) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields, New Mexico and Wyoming'' DE-FC26-02NT15445. This project examines the practices and results of cultural resource investigation and management in two different oil and gas producing areas of the United States: southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. The project evaluates how cultural resource investigations have been conducted in the past and considers how investigation and management could be pursued differently in the future. The study relies upon full database population for cultural resource inventories and resources and geomorphological studies. These are the basis for analysis of cultural resource occurrence, strategies for finding and evaluating cultural resources, and recommendations for future management practices. Activities can be summarized as occurring in either Wyoming or New Mexico. Gnomon as project lead, worked in both areas.

  6. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Yukon Flats Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Stanley, Richard G.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-22

    The hydrocarbon potential of the Yukon Flats Basin Province in Central Alaska was assessed in 2004 as part of an update to the National Oil and Gas Assessment. Three assessment units (AUs) were identified and assessed using a methodology somewhat different than that of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA). An important difference in the methodology of the two assessments is that the 2004 assessment specified a minimum accumulation size of 0.5 million barrels of oil equivalent (MMBOE), whereas the 2008 CARA assessment specified a minimum size of 50 MMBOE. The 2004 assessment concluded that >95 percent of the estimated mean undiscovered oil and gas resources occur in a single AU, the Tertiary Sandstone AU. This is also the only AU of the three that extends north of the Arctic Circle.For the CARA project, the number of oil and gas accumulations in the 2004 assessment of the Tertiary Sandstone AU was re-evaluated in terms of the >50-MMBOE minimum accumulation size. By this analysis, and assuming the resource to be evenly distributed across the AU, 0.23 oil fields and 1.20 gas fields larger than 50 MMBOE are expected in the part of the AU north of the Arctic Circle. The geology suggests, however, that the area north of the Arctic Circle has a lower potential for oil and gas accumulations than the area to the south where the sedimentary section is thicker, larger volumes of hydrocarbons may have been generated, and potential structural traps are probably more abundant. Because of the low potential implied for the area of the AU north of the Arctic Circle, the Yukon Flats Tertiary Sandstone AU was not quantitatively assessed for the 2008 CARA.

  7. The end of cheap oil: Bottom-up economic and geologic modeling of aggregate oil production curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsson, Kristofer; Bentley, Roger; Söderbergh, Bengt; Aleklett, Kjell

    2012-01-01

    There is a lively debate between ‘concerned’ and ‘unconcerned’ analysts regarding the future availability and affordability of oil. We critically examine two interrelated and seemingly plausible arguments for an unconcerned view: (1) there is a growing amount of remaining reserves; (2) there is a large amount of oil with a relatively low average production cost. These statements are unconvincing on both theoretical and empirical grounds. Oil availability is about flows rather than stocks, and average cost is not relevant in the determination of price and output. We subsequently implement a bottom-up model of regional oil production with micro-foundations in both natural science and economics. An oil producer optimizes net present value under the constraints of reservoir dynamics, technological capacity and economic circumstances. Optimal production profiles for different reservoir drives and economic scenarios are derived. The field model is then combined with a discovery model of random sampling from a lognormal field size-frequency distribution. Regional discovery and production scenarios are generated. Our approach does not rely on the simple assumptions of top-down models such as the Hubbert curve – however it leads to the same qualitative result that production peaks when a substantial fraction of the recoverable resource remains in-ground. - Highlights: ► Remaining oil reserves and average costs are of limited use in forecasting. ► We present a bottom-up approach to the modeling of regional oil production. ► Producers maximize net present value under technological and physical constraints. ► Exploration is modeled as random sampling from a lognormal field size distribution. ► Regional production starts declining before half of the recoverable oil is produced.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 86 billion barrels of oil and 336 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations within the Arabian Peninsula and Zagros Fold Belt as part of the USGS World Petroleum Resources Project. Twenty-three assessment units within seven petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed in this study, which represents a reassessment of this area last published in 2000.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System coincident Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit was recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Energy Resources Project, World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 487 million barrels of oil, 9.8 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 408 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  10. Future petroleum energy resources of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, in 2000 the U.S. Geological Survey completed a new world assessment, exclusive of the United States, of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth.2 One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95% of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil-which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources-is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about 0.8 TBOE; world consumption is about 0.014 TBOE per year. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18%, leaving about 82% of the endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25% of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil

  11. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the North-Central Montana Province, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.; Pitman, Janet K.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-02-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 55 million barrels of oil and 846 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana Province.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 236 million barrels of oil and 112 billion cubic feet of associated gas in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina.

  13. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Perth Basin Province, Australia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 223 million barrels of oil and 14.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Perth Basin Province, Australia.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-09-19

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 164 million barrels of oil and 24.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan.

  15. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. The province is in the Russian Arctic, east of Severnaya Zemlya and the Taimyr fold-and-thrust belt. The province is separated from the rest of the Laptev Sea Shelf by the Severnyi transform fault. One assessment unit (AU) was defined for this study: the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf AU. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum resources in the Northwest Laptev Sea Shelf Province are approximately 172 million barrels of crude oil, 4.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 119 million barrels of natural-gas liquids, north of the Arctic Circle.

  16. Role of oil service companies in developing human resources worldwide to implement new technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, D.E.; Bismuth, B.

    1983-01-01

    The role of specialized oil service companies in helping the oil industry develop the hydrocarbon resources of the world efficiently has increased over the last 20 yr. This trend is expected to continue as the complexity and variety of the techniques required increased. In order to provide a large range of services worldwide, the oil service industry has to be highly flexible and mobile. At the same time, successful implementation of these services requires a knowledge of and empathy with local conditions and cultures. The challenge will be to attract, train, and develop technical people from all corners of the globe to become part of the process of developing and implementing new technology. The involvement of the developing nations in the technical evolution of the oil service companies is perhaps the only long-lasting method of transferring these technologies.

  17. Brine contamination to aquatic resources from oil and gas development in the Williston Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Contributions by Chesley-Preston, Tara L.; Coleman, James L.; Haines, Seth S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Peterman, Zell E.; van der Burg, Max Post; Preston, Todd M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Tangen, Brian A.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States and the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan in Canada, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing region for more than one-half a century. Currently, there are renewed efforts to develop oil and gas resources from deep geologic formations, spurred by advances in recovery technologies and economic incentives associated with the price of oil. Domestic oil and gas production has many economic benefits and provides a means for the United States to fulfill a part of domestic energy demands; however, environmental hazards can be associated with this type of energy production in the Williston Basin, particularly to aquatic resources (surface water and shallow groundwater) by extremely saline water, or brine, which is produced with oil and gas. The primary source of concern is the migration of brine from buried reserve pits that were used to store produced water during recovery operations; however, there also are considerable risks of brine release from pipeline failures, poor infrastructure construction, and flow-back water from hydraulic fracturing associated with modern oilfield operations. During 2008, a multidisciplinary (biology, geology, water) team of U.S. Geological Survey researchers was assembled to investigate potential energy production effects in the Williston Basin. Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey participated in field tours and met with representatives from county, State, tribal, and Federal agencies to identify information needs and focus research objectives. Common questions from agency personnel, especially those from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, were “are the brine plumes (plumes of brine-contaminated groundwater) from abandoned oil wells affecting wetlands on Waterfowl Production Areas and National Wildlife Refuges?” and “are newer wells related to Bakken and Three Forks development different than the older

  18. Assessment of undiscovered, conventional oil and gas resources of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 billion barrels of oil and 83 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in 10 geologic provinces of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize.

  19. Natural Resource Damage Assessment in highly impacted systems: A case study of the Anacostia River oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkney, A.E.; Frithsen, J.B.; Burton, W.H.; Scott, L.C.; Siciliano, J.

    1993-01-01

    An approach and case study are presented to assessing natural resource damages due to additional perturbations in highly disturbed systems. The approach involves: (1) defining chemical characteristics unique to the additional perturbation, (2) identifying specific natural resources that may be sensitive to the additional perturbation and the most appropriate sampling period for each, and (3) using existing data to characterize previous conditions. This approach was used to assess the residual effects of a January 1992 spill of 3,400 gallons of number-sign 4 fuel oil in the Anacostia River, Washington, DC. Water quality is poor due to continuing inputs from urban runoff; one upstream tributary (Hickey Run) has a fifty year history of chronic oil spills and stormwater runoff of oil and grease. The challenge was to isolate possible spill impacts from those due to chronic pollutant inputs. GC/FID fingerprinting analyses were used to characterize spill material and hydrocarbons found in the spill area and two adjacent reference areas. Fish larvae (ichthyoplankton) and benthic invertebrates were identified as biological resources most likely to demonstrate residual effects. Results indicated that there were insignificant amounts of the hydrocarbons from the spill in the water, sediments, and biota of the river, and no residual impacts on biological resources could be identified

  20. Environmental sensitivity mapping and risk assessment for oil spill along the Chennai Coast in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankara, R S; Arockiaraj, S; Prabhu, K

    2016-05-15

    Integration of oil spill modeling with coastal resource information could be useful for protecting the coastal environment from oil spills. A scenario-based risk assessment and sensitivity indexing were performed for the Chennai coast by integrating a coastal resource information system and an oil spill trajectory model. The fate analysis of spilled oil showed that 55% of oil out of a total volume of 100m(3) remained in the water column, affecting 800m of the shoreline. The seasonal scenarios show major impact during the southwest (SW) and northeast (NE) monsoons and more fatal effects on marine pelagic organisms during SW monsoon. The Oil Spill Risk Assessment Modeler tool was constructed in a geographic information systems (GIS) platform to analyze the risks, sensitivity mapping, and priority indexing of resources that are likely to be affected by oil spills along the Chennai coast. The results of sensitivity mapping and the risk assessment results can help organizations take measures to combat oil spills in a timely manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province as part of the its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. This geologic province is north of western Siberia, Russian Federation, in the North Kara Sea between Novaya Zemlya to the west and Severnaya Zemlya to the east. One assessment unit (AU) was defined, the North Kara Basins and Platforms AU, which coincides with the geologic province. This AU was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The total estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum resources in the province are ~1.8 billion barrels of crude oil, ~15.0 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and ~0.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  2. Unconventional Liquids, Peak Oil and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil is the largest source of primary energy in the world, at 32% of 2014 consumption. Forecasts by the International Energy Agency suggest oil will continue to provide the largest share of global energy through 2040, even with new policies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The IPCC's Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios indicate that between 1.5 and 3.8 trillion barrels of oil will be burnt between 2015 and 2100. Various sources suggest that the world has 5 to 6 trillion barrels of remaining recoverable oil, more than half of which are in low grade deposits. Although oil sands and extra heavy oil are claimed to hold 1.5 trillion barrels, assessments of major deposits in the Canadian oil sands and the Venezuela Orinoco Belt, which hold the bulk of these resources, total less than 500 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Kerogen oil (oil shale), which has never been produced in anything but miniscule volumes, comprises an additional trillion barrels of these estimates. These unconventional deposits are very different from the conventional oil of the past as: - they are rate constrained, as they require massive upfront capital investments and lengthy construction periods, and therefore cannot be scaled up quickly in response to declines in conventional production. - they are expensive, both in terms of cost per barrel and the large energy inputs required for production. The best in situ oil sands deposits may yield an energy return of 3:1 and kerogen oil even less if it ever becomes commercially viable. This compares to 10:1 or more for conventional oil. Shale oil (light tight oil), may yield another 300 billion barrels worldwide, but suffers from high decline rates, expensive wells and limited availability of high quality deposits. The most productive and economically viable portions of these unconventional deposits tend to be exploited first, leaving the less productive, higher cost oil for later. As a result, increasing global oil consumption

  3. U.S. Geological Survey 2011 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Pierce, Brenda S.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of the volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous accumulations in Cook Inlet. The assessment used a geology-based methodology and results from new scientific research by the USGS and the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and Division of Oil and Gas (DOG). In the Cook Inlet region, the USGS estimates mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of gas, and about 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  4. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils number-sign 2 and number-sign 6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Canning Basin Province, Australia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-05-31

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 1.3 billion barrels of oil and 34.4 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Canning Basin Province of Australia.

  6. Energy planning and investment for increased earnings: the case of Nigeria's oil and gas resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojo, A T

    1984-03-01

    In view of Nigeria's limited reserves of oil and the high growth rate of oil consumption, and in the wake of the developments in the world oil market since 1981 which have resulted in a drastic shortfall in Nigeria's revenues, the main objective of this article is to highlight some important issues that would spur policy makers towards improved energy planning and increased energy investment in Nigeria so as to assist her in the rationalization of the energy production-mix and consumption, as well as in earning increased revenues from her oil and gas resources. Policymakers in Nigeria are called upon to put an end to further procrastination concerning the liquefied natural gas (LNG) investment project so that the bulk of the country's gas, which is presently being flared, can be re-injected, consumed locally, and exported to supplement dwindling oil revenues. 23 notes and references, 3 tables.

  7. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project: water-resources activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stanley G.; Heiny, Janet S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, airports, and dams, is built and maintained by use of large quantities of natural resources such as aggregate (sand and gravel), energy, and water. As urban area expand, local sources of these resource are becoming inaccessible (gravel cannot be mined from under a subdivision, for example), or the cost of recovery of the resource becomes prohibitive (oil and gas drilling in urban areas is costly), or the resources may become unfit for some use (pollution of ground water may preclude its use as a water supply). Governmental land-use decision and environmental mandates can further preclude development of natural resources. If infrastructure resources are to remain economically available. current resource information must be available for use in well-reasoned decisions bout future land use. Ground water is an infrastructure resource that is present in shallow aquifers and deeper bedrock aquifers that underlie much of the 2,450-square-mile demonstration area of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In 1996, mapping of the area's ground-water resources was undertaken as a U.S. Geological Survey project in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, and the Colorado Water Conservation Board.

  8. Oil for health in sub-Saharan Africa: health systems in a 'resource curse' environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calain, Philippe

    2008-10-21

    In a restricted sense, the resource curse is a theory that explains the inverse relationship classically seen between dependence on natural resources and economic growth. It defines a peculiar economic and political environment, epitomized by oil extraction in sub-Saharan Africa. Based on secondary research and illustrations from four oil-rich geographical areas (the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, Angola, southern Chad, Southern Sudan), I propose a framework for analysing the effects of the resource curse on the structure of health systems at sub-national levels. Qualitative attributes are emphasised. The role of the corporate sector, the influence of conflicts, and the value of classical mitigation measures (such as health impact assessments) are further examined. Health systems in a resource curse environment are classically fractured into tripartite components, including governmental health agencies, non-profit non-governmental organisations, and the corporate extractive sector. The three components entertain a range of contractual relationships generally based on operational considerations which are withdrawn from social or community values. Characterisation of agencies in this system should also include: values, operating principles, legitimacy and operational spaces. From this approach, it appears that community health is at the same time marginalized and instrumentalized toward economic and corporate interests in resource curse settings. From a public health point of view, the resource curse represents a fundamental failure of dominant development theories, rather than a delay in creating the proper economy and governance environment for social progress. The scope of research on the resource curse should be broadened to include more accurate or comprehensive indicators of destitution (including health components) and more open perspectives on causal mechanisms.

  9. Oil for health in sub-Saharan Africa: health systems in a 'resource curse' environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calain Philippe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a restricted sense, the resource curse is a theory that explains the inverse relationship classically seen between dependence on natural resources and economic growth. It defines a peculiar economic and political environment, epitomised by oil extraction in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Based on secondary research and illustrations from four oil-rich geographical areas (the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, Angola, southern Chad, Southern Sudan, I propose a framework for analysing the effects of the resource curse on the structure of health systems at sub-national levels. Qualitative attributes are emphasised. The role of the corporate sector, the influence of conflicts, and the value of classical mitigation measures (such as health impact assessments are further examined. Results Health systems in a resource curse environment are classically fractured into tripartite components, including governmental health agencies, non-profit non-governmental organisations, and the corporate extractive sector. The three components entertain a range of contractual relationships generally based on operational considerations which are withdrawn from social or community values. Characterisation of agencies in this system should also include: values, operating principles, legitimacy and operational spaces. From this approach, it appears that community health is at the same time marginalised and instrumentalised toward economic and corporate interests in resource curse settings. Conclusion From a public health point of view, the resource curse represents a fundamental failure of dominant development theories, rather than a delay in creating the proper economy and governance environment for social progress. The scope of research on the resource curse should be broadened to include more accurate or comprehensive indicators of destitution (including health components and more open perspectives on causal mechanisms.

  10. Oil prices remain firm, despite economic slump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Aaron; Giesecke Linda

    2002-01-01

    Despite all the evidence of sluggish economic growth throughout the world this year, WTI crude oil prices have averaged about $24/bbl year-to-date. Although prices have been lower than year-ago levels, they're a far cry from the lows that occurred in 1998 and at the beginning of 1999. Mounting tensions in the Middle East have given crude prices support. While the market has taken these tensions into account since the beginning of the year, more recent concerns about a possible U.S military conflict with Iraq have added a larger war premium to crude prices. Note that the halt of Iraqi exports itself may not be as detrimental as perceived, since these exports could easily be replaced by OPEC's excess capacity. In part, we have already seen a reduction in Iraqi exports this year due to a pricing dispute

  11. Government Resource Subsidy and its Spillover Effects: Evidence from the Excessive Oil Consumption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattaphon Wuthisatian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing the consecutive consequences of government resource subsidies in a particular industry, which can lead to the excessive oil consumption by other sectors and end users. To fully illustrate the investigation, we use the subsidies in Chinese steel production as a case study and a beginning point to develop theoretical and empirical models to examine the spillover effects, going from steel industry to a rapidly increase of overall country’s oil consumption. The theoretical model applies the market equilibrium concept to demonstrate a relationship among three economic sectors; steel industry, automobile, and households. Particularly, the government subsidies in Chinese steel production will enable the steel firms to obtain resource inputs at the lower price, making the output price of steels cheaper than the market price. As steel is a required input in automobile industry, this cheaper price of steels will induce the automotive firms to increase their production capacity, producing more cars and selling them at the cheaper price, which eventually results in the excessive usage of oil and gasoline by individuals. Using the data during the period of 1980-2012, the empirical analysis involves OLS regression and cointegration test to approve the validity of the theoretical model, which emphasizes on the strong relationship between Chinese oil consumption and steel production.

  12. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery from the Residual Zone - A Sustainable Vision for North Sea Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jamie; Haszeldine, Stuart; Wilkinson, Mark; Johnson, Gareth

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a 'new vision for North Sea oil production' where previously unattainable residual oil can be produced with the injection of CO2 that has been captured at power stations or other large industrial emitters. Not only could this process produce incremental oil from a maturing basin, reducing imports, it also has the capability to store large volumes of CO2 which can offset the emissions of additional carbon produced. Around the world oil production from mature basins is in decline and production from UK oil fields peaked in 1998. Other basins around the world have a similar story. Although in the UK a number of tax regimes, such as 'brown field allowances' and 'new field allowances' have been put in place to re-encourage investment, it is recognised that the majority of large discoveries have already been made. However, as a nation our demand for oil remains high and in the last decade imports of crude oil have been steadily increasing. The UK is dependent on crude oil for transport and feedstock for chemical and plastics production. Combined with the necessity to provide energy security, there is a demand to re-assess the potential for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR) in the UK offshore. Residual oil zones (ROZ) exist where one of a number of natural conditions beyond normal capillary forces have caused the geometry of a field's oil column to be altered after filling [1]. When this re-structuring happens the primary interest to the hydrocarbon industry has in the past been in where the mobile oil has migrated to. However it is now considered that significant oil resource may exist in the residual zone play where the main oil column has been displaced. Saturations within this play are predominantly close to residual saturation (Sr) and would be similar to that of a water-flooded field [2]. Evidence from a number of hydrocarbon fairways shows that, under certain circumstances, these residual zones in US fields are comparable in thickness to the

  13. Population, petroleum, and politics: Mexico at the crossroads. Part 2. The potentials and problems of Mexican oil resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, C F

    1980-01-01

    The 2 most important factors which will influence Mexico's future economic development are the country's overpopulation problem and the manner in which the country's oil reserves are exploited. This document describes the historical development of Mexico's oil industry and the current struggle of the government to ensure that the oil resources contribute toward the sound economic development of the country. The government expropriated foreign oil companies in 1938 and today most of the oil operations in Mexico are conducted by the state controlled Pemex Company. In recent years extensive oil reserves were discovered in Mexico and the country is now in the position of having large oil reserves at a time when oil prices are increasing. Known crude oil reserves are estimated at 31 billion barrels; however, an unconfirmed report by Pemex in 1980 placed the known reserves at 50 billion barrels. In the past the management of Pemex was corrupt and inefficient and many top positions in the company were filled by retired politicians. The recent appointment of Jose Andres de Oteyza as Chairman of the Board and of Jorge Diaz Serrano as the Director-General should greatly improve Pemex operations. In developing the country's oil industry the government wants 1) to keep production low enough to offset inflation and to preserve the resource but 2) to produce enough oil so that the country has sufficient funds for investment and for operating needed social programs. The government may not be able to keep oil production down to acceptable levels. It may be forced to increase oil exports to compensate for its growing reliance on imported food and other imported products. In recent years Mexico's industrial productivity and its agricultural production declined. The government wants to avoid being placed in the position where it will be forced to trade large quantities of oil for needed food. The current government is promoting investment in agriculture and industrial development in

  14. Natural resource trust funds : a comparison of Alberta and Alaska resource funds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrack, A.A.; Keddie, R.R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2002-09-01

    Alberta and Alaska both have an economy based largely on natural resources. The cyclical nature of their economies poses a challenge to stability and sustained prosperity. During the oil crisis of 1973-1974, Alberta and Alaska began receiving oil and gas royalties. The idea of an endowment-type fund began taking shape. This fund would assist in the gradual transition from dependence on non-renewable resources to the responsible management of these resources. Both the Alberta Heritage Savings Trust Fund and the Alaska Permanent Fund were created in 1976. The governments of both jurisdictions set aside revenues from natural resource royalties to provide economic stability. Both jurisdictions followed different policies in terms of management, structure, governance, and objectives. In this paper, the authors compared both funds, examining the policy options which had an impact on their growth and successes. The results showed that in Alaska, monies are paid directly to eligible persons, while allocation decisions in Alberta have been made by the government. The government manages the fund in Alberta, while in Alaska, the fund is managed by a separate entity. The Alaskan fund continues to grow, while the the size of the Alberta fund has remained unchanged for a number of years and is not growing. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Shoreline oiling conditions in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, J.M.; Owens, E.H.; Stoker, S.W.; McCormick, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989, in Prince William Sound, Alaska, Exxon conducted comprehensive, systematic shoreline surveys in cooperation with federal and state authorities to obtain information on the distribution and magnitude of shoreline oiling and to identify natural and cultural resources requiring special protection. Similar joint surveys were performed during the springs of 1990, 1991, and 1992 on all Prince william Sound and Gulf of Alaska shorelines that were suspected of having remnants of weathered oil and that would benefit from further cleanup. In the springs of 1990, 1991, and 1992, isolated pockets of subsurface oil were found, chiefly in small scattered zones in coarse cobble/boulder sediments in the upper intertidal or supratidal zones. In 1991, about one-third of the subdivisions in Prince William Sound with surface oil also contained some subsurface oil. The areal extent of this subsurface oil declined by nearly 70% between 1991 and 1992, from about 37,000 m 2 to about 12,000 m 2 . Moreover, where subsurface oil remained in 1992, it was present in lesser amounts. Rates of oil removal were greatest on coastal sections treated early in the spring and summer of 1989. Where shoreline treatment was delayed, the subsequent rate of removal of oil from the shore by natural processes was slower. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Proceedings of the Infonex oil sands 2005 conference : an industry summit on emerging trends in exploration, production and resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss the opportunities and challenges facing the oil sands industry with particular reference to resource characterization and supply and market outlooks to 2015. The driving forces behind oil sands development were also identified. The conference featured 12 presentations that dealt with a range of issues including resource management; operations management; price and cost sharing; emerging transmission pipeline challenges and opportunities; the fiscal regime for oil sands; minimizing the environmental impact of oil sands development; cumulative effects management and the regulatory approval process. An overview of a joint venture by Alberta Environment Northern Region and the Alberta Geological Survey to update existing maps of buried bedrock and drift channels in the oil sands mining and in-situ recoverable areas was included along with an overview of economic and environmental benefits of gasification. A new technology known as multiphase superfine atomized residue (MSAR) as an alternate fuel in oil sands production was discussed along with the issue of bridging the gap between the oil sand industry and First Nations partners. Three of the 12 presentations were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  17. North African oil and foreign investment in changing market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattouh, Bassam; Darbouche, Hakim

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1960s, the experiences of the North African oil producers of Libya, Algeria, Egypt and Sudan within the oil industry have followed separate paths, which have led them into different relations with foreign oil companies. While reflecting broader trends of 'resource nationalism', these relations have also been affected by a number of factors specific to these countries. In tracing the evolution of the oil investment frameworks of these countries, as well as their concomitant relations with IOCs, this paper probes the roles played by these factors and argues that the type and size of remaining reserves as well as the capability of NOCs are likely to determine the most future developments in the region's oil industry.

  18. Prospects for oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, J.

    2011-01-01

    It was five years ago, in January 2006, that Futuribles devoted a major special issue (no. 315) to energy prospects and the greenhouse effect. That was already a time of great concern about this question and several articles offered analyses of the gloomy prospects for the development of energy resources and the issues around climate change. Among these, an article by Jean Laherrere outlined the prospects for oil resources, showing the extent to which information in this area was disparate, unreliable and even questionable, being often highly political. As one of the more pessimistic writers on the question, Laherrere reminded us of the imminence of 'peak oil' (the prelude to a decline in global oil production) and the need to re-think our styles of consumption to adapt to a new age in which, as energy becomes scarcer, it will be increasingly expensive. Five years later, Jean Laherrere returns to the columns of Futuribles on the occasion of a new special issue on energy and the climate, to update us on the global prospects for oil and gas production. He begins by recalling how politically slanted and unreliable information in this area can be, depending on its source, the units of measurement employed etc. He stresses, too, that in the view of many experts peak oil was reached in 2006 and the situation is currently plateau-ing, just ahead of a decline in oil production (gradual or sudden, depending on whether measures of economic constraint are implemented). For its part, gas production should peak around 2025-2030. Jean Laherrere specifies what reserves remain, how these are currently exploited and marketed, and the prospects that ensue in the longer term (he also shows how wrong gas-price forecasts have been in the past). As he stresses, in conclusion, with both oil and gas we must be aware that the world does not have infinite resources and, since the alternatives do not allow us, at the moment, to make up for future energy-resource shortages, it is for

  19. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of, and including, part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU ) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Lower and Upper Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study—the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU— encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the West GreenlandEast Canada Province are 10.7 billion barrels of oil, 75 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 1.7 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. For the part of the province that is north of the Arctic Circle, the estimated mean volumes of these undiscovered resources are 7.3 billion barrels of oil, 52 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  20. Competing For industry Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnstad, Marit

    1998-01-01

    This presentation by Norway's Minister of Petroleum and Energy describes (1) Norway in the energy picture, (2) oil market developments, (3) the establishment of an energy policy and (4) the investment level of the Norwegian petroleum activities. Value creation from Norwegian petroleum resources is directly connected with the commercial companies' participation in the activities. Thus, it has been a main challenge for Norway to establish a balanced petroleum policy and a legal framework. Presumably Norway will remain a prospective and attractive petroleum province for a long time. Over the years, Norway has developed three very competent and competitive national oil companies and a significant national supply industry. This industry is highly competitive internationally. Many new petroleum provinces are opening up for foreign investors and energy consumption of the world is expected to increase significantly the next 20 - 30 years. This implies increased demand for the products, but also strong competition for industry resources

  1. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 78 million barrels of oil and 8.9 trillion cubic feet of gas in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina.

  2. Assessment of potential unconventional lacustrine shale-oil and shale-gas resources, Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed potential technically recoverable mean resources of 53 million barrels of shale oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Phitsanulok Basin, onshore Thailand.

  3. Why do leaders nationalize the oil industry? The politics of resource expropriation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi, Paasha

    2014-01-01

    Why do leaders nationalize the oil industry? In line with a general utility-maximizing theory, I argue that leaders nationalize to maximize state revenues while minimizing costs. The latter includes international retaliation and domestic political constraints. Using a novel longitudinal dataset on the establishment of national oil companies (NOCs), the empirical evidence presented in this paper lends support to four primary findings. States are most likely to establish NOCs (1) in periods of high oil prices, when the risks of expropriation are outweighed by the financial benefits; (2) in non-democratic systems, where executive constraints are limited; (3) in “waves”, that is, after other countries have nationalized, reflecting reduced likelihood of international retaliation; and, though with weaker empirical support, (4) in political settings marked by resource nationalism. This last factor is proxied by OPEC membership in large-N analysis and, in a two-case comparison, by the difference in retained profits between the host and foreign governments. The theory and empirics presented here offer some clues for policy makers and multinational companies alike as to when to expect leaders to opt for nationalization. - Highlights: • I model determinants of oil nationalizations for 65 producing countries 1945–2005. • I offer a new measure of nationalization using the establishment of NOCs. • Oil prices, political institutions, cross-country diffusion predict nationalization. • Nationalization is also likely when revenue is perceived to be shared unfairly. • Operator-led contract renegotiation can reduce likelihood of nationalization

  4. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2018-02-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.0 billion barrels of oil and 20.3 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China.

  5. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  6. Oil in Syria between Terrorism and Dictatorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Almohamad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The sale of oil and gas is one of the most important components of the Syrian economy. Unfortunately, since the discovery of these resources, the Syrian people have not benefited from the revenues earned. This study deals with the development of oil and gas production and the geographical distribution of fields, as well as production control, deterioration of production, refining and selling mechanisms, and the resulting health and environmental impacts following Islamic State’s (IS control of the majority of oilfields in Syria. Since summer 2015, IS controls 80% of the fields with a production of 65,000 barrels per day (b/d; the Assad regime controls 8% of fields with 10,000 b/d; and Kurdish forces dominate the remaining 12% with 25,000 b/d. IS depends on oil as a major source of financing for its military and civilian activities, and has also managed to set up an extensive network of middlemen in neighbouring territories and countries, with the aim of trading crude oil for cash and other resources. IS produces and exports within its areas of control and sells part of the oil to the Assad regime, and another portion to the liberated areas, as well as to Iraq and Turkey.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of six geologic provinces of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered conventional petroleum resources in six geologic provinces of China at 14.9 billion barrels of oil, 87.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  8. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  9. Have we run out of oil yet? Oil peaking analysis from an optimist's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li Jia

    2006-01-01

    This study addresses several questions concerning the peaking of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range of uncertainty? What are the key determining factors? Will a transition to unconventional oil undermine or strengthen OPEC's influence over world oil markets? These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. No political or environmental constraints are allowed to hinder oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented, and when USGS resource estimates are used, more than the mean estimate of ultimately recoverable resources is assumed to exist. The issue is framed not as a question of 'running out' of conventional oil, but in terms of the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil sands is already underway on a significant scale and unconventional oil is most consistent with the existing infrastructure for producing, refining, distributing and consuming petroleum. However, natural gas or even coal might also prove to be economical sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. These results indicate a high probability that production of conventional oil from outside of the Middle East region will peak, or that the rate of increase of production will become highly constrained before 2025. If world consumption of hydrocarbon fuels is to continue growing, massive development of unconventional resources will be required. While there are grounds for pessimism and optimism, it is certainly not too soon for extensive, detailed analysis of transitions to alternative energy sources

  10. U.S. oil dependence 2014: Is energy independence in sight?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.; Liu, Changzheng

    2015-01-01

    The importance of reducing U.S. oil dependence may have changed in light of developments in the world oil market over the past two decades. Since 2005, increased domestic production and decreased oil use have cut U.S. import dependence in half. The direct costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy are estimated under four U.S. Energy Information Administration Scenarios to 2040. The key premises of the analysis are that the primary oil market failure is the use of market power by OPEC and that U.S. economic vulnerability is a result of the quantity of oil consumed, the lack of readily available, economical substitutes and the quantity of oil imported. Monte Carlo simulations of future oil market conditions indicate that the costs of U.S. oil dependence are likely to increase in constant dollars but decrease relative to U.S. gross domestic product unless oil resources are larger than estimated by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Reducing oil dependence therefore remains a valuable goal for U.S. energy policy and an important co-benefit of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. -- Highlights: •Increased oil production and decreased use caused U.S. oil imports to fall from 60% in 2005 to 27% in 2014. •OPEC's market power appears to have increased due to lower oil price elasticities. •Future costs of oil dependence to the U.S. are likely to increase but decrease relative to GDP. •If U.S. oil resources are far larger than EIA estimates, the U.S. could be oil independent by 2040

  11. Some problems of oil shale retorting in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oepik, I.

    1994-01-01

    Oil shale in Estonia will be competitive in the long term as a primary resource for power generating. The price of energy of Estonian oil shale is at present approximately 4 times lower than of coal. The price of electricity is anticipated to grow up to EEK 1.0/kWh in year 2020. The electricity price EEK 0.2/kWh at present in Estonia does not include capital costs needed for refurbishing of Estonian oil-shale-consuming power stations between the years 2000-2010. While all the prices and calculations of the enterprise are presented with no inflation adjustment, the other operation costs of oil shale retorting are anticipated for the prognosed period to remain at the present level: power consumption kWh 280/t crude oils and other operation costs (excluding labour, raw material and power consumption) EEK 100/t of oil

  12. Fiscal sustainability and the State Oil Fund in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Aslanli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Azerbaijan, like many resource-rich countries, decided to set up a sovereign wealth fund in order to avoid income volatility, to achieve intergenerational equity and to transform resource wealth into more productive assets. Azerbaijan established the State Oil Fund of the Azerbaijan Republic (SOFAZ in late 1999 to accumulate income from hydrocarbon exports. SOFAZ has gradually become the leading part of the country's public finance system. Azerbaijan was the first country to fulfill all requirements of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI, an international agreement to implement global standards of transparency in the resource extracting sectors. However, SOFAZ's contribution to an effective resource revenue management and long-run economic development is still questionable: transparency applies only to the income side of Azerbaijan's oil fund while the expenditure side remains opaque. Unlimited and unconditional transfers from SOFAZ to the state budget have threatened fiscal sustainability and the overall macroeconomic equilibrium.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Cooper and Eromanga Basins, Australia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-05-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean conventional resources of 68 million barrels of oil and 964 billion cubic feet of gas in the Cooper and Eromanga Basins of Australia.

  14. Potential water resource impacts of hydraulic fracturing from unconventional oil production in the Bakken shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Namita; Chilkoor, Govinda; Wilder, Joseph; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Stone, James J

    2017-01-01

    Modern drilling techniques, notably horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, have enabled unconventional oil production (UOP) from the previously inaccessible Bakken Shale Formation located throughout Montana, North Dakota (ND) and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The majority of UOP from the Bakken shale occurs in ND, strengthening its oil industry and businesses, job market, and its gross domestic product. However, similar to UOP from other low-permeability shales, UOP from the Bakken shale can result in environmental and human health effects. For example, UOP from the ND Bakken shale generates a voluminous amount of saline wastewater including produced and flowback water that are characterized by unusual levels of total dissolved solids (350 g/L) and elevated levels of toxic and radioactive substances. Currently, 95% of the saline wastewater is piped or trucked onsite prior to disposal into Class II injection wells. Oil and gas wastewater (OGW) spills that occur during transport to injection sites can potentially result in drinking water resource contamination. This study presents a critical review of potential water resource impacts due to deterministic (freshwater withdrawals and produced water management) and probabilistic events (spills due to leaking pipelines and truck accidents) related to UOP from the Bakken shale in ND. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes, challenges, choices: Human resources in the upstream oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manthey, M.

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive study of human resources in the Canadian upstream oil and gas industry was conducted in 1992. Three segments of the industry were examined: exploration and production companies; geophysical, drilling, and oilfield services and supply firms; and two oil sands operations. Between 1988 and 1991, total employment in these segments fell from 79,500 to 68,000. Much of this downsizing occurred with the second segment companies, where staff was reduced by 27%. Continued property rationalization and organizational restructuring are expected until 1994 or 1995, with attendant reductions in the workforce. Then, depending on favorable economic trends for oil and natural gas, activity and demand for employees may begin to recover. However, employment levels at the end of the decade are not expected to rebound to pre-1991 levels. Workforce reduction has been accomplished by layoffs, induced retirements, and cutbacks in recruitment. The low inflow of new talent coupled with an outflow of experienced staff may eventually cause shortages in certain industry-specific occupations. A disproportionately high proportion of employees was found to be in their late thirties, and this will present another challenge in the future. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Oil shale : could Shell's experimental oil shale technology be adapted to Alberta's bitumen carbonates?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2006-07-01

    Although Shell has been trying to develop technologies to economically extract oil from shale containing kerogen for the last 25 years, the volume of oil Shell produced from its Mahogany Research Project in Colorado has added up to less than 2500 bbls in total, and the company has recently devoted $400 million to purchase leases on carbonate reservoirs in Alberta. This article examined whether or not the technologies developed by Shell for oil shales could be used to profitably extract bitumen from carbonates. Extracting bitumen from carbonates may be easier than producing oil from shale, as the resource in carbonates is already oil, whereas the oil in oil shale is actually kerogen, which needs to be chemically cracked at extremely high temperatures. Although the technical feasibility of an in situ cracking process has been proven, work remains to be done before Shell can invest in a commercial-scale oil shale project. Challenges to oil shale production include preventing groundwater from entering target zones and keeping produced fluids out of the groundwater. However, a freeze wall test has recently been designed where chilled liquid is circulated through a closed-loop pipe system to freeze formation water, sealing off an area about the size of a football field from the surrounding strata. The energy requirements of the process that Shell is testing to produce shale oil in Colorado remain unprofitably high, as higher temperatures are necessary for thermal cracking. Shell has yet to make a decision as to what energy sources it will use to make the production process economically viable. An energy conservation group in Colorado has claimed that production of 100,000 bbls of shale oil would require the largest power plant in Colorado history. 2 figs.

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource point data for access sites, airports, aquaculture sites, beaches, boat ramps, marinas, coast guard facilities, oil...

