WorldWideScience

Sample records for remaining life analysis

  1. [Research on engine remaining useful life prediction based on oil spectrum analysis and particle filtering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Jia, Yun-xian; Cai, Li-ying; Lin, Guo-yu; Zhao, Jin-song

    2013-09-01

    The spectrometric oil analysis(SOA) is an important technique for machine state monitoring, fault diagnosis and prognosis, and SOA based remaining useful life(RUL) prediction has an advantage of finding out the optimal maintenance strategy for machine system. Because the complexity of machine system, its health state degradation process can't be simply characterized by linear model, while particle filtering(PF) possesses obvious advantages over traditional Kalman filtering for dealing nonlinear and non-Gaussian system, the PF approach was applied to state forecasting by SOA, and the RUL prediction technique based on SOA and PF algorithm is proposed. In the prediction model, according to the estimating result of system's posterior probability, its prior probability distribution is realized, and the multi-step ahead prediction model based on PF algorithm is established. Finally, the practical SOA data of some engine was analyzed and forecasted by the above method, and the forecasting result was compared with that of traditional Kalman filtering method. The result fully shows the superiority and effectivity of the

  2. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  3. A proposal of predictive methods of crack propagation life and remaining life of structural metal under creep-fatigue interacted conditions by use of X-ray profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnami, M.; Sakane, M.; Nishino, S.

    1987-01-01

    The following two series of studies are described: One is crack propagation life prediction in high-temperature low-cycle fatigue tests under triangular and trapezoidal strain or stress waves for austenitic stainless steel by X-ray fractography. Another is remaining life prediction of the steel under creep-fatigue interacted conditions by applying the concept of the remaining life diagram and X-ray profile analysis. Particle size and microstrain obtained by X-ray profile analysis were effective nondestructive parameters for estimating crack propagation life and remaining life in creep-fatigue interaction

  4. Remaining life assessment of a high pressure turbine rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ninh; Little, Alfie

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes finite element and fracture mechanics based modelling work that provides a useful tool for evaluation of the remaining life of a high pressure (HP) steam turbine rotor that had experienced thermal fatigue cracking. An axis-symmetrical model of a HP rotor was constructed. Steam temperature, pressure and rotor speed data from start ups and shut downs were used for the thermal and stress analysis. Operating history and inspection records were used to benchmark the damage experienced by the rotor. Fracture mechanics crack growth analysis was carried out to evaluate the remaining life of the rotor under themal cyclic loading conditions. The work confirmed that the fracture mechanics approach in conjunction with finite element modelling provides a useful tool for assessing the remaining life of high temperature components in power plants.

  5. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Said Mior Azman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure examination using optical microscope. The test specimens, made up of Ni-based superalloy of the first stage turbine blades, are machined based on International Standard (ISO 24. The results from the SRT will be analyzed using these two main equations – Larson-Miller Parameter and Life Fraction Rule. Based on the results of the remaining useful life analysis, the 52000h service-exposed blade has the condition to operate in the range of another 4751 hr to 18362 hr. The microstructure examinations shows traces of carbide precipitation that deteriorate the grain boundaries that occurs during creep process. Creep-rupture life modelling using JMatPro software has shown good agreement with the accelerated creep rupture test with minimal error.

  6. A Bayesian Framework for Remaining Useful Life Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) of a faulty component is at the center of system prognostics and health management. It gives operators a potent tool in...

  7. ALIAS an innovative intranet-system for the remaining life analysis of systems and components; ALIAS - ein innovatives Intranet-System zur Restlebensdaueranalyse von Systemen und Bauteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, A S; Schweikhard, T [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt; Balos, D [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt; [Grosskraftwerk Mannheim AG (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The paper describes an innovative and advanced system for remaining life assessment of industrial high-temperature components developed at MPA Stuttgart, Germany and being currently introduced into the power plants in Germany and in several other countries. The system is a corporate memory system, essentially meaning that all the information/knowledge of a corporation (company, institute, etc.) should be maximally exploited in future activities of the company, with minimum changes in the existing structure of the data/information/knowledge already available. The system has two main aspects of practical implementation: (a) the organizational one, represented by MPA LifeTech, and (b) the software system one represented by the ``parent systems`` WISDOM and (WISDOM - WWW-based Intelligent System for Data and Documentation Management, ALIAS - The Advanced modular intelligent Life Assessment Software System). (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Papier beschreibt ein innovatives und fortschrittliches Softwaresystem, das an der MPA Stuttgart entwickelt wurde und bei mehreren europaeischen und deutschen Kraftwerksbetreibern eingefuehrt wird. Das Konzept beruht auf der Idee von s.g. corporate memory systems mit der Zielsetzung, die gesamte Bandbreite an Informationen und Wissen eines Unternehmens (Firma, Institution usw.) fuer dessen zukuenftige Aktivitaeten optimal zu nutzen. Die bestehende Struktur der bereits vorhandenen Daten sollte dabei nur geringfuegig geaendert werden muessen. Zur praktischen Durchfuehrung des Konzepts sind zwei Aspekte von Bedeutung: die Organisation (MPA LifeTech) und das Softwaresystem bzw. Systeme WISDOM und ALIAS (WISDOM - WWW-based Intelligent System for Data and Documentation Management, ALIAS - The Advanced modular Intelligent Life Assessment Software System). (orig.)

  8. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed

  9. Remaining childless : Causes and consequences from a life course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is know about childless individuals in the Netherlands, although currently one out of every five Dutch individuals remains childless. Who are they? How did they end up being childless? How and to what extent are their life outcomes influenced by their childlessness? By focusing on individual

  10. Determination of the remaining operational life of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiden, H.; Vorwerk, K.; Graeff, D.; Hoff, E.

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings volume presents, in full wording, eight papers read at a TUEV Rheinland meeting in Johannesburg, South Africa, in August 1982. Subjects: Layout, quality assurance, service life analysis etc. of power plant components. (RW) [de

  11. Prognostic modelling options for remaining useful life estimation by industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, J. Z.; Hodkiewicz, M.; Ma, L.

    2011-07-01

    Over recent years a significant amount of research has been undertaken to develop prognostic models that can be used to predict the remaining useful life of engineering assets. Implementations by industry have only had limited success. By design, models are subject to specific assumptions and approximations, some of which are mathematical, while others relate to practical implementation issues such as the amount of data required to validate and verify a proposed model. Therefore, appropriate model selection for successful practical implementation requires not only a mathematical understanding of each model type, but also an appreciation of how a particular business intends to utilise a model and its outputs. This paper discusses business issues that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate modelling approach for trial. It also presents classification tables and process flow diagrams to assist industry and research personnel select appropriate prognostic models for predicting the remaining useful life of engineering assets within their specific business environment. The paper then explores the strengths and weaknesses of the main prognostics model classes to establish what makes them better suited to certain applications than to others and summarises how each have been applied to engineering prognostics. Consequently, this paper should provide a starting point for young researchers first considering options for remaining useful life prediction. The models described in this paper are Knowledge-based (expert and fuzzy), Life expectancy (stochastic and statistical), Artificial Neural Networks, and Physical models.

  12. USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOFARO, R.; SOO, P.; VILLARAN, M.; GROVE, E.

    2001-01-01

    Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed

  13. Remaining useful life estimation based on discriminating shapelet extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Simon; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Zerhouni, Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    In the Prognostics and Health Management domain, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of critical machinery is a challenging task. Various research topics including data acquisition, fusion, diagnostics and prognostics are involved in this domain. This paper presents an approach, based on shapelet extraction, to estimate the RUL of equipment. This approach extracts, in an offline step, discriminative rul-shapelets from an history of run-to-failure data. These rul-shapelets are patterns that are selected for their correlation with the remaining useful life of the equipment. In other words, every selected rul-shapelet conveys its own information about the RUL of the equipment. In an online step, these rul-shapelets are compared to testing units and the ones that match these units are used to estimate their RULs. Therefore, RUL estimation is based on patterns that have been selected for their high correlation with the RUL. This approach is different from classical similarity-based approaches that attempt to match complete testing units (or only late instants of testing units) with training ones to estimate the RUL. The performance of our approach is evaluated on a case study on the remaining useful life estimation of turbofan engines and performance is compared with other similarity-based approaches. - Highlights: • A data-driven RUL estimation technique based on pattern extraction is proposed. • Patterns are extracted for their correlation with the RUL. • The proposed method shows good performance compared to other techniques

  14. Remaining life diagnosis method and device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Michiyoshi.

    1996-01-01

    A neutron flux measuring means is inserted from the outside of a reactor pressure vessel during reactor operation to forecast neutron-degradation of materials of incore structural components in the vicinity of portions to be measured based on the measured values, and the remaining life of the reactor is diagnosed by the forecast degraded state. In this case, the neutron fluxes to be measured are desirably fast and/or medium neutron fluxes. As the positions where the measuring means is to be inserted, for example, the vicinity of the structural components at the periphery of the fuel assembly is selected. Aging degradation characteristics of the structural components are determined by using the aging degradation data for the structural materials. The remaining life is analyzed based on obtained aging degradation characteristics and stress evaluation data of the incore structural components at portions to be measured. Neutron irradiation amount of structural components at predetermined positions can be recognized accurately, and appropriate countermeasures can be taken depending on the forecast remaining life thereby enabling to improve the reliability of the reactor. (N.H.)

  15. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  16. Remaining life assessment and plant life extension in high temperature components of power and petrochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains the reasons why plant life can so easily be extended beyond the original design life. It details the means by which plant life extension is normally achieved, a structured plan for achieving such plant life extension at reasonable cost and some of the key techniques used in assessing the remaining life and discusses the simple repair options available. (author)

  17. Predicting the Remaining Useful Life of Rolling Element Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooghoudt, Jan Otto; Jantunen, E; Yi, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Condition monitoring of rolling element bearings is of vital importance in order to keep the industrial wheels running. In wind industry this is especially important due to the challenges in practical maintenance. The paper presents an attempt to improve the capability of prediction of remaining...

  18. Material aging and degradation detection and remaining life assessment for plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramuhalli, P.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Griffin, J.W.; Meyer, R.M.; Coble, J.B.; Pitman, S.G.; Bond, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major factors that may impact long-term operations is structural material degradation. Detecting materials degradation, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of the component, and determining approaches to mitigating the degradation are important from the perspective of long-term operations. In this study, multiple nondestructive measurement and monitoring methods were evaluated for their ability to assess the material degradation state. Metrics quantifying the level of damage from these measurements were defined and evaluated for their ability to provide estimates of remaining life of the component. An example of estimating the RUL from nondestructive measurements of material degradation condition is provided. (author)

  19. Risk-based management of remaining life of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, E.; Jovanovic, A.S.; Maile, K.; Auerkari, P.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes application of different modules of the MPA-System ALIAS in risk-based management of remaining life of power plant components. The system allows comprehensive coverage of all aspects of the remaining life management, including also the risk analysis and risk management. In addition, thanks to the modular character of the system it is also possible to implement new methods: In the case described here, a new (probabilistic) method for determination of the next inspection time for the components exposed to creep loading has been developed and implemented in the system. Practical application of the method has shown (a) that the mean values obtained by the method fall into the range of results obtained by other methods (based on expert knowledge), and (b) that it is possible to quantify the probability of aberration from the mean values. This in turn allows quantifying the additional risks linked to e.g. prolonging of inspection intervals. (orig.) [de

  20. Data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques stochastic models, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Si, Xiao-Sheng; Hu, Chang-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, and shows how to utilize the condition monitoring data to predict the remaining useful life of stochastic degrading systems and to schedule maintenance and logistics plans. It is also the first book that describes the basic data-driven remaining useful life prognosis theory systematically and in detail. The emphasis of the book is on the stochastic models, methods and applications employed in remaining useful life prognosis. It includes a wealth of degradation monitoring experiment data, practical prognosis methods for remaining useful life in various cases, and a series of applications incorporated into prognostic information in decision-making, such as maintenance-related decisions and ordering spare parts. It also highlights the latest advances in data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, especially in the contexts of adaptive prognosis for linear stochastic degrading systems, nonlinear degradation modeling based pro...