  18. The hydrocarbon era, world population growth and oil use -- a continuing geological challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townes, H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The world's use of oil, the relationship of world population growth to this use, and what the energy situation might be in the future is a challenge to the geologist. The earth's population doubled between 1930 and 1975 and a comparison of world petroleum use and population growth show similar upward curves. Of the annual fossil fuel resources used in the world, crude oil supplies over 40 percent of the total resources. Petroleum is a finite resource and a projection of world oil production indicates it will peak early in the 21st century. Assuming an ultimate recovery range of 2600 to 3000 billion barrels of oil, 750 billion barrels have already been produced, there are 1000 billion barrels in proven reserves, and 1000 billion barrels remaining to be discovered. The challenge to the geologist will be to find these hidden oil reserves. Recovering this 1000 billion barrels of new oil reserves will require large capital expenditures and, currently, only 60 percent of the capital needed to discover this oil is being spent. With the world's demand for oil increasing, world-wide exploration expenditures are actually decreasing. Simple economics indicates that the reason for this drop in expenditures is that the price of oil is too low to encourage investment. Low oil prices also discourage investment in the development of alternative fuels. There is plenty of oil now, but the world must look to the future and realize present usage rate cannot continue forever. 23 refs., 10 figs

  19. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Middle and Upper Magdalena Basins, Colombia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-09-22

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 0.45 billion barrels of oil and 1.0 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Middle and Upper Magdalena Basins, Colombia.

  20. Methodology for assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The methodological procedures used in the geologic assessments of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) were based largely on the methodology developed for the 2000 U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment. The main variables were probability distributions for numbers and sizes of undiscovered accumulations with an associated risk of occurrence. The CARA methodology expanded on the previous methodology in providing additional tools and procedures more applicable to the many Arctic basins that have little or no exploration history. Most importantly, geologic analogs from a database constructed for this study were used in many of the assessments to constrain numbers and sizes of undiscovered oil and gas accumulations.

  1. Using game theory approach to interpret stable policies for Iran's oil and gas common resources conflicts with Iraq and Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Maryam; Bahrini, Aram; Shayanrad, Sepideh

    2015-12-01

    Oil and gas as the non-renewable resources are considered very valuable for the countries with petroleum economics. These resources are not only diffused equally around the world, but also they are common in some places which their neighbors often come into conflicts. Consequently, it is vital for those countries to manage their resource utilization. Lately, game theory was applied in conflict resolution of common resources, such as water, which is a proof of its efficacy and capability. This paper models the conflicts between Iran and its neighbors namely Qatar and Iraq between their oil and gas common resources using game theory approach. In other words, the future of these countries will be introduced and analyzed by some well-known 2 × 2 games to achieve a better perspective of their conflicts. Because of information inadequacy of the players, in addition to Nash Stability, various solution concepts are used based on the foresight, disimprovements, and knowledge of preferences. The results of mathematical models show how the countries could take a reasonable strategy to exploit their common resources.

  2. Oil's role in free trade agreement crux of Mexico's petroleum sector dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Mexico's president Salinas' efforts at privatization have not yet touched Mexico's most valuable industry, oil. That remains under control of state owned Petroleos Mexicanos. Pemex and Mexico's huge oil union have come under increasing criticism for alleged abuses of power. In addition, controversy rages as to the true extent of Mexican oil resources and whether Pemex has the wherewithal to meet domestic demand and sustain oil exports. Critics also contend opening Mexico's oil sector to foreign participation would introduce new efficiencies and cost cutting measures in the cash strapped state oil industry. This paper reports that at the center of the controversy is the proposed Free Trade Agreement among Mexico, the U.S., and Canada, pushed strongly by Salinas. Oil's role in the FTA may prove the pact's main sticking point

  3. Integrated Synthesis of the Permian Basin: Data and Models for Recovering Existing and Undiscovered Oil Resources from the Largest Oil-Bearing Basin in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Jackson; Katherine Jackson

    2008-09-30

    Large volumes of oil and gas remain in the mature basins of North America. This is nowhere more true than in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico. A critical barrier to recovery of this vast remaining resource, however, is information. Access to accurate geological data and analyses of the controls of hydrocarbon distribution is the key to the knowledge base as well as the incentives needed by oil and gas companies. The goals of this project were to collect, analyze, synthesize, and deliver to industry and the public fundamental information and data on the geology of oil and gas systems in the Permian Basin. This was accomplished in two ways. First we gathered all available data, organized it, and placed it on the web for ready access. Data include core analysis data, lists of pertinent published reports, lists of available cores, type logs, and selected PowerPoint presentations. We also created interpretive data such as type logs, geological cross sections, and geological maps and placed them in a geospatially-registered framework in ARC/GIS. Second, we created new written syntheses of selected reservoir plays in the Permian basin. Although only 8 plays were targeted for detailed analysis in the project proposal to DOE, 14 were completed. These include Ellenburger, Simpson, Montoya, Fusselman, Wristen, Thirtyone, Mississippian, Morrow, Atoka, Strawn, Canyon/Cisco, Wolfcamp, Artesia Group, and Delaware Mountain Group. These fully illustrated reports include critical summaries of published literature integrated with new unpublished research conducted during the project. As such these reports provide the most up-to-date analysis of the geological controls on reservoir development available. All reports are available for download on the project website and are also included in this final report. As stated in our proposal, technology transfer is perhaps the most important component of the project. In addition to providing direct access to data and reports through

  4. Future Oil Spills and Possibilities for Intervention: A Model for the Coupled Human-Environmental Resource Extraction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shughrue, C. M.; Werner, B.; Nugnug, P. T.

    2010-12-01

    The catastrophic Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlights the risks for widespread environmental damage resulting from petroleum resource extraction. Possibilities for amelioration of these risks depend critically on understanding the dynamics and nonlinear interactions between various components of the coupled human-environmental resource extraction system. We use a complexity analysis to identify the levels of description and time scales at which these interactions are strongest, and then use the analysis as the basis for an agent-based numerical model with which decadal trends can be analyzed. Oil industry economic and technological activity and associated oil spills are components of a complex system that is coupled to natural environment, legislation, regulation, media, and resistance systems over annual to decadal time scales. In the model, oil spills are produced stochastically with a range of magnitudes depending on a reliability-engineering-based assessment of failure for the technology employed, human factors including compliance with operating procedures, and risks associated with the drilling environment. Oil industry agents determine drilling location and technological investment using a cost-benefit analysis relating projected revenue from added production to technology cost and government regulation. Media outlet agents reporting on the oil industry and environmental damage from oil spills assess the impacts of aggressively covering a story on circulation increases, advertiser concerns and potential loss of information sources. Environmental advocacy group agents increase public awareness of environmental damage (through media and public contact), solicit memberships and donations, and apply direct pressure on legislators for policy change. Heterogeneous general public agents adjust their desire for change in the level of regulation, contact their representatives or participate in resistance via protest by considering media sources, personal

  5. Energy planning and investment for increased earnings: the case of Nigeria's oil and gas resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojo, A.T.

    1984-03-01

    In view of Nigeria's limited reserves of oil and the high growth rate of oil consumption, and in the wake of the developments in the world oil market since 1981 which have resulted in a drastic shortfall in Nigeria's revenues, the main objective of this article is to highlight some important issues that would spur policy makers towards improved energy planning and increased energy investment in Nigeria so as to assist her in the rationalization of the energy production-mix and consumption, as well as in earning increased revenues from her oil and gas resources. Policymakers in Nigeria are called upon to put an end to further procrastination concerning the liquefied natural gas (LNG) investment project so that the bulk of the country's gas, which is presently being flared, can be re-injected, consumed locally, and exported to supplement dwindling oil revenues. 23 notes and references, 3 tables.

  6. A natural resource: what happens when oil interests conflict with the needs of a northern caribou herd and the people who depend on it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, R. J.

    1999-09-30

    Although the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) established a wildlife refuge to protect the calving grounds of the Porcupine caribou, striking oil in Prudhoe Bay led to the construction of a pipeline, which even in decline delivers one million barrels of oil a day to the Port of Valdez. Given the money generated by the oil industry, it is not surprising that most Alaska legislators favour extraction of the nature reserve's petroleum resources. So far, legislation by the President, supported by a group of senators, managed to keep the drilling rigs out of the nursery of the Porcupine caribou. In Canada, too, aboriginal leaders and environmentalist groups have worked hard to ensure that the federal government continues to oppose the leasing of the coastal plain to developers. Development would negatively affect the Porcupine caribou herd, the traditional way of life of aboriginal communities, and the ecological integrity of Ivvavik National Park. Although the fate of the calving ground will ultimately be decided in Washington, the health of the Porcupine caribou herd is a true cross-border issue. So far, the two governments have managed to stave off development and to assert that such a relatively pristine and intact biosphere should remain intact. However, the pressure by the oil industry giants is relentless, and requires constant vigilance.

  7. A natural resource: what happens when oil interests conflict with the needs of a northern caribou herd and the people who depend on it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Although the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) established a wildlife refuge to protect the calving grounds of the Porcupine caribou, striking oil in Prudhoe Bay led to the construction of a pipeline, which even in decline delivers one million barrels of oil a day to the Port of Valdez. Given the money generated by the oil industry, it is not surprising that most Alaska legislators favour extraction of the nature reserve's petroleum resources. So far, legislation by the President, supported by a group of senators, managed to keep the drilling rigs out of the nursery of the Porcupine caribou. In Canada, too, aboriginal leaders and environmentalist groups have worked hard to ensure that the federal government continues to oppose the leasing of the coastal plain to developers. Development would negatively affect the Porcupine caribou herd, the traditional way of life of aboriginal communities, and the ecological integrity of Ivvavik National Park. Although the fate of the calving ground will ultimately be decided in Washington, the health of the Porcupine caribou herd is a true cross-border issue. So far, the two governments have managed to stave off development and to assert that such a relatively pristine and intact biosphere should remain intact. However, the pressure by the oil industry giants is relentless, and requires constant vigilance

  8. Oil geopolitics and its implications to the production and technological strategies for the usage of brazilian oil resources; Geopolitica do petroleo e suas implicacoes sobre as estrategias produtivas e tecnologicas para o aproveitamento dos recursos petroliferos nacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Giovani [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico. Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP, PRH-21

    2004-07-01

    This study evaluates the implications of different geopolitics scenarios over the productive and technological strategies for exploiting national oil resources. Initially, it discusses the international oil market fundamentals, focusing the dynamics of the light-heavy prices differential. Then, it analysis the effects three possible scenarios over such market fundamentals: Strong OPEC due to 'reinforcement of the price band mechanism discipline'; Weak OPEC due to 'market contestation' (productive empowerment of non-OPEC countries or quitting of OPEC member-countries interested in getting more productive autonomy - such as Algeria, Nigeria and, eventually, Iraq); and, Weak OPEC due to 'strategies to reduce geopolitics vulnerability' (minimization of supply disruption risks). Afterwards, it evaluates the impacts of those scenarios over the productive and technological strategies for exploiting national oil resources. Finally, it concludes that the scenarios of Strong OPEC and Weak OPEC due to 'strategies to reduce geopolitics vulnerability' are the most favorable for the exploitation of national oil resources, whilst the scenario Weak OPEC due to 'market contestation' would challenge the oil companies operating in the country to generate productive and technology strategies which strongly promotes E and P cost reduction in Brazil in order to maintain the competitiveness of the national oil. (author)

  9. Review of Heterogeneous Catalysts for Catalytically Upgrading Vegetable Oils into Hydrocarbon Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Zhao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To address the issues of greenhouse gas emissions associated with fossil fuels, vegetable oilseeds, especially non-food oilseeds, are used as an alternative fuel resource. Vegetable oil derived from these oilseeds can be upgraded into hydrocarbon biofuel. Catalytic cracking and hydroprocessing are two of the most promising pathways for converting vegetable oil to hydrocarbon biofuel. Heterogeneous catalysts play a critical role in those processes. The present review summarizes current progresses and remaining challenges of vegetable oil upgrading to biofuel. The catalyst properties, applications, deactivation, and regeneration are reviewed. A comparison of catalysts used in vegetable oil and bio-oil upgrading is also carried out. Some suggestions for heterogeneous catalysts applied in vegetable oil upgrading to improve the yield and quality of hydrocarbon biofuel are provided for further research in the future.

  10. Evaluation of the production potential of bio-oil from Vietnamese biomass resources by fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Binh M.Q.; Duong, Long T.; Nguyen, Viet D.; Tran, Trong B.; Nguyen, My H.H.; Nguyen, Luong H.; Nguyen, Duc A.; Luu, Loc C.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural activities in Vietnam generate about 62 million tonnes of biomass (rice straw, rice husk, bagasse, corn cob, corn stover, etc.) annually. In this work, four different types of biomass from Vietnam, namely rice straw, rice husk, factory bagasse, and corn cob, have been studied as potential raw materials to produce bio-oil by fast pyrolysis technology. Test runs were conducted in a fluidized-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C and residence time less than 2 s. Size and moisture content of the feed were less than 2 mm and 2%, respectively. It was found that yields of bio-oil as a liquid product obtained from pyrolysis of these feedstocks were more than 50% and that obtained from the bagasse was the highest. Bio-oil quality from Vietnamese biomass resources satisfies ASTM D7544-12 standard for pyrolysis liquid biofuels. These results showed the potential of using biomass in Vietnam to produce bio-oil which could be directly used as a combustion fuel or upgraded into transportation fuels and chemicals. - Highlights: • Four types of Vietnamese biomass were firstly analyzed in detail. • Optimal conditions for fast pyrolysis reaction for Vietnamese biomass types. • Bio-oil product adapted to the standard specification for pyrolysis liquid biofuel

  11. Digital data in support of studies and assessments of coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: Chapter I.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Gunther, Gregory; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin is a mature basin containing abundant oil, gas, and coal resources. Its fossil-fuel-bearing strata range in age from Cambrian to Permian and extend over the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The basin has provided abundant fossil fuels to support the Nation’s economic growth for at least 150 years and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessments suggest that substantial untapped resources remain. A merger of new and old geologic data and ideas is required to locate and extract those remaining resources.

  12. Recycling of used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on used oil which is a valuable resource that should be recycled. Recycling used oil saves energy and natural resources. Used oil can be reprocessed and used as fuel in industrial burners and boilers. Unfortunately, more than 400 million gallons/year of used oil is lost through widespread dumping, partly due to lack of effective recycling procedures. Although used oil is not currently a federally listed hazardous waste, the U.S. EPA has proposed to list it as a hazardous waste, which will make recycling of used oil even more attractive. Laboratory samples, representing used oil, were used for detailed parametric studies and to determine the limitation of extending some of the current physical separation techniques such as sedimentation and centrifuging developed for oil-water and solid-liquid separation

  13. Crude oil and natural gas supplies and demands for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.M.; Probert, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel technique for forecasting the supply and extraction life-cycle of a depleting fossil fuel resource has been developed. The supply side utilises a 'skewed-normal production-profile' model that yields a better representation than earlier approaches. A simple model for extrapolating crude oil and natural gas demands has also been devised, based on the so called 'modified logit function'. The predicted crude oil and natural gas balances for the period up to AD 2010 indicate the disparity between indigenous production and future consumption for Denmark. These forecasts depend on current estimates of remaining oil and gas reserves. It will consequently be necessary to revise periodically the present projections as more reliable reserve estimates become available. (author)

  14. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Central Burma Basin and the Irrawaddy-Andaman and Indo-Burman Geologic Provinces, Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    The Irrawaddy-Andaman and Indo-Burman Geologic Provinces were recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.3 billion barrels of oil, 79.6 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 2.1 billion barrels of natrual gas liquids.

  15. Opportunities for CANDU for the Alberta oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.M.; Bock, D.; Miller, A.; Kuran, S.; Keil, H.; Fiorino, L.; Hau, K.; Zhou, X.; Dunbar, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The Alberta oil sands bitumen deposits comprise of one of the largest sources hydrocarbon in the world, and have emerged as the fastest growing, soon to be dominant, source of crude oil in Canada. The oil industry has made great strides in improving the effectiveness of gathering this resource. In particular, alternatives to open-pit mining have been developed which enable in-site recovery of underground deposits with a minimum of environmental disruption. The main challenge that remains is the large quantity of energy needed in the process of extracting the oil and upgrading it to commercial levels. For a typical in-situ extraction project, about 18% of the energy content of the oil produced is used up in the extraction process, while a further 5% is used in generating hydrogen to upgrade the bitumen to synthetic crude oil. Looking ahead, even as improvements in energy use efficiency, (and hydrocarbon use efficiency) counterbalance the increases in hydrocarbon demand from economic growth (particularly in the developing world), Canada and Alberta recognize that the oil sands resource will be needed, and both support the development of this resource in an environmentally responsible way. The large energy requirement for the oil sands extraction process represents a challenge with regard to both environmental impact and security of supply. The use of natural gas, the current energy supply, has impacts in terms of air quality (via NOX and other emissions) and also represents a large greenhouse gas emissions component. As the oil sands industry expands, the availability of natural gas also becomes a concern, as does price and price stability. With this background, the opportunity for nuclear reactors to provide an economical, reliable, virtually zero-emission source of energy for the oil sands becomes very important. Over the last few years, developments in oil sands extraction technology, and developments in CANDU technology through the Advanced CANDU Reactor, (ACR

  16. A study on the future of unconventional oil development under different oil price scenarios: A system dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Hossein; Shakouri, Hamed G.

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuations in the oil global market has been a critical topic for the world economy so that analyzing and forecasting the conventional oil production rate has been examined by many researchers thoroughly. However, the dynamics of the market has not been studied systematically with regard to the new emerging competitors, namely unconventional oil. In this paper, the future trend of conventional and unconventional oil production and capacity expansion rates are analyzed using system dynamics approach. To do so, a supply-side modeling approach is utilized while main effective loops are modeled mathematically as follows: technological learning and progress, long and short-term profitability of oil capacity expansion and production, and oil proved reserve limitations. The proposed model is used to analyze conventional and unconventional oil production shares, up to 2025, under different oil price scenarios. The results show that conventional oil production rate ranges from 79.995 to 87.044 MB/day, which is 75–80 percent of total oil production rate, while unconventional oil production rate ranges from 19.615 to 28.584 MB/day. Simulation results reveal that unconventional oil can gain a considerable market share in the short run, although conventional oil will remain as the major source for the market in the long run. - Highlights: • Variables and loops affecting oil production are formulated mathematically. • Shares of conventional and unconventional oil in the global oil market is analyzed. • Oil production rate under different oil price scenarios up to 2025 is simulated. • Unconventional oil would obtain a considerable share in market in the short-term. • A late peak for the conventional oil resources would occur.

  17. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  18. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruple, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Keiter, Robert [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  19. Oil supply and oil politics: Deja Vu all over again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, Cutler J.; Kaufmann, Robert K.

    2003-01-01

    President Bush has identified US dependence on imported oil as an urgent energy, economic, and national security concern. The President's energy plan promotes the development of domestic resources, based on the assumption that economic incentives and the opening of frontier areas for exploration will increase domestic production. If realized, this will reduce dependence on imported oil and reduce OPEC's ability to affect aggregate oil supply and price. The evidence suggests, however, that this policy will not increase significantly US production of crude oil, will not reduce significantly OPEC's influence, and it will distort the US macroeconomy. Even if allowed, production from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge will have a negligible impact on the world oil markets. Further subsidies to the oil industry will divert resources from other more productive investments. Conservation and energy efficiency merit greater emphasis in US energy policy given their ability to reduce the use of cost-effective and environmentally beneficial ways

  20. Oil supply and oil politics: Deja Vu all over again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, C.J.; Kaufmann, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    President Bush has identified US dependence on imported oil as an urgent energy, economic, and national security concern. The President's energy plan promotes the development of domestic resources, based on the assumption that economic incentives and the opening of frontier areas for exploration will increase domestic production. If realized, this will reduce dependence on imported oil and reduce OPEC's ability to affect aggregate oil supply and price. The evidence suggests, however, that this policy will not increase significantly US production of crude oil, will not reduce significantly OPEC's influence, and it will distort the US macroeconomy. Even if allowed, production from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge will have a negligible impact on the world oil markets. Further subsidies to the oil industry will divert resources from other more productive investments. Conservation and energy efficiency merit greater emphasis in US energy policy given their ability to reduce the use of cost-effective and environmentally beneficial ways. (author)

  1. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes

  2. Energy security of supply and oil shale resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkarmi, F.

    1994-01-01

    Jordan must utilize its huge oil shale deposits in order to increase domestic security of energy supply and benefit financially. Utilization processes will require large scale financial expenditures, beyond Jordan's means. Therefore, the BOT scheme seems to be the perfects solution. Since oil shale retorting technology will produce oil which can be traded to generate valuable foreign exchange revenues, it is more advantageous than direct burning technology which produces electricity limited to local consumption regardless of economics. Under the BOT scheme, the incentive, for the foreign sponsor is to return his investment via quantities of oil; for Jordan the aim is to meet local energy demand and acquire the plant infrastructure in the long term. Recent events in the more traditional oil fields of the region make such a project in Jordan more attractive. (author) 3 tabs. 2 figs

  3. Geothermal and heavy-oil resources in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seni, S.J.; Walter, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    In a five-county area of South Texas, geopressured-geothermal reservoirs in the Paleocene-Eocene Wilcox Group lie below medium- to heavy-oil reservoirs in the Eocene Jackson Group. This fortuitous association suggests the use of geothermal fluids for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). Geothermal fairways are formed where thick deltaic sandstones are compartmentalized by growth faults. Wilcox geothermal reservoirs in South Texas are present at depths of 11,000 to 15,000 ft (3,350 to 4,570 m) in laterally continuous sandstones 100 to 200 ft (30 to 60 m) thick. Permeability is generally low (typically 1 md), porosity ranges from 12 to 24 percent, and temperature exceeds 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C). Reservoirs containing medium (20{degrees} to 25{degrees} API gravity) to heavy (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) oil are concentrated along the Texas Coastal Plain in the Jackson-Yegua Barrier/Strandplain (Mirando Trend), Cap Rock, and Piercement Salt Dome plays and in the East Texas Basin in Woodbine Fluvial/Deltaic Strandplain and Paluxy Fault Line plays. Injection of hot, moderately fresh to saline brines will improve oil recovery by lowering viscosity and decreasing residual oil saturation. Smectite clay matrix could swell and clog pore throats if injected waters have low salinity. The high temperature of injected fluids will collapse some of the interlayer clays, thus increasing porosity and permeability. Reservoir heterogeneity resulting from facies variation and diagenesis must be considered when siting production and injection wells within the heavy-oil reservoir. The ability of abandoned gas wells to produce sufficient volumes of hot water over the long term will also affect the economics of TEOR.

  4. Peak oil analyzed with a logistic function and idealized Hubbert curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A logistic function is used to characterize peak and ultimate production of global crude oil and petroleum-derived liquid fuels. Annual oil production data were incrementally summed to construct a logistic curve in its initial phase. Using a curve-fitting approach, a population-growth logistic function was applied to complete the cumulative production curve. The simulated curve was then deconstructed into a set of annual oil production data producing an 'idealized' Hubbert curve. An idealized Hubbert curve (IHC) is defined as having properties of production data resulting from a constant growth-rate under fixed resource limits. An IHC represents a potential production curve constructed from cumulative production data and provides a new perspective for estimating peak production periods and remaining resources. The IHC model data show that idealized peak oil production occurred in 2009 at 83.2 Mb/d (30.4 Gb/y). IHC simulations of truncated historical oil production data produced similar results and indicate that this methodology can be useful as a prediction tool. - Research Highlights: →Global oil production data were analyzed by a simple curve fitting method. →Best fit-curve results were obtained using two logistic functions on select data. →A broad potential oil production peak is forecast for the years from 2004 to 2014. →Similar results were obtained using historical data from about 10 to 30 years ago. →Two potential oil production decline scenarios were presented and compared.

  5. Management of natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielo, Olivier; Loubens, Audrey

    2016-08-01

    As a sustainable exploitation of fossil natural resources has become an ecological opportunity, this publication proposes a set of articles focused on the cases of gas, oils (conventional or not) and coal. A first article outlines the unavoidable environmental issue associated with the exploitation of fossil energies. The second one comments the meaning of fossil fuel availability, and more particularly the distinction between resources and reserves, and the transformation of resources into reserves for saving purposes. This last issue of transformation of resources into reserves is addressed by next articles which respectively focus on conventional gases and oils, on non conventional gases and oils, and on coal. Two articles then comment perspectives by 2040 by discussing the high tension between fossil resources and geopolitical situation, and by discussing whether a world energy transition is possible. The three last articles notice that the abundance of fossil energies is hiding the potential of renewable energies, discuss whether chemical industry could do without oil, and comment the fact that Russia strengthens its claims on Arctic territories

  6. Feedback versus open-loop leader/fringe models of the oil supply market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelot, R.P.; Fuller, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    A multiperiod feedback Stackelberg model of exhaustible resources is presented. The results of the feedback model are compared with those from a corresponding open-loop formulation to determine whether the solution to the latter, and much simpler, model produces the same or similar outcomes. An analysis of the world oil market with OPEC as leader dictating the price to a competitive fringe comprised of the remaining oil suppliers demonstrates the features of the model. It permits variable length periods and cumulative extraction cost functions

  7. Imported resources - gas/oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, K. [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company, Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to provide information on issues of crude oil and natural gas supply at a conference addressing the problems of energy in Eastern and Central Europe. Although this can inevitably be performed through the {open_quotes}binoculars{close_quotes} of the petroleum sector of my country, I will try to present the issues and challenges that are thought to be characteristic in general for the region.

  8. Too Much Coal, Too Little Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick van der Ploeg; Cees Withagen

    2011-01-01

    Optimal climate policy is studied. Coal, the abundant resource, contributes more CO2 per unit of energy than the exhaustible resource, oil. We characterize the optimal sequencing oil and coal and departures from the Herfindahl rule. "Preference reversal" can take place. If coal is very dirty compared to oil, there is no simultaneous use. Else, the optimal outcome starts with oil, before using oil and coal together, and finally coal on its own, The "laissez-faire" outcome uses coal forever or ...

  9. Oil price shocks and economy: an open question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marzio, G.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s advanced oil importing economies faced the adverse effects of oil supply disruptions with abrupt energy price rise, followed by sensible business cycle inversions and stagflation. The negative effects of the sharp energy price increase were amplified by factors such the induced costly resources reallocation between labour and capital, and between sectors of activity; rising uncertainty discouraging investments, and income redistribution consequences on aggregate demands After a shock the economic system generally adjusts in favour of less energy intensive industries; this leads pauses in production as part of the existing capital stock become obsolete, and causes resources under utilization. Since the 1970s a number of economists have been sceptical about why even large price shocks in a resource that accounts for less than 3-4 pct. of global GDP could cause losses of magnitude as those experienced in most advanced economies. They believe that monetary policy has played a role in generating the observed negative correlation between oil prices and economic activity, and question whether the post-oil-shock recessions were attributable to the oil price shocks themselves or to the monetary policy responding to these shocks. Empirical research largely shows a primary responsibility of large price shocks and major oil-supply disruptions on recessionary movements of GDP. Energy prices have risen sharply since 2003, driven by strengthening global demand; market fundamentals suggest that a considerable fraction of recent hikes will be permanent and current price levels remain credible. With limited spare capacity, the medium term oil supply-demand balance is expected to remain tight, and the price probably near current levels. Today' s high oil prices reflect the effects of sustained energy demand trends and, jointly, oil industry under investment during and after the low price era of the 1990s. The apparent moderate macro economic effects of the

  10. Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckerle, William; Hall, Stephen

    2005-12-30

    In 2002, Gnomon, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for a project entitled, Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming (DE-FC26-02NT15445). This project, funded through DOE’s Preferred Upstream Management Practices grant program, examined cultural resource management practices in two major oil- and gas-producing areas, southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming (Figure 1). The purpose of this project was to examine how cultural resources have been investigated and managed and to identify more effective management practices. The project also was designed to build information technology and modeling tools to meet both current and future management needs. The goals of the project were described in the original proposal as follows: Goal 1. Create seamless information systems for the project areas. Goal 2. Examine what we have learned from archaeological work in the southeastern New Mexico oil fields and whether there are better ways to gain additional knowledge more rapidly or at a lower cost. Goal 3. Provide useful sensitivity models for planning, management, and as guidelines for field investigations. Goal 4. Integrate management, investigation, and decision- making in a real-time electronic system. Gnomon, Inc., in partnership with the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office (WYSHPO) and Western GeoArch Research, carried out the Wyoming portion of the project. SRI Foundation, in partnership with the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division (NMHPD), Statistical Research, Inc., and Red Rock Geological Enterprises, completed the New Mexico component of the project. Both the New Mexico and Wyoming summaries concluded with recommendations how cultural resource management (CRM) processes might be modified based on the findings of this research.

  11. Optimisation of Oil Production in Two – Phase Flow Reservoir Using Simultaneous Method and Interior Point Optimiser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerch, Dariusz Michal; Völcker, Carsten; Capolei, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    in the reservoir. A promising decrease of these remained resources can be provided by smart wells applying water injections to sustain satisfactory pressure level in the reservoir throughout the whole process of oil production. Basically to enhance secondary recovery of the remaining oil after drilling, water...... is injected at the injection wells of the down-hole pipes. This sustains the pressure in the reservoir and drives oil towards production wells. There are however, many factors contributing to the poor conventional secondary recovery methods e.g. strong surface tension, heterogeneity of the porous rock...... fields, or closed loop optimisation, can be used for optimising the reservoir performance in terms of net present value of oil recovery or another economic objective. In order to solve an optimal control problem we use a direct collocation method where we translate a continuous problem into a discrete...

  12. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2015 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Energy Minerals Division

    2015-12-15

    This paper includes 10 summaries for energy resource commodities including coal and unconventional resources, and an analysis of energy economics and technology prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. Such resources include coalbed methane, oil shale, U and Th deposits and associated rare earth elements of industrial interest, geothermal, gas shale and liquids, tight gas sands, gas hydrates, and bitumen and heavy oil. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy resource commodity in the topical sections of this report, followed by analysis of unconventional energy economics and technology.

  13. Prospects for non-OPEC oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, S.

    1994-01-01

    An International Energy Agency forecast is provided of non-OPEC oil production over a 15-year horizon. Reference-case forecasts are derived from Hubbert-type resource models, official industry announcements about such matters as oil discoveries and development projects, and an oil industry consensus. Separate regional profiles are provided for North America, Europe, the former Soviet Union, and the rest of non-OPEC countries (South America, Asia, non-OPEC Middle East). Under a flat-price scenario ($18/bbl), total non-OPEC oil supply rises slightly from 41.4 million bbl/d (MBD) in 1995 to 41.9 MBD in 2010. Under a scenario in which prices rise to $28/bbl, oil supply rises to 47.5 MBD in 2010. The latter results depend on specific assumptions concerning economic growth, energy prices, the geological potential of some areas which are not yet well understood, technological advances, and the nature of political developments. Uncertainties regarding these assumptions are discussed, with reference to reserves, price responsiveness, world oil industry investment, technology, and costs. A major uncertainty is the issue of investment in the OPEC countries, since the rising-price scenario assumes that OPEC invests only reluctantly. If major OPEC producers choose to open their upstream sectors to international oil companies, the situation will change completely. Otherwise, oil markets are expected to continue to behave in the manner of the past 20 years, with highest-cost oil being developed first while cheaper oil remains in the ground. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  14. A Chinese resource curse? The human rights effects of oil export dependence on China versus the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, J.; Daxecker, U.

    2015-01-01

    Critiques of China’s ‘oil diplomacy’ center on its alleged disregard for transparency and human rights, yet such claims ignore that the problematic relationship between resource extraction and human rights precedes Chinese market entry. This article explores whether human rights implications are

  15. Aviation fuel and future oil production scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, Emma; Aleklett, Kjell; Hoeoek, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Most aviation fuels are jet fuels originating from crude oil. Crude oil must be refined to be useful and jet fuel is only one of many products that can be derived from crude oil. Jet fuel is extracted from the middle distillates fraction and competes, for example, with the production of diesel. Crude oil is a limited natural resource subject to depletion and several reports indicate that the world's crude oil production is close to the maximum level and that it will start to decrease after reaching this maximum. A post-Kyoto political agenda to reduce oil consumption will have the same effect on aviation fuel production as a natural decline in the crude oil production. On the other hand, it is predicted by the aviation industry that aviation traffic will keep on increasing. The industry has put ambitious goals on increases in fuel efficiency for the aviation fleet. Traffic is predicted to grow by 5% per year to 2026, fuel demand by about 3% per year. At the same time, aviation fuel production is predicted to decrease by several percent each year after the crude oil production peak is reached resulting in a substantial shortage of jet fuel by 2026. The aviation industry will have a hard time replacing this with fuel from other sources, even if air traffic remains at current levels.

  16. [Research on engine remaining useful life prediction based on oil spectrum analysis and particle filtering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Jia, Yun-xian; Cai, Li-ying; Lin, Guo-yu; Zhao, Jin-song

    2013-09-01

    The spectrometric oil analysis(SOA) is an important technique for machine state monitoring, fault diagnosis and prognosis, and SOA based remaining useful life(RUL) prediction has an advantage of finding out the optimal maintenance strategy for machine system. Because the complexity of machine system, its health state degradation process can't be simply characterized by linear model, while particle filtering(PF) possesses obvious advantages over traditional Kalman filtering for dealing nonlinear and non-Gaussian system, the PF approach was applied to state forecasting by SOA, and the RUL prediction technique based on SOA and PF algorithm is proposed. In the prediction model, according to the estimating result of system's posterior probability, its prior probability distribution is realized, and the multi-step ahead prediction model based on PF algorithm is established. Finally, the practical SOA data of some engine was analyzed and forecasted by the above method, and the forecasting result was compared with that of traditional Kalman filtering method. The result fully shows the superiority and effectivity of the

  17. Alberta's conventional oil supply: How much? How long?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.

    1992-01-01

    To assess the future conventional crude oil supply potential in Alberta, a modelling system was designed with the capacity to determine the fraction of existing and potential reserves which could prove technically, economically and/or commercially viable over time. The reference case analysis described assumed constant real oil prices and fiscal burdens, capital and operating costs. Reserve additions from new pool discoveries were summed with reserves from existing pools to arrive at an estimate of the potential supply of established reserves in each play area. The established reserves from all plays were then totalled to provide the provincial conventional oil resource potential. Alberta's recoverable conventional crude oil reserves were shown to be declining at about 2 percent per year. However, even with declining recoverable reserves and relatively low prices, the results of the study indicated that the conventional oil industry remained a major revenue generator for the province and would continue to be so over the next 15 to 20 years. Improved operating efficiencies, cost reductions, reasonable prices and cooperation between industry and government were shown to be necessary to assure the continued viability of Alberta's conventional oil industry. figs., tabs., 11 refs

  18. Fossile fuel and uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorkum, A.A. van.

    1975-01-01

    The world's resources of coal, lignite, oil, natural gas, shale oil and uranium are reviewed. These quantities depend on the prices which make new resources exploitable. Uranium resources are given exclusively for the USSR, Eastern Europe and China. Their value in terms of energy depends heavily on the reactor type used. All figures given are estimated to be conservative

  19. Corporate Social Responsibility in the Angolan Oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Arne Wiig

    2005-01-01

    What are the responsibility of oil companies in resource rich countries? Do they take these responsibilities? Based on a utilitarian perspective and theories of the resource curse, we discuss the oil companies' corporate social responsibility (CSR) when a resource rich country such as Angola lacks accountable public institutions. We also analyse the type of responsibility oil companies take and factors driving corporate social responsibility. From undertaking a survey among oil service firms ...

  20. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia and Kazakhstan, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 1.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 2.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 85 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Volga-Ural Region Province, using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  1. Arctic oil exploration Former mayor says yes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaleak, J. Sr.

    Alaska's coastal plain can sustain both wilderness values and oil production, says Jeslie Kaleak, Sr., former mayor of North Slope Borough in Borrow, Alaska. Kaleak is director is Barrow Operations for North Slope Regional Corporation. Nevertheless, Kaleak contends, [open quotes]the people in the Lower 48 want to keep us from developing this land because of some preconceived notion of the land as a wilderness paradise.[close quotes] Kaleak insists that the Inupiaq people, American Indians inhabiting the Northern Slope region, have provided for their families for thousands of years by turning to the natural environment. Their decision to support oil development is no different. Kaleak contends that the mineral and oil wealth of the North Slope has allowed the Inupiaq people to improve their standard of living drastically. Oil development on the coastal plain, Kaleak contends, could provide similar economic benefits. [open quotes]We cannot define our lives by the vision of distant people who view the North Slope as one great outdoor Disneyland where...all resources remain off limits to us,[close quotes] Kaleak concludes.

  2. Economic impacts of natural resources on a regional economy: the case of the pre-salt oil discoveries in Espirito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Amaral Haddad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian government has recently confirmed the discovery of a huge oil and natural gas field in the pre-salt layer of the country’s southeastern coast. It has been said that the oil fields can boost Brazil’s oil production and turn the country into one of the largest oil producers in the world. The fields are spatially concentrated in the coastal areas of a few Brazilian states that may directly benefit from oil production. This paper uses an interregional computable general equilibrium model to assess the impacts of pre-salt on the economy of the State of Espírito Santo, a region already characterized by an economic base that is heavily reliant on natural resources. We focus our analysis on the structural economic impacts on the local economy

  3. Challenge of the oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaidah, A M

    1981-11-01

    The oil market is experiencing a different environment in 1981 as demand for OPEC oil fades while customers run down their inventories. The oil-producing countries face a new challenge, but the need of consuming countries for secure oil supplies and the need of producing countries to broaden their economies and reduce dependence on a depleting resource continue. Two episodes 1973 to 1975 and late 1978 to the present, illustrate the current market situation. The impact of these episodes is the basis for recommended long-run goals that go beyond market management to the real challenge of converting oil resources into the real assets of economic development. (DCK)

  4. Separation of oil and grease from oil sludge using surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainon Abdul Aziz; Syed Hakimi Sakuma Syed Ahmad; Zalina Laili

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the experiments was to observe the efficiency of the surfactant to remove oil and grease from oil sludges using various surfactant concentration ranging from 10 %, 15 %, 20 % and 30 %. The surfactant solution consists of two mixtures of Aqua 2000 and D Bond. The oil sludge were subjected to heating and surfactant treatment process. Remaining oil and grease concentration were observed on the oil sludges after treatment. Small scale experiments were conducted by heating process, without heating process and heating process with addition of sodium chloride. Surfactant solution was added in each process. Results shows that there is separation of oil and grease from the oil sludges. There were formation of mini emulsions (oil in water). The higher the concentration of surfactant used, the higher the concentrations of mini emulsion formed as observed. Solid remains after the treatment process were found to contain lesser oil concentration with presence of bitumen, sediment, organic and inorganic materials. After a washing process using distilled water, the solid was still black but less oily than before the treatment. There is no separation of oil occurred in aqueous solution for the control experiment. (Author)

  5. Executive summary--2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado: Chapter 1 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province (5022), New Mexico and Colorado (fig. 1). Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  6. Oil. From mineral resource treasure to resource plague; Olie. Van bodemschat tot grondstofvloek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, M. [Divisie Financiele Stabiliteit, De Nederlandsche Bank, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-12-01

    Rising oil prices in the seventies resulted, also because of overspending, in disappointing economic development in the oil-producing countries. Although policy reactions to the current rise of the oil prices did not have that effect so far, there is the danger for financial instability. [Dutch] De olieprijsstijgingen in de jaren zeventig leidden door overbesteding tot tegenvallende economische prestaties bij veel olieproducerende landen. De beleidsreacties op de recente olieprijsstijging zijn tot dusverre hoopgevend, maar desondanks liggen er gevaren voor de financiele stabiliteit op de Ioer.

  7. Oil shale (in memoriam)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, Marek

    2000-01-01

    Plans for the continued use of oil shale may lead the development of this country into an impasse. To this day no plans have been made for transition from the use of energy based on fossil fuels to that based on renewable resources. Without having any clear strategic plan politicians have been comforting both themselves and the population with promises to tackle the problem when the right time comes. Today the only enterprise whose cash flows and capital would really make it possible to reform the power industry is the firm Eesti Energia (Estonian Energy). However, its sole present shareholder - the state - prefers the sale of the firm's shares to carrying out a radical reform. At the same time, local consumers are likely to rather be willing to pay for the expensive electric energy produced from renewable resources than for that produced from fossil fuels, the price of which will also remain high due to the pollution tax. Practically it is impossible to buy a globally balanced environment for money - pollution taxes are but punitive mechanisms. The investments made into the oil-shale industry will also reinforce the cultural distance of North-East Estonia from the rest of Estonia - the uniform and prevalently Russian-speaking industrial area will be preserved as long as capital will continue to flow into the oil shale industry concentrated there. The way out would be for industries to make wider use of ecological and ecosystemic technologies and for the state to enforce ecologically balanced economic and social policies. (author)

  8. Logistic curves, extraction costs and effective peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecha, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Debates about the possibility of a near-term maximum in world oil production have become increasingly prominent over the past decade, with the focus often being on the quantification of geologically available and technologically recoverable amounts of oil in the ground. Economically, the important parameter is not a physical limit to resources in the ground, but whether market price signals and costs of extraction will indicate the efficiency of extracting conventional or nonconventional resources as opposed to making substitutions over time for other fuels and technologies. We present a hybrid approach to the peak-oil question with two models in which the use of logistic curves for cumulative production are supplemented with data on projected extraction costs and historical rates of capacity increase. While not denying the presence of large quantities of oil in the ground, even with foresight, rates of production of new nonconventional resources are unlikely to be sufficient to make up for declines in availability of conventional oil. Furthermore we show how the logistic-curve approach helps to naturally explain high oil prices even when there are significant quantities of low-cost oil yet to be extracted. - Highlights: ► Extraction cost information together with logistic curves to model oil extraction. ► Two models of extraction sequence for different oil resources. ► Importance of time-delay and extraction rate limits for new resources. ► Model results qualitatively reproduce observed extraction cost dynamics. ► Confirmation of “effective” peak oil, even though resources are in ground.

  9. Oil Trade and Climate Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Curuk; Suphi Sen

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that a depletable resource owner might optimally increase near-term supply in response to environmental policies promoting the development of alternative resources, which might render climate policy ineffective or even counterproductive. This paper empirically confirms this prediction using data on crude oil exports from OPEC to OECD countries between 2001-2010 in a gravity framework. It documents that oil exporters decrease prices and increase quantity of oil exports in re...

  10. The future of oil supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard G; Sorrell, Steven R

    2014-01-13

    Abundant supplies of oil form the foundation of modern industrial economies, but the capacity to maintain and grow global supply is attracting increasing concern. Some commentators forecast a peak in the near future and a subsequent terminal decline in global oil production, while others highlight the recent growth in 'tight oil' production and the scope for developing unconventional resources. There are disagreements over the size, cost and recoverability of different resources, the technical and economic potential of different technologies, the contribution of different factors to market trends and the economic implications of reduced supply. Few debates are more important, more contentious, more wide-ranging or more confused. This paper summarizes the main concepts, terms, issues and evidence that are necessary to understand the 'peak oil' debate. These include: the origin, nature and classification of oil resources; the trends in oil production and discoveries; the typical production profiles of oil fields, basins and producing regions; the mechanisms underlying those profiles; the extent of depletion of conventional oil; the risk of an approaching peak in global production; and the potential of various mitigation options. The aim is to introduce the subject to non-specialist readers and provide a basis for the subsequent papers in this Theme Issue.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Wyoming Thrust Belt Province, Wyoming, Idaho, and Utah, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-02-16

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 26 million barrels of oil and 700 billion cubic feet of gas in the Wyoming Thrust Belt Province, Wyoming, Idaho, and Utah.

  12. Alberta Chamber of Resources : 1997 resources guide and directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Alberta Chamber of Resources (ACR) is composed of 140 member companies from the oil and gas industry, forestry, pulp and paper, mining, oil sands, utilities, contractors, suppliers, consultants, banking and other service groups, as well as representatives from universities and governments. ACR's activities during 1996 were reviewed. These included supporting or sponsoring a careers forum, and various other networking and information sharing opportunities, a study of the potential for Alberta's minerals industry, and exploring opportunities for research in the forestry sector and the further development of Alberta's oil sands. Studies of the transportation and infrastructures strategies for Alberta's resources, royalty regimes, tenure and compensation issues associated with oil sands reservoirs that are 'capped' by natural gas reservoirs, taxation issues related to oil sands development, mineral rights tenure, and toll design and royalty issues affecting Alberta's natural gas sector rounded out the Chamber's activities. The annual review also profiled a number of ACR member companies, among them Koch Oil Company Ltd., Pardee Equipment Ltd., Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc., Clearwater Welding and Fabricating Ltd., and Weldwood of Canada. A listing of all ACR members was also provided

  13. A methodology for handling exploration risk and constructing supply curves for oil and gas plays when resources are stacked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallaire, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of project economics to estimate full-cycle supply prices for undiscovered oil and gas resources is a straightforward exercise for those regions where oil and gas plays are not vertically superimposed on one another, ie. are not stacked. Exploration risk is incorporated into such an analysis by using a simple two-outcome decision tree model to include the costs of dry and abandoned wells. The decision tree model can be expanded to include multiple targets or discoveries, but this expansion requires additional drilling statistics and resource assessment data. A methodology is suggested to include exploration risk in the preparation of supply curves when stacked resources are expected and little or no information on uphole resources is available. In this method, all exploration costs for wells drilled to targets in the play being evaluated are assigned to that play, rather than prorated among the multiple targets or discoveries. Undiscovered pools are assumed to either bear all exploration costs (full cycle discoveries) or no exploration costs (half cycle discoveries). The weighted full- and half-cycle supply price is shown to be a more realistic estimate of the supply price of undiscovered pools in a play when stacked resources exist. The statistics required for this methodology are minimal, and resource estimates for prospects in other zones are not required. The equation relating the average pool finding cost to the discovery record is applicable to different scenarios regarding the presence of shallower and deeper resources. The equation derived for the two-outcome decision tree model is shown to be a special case of the general expression. 5 refs., 7 figs

  14. Geology and sequence stratigraphy of undiscovered oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous petroleum systems in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group and related strata, U.S. Gulf Coast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Russell F.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pearson, Krystal M.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the technically recoverable undiscovered oil and gas onshore and in State waters of the Gulf Coast region of the United States. The USGS defined three assessment units (AUs) with potential undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Turonian) strata of the Eagle Ford Group and correlative rocks. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and traps (formation, timing, and seals). Conventional oil and gas undiscovered resources are in updip sandstone reservoirs in the Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa and Woodbine Formations (or Groups) in Louisiana and Texas, respectively, whereas continuous oil and continuous gas undiscovered resources reside in the middip and downdip Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Shale in Texas and the Tuscaloosa marine shale in Louisiana. Conventional resources in the Tuscaloosa and Woodbine are included in the Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas AU, in an area where the Eagle Ford Shale and Tuscaloosa marine shale display vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values less than 0.6%. The continuous Eagle Ford Shale Oil AU lies generally south of the conventional AU, is primarily updip of the Lower Cretaceous shelf edge, and is defined by thermal maturity values within shales of the Eagle Ford and Tuscaloosa that range from 0.6 to 1.2% Ro. Similarly, the Eagle Ford Shale Gas AU is defined downdip of the shelf edge where source rocks have Ro values greater than 1.2%. For undiscovered oil and gas resources, the USGS assessed means of: 1) 141 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 502 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 4 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas AU; 2) 853 MMBO, 1707 BCFG, and 34 MMBNGL in the

  15. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I. [Kaucuk, Kralupy nad Vitavou (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  16. Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

    2009-09-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  17. Oil Politics and National Security in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Oil Transparency in the Niger Delta: Improving Public Sector Oil Derived Resource Flows and Utilization in Abia State, Nigeria,” Economies of...against the nine states officially recognized i.e. they exclude Ondo, Abia , and Imo states from being part of the Delta region (figure 1). 125 BBC...Peterside Sofiri Dr, “Oil Transparency in the Niger Delta: Improving Public Sector Oil Derived Resource Flows and Utilization in Abia State, Nigeria

  18. Natural Resources and FDI in GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahjoub Elheddad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources are a blessing for some countries to attract FDI but cursed for others. Existing literature argues the suggestion that resource-rich countries attract less FDI because of resource (oil price volatility. This study examines that natural resources discourage FDI in GCC countries (the FDI-Natural resources curse hypothesis, using panel data analysis for six oil dependent countries during 1980-2013 and applying several econometrics techniques. The main findings of this paper is that natural resources measured by oil rents have a negative association with FDI inflows; this negative impact is robust even when other FDI determinates of FDI  are included. FDI inflows decreased between 0.15 and 0.92% when oil rents increased by 1%. In addition, the empirical results show that trade openness and labour force are the main factors that encourage FDI, while political instability and corruption deter FDI inflows into GCC countries.

  19. Geology and assessment of unconventional resources of Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) quantitatively assessed the potential for unconventional oil and gas resources within the Phitsanulok Basin of Thailand. Unconventional resources for the USGS include shale gas, shale oil, tight gas, tight oil, and coalbed gas. In the Phitsanulok Basin, only potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  20. Oil and natural gas energy plan for Canada, 1977--1985: Appendix D to Canada's resources and the national interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    Governments in Canada have made a number of changes in oil and gas policies and fiscal treatments recently. There remains a considerable question, however, whether Canada will have sufficient volumes of these two energy fuels available securely and economically in the years ahead. This report examines the position that oil and gas will occupy in Canada's energy future, and assesses the contribution that domestic supplies could provide. It was concluded that, under current and proposed royalty, taxation, and regulatory systems, the flow of investments into exploration and development will be insufficient to increase the domestic supply base to provide an acceptable level of future self-reliance. Additionally, because of jurisdictional factors, reinvestments from current production are not being directed to the areas of greatest resource potential in Canada. In order to illustrate the types and degrees of further policy and fiscal changes that are required, an investment program that could lead to a minimum acceptable level of production from Canadian sources was formulated. Recommendations for changes in fiscal regimes lead to a ''formula'' that directs 35 percent of net production revenue from current production to the exploration and development of new supplies; mobilizes new investment; and directs a greater portion of both these sources of funds to the development of potential supplies from remote and technologically difficult, high-risk areas. The implementation of this formula will require concessions by both the producing provinces and the Federal government together with commitments from producers.

  1. Government and industry roles in heavy oil resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Developing a heavy oil deposit in Canada requires proper reservoir selection and ongoing resrvoir management. The number of unexploited heavy oil reservoirs whch can be economically produced through primary methods is rapidly declining. In addition, primary recoveries of 5-10% of the heavy oil in place are unacceptable and recovery rates of over 50% are needed. Enhanced thermal recovery projects are therefore needed, but these entail significant technical and commodity pricing risks. It is suggested that provincial governments recognize those risks and offer incentives by not encumbering such projects with up-front royalties. If industry is to assume the risks, governments must develop a fiscal regime that allows for a satisfactory return on capital and acceptable sharing of profits. At the federal level, it is suggested to broaden the interpretation of research and development activity to include enhanced recovery projects, making the tax breaks available to scientific research also available to heavy oil development. Government policies favoring heavy oil in Saskatchewan and Alberta are cited as good examples of ways to encourage the heavy oil industry

  2. Executive Summary -- assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California, 2003: Chapter 1 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Scheirer, Allegra Hosford; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; French, Christopher D.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the San Joaquin Basin Province of California (fig. 1.1). The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each Total Petroleum System defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock type and maturation and hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined five total petroleum systems and ten assessment units within these systems. Undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively estimated for the ten assessment units (table 1.1). In addition, the potential was estimated for further growth of reserves in existing oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin.

  3. Oil shale, shale oil, shale gas and non-conventional hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a world “revolution” in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves, which goes by the name of “shale gas”, gas contained inside clay sediments micropores. Shale gas finds particular development in the United States, which are now independent of imports and see a price reduction to less than one third of that in Europe. With the high oil prices, in addition to the non-conventional gas also “oil shales” (fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain a large amount of organic material to be used both to be directly burned or to extract liquid fuels which go under the name of shale oil, extra heavy oils and bitumen are becoming an industrial reality. Both unconventional gas and oil reserves far exceed in the world the conventional oil and gas reserves, subverting the theory of fossil fuels scarcity. Values and location of these new fossil reserves in different countries and their production by comparison with conventional resources are presented. In view of the clear advantages of unconventional fossil resources, the potential environmental risks associated with their extraction and processing are also highlighted.

  4. Oil sands and heavy oil development issues and prospects under a Liberal government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiry, J.

    1993-01-01

    A short review is presented of some of the factors affecting development of the western Canadian oil sands and heavy oil deposits to the year 2000. The Alberta oil sands resource has at least 1 trillion bbl of recoverable oil. At current prices, technology is the key to reducing costs to a more economic level. Cash operating costs have halved to $15/bbl over the past decade and the oil sands companies have programs to halve that figure again. A problem is the rising cost of natural gas as a fuel, which could jeopardize further development of both oil sand and heavy oil resources. In Saskatchewan, over 25 billion bbl of heavy oil are estimated to be in place. The biggest question is what percentage can be recovered; again, technology such as horizontal wells, 3-dimensional seismic, and steam assisted recovery is playing an important role. Concerns are expressed about the intentions of the new Liberal government concerning oil sand/heavy oil development, especially on the issues of foreign investment, exports, and environmental policy. A Liberal energy policy is not likely to allow U.S. direct investment in an oil sands plant to be tied to export of production, and the energy- and emissions-intensive nature of the oil sand/heavy oil industry will tend to make environmental approvals difficult

  5. Flaxseed oil supplementation manipulates correlations between serum individual mol % free fatty acid levels and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetics. Insulin resistance and percent remaining pancreatic β-cell function are unaffected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, D E; Mizier-Barre, K A; Griscti, O; Hafez, K

    2016-10-01

    Elevated total serum free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations have been suggested, controversially, to enhance insulin resistance and decrease percent remaining β-cell function. However, concentrations of individual serum FFAs have never been published in terms of their relationship (correlation) to homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and percent remaining β-cell function (HOMA-%β) in the type 2 diabetics (T2Ds). Alpha-linolenic acid consumption has a negative correlation with the insulin resistance, which in turn is negatively correlated with the remaining β-cell function. The primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there would be different relationship (correlation) between the blood serum individual free FFA mol % levels and HOMA-IR and/or HOMA-%β in T2D. The secondary objective was to test the hypothesis that flaxseed oil, previously being shown to be ineffective in the glycemic control in T2Ds, may alter these correlations in a statistically significant manner as well as HOMA-IR and/or HOMA-%β. Patients were recruited via a newspaper advertisement and two physicians have been employed. All the patients came to visit one and three months later for a second visit. At the second visit, the subjects were randomly assigned (double blind) to flaxseed or safflower oil treatment for three months, until the third visit. Different statistically significant correlations or trends towards among some serum individual free FFA mol % levels and HOMA-IR and HOMA-%β, pre- and post-flaxseed and safflower oil supplementation were found. However, flaxseed oil had no impact on HOMA-IR or HOMA-%β despite statistically significant alterations in correlations compared to baseline HOMA-IR. The obtained data indicate that high doses of flaxseed oil have no statistically significant effect on HOMA-IR or HOMA-%β in T2Ds, probably due to the additive effects of negative and positive correlations.

  6. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms

  7. Malaysia: oil, gas, petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Petronas or Petroliam Nasional Berhad was established on 17 August 1974 as the national petroleum corporation of Malaysia. The Petroleum Development Act, passed by the Malaysian Parliament in October of that same year, vested in Petronas the entire ownership of all oil and natural gas resources in the country. These resources are considerable and Malaysia is poised to become one of the major petrochemical producers in the region. This report outlines the extent of oil, gas and petrochemicals production in Malaysia, lists companies holding licences and contracts from Petronas and provides a directory of the Malaysian oil industry. (Author)

  8. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-06-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2017-05-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 4.2 billion barrels of oil and 3.1 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas.

  10. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Oil and Extracts of Bunium persicum (Boiss. B. Fedtsch.: Wild and Cultivated Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Rustaie 1,2, Roya Keshvari 1, Nasrin Samadi 3, Farahnaz Khalighi-Sigaroodi 4, Mohammad Reza Shams Ardekani 1,5, Mahnaz Khanavi 1,2,6 *

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruits of Bunium persicum (Boiss. B. Fedtsch (Apiaceae has been used as spice, anti-flatulence and antiseptic agent for many years. In recent years the wild resources of the plant have been threatened by extinction. Domestication of such a plant saves its genetic resources from depletion. However, concerns remain about the possible changes due to development of chemotypes and changes in the composition and biological and pharmacological potentials. Methods: Analyses of essential oils from fruits of wild and cultivated types was performed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. Antimicrobial assessment was done by agar diffusion method Results: The main compounds of both oils were included γ-terpinene (30.77% and 27.57%, cuminaldehyde (20.49% and 21.1%, ρ-cymene (20.1% and 18.32% and γ-terpinen-7-al (8.29% and 7.84% respectively. Analytical results of both tested oils exhibited very close similarities in major compounds, whereas some differences in their percentages were observed. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation of volatile oils, total extract and the resultant fractions against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans demonstrated some similarities and differences. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of wild grown fruits essential oils ranged between 0.375-1.5 mg/ml, while those of cultivated one were 0.75-6.25 mg/ml. All extracts and fractions showed similarly minor antibacterial potential while anti-Candida albicans activity was much remarkable with MICs calculated 2.5-5 mg/ml for cultivated and 5 mg/ml for wild grown extracts and fractions. Conclusion: In conclusion, despite the substantial similarities in composition of both oils, the alteration in antimicrobial results may be caused by variety in concentration of major and minor compounds and their synergism or antagonism in mixture.

  11. Natural Resources and FDI in GCC Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Mahjoub Elheddad

    2016-01-01

    Natural resources are a blessing for some countries to attract FDI but cursed for others. Existing literature argues the suggestion that resource-rich countries attract less FDI because of resource (oil) price volatility. This study examines that natural resources discourage FDI in GCC countries (the FDI-Natural resources curse hypothesis), using panel data analysis for six oil dependent countries during 1980-2013 and applying several econometrics techniques. The main findings of this paper i...

  12. The Mexican Oil Industry: Governance, Resource and Social Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    production, refining, etc. 10 That same year, Petroleos Mexicanos, or Pemex, the state owned oil company was created. 11 In 1940, a constitutional...http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/23/28/43371045.pdf 6. 67 Paul Segal, “The Future of Mexico, El petroleo es nuestro: The Distribution of Oil Reserves in...El petroleo es nuestro: The Distribution of Oil Reserves in Mexico. Houston: James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, Rice University, 2011

  13. Utilizing coal remaining resources and post-mining land use planning based on GIS-based optimization method : study case at PT Adaro coal mine in South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Anis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining activities may cause a series of environmental and socio-economic issues in communities around the mining area. Mining can become an obstacle to environmental sustainability and a major hidden danger to the security of the local ecology. Therefore, the coal mining industry should follow some specific principles and factors in achieving sustainable development. These factors include geological conditions, land use, mining technology, environmental sustainability policies and government regulations, socio-economic factors, as well as sustainability optimization for post-mining land use. Resources of the remains of the coal which is defined as the last remaining condition of the resources and reserves of coal when the coal companies have already completed the life of the mine or the expiration of the licensing contract (in accordance with government permission. This research uses approch of knowledge-driven GIS based methods mainly Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Fuzzy logic for utilizing coal remaining resources and post-mining land use planning. The mining area selected for this study belongs to a PKP2B (Work Agreement for Coal Mining company named Adaro Indonesia (PT Adaro. The result shows that geologically the existing formation is dominated by Coal Bearing Formation (Warukin Formation which allows the presence of remains coal resource potential after the lifetime of mine, and the suitability of rubber plantation for the optimization of land use in all mining sites and also in some disposal places in conservation areas and protected forests.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources of Upper Cretaceous Shales in the Songliao Basin of China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2018-05-03

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 3.3 billion barrels of oil and 887 billion cubic feet of gas in shale reservoirs of the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou and Nenjiang Formations in the Songliao Basin of northeastern China.

  15. Resource Areas in the New Institutional Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Anatolyevich Kryukov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates that today the dynamics of development and production of mineral resources in resource specializing regions may differ significantly from the canonical scheme - i.e. there is no gradual and steady depletion of natural resources within mentioned territories. The combination of several factors may again move resource regions that used to be «hopeless» to the stage of growing production. These factors are: a modern knowledge economy, an adequate resource mode (norms, rules and procedures that «master» the process of development of natural resources and developed and available infrastructure of mineral resources extraction. As an example the author considers the USA oil-producing states (Texas, Louisiana and North Dakota which showed rapid growth in production of natural gas and oil in the last few years. The author sees the accumulation of a «critical level» of economic activity (infrastructure, the number and diversity of companies in the oil and gas sector and the availability and quality of human capital as the main cause for the development of shale hydrocarbons in these states. These considerations are very important for Russia: the development of heavy oil deposits in Tatarstan, bringing into development the deposits of the Bazhenov formation in Tyumen Oblast and the future oil extraction from bituminous minerals in Yakutia will occur under the same laws (with some Russian specificity, however

  16. Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated undiscovered oil and gas resources that have the potential for additions to reserves in the San Juan Basin Province, New Mexico and Colorado. Paleozoic rocks were not appraised. The last oil and gas assessment for the province was in 1995. There are several important differences between the 1995 and 2002 assessments. The area assessed is smaller than that in the 1995 assessment. This assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the San Juan Basin Province also used a slightly different approach in the assessment, and hence a number of the plays defined in the 1995 assessment are addressed differently in this report. After 1995, the USGS has applied a total petroleum system (TPS) concept to oil and gas basin assessments. The TPS approach incorporates knowledge of the source rocks, reservoir rocks, migration pathways, and time of generation and expulsion of hydrocarbons; thus the assessments are geologically based. Each TPS is subdivided into one or more assessment units, usually defined by a unique set of reservoir rocks, but which have in common the same source rock. Four TPSs and 14 assessment units were geologically evaluated, and for 13 units, the undiscovered oil and gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  17. Tracing enhanced oil recovery signatures in casing gases from the Lost Hills oil field using noble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Peter H.; Kulongoski, Justin; Landon, Matthew K.; Tyne, R.L.; Gillespie, Janice; Stephens, Michael; Hillegonds, D.J.; Byrne, D.J.; Ballentine, C.J.

    2018-01-01

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and hydraulic fracturing practices are commonly used methods to improve hydrocarbon extraction efficiency; however the environmental impacts of such practices remain poorly understood. EOR is particularly prevalent in oil fields throughout California where water resources are in high demand and disposal of high volumes of produced water may affect groundwater quality. Consequently, it is essential to better understand the fate of injected (EOR) fluids in California and other subsurface petroleum systems, as well as any potential effect on nearby aquifer systems. Noble gases can be used as tracers to understand hydrocarbon generation, migration, and storage conditions, as well as the relative proportions of oil and water present in the subsurface. In addition, a noble gas signature diagnostic of injected (EOR) fluids can be readily identified. We report noble gas isotope and concentration data in casing gases from oil production wells in the Lost Hills oil field, northwest of Bakersfield, California, and injectate gas data from the Fruitvale oil field, located within the city of Bakersfield. Casing and injectate gas data are used to: 1) establish pristine hydrocarbon noble-gas signatures and the processes controlling noble gas distributions, 2) characterize the noble gas signature of injectate fluids, 3) trace injectate fluids in the subsurface, and 4) construct a model to estimate EOR efficiency. Noble gas results range from pristine to significantly modified by EOR, and can be best explained using a solubility exchange model between oil and connate/formation fluids, followed by gas exsolution upon production. This model is sensitive to oil-water interaction during hydrocarbon expulsion, migration, and storage at reservoir conditions, as well as any subsequent modification by EOR.

  18. Oil and entrepreneurship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majbouri, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Economic theory predicts that rents produced from natural resources, especially oil and gas, can increase opportunities for entrepreneurship, but they may also reduce engagement in entrepreneurial activities as they change incentives towards rent-seeking. Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) annual surveys, this study provides empirical evidence that more per capita profit from oil and gas reduces entrepreneurship only in corrupt environments. The more the corruption is, the larger is the impact. The results have important implications for policy makers, especially in resource rich developing countries. - Highlights: •Profits from oil and gas have positive and negative impacts on entrepreneurship. •This study explains these impacts and provides empirical evidence on them. •It uses Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and WB Subsoil and Forest rents datasets. •It employs a dynamic panel data estimation with country fixed effects. •It shows that the negative impact dominates as corruption and oil and gas rents increase.

  19. Explaining the price of oil 1971–2014 : The need to use reliable data on oil discovery and to account for ‘mid-point’ peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, Roger; Bentley, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    This paper explains, in broad terms, the price of oil from 1971 to 2014 and focuses on the large price increases after 1973 and 2004. The explanation for these increases includes the quantity of conventional oil (i.e. oil in fields) discovered, combined with the decline in production of this oil that occurs typically once ‘mid-point’ is passed. Many past explanations of oil price have overlooked these two constraints, and hence provided insufficient explanations of oil price. Reliable data on conventional oil discovery cannot come from public-domain proved (‘1P’) oil reserves, as such data are very misleading. Instead oil industry backdated proved-plus-probable (‘2P’) data must be used. It is recognised that accessing 2P data can be expensive, or difficult. The ‘mid-point’ peak of conventional oil production results from a region's field-size distribution, its fall-off in oil discovery, and the physics of field decline. In terms of the future price of oil, estimates of the global recoverable resource of conventional oil show that the oil price will remain high on average, unless dramatic changes occur in the volume of production and cost of non-conventional oils, or if the overall demand for oil were to decline. The paper concludes with policy recommendations. - Highlights: • We show that understanding the oil price is assisted by reliable data on oil discovery. • These data need to be combined with the ‘peak at mid-point’ concept. • Results show that the world has probably entered an era of constrained oil supply. • Oil price stays high unless non-conventional supply, or demand, change significantly.

  20. 30 CFR 202.100 - Royalty on oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty on oil. 202.100 Section 202.100 Mineral... Federal and Indian Oil § 202.100 Royalty on oil. (a) Royalties due on oil production from leases subject...) All oil (except oil unavoidably lost or used on, or for the benefit of, the lease, including that oil...

  1. Oil Depletion and the Energy Efficiency of Oil Production: The Case of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Brandt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the impact of oil depletion on the energetic efficiency of oil extraction and refining in California. These changes are measured using energy return ratios (such as the energy return on investment, or EROI. I construct a time-varying first-order process model of energy inputs and outputs of oil extraction. The model includes factors such as oil quality, reservoir depth, enhanced recovery techniques, and water cut. This model is populated with historical data for 306 California oil fields over a 50 year period. The model focuses on the effects of resource quality decline, while technical efficiencies are modeled simply. Results indicate that the energy intensity of oil extraction in California increased significantly from 1955 to 2005. This resulted in a decline in the life-cycle EROI from 6.5 to 3.5 (measured as megajoules (MJ delivered to final consumers per MJ primary energy invested in energy extraction, transport, and refining. Most of this decline in energy returns is due to increasing need for steam-based thermal enhanced oil recovery, with secondary effects due to conventional resource depletion (e.g., increased water cut.

  2. Federal reservation of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Union Oil had developed or was seeking to develop wells on the land in Sonoma County, California in order to produce geothermal steam for generating electricity. The US Attorney General brought a quiet title action pursuant to 21(b) of the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 to determine whether geothermal resources are included in the mineral reservation under the Homestead Act. The US District Court granted Union Oil's motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim upon which relief may be granted. On appeal, the Ninth Circuit reversed and remanded. In summary, the court concluded on the basis of the legislative history of the Stock-Raising Homestead Act that sources of energy are intended to remain in the government's possession, and the purposes of the Act will be best served by including geothermal resources in the reservation of mineral interests. Noting the strictly agricultural purpose of the Act, the subsurface estate reservation was broadly interpreted, even though title passed to all rights that were not expressly reserved. The court left open on remand the question of estoppel of the government from interfering with private lessees by developing subsurface resources compensation.This is a unique and intriguing decision, as it opens wide the definition of ''mineral interest,'' construing it in the timely terms of a valuable natural resource that may be in great demand for future energy needs. The decision is being appealed to the United States Supreme Court, and it will be interesting to observe whether this liberal interpretation of mineral interests will be upheld.

  3. Modeling peak oil and the geological constraints on oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynès, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  4. Modeling Peak Oil and the Geological Constraints on Oil Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynes, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  5. [Imperial Oil's Cold Lake oil sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingle, H. B.

    1999-01-01

    Imperial Oil Limited's Cold Lake oil sands resources, production and operations in Alberta are discussed. Cold Lake is the company's largest single asset and its largest source of crude oil production. In 1998, Cold Lake accounted for just under half of Imperial's total liquid production, averaging more than 135,000 barrels of bitumen a day. Despite the very difficult operating conditions experienced by the oil sands industry in 1998, Imperial Oil's Cold Lake operations generated a positive cash flow and earnings. Just as important, the near and long-term potential of Cold Lake property continues to be strong, even with the tough market conditions today and the foreseeable future. Proved reserves at the end of 1997 were 1.3 billions barrels, equal to about 24 years of current production, but even more important is Imperial's resource base in the Athabasca region, which represents 150 years of production at current rates. Although production forecasts for the near future are are revised downward because of production shut-in due to low prices, the company is confident of its long-term prospects mainly because of existing infrastructure, superior reservoir quality, 30 years worth of operating improvements and established bitumen-blend markets. Details of the company's future Cold Lake development plans are discussed. The need to continue technology development, which has been at the core of the industry's growth in the past and will continue to be the key to the future, are emphasized

  6. Evaluating the oil sands reclamation process: Assessing policy capacity and stakeholder access for government and non-governmental organizations operating in Alberta's oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tyler

    By employing interpretive policy analysis this thesis aims to assess, measure, and explain policy capacity for government and non-government organizations involved in reclaiming Alberta's oil sands. Using this type of analysis to assess policy capacity is a novel approach for understanding reclamation policy; and therefore, this research will provide a unique contribution to the literature surrounding reclamation policy. The oil sands region in northeast Alberta, Canada is an area of interest for a few reasons; primarily because of the vast reserves of bitumen and the environmental cost associated with developing this resource. An increase in global oil demand has established incentive for industry to seek out and develop new reserves. Alberta's oil sands are one of the largest remaining reserves in the world, and there is significant interest in increasing production in this region. Furthermore, tensions in several oil exporting nations in the Middle East remain unresolved, and this has garnered additional support for a supply side solution to North American oil demands. This solution relies upon the development of reserves in both the United States and Canada. These compounding factors have contributed to the increased development in the oil sands of northeastern Alberta. Essentially, a rapid expansion of oil sands operations is ongoing, and is the source of significant disturbance across the region. This disturbance, and the promises of reclamation, is a source of contentious debates amongst stakeholders and continues to be highly visible in the media. If oil sands operations are to retain their social license to operate, it is critical that reclamation efforts be effective. One concern non-governmental organizations (NGOs) expressed criticizes the current monitoring and enforcement of regulatory programs in the oil sands. Alberta's NGOs have suggested the data made available to them originates from industrial sources, and is generally unchecked by government

  7. Heavy oil supply economics and supply response to low oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, L.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of the heavy oil industry are examined, including prices, market demand, supply and supply costs. Price assumptions are provided for the reference case oil price (west Texas intermediate at Cushing). Supply cost methodology is explained. Capital and operating costs for various heavy oil and synthetic sources are derived from modeling results. The range of supply costs for heavy oil and bitumen from various sources, supply costs in terms of reference case market values and in terms of 1995-1996 average market values for Bow River crude, are derived. The CERI long term supply forecast model is explained. Western Canada upstream oil and gas cash flow and capital expenditures, eastern Canada exploration and expenditures by hydrocarbon type, and Canadian heavy oil and bitumen production based on reference case prices are estimated. Based on these projections the outlook for heavy oil at reference case prices for better than average quality resources is judged to be economic. Lower quality resources will require technology gains for successful commercialization. SAGD is a likely candidate in this respect. Again based on reference prices, production is forecast to decline by 100 Kb/d over the next five years. Diluent supply is considered to be adequate throughout the forecast period. As far as thermal bitumen is concerned, the growth could, in fact, exceed the projection, but if so, more upgrading will be required. 11 figs

  8. Application, Deactivation, and Regeneration of Heterogeneous Catalysts in Bio-Oil Upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyun Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The massive consumption of fossil fuels and associated environmental issues are leading to an increased interest in alternative resources such as biofuels. The renewable biofuels can be upgraded from bio-oils that are derived from biomass pyrolysis. Catalytic cracking and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO are two of the most promising bio-oil upgrading processes for biofuel production. Heterogeneous catalysts are essential for upgrading bio-oil into hydrocarbon biofuel. Although advances have been achieved, the deactivation and regeneration of catalysts still remains a challenge. This review focuses on the current progress and challenges of heterogeneous catalyst application, deactivation, and regeneration. The technologies of catalysts deactivation, reduction, and regeneration for improving catalyst activity and stability are discussed. Some suggestions for future research including catalyst mechanism, catalyst development, process integration, and biomass modification for the production of hydrocarbon biofuels are provided.

  9. Peak Oil and other threatening peaks-Chimeras without substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radetzki, Marian

    2010-01-01

    The Peak Oil movement has widely spread its message about an impending peak in global oil production, caused by an inadequate resource base. On closer scrutiny, the underlying analysis is inconsistent, void of a theoretical foundation and without support in empirical observations. Global oil resources are huge and expanding, and pose no threat to continuing output growth within an extended time horizon. In contrast, temporary or prolonged supply crunches are indeed plausible, even likely, on account of growing resource nationalism denying access to efficient exploitation of the existing resource wealth.

  10. The cellulose resource matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where

  11. A phenylalanine in DGAT is a key determinant of oil content and composition in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Peizhong; Allen, William B; Roesler, Keith; Williams, Mark E; Zhang, Shirong; Li, Jiming; Glassman, Kimberly; Ranch, Jerry; Nubel, Douglas; Solawetz, William; Bhattramakki, Dinakar; Llaca, Victor; Deschamps, Stéphane; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Tarczynski, Mitchell C; Shen, Bo

    2008-03-01

    Plant oil is an important renewable resource for biodiesel production and for dietary consumption by humans and livestock. Through genetic mapping of the oil trait in plants, studies have reported multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with small effects, but the molecular basis of oil QTLs remains largely unknown. Here we show that a high-oil QTL (qHO6) affecting maize seed oil and oleic-acid contents encodes an acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1-2), which catalyzes the final step of oil synthesis. We further show that a phenylalanine insertion in DGAT1-2 at position 469 (F469) is responsible for the increased oil and oleic-acid contents. The DGAT1-2 allele with F469 is ancestral, whereas the allele without F469 is a more recent mutant selected by domestication or breeding. Ectopic expression of the high-oil DGAT1-2 allele increases oil and oleic-acid contents by up to 41% and 107%, respectively. This work provides insights into the molecular basis of natural variation of oil and oleic-acid contents in plants and highlights DGAT as a promising target for increasing oil and oleic-acid contents in other crops.

  12. Development challenges of resource-rich countries: the case of oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses some of the challenges that confront oil-rich developing countries in their development quest. It stresses that one of the surest ways governments in oil-rich developing countries have at their disposal to avoid the so-called curse of oil is through the insulation of fiscal policy from the volatility associated ...

  13. Analytical resource assessment method for continuous (unconventional) oil and gas accumulations - The "ACCESS" Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, Robert A.; revised by Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically assesses petroleum resources of areas within the United States and the world. The purpose of this report is to explain the development of an analytic probabilistic method and spreadsheet software system called Analytic Cell-Based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System (ACCESS). The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory. The ACCESS spreadsheet can be used to calculate estimates of the undeveloped oil, gas, and NGL (natural gas liquids) resources in a continuous-type assessment unit. An assessment unit is a mappable volume of rock in a total petroleum system. In this report, the geologic assessment model is defined first, the analytic probabilistic method is described second, and the spreadsheet ACCESS is described third. In this revised version of Open-File Report 00-044 , the text has been updated to reflect modifications that were made to the ACCESS program. Two versions of the program are added as appendixes.