  1. Screw Remaining Life Prediction Based on Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To predict the remaining life of ball screw, a screw remaining life prediction method based on quantum genetic algorithm (QGA and support vector machine (SVM is proposed. A screw accelerated test bench is introduced. Accelerometers are installed to monitor the performance degradation of ball screw. Combined with wavelet packet decomposition and isometric mapping (Isomap, the sensitive feature vectors are obtained and stored in database. Meanwhile, the sensitive feature vectors are randomly chosen from the database and constitute training samples and testing samples. Then the optimal kernel function parameter and penalty factor of SVM are searched with the method of QGA. Finally, the training samples are used to train optimized SVM while testing samples are adopted to test the prediction accuracy of the trained SVM so the screw remaining life prediction model can be got. The experiment results show that the screw remaining life prediction model could effectively predict screw remaining life.

  2. Guarantee of remaining life time. Integrity of mechanical components and control of ageing phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, X.; Herter, K.H.; Koenig, G.

    2012-01-01

    The life time of safety relevant systems, structures and components (SSC) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) is determined by two main principles. First of all the required quality has to be produced during the design and fabrication process. This means that quality has to be produced and can't be improved by excessive inspections (Basis Safety - quality through production principle). The second one is assigned to the initial quality which has to be maintained during operation. This concerns safe operation during the total life time (life time management), safety against ageing phenomena (AM - ageing management) as well as proof of integrity (e.g. break preclusion or avoidance of fracture for SSC with high safety relevance). Initiated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi event in Japan in spring 2011 for German NPP's Long Term Operation (LTO) is out of question. In June 2011 legislation took decision to phase-out from nuclear by 2022. As a fact safe operation shall be guaranteed for the remaining life time. Within this technical framework the ageing management is a key element. Depending on the safety-relevance of the SSC under observation including preventive maintenance various tasks are required in particular to clarify the mechanisms which contribute systemspecifically to the damage of the components and systems and to define their controlling parameters which have to be monitored and checked. Appropriate continuous or discontinuous measures are to be considered in this connection. The approach to ensure a high standard of quality in operation for the remaining life time and the management of the technical and organizational aspects are demonstrated and explained. The basis for ageing management to be applied to NNPs is included in Nuclear Safety Standard 1403 which describes the ageing management procedures. For SSC with high safety relevance a verification analysis for rupture preclusion (proof of integrity, integrity concept) shall be performed (Nuclear Safety Standard 3206

  3. Satellite Lithium-Ion Battery Remaining Cycle Life Prediction with Novel Indirect Health Indicator Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Liao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics and remaining useful life (RUL estimation for lithium-ion batteries play an important role in intelligent battery management systems (BMS. The capacity is often used as the fade indicator for estimating the remaining cycle life of a lithium-ion battery. For spacecraft requiring high reliability and long lifetime, in-orbit RUL estimation and reliability verification on ground should be carefully addressed. However, it is quite challenging to monitor and estimate the capacity of a lithium-ion battery on-line in satellite applications. In this work, a novel health indicator (HI is extracted from the operating parameters of a lithium-ion battery to quantify battery degradation. Moreover, the Grey Correlation Analysis (GCA is utilized to evaluate the similarities between the extracted HI and the battery’s capacity. The result illustrates the effectiveness of using this new HI for fading indication. Furthermore, we propose an optimized ensemble monotonic echo state networks (En_MONESN algorithm, in which the monotonic constraint is introduced to improve the adaptivity of degradation trend estimation, and ensemble learning is integrated to achieve high stability and precision of RUL prediction. Experiments with actual testing data show the efficiency of our proposed method in RUL estimation and degradation modeling for the satellite lithium-ion battery application.

  4. BTC method for evaluation of remaining strength and service life of bridge cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "This report presents the BTC method; a comprehensive state-of-the-art methodology for evaluation of remaining : strength and residual life of bridge cables. The BTC method is a probability-based, proprietary, patented, and peerreviewed : methodology...

  5. A naive Bayes model for robust remaining useful life prediction of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Selina S.Y.; Xing, Yinjiao; Tsui, Kwok L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Robustness of RUL predictions for lithium-ion batteries is analyzed quantitatively. • RUL predictions of the same battery over cycle life are evaluated. • RUL predictions of batteries over different operating conditions are evaluated. • Naive Bayes (NB) is proposed for predictions under constant discharge environments. • Its robustness and accuracy are compared with that of support vector machine (SVM). - Abstract: Online state-of-health (SoH) estimation and remaining useful life (RUL) prediction is a critical problem in battery health management. This paper studies the modeling of battery degradation under different usage conditions and ambient temperatures, which is seldom considered in the literature. Li-ion battery RUL prediction under constant operating conditions at different values of ambient temperature and discharge current are considered. A naive Bayes (NB) model is proposed for RUL prediction of batteries under different operating conditions. It is shown in this analysis that under constant discharge environments, the RUL of Li-ion batteries can be predicted with the NB method, irrespective of the exact values of the operating conditions. The case study shows that the NB generates stable and competitive prediction performance over that of the support vector machine (SVM). This also suggests that, while it is well known that the environmental conditions have big impact on the degradation trend, it is the changes in operating conditions of a Li-ion battery over cycle life that makes the Li-ion battery degradation and RUL prediction even more difficult

  6. Remaining useful life prediction of degrading systems subjected to imperfect maintenance: Application to draught fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Qiang; Hu, Chang-Hua; Si, Xiao-Sheng; Zio, Enrico

    2018-02-01

    Current degradation modeling and remaining useful life prediction studies share a common assumption that the degrading systems are not maintained or maintained perfectly (i.e., to an as-good-as new state). This paper concerns the issues of how to model the degradation process and predict the remaining useful life of degrading systems subjected to imperfect maintenance activities, which can restore the health condition of a degrading system to any degradation level between as-good-as new and as-bad-as old. Toward this end, a nonlinear model driven by Wiener process is first proposed to characterize the degradation trajectory of the degrading system subjected to imperfect maintenance, where negative jumps are incorporated to quantify the influence of imperfect maintenance activities on the system's degradation. Then, the probability density function of the remaining useful life is derived analytically by a space-scale transformation, i.e., transforming the constructed degradation model with negative jumps crossing a constant threshold level to a Wiener process model crossing a random threshold level. To implement the proposed method, unknown parameters in the degradation model are estimated by the maximum likelihood estimation method. Finally, the proposed degradation modeling and remaining useful life prediction method are applied to a practical case of draught fans belonging to a kind of mechanical systems from steel mills. The results reveal that, for a degrading system subjected to imperfect maintenance, our proposed method can obtain more accurate remaining useful life predictions than those of the benchmark model in literature.

  7. Remaining Life Estimation Of Secondary Superheater Outlet On Industrial Electrical Boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedardjo; Andryansyah; Arhatari, B.D.; Natsir, Muhammad; Triyadi, Ari; Farokhi

    2001-01-01

    Remaining life estimation of secondary superheater header outlet (SSHO) on industrial electrical boiler has been carried out. Estimation conducted by the observation of microstructure cavitation development based on Neubauer and Wedel theory. The result is available for isolated cavitation development present yet. That Secondary Superheater Outlet component is in good condition after 14 years operated and predicted could be operated for 36 years again

  8. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience

  9. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-05-04

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience.

  10. Remaining useful life prediction based on the Wiener process for an aviation axial piston pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjian Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An aviation hydraulic axial piston pump’s degradation from comprehensive wear is a typical gradual failure model. Accurate wear prediction is difficult as random and uncertain characteristics must be factored into the estimation. The internal wear status of the axial piston pump is characterized by the return oil flow based on fault mechanism analysis of the main frictional pairs in the pump. The performance degradation model is described by the Wiener process to predict the remaining useful life (RUL of the pump. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE is performed by utilizing the expectation maximization (EM algorithm to estimate the initial parameters of the Wiener process while recursive estimation is conducted utilizing the Kalman filter method to estimate the drift coefficient of the Wiener process. The RUL of the pump is then calculated according to the performance degradation model based on the Wiener process. Experimental results indicate that the return oil flow is a suitable characteristic for reflecting the internal wear status of the axial piston pump, and thus the Wiener process-based method may effectively predicate the RUL of the pump.

  11. Method and apparatus to predict the remaining service life of an operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Maynard, Melody A.; Pawlowski, Ronald A. , Ferryman; Thomas A.; Skorpik, James R.; Wilson, Bary W.

    2008-11-25

    A method and computer-based apparatus for monitoring the degradation of, predicting the remaining service life of, and/or planning maintenance for, an operating system are disclosed. Diagnostic information on degradation of the operating system is obtained through measurement of one or more performance characteristics by one or more sensors onboard and/or proximate the operating system. Though not required, it is preferred that the sensor data are validated to improve the accuracy and reliability of the service life predictions. The condition or degree of degradation of the operating system is presented to a user by way of one or more calculated, numeric degradation figures of merit that are trended against one or more independent variables using one or more mathematical techniques. Furthermore, more than one trendline and uncertainty interval may be generated for a given degradation figure of merit/independent variable data set. The trendline(s) and uncertainty interval(s) are subsequently compared to one or more degradation figure of merit thresholds to predict the remaining service life of the operating system. The present invention enables multiple mathematical approaches in determining which trendline(s) to use to provide the best estimate of the remaining service life.

  12. Use of NDE and FM for the assessment of remaining life of steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alley, T [Duke Power Co., Charlotte, NC (United States); Stone, R [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States). Nondestructive Evaluation Center

    1988-12-31

    Catastrophic failures of rotating turbine components, such as the Gallatin rotor burst in 1974 and the shrunk-on disk rupture at Hinkley Point in 1969, alerted the utility industry to the failure potential of these components. Such failures can cause severe financial loss; endanger personnel; and, in nuclear plants, damage safety related equipment. To adequately predict the remaining life of a turbine rotor requires accurate information about component flaws, material properties, future operating loads, relevant failure mechanisms, and an approach to combine this information to make an assessment of remaining life. EPRI has supported the development of improved ultrasonic test equipment for use from the rotor bore (bore-sonic examination) and a fracture mechanics based life assessment code called SAFER (Stress and Fracture Evaluation of Rotors). The EPRI NDE Center has supported the transfer of this technology to industry. This presentation deals with the NDE Center`s transfer of the NDE and life assessment technology to industry and discusses a particular application by Duke Power Company at their Allen Plant, Unit 1 to extend the operating life of an IP/LP turbine. (author).

  13. Use of NDE and FM for the assessment of remaining life of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alley, T.; Stone, R.