  14. Reports on 1974 result of Sunshine Project. Research on tar sand and oil shale; 1974 nendo tar sand oyobi oil shale ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-04-04

    The purpose of this research is to grasp the policy of the oil sand resource countries, the properties and existing conditions of the resources, effects of the oil sand resources on a long term energy supply/demand, etc., and to clarify the meaning and position of the researches on the development of oil sand resources in the future energy policy of Japan. The quantities of oil sand resources are mostly in the process of investigation except Alberta province of Canada and are estimated to be two trillion barrels. The quantity for which strip mining is possible is about 90 billion barrels, which are mostly located in the Athabasca region. The oil sand holding countries take a policy of positively developing oil sand. No barriers are particularly provided against the introduction of foreign technology and capital. Where the prospects are possible for the development of oil sand are Canada and Venezuela. R and D should be emphasized on the refining of bitumen and the extraction method within the oil reservoir. The investment per b/d is about 15-20 thousand dollars, which is likely to be more than twice as much as for the North Sea oilfields. The properties and quality of the synthetic crude oil are superior while the risk of exploitation is small; therefore, oil sand will be competitive with crude oil in the future. (NEDO)

  15. Oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area (RARE II), Randolph County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine their mineral resource potential. Results must be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This map presents an analysis of the oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area in the Monongahela National Forest, Randolph County, West Virginia. The area was classified as a further planning area during the Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) by the U.S. Forest Service, January 1979.

  16. Effect of Contamination on the Lifetime of Hydraulic Oils and Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Kučera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The extensions of service‑lives regarding hydraulic fluids is gaining prominence due to several considerations including environmental pollution, conservation of natural resources and the economic benefits associated with extended service‑life. The presented methods for testing the durability and oxidation stabilities of hydraulic fluids can be simultaneously used in two ways. Firstly for comparing different hydraulic biooils and for selecting more adequate oils with higher oxidation stabilities and longer service lifetimes and secondly for the development of a prognostic model for an accurate prediction of an oil’s condition and its remaining useful lifetime, which could help to extend the service life of the oil without concerns about damaging the equipment.

  17. System analysis for effective use of palm oil waste as energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiew, Yoon Lin; Iwata, Tomoko; Shimada, Sohei

    2011-01-01

    Biomass refers to renewable energy sources and comes from biological materials such as trees, plants, manure as well as municipal solid wastes. Effective utilization of biomass as an energy resource requires the use of an optimization model to take into account biomass availability, transportation distances, and the scales and locations of power facilities within a region. In this study, we develop a new analytical tool that integrates cost, energy savings, greenhouse gas considerations, scenario analysis, and a Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide a comprehensive analysis of alternative systems for optimizing biomass energy production. The goal is to find a system that optimizes the use of biomass waste by analyzing the cost, net avoided CO 2 emission, and net energy savings with the objective of profit maximization. In this paper, we describe an application of the modeling tool described above to one of the fastest growing agriculture industries in Asia, the palm oil industry, for the case of Malaysia. Five scenarios utilizing palm oil waste as energy resources are discussed. The scenario of installing of new Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants in the region yielded a number of benefits in terms of net energy savings, net avoided CO 2 emission, and profits. The results also demonstrate the benefits of utilizing excess heat for biomass pre-treatment. The choice of a suitable CHP plant scale, management strategies for biomass seasonal availability, and market price of biomass are also important factors for effective use of the biomass in a region. -- Highlights: → We develop an optimization model for energy production from agricultural biomass. → We model 5 scenarios to optimize plant size, plant location and biomass distribution. → We evaluate the net energy savings, net avoided CO 2 emission, and profits. → We demonstrate the benefits of utilizing excess heat for biomass pre-treatment. → We determine additional factors which may impact

  18. Substituting oil by electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, H.

    1981-01-01

    Parting from the development of primary energy use the author refers to the latest investigations and results presented on the 1980 World Energy Conference and with special regard to oil points out the threatening exhaustion of fossil energy resources. Maintaining the economic structure of the Federal Republic of Germany implies an orientation away from oil. Due to its flexible application technology and quasi-inexhaustible energy resources electric power may substantially contribute to oil substitution which as a matter of fact is of particular interest in connection with the heat market. Coal alone cannot substitute both oil and nuclear energy. Thus, the above postulates the use of the latter. Leaving nuclear energy inactive today will effect an increase in the demand for oil the negative consequences of which would weight heavily upon the anyhow unbalanced import/export ratio of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  19. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The Timan-Pechora Basin Province is a triangular area that represents the northeasternmost cratonic block of east European Russia. A 75-year history of petroleum exploration and production in the area there has led to the discovery of more than 16 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG). Three geologic assessment units (AUs) were defined for assessing the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources in the province: (1) the Northwest Izhma Depression AU, which includes all potential structures and reservoirs that formed in the northwestern part of the Izhma-Pechora Depression, although this part of the basin contains only sparse source and reservoir rocks and so was not assessed quantitatively; (2) the Main Basin Platform AU, which includes all potential structures and reservoirs that formed in the central part of the basin, where the tectonic and petroleum system evolution was complex; and (3) the Foredeep Basins AU, which includes all potential structures and reservoirs that formed within the thick sedimentary section of the foredeep basins west of the Uralian fold and thrust belt during the Permian and Triassic Uralian orogeny.For the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 3.3 BBO, 17 TCFG, and 0.3 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids (BBNGL). For the AU areas north of the Arctic Circle in the province, the estimated means of undiscovered resources are 1.7 BBO, 9.0 TCFG, and 0.2 BBNGL. These assessment results indicate that exploration in the Timan-Pechora Basin Province is at a mature level.

  20. Exploitation and Utilization of Oilfield Geothermal Resources in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shejiao Wang; Jiahong Yan; Feng Li; Junwen Hu; Kewen Li

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal energy is a clean, green renewable resource, which can be utilized for power generation, heating, cooling, and could effectively replace oil, gas, and coal. In recent years, oil companies have put more efforts into exploiting and utilizing geothermal energy with advanced technologies for heat-tracing oil gathering and transportation, central heating, etc., which has not only reduced resource waste, but also improved large-scale and industrial resource utilization levels, and has ac...

  1. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  2. Will the rock roll on : despite newly minted reserve numbers, the future of Newfoundland's offshore remains unsettled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, W.

    2006-01-01

    A review of current oil and gas developments in Newfoundland and Labrador was presented. Ongoing oil and gas development in Newfoundland remains fraught with uncertainties, even though the province is economically stable, and its workforce is recognized as one of the most efficient in North America. The Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board (CNLOPB) has estimated that the combined hydrocarbon fields in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin in the province contain 2.75 billion barrels of recoverable crude. Among the 3 producing fields in the basin, Hibernia accounted for 1.244 billion barrels. Terra Nova has an estimated 440 million barrels. Husky Energy's White Rose field production reached 100,000 barrels per day in May of 2006. Although the province has promising resources, a 6 month argument over the appointment of a new chairman at the CNLOPB has recently landed before the justices of the Supreme Court of Newfoundland. The controversy centres around developments at Hebron-Ben Nevis, a 731 million barrel heavy oil discovery. One of the partners in the 4-company consortium spearheading the discovery is now unwilling to accept Newfoundland and Labrador's demand for an 8.5 per cent equity interest in the project. The province has refused to give the consortium tax credits and exemptions from fuel taxes, and has sought a royalty regime more substantive than those designed for other developments. Equalization formula issues are also expected to have important consequences in the province, should the federal government decide to follow through on the recommendations of a review panel that half of the province's natural resource revenues should be included in the complex equalization formula. During a local radio show, the premier refused to rule out a referendum on Newfoundland and Labrador independence. 3 figs

  3. Crude oil and natural gas supplies and demands up to the year AD 2010 for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.M.; Probert, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel technique for forecasting the supply and extraction life-cycle of a depleting fossil fuel resource has been developed. The supply side utilises a 'skewed-normal production-profile' model that yields a better representation than earlier approaches. A simple model for extrapolating crude oil and natural gas demands has also been devised, based on the so called 'modified logit function'. The predicted crude oil and natural gas balances for the period up to AD 2010 indicate the disparity between indigenous production and future consumption for France. These forecasts depend on current estimates of remaining oil and gas reserves. It will consequently be necessary to revise periodically the present projections as more reliable reserve estimates become available. (author)

  4. Views on peak oil and its relation to climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Al Marchohi, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Definitions of fossil fuel reserves and resources and assessed stock data are reviewed and clarified. Semantics explain a large stake of conflict between advocate and critical voices on peak oil. From a holistic sources-sinks perspective, limited carrying capacity of atmospheric sinks, not absolute scarcity in oil resources, will impose tight constraints on oil use. Eventually observed peaks in oil production in nearby years will result from politically imposed limits on carbon emissions, and not be caused by physical lack of oil resources. Peak-oil belief induces passive climate policy attitudes when suggesting carbon dioxide emissions will peak naturally linked to dwindling oil supplies. Active policies for reducing emissions and use of fossil fuels will also encompass higher energy end-use prices. Revenues obtained from higher levies on oil use can support financing energy efficiency and renewable energy options. But when oil producers charge the higher prices they can pump new oil for many decades, postponing peak oil to occur while extending carbon lock-in.

  5. Land and Resource Management Issues Relevant to Deploying In-Situ Thermal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Robert [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Tanana, Heather [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kline, Michelle [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Utah is home to oil shale resources containing roughly 1.3 trillion barrels of oil equivalent and our nation’s richest oil sands resources. If economically feasible and environmentally responsible means of tapping these resources can be developed, these resources could provide a safe and stable domestic energy source for decades to come. In Utah, oil shale and oil sands resources underlay a patchwork of federal, state, private, and tribal lands that are subject to different regulatory schemes and conflicting management objectives. Evaluating the development potential of Utah’s oil shale and oil sands resources requires an understanding of jurisdictional issues and the challenges they present to deployment and efficient utilization of emerging technologies. The jurisdictional patchwork and divergent management requirements inhibit efficient, economic, and environmentally sustainable development. This report examines these barriers to resource development, methods of obtaining access to landlocked resources, and options for consolidating resource ownership. This report also examines recent legislative efforts to wrest control of western public lands from the federal government. If successful, these efforts could dramatically reshape resource control and access, though these efforts appear to fall far short of their stated goals. The unintended consequences of adversarial approaches to obtaining resource access may outweigh their benefits, hardening positions and increasing tensions to the detriment of overall coordination between resource managers. Federal land exchanges represent a more efficient and mutually beneficial means of consolidating management control and improving management efficiency. Independent of exchange proposals, resource managers must improve coordination, moving beyond mere consultation with neighboring landowners and sister agencies to coordinating actions with them.

  6. Whither Alberta's oil production?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, R.A.; Dick, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    It is demonstrated how a combination of old theory (decline methods and statistics) and new technology (computer graphics) can enhance decline-curve forecasts for multi-well groupings. Production and well-count forecasts are presented for four different sized groups of aggregate production. The four examples are: the small Manville pool; the Pembina Cardium, Alberta's largest oil pool; an aggregate of all reef pools of Keg River age; and an aggregate of all wells reporting conventional oil production in the province of Alberta. In each case graphical results show the historical and forecast trends for the statistical distribution of well rates, the median well rate, the aggregated rate, and the number of producing wells. It is concluded that well rate distributions for groups ranging from 15 wells in a single pool to thousands of wells in hundreds of pools are all approximately lognormal. Lognormal well rate distributions and Lorenz graphs provide qualitative and quantitative assessments of a resource base. Decline curves for the median well rate can reveal trends masked in the aggregated rate by changing well count, operating practice and degradation of the resource base. The number of producing wells in Alberta has grown from ca 9000 in 1970 to ca 24,000 in 1988, has remained constant from 1988-1990, and will start to decline as the number of suspended or abandoned wells exceeds the number of new completions. 3 refs., 13 figs., 4 figs

  7. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  8. A review on applications of nanotechnology in the enhanced oil recovery part B: effects of nanoparticles on flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hendraningrat, Luky

    2016-11-01

    Chemical flooding is of increasing interest and importance due to high oil prices and the need to increase oil production. Research in nanotechnology in the petroleum industry is advancing rapidly, and an enormous progress in the application of nanotechnology in this area is to be expected. The nanotechnology has been widely used in several other industries, and the interest in the oil industry is increasing. Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly change enhanced oil recovery and to improve mechanism of recovery, and it is chosen as an alternative method to unlock the remaining oil resources and applied as a new enhanced oil recovery method in last decade. This paper therefore focuses on the reviews of the application of nanotechnology in chemical flooding process in oil recovery and reviews the applications of nanomaterials for improving oil recovery that have been proposed to explain oil displacement by polymer flooding within oil reservoirs, and also this paper highlights the research advances of polymer in oil recovery. Nanochemical flooding is an immature method from an application point of view.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Domanik-type formations of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2018-02-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.8 billion barrels of oil and 34 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Domanik-type formations of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia.

  10. Rapeseed Oil as Renewable Resource for Polyol Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirna, Uldis; Fridrihsone, Anda; Misane, Marija; Vilsone, Dzintra

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable oils are one of the most important platform chemicals due to their accessibility, specific structure of oils and low price. Rapeseed oil (RO) polyols were prepared by amidization of RO with diethanolamine (DEA). To determine the kinetics of amidization reaction, experiments were carried out. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), amine (NH) value was determined. Group contribution method by Fedor‵s was used to calculate solubility parameters, van der Waals volume was calculated by Askadskii. Obtained polyol‵s OH and NH value are from 304 up to 415 mg KOH/g. RO polyols synthesis meets the criteria of "green chemistry". In the present study, reaction of RO amidization with DEA was investigated, as well as optimum conditions for polyol synthesis was established to obtain polyols for polyurethane production. Calculations of solubility parameter and cohesion energy density were calculated, as RO polyols will be used as side chains in polymers, and solubility parameter will be used to explain properties of polymers.

  11. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in Aptian carbonates, onshore northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Karlsen, Alexander W.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonate lithofacies of the Lower Cretaceous Sligo Formation and James Limestone were regionally evaluated using established U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment methodology for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources. The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic–Cretaceous–Tertiary Composite total petroleum system, which was defined for the assessment. Hydrocarbons reservoired in carbonate platform Sligo-James oil and gas accumulations are interpreted to originate primarily from the Jurassic Smackover Formation. Emplacement of hydrocarbons occurred via vertical migration along fault systems; long-range lateral migration also may have occurred in some locations. Primary reservoir facies include porous patch reefs developed over paleostructural salt highs, carbonate shoals, and stacked linear reefs at the carbonate shelf margin. Hydrocarbon traps dominantly are combination structural-stratigraphic. Sealing lithologies include micrite, calcareous shale, and argillaceous lime mudstone. A geologic model, supported by discovery history analysis of petroleum geology data, was used to define a single regional assessment unit (AU) for conventional reservoirs in carbonate facies of the Sligo Formation and James Limestone. The AU is formally entitled Sligo-James Carbonate Platform Oil and Gas (50490121). A fully risked mean undiscovered technically recoverable resource in the AU of 50 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 791 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 26 million barrels of natural gas liquids was estimated. Substantial new development through horizontal drilling has occurred since the time of this assessment (2010), resulting in cumulative production of >200 BCFG and >1 MMBO.

  12. What to think about the shortage of oil resources and of the evolution of crude oil price?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, Denis; Bauquis, Pierre-Rene

    2007-09-01

    Produced by the 'Oil' work-group of the French Academy of Technologies, this report first proposes a synthesis of different points of view (optimistic, pessimistic, public bodies) on the issue of oil reserves and of oil world peak production. A second part analyzes the mechanisms of oil pricing while highlighting the long term dimension, but without addressing the market short-term operation. The last part discusses various possible evolution scenarios for production and price profiles on a middle and on a long term

  13. Oil sands and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, R. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Calgary Research Centre

    2004-07-01

    Oil sands are a significant resource for Alberta and Canada with continuing growth opportunity. There is a need to ensure sustainable development of the oil sands resources from a social, economic and environmental perspective. The industry has succeeded in terms of proven reserves, technology advancements, reduced operating costs, reliability and market accessibility. Some of the major challenges facing the industry include high capital cost, infrastructure, social services and keeping pace with growth. This presentation outlined the proactive measures that the oil sands industry has taken to manage environmental issues such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions, greenhouse gases, water management and land reclamation. tabs., figs.

  14. Alberta oil sands royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgarpour, S.

    2004-01-01

    The long term objective of the Oil Sands Business Unit of Alberta Energy is to pave the way for Alberta's bitumen production to reach 3 million barrels per day by 2020. This presentation described the national government's role in resource development. It was emphasized that since the Crown is the owner of the oil sands resource, it would benefit by providing strategic leadership and by generating a larger royalty base. The oil sands fiscal regime was described with reference to generic royalty, risk sharing, investment, and project economics. Business rule principles were also outlined along with criteria for project expansions. Both upstream and downstream challenges and opportunities were listed. 4 figs

  15. Petroleum resource appraisal of lower group play, badin block, lower Indus basin, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, J.

    1996-01-01

    Badin Block is a concession area granted to Union Texas Pakistan (UTP). The petroleum resource appraisal of the lower Goru play of Badin Block has been carried out through the 'Discovery Process Model' of a software developed by John R. Lacey International Ltd. in association with Prass Consultants of Canada. The Early gas producing reservoir rocks of this block. These sandstones can be divided into five discrete sand bodies; however, the uppermost and the lowermost sands of the sequence are often considered the primary reservoirs. Exploration in the Lower Indus Basin started in 1939 and the first discovery of oil, in the Badin block, was made by UTP Group in May, 1981 at Khaskheli. Until December, 1992, UTP has discovered 31 oil and gas fields in Badin Block, and the recoverable reserves of these 31 oil and gas pools provide the basis for the estimation of recoverable reserves of oil and gas of the whole Badin Block. The analysis show that about 31% of the total recoverable oil reserves i.e. 35.5 mm bbl still remain to be discovered out of the additional 105 expected pools in the play. Similarly, it has been estimated that about 47% of the total recoverable gas reserves i.e. 520.5 Bcf still remain to be discovered out of the additional 124 expected pools. (author)

  16. Assessment and recommendations for the oil spill cleanup of Guanabara Bay, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Jacqueline

    2000-01-01

    The potential impact of an oil spill consisting of a blend of diesel and a heavy residual fuel oil on water column resources, benthic resources, intertidal habitats and communities, birds, and socio-economic resources was assessed and recommendations for clean-up given. The oil spill occurred in the bay on January 18, 2000

  17. A Review of distribution and quantity of lingering subsurface oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2018-01-01

    Remaining lingering subsurface oil residues from the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) are, at present, patchily distributed across the geologically complex and spatially extensive shorelines of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. We review and synthesize previous literature describing the causal geomorphic and physical mechanisms for persistence of oil in the intertidal subsurface sediments of these areas. We also summarize previous sampling and modeling efforts, and refine previously presented models with additional data to characterize the present-day linear and areal spatial extent, and quantity of lingering subsurface oil. In the weeks after the spill in March of 1989, approximately 17,750 t of oil were stranded along impacted shorelines, and by October of 1992, only 2% of the mass of spilled oil was estimated to remain in intertidal areas. We estimate that lingering subsurface residues, generally between 5 and 20 cm thick and sequestered below 10-20 cm of clean sediment, are present over 30 ha of intertidal area, along 11.4 km of shoreline, and represent approximately 227 t or 0.6% of the total mass of spilled oil. These residues are typically located in finer-grained sand and gravel sediments, often under an armor of cobble- or boulder-sized clasts, in areas with limited groundwater flow and porosity. Persistence of these residues is correlated with heavy initial oil loading together with localized sheltering from physical disturbance such as wave energy within the beach face. While no longer generally bioavailable and increasingly chemically weathered, present removal rates for these remaining subsurface oil residues have slowed to nearly zero. The only remaining plausible removal mechanisms will operate over time scales of decades.

  18. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  19. Empirical studies on changes in oil governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Mohammad

    Regulation of the oil and gas sector is consequential to the economies of oil-producing countries. In the literature, there are two types of regulation: indirect regulation through taxes and tariffs or direct regulation through the creation of a National Oil Company (NOC). In the 1970s, many oil-producing countries nationalized their oil and gas sectors by creating and giving ownership rights of oil and gas resources to NOCs. In light of the success of Norway in regulating its oil and gas resources, over the past two decades several countries have changed their oil governance by changing the rights given to NOC from ownership right to mere access rights like other oil companies. However, empirical literature on these changes in oil governance is quite thin. Thus, this dissertation will explore three research questions to investigate empirically these changes in oil governance. First, I investigate empirically the impact of the changes in oil governance on aggregate domestic income. By employing a difference-in-difference method, I will show that a country which changed its oil governance increases its GDP per-capita by 10%. However, the impact is different for different types of political institution. Second, by observing the changes in oil governance in Indonesia , I explore the impact of the changes on learning-by-doing and learning spillover effect in offshore exploration drilling. By employing an econometric model which includes interaction terms between various experience variables and changes in an oil governance dummy, I will show that the change in oil governance in Indonesia enhances learning-by-doing by the rigs and learning spillover in a basin. Lastly, the impact of the changes in oil governance on expropriation risk and extraction path will be explored. By employing a difference-in-difference method, this essay will show that the changes in oil governance reduce expropriation and the impact of it is different for different sizes of resource stock.

  20. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf. 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The petroleum resources will not last for ever. It is therefore important for Norway to look ahead so as to be prepared for the changes that will come. In this report, the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate presents the current status of the petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf. This is the basis on which the authorities can lay plans for the future. Since no-one can predict the future with certainty, on this occasion the Directorate is presenting four alternative scenarios for the future of Norwegian petroleum activities if the basic scenario proves incorrect. This will enable us to prepare ourselves for changes that may come, and to view the consequences of the various choices we can make. In this report, the Directorate also describes the various plays on the continental shelf, and explains the techniques used and the evaluations made when it estimates the undiscovered resources. This information is important for exploration work, particularly for new companies which need to get acquainted with the geology and the possibilities for finding oil and gas in Norway. Significant volumes remain to be produced and found on the Norwegian continental shelf. Only a third of the total resources have so far been produced, and a quarter of them have still not been discovered. Oil and gas prices are high at the moment, giving the industry and society in general good incentives to produce at a maximum rate. Oil production reached its peak a couple of years ago, but gas production is still increasing. However, the industry is finding less than it produces, which places demands on both it and the authorities. The industry must actively explore the acreage it has been allocated. The Petroleum Directorate believes that substantial resources can still be discovered in areas where production licences have been awarded. At the same time, the industry must gain access to new areas for exploration. The authorities must find an appropriate balance between concern for the

  1. Can reserve additions in mature crude oil provinces attenuate supply-side peak oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okullo, Samuel; Reynes, Frederic

    2010-09-15

    More often, oil supply has been modeled on the basis of resource availability and demand. The impact of strategy between oil producers has largely been ignored or overly simplified. In this paper, we formulate a model that embodies a weak and strong OPEC for varied rates of reserve additions. With this economic equilibrium model which has the capability to generate a supply side peak in oil production, we show that although reserves of conventional crude oil may seem abundant. OPEC has the ability to lead to substantial crude oil reserve depletion in non-OPEC countries by 2050 given likely depletion rates.

  2. An experimental study on oil supply in a space bearing with an oil-impregnated retainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianhai; Fan, Youwen; Wen, Shizhu

    1993-06-01

    Parched elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) film thickness in a space ball bearing is measured by electrical capacitance and resistance, and parched transients of oil film and lubricant breakdown are observed. With different oil-impregnated polymer retainers, which are employed as oil supply resources, parched degradation is restricted to some degree, even lubricant breakdown disappears and a steady state of the oil film is produced. A long-term space bail bearing demands both the lowest driving torque and a steady state oil film, which depends on a strictly controlled oil supply from oil-impregnated retainers. The results of this experimental research describe the effects of oil supply by amounts of oil in retainers on parched EHL.

  3. Unconventional oil and gas development and its stresses on water resources in the context of Water-Energy-Food Nexus: The case of Weld County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, P. D.; Waskom, R.; Boone, K.; Ryan, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas resources in Colorado started to rapidly increase since the early 2000's. The recent oil price plunge resulted in a decline of well starts' rate in the US, but in Weld County, Colorado, it is currently at the 2013-levels. The additional water demand, despite its insignificant percentage in overall state's demand (0.1% in 2012), it competes with traditional ones, since Colorado's water is almost fully appropriated. Presently, the state has 53,597 active producing oil and gas wells. More than 40% of these are located in Weld County, which happens also to be one of top food production U.S. counties. The competition for land and water resources between the energy and agricultural sectors in water stressed areas, like the western U.S., is further intensified if recycle and reuse practices are not preferred to water disposal by the energy industry. Satisfying the multiple objectives of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in order to achieve sustainable economic development requires balanced management of these resources. Identifying pressures on key areas that food and energy sectors are competing for water, is essential for prudent water management and developing appropriate policies. Weld County, as a water stressed and fossil fuel producing area, was selected for investigating current stresses on local water resources alongside with future climatic and water demand scenarios for exploring probable long-term effects.

  4. Oxidative stabilization of mixed mayonnaises made with linseed oil and saturated medium-chain triglyceride oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raudsepp, P.; Brüggemann, D.A.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis; Andersen, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Mayonnaises, made with either saturated medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil or unsaturated purified linseed oil (LSO), were mixed. Raman confocal microspectrometry demonstrated that lipid droplets in mixed mayonnaise remained intact containing either MCT oil or LSO. Peroxide formation during storage

  5. ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING MODELS FOR CULTURAL RESOURCES IN OIL & GAS FIELDS IN NEW MEXICO AND WYOMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Robinson

    2004-07-01

    This report contains a summary of activities of Gnomon, Inc. and five subcontractors that have taken place during the first six months of 2004 (January 1, 2004-June 30, 2004) under the DOE-NETL cooperative agreement: ''Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil & Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming'', DE-FC26-02NT15445. Although Gnomon and all five subcontractors completed tasks during these six months, most of the technical experimental work was conducted by the subcontractor, SRI Foundation (SRIF). SRIF created a sensitivity model for the Azotea Mesa area of southeastern New Mexico that rates areas as having a very good chance, a good chance, or a very poor chance of containing cultural resource sites. SRIF suggested that the results of the sensitivity model might influence possible changes in cultural resource management (CRM) practices in the Azote Mesa area of southeastern New Mexico.

  6. South African uranium resources - 1997 assessment methodology and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainslie, L.C.

    2001-01-01

    The first commercial uranium production in South Africa started in 1953 to meet the demand for British/US nuclear weapons. This early production reached its peak in 1959 and began to decline with the reduced demand. The world oil crisis in the 1970s sparked a second resurgence of increased uranium production that peaked in 1980 to over 6,000 tonnes. Poor market condition allied with increasing political isolation resulted in uranium production declining to less than a third of the levels achieved in the early 1980s. South Africa is well endowed with uranium resource. Its uranium resources in the RAR and EAR-I categories, extractable at costs of less than $80/kg U, as of 1 January 1997, are estimated to 284 400 tonnes U. Nearly two thirds of these resources are associated with the gold deposits in the Witwatersrand conglomerates. Most of the remaining resources occur in the Karoo sandstone and coal deposits. (author)

  7. Geologic models and evaluation of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources: Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Krystal

    2012-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk forms a low-permeability, onshore Gulf of Mexico reservoir that produces oil and gas from major fractures oriented parallel to the underlying Lower Cretaceous shelf edge. Horizontal drilling links these fracture systems to create an interconnected network that drains the reservoir. Field and well locations along the production trend are controlled by fracture networks. Highly fractured chalk is present along both regional and local fault zones. Fractures are also genetically linked to movement of the underlying Jurassic Louann Salt with tensile fractures forming downdip of salt-related structures creating the most effective reservoirs. Undiscovered accumulations should also be associated with structure-controlled fracture systems because much of the Austin that overlies the Lower Cretaceous shelf edge remains unexplored. The Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Shale is the primary source rock for Austin Chalk hydrocarbons. This transgressive marine shale varies in thickness and lithology across the study area and contains both oil- and gas-prone kerogen. The Eagle Ford began generating oil and gas in the early Miocene, and vertical migration through fractures was sufficient to charge the Austin reservoirs.

  8. Implications of land and resource management planning for the oil and gas industry in B.C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.; Mitchell, W.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the land use planning work underway in British Columbia and its impact on the oil and gas industry was presented. The plans are to double the park and protected areas in the province. Historically, parks in the province were designated on the basis of advice from technical staff with a small amount of public consultation. Today, public debate about the establishment of new protected areas has made several significant several changes to the decision-making process in British Columbia. The result is a process that although complex, provides better understanding between industry, environmental interests and government. As an illustration of the effectiveness of this process, the issue of finding innovative solutions to resource development interests while respecting environmental values, such as the management objectives for the Muskwa Kechika Area in northeast British Columbia, and the opportunity for directional oil and gas drilling under selected new protected areas were discussed. Application of the process was also demonstrated in discussing the two sub-regional Land and Resource Management Plans (LRMP) in Fort Nelson and Fort St. John, which cover a remote wild area of almost fourteen and a half million hectares in the northeast corner of the province. The economy of the region is based on agriculture, natural gas exploration and development, forest products, and nature based tourism. The LRMP process allowed the government to consider and accept the concept of directional drilling under some new protected areas as long as there were no surface disturbances

  9. EPA Participates in Energy Roundtable with States, Tribes, Businesses and Environmental Groups to Enhance Coordination and Promote Responsible Domestic Production of Oil and Gas Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA News Release: EPA Participates in Energy Roundtable with States, Tribes, Businesses and Environmental Groups to Enhance Coordination and Promote Responsible Domestic Production of Oil and Gas Resources

  10. Net energy yield from production of conventional oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Michael; Krumdieck, Susan; Bodger, Pat

    2011-01-01

    Historic profitability of bringing oil to market was profound, but most easy oil has been developed. Higher cost resources, such as tar sands and deep off-shore, are considered the best prospects for the future. Economic modelling is currently used to explore future price scenarios commensurate with delivering fuel to market. Energy policy requires modelling scenarios capturing the complexity of resource and extraction aspects as well as the economic profitability of different resources. Energy-return-on-investment (EROI) expresses the profitability of bringing energy products to the market. Net energy yield (NEY) is related to the EROI. NEY is the amount of energy less expenditures necessary to deliver a fuel to the market. This paper proposes a pattern for EROI of oil production, based on historic oil development trends. Methodology and data for EROI is not agreed upon. The proposed EROI function is explored in relation to the available data and used to attenuate the International Energy Agency (IEA) world oil production scenarios to understand the implications of future declining EROI on net energy yield. The results suggest that strategies for management and mitigation of deleterious effects of a peak in oil production are more urgent than might be suggested by analyses focussing only on gross production. - Highlights: → Brief introduction to methodological issues concerning net energy analysis. → Description of EROI function over the whole production cycle of an energy resource. → Calibration of this function to EROI data from historic oil production. → Application to determine the net energy yield from current global oil production. → Calculation of net energy yield from IEA projections of future oil production.

  11. Oil Well Bottom Hole Locations, This GIS data set was produced as a general reference for the Department of Natural Resources, the oil and gas industry, environmental and regulatory agencies, landowners, and the public., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Oil Well Bottom Hole Locations dataset current as of 2007. This GIS data set was produced as a general reference for the Department of Natural Resources, the oil and...

  12. A tale of two countries : blessed with huge heavy oil resources, Canada and Venezuela pursue different paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, C.

    2005-01-01

    Both Canada and Venezuela are rich in heavy oil resources. This article presented an overview of current development activities in both countries. International interest in the oil sands region has been highlighted by the French oil company Total's acquisition of Deer Creek Energy Ltd in Alberta for $1.35 billion. The acquisition supports the company's strategy of expanding heavy oil operations in the Athabasca region. With 47 per cent participation in the Sincor project, Total is already a major player in Venezuela. Although the Sincor project is one of the world's largest developments, future investment is in jeopardy due to an unpredictable government and shifts in policy by the state-run oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA). The country's energy minister has recently announced that all existing agreements will be terminated as of December 31, 2005. The government has allowed 6 months for companies to enter into new agreements with new terms. Under revised rules, foreign companies will be required to pay income tax at a rate of 50 per cent. The rate will be applied retroactively to profits made over the last 5 years. Under the new law, agreements could be established under the terms of mixed companies, where Venezuela will have majority equity in the company that exploits the oil. In addition, the government has accused companies of not paying the required income tax levels on contracts, and some companies have been fined as much as $100 million. It was suggested that current difficulties are the result of an incoherent energy policy and an unstable regime. The international oil and gas community is watching developments, and it was anticipated that parties previously considering Venezuela as an investment opportunity will now reconsider. By contrast, Alberta has been praised by oil companies for its stable regulatory regime and its reasonable royalty structure. Thanks to a purge of 18,000 employees from PDVSA by Venezuelan president, Alberta is now

  13. The effects of ex-situ oil shale mining on groundwater resources in Siwaqa area, southern Jordan, using DRASTIC index and hydrochemical water assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsharifa Hind Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy resources in addition to water resources are the most limited resources in Jordan, being one of the fourth poorest countries in water resources, and limitation of surface water resources put huge pressure on groundwater which is the main resource there. High expenses and the increasing prices of oil over all worlds increase the feasibility to mining the oil shale that exists in southern Jordan area, Siwaqa. This study took place to clarify the possible effects of mining and energy production activities on the water resources in that area. Groundwater vulnerability mapping was done for many areas all over the country, including this part. The initiative of this work is to determine the vulnerability under the conditions of removing the bedrock of the oil shale which is described as a con ning layer. Results that are obtained by this work conclude that the oil shale area becomes highly vulnerable to the human activities because of the existing geological structures while it is small and medium vulnerable in the elds in which there are no geological structures. In addition to the structural features and adding the possibility of the oil shale mining from the outcropped areas which will decrease the depth to water table and hence will affect the vulnerability values.  Efectos en las fuentes de agua subterránea de la minería ex situ de esquistos bituminosos, en el área de Siwaqa, al sur de Jordania, a través del índice DRASTIC y la evaluación hidroquímica del agua  Resumen Las fuentes de energía y agua son las más limitadas en Jordania, uno de los cuatro países más pobres en recursos hídricos; además, las limitadas fuentes super ciales hacen de las aguas subterráneas las más importantes. Las ganancias y el precio del petróleo, por su parte, incrementan la viabilidad de la minería de esquistos bituminosos en el sur de Jordania, en la región de Siwaqa. Este estudio se realiza con el  n de establecer los

  14. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 82, quarterly report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This document consists of a list of projects supporting work on oil recovery programs. A publications list and index of companies and institutions is provided. The remaining portion of the document provides brief descriptions on projects in chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience, resource assessment, and reservoir class field demonstrations.

  15. Oil in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diab, E.; Raimbault, C. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1995-12-01

    India is a country that is rich in energy resources. Concerning oil, proven reserves are already abundant, but there are some who think that a very large potential remains to be discovered, since the country is one of the least thoroughly explored in the world. The recent opening up of energy industries to private and foreign capital should speed up the development of exploration, refining and petrochemicals. However, even if numerous projects were to be approved by the Government, actually carrying them out does not always ensure because of conditions that are not always judged to be attractive by potential investors. Despite all this, there are some who think that India will be a power equal to if not greater than China and one that is already upholding the comparison with the Southeast Asian dragons. (authors). 8 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  17. Peppermint Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T U V W X Y Z Peppermint Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... sheet provides basic information about peppermint and peppermint oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The 100-D-9 site is the former location of an underground storage tank used for holding fuel for the 184-DA Boiler House. Results of soil-gas samples taken from six soil-gas probes in a rectangle around the site the tank had been removed from concluded that there were no volatile organic compounds at detectable levels in the area. The 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River

  19. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  20. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA's annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series' objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series' approach is to integrate EIA's crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel

  1. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10 degrees to 20 degrees API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources

  2. Oil Dependence, Climate Change and Energy Security: Will Constraints on Oil Shape our Climate Future or Vice Versa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignone, B. K.

    2008-12-01

    Threats to US and global energy security take several forms. First, the overwhelming dependence on oil in the transport sector leaves the US economy (and others) vulnerable to supply shocks and price volatility. Secondly, the global dependence on oil inflates prices and enhances the transfer of wealth to authoritarian regimes. Finally, the global reliance on fossil fuels more generally jeopardizes the stability of the climate system. These three threats - economic, strategic and environmental - can only be mitigated through a gradual substitution away from fossil fuels (both coal and oil) on a global scale. Such large-scale substitution could occur in response to potential resource constraints or in response to coordinated government policies in which these externalities are explicitly internalized. Here, I make use of a well-known integrated assessment model (MERGE) to examine both possibilities. When resource limits are considered alone, global fuel use tends to shift toward even more carbon-intensive resources, like oil shale or liquids derived from coal. On the other hand, when explicit carbon constraints are imposed, the fuel sector response is more complex. Generally, less stringent climate targets can be satisfied entirely through reductions in global coal consumption, while more stringent targets require simultaneous reductions in both coal and oil consumption. Taken together, these model results suggest that resource constraints alone will only exacerbate the climate problem, while a subset of policy-driven carbon constraints may yield tangible security benefits (in the form of reduced global oil consumption) in addition to the intended environmental outcome.

  3. Natural resource damage assessments: The second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthi, R.; Burlington, L.; Reinharz, E.; Shutler, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Damage Assessment Regulations Team (DART), Office of General Counsel, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has focused on developing natural resource damage assessment regulations for oil pollution in navigable waters. These procedures may lower the transaction costs of assessments, encourage joint cooperative assessments, simplify most assessments and provide technical guidance for conducting assessments. DART is developing regulations for the assessment of damages due to injuries related to oil spills under the Oil pollution Act of 1990. These regulations will involve coordination, restoration and economic valuation. NOAA encourages federal, state, tribal and foreign trustees, to develop prespill plans. Coordination with response agencies assures protection of important natural resources. The regulations provide an open record, which becomes the basis for judicial review. Various methods being developed to assess damages for injuries to natural resources include: compensation formulas for spills under 50,000 gallons of oil, the Type A model, expedited damage assessment (EDA) procedures, and comprehensive damage assessment (CDA) procedures which can be used for spills of various sizes. These procedures provide trustees with a choice for assessing natural resource damages to each oil spill. NOAA is emphasizing the importance of restoration. Restoration plans will define project goals and objectives, establish procedures and methods for site restoration, and define the approach based on sound science. Finally, numerous economic methods are identified to calculate the lost or diminished use as passive use of the affected resources

  4. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional resources of 1.1 billion barrels of oil and 2.2 trillion cubic feet of gas in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Uteland Butte Member of the Eocene Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-09-03

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered resources of 214 million barrels of oil, 329 billion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 14 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the informal Uteland Butte member of the Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah.