    1988-01-01

    Catastrophic failures of rotating turbine components, such as the Gallatin rotor burst in 1974 and the shrunk-on disk rupture at Hinkley Point in 1969, alerted the utility industry to the failure potential of these components. Such failures can cause severe financial loss; endanger personnel; and, in nuclear plants, damage safety related equipment. To adequately predict the remaining life of a turbine rotor requires accurate information about component flaws, material properties, future operating loads, relevant failure mechanisms, and an approach to combine this information to make an assessment of remaining life. EPRI has supported the development of improved ultrasonic test equipment for use from the rotor bore (bore-sonic examination) and a fracture mechanics based life assessment code called SAFER (Stress and Fracture Evaluation of Rotors). The EPRI NDE Center has supported the transfer of this technology to industry. This presentation deals with the NDE Center's transfer of the NDE and life assessment technology to industry and discusses a particular application by Duke Power Company at their Allen Plant, Unit 1 to extend the operating life of an IP/LP turbine. (author)

  14. Neutron activation analysis of the prehistoric and ancient bone remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Khatamov, Sh.; Rakhmanova, T.; Akhmadshaev, A.Sh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the work results of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of prehistoric bone remains of dinosaurs and ancient bones of bear, archantrop found out on the territory of Uzbekistan are presents. A bone of dinosaur from Mongolia, standard a bone of the person and soils taken from a surface and from of the femoral joint of a dinosaur were also subject to INAA. The INAA method determines of contents of about 30 elements in bones and soils in an interval 0.043-3600 mg / kg. Among found elements Ca (46 %), Sc, Cr, Fe (up to 2.2 g/kg), Ni, Zn, Sr (up to 3.6 g/kg), Sb, Ba, Sb and some others are mainly found in bones. The contents of some elements in bones of dinosaurs reach very high values 280-3200 mg / kg, and are mainly lanthanides La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu. In our opinion, lanthanides and some other elements, like As, Br, and Mo in bones were formed as a result of fission of uranium and transuranium elements. Because content of uranium in bones of dinosaurs is very high, up to 180 mg / kg, and those of thorium is 20 mg/ kg. However U and Th in soils are 4.8 mg/kg and 3.7 mg / kg, respectively. The content of uranium in bones of the archantrop is 1.53 mg / kg, while U in standard bone of the human is less than 0,016 mg/kg. (author)

  15. Remaining useful life assessment of lithium-ion batteries in implantable medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao; Ye, Hui; Jain, Gaurav; Schmidt, Craig

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a prognostic study on lithium-ion batteries in implantable medical devices, in which a hybrid data-driven/model-based method is employed for remaining useful life assessment. The method is developed on and evaluated against data from two sets of lithium-ion prismatic cells used in implantable applications exhibiting distinct fade performance: 1) eight cells from Medtronic, PLC whose rates of capacity fade appear to be stable and gradually decrease over a 10-year test duration; and 2) eight cells from Manufacturer X whose rates appear to be greater and show sharp increase after some period over a 1.8-year test duration. The hybrid method enables online prediction of remaining useful life for predictive maintenance/control. It consists of two modules: 1) a sparse Bayesian learning module (data-driven) for inferring capacity from charge-related features; and 2) a recursive Bayesian filtering module (model-based) for updating empirical capacity fade models and predicting remaining useful life. A generic particle filter is adopted to implement recursive Bayesian filtering for the cells from the first set, whose capacity fade behavior can be represented by a single fade model; a multiple model particle filter with fixed-lag smoothing is proposed for the cells from the second data set, whose capacity fade behavior switches between multiple fade models.

  16. Assessment of lumen degradation and remaining useful life of LEDs using particle filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Zhang, Hao [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Davis, Lynn [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2013-07-16

    With the development of light-emitting diode (LED) technology, light emitting diodes system is becoming a popular light source in daily life and industry area. It has shown that Led from same factory and work under same working condition, may have significantly different behavior. Therefore, it is very important to learn the fail mechanisms, especially in the case of safety critical and harsh environment application. This paper focus on a prognostic health management (PHM) method based on the measurement of forward voltage and forward current of bare LED under harsh environment. In this paper, experiment has been done with ten samples. Ten pristine bare LEDs have been tested at 85°C while simultaneously being subjected to 85% humid environment. Pulse width modulation (PWM) control method has been employed to drive the bare LED in order to reduce the heat effect caused by forward current and high frequency (300HZ) data acquisition has been used to measure the peak forward voltage and forward current. Test to failure (lumen drops to 70 percent) data has been measured to study the effects of high temperature and humid environment loadings on the bare LED. Also, solid state cooling method with peltier cooler has been used to control the temperature of LED in the integrating sphere when take the measurement of lumen flux. The shift of forward voltage forward current curve and lumen degradation has been recorded to help build the fail model and predicted the remaining useful life. In this method, particle filter has been employed to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of the bare LED and give us a whole picture how Led system fails. Result shows that predication of remaining useful life of Led, made by the particle filter model works under reasonable limit, and hence this method can be employed to predict the failure of Led caused by thermal and humid stress under harsh environment.

  17. Assessment of the Remaining Life of Bituminous Layers in Road Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kálmán Adorjányi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a mechanistic-empirical approach is presented for the assessment of bearing capacity condition of asphalt pavement layers by Falling Weight Deflectometer measurements and laboratory fatigue tests. The bearing capacity condition ratio was determined using past traffic data and the remaining fatigue life which was determined from multilayer pavement response model. The traffic growth rate was taken into account with finite arithmetic and geometric progressions. Fatigue resistance of layers’ bituminous materials was obtained with indirect tensile fatigue tests. Deduct curve of condition scores was derived with Weibull distribution.

  18. Prediction of pavement remaining service life based on repetition of load and permanent deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, R. S.; Setyawan, A.; Suprapto, M.

    2018-03-01

    One of the methods which was applied in the assessment of flexible pavement performance was mechanistic method assuming structures of road pavement to become multi-layer structure for flexible pavement, that the vehicle load working on the pavement layer under repetition with power failure worth 1 (one) unit which was assumed as evenly distributed static load, and therefore the pavement material would provide response in the form of stress, strain, and deflection. This is closely related in order to assess the structure of flexible pavement and to predict the remaining service life on the roads of Pulau Indah sta 0 + 000 to sta. 0 + 845 in Kota Kupang, Nusa Tenggara Timur. The performance appraisal indicator which was used was fatigue cracking happening bottom of the asphalt layer and permanent deformation (rutting) on the surface of subgrade. The strain estimate on the flexible pavement layer structure needs carefulness and high accuracy and therefore a software like KENPAVE which produces horizontal tensile strain of 8,802E-05 and vertical compressive strain of 2,642E-04 was used. By applying equation of The Asphalt Instituteit was obtained repetition of permit load when reaching fatigue cracking (Nf) was 16.071.516 ESAL and permanent deformation (rutting) was 14.703.867 ESAL and also it was predicted the remaining service life of pavement applied the equation of AASTHO 1993 by considering Traffic Multiplier factor (TM 1.8, TM 1.9 and TM 2.0) obtained the remaining life service due to fatigue of 5.51% in the year of 13th (TM 1.8), 7.95% in the year of12th (TM 1.9) and 3.11% (TM 2.0) in the year of 12th, also the remaining service life due to rutting of 4.69% in the year of 12th(TM 1.8), 7.79% in the year of 11th (TM 1.9), and 2.94 in the year of 11th (TM 2.0).

  19. An adaptive-order particle filter for remaining useful life prediction of aviation piston pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongyang LI

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An accurate estimation of the remaining useful life (RUL not only contributes to an effective application of an aviation piston pump, but also meets the necessity of condition based maintenance (CBM. For the current RUL evaluation methods, a model-based method is inappropriate for the degradation process of an aviation piston pump due to difficulties of modeling, while a data-based method rarely presents high-accuracy prediction in a long period of time. In this work, an adaptive-order particle filter (AOPF prognostic process is proposed aiming at improving long-term prediction accuracy of RUL by combining both kinds of methods. A dynamic model is initialized by a data-driven or empirical method. When a new observation comes, the prior state distribution is approximated by a current model. The order of the current model is updated adaptively by fusing the information of the observation. Monte Carlo simulation is employed for estimating the posterior probability density function of future states of the pump’s degradation. With updating the order number adaptively, the method presents a higher precision in contrast with those of traditional methods. In a case study, the proposed AOPF method is adopted to forecast the degradation status of an aviation piston pump with experimental return oil flow data, and the analytical results show the effectiveness of the proposed AOPF method. Keywords: Adaptive prognosis, Condition based maintenance (CBM, Particle filter (PF, Piston pump, Remaining useful life (RUL

  20. A kernel principal component analysis–based degradation model and remaining useful life estimation for the turbofan engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delong Feng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Remaining useful life estimation of the prognostics and health management technique is a complicated and difficult research question for maintenance. In this article, we consider the problem of prognostics modeling and estimation of the turbofan engine under complicated circumstances and propose a kernel principal component analysis–based degradation model and remaining useful life estimation method for such aircraft engine. We first analyze the output data created by the turbofan engine thermodynamic simulation that is based on the kernel principal component analysis method and then distinguish the qualitative and quantitative relationships between the key factors. Next, we build a degradation model for the engine fault based on the following assumptions: the engine has only had constant failure (i.e. no sudden failure is included, and the engine has a Wiener process, which is a covariate stand for the engine system drift. To predict the remaining useful life of the turbofan engine, we built a health index based on the degradation model and used the method of maximum likelihood and the data from the thermodynamic simulation model to estimate the parameters of this degradation model. Through the data analysis, we obtained a trend model of the regression curve line that fits with the actual statistical data. Based on the predicted health index model and the data trend model, we estimate the remaining useful life of the aircraft engine as the index reaches zero. At last, a case study involving engine simulation data demonstrates the precision and performance advantages of this prediction method that we propose. At last, a case study involving engine simulation data demonstrates the precision and performance advantages of this proposed method, the precision of the method can reach to 98.9% and the average precision is 95.8%.

  1. Remaining life prediction of I and C cables for reliability assessment of NPP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh, T.V.; Ghosh, A.K.; Fernandes, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A framework for time dependent reliability prediction of I and C cables for use in PSA of NPP has been developed using stress–strength interference theory. ► The proposed methodology has been illustrated with the accelerated thermal aging data on a typical XLPE cable. ► The behavior of insulation resistance when the degradation process is linear or exponential has also been modeled. ► The reliability index or probability of failure obtained from this approach can be used in system reliability evaluation to account for cable aging for PSA of NPP. - Abstract: Instrumentation and control (I and C) cables are one of the most important components in nuclear power plants (NPPs) because they provide power to safety-related equipment and also to transmit signals to and from various controllers to perform safety operations. I and C cables in NPP are subjected to a variety of aging and degradation stressors that can produce immediate degradation or aging-related mechanisms causing the degradation of cable components over time. Although, there exits several life estimation techniques, currently there is no any standard methodology or an approach toward estimating the time dependent reliability of I and C cables that can be directly used in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) applications. Hence, the objective of this study is to develop an approach to estimate and confirm the continued acceptable margin in cable insulation life over time subjected to aging. This paper presents a framework based on the structural reliability theory to quantify the life time of I and C cable subjecting to thermal aging. Since cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cables are extensively being used in Indian NPPs, the remaining life time evaluations have been carried out for a typical XLPE cable. However, the methodology can be extended to other cables such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ethylene propylene rubber (EPR), etc.