  6. A review on applications of nanotechnology in the enhanced oil recovery part A: effects of nanoparticles on interfacial tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hendraningrat, Luky

    2016-01-01

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery is another strong growing technology with the potential of a step change innovation, which will help to secure future oil supply by turning resources into reserves. While Substantial amount of crude oil remains in the reservoir after primary and secondary production, conventional production methods give access to on average only one-third of original oil in place, the use of surfactants and polymers allows for recovery of up to another third of this oil. Chemical flooding is of increasing interest and importance due to high oil prices and the need to increase oil production. Research in nanotechnology in the petroleum industry is advancing rapidly and an enormous progress in the application of nanotechnology in this area is to be expected. Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly change enhanced oil recovery and to improve mechanism of recovery. This paper, therefore, focuses on the reviews of the application of nano technology in chemical flooding process in oil recovery and reviews the application nano in the polymer and surfactant flooding on the interfacial tension process.

  7. Optimal carbon tax with a dirty backstop: Oil, coal, or renewables?

    OpenAIRE

    van der Ploeg, Frederick; Withagen, Cees A.

    2011-01-01

    Optimal climate policy is studied. Coal, the abundant resource, contributes more CO2 per unit of energy than the exhaustible resource, oil. We characterize the optimal sequencing oil and coal and departures from the Herfindahl rule. "Preference reversal" can take place. If coal is very dirty compared to oil, there is no simultaneous use. Else, the optimal outcome starts with oil, before using oil and coal together, and finally coal on its own. The "laissez-faire" outcome uses coal forever or ...

  8. Water resources and shale gas/oil production in the Appalachian Basin: critical issues and evolving developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, William M.; Williams, John H.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas and oil resources in the United States are important components of a national energy program. While the Nation seeks greater energy independence and greener sources of energy, Federal agencies with environmental responsibilities, state and local regulators and water-resource agencies, and citizens throughout areas of unconventional shale gas development have concerns about the environmental effects of high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF), including those in the Appalachian Basin in the northeastern United States (fig. 1). Environmental concerns posing critical challenges include the availability and use of surface water and groundwater for hydraulic fracturing; the migration of stray gas and potential effects on overlying aquifers; the potential for flowback, formation fluids, and other wastes to contaminate surface water and groundwater; and the effects from drill pads, roads, and pipeline infrastructure on land disturbance in small watersheds and headwater streams (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2012). Federal, state, regional and local agencies, along with the gas industry, are striving to use the best science and technology to develop these unconventional resources in an environmentally safe manner. Some of these concerns were addressed in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fact Sheet 2009–3032 (Soeder and Kappel, 2009) about potential critical effects on water resources associated with the development of gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale of the Hamilton Group (Ver Straeten and others, 1994). Since that time, (1) the extraction process has evolved, (2) environmental awareness related to high-volume hydraulic fracturing process has increased, (3) state regulations concerning gas well drilling have been modified, and (4) the practices used by industry to obtain, transport, recover, treat, recycle, and ultimately dispose of the spent fluids and solid waste materials have evolved. This report updates and expands on Fact Sheet 2009

  9. The oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, P.

    2000-01-01

    Statistical analysis cannot, alone, provide an oil price forecast. So, one needs to understand the fundamental phenomena which control the past trends since the end of world war II After a first period during which oil, thanks to its abundance, was able to increase its market share at the expense of other energies, the first oil shock reflects the rarefaction of oil resource with the tilting of the US production curve from growth to decline. Since then, the new situation is that of a ''cohabitation'' between oil and the other energies with the oil price, extremely volatile, reflecting the trial and error adjustment of the market share left to the other energies. Such a context may explain the recent oil price surge but the analogy between the US oil situation at the time of the first shock and that existing today for the world outside Middle East suggest another possibility, that of a structural change with higher future oil prices. The authors examine these two possibilities, think that the oil price will reflect both as long as one or the other will not become proven, and conclude with a series of political recommendations. (authors)

  10. Capability Development at Imperial Oil Resources Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerington, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Striving to be learning organization, Imperial Oil of Canada focused on organizational, divisional, and individual capability development. Lessons learned include the following: (1) all levels of employees are potential professionals; (2) learning must be continuous; (3) intrinsic motivation and commitment are essential; and (4) organizational…

  11. Oil and Gas Development in Southwestern Wyoming - Energy Data and Services for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to explore current oil and gas energy development in the area encompassing the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative. The Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative is a long-term science-based effort to ensure southwestern Wyoming's wildlife and habitat remain viable in areas facing development pressure. Wyoming encompasses some of the highest quality wildlife habitats in the Intermountain West. At the same time, this region is an important source of natural gas. Using Geographic Information System technology, energy data pertinent to the conservation decision-making process have been assembled to show historical oil and gas exploration and production in southwestern Wyoming. In addition to historical data, estimates of undiscovered oil and gas are included from the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey National Assessment of Oil and Gas in the Southwestern Wyoming Province. This report is meant to facilitate the integration of existing data with new knowledge and technologies to analyze energy resources development and to assist in habitat conservation planning. The well and assessment data can be accessed and shared among many different clients including, but not limited to, an online web-service for scientists and resource managers engaged in the Initiative.

  12. Crisis and adjustment variables of Mediterranean oil states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraud, Philippe; Jablanczy, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance of the Mediterranean and the other Arabian oil exporting countries. As far as the resource-based industry is concerned, it could be interesting to notice that the performance of these countries is linked to sectoral mix, nature of industry, type of enterprise, nature of joint-venture contracts and obviously macro-economic policies. The studies on the relationship between oil resources, oil production and valorization and global growth show that oil sector is not reliable, especially if we take into account the gap between low and high absorbing countries in the Arab world. In the first group of countries, oil revenues have a positive and significant effect on economic growth and development. In the second group of countries, oil revenues often copy with the Dutch-disease type resource reallocation process and have a negative effect on growth and development. Three alternative ways seem to be opened for these countries. And we study each of them: growing influence of profit sharing contracts between the state-owned companies and the international oil companies linked to technology transfers agreements, entrepreneurial and managerial trajectories coping with the influence of small and medium enterprises, effects of the regional integration in the framework of the Euro-Mediterranean trade agreements

  13. A review on technologies for oil shale surface retort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S.; Yang, S.A.; Ren, N.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, with the shortage of oil resources and the continuous increase in oil prices, oil shale has seized much more attention. Oil shale is a kind of important unconventional oil and gas resources. Oil shale resources are plentiful according to the proven reserves in places. And shale oil is far richer than crude oil in the world. Technology processing can be divided into two categories: surface retorting and in-situ technology. The process and equipment of surface retorting are more mature, and are still up to now, the main way to produce shale oil from oil shale. According to the variations of the particle size, the surface retorting technologies of oil shale can be notified and classified into two categories such as lump shale process and particulate shale process. The lump shale processes introduced in this article include the Fushun retorting technology, the Kiviter technology and the Petrosix technology; the particulate processes include the Gloter technology, the LR technology, the Tosco-II technology, the ATP (Alberta Taciuk Process) technology and the Enefit-280 technology. After the thorough comparison of these technologies, we can notice that, this article aim is to show off that : the particulate process that is environmentally friendly, with its low cost and high economic returns characteristics, will be the major development trend; Combined technologies of surface retorting technology and other oil producing technology should be developed; the comprehensive utilization of oil shale should be considered during the development of surface retorting technology, meanwhile the process should be harmless to the environment. (author)

  14. Canada's resources and the national interest: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This booklet is a summary of a report prepared by an Independent Task Force on the critical policy choices facing Canada with respect to the development of its mining and petroleum resources. The main report of the Task Force (NP-22249) is accompanied by four major research studies, published as Appendices to the main report, and covering the broad subjects of the taxation of non-renewable resources, a survey of our oil and gas resources, a survey of our other mineral resources, and a possible plan for the development of our oil and gas reserves in the coming decade.

  15. Summary of the mineral- and energy-resource endowment, BLM roswell resource area, east-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Sutphin, D.M.; Ball, M.M.; Korzeb, S.L.; Kness, R.F.; Dutchover, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    In this summary of two comprehensive resource reports produced by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we discuss the mineral- and energyresource endowment of the 14-millon-acre Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico, managed by the Bureau of Land Management. The Bureau and Survey reports result from separate studies that are compilations of published and unpublished data and integrate new findings on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral, industrial, and energy commodities, and resources for the seven-county area. The reports have been used by the Bureau of Land Management in preparation of the Roswell Resource Area Resource Management Plan, and will have future use in nationwide mineral- and energy-resource inventories and assessments, as reference and training documents, and as public-information tools. In the Roswell Resource Area, many metals, industrial mineral commodities, and energy resources are being, or have been, produced or prospected. These include metals and high-technology materials, such as copper, gold, silver, thorium, uranium and/or vanadium, rare-earth element minerals, iron, manganese, tungsten, lead, zinc, and molybdenum; industrial mineral resources, including barite, limestone/dolomite, caliche, clay, fluorspar, gypsum, scoria, aggregate, and sand and gravel; and fuels and associated resources, such as oil, gas, tar sand and heavy oil, coal, and gases associated with hydrocarbons. Other commodities that have yet to be identified in economic concentrations include potash, halite, polyhalite, anhydrite, sulfur, feldspar, building stone and decorative rock, brines, various gases associated with oil and gas exploration, and carbon dioxide. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  16. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  17. Bioremediation of oil%contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Marchenko1, M.; Shuktueva, M.; Vinokurov, V.; Krasnopolskaya, L.

    2011-01-01

    Stocks of crude oil remains at a high level, does not stop the construction of new pipelines, increasing the output and at the same time the transportation of oil. At the same time, it gives rise to accidents resulting in oil and oil products fall in different ecosystems: the atmosphere, soil, waters. This paper provides an overview of the mechanical, physical, chemical, and biological methods for the elimination of oil-contaminated soils. Create optimal conditions for growth and development ...

  18. Getting Over the Barrel- Achieving Independence from Foreign Oil in 2018

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haigh, Christopher S

    2009-01-01

    The United States can achieve independence from foreign oil in 2018. Increasing production from current oil fields, developing untapped oil resources, converting coal to oil and oil shale extraction can produce an additional...

  19. North American natural gas outlook : does gas remain a fuel option for oil sands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a North America natural gas outlook from Purvin and Gertz, an international energy consulting firm that has 30 years experience in providing strategic, commercial and technical advice to the petroleum industry. In particular, this presentation focuses on natural gas market fundamentals and how they may impact on oil sands development. It includes charts and graphs depicting NYMEX natural gas outlooks to July, 2009 and examines how supply will react to major changes in Canada's supply portfolio. It was noted that oil sands development is a driver for natural gas demand in Alberta. The existing regional gas pipeline infrastructure was presented and the market impact on upgrader options was discussed. The author suggests that if gas prices are too high, there are other fuel options for steam and power generation. These include bitumen, asphalt, coke, coal and nuclear. However, these options have additional costs, uncertainties and environmental issues. A key factor for success would be to have a clear understanding of the benefits and risks between these fuel options. 1 tab., 9 figs

  20. The oil barrel price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondy, J.; Papon, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview and a prospective glance on the oil barrel price. It indicates the relevant indicators: Brent quotation, euro/dollar parity, economic activity indicators, world oil consumption distribution, crude oil production, refining capacity. It briefly presents the involved stake holders: crude oil producers, oil refiners, refined product dealers, and the OPEC. It discusses the major retrospective trends: evolution in relationship with geopolitical events and energy policies, strong correlation between oil demand and economic growth, prevalence of OPEC, growing importance of national oil companies. An emerging trend is noticed: growing role of emerging countries on the crude market. Some prospective issues are discussed: duration and intensity of economic recession, separation between economic growth and energy consumption, pace and ambition level of policies of struggle against climate change, exploitable resources, and geopolitical hazards. Four evolution hypotheses are discussed

  1. Microbial ecology of methanogenic crude oil biodegradation; from microbial consortia to heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, Ian M.; Maguire, Michael J.; Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell; Gray, Neil D.; Aitken, Carolyn M.; Martin Jones, D.; Oldenburg, Thomas B.P.; Larter, Stephen R. [Petroleum Research Group, Geosciences, University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the microbial ecology of methanogenic crude oil biodegradation. Biodegraded petroleum reservoirs are one of the most dramatic indications of the deep biosphere. It is estimated that heavy oil and oil sands will account for a considerable amount of energy production in the future. Carbon, a major resource for deep subsurface microorganisms, and energy are contained in large quantities in petroleum reservoirs. The aerobic to anaerobic paradigm shift is explained. A key process for in-situ oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs is methanogenesis. New paradigms for in-reservoir crude oil biodegradation are discussed. Variations in anaerobic degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons are also discussed. A graph shows the different patterns of crude oil biodegradation under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. Alternative anaerobic alkane activation mechanisms are also shown. From the study, it can be concluded that methanogenic crude oil degradation is of global importance and led to the establishment of the world's enormous heavy oil deposits.

  2. Growth regulating properties of isoprene and isoprenoid-based essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell P; Shukla, Mukund R; Sherif, Sherif M; Brown, Paula B; Saxena, Praveen K

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils have growth regulating properties comparable to the well-documented methyl jasmonate and may be involved in localized and/or airborne plant communication. Aromatic plants employ large amounts of resources to produce essential oils. Some essential oils are known to contain compounds with plant growth regulating activities. However, the potential capacity of essential oils as airborne molecules able to modulate plant growth/development has remained uninvestigated. Here, we demonstrate that essential oils from eight taxonomically diverse plants applied in their airborne state inhibited auxin-induced elongation of Pisum sativum hypocotyls and Avena sativa coleoptiles. This response was also observed using five monoterpenes commonly found in essential oils as well as isoprene, the basic building block of terpenes. Upon transfer to ambient conditions, A. sativa coleoptiles resumed elongation, demonstrating an antagonistic relationship rather than toxicity. Inclusion of essential oils, monoterpenes, or isoprene into the headspace of culture vessels induced abnormal cellular growth along hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana. These responses were also elicited by methyl jasmonate (MeJA); however, where methyl jasmonate inhibited root growth essential oils did not. Gene expression studies in A. thaliana also demonstrated differences between the MeJA and isoprenoid responses. This series of experiments clearly demonstrate that essential oils and their isoprenoid components interact with endogenous plant growth regulators when applied directly or as volatile components in the headspace. The similarities between isoprenoid and MeJA responses suggest that they may act in plant defence signalling. While further studies are needed to determine the ecological and evolutionary significance, the results of this study and the specialized anatomy associated with aromatic plants suggest that essential oils may act as airborne signalling molecules.

  3. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  4. Gulf Canada Resources Limited 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A review of operations in 1998 and financial information from Gulf Canada Resources Limited is provided to keep shareholders abreast of company performance. Gulf Canada Resources Limited explores for, develops, produces and markets conventional and synthetic crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. In 1998, the company's main operating centres were in western Canada (where it owns a nine per cent interest in the Syncrude Joint Venture), Indonesia, the North Sea and Australia. The report summarizes the company's energy resource activities, presents a detailed review of operations, and provides consolidated financial statements, and common share information. Although Gulf Canada Resources sold $ 1.2 billion worth of non-producing assets during the year, year end proved reserves of 838 million barrels of oil equivalent were less than ten per cent lower than a year earlier, reflecting reserve additions of 100 million barrels of oil equivalent. tabs., figs

  5. Introduction to the 2002 geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks: Chapter 2 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) periodically conducts assessments of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the United States. The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The last major USGS assessment of oil and gas of the most important oil and gas provinces in the United States was in 1995 (Gautier and others, 1996). Since then a number of individual assessment provinces have been reappraised using new methodology. This was done particularly for those provinces where new information has become available, where new methodology was expected to reveal more insight to provide a better estimate, where additional geologic investigation was needed, or where continuous accumulations were deemed important. The San Juan Basin was reevaluated because of industry exploitation of new hydrocarbon accumulations that were not previously assessed and because of a change in application of assessment methodology to potential undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations. Several changes have been made in this study. The methodology is different from that used in 1995 (Schmoker, 2003; Schmoker and Klett, 2003). In this study the total petroleum system (TPS) approach (Magoon and Dow, 1994) is used rather than the play approach. The Chama Basin is not included. The team of scientists studying the basin is different. The 1995 study focused on conventional accumulations, whereas in this 2002 assessment, it was a priority to assess continuous-type accumulations, including coal-bed gas. Consequently we are presenting here an entirely new study and results for the San Juan Basin Province. The results of this 2002 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province (5022) are presented in this report within the geologic context of individual TPSs and their assessment units (AU) (table 1). Results

  6. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1993-01-01

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wastes by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EBF) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13% and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30 o C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran. (author)

  7. Utilization of agro-resources by radiation treatment -production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Hashimoto, Shoji; Awang, Mat Rasol; Hamdini, Hassan; Saitoh, Hideharu

    1993-10-01

    The production of animal feeds and mushrooms from oil palm cellulosic wasres by radiation and fermentation has been investigated in order to utilize the agro-resources and to reduce the smoke pollution. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of empty fruit bunch of oil palm (EFB) by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 25 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, C. cinereus and P. sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased to 13 % and the crude fiber content decreased to 20% after 30 days of incubation with C. cinereus at 30°C in solid state fermentation. P. sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rice bran.

  8. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  9. Exploitation and Utilization of Oilfield Geothermal Resources in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shejiao Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is a clean, green renewable resource, which can be utilized for power generation, heating, cooling, and could effectively replace oil, gas, and coal. In recent years, oil companies have put more efforts into exploiting and utilizing geothermal energy with advanced technologies for heat-tracing oil gathering and transportation, central heating, etc., which has not only reduced resource waste, but also improved large-scale and industrial resource utilization levels, and has achieved remarkable economic and social benefits. Based on the analysis of oilfield geothermal energy development status, resource potential, and exploitation and utilization modes, the advantages and disadvantages of harnessing oilfield geothermal resource have been discussed. Oilfield geothermal energy exploitation and utilization have advantages in resources, technical personnel, technology, and a large number of abandoned wells that could be reconstructed and utilized. Due to the high heat demand in oilfields, geothermal energy exploitation and utilization can effectively replace oil, gas, coal, and other fossil fuels, and has bright prospects. The key factors limiting oilfield geothermal energy exploitation and utilization are also pointed out in this paper, including immature technologies, lack of overall planning, lack of standards in resource assessment, and economic assessment, lack of incentive policies, etc.

  10. Fuel resources in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The total resources of fossil fuel in the country are estimated (rounded off into billion m/sup 3/ of oil equivalent) as 30--oil 22, natural gas 4 and coal 4. The explored reserves are 2.39--oil 1.68, natural gas 0.25 and coal 0.46. The main type of fuel in the fuel and energy balance of the country is oil. Coal is used in limited quantity in cement, ceramic and other sectors of industry. Outlook for development of the coal industry is discussed in relation to the planned use of coal at the TES.

  11. Oil and gas activities in northern Norway. Summary; KonKraft rapport 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    KonKraft report 6 deals with oil and gas operations on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) from Nordland county and northwards. It aims to contribute to a broad factual base for decision processes related to opening new exploration areas in these waters. The Norwegian petroleum sector employs about 250 000 people directly and indirectly. It accounts for a third of government revenues, and 90 per cent of its profits accrue to the state. NOK 119 billion of the central government budget in 2009 comes directly from oil and gas revenues. These funds finance roads, nursery schools, hospitals and the Norwegian welfare state. In addition, they safeguard future pensions. This industry is at a crossroads today. Oil production has dropped by 30 per cent since 2000. Recent forecasts from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate show that it may be reduced by 50 per cent from its peak by 2013. Overall oil and gas output is expected to begin falling from the middle of the next decade. To slow this decline in output and revenues, the oil companies need access to new and attractive exploration acreage. Half the production expected by the government in 2030 relates to resources which have yet to be proven. Opening further areas of the NCS to petroleum activities would contribute to maintaining substantial investment and revenues for the community, and to continuing the development of industry in the northernmost parts of the country. The report reviews unopened areas along the Norwegian coast from the Helgeland region and north-eastwards to the Russian border. Nordland VI and VII plus Troms II are regarded by the petroleum industry as the most promising regions for big discoveries which could slow the production decline. The KonKraft 2 report concerning production development on the NCS estimates remaining resources in these three areas at 3.4 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe). (Author)

  12. Plastics - the sustainable way to use Oil and Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebourg, Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    Conclusions (drawn by the author): Plastics are a sustainable use of oil and gas - Plastic products enable significant savings of energy and GHG emissions particularly in the use phase; - Plastic products help use resources in the most efficient way. Restricting plastics relative growth would result in increased energy consumption. Diversion from landfill would increase resource efficiency. Waste-to-Energy is an additional resource and is complementary to mechanical recycling. Plastics producers and the Oil and Gas industry should cooperate to produce reliable consumption data. Oil and Gas industry should develop and maintain European (world) eco-profiles (cradle to gate) for their respective industry. (author)

  13. Polymeric surfactants for enhanced oil recovery : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffa, Patrizio; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is surely a topic of interest, as conventional oil resources become more scarce and the necessity of exploiting heavy and unconventional oils increases. EOR methods based on polymer flooding, surfactant-polymer flooding and alkali-surfactant-polymer flooding are

  14. Considering extraction constraints in long-term oil price modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehrl, Tobias; Friedrich, Rainer; Voss, Alfred

    2005-12-15

    Apart from divergence about the remaining global oil resources, the peak oil discussion can be reduced to a dispute about the time rate at which these resources can be supplied. On the one hand it is problematic to project oil supply trends without taking both - prices as well as supply costs - explicitly into account. On the other hand are supply cost estimates however itself heavily dependent on the underlying extraction rates and are actually only valid within a certain business-as-usual extraction rate scenario (which itself is the task to determine). In fact, even after having applied enhanced recovery technologies, the rate at which an oil field can be exploited is quite restricted. Above a certain level an additional extraction rate increase can only be costly achieved at risks of losses in the overall recoverable amounts of the oil reservoir and causes much higher marginal cost. This inflexibility in extraction can be overcome in principle by the access to new oil fields. This indicates why the discovery trend may roughly form the long-term oil production curve, at least for price-taking suppliers. The long term oil discovery trend itself can be described as a logistic process with the two opposed effects of learning and depletion. This leads to the well-known Hubbert curve. Several attempts have been made to incorporate economic variables econometrically into the Hubbert model. With this work we follow a somewhat inverse approach and integrate Hubbert curves in our Long-term Oil Price and EXtraction model LOPEX. In LOPEX we assume that non-OPEC oil production - as long as the oil can be profitably discovered and extracted - is restricted to follow self-regulative discovery trends described by Hubbert curves. Non-OPEC production in LOPEX therefore consists of those Hubbert cycles that are profitable, depending on supply cost and price. Endogenous and exogenous technical progress is extra integrated in different ways. LOPEX determines extraction and price

  15. Considering extraction constraints in long-term oil price modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehrl, Tobias; Friedrich, Rainer; Voss, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    Apart from divergence about the remaining global oil resources, the peak oil discussion can be reduced to a dispute about the time rate at which these resources can be supplied. On the one hand it is problematic to project oil supply trends without taking both - prices as well as supply costs - explicitly into account. On the other hand are supply cost estimates however itself heavily dependent on the underlying extraction rates and are actually only valid within a certain business-as-usual extraction rate scenario (which itself is the task to determine). In fact, even after having applied enhanced recovery technologies, the rate at which an oil field can be exploited is quite restricted. Above a certain level an additional extraction rate increase can only be costly achieved at risks of losses in the overall recoverable amounts of the oil reservoir and causes much higher marginal cost. This inflexibility in extraction can be overcome in principle by the access to new oil fields. This indicates why the discovery trend may roughly form the long-term oil production curve, at least for price-taking suppliers. The long term oil discovery trend itself can be described as a logistic process with the two opposed effects of learning and depletion. This leads to the well-known Hubbert curve. Several attempts have been made to incorporate economic variables econometrically into the Hubbert model. With this work we follow a somewhat inverse approach and integrate Hubbert curves in our Long-term Oil Price and EXtraction model LOPEX. In LOPEX we assume that non-OPEC oil production - as long as the oil can be profitably discovered and extracted - is restricted to follow self-regulative discovery trends described by Hubbert curves. Non-OPEC production in LOPEX therefore consists of those Hubbert cycles that are profitable, depending on supply cost and price. Endogenous and exogenous technical progress is extra integrated in different ways. LOPEX determines extraction and price

  16. Tenth oil recovery conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleeper, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Project is sponsored by the State of Kansas to introduce Kansas producers to the economic potential of enhanced recovery methods for Kansas fields. Specific objectives include estimation of the state-wide tertiary oil resource, identification and evaluation of the most applicable processes, dissemination of technical information to producers, occasional collaboration on recovery projects, laboratory studies on Kansas applicable processes, and training of students and operators in tertiary oil recovery methods. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  17. Long term prediction of unconventional oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, S.H.; Evans, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although considerable discussion surrounds unconventional oil's ability to mitigate the effects of peaking conventional oil production, very few models of unconventional oil production exist. The aim of this article was to project unconventional oil production to determine how significant its production may be. Two models were developed to predict the unconventional oil production, one model for in situ production and the other for mining the resources. Unconventional oil production is anticipated to reach between 18 and 32 Gb/y (49-88 Mb/d) in 2076-2084, before declining. If conventional oil production is at peak production then projected unconventional oil production cannot mitigate peaking of conventional oil alone.

  18. It's the crude, dude : war, big oil and the fight for the planet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuaig, L.

    2004-07-01

    The economies of the industrialized world depend on oil, a finite resource with declining reserves. This book examines the role that oil played in the United States invasion of Iraq. It also explores the underlying issue of the modern world's addiction to oil. The sudden increase in oil prices in the spring of 2004 may reflect the beginning of a trend in fossil fuel prices and international competition over the remaining reserves of cheap oil, of which most are located in the Middle East. In addition, increased consumption of fossil fuels has been linked to global warming. The author notes that although renewable energy sources present a solution to our reliance on fossil fuels, some of the most powerful institutions in the world are resisting change, including the United States government and some of the world's largest corporations. The author suggests that the United States military presence in the oil-rich region of Iraq is due to Washington's ambition to gain control over the largest untapped oil reserves in the world. She also suggests that the search for oil continues to determine world events, and mentions how the North American Free Trade Agreement guaranteed the United States access to Canada's vast energy supplies. refs., figs.

  19. Enhanced oil recovery program review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    Canada accounts for 40% of the global resources in heavy oils and oil sands bitumen, however, more than 90% of these resources need new and innovative technologies if they are to be made available at a competitive price. CANMET's Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) program was created in the late 1970s in response to the drive for energy self-sufficiency. Funding of the project is highly leveraged; industry funding towards projects supported under the CANMET Energy Conversion Program averaged over 300% annually since the previous review in 1990. Multi-client EOR technology projects include horizontal well technology, development of the vapour extraction process, and field testing of oil sands extraction technology. Direction and priorities of the program are established in consultation with the Minister's Advisory Council to CANMET (MNACC), industry and other performers and sponsors of enhanced oil recovery R and D. This review, including client feedback from interviews with several industry spokespersons, concluded that the program was well managed, and of high priority. Various options capable of meeting future needs were examined. Continuation of the current program, incorporating a number of significant changes, was recommended

  20. Natural gas and crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valais, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Two main development could gradually modify these traditional features of natural gas markets and prices. First, environmental pressures and the tightening of emission standards and of the quality specifications for fuels should work in favor of natural gas. Second the increasing distance of resources in relation to the major consuming zones should bring about a considerable development of international natural gas trade. International expansion should mark the development of the gas industry in the coming decades. This evolution will give natural gas an importance and a role appreciably closer to those of oil on the world energy scene. But it is obvious that such a development can come about only at the cost of considerable investments for which the economic viability is and will remain dependent on the level of the prices of natural gas as the inlet to its consuming markets. This paper attempts to answer the questions: Will these markets accept a new scale of value for gas in relation to other fossil fuels, including oil, which will take into account new environmental constraints and which will be able to fulfill the formidable financial needs of the gas industry in the coming decades?

  1. Do OPEC announcements influence oil prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loutia, Amine; Mellios, Constantin; Andriosopoulos, Kostas

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of OPEC production decisions (increase, cut, maintain) on both WTI and Brent crude oil prices between Q1 1991 and Q1 2015 by employing the event study methodology and by using two indices as benchmarks (BCI and S&P GSCI). We employ an EGARCH model to take into account the high volatility of oil prices and some stylized facts characterizing this volatility. We find that the impact of OPEC’s announcements on oil prices (i)evolves over time and among decisions, (ii) is more significant for production cut and maintain, (iii) is different for WTI and Brent prices, and (iv) is sensitive to the benchmark index. Moreover, OPEC’s decisions depend on the exploration and extraction cost of more expensive/unconventional oil resources. - Highlights: • The impact of OPEC's production decisions on both BRENT and WTI is examined. • We adopt the event study methodology. • An EGARCH model is used to capture some features characterizing oil prices volatility. • OPEC decisions effect changes over time and depends on production decisions and oil prices. • OPEC is less influential when prices are high and unconventional resources are viable.

  2. Oil spill response planning under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The oil spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound on March 24, 1989 illustrated the need for more resources, better planning, and better command and control to efficiently and effectively respond to, contain and cleanup catastrophic oil spills. In response to public concern and industry initiatives to resolve existing oil spill response problems. Congress enacted the comprehensive Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA-90) on August 18, 1990. OPA-90 mandates comprehensive changes in vessel and facility response planning, envisioning a comprehensive and integrated oil spill response planning scheme, with revisions to reflect OPA-90's new requirements. Area Committees comprised of federal, state and local officials and others will prepare Area Contingency Plans for Coast Guard approval, which set forth the framework for responding to open-quotes worst case dischargesclose quotes. Owners and operators of tank vessels and onshore and offshore facilities must submit individual response plans for federal approval by February 18, 1993, identifying and ensuring availability of private personnel and equipment necessary to remove to the maximum extent practicable a open-quotes worst case discharge.close quotes The Coast Guard is considering rules to implement these requirements. Major challenges exist to meet the statutory requirements, including response times, skimming efficiencies, adverse weather and others that affect emergency response capability. This paper focuses on: (1) oil spill response problems identified and lessons learned from the Prince William Sound spill; (2) OPA-90's complex and technical oil spill response planning requirements and their effect on response planning for marine operations; (3) the federal regulatory program to implement OPA-90, defining spill response capability for a open-quotes worst case discharge,close quotes considering existing response resources and the new capabilities by the industry-supported Marine Spill Response Corporation

  3. Effects of oil and chemically treated oil on nearshore under-ice meiofauna studied in-situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, W.E.; Martin, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Meiofauna were collected during May 1982 in the soft bottom layer of nearshore landfast ice at Cape Hatt, northern Baffin Island. Average abundance of all ice meiofauna was 54,000 individualsm/sup -2/. Densities of all meiofauna groups were spatially variable, but only nematodes and cyclopoid copepods showed evidence of progressive temporal change between 18 May and 2 June. Undisturbed, enclosed areas of the under-ice surface were treated with oil on 23-24 May. Dispersed oil was in contact with the ice for 5 hours, whereas untreated oil and solidified oil remained in the enclosures for the duration of the study (12 days post-treatment). Sampling was carried out in areas where oil contacted the ice and moved away or in areas near oil that remained in contact with the under-ice surface. Five hours after treatment, oil concentrations in the water within the enclosures were similar (0.15-0.28 ppm) in untreated oil, solidified oil and control enclosures. In contrast, dispersed oil concentrations were 5.8-36.5 ppm. Densities of all copepods and polychaetes decreased dramatically in each dispersed oil enclosure by the second post-spill day, and slight density increases were evident by the tenth post-spill day. Harpacticoid copepods apparently were more sensitive to dispersed oil than were cyclopoid copepods. Densities of nematodes and cyclopoid copepod nauplii were not affected by dispersed oil. Densities of nematodes, polychaetes and all copepods were not affected by untreated or solidified oil, but there was some evidence of a stimulatory effect of those treatments on some copepod groups and life stages. 24 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources, onshore Claiborne Group, United Statespart of the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, P.C.; Ewing, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    The middle Eocene Claiborne Group was assessed for undiscovered conventional hydrocarbon resources using established U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology. This work was conducted as part of a 2007 assessment of Paleogene-Neogene strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin, including the United States onshore and state waters (Dubiel et al., 2007). The assessed area is within the Upper Jurassic-CretaceousTertiary composite total petroleum system, which was defined for the assessment. Source rocks for Claiborne oil accumulations are interpreted to be organic-rich, downdip, shaley facies of the Wilcox Group and the Sparta Sand of the Claiborne Group; gas accumulations may have originated from multiple sources, including the Jurassic Smackover Formation and the Haynesville and Bossier shales, the Cretaceous Eagle Ford and Pearsall (?) formations, and the Paleogene Wilcox Group and Sparta Sand. Hydrocarbon generation in the basin started prior to deposition of Claiborne sediments and is currently ongoing. Primary reservoir sandstones in the Claiborne Group include, from oldest to youngest, the Queen City Sand, Cook Mountain Formation, Sparta Sand, Yegua Formation, and the laterally equivalent Cockfield Formation. A geologic model, supported by spatial analysis of petroleum geology data, including discovered reservoir depths, thicknesses, temperatures, porosities, permeabilities, and pressures, was used to divide the Claiborne Group into seven assessment units (AUs) with three distinctive structural and depositional settings. The three structural and depositional settings are (1) stable shelf, (2) expanded fault zone, and (3) slope and basin floor; the seven AUs are (1) lower Claiborne stable-shelf gas and oil, (2) lower Claiborne expanded fault-zone gas, (3) lower Claiborne slope and basin-floor gas, (4) lower Claiborne Cane River, (5) upper Claiborne stable-shelf gas and oil, (6) upper Claiborne expanded fault-zone gas, and (7) upper Claiborne slope and basin

  5. Waste to Wealth: Hidden Treasures in the Oil Palm Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh Soh Kheang; Astimar Abdul Aziz; Ravigadevi Sambathamurthi; Mohd Basri Wahid

    2010-01-01

    The palm oil industry plays an important role in the creation of waste to wealth using the abundant oil palm biomass resources generated from palm oil supply chain i.e. upstream to downstream activities. The oil palm biomass and other palm-derived waste streams available are oil palm trunks (felled), fronds (felled and pruned), shell, mesocarp fibers, empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), palm kernel expelled (PKE), palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD), used frying oil (UFO), residual oil from spent bleaching earth (SBE) and glycerol. For 88.5 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass generated was more than 25 million tones (dry weight basis) with the generation of 59 million tonnes of POME from 410 palm oil mills. Oil palm biomass consists of mainly lignocellulose materials that can be potentially and fully utilized for renewable energy, wood-based products and high value-added products such as pytonutrients, phenolics, carotenes and vitamin E. Oil palm biomass can be converted to bio energy with high combustible characteristics such as briquettes, bio-oils, bio-producer gas, boiler fuel, biogas and bio ethanol. Oil palm biomass can also be made into wood-based products such as composite and furniture, pulp and paper and planting medium. The recovery of phenolics from POME as valuable antioxidants has potential drug application. Other possible applications for oil palm biomass include fine chemicals, dietary fibers, animal feed and polymers. There must be a strategic and sustainable resource management to distribute palm oil and palm biomass to maximize the use of the resources so that it can generate revenues, bring benefits to the palm oil industry and meet stringent sustainability requirements in the future. (author)

  6. U.S. Geological Survey Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of the Hamra Basin, Libya, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The Hamra Basin Province encompasses approximately 244,100 square kilometers (94,250 square miles) and is entirely within Libya. One composite total petroleum system (TPS) was defined for this assessment; it extends from Libya westward into adjacent parts of Algeria and southern Tunisia. The Hamra Basin part of the TPS was subdivided into four assessment units for the purpose of resource assessment. The assessment units cover only 172,390 square kilometers of the Hamra Basin Province; the remaining area has little potential for undiscovered petroleum resources because of the absence of petroleum source rocks. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 784 million barrels of crude oil, 4,748 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 381 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Hamra Basin of northwestern Libya. Most of the undiscovered crude oil and natural gas are interpreted to be in deeper parts of the Hamra Basin.

  7. Oil and development in Brazil: Between an extractive and an industrialization strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, M. José

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of the commodity boom, “new development strategies” in Latin America are centering on the industrialization of natural resources, thereby questioning the “resource curse” thesis and linking the economic performance of this activity with the institutional framework. In this context, the aim of this paper focusing on the Brazilian oil sector is to analyze the implementation of a resource-based industrialization strategy. After analyzing the Brazilian institutional framework and identifying the key features of a resource-based industrialization strategy, we assess its development and identify its scope and limitations. - Highlights: • We analyze the Brazilian oil sector’s institutional framework. • We analyze the influence of the institutional framework in the Brazilian oil sector performance. • We identify the key features of a resource-based industrialization strategy. • We assess the performance of the Brazilian oil sector and, in particular, its industrialization path

  8. The state tax regulation in the oil and gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Cherkasova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian tax laws in petrochemical complex generally has a fiscal orientation now. The current system of taxation in the oil industry has the biggest tax burden in the world, amount of oil and gas revenues was more then 43-51% of all budget revenues over past decades, remaining its main source. Generally, there were changes in the ratios of incomes in the forms of export customs duty and tax on the extraction of minerals. State policy in the field of resource payments affects the entire industry, influencing the structure of oil and oil supplies on internal and external markets and realization of the programs for modernization and development in priority areas. Changes of structure of national production, increasing the contribution of agriculture, IT sphere and other branches to aggregate national product should be reflected in the revision of the tax burden on the industries, associated with the extraction and processing of minerals. It is necessary to reduce the fiscal direction of tax regulation in petrochemical sector with a simultaneous increasing the role of tools that stimulate modernization and updating of equipment, implementation of new processes and technologies, the maximum use of process-deepening processes as well as the development of deposits with severe production conditions. In the near future, it is planned to introduce new changes in taxation in field of oil production and refining - introduction of benefits for oil production in new fields or fields with difficult production conditions or poor quality of oil and introduction of a tax on additional income..