  2. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of prehistoric and ancient bone remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Khatamov, Sh.; Rakhmanova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to study the element contents in bones of prehistoric dinosaurs and bones of an ancient bear and an archantrop (ancient person), which were found on the territory of Uzbekistan. Concentrations of more than 25 elements were in the range of 0.043-3600 mg/kg. Multielement analyses of bone and soil samples were carried out by INAA using the WWR-SM research nuclear reactor. Results of measurements have shown that in the dinosaurs bones the concentration of the rare earth elements (REEs) were within 280-3200 mg/kg; the uranium content reached a very high value, up to 180 mg/kg, while in soils coating the dinosaurs bones this content was 4.2 mg/kg; in the bones of the archantrop it was 1.53 mg/kg and in the bones of a standard person its amount is less than 0.016 mg/kg. (author)

  3. Intelligent Prognostic Framework for Degradation Assessment and Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Photovoltaic Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Laayouj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available All industrial systems and machines are subjected to degradation processes, which can be related to the operating conditions. This degradation can cause unwanted stops at any time and major maintenance work sometimes. The accurate prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL is an important challenge in condition-based maintenance. Prognostic activity allows estimating the RUL before failure occurs and triggering actions to mitigate faults in time when needed. In this study, a new smart prognostic method for photovoltaic module health degradation was developed based on two approaches to achieve more accurate predictions: online diagnosis and data-driven prognosis. This framework of forecasting integrates the strengths of real-time monitoring in the first approach and relevant vector machine in the second. The results show that the proposed method is plausible due to its good prediction of RUL and can be effectively applied to many systems for monitoring and prognostics.

  4. Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Gas Turbine Engine using Autoregressive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Shazaib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbine (GT engines are known for their high availability and reliability and are extensively used for power generation, marine and aero-applications. Maintenance of such complex machines should be done proactively to reduce cost and sustain high availability of the GT. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of autoregressive (AR models to predict remaining useful life (RUL of a GT engine. The Turbofan Engine data from NASA benchmark data repository is used as case study. The parametric investigation is performed to check on any effect of changing model parameter on modelling accuracy. Results shows that a single sensory data cannot accurately predict RUL of GT and further research need to be carried out by incorporating multi-sensory data. Furthermore, the predictions made using AR model seems to give highly pessimistic values for RUL of GT.

  5. Lithium-ion Battery Degradation Assessment and Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Laayouj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Prognostic activity deals with prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL of physical systems based on their actual health state and their usage conditions. RUL estimation gives operators a potent tool in decision making by quantifying how much time is left until functionality is lost. In addition, it can be used to improve the characterization of the material proprieties that govern damage propagation for the structure being monitored. RUL can be estimated by using three main approaches, namely model-based, data-driven and hybrid approaches. The prognostics methods used later in this paper are hybrid and data-driven approaches, which employ the Particle Filter in the first one and the autoregressive integrated moving average in the second. The performance of the suggested approaches is evaluated in a comparative study on data collected from lithium-ion battery of hybrid electric vehicle.

  6. Remaining life assessment of carbon steel boiler headers by repeated creep testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drew, M. [ANSTO, Materials and Engineering Science, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, PMB 1 Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)]. E-mail: michael.drew@ansto.gov.au; Humphries, S. [ANSTO, Materials and Engineering Science, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, PMB 1 Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Thorogood, K. [ANSTO, Materials and Engineering Science, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, PMB 1 Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Barnett, N. [BlueScope Steel, P.O. Box 1854, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2006-05-15

    The condition of carbon steel boiler headers that have been in service for over 25 years has been assessed periodically by NDT, dimensional measurements, replication and accelerated creep testing. Historical temperature records were limited, so estimates of effective header temperatures were made from replicas. These estimates were compared with header stub thermocouple readings. At about 280,000 service hours, samples were chain-drilled from the headers for accelerated creep testing. These test results indicated that the headers had satisfactory remaining life. Nine years after the original samples were taken, additional samples were removed from one header at 337,000 service hours. The creep rupture properties measured from the repeated tests were almost identical to the initial results. A mild degree of random, nodular graphite was found in the samples and its effect on creep properties is discussed.

  7. Remaining useful life estimation in heterogeneous fleets working under variable operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dahidi, Sameer; Di Maio, Francesco; Baraldi, Piero; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The availability of condition monitoring data for large fleets of similar equipment motivates the development of data-driven prognostic approaches that capitalize on the information contained in such data to estimate equipment Remaining Useful Life (RUL). A main difficulty is that the fleet of equipment typically experiences different operating conditions, which influence both the condition monitoring data and the degradation processes that physically determine the RUL. We propose an approach for RUL estimation from heterogeneous fleet data based on three phases: firstly, the degradation levels (states) of an homogeneous discrete-time finite-state semi-markov model are identified by resorting to an unsupervised ensemble clustering approach. Then, the parameters of the discrete Weibull distributions describing the transitions among the states and their uncertainties are inferred by resorting to the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) method and to the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM), respectively. Finally, the inferred degradation model is used to estimate the RUL of fleet equipment by direct Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The proposed approach is applied to two case studies regarding heterogeneous fleets of aluminium electrolytic capacitors and turbofan engines. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in predicting the RUL and its superiority compared to a fuzzy similarity-based approach of literature. - Highlights: • The prediction of the remaining useful life for heterogeneous fleets is addressed. • A data-driven prognostics approach based on a Markov model is proposed. • The proposed approach is applied to two different heterogeneous fleets. • The results are compared with those obtained by a fuzzy similarity-based approach.

  8. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants – Interim Study FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-09-27

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  9. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants - Interim Study FY13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  10. Support vector machine based estimation of remaining useful life: current research status and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hong Zhong; Wang, Hai Kun; Li, Yan Feng; Zhang, Longlong; Liu, Zhiliang

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) is helpful to manage life cycles of machines and to reduce maintenance cost. Support vector machine (SVM) is a promising algorithm for estimation of RUL because it can easily process small training sets and multi-dimensional data. Many SVM based methods have been proposed to predict RUL of some key components. We did a literature review related to SVM based RUL estimation within a decade. The references reviewed are classified into two categories: improved SVM algorithms and their applications to RUL estimation. The latter category can be further divided into two types: one, to predict the condition state in the future and then build a relationship between state and RUL; two, to establish a direct relationship between current state and RUL. However, SVM is seldom used to track the degradation process and build an accurate relationship between the current health condition state and RUL. Based on the above review and summary, this paper points out that the ability to continually improve SVM, and obtain a novel idea for RUL prediction using SVM will be future works.

  11. Microscopic Void Detection for Predicting Remaining Life in Electric Cable Insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, David A.; Avila, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    A reliable method of testing for remaining life in electric cable insulation has continued to elude the nuclear industry as it seeks to extend the life and license of its nuclear stations. Until recently, a trendable, measurable electrical property has not been found, and unexpected cable failures continue to be reported. Most reliable approaches to date rely on monitoring mechanical properties, which are assumed to degrade faster than the insulation's electrical properties. This paper introduces a promising technique based on void characterization, which is dependent on an electrical property related to dielectric strength. A relationship between insulation void characteristics (size and density) and the onset of partial discharge is known to exist. A similar relationship can be shown between void characteristics and unacceptable leakage currents (another typical cable failure criterion). For low-voltage cables, it is believed void content can be correlated to mechanical property degradation.This paper will report on an approach for using void information, research results showing the existence of trendable void characteristics in commonly used electric insulation materials, and techniques for detecting the voids (both laboratory- and field-based techniques). Acoustical microscopy was found to be potentially more suitable than conventional ultrasound for nondestructive in situ detection and monitoring of void characteristics in jacketed multiconductor insulation while ignoring the jacket. Also, optical and scanning electron microscope techniques will play an essential role in establishing the database necessary for continued development and implementation of this promising technique

  12. Lithium-ion battery remaining useful life prediction based on grey support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an improved grey prediction model is proposed to address low-accuracy prediction issue of grey forecasting model. The first step is using a trigonometric function to transform the original data sequence to smooth the data, which is called smoothness of grey prediction model, and then a grey support vector machine model by integrating the improved grey model with support vector machine is introduced. At the initial stage of the model, trigonometric functions and accumulation generation operation can be used to preprocess the data, which enhances the smoothness of the data and reduces the associated randomness. In addition, support vector machine is implemented to establish a prediction model for the pre-processed data and select the optimal model parameters via genetic algorithms. Finally, the data are restored through the ‘regressive generate’ operation to obtain the forecasting data. To prove that the grey support vector machine model is superior to the other models, the battery life data from the Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering are selected, and the presented model is used to predict the remaining useful life of the battery. The predicted result is compared to that of grey model and support vector machines. For a more intuitive comparison of the three models, this article quantifies the root mean square errors for these three different models in the case of different ratio of training samples and prediction samples. The results show that the effect of grey support vector machine model is optimal, and the corresponding root mean square error is only 3.18%.

  13. Remaining life case history studies for high energy piping systems using equivalent stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    As the development of plant life extension for high energy piping systems is progressing, conventional piping system design methodologies are also being reevaluated. Traditional guidelines such as American National Standard Institute/American Society of Mechanical Engineers B31.1 (ANSI/ASME) were developed for plants having design lives in the 25- to 30-year regime based upon relatively short-term base metal creep data. These guidelines use a simplified approach for the piping analysis. Two types of stress criteria must be satisfied. The first type is longitudinal plus torsion stress checks for several types of loading conditions versus the material allowable stresses. The second type is an independent minimum wall thickness check which considers the hoop stress versus the material allowable stress. Seven case histories have been evaluated to estimate the minimum piping system creep life based on the current ANSI/ASME B31.1 finite element type of analysis, which is a traditional approach, versus a multiaxial stress state type of analysis. In nearly every case, the equivalent stress methodology predicted significantly higher stresses. Consequently, the equivalent stress methodology resulted in 11 to 96% lower time to rupture values as compared to the values predicted using ANSI/ASME B31.1 stresses

  14. Method for estimating capacity and predicting remaining useful life of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chao; Jain, Gaurav; Tamirisa, Prabhakar; Gorka, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop an integrated method for the capacity estimation and RUL prediction. • A state projection scheme is derived for capacity estimation. • The Gauss–Hermite particle filter technique is used for the RUL prediction. • Results with 10 years’ continuous cycling data verify the effectiveness of the method. - Abstract: Reliability of lithium-ion (Li-ion) rechargeable batteries used in implantable medical devices has been recognized as of high importance from a broad range of stakeholders, including medical device manufacturers, regulatory agencies, physicians, and patients. To ensure Li-ion batteries in these devices operate reliably, it is important to be able to assess the capacity of Li-ion battery and predict the remaining useful life (RUL) throughout the whole life-time. This paper presents an integrated method for the capacity estimation and RUL prediction of Li-ion battery used in implantable medical devices. A state projection scheme from the author’s previous study is used for the capacity estimation. Then, based on the capacity estimates, the Gauss–Hermite particle filter technique is used to project the capacity fade to the end-of-service (EOS) value (or the failure limit) for the RUL prediction. Results of 10 years’ continuous cycling test on Li-ion prismatic cells in the lab suggest that the proposed method achieves good accuracy in the capacity estimation and captures the uncertainty in the RUL prediction. Post-explant weekly cycling data obtained from field cells with 4–7 implant years further verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the capacity estimation

  15. Optimization of Aeroengine Shop Visit Decisions Based on Remaining Useful Life and Stochastic Repair Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide application of condition-based maintenance in aeroengine maintenance practice, it becomes possible for aeroengines to carry out their preventive maintenance in just-in-time (JIT manner by reasonably planning their shop visits (SVs. In this study, an approach is proposed to make aeroengine SV decisions following the concept of JIT. Firstly, a state space model (SSM for aeroengine based on exhaust gas temperature margin is developed to predict the remaining useful life (RUL of aeroengine. Secondly, the effect of SV decisions on risk and service level (SL is analyzed, and an optimization of the aeroengine SV decisions based on RUL and stochastic repair time is performed to carry out JIT manner with the requirement of safety and SL. Finally, a case study considering two CFM-56 aeroengines is presented to demonstrate the proposed approach. The results show that predictive accuracy of RUL with SSM is higher than with linear regression, and the process of SV decisions is simple and feasible for airlines to improve the inventory management level of their aeroengines.