  9. Saskatchewan's place in Canadian oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, L.L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Regina, SK (Canada); Kramers, J.W. [Owl Ventures Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Isaacs, E.E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The current daily bitumen and synthetic crude production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is 180,000 m{sup 3}, which represents approximately 40 percent of crude oil produced in Canada. In a time of peaking conventional oil production, the search for new oil reserves has led to unconventional in-situ bitumen and heavy oil resources, including shallow in-situ resources. The great difficulty in producing bitumen and managing water flows in such reservoirs will require innovative approaches and increasingly environmentally sustainable practices. This paper presented an overview of shallow in-situ oil sands and the novel recovery technologies that are being developed that will reduce the use of steam and fresh water, and also reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Research and development programs are currently underway to develop and demonstrate such new technologies. Promising technologies include the solvent vapour extraction and hybrid thermal solvent extraction processes that are being developed and demonstrated in large-scale three-dimensional scaled physical models and associated numerical simulation models. Electrical heating and gravity stable combustion are other examples of technologies that could play a significant role in developing these resources. 81 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  10. The 2003 Update of the ASPO Oil and Gas Depletion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Colin; Sivertsson, Anders [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Hydrocarbon Depletion Study Group

    2003-07-01

    What we can term the ASPO Oil and Gas Depletion Model has developed over many years, based on an evolving knowledge of the resource base, culled from many sources, and evolving ideas about how to model depletion. It is sure that the estimates and forecasts are incorrect. The question is: By how much? The model recognises so-called Regular Oil, which excludes the following categories: Oil from coal and shale; Bitumen and synthetics derived therefrom; Extra Heavy Oil (<10 deg API); Heavy Oil (10-17 deg API); Deepwater Oil (>500 m); Polar Oil; Liquids from gas fields and gas plants. It has provided most oil to-date and will dominate all supply far into the future. Its depletion therefore determines the date of peak. The evidence suggests that about 896 Gb (billion barrels) had been produced to end 2002; about 871 Gb remain to produce from known fields and about 113 Gb is expected to be produced from new fields. It is convenient to set a cut-off of, say 2075, for such production, to avoid having to worry about the tail end that can drag on for a long time. A simple depletion model assumes that production declines at the current Depletion Rate (annual production as a percentage of future production) or at the Midpoint Rate in countries that have not yet reached Midpoint (namely half the total). The five main Middle East producers, which hold about half of what remains, are assumed to exercise a swing role, making up the difference between world demand and what the other countries can supply. The base case scenario assumes that consumption will be on average flat until 2010 because of recession; and that the Middle East swing role will end then, as in practice those countries will no longer have the capacity to discharge it. Whether the Iraq war results in extending or shortening the swing role remains to be seen. Adding the contributions of the other categories of oil and gas liquids gives an overall peak in 2010. Gas depletes differently, being more influenced by

  11. The 2003 Update of the ASPO Oil and Gas Depletion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Colin; Sivertsson, Anders [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Hydrocarbon Depletion Study Group

    2003-07-01

    What we can term the ASPO Oil and Gas Depletion Model has developed over many years, based on an evolving knowledge of the resource base, culled from many sources, and evolving ideas about how to model depletion. It is sure that the estimates and forecasts are incorrect. The question is: By how much? The model recognises so-called Regular Oil, which excludes the following categories: Oil from coal and shale; Bitumen and synthetics derived therefrom; Extra Heavy Oil (<10 deg API); Heavy Oil (10-17 deg API); Deepwater Oil (>500 m); Polar Oil; Liquids from gas fields and gas plants. It has provided most oil to-date and will dominate all supply far into the future. Its depletion therefore determines the date of peak. The evidence suggests that about 896 Gb (billion barrels) had been produced to end 2002; about 871 Gb remain to produce from known fields and about 113 Gb is expected to be produced from new fields. It is convenient to set a cut-off of, say 2075, for such production, to avoid having to worry about the tail end that can drag on for a long time. A simple depletion model assumes that production declines at the current Depletion Rate (annual production as a percentage of future production) or at the Midpoint Rate in countries that have not yet reached Midpoint (namely half the total). The five main Middle East producers, which hold about half of what remains, are assumed to exercise a swing role, making up the difference between world demand and what the other countries can supply. The base case scenario assumes that consumption will be on average flat until 2010 because of recession; and that the Middle East swing role will end then, as in practice those countries will no longer have the capacity to discharge it. Whether the Iraq war results in extending or shortening the swing role remains to be seen. Adding the contributions of the other categories of oil and gas liquids gives an overall peak in 2010. Gas depletes differently, being more influenced by

  12. Resource revenues report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary forecasts of resource revenues that may be forthcoming with the lifting of the moratorium on the west coast of British Columbia were presented. The forecasts are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. Both projects were assessed in an effort to demonstrate some of the potential resource revenues and public benefits that may be possible from offshore development in the province. Resource revenues provide the return-on-investments to the resource developer and public benefits in the form of taxes, royalties, lease payments and related fees to all levels of governments. Much of the revenues generated from the British Columbia offshore oil and gas development will accrue as income taxes. A public energy trust offers a way to transform non-renewable resource revenues into a renewable source of wealth for citizens of the province. The report presents estimates of project investment, pipeline capacity limitation, operating costs for offshore platforms, and earnings. It was estimated that about $2.0 billion in public benefits would be generated from combined project revenues of $6.9 billion. Information was obtained from offshore leaseholders as well as pipeline and engineering companies. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Evening Primrose Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U V W X Y Z Evening Primrose Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... fact sheet provides basic information about evening primrose oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  14. Mapping cultural resource sites for the Prince William Sound Graphical Resource Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooley, C. B.; O'Brien, D. K.; Hillman, S. O.

    1997-01-01

    A software package for mapping digital data 'layers' of environmentally and/or culturally sensitive areas such as seabird colonies, seal haulouts, and sea otter concentrations in Prince William Sound and adjoining areas of southern Alaska has been developed by the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company. The data is to be added to an environmental computer mapping database. More than 1,800 known and reported coastal cultural resource sites have been identified. The database is part of the Prince William Sound Tanker Oil Discharge Prevention and Contingency Plan. The mappable data layers can be used to plan and execute whatever site protection program may be necessary, thus enhancing effective cultural resource protection during an oil spill response. 22 refs., 4 figs

  15. Canada's resources and the national interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This is the main report of the task force on the broad subjects of taxation of nonrenewable resources, a survey of oil and gas reserves, a survey of other mineral resources, and the development of an oil and gas energy plan for Canada. Individual reports on the subjects above were issued as separate appendices to this main report. The preliminary draft of the report was published in early 1976. The introductory chapter surveys the critical choices and their costs for Canada, followed by chapters on Canadian resources; availability of private resource capital investments and returns; the tax position of the nonrenewable resource industry; and Federal-provincial conflicts over resource revenue and jurisdiction. It is concluded that the future is likely to yield only possibly adequate returns after massive commitments of capital and the acceptance of large risks by all concerned; further, that a climate of cooperation between government and industry is needed. (MCW)

  16. China’s Aid and Oil-for-Infrastructure in Nigeria: Resource-Driven or Development Motive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gold Kafilah Lola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s ascent influences the Western aid dynamic significantly and changes the landscape in aid-donor and aid-recipient relationship for resource-endowed countries in Africa. Similarly, within China-Africa relations, Nigeria established diplomatic relations with China in 2006 for a concessional oil-for-infrastructure plan to fill the development aperture. However, Nigeria opted out as political uncertainty and elite interest in rent-seeking supersedes development and well-being motive. We conclude that two interrelated causal factors – accountability and transparency – overwhelmingly obstruct Nigeria from optimising China interest in infrastructure development. The study recommends the review of National Planning Commission (NPC 2007 ODA policy document on technical assistance, grants, and concessional loans to identify new problems and challenges associated with formulation and implementation of donor-assisted programmes.

  17. USGS research on energy resources, 1986; program and abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lorna M.H.

    1986-01-01

    The extended abstracts in this volume are summaries of the papers presented orally and as posters in the second V. E. McKelvey Forum on Mineral and Energy Resources, entitled "USGS Research on Energy Resources-1986." The Forum has been established to improve communication between the USGS and the earth science community by presenting the results of current USGS research on nonrenewable resources in a timely fashion and by providing an opportunity for individuals from other organizations to meet informally with USGS scientists and managers. It is our hope that the McKelvey Forum will help to make USGS programs more responsive to the needs of the earth science community, particularly the mining and petroleum industries, and Win foster closer cooperation between organizations and individuals. The Forum was named after former Director Vincent E. McKelvey in recognition of his lifelong contributions to research, development, and administration in mineral and energy resources, as a scientist, as Chief Geologist, and as Director of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Forum will be an annual event, and its subject matter will alternate between mineral and energy resources. We expect that the format will change somewhat from year to year as various approaches are tried, but its primary purpose will remain the same: to encourage direct communication between USGS scientists and the representatives of other earth-science related organizations. Energy programs of the USGS include oil and gas, coal, geothermal, uranium-thorium, and oil shale; work in these programs spans the national domain, including surveys of the offshore Exclusive Economic Zone. The topics selected for presentation at this McKelvey Forum represent an overview of the scientific breadth of USGS research on energy resources. They include aspects of petroleum occurrence in Eastern United States rift basins, the origin of magnetic anomalies over oil fields, accreted terranes and energy-resource implications, coal

  18. The solution of the problem of oil spill risk control in the Baltic Sea taking into account the processes of oil propagation and degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseev, Nikita; Agoshkov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    The report is devoted to the one approach to the problem of oil spill risk control of protected areas in the Baltic Sea (Aseev et al., 2014). By the problem of risk control is meant a problem of determination of optimal resources quantity which are necessary for decreasing the risk to some acceptable value. It is supposed that only moment of accident is a random variable. Mass of oil slick is chosen as a function of control. For the realization of the random variable the quadratic 'functional of cost' is introduced. It comprises cleaning costs and deviation of damage of oil pollution from its acceptable value. The problem of minimization of this functional is solved based on the methods of optimal control and the theory of adjoint equations (Agoshkov, 2003, Agoshkov et al., 2012). The solution of this problem is explicitly found. In order to solve the realistic problem of oil spill risk control in the Baltic Sea the 2d model of oil spill propagation on the sea surface based on the Seatrack Web model (Liungman, Mattson, 2011) is developed. The model takes into account such processes as oil transportation by sea currents and wind, turbulent diffusion, spreading, evaporation from sea surface, dispersion and formation of emulsion 'water-in-oil'. The model allows to calculate basic oil slick parameters: localization, mass, volume, thickness, density of oil, water content and viscosity of emulsion. The results of several numerical experiments in the Baltic Sea using the model and the methodology of oil spill risk control are presented. Along with moment of accident other parameters of oil spill and environment could be chosen as a random variables. The methodology of solution of oil spill risk control problem will remain the same but the computational complexity will increase. Conversion of the function of control to quantity of resources with a glance to methods of pollution removal should be processed. As a result, the developed 2d model of oil spill propagation

  19. Petroleum system modeling capabilities for use in oil and gas resource assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.; Lewan, Michael; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Henry, Mitchell E.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: Petroleum resource assessments are among the most highly visible and frequently cited scientific products of the U.S. Geological Survey. The assessments integrate diverse and extensive information on the geologic, geochemical, and petroleum production histories of provinces and regions of the United States and the World. Petroleum systems modeling incorporates these geoscience data in ways that strengthen the assessment process and results are presented visually and numerically. The purpose of this report is to outline the requirements, advantages, and limitations of one-dimensional (1-D), two-dimensional (2-D), and three-dimensional (3-D) petroleum systems modeling that can be applied to the assessment of oil and gas resources. Primary focus is on the application of the Integrated Exploration Systems (IES) PetroMod? software because of familiarity with that program as well as the emphasis by the USGS Energy Program on standardizing to one modeling application. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) is used to demonstrate the use of the PetroMod? software. Petroleum systems modeling quantitatively extends the 'total petroleum systems' (TPS) concept (Magoon and Dow, 1994; Magoon and Schmoker, 2000) that is employed in USGS resource assessments. Modeling allows integration of state-of-the-art analysis techniques, and provides the means to test and refine understanding of oil and gas generation, migration, and accumulation. Results of modeling are presented visually, numerically, and statistically, which enhances interpretation of the processes that affect TPSs through time. Modeling also provides a framework for the input and processing of many kinds of data essential in resource assessment, including (1) petroleum system elements such as reservoir, seal, and source rock intervals; (2) timing of depositional, hiatus, and erosional events and their influences on petroleum systems; (3) incorporation of vertical and lateral distribution and lithologies of

  20. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sote, K.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleum remains the greatest jewel of inestimable value in both the local and international treasure hunts for cheap energy source and viable investment options the world over. The diverse business potentials and favourable government policies in Nigeria aimed specifically at stimulating investments in the up streams, midstream and downstream industries need to be tapped by both indigenous and foreign investors alike. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves' is therefore our modest effort to support such policies, sensitise the Nigerian petroleum industry and promote more dynamic awareness for the varied business opportunities abound in this sector of the economy. The main objective or this publication is to bring to a wider audience within and outside the oil industry a spectrum of such salient opportunities therein. The publication further presents in a lucid and consize form the hidden potentials yet to be harnessed, captures the essence of such investments, identifies the inherent problems in Nigeria peculiar circumstance and thus provides a detailed guide to address such short-coming, viz. Inadequate and poor knowledge of petroleum industry, its operation, by products and their correct applications. - Lack of understanding of the intricacies, realities and technicalities of petroleum business in general. - Poor financial resources, management style, operational and marketing strategies man power and human resources development.- Dirge of information, lack of professional advice and technical service support on the varied business opportunities for diversification. Apathy on the part of the investors themselves to seek for professional support from competent oil consultants, technocrats, institutionalised authorities on petroleum and related matters, amongst others. In summary, the book is divided into ten chapters with illustrations, graphics, drawings, sketches and incorporating figures, statistics, business reports, marketing results, feasibility studies

  1. Oil sector developments: Russia, Azerbaijan and Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    The level of resource development in Russia, Azerbaijan and in the countries of Central Asia was discussed. The resources of crude oil and natural gas in the area are considered more than sufficient to support any reasonable expansion for the foreseeable future and this should mean higher exportable surpluses. The collapse of the Soviet Union resulted in the emergence of 15 sovereign and independent nations, collectively known as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The end of the cold war opened the CIS's oil sector to foreign investors. However, access to these markets has been blocked by the physical isolation of Azerbaijan and Central Asia. According to forecasters, by the year 2005, the annual oil production of the CIS shall reach 7.9 million barrels per day, approximately 11.3 per cent higher than in 1996. Natural gas production is expected to increase by about 30 per cent to 900 billion cubic meters per year. Western capital will be key to the future of resource development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. It was suggested that by 2010, the exportable oil from the Caspian Sea and Central Asia will represent 3 to 4 per cent of world oil supply. This projection emphasizes the fact that this new oil would be in addition to, and not in place of oil from the Persian Gulf. Some of the economic and political problems that have had a delaying effect on the development of pipelines through these regions were also reviewed

  2. Provincial resource development research policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flock, D L

    1976-01-01

    In Alberta, there is an abundance of oil, natural gas, and coal. But only a small portion of the Alberta oil sands and coal resources are commercially accessible to surface-mining techniques. It is quite apparent that some in-situ technological breakthrough will be required, which will mean a concerted research effort at the provincial level. It is the purpose of this paper to present certain concepts and recommendations for a coordinated provincial resource development research policy for the Province of Alberta. Research as discussed in this paper covers basic and applied research and development. (MCW)

  3. The U.S.Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources are an essential component of modern society. Adequate, reliable, and affordable energy supplies obtained using environmentally sustainable practices underpin economic prosperity, environmental quality and human health, and political stability. National and global demands for all forms of energy are forecast to increase significantly over the next several decades. Throughout its history, our Nation has faced important, often controversial, decisions regarding the competing uses of public lands, the supply of energy to sustain development and enable growth, and environmental stewardship. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) provides information to address these challenges by supporting scientific investigations of energy resources, such as research on the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of oil, gas, coal, heavy oil and natural bitumen, oil shale, uranium, and geothermal resources, emerging resources such as gas hydrates, and research on the effects associated with energy resource occurrence, production, and (or) utilization. The results from these investigations provide impartial, robust scientific information about energy resources and support the U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI's) mission of protecting and responsibly managing the Nation's natural resources. Primary consumers of ERP information and products include the DOI land- and resource-management Bureaus; other Federal, State, and local agencies; the U.S. Congress and the Administration; nongovernmental organizations; the energy industry; academia; international organizations; and the general public.

  4. The role of technical progress in the process of recalculating oil reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulard, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Contrary to the concept of resources (which is essentially a geological one), the notion of reserves designates the quantities that are technically and economically recoverable. Beyond the production-related effect, the reserves therefore evolve over time in accordance with numerous technical and economic parameters. Among these parameters, it can be seen that technical progress plays a considerable role throughout the process of converting resources into reserves, including progress in the identification, accessibility and processing of the resources, and improvements in economic viability. After having tackled the problem of measuring the 'technical progress effects' and citing examples, we demonstrate that the evolution in oil reserves is subject to three types of impact. These are a quantitative impact by significantly improving the recovery rates or making it possible to identify hitherto undetectable oil fields, a qualitative impact by widening the resource base thanks to the adoption of new categories of oil (in particular the so-called 'unconventional' oils) and by carrying out the gradual substitution between these resources of differing qualities. There is also a dynamic impact, through the acceleration of resource availability. Through these three approaches, technical progress makes makes it possible to ensure continuity in oil supply and contributes significantly to the recalculation of reserves. It therefore acts as a compensating factor, counterbalancing the progressive depletion of resources. (author)

  5. Stretching the last drop of crude oil: a need for optimization of global production and consumption of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, D. O.

    1980-03-15

    A blueprint is offered for the optimum production and consumption of oil, including desired changes in the Government energy policy, R and D planning, management philosophy, and attitude of people towards energy and material resources. Enhanced oil recovery from reservoirs is mentioned. (DLC)

  6. Assessing Whether Oil Dependency in Venezuela Contributes to National Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kott

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on what role, if any, oil has on Venezuela's instability. When trying to explain why a resource-rich country experiences slow or negative growth, experts often point to the resource curse. The following pages explore the traditional theory behind the resource curse as well as alternative perspectives to this theory such as ownership structure and the correlation between oil prices and democracy. This article also explores the various forms of instability within Venezuela and their causes. Finally, the article looks at President Hugo Chavez's political and economic policies as well as the stagnation of the state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA. This article dispels the myth that the resource curse is the source of destabilization in many resource dependent countries. Rather than a cause of instability, this phenomenon is a symptom of a much larger problem that is largely structural.

  7. Oligomerization of jojoba oil in supercritical C02 for cosmeceutical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing social importance on issues such as exhaustion of non-renewable resources, high crude oil prices, the environment, and waste disposal, has led to the search for bio-based products from renewable agricultural resources. Vegetable oils are renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable, non-polluting, an...

  8. Quality assessment of biodiesels obtained from pure cooking oils of some feedstocks and their waste oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Ansari, T.M.; Manzoor, S.

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel being a renewable energy resource possesses compositional variability based on the type of feedstock. Biodiesel is considered a cleaner burning fuel and can be used as pure B100 or blended with petro-diesel. In this study, biodiesel was prepared from pure cooking oils (soybean oil, canola oil, sunflower oil, corn oil) and their waste frying oils by base-catalyzed transesterification with methanol in presence of sodium hydroxide. The optimized experimental parameters were applied to achieve the maximum yield of biodiesel. Various fuel properties like kinematic viscosity, flash point, pour point, cloud point, total acid number, specific gravity, water and sediments, conradson carbon residue, sulfur contents, phosphorous contents, sulphated ash, cetane and copper corrosion were determined and found comparable to ASTM standards. Pure cooking oils, their waste frying oils and prepared biodiesels were characterized by FT-IR. The study showed that the biodiesel derived from waste frying oils can be a promising alternative of the biodiesel from pure cooking oils. (author)

  9. Oil and the political economy of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutinovic, Igor

    2009-01-01

    The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of oil exploitation, based on more realistic assumptions regarding political agendas in oil-exporting countries and consumer behavior dynamics in oil-importing countries. Under this scenario, the joint impact of markets and public policy in oil importing countries together with 'resource pragmatism' policy in oil-exporting countries allows for a less steep oil supply curve with a much fatter tail compared to the Hubbert's model.

  10. Classification of CO2 Geologic Storage: Resource and Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the term capacity to describe possible geologic storage implies a realistic or likely volume of CO2 to be sequestered. Poor data quantity and quality may lead to very high uncertainty in the storage estimate. Use of the term "storage resource" alleviates the implied certainty of the term "storage capacity". This is especially important to non- scientists (e.g. policy makers) because "capacity" is commonly used to describe the very specific and more certain quantities such as volume of a gas tank or a hotel's overnight guest limit. Resource is a term used in the classification of oil and gas accumulations to infer lesser certainty in the commercial production of oil and gas. Likewise for CO2 sequestration, a suspected porous and permeable zone can be classified as a resource, but capacity can only be estimated after a well is drilled into the formation and a relatively higher degree of economic and regulatory certainty is established. Storage capacity estimates are lower risk or higher certainty compared to storage resource estimates. In the oil and gas industry, prospective resource and contingent resource are used for estimates with less data and certainty. Oil and gas reserves are classified as Proved and Unproved, and by analogy, capacity can be classified similarly. The highest degree of certainty for an oil or gas accumulation is Proved, Developed Producing (PDP) Reserves. For CO2 sequestration this could be Proved Developed Injecting (PDI) Capacity. A geologic sequestration storage classification system is developed by analogy to that used by the oil and gas industry. When a CO2 sequestration industry emerges, storage resource and capacity estimates will be considered a company asset and consequently regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Additionally, storage accounting and auditing protocols will be required to confirm projected storage estimates and assignment of credits from actual injection. An example illustrates the use of

  11. The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for rural poverty ... The adaptation of oil distillation technology for essential oil production is ... based on local resources and the first prototype has been manufactured and tested.

  12. The Oil Industries Fake Abundance Story: Is Distortion of the Truth Ever Appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    The oil industries and their cornucopian supporters (press, politicians, energy agencies) promote the story that in the oil is abundant and oil production will increase. The reality is that 1) World crude oil production has been on a plateau since 2005, in spite of new technology (fracking), record high prices (Brent Oil > 100 per barrel) and record spending on exploration and development (5.4 trillion over the past six years) and 2) The price of oil has risen steadily from 1999 to present. Typically when commodities are abundant the price tends to fall. How is this reality being distorted? 1) Resources are being equated with reserves (both are amounts), neither of which can be equated with each other or with production (a rate). 2) Crude oil (the price or which is rigorously defined by API density) has been redefined as total liquids, which includes substances (lease condensates, natural gas liquids, biofuels, refinery gains) which can not be used in the same way oil is or sold for the same price as oil. If what you are selling cannot be sold on the world market as crude oil, then it is not crude oil. 3) The demand for oil remains high, but World production is stagnant and World net-export production has been decreasing since 2005. Thus the price remains high and will only increase in the future. Growth in Global GDP is impacted by high-priced oil. How do you know unethical behavior when you see it? It has to do with intentionality and motivation. "Advocacy science" often reports data to support their cause. Is that unethical? Where is the divide between being an "Issue Advocate" and "Advocacy Science"? If data are reported poorly, is it unethical or just "bad science"? Do the same ethical standards apply to businesses (when profits are involved) and politicians (when elections are at stake)? Why would the definition of oil include NGL, condensates and refinery gains if not trying to inflate the numbers. The standards should be the same, but when there are no

  13. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundika C. Kurnia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further develop these technologies, it is essential to understand the current stage of the industry and technology developments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the palm oil industry, review technologies available to process oil palm and palm oil residues into biofuel, and to summarise the challenges that should be overcome for further development. The paper also discusses the research and development needs, technoeconomics, and life cycle analysis of biofuel production from oil-palm and palm-oil wastes.

  14. Oil troubles waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, E.

    1998-01-01

    The sea provides a vast array of natural resources for thousands of local communities in the tropics. But the presence of the oil industry has significant social and environmental impacts, both from accidents and from routine activities like seismic exploration, drilling and the generation of polluting wastes. When accidents occur, sessile life (species attached to surface such as rocks or the seabed) is the first to be affected; its mortality increases as oil accumulates, although certain organisms, like gastropods, tolerate it better

  15. Oil exporting countries need nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    The economic rationale for nuclear power in the oil exporting countries is analysed, with the collateral objective of defining the size of the potential market in terms of the exporting countries' economic opportunities and energy needs. The need for appropriate new institutions for licensing reactors, training personnel, and starting up plants follows directly from the size of the market and the economic incentives for the oil exporters to husband gas and oil. Gas and oil resources of the Middle Eastern countries are discussed, and future electricity needs estimated. (author)

  16. An Early Warning System for Oil Security in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil system security in a country or region will affect its sustainable development ability. China’s oil security has risen to the national strategic level. It is urgent to construct an early warning indicator system to reflect the oil security level accurately, as well as to diagnose and assess the oil system status effectively and put forward the corresponding proposals for ensuring oil security. An early warning indicator system of China’s oil system covering 23 sub-indicators from three aspects, i.e., resource security, market security and consumption security, was constructed using the SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solutions factor analysis method. It shows that China’s oil system safety level has been seriously threatened and is generally declining. However, due to the strong introduction of energy policies and increasing energy utilization technology in recent years, the increasing proportion of new energy, renewable energy and oil substitutes eases the energy security threats. In response to complex oil security issues, the Chinese government needs to strengthen macroeconomic regulation and control at the policy level continuously, increase efforts to explore resource reserves, upgrade energy conservation and emission reduction technologies, develop new alternatives for oil products, and reduce the dependence on international oil imports.

  17. Spilled oil and infaunal activity - Modification of burrowing behavior and redistribution of oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, H.E.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, indicates the degree to which the presence of spilled oil modifies the burrowing behavior of infauna and the extent to which the animals redistribute oil into intertidal sediment. Small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings (mostly made by the crustacean Callianassa) resulted in a limited and temporary reduction in the number of burrow openings. In contrast, a layer of oil-saturated sand 1 cm thick buried about 5 cm below the sediment surface sharply reduced the number of burrow openings. After a year, the few new burrows penetrated only the margins of the experimental plot, and bioturbation below the buried oil-saturated sand layer declined dramatically. The experiments suggest that small amounts of oil temporarily stranded by tides in themselves have no long-range effect on burrowing behavior. The fauna, however, are capable of introducing measurable amounts of oil into the subsurface, where it is retained long after the rest of the stranded oil had washed away. A buried layer of oil-saturated sand greatly reduces infaunal activity; the oil presents an effective barrier that can persist for years. The oil incorporated into the sediment from burrow openings showed evidence of degradation after 7 months. In contrast the layer of buried oil remained essentially undergraded after a period of two years, even though oil in lower concentrations above the layer was degraded after a period of one year. This variation in degree of degradation of the buried oil, as well as the heterogeneity of oil distribution wherever the oil has been incorporated from the surface, emphasises the importance of careful sampling in any attempt to locate or monitor the presence of spilled oil in the substrate.In a series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings resulted in a limited and temporary

  18. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-01-01

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  19. Alternatives to OPEC oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper starts from the assumption that, for various reasons, the supply of OPEC oil required to meet a rising world energy demand will continue to be limited. Its purpose is to present a synoptic look at the various sources of energy which are alternatives to OPEC oil, with an economic commentary on the prospects for each source. A wide variety of projects are going forward for the development of non-OPEC oil, gas, coal, and nuclear power, as well as renewable energy resources. Special attention is devoted to questions of energy pricing, investment costs, and sources of finance. (author)

  20. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  1. Worldwide cheap and heavy oil productions: A long-term energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseo, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Crude oil, natural gas liquids, heavy oils, deepwater oils, and polar oils are non-renewable energy resources with increasing extraction costs. Two major definitions emerge: regular or 'cheap' oil and non-conventional or 'heavy' oil. Peaking time in conventional oil production has been a recent focus of debate. For two decades, non-conventional oils have been mixed with regular crude oil. Peaking time estimation and the rate at which production may be expected to decline, following the peak, are more difficult to determine. We propose a two-wave model for world oil production pattern and forecasting, based on the diffusion of innovation theories: a sequential multi-Bass model. Historical well-known shocks are confirmed, and new peaking times for crude oil and mixed oil are determined with corresponding depletion rates. In the final section, possible ties between the dynamics of oil extraction and refining capacities are discussed as a predictive symptom of an imminent mixed oil peak in 2016. - Highlights: → Production of conventional and non-conventional oils in aggregate time series. → Decomposition modelling and forecasting with a multi-regime model. → Diffusion of innovation theories and appropriateness of applying Bass concepts to the extraction of oil resources. → Partially overlapping oil extraction processes. → Refining capacities and dynamics of oil extraction.

  2. Energy Globalization: Oil Geopolitics in Central Asia Big Race for the Caspian Oil

    OpenAIRE

    VOLKOVA, JANINA

    2007-01-01

    The research aims to show causal relations between recent global change in geopolitics towards energy resources, its effect on foreign policies of Russia, the USA and China; as well as the role of oil factor in their rivalry, development of the newly formed Central Asian (the Caspian region) states-donors and international relations in general . Globalization, geopolitics, oil factor, Russia, the USA, China, the Caspian Sea, international relations, Asia

  3. Oil outlook to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shihab-Eldin, A.; Hamel, M.; Brennand, G.

    2003-01-01

    OPEC's World Energy Model, OWEM, is used to develop the outlook for oil demand and supply to 2020. The reference case assumes world economic growth averaging 3.3 per cent per annum, while OPEC's Reference Basket of seven crudes remains mainly in the target range of US $22-28 a barrel, in nominal terms. With no additional assumed policy measures, for example, to reduce CO 2 emissions, the reference case sees world oil demand rising from 76 million barrels a day in 2000 to 89 mb/d in 2010 and 107 mb/d in 2020. More than three-quarters of this increase comes from developing countries. The most important sector for a demand increase is transportation, accounting for 60 per cent of the rise globally. On the supply side, the oil resource base is not considered a constraint to satisfying this increase in demand. Non-OPEC production is expected to continue to grow during the current decade, and to stabilise at a level of 53-55 mb/d beyond 2010. OPEC production is projected to reach 36 mb/d by 2010 and 52 mb/d in 2020. It is important, however, to recognise the uncertainties pervading such an assessment. For example, it is not clear how future economic growth, energy policies and technology will develop over this time horizon, and this inevitably clouds any assessment of future oil demand and supply. In an attempt to quantify one aspect of such uncertainty, other feasible economic growth rates have been assumed, the results of which suggest that OPEC output by 2010 could be 4-5 mb/d higher or lower than in the reference case, while the range is clearly even greater in the years to 2020. Moreover, policy reactions to such developments could compound the uncertainty. On the other hand, such alternative economic growth could place pressure upon oil prices to move outside OPEC's price band of $22-28/b. These uncertainties illustrate the scope of the challenges confronting the oil industry, especially given the long lead-time nature of oil industry investment, in making

  4. KENYA’S OIL PIPELINE AND TERRORISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S.ODHIAMBO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The threat of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attacks on the critical infrastructure (oil pipeline in Kenya has brought to the attention the strategic issue of the energy sector security, highlighting the potential vulnerabilities of this sector. Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP should be a key component of the national security especially after the Kenya Defence Forces’ (KDF incursion into Somalia. The merger of Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist groups and the accelerated grenades attack against Kenya in retaliation has become the centre of the debate on terrorism and internal security of the Kenya. The energy resources are strategic assets from the security, political and economic point of view. Kenya as an oil transit country is considered of primary strategic importance at international level. International terrorism has always looked with interest at the oil resource in order to meet its political and economic targets. We argue that Kenya’s oil pipelines are vulnerable to Al-Shabaab and Al-Qaeda terrorist attack. In summary, the article looks at the concept of terrorism within the framework of critical infrastructure protection, the dangers of attacks on oil pipelines, Kenya’s government preparedness and recommendations.

  5. Strategy of Chavez determines oil future of Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widdershoven, C.

    2008-01-01

    The perspective of the oil and gas industry remains unclear as long as the current president, Hugo Chavez, continues to implement his own political ideas. The announcement of another tax increase on high oil revenues of oil companies will significantly weaken the appeal to invest in the oil sector. [mk] [nl

  6. Oil spills and AI: How to manage resources through simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribone, P.; Bruzzone, A.G.; Caddeo, S.

    1995-01-01

    Today, in the Mediterranean theater of the Upper Tyrrhenian, the ecological risk involving oil installations is still quite high. This is due to the fact that valuable environmental and tourist areas exist together with large industrial and port structures; in particular, recent events have demonstrated the danger involving oil spills along the Ligurian coastline. This study proposes an approach to plan the operations that should be performed when accidents occur, based on the use of AI techniques

  7. Oil spill risk assessment : relative impact indices by oil type and location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French-McCay, D.; Beegle-Krause, C.J.; Rowe, J.; Rodriguez, W.; Schmidt Etkin, D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to inform policies related to resource allocation for oil spill prevention, preparedness and response activities in Washington State. Oil spill reports and impact modelling studies were evaluated in order to determine major risk consequence factors including spill volume, location, timing, toxicity, persistence, and expected frequency of spills by sector. The Washington Compensation Schedule pre-assessment screening and oil spill compensation schedule regulations (WCS) designed to consider the sensitivity of oiled areas as well as the relative density and seasonal distributions of sensitive biota. Spill incidents were assigned per-gallon impact scores based on geographic location, oil type, and season. The WCS qualitative rating system was used to assess the potential impacts of spills in different geographic systems. Geographic zones were based on geography, circulation of currents, climate, and the WCS sub-regions in estuarine and marine areas on the Pacific coast of Washington State. Oil types included crude, heavy, and light oils; gasoline; jet fuel; and non-petroleum oils. A habitat index was calculated to represent existing stream conditions. It was concluded that the relative impact risk model is a reliable method for characterizing impacts based on spill volume, oil effects, and vulnerability rankings. 25 refs., 20 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Features and application of amino acid oil gelatinizer for controlling oil spills on the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, Hiroyuki

    1987-10-01

    Diffusion of oil spills is prevented and the oil can be easily recovered if it is solidified. Features and application of gelling agent for amino acid series oil are introduced. The gelatinizer for amino acid is made of amino acid derivative with solvent added thereto so that oil can be gelatinized by mere spraying of the agent over oil spills. The agent can be intermixed with oil because it floats on the sea. Oil spill is gelatinized instantly and diffusion of the oils is prevented. The oil can easily be recovered with a fishing net and the like. The influence of oil spills to living aquatic resources is greatly lessened, and the gel is safe for workers. It can gelatinize everything except alcohol. Gelatinization has the depressor effect for volatization and is effective for the prevention of fire. The gelatized oil can be burnt up although it contains 10-20 % of water. Oil film on the water can be completely controlled when the agent is sprayed over it. It contributes to the purification of nature since it is readily decomposed. (1 fig, 4 tabs, 3 refs)

  9. Auctions for coastal energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert M.

    It is becoming increasingly common to allocate public resources to the private sector for the purpose of developing these resources. One of the earliest uses of auctions in the U.S. for allocating rights to public resources was in the offshore oil and gas industry. The U.S. Federal government, through the Department of Interior (DOI), has used auctions to allocate development rights to offshore oil and gas resources to the private sector since the 1950's. Since then many things have changed. Oil and gas markets have gone through boom and bust cycles, giant technological advances in extraction and assessment have taken place, and alternative energy based in the coastal zone is now in demand in markets as well. There has been an enormous amount of research into the drivers of bidder behavior in auctions and optimal auction design in the last 60 years as well. Throughout all of this, the DOI has continued to use basically the same exact auction design to allocate oil and gas leases. The U.S. offshore oil and gas resources sold by the Department of Interior have accounted for more than $65 billion in revenue since the program started. These offshore resources are an important source of government revenue and national wealth. Additionally, the expansion of the energy sector offshore has enormous potential for electricity generation in the U.S., estimated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as approaching 54 gigawatts by 2030 (U.S. Department of Energy, 2008). Taken together, the DOI controls access to a large part of the future of energy in the U.S. The research herein assesses the auction formats used to allocate both fossil fuels and renewable resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The first manuscript looks at the current method used by the DOI to allocate oil and gas leases on the OCS, and is primarily interested in how bidders behave in this environment. Using latent class estimation techniques to separate distinct bidding behavior in a laboratory

  10. A simple interpretation of Hubbert's model of resource exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardi, U.; Lavacchi, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, Sesto Fiorentino FI (Italy); Bardi, U.; Lavacchi, A. [ASPO - Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas, Italian section, c/o Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    The well known 'Hubbert curve' assumes that the production curve of a crude oil in a free market economy is 'bell shaped' and symmetric. The model was first applied in the 1950s as a way of forecasting the production of crude oil in the US lower 48 states. Today, variants of the model are often used for describing the worldwide production of crude oil, which is supposed to reach a global production peak ('peak oil') and to decline afterwards. The model has also been shown to be generally valid for mineral resources other than crude oil and also for slowly renewable biological resources such as whales. Despite its widespread use, Hubbert's model sometimes criticized for being arbitrary and its underlying assumptions are rarely examined. In the present work, we use a simple model to generate the bell shaped curve using the smallest possible number of assumptions, taking also into account the 'Energy Return to Energy Invested' (EROI or EROEI) parameter. We show that this model can reproduce several historical cases, even for resources other than crude oil, and provide a useful tool for understanding the general mechanisms of resource exploitation and the future of energy production in the world's economy. (author)

  11. Jobs and the resource curse in the sun: The effects of oil production on female labor force participation in California counties from 1980-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Gabriel

    This study aims to evaluate the relationship between oil income and the female labor force participation rate in California for the years of 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 using panel linear regression models. This study also aims to visualize the spatial patterns of both variables in California through Hot Spot analysis at the county level for the same years. The regression found no sign of a relationship between oil income and female labor force participation rate but did find evidence of a positive relationship between two income control variables and the female labor force participation rate. The hot spot analysis also found that female labor force participation cold spots are not spatially correlated with oil production hot spots. These findings contribute new methodologies at a finer scale to the very nuanced discussion of the resource curse in the United States.