  16. Accurate bearing remaining useful life prediction based on Weibull distribution and artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ali, Jaouher; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Saidi, Lotfi; Malinowski, Simon; Fnaiech, Farhat

    2015-05-01

    Accurate remaining useful life (RUL) prediction of critical assets is an important challenge in condition based maintenance to improve reliability and decrease machine's breakdown and maintenance's cost. Bearing is one of the most important components in industries which need to be monitored and the user should predict its RUL. The challenge of this study is to propose an original feature able to evaluate the health state of bearings and to estimate their RUL by Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) techniques. In this paper, the proposed method is based on the data-driven prognostic approach. The combination of Simplified Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory Map (SFAM) neural network and Weibull distribution (WD) is explored. WD is used just in the training phase to fit measurement and to avoid areas of fluctuation in the time domain. SFAM training process is based on fitted measurements at present and previous inspection time points as input. However, the SFAM testing process is based on real measurements at present and previous inspections. Thanks to the fuzzy learning process, SFAM has an important ability and a good performance to learn nonlinear time series. As output, seven classes are defined; healthy bearing and six states for bearing degradation. In order to find the optimal RUL prediction, a smoothing phase is proposed in this paper. Experimental results show that the proposed method can reliably predict the RUL of rolling element bearings (REBs) based on vibration signals. The proposed prediction approach can be applied to prognostic other various mechanical assets.

  17. A new creep-strain-replica method for evaluating the remaining life time of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joas, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    To realise a safe and economic operation of older power- or chemical plants a strategy for maintenance is necessary, which makes it possible to operate a component or the plant longer than 300,000 operating hours, this also for the situation that the mode of operation has changed meanwhile. In Germany a realistic evaluation of the remaining life-time is done by comparing the actual calculated test data of a component with the code TRD 301 and TRD 508 and additional non-destructive tests or other codes like ASME, Sec. II, BS 5500, AFCEN (1985). According to many boundary conditions, the calculated data are inaccurate and the measuring of creep-strain at temperatures of about 600 o C with capacitive strain-gauges very expensive. Description of the approach of the problems: spotwelding of two gauges to the surface of a component (in a defined distance), forming a gap, producing of replica of the gap after certain operating hours at shut-down conditions by trained personal, evaluation of the replica to gain the amount of creep-strain using a scanning electron microscope, assessment of the creep-strain data. (Author)

  18. A novel health indicator for on-line lithium-ion batteries remaining useful life prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yapeng; Huang, Miaohua; Chen, Yupu; Tao, Ye

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of lithium-ion batteries remaining useful life (RUL) plays an important role in an intelligent battery management system. The capacity and internal resistance are often used as the batteries health indicator (HI) for quantifying degradation and predicting RUL. However, on-line measurement of capacity and internal resistance are hardly realizable due to the not fully charged and discharged condition and the extremely expensive cost, respectively. Therefore, there is a great need to find an optional way to deal with this plight. In this work, a novel HI is extracted from the operating parameters of lithium-ion batteries for degradation modeling and RUL prediction. Moreover, Box-Cox transformation is employed to improve HI performance. Then Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses are utilized to evaluate the similarity between real capacity and the estimated capacity derived from the HI. Next, both simple statistical regression technique and optimized relevance vector machine are employed to predict the RUL based on the presented HI. The correlation analyses and prediction results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed HI for battery degradation modeling and RUL prediction.

  19. Remaining useful life prediction based on noisy condition monitoring signals using constrained Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Junbo; Zhou, Shiyu; Sankavaram, Chaitanya; Du, Xinyu; Zhang, Yilu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a statistical prognostic method to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of individual units based on noisy condition monitoring signals is proposed. The prediction accuracy of existing data-driven prognostic methods depends on the capability of accurately modeling the evolution of condition monitoring (CM) signals. Therefore, it is inevitable that the RUL prediction accuracy depends on the amount of random noise in CM signals. When signals are contaminated by a large amount of random noise, RUL prediction even becomes infeasible in some cases. To mitigate this issue, a robust RUL prediction method based on constrained Kalman filter is proposed. The proposed method models the CM signals subject to a set of inequality constraints so that satisfactory prediction accuracy can be achieved regardless of the noise level of signal evolution. The advantageous features of the proposed RUL prediction method is demonstrated by both numerical study and case study with real world data from automotive lead-acid batteries. - Highlights: • A computationally efficient constrained Kalman filter is proposed. • Proposed filter is integrated into an online failure prognosis framework. • A set of proper constraints significantly improves the failure prediction accuracy. • Promising results are reported in the application of battery failure prognosis.

  20. Remaining Useful Life Prediction for Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Gaussian Processes Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Wang, Pengchong; Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Zhou, Yatong; Xie, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The remaining useful life (RUL) prediction of Lithium-ion batteries is closely related to the capacity degeneration trajectories. Due to the self-charging and the capacity regeneration, the trajectories have the property of multimodality. Traditional prediction models such as the support vector machines (SVM) or the Gaussian Process regression (GPR) cannot accurately characterize this multimodality. This paper proposes a novel RUL prediction method based on the Gaussian Process Mixture (GPM). It can process multimodality by fitting different segments of trajectories with different GPR models separately, such that the tiny differences among these segments can be revealed. The method is demonstrated to be effective for prediction by the excellent predictive result of the experiments on the two commercial and chargeable Type 1850 Lithium-ion batteries, provided by NASA. The performance comparison among the models illustrates that the GPM is more accurate than the SVM and the GPR. In addition, GPM can yield the predictive confidence interval, which makes the prediction more reliable than that of traditional models. PMID:27632176

  1. Remaining useful life prediction based on variation coefficient consistency test of a Wiener process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan LI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-cost equipment is often reused after maintenance, and whether the information before the maintenance can be used for the Remaining Useful Life (RUL prediction after the maintenance is directly determined by the consistency of the degradation pattern before and after the maintenance. Aiming at this problem, an RUL prediction method based on the consistency test of a Wiener process is proposed. Firstly, the parameters of the Wiener process estimated by Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE are proved to be biased, and a modified unbiased estimation method is proposed and verified by derivation and simulations. Then, the h statistic is constructed according to the reciprocal of the variation coefficient of the Wiener process, and the sampling distribution is derived. Meanwhile, a universal method for the consistency test is proposed based on the sampling distribution theorem, which is verified by simulation data and classical crack degradation data. Finally, based on the consistency test of the degradation model, a weighted fusion RUL prediction method is presented for the fuel pump of an airplane, and the validity of the presented method is verified by accurate computation results of real data, which provides a theoretical and practical guidance for engineers to predict the RUL of equipment after maintenance.

  2. Ensemble of data-driven prognostic algorithms for robust prediction of remaining useful life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chao; Youn, Byeng D.; Wang Pingfeng; Taek Yoon, Joung

    2012-01-01

    Prognostics aims at determining whether a failure of an engineered system (e.g., a nuclear power plant) is impending and estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) before the failure occurs. The traditional data-driven prognostic approach is to construct multiple candidate algorithms using a training data set, evaluate their respective performance using a testing data set, and select the one with the best performance while discarding all the others. This approach has three shortcomings: (i) the selected standalone algorithm may not be robust; (ii) it wastes the resources for constructing the algorithms that are discarded; (iii) it requires the testing data in addition to the training data. To overcome these drawbacks, this paper proposes an ensemble data-driven prognostic approach which combines multiple member algorithms with a weighted-sum formulation. Three weighting schemes, namely the accuracy-based weighting, diversity-based weighting and optimization-based weighting, are proposed to determine the weights of member algorithms. The k-fold cross validation (CV) is employed to estimate the prediction error required by the weighting schemes. The results obtained from three case studies suggest that the ensemble approach with any weighting scheme gives more accurate RUL predictions compared to any sole algorithm when member algorithms producing diverse RUL predictions have comparable prediction accuracy and that the optimization-based weighting scheme gives the best overall performance among the three weighting schemes.

  3. A Hybrid Prognostic Approach for Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-An Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion battery is a core component of many systems such as satellite, spacecraft, and electric vehicles and its failure can lead to reduced capability, downtime, and even catastrophic breakdowns. Remaining useful life (RUL prediction of lithium-ion batteries before the future failure event is extremely crucial for proactive maintenance/safety actions. This study proposes a hybrid prognostic approach that can predict the RUL of degraded lithium-ion batteries using physical laws and data-driven modeling simultaneously. In this hybrid prognostic approach, the relevant vectors obtained with the selective kernel ensemble-based relevance vector machine (RVM learning algorithm are fitted to the physical degradation model, which is then extrapolated to failure threshold for estimating the RUL of the lithium-ion battery of interest. The experimental results indicated that the proposed hybrid prognostic approach can accurately predict the RUL of degraded lithium-ion batteries. Empirical comparisons show that the proposed hybrid prognostic approach using the selective kernel ensemble-based RVM learning algorithm performs better than the hybrid prognostic approaches using the popular learning algorithms of feedforward artificial neural networks (ANNs like the conventional backpropagation (BP algorithm and support vector machines (SVMs. In addition, an investigation is also conducted to identify the effects of RVM learning algorithm on the proposed hybrid prognostic approach.

  4. Regression to fuzziness method for estimation of remaining useful life in power plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamaniotis, Miltiadis; Grelle, Austin; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H.

    2014-10-01

    Mitigation of severe accidents in power plants requires the reliable operation of all systems and the on-time replacement of mechanical components. Therefore, the continuous surveillance of power systems is a crucial concern for the overall safety, cost control, and on-time maintenance of a power plant. In this paper a methodology called regression to fuzziness is presented that estimates the remaining useful life (RUL) of power plant components. The RUL is defined as the difference between the time that a measurement was taken and the estimated failure time of that component. The methodology aims to compensate for a potential lack of historical data by modeling an expert's operational experience and expertise applied to the system. It initially identifies critical degradation parameters and their associated value range. Once completed, the operator's experience is modeled through fuzzy sets which span the entire parameter range. This model is then synergistically used with linear regression and a component's failure point to estimate the RUL. The proposed methodology is tested on estimating the RUL of a turbine (the basic electrical generating component of a power plant) in three different cases. Results demonstrate the benefits of the methodology for components for which operational data is not readily available and emphasize the significance of the selection of fuzzy sets and the effect of knowledge representation on the predicted output. To verify the effectiveness of the methodology, it was benchmarked against the data-based simple linear regression model used for predictions which was shown to perform equal or worse than the presented methodology. Furthermore, methodology comparison highlighted the improvement in estimation offered by the adoption of appropriate of fuzzy sets for parameter representation.