  12. Oil and the political economy of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutinovic, Igor [GfK-Center for Market Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-11-15

    The key issues concerning oil exploitation are still open for discussion: there is no agreement about where we presently stand in the world oil extraction curve, what is its exact shape, and how far can oil price grow before it changes irreversibly the world economy and consumer behavior. The paper proposes an alternative scenario to the Hubbert's bell-shaped model of oil exploitation, based on more realistic assumptions regarding political agendas in oil-exporting countries and consumer behavior dynamics in oil-importing countries. Under this scenario, the joint impact of markets and public policy in oil importing countries together with 'resource pragmatism' policy in oil-exporting countries allows for a less steep oil supply curve with a much fatter tail compared to the Hubbert's model. (author)

  13. OPEC's optimal crude oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    OPEC decided to stabilise oil prices within a range of 22-28 US Dollar/barrel of crude oil. Such an oil-price-level is far beyond the short and long run marginal costs of oil production, beyond even that in regions with particularly high costs. Nevertheless, OPEC may achieve its goal if world demand for oil increases substantially in the future and oil resources outside the OPEC are not big enough to accordingly increase production. In this case OPEC, which controls about 78% of world oil reserves, has to supply a large share of that demand increase. If we assume OPEC will behave as a partial monopolist on the oil market, which takes into consideration the reaction of the other producers to its own sales strategy, it can reach its price target. Lower prices before 2020 are probable only if the OPEC cartel breaks up. Higher prices are possible if production outside OPEC is inelastic as assumed by some geologists, but they would probably stimulate the production of unconventional oil based on oil sand or coal. Crude oil prices above 30 US Dollar/barrel are therefore probably not sustainable for a long period. (Author)

  14. CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT FROM THE CASPIAN SEA REGION TO EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Przybyłowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world, despite the growing importance and scale of the use of renewable energy , conventional energy resources still play a huge role. The European Union countries are dependent on the oil imports and the their main supplier of crude oil and natural gas has been the Russian Federation. After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the Caspian Sea region has become an alternative to Russian energy resources. The Unit-ed States , European Union, China and many other countries have shown their interest about this region. Despite a relatively large oil and natural gas reserves, the export of the-se commodities to the West is still problematic. Based on the available data and infor-mation, the publication explores the issue of energy resources transport directions with a particular emphasis on the crude oil from the Caspian Sea region to Europe.

  15. Advanced CANDU reactor: an optimized energy source of oil sands application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.M.; Bock, D.; Miller, A.; Kuran, S.; Keil, H.; Fiorino, L.; Duffey, R.; Dunbar, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is developing the ACR-700 TM (Advanced CANDU Reactor-700 TM ) to meet customer needs for reduced capital cost, shorter construction schedule, high capacity factor while retaining the benefits of the CANDU experience base. The ACR-700 is based on the concept of CANDU horizontal fuel channels surrounded by heavy water moderator. The major innovation of this design is the use of slightly enriched uranium fuel in a CANFLEX bundle that is cooled by light water. This ensures: higher main steam pressures and temperatures providing higher thermal efficiency; a compact and simpler reactor design with reduced capital costs and shorter construction schedules; and reduced heavy water inventory compared to existing CANDU reactors. ACR-700 is not only a technically advanced and cost effective solution for electricity generating utilities, but also a low-cost, long-life and sustainable steam source for increasing Alberta's Oil Sand production rates. Currently practiced commercial surface mining and extraction of Oil Sand resources has been well established over the last three decades. But a majority of the available resources are somewhat deeper underground require in-situ extraction. Economic removal of such underground resources is now possible through the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) process developed and proto-type tested in-site. SAGD requires the injection of large quantities of high-pressure steam into horizontal wells to form reduced viscosity bitumen and condensate mixture that is then collected at the surface. This paper describes joint AECL studies with CERI (Canadian Energy Research Institute) for the ACR, supplying both electricity and medium-pressure steam to an oil sands facility. The extensive oil sands deposits in northern Alberta are a very large energy resource. Currently, 30% of Canda's oil production is from the oil sands and this is expected to expand greatly over the coming decade. The bitumen deposits in the

  16. Global warming and oil: Can nuclear power make a difference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodansky, D.

    1991-01-01

    A responsible energy policy, for the United States and the world, must address two needs: to restrain the rate of fossil fuel consumption, and to reduce the consumption of oil. Unless the first is accomplished, the world may experience major climate changes, some perhaps disastrous, from the buildup of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Unless the second is met, we face recurring threats of economic disruption and war, due to the dangerous concentration of the world's oil resources in the Persian Gulf region. Nuclear power has long been cited as a possible answer to these needs. Mr. Bodansky takes a fresh look at the contribution nuclear power could make, in the light of our increased awareness of global warming dangers and the renewed reminders of the instabilities of oil markets. He notes, however, that the basic objections to nuclear power remain. They are well-known, stemming from concerns about reactor safety, waste disposal, nuclear proliferation, and cost. These are old but continuing controversies, involving a tangle of technical, political, social, and economic issues. If nuclear power is to be revived, these concerns clearly must be addressed. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  17. An overview of empty fruit bunch from oil palm as feedstock for bio-oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Siu Hua

    2014-01-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) from oil palm is one of the potential biomass to produce biofuels like bio-oil due to its abundant supply and favorable physicochemical characteristics. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents an overview of EFB as a feedstock for bio-oil production. The fundamental characteristics of EFB in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and chemical composition, as well as the recent advances in EFB conversion processes for bio-oil production like pyrolysis and solvolysis are outlined and discussed. A comparison of properties in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and fuel properties between the bio-oil from EFB and petroleum fuel oil is included. The major challenges and future prospects towards the utilization of EFB as a useful resource for bio-oil production are also addressed. - Highlights: • Palm EFB has high heating value and low greenhouse gas emissions during combustion. • Conversion of EFB to bio-oil is mainly by fast pyrolysis without and with catalyst. • Bio-oil from EFB is lower in heating value, heavier and more acidic than fuel oil. • The viscosity of bio-oil from EFB is between those of light and heavy fuel oils. • The flash and pour points of bio-oil from EFB are close to those of light fuel oil

  18. Impact of operating variables on re-refining of vehicle waste oil to base-oil by acid-clay process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, H.A.; Panhwar, M.I.; Kazi, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    A large volume of waste oil is generated each year as the number of vehicles in the country is increasing every day. This used lubricant oil constitutes a serious pollution problem. It easily be converted as a resource depending on the manners of utilization and management. This paper compares various end uses of waste oil and develops technology by which basic properties of the base oil can be regained. An experimental setup (Experimental rig) of acid-clay method was used to regain waste oil collected and number of experiments were conducted by varying different process variables. The impacts of the operating variables on the quality of re-refined oil are also discussed. The recovery of re-refined base oil was found in between 44-49%. (author)

  19. Effect Of Weed On Oil Palm Inflorenscence Production: Implication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weed consistently depressed the performance of oil palm and this depressive effect was attributed to aggressive growth resources, smothering of the oil palm and preventing the palm from proper ventilation and solar radiation. Weed interference on inflorescence production of oil palm was assessed with the view of ...

  20. A new paradigm for oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2004-09-01

    The author takes stock on the dynamic of the oil system. He shows how the economic laws can be applied to the petroleum market and analyzes the effects of the prices evolution. The creeping oil shock of 2003-2004 has proven less disruptive than one may have anticipated. Commodity cycles on the one hand the shaky management of marginal supply by OPEC on the other hand, are very likely to create ample prices swings with little relations, if any, to the actual scarcity-or lack thereof-of oil resources. (A.L.B.)

  1. Future strategies for oil shale development as a new indigenous energy resource in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, J.O.; Tarawneh, T.

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous oil shale deposits could satisfy Jordan's demand for liquid and gaseous fuels as well as electricity for many centuries. Markets also exist for raw and retorted oil shale, spent shale, and for sulfur recovered during the upgrading and refining of crude shale oil. Although the potential benefits of oil shale development are substantial, complex and expensive facilities would be required, and these have serious economic, environmental, and social implications for the Kingdom and its people. In January 2006, the United States Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) awarded a grant to the Jordanian Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation to support the analysis of current oil shale processing technologies and the application of international expertise to the development of a oil shale industry in Jordan. The goal of the technical assistance project was to help the Government of Jordan (GoJ) establish short and long-term strategies for oil shale development and to facilitate the commercial production of shale oil in the country. This paper discusses the results of the project. The Kingdom's current energy situation and its previous work on oil shale are summarized, and the incentives and restraints on oil shale commercialization are described. Impediments to development are identified, and possible governmental responses are assessed. (author)

  2. Overseas oil-development policy of resource-poor countries: A case study from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masanari; Mogi, Gento; Albedaiwi, Waleed H.

    2008-01-01

    Japan, currently the world's third largest oil consumer, depends on imports for almost all of its oil needs. Owing to this high level of dependence, Japanese citizens as well as the economy have historically been vulnerable. In the past, certain incidents caused by the interruption of oil imports have resulted in fatal damages to the country. In order to reduce these risks, the Japanese government has supported overseas exploration and development activities of the domestic upstream oil industry, which has not proven as successful as expected. This paper presents the experiences, policies, and the structure of Japan's attempts to increase the share of domestic oil needs met by development activities. While conducting this study, both internal and external constraints were encountered. In addition to the lack of domestic oil reserves, factors including the institutional design of cooperation between government and private industries, the early history of the upstream industry, the target area of overseas development, and the changing environment have created impediments toward achieving the targets. In 2006, Japan again set a new target for doubling the ratio of self-developed oil in its total imports by 2030, and will face challenges in clearing the above-mentioned hurdles

  3. Oxidative stabilization of mixed mayonnaises made with linseed oil and saturated medium-chain triglyceride oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudsepp, Piret; Brüggemann, Dagmar A.; Lenferink, Aufried

    2014-01-01

    Mayonnaises, made with either saturated medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil or unsaturated purified linseed oil (LSO), were mixed. Raman confocal microspectrometry demonstrated that lipid droplets in mixed mayonnaise remained intact containing either MCT oil or LSO. Peroxide formation during...... showed radicals are formed in the aqueous phase with the same rate independent of the lipids. This was also reflected in decay of α-tocopherol during storage being similar in MCT and LSO mayonnaises, but being stable in mixed oil mayonnaise and mixed mayonnaise. Results suggest that other effects than...

  4. Resource-estimation models and predicted discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Resources have been estimated by predictive extrapolation from past discovery experience, by analogy with better explored regions, or by inference from evidence of depletion of targets for exploration. Changes in technology and new insights into geological mechanisms have occurred sufficiently often in the long run to form part of the pattern of mature discovery experience. The criterion, that a meaningful resource estimate needs an objective measure of its precision or degree of uncertainty, excludes 'estimates' based solely on expert opinion. This is illustrated by development of error measures for several persuasive models of discovery and production of oil and gas in USA, both annually and in terms of increasing exploration effort. Appropriate generalizations of the models resolve many points of controversy. This is illustrated using two USA data sets describing discovery of oil and of U 3 O 8 ; the latter set highlights an inadequacy of available official data. Review of the oil-discovery data set provides a warrant for adjusting the time-series prediction to a higher resource figure for USA petroleum. (author)

  5. Oil and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Yoshiaki

    1988-06-01

    The secondary oil recovery due to microorganisms and the production of useful substances from oil distillates using microorganisms are described as examples to solidify the relationship between oil and biotechnology. The secondary crude-oil recovery has been carried out due to the microorganism drive process, which includes the on-the-ground and underground processes. Although the microorganism drive process has been investigated for many years, the selection of the microorganisms is not completely established. Many uncertainties still remain regarding the technical and economic aspects. The single cell protein (SCP) is an example of industrial success in the production of useful substances from the oil. Rumania has produced SCP from normal paraffin and the U. K. from the methanol and the products are used as the protein source for animals. Remarkable progress in the functional efficiency of microorganisms is expected due to the biotechnology for both applications. (4 tabs)

  6. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  7. The Performance Of Oil Palm And Different Food Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out between 1996 and 2004 to determine the productivity and economic returns to the resource base of farmers practicing different oil palm/food crop intercropping in an intensive four-year sequential cropping using the standard oil palm density. Oil palm was intercropped for four years, ...

  8. Focusing on heavy oil, technology and people. Annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Financial information from CS Resources and a review of operations in 1995 was made available for the benefit of shareholders. CS Resources has been involved in the resource development of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin for some time. Since becoming public in 1989, CS Resources have experienced continued profitable growth through such programs as thermal and enhanced recovery of heavy oils, and through the exploration of natural gas and light crude oil. This report presented an operations review, consolidated financial statements, a seven year historical summary, production statistics, and a seven year share price and other common share information. tabs., figs

  9. Amelioration of oxidative and inflammatory status in hearts of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with oils or oil-products with extra virgin olive oil components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Papalois, Apostolos; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) macro- and micro-constituents in heart oxidative and inflammatory status in a hypercholesterolemic rat model was evaluated. Fatty acid profile as well as α-tocopherol, sterol, and squalene content was identified directly in rat hearts to distinguish the effect of individual components or to enlighten the potential synergisms. Oils and oil-products with discernible lipid and polar phenolic content were used. Wistar rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet solely, or supplemented with one of the following oils, i.e., EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) or oil-products, i.e., phenolics-deprived EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], and HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. Dietary treatment lasted 9 weeks; at the end of the intervention blood and heart samples were collected. High-cholesterol-diet-induced dyslipidemia was shown by increase in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerols. Dyslipidemia resulted in increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, while glutathione and interleukin 6 levels remained unaffected in all intervention groups. Augmentation observed in MDA and TNF-α was attenuated in EVOO, SO(+), and HOSO(+) groups. Heart squalene and cholesterol content remained unaffected among all groups studied. Heart α-tocopherol was determined by oil α-tocopherol content. Variations were observed for heart β-sitosterol, while heterogeneity was reported with respect to heart fatty acid profile in all intervention groups. Overall, we suggest that the EVOO-polar phenolic compounds decreased MDA and TNF-α in hearts of cholesterol-fed rats.

  10. The second generation of natural resource damage assessments: Lessons learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthi, R.B.; Burlington, L.B.; Reinharz, E.; Shutler, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Damage Assessment Regulations Team (DART), under the Office of General Counsel of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has centered its efforts on developing natural resource damage assessment regulations for oil pollution in navigable waters. These procedures will likely lower the costs associated with damage assessments, encourage joint cooperative assessments and simplify most assessments. The DART team of NOAA is developing new regulations for the assessment of damages due to injuries related to oil spills under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. These regulations will involve coordination, restoration, and economic valuation. Various methods are currently being developed to assess damages for injuries to natural resources. The proposed means include: compensation tables for spills under 50,000 gallons, Type A model, expedited damage assessment (EDA) procedures, and comprehensive procedures. They are being developed to provide trustees with a choice for assessing natural resource damages for each oil spill

  11. Marine oil spill response organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, C.

    1997-01-01

    The obligations under the law relative to the prevention of marine oil spills and the type of emergency plans needed to mitigate any adverse effects caused by a marine oil spill were discussed. The organizational structure, spill response resources and operational management capabilities of Canada's newly created Response Organizations (ROs) were described. The overall range of oil spill response services that the RO provides to the domestic oil handling, oil transportation and the international shipping industries were reviewed. Amendments to the Canada Shipping Act which require that certain ships and oil handling facilities take oil spill preparedness and response measures, including having an arrangement with an RO certified by the Canadian Coast Guard, were outlined. Canadians now benefit from five ROs established to provide coast-to-coast oil spill response coverage. These include the Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation, the Eastern Canada Response Corporation and the Atlantic Emergency Response Team Ltd. ROs have the expertise necessary to organize and manage marine oil spill response services. They can provide equipment, personnel and operational management for the containment, recovery and cleanup of oil spilled on water

  12. Evaluation of heavy-oil and tar sands in Bourbon, Crawford, and Cherokee Counties, Kansas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebanks, W.J. Jr.; James, G.W.; Livingston, N.D.

    1977-12-01

    The current national energy-resource situation has provided the incentive to investigate more fully deposits of heavy-oil bearing sandstone in southeastern Kansas, as part of a larger, three-state study. The results of this study indicate that the size of the heavy-oil resource in the three Kansas counties studied is smaller than earlier estimates suggested. A resource of 200 to 225 million barrels of oil in-place is estimated to be present in areas of ''known oil occurrence,'' as established by this study. The amount of this in-place resource which may be considered to be reserves, that is, recoverable under existing technology and economics, is zero. The estimates of resource-size are severely downgraded from earlier estimates mainly because of the discontinuous nature of the potential reservoir sandstone bodies and because of the thinness and shaliness of some of these sandstones. The earlier impression of these heavy-oil reservoirs, at least in Kansas, as being widespread, heavily oil saturated, ''blanket'' sandstones unfortunately is not correct. There are areas, shown on maps, which may warrant further investigation because of locally good oil-saturation, i.e., more than 400 barrels per acre foot, in trends of sandstone thicker than 20 feet. It is concluded that there will be no widespread exploitation of subsurface heavy-oil sandstones within the areas of Bourbon, Crawford, and Cherokee Counties, Kansas. Smaller areas indicated here may warrant further drilling and investigation, but the potential size of the heavy-oil resource is severely downgraded from earlier estimates.

  13. Renewable resources in the chemical industry--breaking away from oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhoff, Stefan; Höcker, Hans; Gebhardt, Henrike

    2007-12-01

    Rising prices for fossil-based raw materials suggest that sooner or later renewable raw materials will, in principle, become economically viable. This paper examines this widespread paradigm. Price linkages like those seen for decades particularly in connection with petrochemical raw materials are now increasingly affecting renewable raw materials. The main driving force is the competing utilisation as an energy source because both fossil-based and renewable raw materials are used primarily for heat, electrical power and mobility. As a result, prices are determined by energy utilisation. Simple observations show how prices for renewable carbon sources are becoming linked to the crude oil price. Whether the application calls for sugar, starch, virgin oils or lignocellulose, the price for the raw material rises with the oil price. Consequently, expectations regarding price trends for fossil-based energy sources can also be utilised for the valuation of alternative processes. However, this seriously calls into question the assumption that a rising crude oil price will favour the economic viability of alternative products and processes based on renewable raw materials. Conversely, it follows that these products and processes must demonstrate economic viability today. Especially in connection with new approaches in white biotechnology, it is evident that, under realistic assumptions, particularly in terms of achievable yields and the optimisation potential of the underlying processes, the route to utilisation is economically viable. This makes the paradigm mentioned at the outset at least very questionable.

  14. Observation on optimal transition from conventional energy with resource constraints to advanced energy with virtually unlimited resource, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Hiroo; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Kiyose, Ryohei

    1983-01-01

    This is an extension of the Suzuki model (base model) on optimal transition from resource-limited energy (oil) to advanced energy with virtually unlimited resource. The finite length of plant life, fuel cost, technological progress factor of advanced energy and the upper limit upon annual consumption rate of oil are taken into account for such an extension. The difference in optimal solutions obtained from extended and base models is shown by an application of the maximum principle. The implication of advanced energy R and D andenergy conservation effort is also discussed. (author)

  15. Flaxseed and Flaxseed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W X Y Z Flaxseed and Flaxseed Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... sheet provides basic information about flaxseed and flaxseed oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  16. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  17. Ecological and Economic Indicators of Oil and Gas Companies Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V. Sheveleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the basic ecological-economic indicators of oil and gas companies, in particular the various volumes of oil, the number of spills per year of CO2 emissions, the costs of environmental protection. In the process of exploration, development and exploitation of oil and gas fields, production, refining, transportation and storage companies have a negative impact on the environment. Occur accidents involving oil spills, emissions and discharges of pollutants into the environment. As a result contaminates water resources, soil and atmosphere, animals dying, birds and fish, but also transformed the structure of the subsurface and changes the landscape, reduced strategic reserves of fuel and energy resources are formed objects of accumulated environmental damage. The need for construction of environmental protection facilities; the protection, rational use and rehabilitation of lands; protection of water resources and atmospheric air; monitoring the environment and industrial facilities; the prevention and elimination of consequences of accidents on pipelines; disposal and recycling of waste; environmental education; conducting scientific research requires oil and gas companies to undertake large expenditures. A positive trend of modern development of oil and gas companies is the introduction of mechanisms for environmental management in practice their activities, which leads to a gradual reduction of the negative impact of their activities on the environment.

  18. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    During fiscal year 1993, the reserves generated $440 million in revenues, a $33 million decrease from the fiscal year 1992 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $207 million, resulting in net cash flow of $233 million, compared with $273 million in fiscal year 1992. From 1976 through fiscal year 1993, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated $15.7 billion in revenues for the US Treasury, with expenses of $2.9 billion. The net revenues of $12.8 billion represent a return on costs of 441 percent. See figures 2, 3, and 4. In fiscal year 1993, production at the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 25 million barrels of crude oil, 123 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 158 million gallons of natural gas liquids. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves has embarked on an effort to identify additional hydrocarbon resources on the reserves for future production. In 1993, in cooperation with the US Geological Survey, the Department initiated a project to assess the oil and gas potential of the program's oil shale reserves, which remain largely unexplored. These reserves, which total a land area of more than 145,000 acres and are located in Colorado and Utah, are favorably situated in oil and gas producing regions and are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon deposits. Alternatively the producing assets may be sold or leased if that will produce the most value. This task will continue through the first quarter of fiscal year 1994

  19. A Novel Transporting System Model for Oil Refinery

    OpenAIRE

    Razman M. Tahar; Waleed K. Abduljabbar

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Oil refineries are widely used to store various liquids and gases. Petroleum products are in high demand. Oil companies have abundant resources of petroleum products in pipelines and storage tanks. Approach: Included are storage tanks at retail gasoline station, home heating oil tanks, lubricant storage at automotive service facilities, propane tanks in all sorts of application, and oil company terminals across the world. The aim of this study is to present a model by which...

  20. Kalimantan energy resource management to support energy independence and industry growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizki Firmansyah Setya Budi; Wiku Lulus Widodo; Djati Hoesen Salimy

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of energy resource in Kalimantan such as coal, oil, CBM, gas and nuclear. While the electricity consumption still low. That condition caused by the bad energy planning. The aim of the study are to know the number and the ability of energy resource to supply the energy demand that support the growth of Kalimantan industry. The methodology are collecting and processing data through calculation using MESSAGE Program. The result is energy resource in Kalimantan can support Kalimantan energy independence and industry growth in Kalimantan. The coal resource is 34,814 million ton consumption 835 million ton, gas resource is 31,814 BSCF consumption 3,281 BSCF, Oil resource is 920 MMSTB consumption 4406 MMSTB, CBM resource is 210 TCF consumption 2.1 TCF, U 3 O 8 resource is 12,409 ton consumption zero. Whereas for hydro and biomass, the resource are 256 and 138 MWyr, the maximum consumption 185 and 126 MWyr every year. Oil consumption will exceed the resource so need import from other island or replaced by others energy that have large resource such as gas, CBM, or coal. Potency to make cleaner environment can be done by used nuclear energy. (author)

  1. Governance of Oil in Africa: Unfinished Business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.; Ramsay, W.C.; Guichaoua, Y.; Shaxson, N.; Magrin, G.; Geert van, Vliet; Auge, B.

    2009-01-01

    A closer inspection of the world's oil and gas resources, tempered by a critical assessment of their accessibility, would lead many investors now focused on Russia and the Middle East to turn their attention to the Caspian Basin. But many of these oil and gas provinces are largely off limits for international investors, or the investment conditions have become so unpredictable that investors are forced to look elsewhere for the oil and gas to meet the world's increasing demand. Even if today's economic crisis has taken the urgency out of today's supply and demand balances, economic recovery will soon reveal the need for ever-increasing investment upstream. Other parts of the world may not hold the huge hydrocarbon resources of the Middle East, but there is considerable opportunity elsewhere. This study is dedicated to sub-Saharan Africa where considerable resources have been found and more is no doubt yet to be discovered. Specifically, the countries of the Gulf of Guinea have long been in the oil business and some are now in the gas business. What have the experiences in the oil and gas sectors of these countries been? How has governance evolved over the years and why have some of these countries been unable to realize the full benefits of their resource endowments? The Gulf of Guinea holds considerable promise for more oil and gas for world markets, but the experiences of the past decades suggest a need for substantial reform. Income distribution,welfare, development are not generally the business of energy companies, but if governments do not see to these basic requirements of their populations, energy companies will not be able to bring those energy commodities to the market. This book includes four chapters that examine how energy, governance, corruption, income distribution, and corporate issues are linked. The IFRI program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy hopes this publication will shed light on the role of hydrocarbon production in Africa

  2. Governance of Oil in Africa: Unfinished Business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesourne, J.; Ramsay, W.C. [Institut Francais des Relations Internationales (Ifri), 75 - Paris (France); Guichaoua, Y. [Oxford Univ., Department of International Development (United Kingdom); Shaxson, N. [Associate Fellow with the Africa programme at Chatham House (United Kingdom); Magrin, G.; Geert van, Vliet [CIRAD, 75 - Paris (France); Auge, B. [Paris-8 Univ., Institut Francais de Geopolitique, 75 (France)

    2009-07-01

    A closer inspection of the world's oil and gas resources, tempered by a critical assessment of their accessibility, would lead many investors now focused on Russia and the Middle East to turn their attention to the Caspian Basin. But many of these oil and gas provinces are largely off limits for international investors, or the investment conditions have become so unpredictable that investors are forced to look elsewhere for the oil and gas to meet the world's increasing demand. Even if today's economic crisis has taken the urgency out of today's supply and demand balances, economic recovery will soon reveal the need for ever-increasing investment upstream. Other parts of the world may not hold the huge hydrocarbon resources of the Middle East, but there is considerable opportunity elsewhere. This study is dedicated to sub-Saharan Africa where considerable resources have been found and more is no doubt yet to be discovered. Specifically, the countries of the Gulf of Guinea have long been in the oil business and some are now in the gas business. What have the experiences in the oil and gas sectors of these countries been? How has governance evolved over the years and why have some of these countries been unable to realize the full benefits of their resource endowments? The Gulf of Guinea holds considerable promise for more oil and gas for world markets, but the experiences of the past decades suggest a need for substantial reform. Income distribution,welfare, development are not generally the business of energy companies, but if governments do not see to these basic requirements of their populations, energy companies will not be able to bring those energy commodities to the market. This book includes four chapters that examine how energy, governance, corruption, income distribution, and corporate issues are linked. The IFRI program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy hopes this publication will shed light on the role of hydrocarbon

  3. Countermeasure Study on Deep-sea Oil Exploitation in the South China Sea——A Comparison between Deep-sea Oil Exploitation in the South China Sea and the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Qiu, Weiting; Qu, Weilu

    2018-02-01

    The unpromising situation of terrestrial oil resources makes the deep-sea oil industry become an important development strategy. The South China Sea has a vast sea area with a wide distribution of oil and gas resources, but there is a phenomenon that exploration and census rates and oil exploitation are low. In order to solve the above problems, this article analyzes the geology, oil and gas exploration and exploration equipment in the South China Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. Comparing the political environment of China and the United States energy industry and the economic environment of oil companies, this article points out China’s deep-sea oil exploration and mining problems that may exist. Finally, the feasibility of oil exploration and exploitation in the South China Sea is put forward, which will provide reference to improve the conditions of oil exploration in the South China Sea and promoting the stable development of China’s oil industry.

  4. Why is the oil price not about equilibrium?: An economic sociology account of petroleum markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, Andrei V.

    2016-01-01

    This opinion paper seeks to initiate discussion of the institutional and societal causes of oil price. On this basis, the social embeddedness concept is proposed instead of the frequently used producer-consumer juxtaposition. Observation shows no linearity between resource distribution imbalances and supply dynamics on the one hand and price on the other. As a socially endogenous factor, oil price generates practices and norms comprising benchmarks for resource valuation, stock market dynamics and risk aversion practices. A high oil price incentivises investments and inter-fuel competition, whereas a low oil price increases both political and market risks beyond the consumer-producer conceptualisation. Hence, it is argued that the notion of oil price affordability in energy security should be revised. - Highlights: •Oil price is not about affordability but about social embeddedness processes. •Producer-Consumer juxtaposition stems from resource-determinism concept. •Elevated oil price postpones peak oil and favors inter-fuel competition. •Important symbolisms surrounding the oil price exists in terms of business perspectives and political risk aversion.

  5. Depletion policies for oil-exporting developing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stournaras, Y A

    1984-01-01

    The fact that most oil-exporting countries are developing economies has important implications for oil supply which have not been properly taken into account in the literature on exhaustible resource depletion. The way in which depletion policies are affected by trade uncertainty, given the high degree of the major oil exporters' 'dependence' on crude oil revenues, by investment time lags which delay the exploitation of (some of) these countries' comparative advantage in a petroleum based development, and by ideological objections to the ideal of a rentier society and to foreign capital are examined.

  6. Oil in Costa Rica; El petroleo en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa de la Portilla, Gloria [Direccion Sectorial de Energia, Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia (Costa Rica)

    1997-07-01

    Costa Rica is a rich country in natural resources that can be taken in advantage for power aims, specially the hydraulic and biomass. Nevertheless its development has been based on the oil derivatives, resource that they do not have. The power resources of this country, the oil supply, the demand of oil derivatives are mentioned, the installed capacity and an evaluation is made of the prices of fuels in this country. [Spanish] Costa Rica es un pais rico en recursos naturales que pueden ser aprovechados con fines energeticos, especialmente los hidraulicos y los biomasicos. Sin embargo su desarrollo se ha basado en los derivados del petroleo, recurso que no poseen. Se mencionan los recursos energeticos de este pais, la oferta petrolera, la demanda de derivados del petroleo, la capacidad instalada y se hace una evaluacion de los precios de combustibles en este pais.

  7. Modification of the process for separating and recovering oil from oil-sands, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preller, H

    1922-08-30

    A method of carrying out the process according to Patent 400,122 especially for washing oil or bitumen-bearing mineral materials contaminated with more or less clay, marl, and so forth is characterized in that the oil-bearing raw material is first washed in an opposing stream of warm water for separating the larger part of the oil and settling the larger part of the rock. At the same time the fine clay suspended during the washing operation to a large extent and the remaining rock particles, which are unbound from the oil, by means of a regulatable water stream for further washing are carried into a receptacle of greater cross section, where by the very slow rise of the liquid the finer oil particles find an opportunity to ascend.

  8. Prospects for the exploitation of Jordan oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, J.O; Probert, S.D.; Badr, O.

    1997-01-01

    Oil shale is the major indigenous fossil-fuel in Jordan: its predicted reserves, of about 5·10 1 0 tonnes, should be sufficient to satisfy Jordan's energy requirements for several centuries. Jordanian oil shale has, on an average, a gross calorific value of between 5 and 7 MJ/kg, an oil yield of ∼ 10 %, and a sulfur content of approximately 3 % by weight of the raw shale (i.e. 7 to 9 % of the organic matter content). Using the oil shale as the input fuel, a multipurpose production process (i.e. retorting, electricity generation, thermal water-desalination, chemicals production as well as mineral extraction) could achieve high utilisation-factors of both its chemical and energy potentials. In the long-term, oil shale is the only indigenous energy resource that could reduce Jordan's dependence on imported crude oil and hence ease the pressure on the national economy. The conversion of oil shale into a liquid or gaseous fuel and raw materials will be of decisive importance in attempts to secure the future of energy supplies. So national efforts devoted to the exploration for, and harnessing more economically, this energy resource, while limiting the associated adverse environmental impacts, should be accelerated. (author)

  9. Exploitation Contradictions Concerning Multi-Energy Resources among Coal, Gas, Oil, and Uranium: A Case Study in the Ordos Basin (Western North China Craton and Southern Side of Yinshan Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Feng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The particular “rich coal, meager oil, and deficient gas” energy structure of China determines its high degree of dependence on coal resources. After over 100 years of high-intensity mining activities in Northeast China, East Region, and the Southern Region, coal mining in these areas is facing a series of serious problems, which force China’s energy exploitation map to be rewritten. New energy bases will move to the western and northern regions in the next few years. However, overlapping phenomena of multiple resources are frequently encountered. Previous exploitation mainly focused on coal mining, which destroys many mutualistic and accompanying resources, such as uranium, gas, and oil. Aiming at solving this unscientific development mode, this research presents a case study in the Ordos Basin, where uranium, coal, and gas/oil show a three-dimensional overlapping phenomenon along the vertical downward direction. The upper uranium and lower coal situation in this basin is remarkable; specifically, coal mining disturbs the overlaying aquifer, thus requiring the uranium to be leached first. The technical approach must be sufficiently reliable to avoid the leakage of radioactive elements in subsequent coal mining procedures. Hence, the unbalanced injection and extraction of uranium mining is used to completely eradicate the discharged emissions to the environment. The gas and oil are typically not extracted because of their deep occurrence strata and their overlapping phenomenon with coal seams. Use of the integrated coal and gas production method is recommended, and relevant fracturing methods to increase the gas migrating degree in the strata are also introduced. The results and recommendations in this study are applicable in some other areas with similarities.

  10. Oil Price and Economic Resilience. Romania’s Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dudian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The emerging economies that do not face fiscal, monetary and foreign debt pressures can use the savings generated by lower oil prices for investments in order to generate economic growth. Hence, there is no doubt that the oil price affects the economy’s resilience to shocks. The importance of this impact derives from the magnitude of the price change and its diffusion within the economy. Moreover, the sustainability of any company and of the economy as a whole is subject to the availability and the price of the energy resources. The cost of these resources is an important variable used in the majority of the models regarding the assessment of sustainable development. Therefore, this article examines the impact of the oil price changes on industrial production in Romania. We found that, similar to other countries, in Romania, the growth rate of industrial production responds more strongly to a rise in oil prices. Thus, the oil Brent price has an asymmetric effect on the production evolution. This finding suggests that macroeconomic stabilization is more difficult to achieve when the oil price rises.

  11. Design Private Cloud of Oil and Gas SCADA System

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Miao; Mancang Yuan; Guodong Li

    2014-01-01

    SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system is computer control system based on supervisory. SCADA system is very important to oil and gas pipeline engineering. Cloud computing is fundamentally altering the expectations for how and when computing, storage and networking resources should be allocated, managed and consumed. In order to increase resource utilization, reliability and availability of oil and gas pipeline SCADA system, the SCADA system based on cloud computing is propos...

  12. Beaufort Sea oil spills state of knowledge review and identification of key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickins, David; Devenis, Peter; Buist, Ian; Belore, Randy; Trudel, K.; Potter, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic holds the world's largest remaining untapped gas reserves and some of its largest undeveloped oil reserves. A significant proportion of these reserves lie offshore, in the Arctic's shallow and biologically productive shelf seas. This paper describes the results of a recently-completed study commissioned by the environmental studies research funds to document the current state of knowledge with regard to counter-measures for oil spills that might result from exploration and production activities in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. It provides a brief overview of the main advances in the past 20 years and the state-of-the-art for each of the main categories of counter-measures. An additional goal of the study was to identify key issues of concern regarding planning and response to spills in the Beaufort, to provide a current reference document for use by industry, regulators and the public, and prepare a geographic database of coastal resources, vulnerabilities and sensitivities that may influence the choice of oil spill containment and recovery methods.

  13. Resource development and the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donihee, J.

    1999-01-01

    Changes to the resource management regime of the Northwest Territories based on land claim agreements with native peoples which result from the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act are the result of commitments made by Canada during the negotiation of these land claims. This statute effects important changes to the legislative framework for environmental impact assessment and land and water management. It also establishes land use planning processes for the Gwich'in and Sahtu settlement areas and will result in an environmental and cumulative effects monitoring program for the Mackenzie Valley. The Act also establishes new institutions of public government responsible for environmental impact assessment, land and water management, and land use planning. These boards will play an internal and continuing role in resource development and management in the Mackenzie Valley. A brief overview is included of some features of the new legislative scheme, specifically focussing on environmental impact assessment and water management. An understanding of the new regime will be important for oil and gas companies that are looking north with renewed interest as a result of improved oil and gas prices and also for mining companies given the continuing interest in diamond exploration and development in the Northwest Territories. 29 refs

  14. effect of crude oil extracts on early stages of african catfish

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Nigerian Bonny light crude oil and Exxon Mobil Oso off-shore condensate during a ... of Oso condensate extract when larval integument was damaged. It is ... Spills of oil condensate from Oso Exxon Mobil Oil rig readily enter the .... compounds are extracted from oil films in natural .... Resources and Fishing Rome, 9-13 Dec.

  15. MANAGING AFRICA'S NATURAL RESOURCE ENDOWMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    explained by the fact that many of the oil-producing countries or petro- states are ... Specifically for Africa, it has been argued that the resource curse paradigm .... sector.18 In Mozambique, after an audit of investments between 2002 and 2008, the ..... resources reserves in Africa, in most cases, the heart of usage – especially.

  16. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  17. Experimental study on kinetics oil oil-suspended particulate matter aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON; Khelifa, A.; Wang, Z.; Brown, C.; Fieldhouse, B.; Yang, C.; Zheng, X.; Wong, S.; So, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    Past studies of oil spills have shown that oil suspended particulate matter aggregates (OSAs) play a role in enhancing the natural cleansing of oiled shorelines. OSAs result from aggregation between suspended oil droplets and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in aquatic environments. During this process, oil dispersion into the water column is significantly increased since the surface of the oil droplet is surrounded by sediment particles. In addition, the accelerated biodegradation of the oil can be attributed to the greater oil-water contact area. This study focused on the kinetic aspects of OSA formation, with particular reference to the time scale of this process and its significance to oil dispersion following oil spills in water. A laboratory study was conducted to measure the time scale of OSA formation and its variations with mixing conditions. A reciprocating shaker and various oil/sediment mixtures were used to prepare the OSAs. Standard reference material 1941b was used as the natural sediment mixed with Arabian medium crude and artificial seawater under various mixing energies. The sediment-to-oil ratio remained constant for all experiments. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis was used to measure the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) trapped in negatively buoyant OSAs. Results showed that the TPH in OSAs increased exponentially with shaking time and reached an equilibrium value within 3 hours. The equilibrium decreased from 3 hours to 1.3 hours when the shaking rate increased from 2.0 to 2.3 Hz. It was concluded that high mixing energy enhances OSA formation and shortens the time for OSA formation. 42 refs., 6 tabs., 5 figs

  18. Experimental study on kinetics oil oil-suspended particulate matter aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J. [Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdoa (China). Environmental Science and Engineering Inst.; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Emergencies, Operational Analytical Laboratories and Research Support Division; Khelifa, A.; Wang, Z.; Brown, C.; Fieldhouse, B.; Yang, C. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Emergencies, Operational Analytical Laboratories and Research Support Division; Zheng, X. [Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdoa (China). Environmental Science and Engineering Inst.; Wong, S. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; So, L.C. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Past studies of oil spills have shown that oil suspended particulate matter aggregates (OSAs) play a role in enhancing the natural cleansing of oiled shorelines. OSAs result from aggregation between suspended oil droplets and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in aquatic environments. During this process, oil dispersion into the water column is significantly increased since the surface of the oil droplet is surrounded by sediment particles. In addition, the accelerated biodegradation of the oil can be attributed to the greater oil-water contact area. This study focused on the kinetic aspects of OSA formation, with particular reference to the time scale of this process and its significance to oil dispersion following oil spills in water. A laboratory study was conducted to measure the time scale of OSA formation and its variations with mixing conditions. A reciprocating shaker and various oil/sediment mixtures were used to prepare the OSAs. Standard reference material 1941b was used as the natural sediment mixed with Arabian medium crude and artificial seawater under various mixing energies. The sediment-to-oil ratio remained constant for all experiments. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis was used to measure the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) trapped in negatively buoyant OSAs. Results showed that the TPH in OSAs increased exponentially with shaking time and reached an equilibrium value within 3 hours. The equilibrium decreased from 3 hours to 1.3 hours when the shaking rate increased from 2.0 to 2.3 Hz. It was concluded that high mixing energy enhances OSA formation and shortens the time for OSA formation. 42 refs., 6 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. Oil is killing Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, H.

    2007-09-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa, with its mining and petroleum resources, is still the object of covetous desires from developed countries. The Gulf of Guinea is a promising area and probably the future battlefield of the 21. century. The fighters of this war are the African people and the big powers, the USA and China at the head, who call upon mercenaries to get their share of this fabulous treasure. Oil was a chance for Africa, but now oil is killing it

  20. Correlation between Students Academic Performance and Entrepreneurial Ability When Taught Saponification Reaction Using Kitchen Resources

    OpenAIRE

    NJA Cecilia OBI; NEJI Hope Amba

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined the correlation between chemistry student?s academic performance and entrepreneurial ability when told saponification reaction using kitchen resources. Saponification reaction was taught using kitchen resources such as, ashes from unripe plantain, ashes from cocoa pods peels, ashes from oil palm husks, vegetable oil, coconut oil and kernel oil. The sample comprised of 50 students from Community Secondary School, Akparabong in Ikom Local Government Area of Cross River State...

  1. Energy resources in Arab countries: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Lababidi, M. Mukhtar [Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, Technical Affairs Dept., Safat (Kuwait)

    1999-12-01

    The author examines the energy resources of Middle East and North African countries under the headings: oil (proven reserves, undiscovered potential recovery, improved recovery techniques, production capacities), natural gas (reserves, undiscovered potential gas recovery), shale oil and tar sand, coal, uranium, hydro, wind energy, solar energy and biomass. (UK)

  2. Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Mek Zah Salleh; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

  3. THE ENVIRONMENTAL LEGACY OF THE IXTOC-I OIL SPILL IN CAMPECHE SOUND, SOUTHWESTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Arturo Soto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The southwestern Gulf of Mexico constitutes an important subsystem within a Large Marine Ecosystem. Due to its high biodiversity, living resources and energy resources, this region is strategic in the national plans for social and economic development of Mexico. The discovery of fossil fuel reserves in the seabed of Campeche Sound in the 1970s promoted the rapid expansion of the national oil industry in offshore waters. Unfortunately, the accidental blowout of the most productive well (Ixtoc-I in June of 1979, caused the first–world massive oil spill in a tropical marine environment. More than 3.4 million of barrels of crude oil were liberated in an ecosystem formerly renowned for its pristine conditions. In the aftermath of this dreadful accident, an immediate concern emerged not only for the oil acute effects but also for the long-term environmental consequences derived from the residual hydrocarbon compounds accumulated in coastal environments of the southern Gulf of Mexico. The attempts to assess the magnitude of the environmental damage were strongly precluded by the lack of pre-spill information. Natural variability in the ecosystem and oil weathering-factors contributed to attenuate the acute pollution effects that lasted nine months. However, the post-spill environmental alterations caused by the Ixtoc-I blowout still remain unanswered. The sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform in the deep-waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico, in 2010 rekindled our concern for the great risk involved for human lives and the health of shallow and deep sea habitats. The authors of this contribution offer their views on this environmental riddle from their own perspective as direct witnesses of the Ixtoc-I environmental tragedy.

  4. Oil and gas activities in northern Norway; KonKraft rapport 6; Olje- og gassvirksomhet i nord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    KonKraft report 6 deals with oil and gas operations on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS) from Nordland county and northwards. It aims to contribute to a broad factual base for decision processes related to opening new exploration areas in these waters. The Norwegian petroleum sector employs about 250 000 people directly and indirectly. It accounts for a third of government revenues, and 90 per cent of its profits accrue to the state. NOK 119 billion of the central government budget in 2009 comes directly from oil and gas revenues. These funds finance roads, nursery schools, hospitals and the Norwegian welfare state. In addition, they safeguard future pensions. This industry is at a crossroads today. Oil production has dropped by 30 per cent since 2000. Recent forecasts from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate show that it may be reduced by 50 per cent from its peak by 2013. Overall oil and gas output is expected to begin falling from the middle of the next decade. To slow this decline in output and revenues, the oil companies need access to new and attractive exploration acreage. Half the production expected by the government in 2030 relates to resources which have yet to be proven. Opening further areas of the NCS to petroleum activities would contribute to maintaining substantial investment and revenues for the community, and to continuing the development of industry in the northernmost parts of the country. The report reviews unopened areas along the Norwegian coast from the Helgeland region and north-eastwards to the Russian border. Nordland VI and VII plus Troms II are regarded by the petroleum industry as the most promising regions for big discoveries which could slow the production decline. The KonKraft 2 report concerning production development on the NCS estimates remaining resources in these three areas at 3.4 billion barrels of oil equivalent (boe). (Author)

  5. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  6. Acaricidal activities of clove bud oil and red thyme oil using microencapsulation against HDMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Ran; Sharma, Suraj

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a safer microcapsule loaded with clove bud oil and red thyme oil to reduce the population of house dust mites (HDMs). Gelatin-based microcapsules 4-85 µm in size were created, with agitation speed and type of oil playing a critical role in governing their size. Microcapsules made up of single spherical units less than 30 µm in diameter remained separate on the fibre, whereas larger microcapsules of over 30 µm ruptured or aggregated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that microcapsules containing red thyme oil showed a more consistent range of oil loading, from 50 to 80%, than microcapsules containing clove bud oil, which ranged from 30 to 80% (more deviated). Mortality tests on Dermatophagoides farinae conducted on fabric with attached microcapsules showed that clove bud oil, containing a more phenolic monoterpenoid (eugenol), was more effective at reducing the live HDMs (94% mortality).

  7. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this report, but are planned to be included in the hydrology

  8. Resources and environment in the 21st century: seeing past the phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausubel, J.H. [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States). Program for the Human Environment

    1998-07-01

    The questions about resources and environmental stresses which are generated by economic development reduce in the end to two. Will there be enough resources to serve humanity? Will the environmental fallout from the use of resources harm other life and us? It is suggested that the commonly envisaged spectres of shortage and fallout may not materialise. Arguments are presented to support the proposition that global society will learn to use resources efficiently and cleanly, thus avoiding crises in overall energy, food, water and materials supplies, and that an amelioration in harmful environmental outcomes is likely. Sources of stress and potential catastrophe remain, however. These arise: in increasingly densely populated and under-served cities; in places where national and cultural boundaries do not coincide; where poor industrial practice and carelessness result in contamination of air, water and oil; in the huge scaling up of access to commercial energy as it becomes available in the developing countries; as societies struggle to cope with the pace of innovation and change to established cultures. (UK)

  9. The economic impact of oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krymm, R.

    1974-01-01

    During the last three months of 1973, the tax-paid costs of typical grades of crude petroleum in the main producing areas of the world, around the Persian Gulf, were roughly quadrupled, rising for typical Iranian and Arabian Ugh t crudes from about $1.85 per barrel in September 1973 to more than $7.00 by 1 January 1974, or from approximately $13.30 to more than $50.00 per ton. Since the cost of production represents an insignificantly small fraction of the new cost level (less than 2%) and subject to complex adjustments reflecting varying qualities of crude oils and advantages of geographical location, the producing countries may expect to receive a minimum average revenue of $50.00 per ton of crude oil produced on their territory instead of $12.50. If we ignore the purchases which carried the prices of relatively small amounts of oil to the $100-$150 range, this figure of $50.00 per ton with future adjustments for inflation represents a probable guide line for future cost estimates. The change affects exports of close to 1.4 billion tons of oil and consequently involves an immediate shift of financial resources of close to 60 billion dollars per year from the oil-consuming to the oil-producing countries. Tables 1, 2 and 3 give an idea of the distribution of this burden by main geographical regions and of its possible evolution over the next seven years. The figures involved are so large that comparisons have been made by some authors with the reparations proposals advanced by the Allies at the end of the First World War. It has been pointed out that the market price of a typical quality of crude such as Arabian light had in fact fallen from $1.93 per barrel in 1955 to $1.26 in 1970. When the intervening industrial price inflation is taken into account this means that the price of oil had in fact been divided by 3 during a period when oil consumption was growing at an annual rate of more than 7% and oil was displacing coal as the major fuel of the world. During the

  10. Catalytic cracking of the top phase fraction of bio-oil into upgraded liquid oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunarno; Rochmadi,; Mulyono, Panut; Budiman, Arief

    2016-01-01

    The energy consumption is increasing, while oil reserves as a primary energy resource are decreasing, so that is the reason seeking alternative energy source is inevitable. Biomass especially oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) which is abundant in Indonesia can be processed into bio-oil by pyrolysis process. The potential for direct substitution of bio-oil for petroleum may be limited due to the high viscosity, high oxygen content, low heating value, and corrosiveness. Consequently, upgrading of the bio-oil before use is inevitable to give a wider variety of applications of its liquid product. Furthermore, upgrading process to improve the quality of bio-oil by reduction of oxygenates involves process such as catalytic cracking. The objective of this research is to study the effect of operation temperature on yield and composition of upgraded liquid oil and to determine physical properties. Bio-oil derived from EFB was upgraded through catalytic cracking using series tubular reactor under atmospheric pressure on a silica-alumina catalyst. Results show that increasing temperature from 450 to 600 °C, resulting in decreasing of upgraded liquid oil (ULO) yield, decreasing viscosity and density of ULO, but increasing in calorimetric value of ULO. The increasing temperature of cracking also will increase the concentration of gasoline and kerosene in ULO.

  11. Catalytic cracking of the top phase fraction of bio-oil into upgraded liquid oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunarno [Chemical Engineering Department, Riau University, Kampus Binawidya KM 12,5 Pekanbaru 28293 (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur,Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Rochmadi,; Mulyono, Panut [Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur,Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Budiman, Arief, E-mail: abudiman@ugm.ac.id [Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur,Yogyakarta 55281(Indonesia); Center for Energy Studies, Gadjah Mada University, Sekip K1A, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia)

    2016-06-03

    The energy consumption is increasing, while oil reserves as a primary energy resource are decreasing, so that is the reason seeking alternative energy source is inevitable. Biomass especially oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) which is abundant in Indonesia can be processed into bio-oil by pyrolysis process. The potential for direct substitution of bio-oil for petroleum may be limited due to the high viscosity, high oxygen content, low heating value, and corrosiveness. Consequently, upgrading of the bio-oil before use is inevitable to give a wider variety of applications of its liquid product. Furthermore, upgrading process to improve the quality of bio-oil by reduction of oxygenates involves process such as catalytic cracking. The objective of this research is to study the effect of operation temperature on yield and composition of upgraded liquid oil and to determine physical properties. Bio-oil derived from EFB was upgraded through catalytic cracking using series tubular reactor under atmospheric pressure on a silica-alumina catalyst. Results show that increasing temperature from 450 to 600 °C, resulting in decreasing of upgraded liquid oil (ULO) yield, decreasing viscosity and density of ULO, but increasing in calorimetric value of ULO. The increasing temperature of cracking also will increase the concentration of gasoline and kerosene in ULO.

  12. Nanotechnologies in oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alieva, M.K; Kazimov, F.K.; Ismailov, E.

    2010-01-01

    Extraction of remaining, laboriously developed oil reserves at the last stage of development of deposits require drastically improved methods of oil recovery. From this point of view it is more expedient to apply high-tech nanotechnologies. Application of metal nanoparticles in solutions consisting of conventional reagents (deemulgators, SAA and etc.) allows to improve their rheology considerably to increase permaibility and washing of highly viscous components from the smallest pores. Thus, nanofluids influence layer system on atomic-molecular-ionic level which will lead to a complex synergetic effect from the application of nanotechnologies in oil and gas production.

  13. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Hope Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Houseknecht, David W.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-04

    The Hope Basin, an independent petroleum province that lies mostly offshore in the southern Chukchi Sea north of the Chukotka and Seward Peninsulas and south of Wrangel Island, the Herald Arch, and the Lisburne Peninsula, is the largest in a series of postorogenic (successor) basins in the East Siberian-Chukchi Sea region and the only one with exploratory-well control and extensive seismic coverage.In spite of the seismic coverage and well data, the petroleum potential of the Hope Basin Province is poorly known. The adequacy of hydrocarbon charge, in combination with uncertainties in source-rock potential and maturation, was the greatest risk in this assessment. A single assessment unit was defined and assessed, resulting in mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources that include ~3 million barrels of oil and 650 billion cubic feet of nonassociated gas.

  14. A New Era of Oil Abundance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    From 2014 to 2015, the price of oil fell. The price drop is explained by several factors: a significant increase of oil production in the United States, the resumption of Libyan and Iraqi exports, the possible lifting of sanctions against Iran, and slowing growth in developing countries. The situation is having negative effects on oil-producing countries, but the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) remains divided as to its stance on the situation, making it all the more difficult to predict future trends in oil prices

  15. Oil demand asymmetry in the OECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shealy, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Oil demand asymmetry exists, is significant, and can be captured with a simple demand equation using a Pmax term. The unstable parameters of the original symmetric equations suggest misspecification. Addition of a Pmax term to represent asymmetry yields stable parameters from 1982 through 1989 and so suggests proper specification. Asymmetry is significant because the short-run (and long-run) price elasticity is less than half as large when oil price falls as when price rises beyond the past peak. The lower elasticity applies both to price decreases and also to price increases for which price remains below the past peak. As long as the real oil price remains well below the 1981 peak, asymmetry implies that OECD oil demand should be less sensitive to oil price variations than in 1981. More specifically, the results shown suggest that today's oil demand elasticity should be less than half as large as the elasticity for a price increase in 1981. Forecasts from the asymmetric equations are significantly higher than the DOE base-case forecast. DOE's lower forecast is due to greater price asymmetry through 1995 and to higher long-run price elasticity beyond 1995. One reason for the higher long-run price elasticity might be greater assumed improvements in energy-efficiency than implied by the historical data

  16. Use of simplified methods for predicting natural resource damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loreti, C.P.; Boehm, P.D.; Gundlach, E.R.; Healy, E.A.; Rosenstein, A.B.; Tsomides, H.J.; Turton, D.J.; Webber, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    To reduce transaction costs and save time, the US Department of the Interior (DOI) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed simplified methods for assessing natural resource damages from oil and chemical spills. DOI has proposed the use of two computer models, the Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Great Lakes Environments (NRDAM/GLE) and a revised Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) for predicting monetary damages for spills of oils and chemicals into the Great Lakes and coastal and marine environments. NOAA has used versions of these models to create Compensation Formulas, which it has proposed for calculating natural resource damages for oil spills of up to 50,000 gallons anywhere in the US. Based on a review of the documentation supporting the methods, the results of hundreds of sample runs of DOI's models, and the outputs of the thousands of model runs used to create NOAA's Compensation Formulas, this presentation discusses the ability of these simplified assessment procedures to make realistic damage estimates. The limitations of these procedures are described, and the need for validating the assumptions used in predicting natural resource injuries is discussed

  17. Exploring Vietnam's oil potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of the oil production potential in Vietnam. Since Since 1987, the country has been open to foreign investment in offshore exploration but has suffered from a US embargo on trade and economic ties. Nevertheless some exploration has occurred and twenty production sharing contracts with international oil companies has been signed. To date most of the finds have been non-commercial but optimism remains high. (U.K.)

  18. Opportunities to improve oil productivity in unstructured deltaic reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains presentations presented at a technical symposium on oil production. Chapter 1 contains summaries of the presentations given at the Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored symposium and key points of the discussions that followed. Chapter 2 characterizes the light oil resource from fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). An analysis of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and advanced secondary recovery (ASR) potential for fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs based on recovery performance and economic modeling as well as the potential resource loss due to well abandonments is presented. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the general reservoir characteristics and properties within deltaic deposits. It is not exhaustive treatise, rather it is intended to provide some basic information about geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of deltaic reservoirs, and the resulting recovery problems.

  19. Reduced Need of Lubricity Additives in Soybean Oil Blends Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converging prices of vegetable oils and petroleum, along with increased focus on renewable resources, gave more momentum to vegetable oil lubricants. Boundary lubrication properties of four Extreme Pressure (EP) additive blends in conventional Soy Bean Oil (SBO) and Paraffinic Mineral Oil (PMO) of ...

  20. A guide on resources of waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This book is a guide on resources of waste, which includes general remarks, analysis of investigation on city resources of waste, disposal and recycling technology of resources of waste, mechanical distinguish, incineration system, pyrolysis refuse derived fuel, composting, the recycling case of resources of waste, such as waste oil, waste plastic, waste tire, waste wood, waste ceramics and waste con crete, integrated recycling system and the cases like landfill gas, composting plant U.S. Bureau of Mines recycling system and law related resources of waste.

  1. Latest oil data, trends and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempest, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Reserves of crude oil, especially in non-opec areas continue to grow steadily. OPEC, however, remains dominant in the international trade of oil. Oil production, too, is buoyant, with expansion in OPEC running at 0.7% for 1994 and non-OPEC production expansion at 4.2%. Overall demand for oil also rose (by 1.7%), a sharp fall in CIS state consumption notwithstanding. Import dependence continues to grow. Heavy investment by the petroleum industry in production, transportation and processing is expected over the next thirty years. However, oil's share of the world energy mix continues to be eroded by nuclear power, gas and coal, despite adequate supplies. (UK)

  2. Current state and problems of integrated development of mineral resources base in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonova, I. V.; Eder, L. V.; Mishenin, M. V.; Mamakhatov, T. M.

    2017-09-01

    The article deals with the issues of integrated development of subsoil resources taking into account the actual problems facing the Russian oil and gas complex. The key factors determining the need for integrated development of subsoil resources have been systematized and investigated. These factors are the change of the hydrocarbon resource base quality, the improvement of the depletion degree of basic (unique and major) oil fields, the increase in the number of small and smallest oil fields discovered and introduced into development, the increased capital intensity and the riskiness of geological exploration, and the territorial location of new subsoil use facilities.

  3. Oil shale activities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, D.; Jialin, Q.

    1991-01-01

    China has abundant oil shale resources, of the Early Silurian to Neogene age, the most important being the Tertiary period. The proved oil shale reserves in Fushun amount to 3.6 billion t, in Maoming 4.1 billion t. In Fushun, oil shale is produced by open-pit mining as a byproduct of coal, in Maoming it is also mined in open pits, but without coal. In China, scale oil has been produced from oil shale for 60 years. Annual production of crude shale oil amounts to about 200 000 t. The production costs of shale oil are lower than the price of crude petroleum on the world market. China has accumulated the experience and technologies of oil shale retorting. The Fushun type retort has been elaborated, in which the latent and sensible heat of shale coke is well utilized. But the capacity of such retort is relatively small, therefore it is suitable for use in small or medium oil plants. China has a policy of steadily developing shale oil industry. China is conducting oil shale research and developing oil shale processing technology. Much attention is being pay ed to the comprehensive utilization of oil shale, shale oil, and to environmental problems. In China, oil shale is mostly used for producing shale by retorting, attention will also be paid to direct combustion for power generation. Great achievements in oil shale research have been made in the eighties, and there will be a further development in the nineties. (author), 12 refs., 3 tabs

  4. FASP, an analytic resource appraisal program for petroleum play analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.; Balay, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    An analytic probabilistic methodology for resource appraisal of undiscovered oil and gas resources in play analysis is presented in a FORTRAN program termed FASP. This play-analysis methodology is a geostochastic system for petroleum resource appraisal in explored as well as frontier areas. An established geologic model considers both the uncertainty of the presence of the assessed hydrocarbon and its amount if present. The program FASP produces resource estimates of crude oil, nonassociated gas, dissolved gas, and gas for a geologic play in terms of probability distributions. The analytic method is based upon conditional probability theory and many laws of expectation and variance. ?? 1986.

  5. Insight conference reports : western Canada oil sands summit : meeting North America's energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This conference focused on exploration and development of oil sands in western Canada, with particular reference to market opportunities and challenges for oil sands exploitation in Alberta, risk management in large resource development projects, pipeline issues, investment issues, and asset life cycle management. Some presentations also addressed regulatory regimes, royalty regimes, taxes, resource potential, research activities, environmental impacts, and offshore prospects. Both industry and government have an interest in ensuring resources are developed in a sustainable manner. The influence of the Kyoto Protocol on oil sands development and the greenhouse gas emissions market was also addressed along with joint venture issues and a comparison of extra-heavy crude oil projects in Venezuela and Canada. The conference featured 20 presentations, of which 8 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  6. When oil spills emulsify

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.; Fingas, M.; Tennyson, E.

    1992-01-01

    Cleanup operations of oil spills must take into account the numerous detrimental effects attributable to the emulsification of spilled oil into a stable water-in-oil mousse. The incorporation of water greatly increases the volume of the polluted material. The viscous nature of mousse impedes the efficient operation of most mechanical recovery equipment and results in a cohesive slick that resists dispersion, both natural and artificial. The rate at which spilled oil emulsifies determines the effective window of opportunity for specific countermeasures. Much has been learned from previous studies on petroleum emulsification, but is still remain a poorly understood phenomenon. Although most crude oils can be emulsified, not all spills result in the formation of stable mousse. The formation of mousse results from a complex series of processes. Whether an oil will form mousse or not, and if so, at what rate, depends on an array of different factors including the properties of the oil and the prevailing environmental conditions. We need a greater understanding of the emulsification process to better predict the emulsification behavior of oil spills and utilize the most appropriate countermeasures available. In this paper, the authors report on work to elucidate the role that physicochemical factors play in determining an oil's tendency to emulsify. The authors studied the emulsification behavior of oils of known composition to examine the importance of oil chemistry in the emulsification process

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1999. Joint verification research on use for power generation of Omani superhigh-viscosity crude oil remaining unexploited; 1999 nendo Oman koku ni okeru miriyo chokonensei gen'yu no denryoku riyo ni kansuru kyodo jissho kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A Mukhaizna oil field remains to be exploited in Oman, with an estimated reserve of 2.4-billion barrels of very heavy oil with an API (American Petroleum Institute) specific gravity of 15.3. The viscosity of the oil is so high as to be over 100-thousand cP (at 15 degrees C). The extremely high viscosity causes its exploitable rate to be so low as 3%, and makes shipment by pipeline quite difficult. In this survey, a method using water emulsion is proposed for viscosity reduction, which aims to reduce the Mukhaizna crude oil viscosity to 200mm2/s or less. In an experiment using the water emulsion method, oil is mixed with water at a rate of 72 to 28 in a shearing mixer for the production of a water emulsion of crude oil. It is found that a certain degree of stability is acquired using a surface active agent available on the market. Using this emulsion method, the crude oil is converted into a power generator fuel with a heating value of 6,775kcal/kg. The crude oil-turned product is a fine fuel superior to Orimulsion which is a fuel of the same type in terms of viscosity, amount of ash, and vanadium concentration. (NEDO)

  8. Heavy crude oils - From Geology to Upgrading - An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huc, A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy oils, extra-heavy oils and tar sands are major players for the future of energy. They represent a massive world resource, at least the size of conventional oils. They are found all over the world but Canada and Venezuela together account, by themselves, for more than half of world deposits. They share the same origin as the lighter conventional oils, but their geological fate drove them into thick, viscous tar-like crude oils. Most of them result from alteration processes mediated by microbial degradation. They are characterized by a low content of lighter cuts and a high content of impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen compounds and metals; so, their production is difficult and deployment of specific processes is required in order to enhance their transportability and to upgrade them into valuable products meeting market needs, and honouring environmental requirements. Although these resources are increasingly becoming commercially producible, less than 1% of total heavy crude oil deposits worldwide are under active development. The voluntarily wide scope of this volume encompasses geology, production, transportation, upgrading, economics and environmental issues of heavy oils. It does not pretend to be exhaustive, but to provide an authoritative view of this very important energy resource. Besides presenting the current status of knowledge and technology involved in exploiting heavy oils, the purpose is to provide an insight into technical, economic and environmental challenges that should be taken up in order to increase the efficiency of production and processing, and finally to give a prospective view of the emerging technologies which will contribute to releasing the immense potential reserves of heavy oil and tar deposits. Contents: Part 1. Heavy Crude Oils.1. Heavy Crude Oils in the Perspective of World Oil Demand. 2. Definitions and Specificities. 3. Geological Origin of Heavy Crude Oils. 4. Properties and composition. Part 2. Reservoir Engineering

  9. Tough Blends of Polylactide and Castor Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Megan L.; Paxton, Jessica M.; Hillmyer, Marc A. (UMM)

    2012-10-10

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized - an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  10. Tough blends of polylactide and castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Megan L; Paxton, Jessica M; Hillmyer, Marc A

    2011-09-01

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized-an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  11. 30 CFR 208.4 - Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners. 208.4... MANAGEMENT SALE OF FEDERAL ROYALTY OIL General Provisions § 208.4 Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners. (a... and defense. The Secretary will review these items and will determine whether eligible refiners have...

  12. Sharing oil revenues. Current status and good practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmois, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    This document briefly presents a book in which the author analyzes and comments the evolution of the sharing of oil revenues at a time when producing countries can obtain better conditions from oil companies to exploit their resources. The author first describes the operation of the oil exploration-production industry and its three types of oil revenue. He introduces the issue of reserves with its technical, economic and political aspects. He describes the two main modalities of relationship between an oil State and an international company, discusses the organization options for an oil producing country to take the best out of its oil potential, comments the developments of contracting modalities. He proposes recommendations for States about benefits and drawbacks of the various contract options

  13. Income growth, government spending, and wasting assets: Alberta's oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    Physical and monetary accounts for the oil and gas sectors in Alberta from 1963 through 1988 are used to adjust Alberta's Gross Domestic Product and Gross Domestic Investment for changes in oil and gas reserves. Other resources, non-renewable and renewable, are important to Alberta, but the change in oil and gas reserves over the past quarter century deserves attention in itself. Growth rates of income and investment during the 1970s and 1980s differ significantly when the adjustments are made to conventional income accounts. Since policies are often based on conventional statistics, alternative measures yielding very different results warrant attention. The oil and gas accounts also permit comparison of past expenditures of resource revenues with what would be spent under a rule of thumb such as Robert Solow's (1986) suggestion that allowable consumption be interest on an initial patrimony of resource endowment. Such a comparison indicates the provincial government may, at times, have overspent resource revenues during the past quarter century; at other times its policies appear to have been quite conservative. The estimates presented require various assumptions, and therefore are but one possible set of adjustments deserving consideration. 26 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs

  14. The Security Impact of Oil Nationalization: Alternate Futures Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johnston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the security impact of oil nationalization, develops and analyzes four energy security scenarios, and suggests options to reduce the potential negative impact of oil nationalization. In addition to the use of oil as a weapon, nationalization of oil can also lead to competition for scarce resources among states, facilitate the funding of terrorists or insurgents, contribute to destabilizing regional arms races, influence intra-state conflict, and sustain antagonistic political agendas.

  15. Utilization of used oil. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascetti, G.J.; White, H.M.

    1978-08-01

    This report assesses the potential impact of re-refining used automotive and industrial lubricating oils on the national petroleum consumption. The technical base for this assessment is derived from a comprehensive review of the processes utilized in re-refining used oil and those processes used to produce lube oil from crude. Both existing and recently proposed processes are considered. Additionally, an extensive review of processes described in the patent literature is provided. Re-refining processes are surveyed and evaluated. Process descriptions are provided; hardware is identified; and process energy and economic requirements are calculated. Factors affecting the profitability of a re-refining operation are discussed. Economic projections of the demand for lube oil and the ability to satisfy this demand from crude oil are made and the value of lube oil as a vital resource and the need for conservation are addressed. Other factors related to re-refining are discussed, including lube oil characteristics, degradation, lube oil quality and engine sequence testing, and legislative and institutional barriers. Finally, an energy assessment of used oil utilization is made. Two options are considered in this assessment: (1) all used oil is re-refined and recycled back to lube oil; (2) all used oil is burned to recover its heat content.

  16. Ghana: an emerging oil-rich democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellerin, Mathieu

    2011-12-01

    After an indication of the main economic and social indicators of Ghana, and an overview of the historical evolution of Ghana towards democracy since its independence in 1960, a discussion of its advances and limitations in this respect as this country is starting oil production (support of investors, obstacles and difficulties related to institutional limits, decentralisation process, land tenure regime and tradition), the author discusses the possible consequences of this oil wind fall on the democratic dynamics, notably regarding the legal framework (issues of fragility of the institutional and legal systems). In a third part, the author discusses the capacity of the Ghanaian system to face the oil challenge while exorcising the generally occurring curse associated with oil resources

  17. The oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durousset, M.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents todays economical and strategic realities of the oil market. According to the author, petroleum will remain a vital energy source essentially supplied by the Middle-East with strong increasing and decreasing demand changes. (J.S.)

  18. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  19. Assessment of opportunities to increase the recovery and recycling rates of waste oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    Waste oil represents an important energy resource that, if properly managed and reused, would reduce US dependence on imported fuels. Literature and current practice regarding waste oil generation, regulations, collection, and reuse were reviewed to identify research needs and approaches to increase the recovery and recycling of this resource. The review revealed the need for research to address the following three waste oil challenges: (1) recover and recycle waste oil that is currently disposed of or misused; (2) identify and implement lubricating oil source and loss reduction opportunities; and (3) develop and foster an effective waste oil recycling infrastructure that is based on energy savings, reduced environment at impacts, and competitive economics. The United States could save an estimated 140 {times} 1012 Btu/yr in energy by meeting these challenges.

  20. Mismanagement of Oil and Gas Resource Revenues in Africa: Lessons for Ghana’s Budding Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    discovered in Venezuela in the 1920s and the country immediately set about diversifying its production and export structure. Prior to the oil discovery... exports of coffee and cocoa and dependence on its agricultural structure (Di John 2009, 19). After the discovery of oil, the country became a...32 Venezuela as a Case Study

  1. Crude oil pricing report, issue 89, December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report is prepared by the Canadian Oil Markets and Emergency Planning Division (COMEP), Energy, Mines and Resources Canada. It provides a reference for domestic and imported crude oil prices in Canadian markets and illustrates the competitive position of Canadian crude in the U.S. market. The information in this report is in part based on the Crude Oil Pricing Survey (COPS), conducted by COMEP, of Canadian refiners' domestic crude oil purchases, refinery receipts, imports and data from trade publications as well as industry pricing bulletins. 8 tabs

  2. Oil price shocks: Sectoral and dynamic adjustments in a small-open developed and oil-exporting economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissou, Yazid

    2010-01-01

    The recent uptrend in oil prices represents both an opportunity and a challenge for small-open developed and oil-exporting countries. Using Canada as a study case and in contrast to most studies that use aggregate models, this paper employs a multi-sector, intertemporal general equilibrium model to provide perspectives on the sectoral, aggregate and dynamic adjustments of a sustained increase in oil prices. It highlights the transmission channels through which the rise in oil prices affects the domestic economy. The simulation results suggest that the shock would have positive aggregate impacts, but would also spur the reallocation of resources and would therefore induce disparities in sectoral adjustments. The suggested contraction in some industries could not however be attributed to a pure Dutch disease phenomenon because of, among other factors, the cost-push effect induced by the increase in oil prices.

  3. Resource curse: An analysis of causes, experiences and possible ways forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Paul; Dietsche, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    Higher prices for oil, gas and mineral resources have again raised questions about how exporting countries can counter the challenges of resource curse. International experience managing the risks of resource curse has varied. Summarising the continuing discussion on meeting the challenges of the resource curse, this paper addresses four questions: What are the positive and negative effects of high oil, gas and mineral prices on exporters? What have been the experiences with managing natural resource revenues? Can good institutions ensure that natural resource revenues have a positive impact on development? And what is the direction for the way forward? We argue that the current emphasis on 'institutions' as a potential solution has largely ignored under what conditions institutions are formed and changed. (author)

  4. Assessing alternative options for allocating oil revenue in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkhordar, Zahra A.; Saboohi, Yadollah

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focuses on medium-term effects of alternative windfall management strategies for a resource abundant country where the resource revenues are expected to last over a prolonged period. In particular, the trade-off between spending and saving is analyzed within the framework of a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The model is further validated against historical data available for 2001–2010. The total factor productivity is calculated endogenously in the model based on a function that reflects the changes in factor productivity. The results suggest that saving oil revenues, whether in an oil fund or through physical investment in domestic sectors, leads to a higher economic growth. However, physical investment is superior in the short to medium term based on the resultant GDP while creating an oil fund might be more beneficial in the post oil era. - Highlights: • A recursive dynamic general equilibrium model is applied for Iran. • The total factor productivity is calculated endogenously. • Alternative revenue allocation options are investigated. • Physical investment of oil windfalls leads to higher economic growth in medium run. • Financial investment of oil revenues leads to higher economic growth in long run

  5. Oil and Beyond Expanding British Imperial Aspirations, Emerging Oil Capitalism, and the Challenge of Social Questions in the First World War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atabaki, Touraj; Ehsani, Kaveh; Bley, Helmut; Kremers, Anorthe

    2014-01-01

    With the onset of the First World War, the British state crafted a new strategy of shifting its industry, military and navel units from consuming coal to oil energy. This transition effectively turned Persian oil into a strategic military as well as economic resource of fundamental importance to the

  6. TOWARDS TO NEW ILLUSTRATION OF RESOURCE CURSE: FDI CHANNEL EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL (GCC COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Elheddad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends a high influential contribution by Poelhekke and Van der Ploeg (2013, on the new mechanism of natural resource curse which is FDI. Using panel data of FDI inflows (aggregate and disaggregate for six oil dependent countries (GCC during a period 1980-2013; our main findings are as follows. First, total FDI is negatively correlated with natural resources measured by oil prices constant 2000 in the long run and short term. This negative impact ranged between 0.21% and 0.41% if oil prices changed by one percent increase. Secondly, FDI in resource sector falls by around 0.44-0.47%, but non-resource FDI increased by about 0.21- 0.29% when the interaction term between oil revenues and initial oil prices (1980 increases by 1%. These results are robust even after including other FDI determinants.

  7. Resources guide and directory, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Work of the Alberta Chamber of Resources in 1997 were reviewed and plans for activities in 1998 were announced. Among 1997 activities, revision of the business plan for the University of Alberta School of Mining, the Forestry Surface Data Share Agreement, the study of the potential of Alberta's mineral industry, a successful Environmental Forum, work on community partnership between employers and educators that will help to bridge the gap between work and school, continuing investigation of transportation, marketing and technology issues related to oil sands, continuing research on the capture, purification, transportation and utilization of carbon dioxide, formation of the Oil Sands Lease Tenure Committee to provide effective evaluation of the current regulations regarding oil sands leases, and completion of study on bitumen mobility and markets, were highlighted. The 1998 Guide also contains profiles of several Chamber members, among them the Coal Association of Canada, Birch Mountain Resources Ltd., Apex Geoscience Ltd., and Purvin and Gertz Inc., a strategic consulting firm. A list of the current member companies, their CEOs, addresses and telephone numbers is also included

  8. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    This study examines the potential for separating, upgrading and marketing sodium mineral co-products together with shale oil production. The co-products investigated are soda ash and alumina which are derived from the minerals nahcolite and dawsonite. Five cases were selected to reflect the variance in mineral and shale oil content in the identified resource. In the five cases examined, oil content of the shale was varied from 20 to 30 gallons per ton. Two sizes of facilities were analyzed for each resource case to determine economies of scale between a 15,000 barrel per day demonstration unit and a 50,000 barrel per day full sized plant. Three separate pieces of analysis were conducted in this study: analysis of manufacturing costs for shale oil and co-products; projection of potential world markets for alumina, soda ash, and nahcolite; and determination of economic viability and market potential for shale co-products.

  9. Biosurfactants production and possible uses in microbial enhanced oil recovery and oil pollution remediation: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banat, I.M.

    1995-01-01

    Surfactants are widely used for various purposes in industry, but for many years were mainly chemically synthesized. It has only been in the past few decades that biological surface-active compounds (biosurfactants) have been described. Biosurfactants are gaining prominence and have already taken over for a number of important industrial uses, due to their advantages of biodegradability, production on renewable resources and functionality under extreme conditions; particularly those pertaining during tertiary crude-oil recovery. Conflicting reports exist concerning their efficacy and the economics of both their production and application. The limited successes and applications for biosurfactants production, recovery, use in oil pollution control, oil storage tank clean-up and enhanced oil-recovery are reviewed from the technical point of view. (author)

  10. Can reserve additions in mature crude oil provinces attenuate peak oil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynes, F.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    Following the peak in US crude oil production 30 years ago, more and more non-OPEC producers have seen their production decline as a result of resource depletion. OPEC, on the other hand has extracted a comparatively smaller proportion of its reserve base. Given that new non-OPEC discoveries are

  11. A New Era of Oil Abundance?

    Internati