  5. REMAINING LIFE TIME PREDICTION OF BEARINGS USING K-STAR ALGORITHM – A STATISTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SATISHKUMAR

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of bearings is significant in reducing the down time of all rotating machineries. The increasing trend of bearing failures in recent times has triggered the need and importance of deployment of condition monitoring. There are multiple factors associated to a bearing failure while it is in operation. Hence, a predictive strategy is required to evaluate the current state of the bearings in operation. In past, predictive models with regression techniques were widely used for bearing lifetime estimations. The Objective of this paper is to estimate the remaining useful life of bearings through a machine learning approach. The ultimate objective of this study is to strengthen the predictive maintenance. The present study was done using classification approach following the concepts of machine learning and a predictive model was built to calculate the residual lifetime of bearings in operation. Vibration signals were acquired on a continuous basis from an experiment wherein the bearings are made to run till it fails naturally. It should be noted that the experiment was carried out with new bearings at pre-defined load and speed conditions until the bearing fails on its own. In the present work, statistical features were deployed and feature selection process was carried out using J48 decision tree and selected features were used to develop the prognostic model. The K-Star classification algorithm, a supervised machine learning technique is made use of in building a predictive model to estimate the lifetime of bearings. The performance of classifier was cross validated with distinct data. The result shows that the K-Star classification model gives 98.56% classification accuracy with selected features.

  6. A Hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-Based Prognostic Approach of the Remaining Useful Life for Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez Lasheras

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique with the principal component analysis (PCA, dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs. Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.. Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines.

  7. Probabilistic Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Composite Aircraft Components, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Probabilistic Fatigue Damage Assessment Network (PFDAN) toolkit for Abaqus will be developed for probabilistic life management of a laminated composite structure...

  8. The discount rate and the value of remaining years of life

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwick, John

    2008-01-01

    We back out an estimate of a personal discount rate of between 3 and 4 percent for a person with a life expectancy of 74 years who dies at age 30 (or 40) and has a value of statistical life of $6.3 million. Central to these calculations is the series generated by Murphy and Topel of value of life years (the dollar value of consumption plus the dollar value of leisure, with some smoothing for income in retirement). We employ the Makeham "model" of life expectancy in our calculations.

  9. Life extension economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithling, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Life extension economic analyses of fossil fueled power plants need the development of consistent methods which consider the capital costs associated with component replacement or repair and estimates of normal station capital expenditures over the units remaining life. In order to link capital and production costs, Niagra Mohawk Power Corp. develops most and worst cases. A most case includes capital components that would definitely need replacement or modification for life extension. The worst case scenario contains must case capital costs plus various components which may need replacement or modification. In addition, two forecasted conditions are used, base case capacity and low capacity

  10. Tool Condition Monitoring and Remaining Useful Life Prognostic Based on a Wireless Sensor in Dry Milling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunji Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tool breakage causes losses of surface polishing and dimensional accuracy for machined part, or possible damage to a workpiece or machine. Tool Condition Monitoring (TCM is considerably vital in the manufacturing industry. In this paper, an indirect TCM approach is introduced with a wireless triaxial accelerometer. The vibrations in the three vertical directions (x, y and z are acquired during milling operations, and the raw signals are de-noised by wavelet analysis. These features of de-noised signals are extracted in the time, frequency and time–frequency domains. The key features are selected based on Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient (PCC. The Neuro-Fuzzy Network (NFN is adopted to predict the tool wear and Remaining Useful Life (RUL. In comparison with Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN and Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN, the results show that the NFN has the best performance in the prediction of tool wear and RUL.

  11. Role of stable isotope analyses in reconstructing past life-histories and the provenancing human skeletal remains: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehrawat Jagmahender Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the present scenario of use of stable isotopes (mainly δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, 87Sr to trace past life behaviours like breast feeding and weaning practices, the geographic origin, migration history, paleodiet and subsistence patterns of past populations from the chemical signatures of isotopes imprinted in human skeletal remains. This approach is based on the state that food-web isotopic signatures are seen in the human bones and teeth and such signatures can change parallely with a variety of biogeochemical processes. By measuring δ13C and δ15N isotopic values of subadult tissues of different ages, the level of breast milk ingestion at particular ages and the components of the complementary foods can be assessed. Strontium and oxygen isotopic analyses have been used for determining the geographic origins and reconstructing the way of life of past populations as these isotopes can map the isotopic outline of the area from where the person acquired water and food during initial lifetime. The isotopic values of strontium and oxygen values are considered specific to geographical areas and serve as reliable chemical signatures of migration history of past human populations (local or non-local to the site. Previous isotopic studies show that the subsistence patterns of the past human populations underwent extensive changes from nomadic to complete agricultural dependence strategies. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of local fauna of any archaeological site can be used to elucidate the prominence of freshwater resources in the diet of the past human populations found near the site. More extensive research covering isotopic descriptions of various prehistoric, historic and modern populations is needed to explore the role of stable isotope analysis for provenancing human skeletal remains and assessing human migration patterns/routes, geographic origins, paleodiet and subsistence practices of past populations.

  12. Effect of interaction of embedded crack and free surface on remaining fatigue life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genshichiro Katsumata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Embedded crack located near free surface of a component interacts with the free surface. When the distance between the free surface and the embedded crack is short, stress at the crack tip ligament is higher than that at the other area of the cracked section. It can be easily expected that fatigue crack growth is fast, when the embedded crack locates near the free surface. To avoid catastrophic failures caused by fast fatigue crack growth at the crack tip ligament, fitness-for-service (FFS codes provide crack-to-surface proximity rules. The proximity rules are used to determine whether the cracks should be treated as embedded cracks as-is, or transformed to surface cracks. Although the concepts of the proximity rules are the same, the specific criteria and the rules to transform embedded cracks into surface cracks differ amongst FFS codes. This paper focuses on the interaction between an embedded crack and a free surface of a component as well as on its effects on the remaining fatigue lives of embedded cracks using the proximity rules provided by the FFS codes. It is shown that the remaining fatigue lives for the embedded cracks strongly depend on the crack aspect ratio and location from the component free surface. In addition, it can be said that the proximity criteria defined by the API and RSE-M codes give overly conservative remaining lives. On the contrary, the WES and AME codes always give long remaining lives and non-conservative estimations. When the crack aspect ratio is small, ASME code gives non-conservative estimation.

  13. Review of the Remaining Useful Life Prognostics of Vehicle Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Data-Driven Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Wu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries are the primary power source in electric vehicles, and the prognosis of their remaining useful life is vital for ensuring the safety, stability, and long lifetime of electric vehicles. Accurately establishing a mechanism model of a vehicle lithium-ion battery involves a complex electrochemical process. Remaining useful life (RUL prognostics based on data-driven methods has become a focus of research. Current research on data-driven methodologies is summarized in this paper. By analyzing the problems of vehicle lithium-ion batteries in practical applications, the problems that need to be solved in the future are identified.

  14. A probabilistic degradation model for the estimation of the remaining life distribution of feeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, X.-X.; Pandey, M.D.; Bickel, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Wall thinning due to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is a pervasive form of degradation in the outlet feeder pipes of the primary heat transport system of CANDU reactors. The prediction of the end-of-life of a feeder from wall thickness measurement data is confounded by the sampling and temporal uncertainties associated with the FAC degradation phenomenon. Traditional regression-based statistical methods deal with only the sampling uncertainties, leaving the temporal uncertainties unresolved. This paper presents an advanced probabilistic model, which is able to integrate the temporal uncertainties into the prediction of lifetime. In particular, a random gamma process model is proposed to model the FAC process and it is calibrated with a set of wall thickness measurements using the method of maximum likelihood. This information can be used to establish an optimum strategy for inspection and replacement of feeders. (author)

  15. Remaining Useful Life Estimation using Time Trajectory Tracking and Support Vector Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galar, D; Kumar, U; Lee, J; Zhao, W

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel RUL prediction method inspired by feature maps and SVM classifiers is proposed. The historical instances of a system with life-time condition data are used to create a classification by SVM hyper planes. For a test instance of the same system, whose RUL is to be estimated, degradation speed is evaluated by computing the minimal distance defined based on the degradation trajectories, i.e. the approach of the system to the hyper plane that segregates good and bad condition data at different time horizon. Therefore, the final RUL of a specific component can be estimated and global RUL information can then be obtained by aggregating the multiple RUL estimations using a density estimation method.

  16. Remaining useful life estimation based on stochastic deterioration models: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Son, Khanh; Fouladirad, Mitra; Barros, Anne; Levrat, Eric; Iung, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Prognostic of system lifetime is a basic requirement for condition-based maintenance in many application domains where safety, reliability, and availability are considered of first importance. This paper presents a probabilistic method for prognostic applied to the 2008 PHM Conference Challenge data. A stochastic process (Wiener process) combined with a data analysis method (Principal Component Analysis) is proposed to model the deterioration of the components and to estimate the RUL on a case study. The advantages of our probabilistic approach are pointed out and a comparison with existing results on the same data is made

  17. Lung Abscess Remains a Life-Threatening Condition in Pediatrics – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirteș Ioana Raluca

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary abscess or lung abscess is a lung infection which destroys the lung parenchyma leading to cavitations and central necrosis in localised areas formed by thick-walled purulent material. It can be primary or secondary. Lung abscesses can occur at any age, but it seems that paediatric pulmonary abscess morbidity is lower than in adults. We present the case of a one year and 5-month-old male child admitted to our clinic for fever, loss of appetite and an overall altered general status. Laboratory tests revealed elevated inflammatory biomarkers, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, anaemia, thrombocytosis, low serum iron concentration and increased lactate dehydrogenase level. Despite wide-spectrum antibiotic therapy, the patient’s progress remained poor after seven days of treatment and a CT scan established the diagnosis of a large lung abscess. Despite changing the antibiotic therapy, surgical intervention was eventually needed. There was a slow but steady improvment and eventually, the patient was discharged after approximately five weeks.

  18. Development and advance of methodological basis of the determination of remaining life of reinforced concrete construction of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matchenko, T.Yi.; Shamyis, L.B.; Pervushova, L.F.; Matchenko, O.T.

    2011-01-01

    The analysis is made of the existing methodological basis on determination of the technical state and residual service life of building constructions with categories of responsibility 1 and 2. The absent norms parameters for estimation of the state and service life of constructions are determined. Components for the decision of this problem are analyzed also.

  19. An online method for lithium-ion battery remaining useful life estimation using importance sampling and neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ji; Zhang, Chenbin; Chen, Zonghai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An online RUL estimation method for lithium-ion battery is proposed. • RUL is described by the difference among battery terminal voltage curves. • A feed forward neural network is employed for RUL estimation. • Importance sampling is utilized to select feed forward neural network inputs. - Abstract: An accurate battery remaining useful life (RUL) estimation can facilitate the design of a reliable battery system as well as the safety and reliability of actual operation. A reasonable definition and an effective prediction algorithm are indispensable for the achievement of an accurate RUL estimation result. In this paper, the analysis of battery terminal voltage curves under different cycle numbers during charge process is utilized for RUL definition. Moreover, the relationship between RUL and charge curve is simulated by feed forward neural network (FFNN) for its simplicity and effectiveness. Considering the nonlinearity of lithium-ion charge curve, importance sampling (IS) is employed for FFNN input selection. Based on these results, an online approach using FFNN and IS is presented to estimate lithium-ion battery RUL in this paper. Experiments and numerical comparisons are conducted to validate the proposed method. The results show that the FFNN with IS is an accurate estimation method for actual operation.

  20. A case study of remaining storage life prediction using stochastic filtering with the influence of condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaoqiang; Hu, Changhua; Wang, Wenbin; Zhou, Zhijie; Si, Xiaosheng

    2014-01-01

    Some systems may spend most of their time in storage, but once needed, must be fully functional. Slow degradation occurs when the system is in storage, so to ensure the functionality of these systems, condition monitoring is usually conducted periodically to check the condition of the system. However, taking the condition monitoring data may require putting the system under real testing situation which may accelerate the degradation, and therefore, shorten the storage life of the system. This paper presents a case study of condition-based remaining storage life prediction for gyros in the inertial navigation system on the basis of the condition monitoring data and the influence of the condition monitoring data taking process. A stochastic-filtering-based degradation model is developed to incorporate both into the prediction of the remaining storage life distribution. This makes the predicted remaining storage life depend on not only the condition monitoring data but also the testing process of taking the condition monitoring data, which the existing prognostic techniques and algorithms did not consider. The presented model is fitted to the real condition monitoring data of gyros testing using the maximum likelihood estimation method for parameter estimation. Comparisons are made with the model without considering the process of taking the condition monitoring data, and the results clearly demonstrate the superiority of the newly proposed model

  1. Bioarchaeological Analysis of the Human Skeletal Remains from the Late Mediaeval Cemetery of Koprivno, Southern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Novak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of bioarchaeological analysis of the late mediaeval (13th-14th century skeletal sample from Koprivno, southern Croatia. Skeletal remains of 21 individuals (eight males, nine females, and four subadults were examined for the possible presence of dental pathologies (caries and alveolar bone diseases, subadult stress indicators (cribra orbitalia and dental enamel hypoplasia, degenerative osteoarthritis of the vertebrae and major joints, Schmorl’s nodes on vertebrae, periostitis, and bone trauma. The analysed sample is characterised by high frequency of alveolar bone disease, most probably as a result of somewhat longer average life span (around 41 years and very poor oral hygiene, while the data concerning dental caries indicate mixed diet evenly based on meat and cereals. High frequencies of cribra orbitalia, dental enamel hypoplasia and periostitis suggest frequent episodes of physiological stress (hunger, epidemics of infectious diseases which is in accordance with historical data. Distribution and prevalence of cranial traumas strongly suggest a relatively high degree of interpersonal violence in the analysed community.

  2. A Bayesian least-squares support vector machine method for predicting the remaining useful life of a microwave component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate lifetime prediction of critical components in a system is important to maintaining the system’s reliable operation. To this end, many lifetime prediction methods have been developed to handle various failure-related data collected in different situations. Among these methods, machine learning and Bayesian updating are the most popular ones. In this article, a Bayesian least-squares support vector machine method that combines least-squares support vector machine with Bayesian inference is developed for predicting the remaining useful life of a microwave component. A degradation model describing the change in the component’s power gain over time is developed, and the point and interval remaining useful life estimates are obtained considering a predefined failure threshold. In our case study, the radial basis function neural network approach is also implemented for comparison purposes. The results indicate that the Bayesian least-squares support vector machine method is more precise and stable in predicting the remaining useful life of this type of components.

  3. A new hybrid method for the prediction of the remaining useful life of a lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yang; Fang, Huajing; Zhang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The proposed prognostic method can make full use of historical information. •The method of obtaining historical error data is discussed in detail. •Comparative experiments based on data-driven and model-based methods are performed. •Battery working with different discharging currents is considered. -- Abstract: The lithium-ion battery has become the main power source of many electronic devices, it is necessary to know its state-of-health and remaining useful life to ensure the reliability of electronic device. In this paper, a novel hybrid method with the thought of error-correction is proposed to predict the remaining useful life of lithium-ion battery, which fuses the algorithms of unscented Kalman filter, complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD) and relevance vector machine. Firstly, the unscented Kalman filter algorithm is adopted to obtain a prognostic result based on an estimated model and produce a raw error series. Secondly, a new error series is constructed by analyzing the decomposition results of the raw error series obtained by CEEMD method. Finally, the new error series is utilized by relevance vector machine regression model to predict the prognostic error which is adopted to correct the prognostic result obtained by unscented Kalman filter. Remaining useful life prediction experiments for batteries with different rated capacities and discharging currents are performed to show the high reliability of the proposed hybrid method.

  4. Nonlinear-drifted Brownian motion with multiple hidden states for remaining useful life prediction of rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Fangfang; Tsui, Kwok-Leung

    2017-09-01

    Brownian motion with adaptive drift has attracted much attention in prognostics because its first hitting time is highly relevant to remaining useful life prediction and it follows the inverse Gaussian distribution. Besides linear degradation modeling, nonlinear-drifted Brownian motion has been developed to model nonlinear degradation. Moreover, the first hitting time distribution of the nonlinear-drifted Brownian motion has been approximated by time-space transformation. In the previous studies, the drift coefficient is the only hidden state used in state space modeling of the nonlinear-drifted Brownian motion. Besides the drift coefficient, parameters of a nonlinear function used in the nonlinear-drifted Brownian motion should be treated as additional hidden states of state space modeling to make the nonlinear-drifted Brownian motion more flexible. In this paper, a prognostic method based on nonlinear-drifted Brownian motion with multiple hidden states is proposed and then it is applied to predict remaining useful life of rechargeable batteries. 26 sets of rechargeable battery degradation samples are analyzed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed prognostic method. Moreover, some comparisons with a standard particle filter based prognostic method, a spherical cubature particle filter based prognostic method and two classic Bayesian prognostic methods are conducted to highlight the superiority of the proposed prognostic method. Results show that the proposed prognostic method has lower average prediction errors than the particle filter based prognostic methods and the classic Bayesian prognostic methods for battery remaining useful life prediction.

  5. An analysis of the alleged skeletal remains of Carin Göring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kjellström

    Full Text Available In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS, the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring.

  6. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Li-ion Battery for Energy Storage System Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongjin; Kim, Seok Goo; Choi, Jooho; Lee, Jaewook [Korea Aerospace Univ., Koyang (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hwa Seob; Park, Sang Hui [Hyosung Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Remaining useful life (RUL) estimation of the Li-ion battery has gained great interest because it is necessary for quality assurance, operation planning, and determination of the exchange period. This paper presents the RUL estimation of an Li-ion battery for an energy storage system using exponential function for the degradation model and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach for parameter estimation. The MCMC approach is dependent upon information such as model initial parameters and input setting parameters which highly affect the estimation result. To overcome this difficulty, this paper offers a guideline for model initial parameters based on the regression result, and MCMC input parameters derived by comparisons with a thorough search of theoretical results.

  8. Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Li-ion Battery for Energy Storage System Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongjin; Kim, Seok Goo; Choi, Jooho; Lee, Jaewook; Song, Hwa Seob; Park, Sang Hui

    2016-01-01

    Remaining useful life (RUL) estimation of the Li-ion battery has gained great interest because it is necessary for quality assurance, operation planning, and determination of the exchange period. This paper presents the RUL estimation of an Li-ion battery for an energy storage system using exponential function for the degradation model and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach for parameter estimation. The MCMC approach is dependent upon information such as model initial parameters and input setting parameters which highly affect the estimation result. To overcome this difficulty, this paper offers a guideline for model initial parameters based on the regression result, and MCMC input parameters derived by comparisons with a thorough search of theoretical results

  9. An On-Board Remaining Useful Life Estimation Algorithm for Lithium-Ion Batteries of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Battery remaining useful life (RUL estimation is critical to battery management and performance optimization of electric vehicles (EVs. In this paper, we present an effective way to estimate RUL online by using the support vector machine (SVM algorithm. By studying the characteristics of the battery degradation process, the rising of the terminal voltage and changing characteristics of the voltage derivative (DV during the charging process are introduced as the training variables of the SVM algorithm to determine the battery RUL. The SVM is then applied to build the battery degradation model and predict the battery real cycle numbers. Experimental results prove that the built battery degradation model shows higher accuracy and less computation time compared with those of the neural network (NN method, thereby making it a potential candidate for realizing online RUL estimation in a battery management system (BMS.

  10. The 2009 Analysis of Information Remaining on Disks Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing use and reliance upon computers in both the public and private sector has led to enormous numbers of computers being disposed of at the end of their useful life within an organisation. As the cost of computers has dropped, their use in the home has also continued to increase. In most organisations, computers have a relatively short life and are replaced on a regular basis with the result that, if not properly cleansed of data, they are released into the public domain containing data that can be relatively up to date. This problem is exacerbated by the increasing popularity and use of smart phones, which also contain significant storage capacity. From the results of the research it remains clear that the majority of organisations and private individuals that are using these computers still remain ignorant or misinformed of the potential volume and type of information that is stored on the hard disks contained within these systems. The evidence of the research is that neither organisations nor individuals have considered, or are aware of, the potential impact of the information that is contained in the disks from these systems becoming available to an unintended third party.This is the fifth study in an ongoing research programme being conducted into the levels and types of information that remain on computer hard disks that have been offered for sale on the second hand market. This ongoing research series has been undertaken to gain an understanding of the level and types of information that remains on these disks, to determine the damage that could potentially be caused if the information was misused, and to determine whether there are any developing trends. The disks used have been purchased in a number of countries.The rationale for this was to determine whether there are any national or regional differences in the way that computer disks are disposed of and to compare the results for any regional or temporal trends. The

  11. Complex Analysis of 700-Year-Old Skeletal Remains found in an Unusual Grave: Case Report

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaněk, D.; Brzobohatá, Hana; Šilerová, M.; Horák, Z.; Nývltová Fišáková, Miriam; Vašinová Galiová, M.; Zedníková Malá, P.; Urbanová, V.; Dobisíková, M.; Beran, M.; Brestovanský, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 5 (2015) ISSN 2332-0915 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36938G Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:68081758 Keywords : mass spectrometry * genealogical * physical anomalies * anthropological Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.omicsonline.org/ open - access /complex-analysis-of-700yearold-skeletal-remains-found-in-an-unusualgravecase-report-2332-0915-1000138.pdf

  12. Survival analysis to explore the characteristics of employee assistance program (EAP) referrals that remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, S; Albert, W; Maynard, M; French, P

    1989-02-01

    This study examined characteristics of referrals to employee assistance programs (EAP) associated with subsequent termination of employment. As well, relationships between characteristics of the referrals and program characteristics were explored. Longitudinal data were collected at several time periods for 163 referrals to EAPs from five organizations. Survival analysis was conducted to determine which variables were associated with termination of employment. Females, cohabitating couples, and employees who worked for the organization for 5 or more years were most likely to remain employed. One interesting finding was that people with alcohol problems were significantly more likely to be formal referrals.

  13. Satellite lithium-ion battery remaining useful life estimation with an iterative updated RVM fused with the KF algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuchen SONG; Datong LIU; Yandong HOU; Jinxiang YU; Yu PENG

    2018-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have become the third-generation space batteries and are widely utilized in a series of spacecraft. Remaining Useful Life (RUL) estimation is essential to a spacecraft as the battery is a critical part and determines the lifetime and reliability. The Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) is a data-driven algorithm used to estimate a battery's RUL due to its sparse fea-ture and uncertainty management capability. Especially, some of the regressive cases indicate that the RVM can obtain a better short-term prediction performance rather than long-term prediction. As a nonlinear kernel learning algorithm, the coefficient matrix and relevance vectors are fixed once the RVM training is conducted. Moreover, the RVM can be simply influenced by the noise with the training data. Thus, this work proposes an iterative updated approach to improve the long-term prediction performance for a battery's RUL prediction. Firstly, when a new estimator is output by the RVM, the Kalman filter is applied to optimize this estimator with a physical degradation model. Then, this optimized estimator is added into the training set as an on-line sample, the RVM model is re-trained, and the coefficient matrix and relevance vectors can be dynamically adjusted to make next iterative prediction. Experimental results with a commercial battery test data set and a satellite battery data set both indicate that the proposed method can achieve a better per-formance for RUL estimation.

  14. Estimation of Remained defects in a Safety-Critical Software using Bayesian Belief Network of Software Development Life Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Jung, Wondea Jung

    2015-01-01

    Some researchers recognized Bayesian belief network (BBN) method to be a promising method of quantifying software reliability. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) comprehensively reviewed various quantitative software reliability methods to identify the most promising methods for use in probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) of digital systems of NPPs against a set of the most desirable characteristics developed therein. BBNs are recognized as a promising way of quantifying software reliability and are useful for integrating many aspects of software engineering and quality assurance. The method explicitly incorporates important factors relevant to reliability, such as the quality of the developer, the development process, problem complexity, testing effort, and the operation environment. In this work, a BBN model was developed to estimate the number of remained defects in a safety-critical software based on the quality evaluation of software development life cycle (SDLC). Even though a number of software reliability evaluation methods exist, none of them can be applicable to the safety-critical software in an NPP because software quality in terms of PDF is required for the PSA

  15. Remaining useful life estimation for deteriorating systems with time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic time-varying operational conditions pose great challenge to the estimation of system remaining useful life (RUL for the deteriorating systems. This paper presents a method based on probabilistic and stochastic approaches to estimate system RUL for periodically monitored degradation processes with dynamic time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones. The method assumes that the degradation rate is influenced by specific operational condition and moreover, the transition between different operational conditions plays the most important role in affecting the degradation process. These operational conditions are assumed to evolve as a discrete-time Markov chain (DTMC. The failure thresholds are also determined by specific operational conditions and described as different failure zones. The 2008 PHM Conference Challenge Data is utilized to illustrate our method, which contains mass sensory signals related to the degradation process of a commercial turbofan engine. The RUL estimation method using the sensor measurements of a single sensor was first developed, and then multiple vital sensors were selected through a particular optimization procedure in order to increase the prediction accuracy. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are presented in a comparison with existing methods for the same dataset.

  16. Machine remaining useful life prediction: An integrated adaptive neuro-fuzzy and high-order particle filtering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaochao; Vachtsevanos, George; Orchard, Marcos E.

    2012-04-01

    Machine prognosis can be considered as the generation of long-term predictions that describe the evolution in time of a fault indicator, with the purpose of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a failing component/subsystem so that timely maintenance can be performed to avoid catastrophic failures. This paper proposes an integrated RUL prediction method using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) and high-order particle filtering, which forecasts the time evolution of the fault indicator and estimates the probability density function (pdf) of RUL. The ANFIS is trained and integrated in a high-order particle filter as a model describing the fault progression. The high-order particle filter is used to estimate the current state and carry out p-step-ahead predictions via a set of particles. These predictions are used to estimate the RUL pdf. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated via the real-world data from a seeded fault test for a UH-60 helicopter planetary gear plate. The results demonstrate that it outperforms both the conventional ANFIS predictor and the particle-filter-based predictor where the fault growth model is a first-order model that is trained via the ANFIS.

  17. Satellite lithium-ion battery remaining useful life estimation with an iterative updated RVM fused with the KF algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen SONG

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries have become the third-generation space batteries and are widely utilized in a series of spacecraft. Remaining Useful Life (RUL estimation is essential to a spacecraft as the battery is a critical part and determines the lifetime and reliability. The Relevance Vector Machine (RVM is a data-driven algorithm used to estimate a battery’s RUL due to its sparse feature and uncertainty management capability. Especially, some of the regressive cases indicate that the RVM can obtain a better short-term prediction performance rather than long-term prediction. As a nonlinear kernel learning algorithm, the coefficient matrix and relevance vectors are fixed once the RVM training is conducted. Moreover, the RVM can be simply influenced by the noise with the training data. Thus, this work proposes an iterative updated approach to improve the long-term prediction performance for a battery’s RUL prediction. Firstly, when a new estimator is output by the RVM, the Kalman filter is applied to optimize this estimator with a physical degradation model. Then, this optimized estimator is added into the training set as an on-line sample, the RVM model is re-trained, and the coefficient matrix and relevance vectors can be dynamically adjusted to make next iterative prediction. Experimental results with a commercial battery test data set and a satellite battery data set both indicate that the proposed method can achieve a better performance for RUL estimation.

  18. Novel Approach for Lithium-Ion Battery On-Line Remaining Useful Life Prediction Based on Permutation Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luping Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of lithium-ion battery often leads to electrical system failure. Battery remaining useful life (RUL prediction can effectively prevent this failure. Battery capacity is usually utilized as health indicator (HI for RUL prediction. However, battery capacity is often estimated on-line and it is difficult to be obtained by monitoring on-line parameters. Therefore, there is a great need to find a simple and on-line prediction method to solve this issue. In this paper, as a novel HI, permutation entropy (PE is extracted from the discharge voltage curve for analyzing battery degradation. Then the similarity between PE and battery capacity are judged by Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses. Experiment results illustrate the effectiveness and excellent similar performance of the novel HI for battery fading indication. Furthermore, we propose a hybrid approach combining Variational mode decomposition (VMD denoising technique, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA, and GM(1,1 models for RUL prediction. Experiment results illustrate the accuracy of the proposed approach for lithium-ion battery on-line RUL prediction.

  19. Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Moltesen, Andreas; Laurent, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    of different sources. The output is a compiled inventory of elementary flows that is used as basis of the subsequent life cycle impact assessment phase. This chapter teaches how to carry out this task through six steps: (1) identifying processes for the LCI model of the product system; (2) planning...

  20. Maximum utilization of primary reformer catalyst tubes careful assessment of remaining life-An experience at an ammonia plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Condition evaluation and residual life assessment of Reformer Catalyst Tubes has always been a point of concern for Ammonia and Methanol Plant operators. Failure of catalyst tubes results in total plant shutdown and consequent production loss. On the other hand, replacement of these tubes entails major cost impact on the company's budget, being a capital expenditure. A careful Residual Life Assessment of the tubes is therefore of utmost importance for maximum utilization of these tubes without jeopardizing plant operational reliability. This paper presents an experience of extracting maximum service life from the catalyst tubes of Primary Reformer of an Ammonia Plant. Fauji Fertilizer Company (FFC) has been operating the plant since 1982, having a designed capacity of 1100 MTPD. Its Primary Reformer has 288 catalyst tubes of IN-519 material (24Cr-24Ni-Nb). The design temperature and pressures are 925 degree C and 38kg/Cm respectively. Thanks to the optimum operating conditions, regular inspections and careful assessment of the residual life, the tubes have achieved more than double of the designed life and are still operating reliably. To evaluate the tube's health, Ultrasonic Inspection (UT) was carried out in 1987 and 1994 using attenuation technique. The tubes with maximum attenuation were marked for further evaluation. Accelerated Creep Rupture Test was carried out on sample tubes periodically (1996, 2001 and 2004). Tubes were selected on the basis of UT results, TMT (Tube Metal Temperature) monitoring and Inspection findings. Based on the combined results of DT, NDT, equipment history and foreseen operational parameters, the life of these tubes was carefully assessed periodically. The tubes have been in service for more than 23 years (design life: 11 years) and a further life of 04 years has been predicted as per last assessment.The experience of successful health evaluation and residual life assessment has saved substantial cost involved in tubes replacement

  1. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program – Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Brenchley, David L.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hashemian, Hash; Konnik, Robert; Ray, Sheila

    2012-09-14

    The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), NDE instrumentation development, universities, commercial NDE services and cable manufacturers, and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The motivation for the R&D roadmap comes from the need to address the aging management of in-containment cables at nuclear power plants (NPPs).

  2. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program – Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, K.L.; Ramuhali, P.; Brenchley, D.L.; Coble, J.B.; Hashemian, H.M.; Konnick, R.; Ray, S.

    2012-09-01

    Executive Summary [partial] The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. A workshop was held to gather subject matter experts to develop the NDE R&D Roadmap for Cables. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, and NDE instrumentation development from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), universities, commercial NDE service vendors and cable manufacturers, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

  3. The 2006 Analysis of Information Remaining on Disks Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available All organisations, whether in the public or private sector, use computers for the storage and processing of information relating to their business or services, their employees and their customers. A large proportion of families and individuals in their homes now also use personal computers and, both intentionally and inadvertently, often store on those computers personal information. It is clear that most organisations and individuals continue to be unaware of the information that may be stored on the hard disks that the computers contain, and have not considered what may happen to the information after the disposal of the equipment.In 2005, joint research was carried out by the University of Glamorgan in Wales and Edith Cowan University in Australia to determine whether second hand computer disks that were purchased from a number of sources still contained any information or whether the information had been effectively erased. The research revealed that, for the majority of the disks that were examined, the information had not been effectively removed and as a result, both organisations and individuals were potentially exposed to a range of potential crimes.  It is worthy of note that in the disposal of this equipment, the organisations involved had failed to meet their statutory, regulatory and legal obligations.This paper describes a second research project that was carried out in 2006 which repeated the research carried out the previous year and also extended the scope of the research to include additional countries.  The methodology used was the same as that in the previous year and the disks that were used for the research were again supplied blind by a third party. The research involved the forensic imaging of the disks which was followed by an analysis of the disks to determine what information remained and whether it could be easily recovered using publicly available tools and techniques.

  4. Elderly with remaining teeth report less frailty and better quality of life than edentulous elderly : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, A. R.; Spoorenberg, S. L. W.; Peters, L. L.; Meijer, H. J. A.; Raghoebar, G. M.; Vissink, A.; Wynia, K.; Visser, A.

    ObjectiveTo assess oral status and self-reported oral health in community-living elderly and to determine differences between relevant subgroups of oral status (remaining teeth, edentulous, implant-retained overdentures) and case complexity (robust, frail, complex care needs). Subjects and methodsIn

  5. Creep, fatigue and creep-fatigue damage evaluation and estimation of remaining life of SUS 304 austenitic stainless steel at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Seiichi; Sakane, Masao; Ohnami, Masateru

    1986-01-01

    Experimental study was made on the damage evaluation and estimation of remaining life of SUS 304 stainless steel in creep, low-cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue at 873 K in air. Creep, fatigue and creep-fatigue damage curves were drawn by the method proposed by D.A. Woodford and the relations between these damages and non-destructive parameters, i.e., microvickers hardness and quantities obtained from X-ray diffraction, were discussed. From these tests, the following conclusions were obtained. (1) Constant damage lines in the diagram of remaining lives in creep and fatigue could be drawn by changing load levels during the tests. Constant damage lines in creep-fatigue were also made by a linear damage rule using both static creep and fatigue damage curves, which agree well with the experimental data in creep-fatigue. (2) Microvickers hardness and half-value breadth in X-ray diffraction are appropriate parameters to evaluate creep damage but are not proper to evaluate fatigue damage. Particle size and microstrain obtained by X-ray profile analysis are good parameters to evaluate both creep and fatigue damages. (author)

  6. Remaining in an Abusive Relationship: An Investment Model Analysis of Nonvoluntary Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusbult, Caryl E.; Martz, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes the nature of interdependence in ongoing relationships, using an investment model to understand decisions to remain in abusive relationships. Found that feelings of commitment were greater among women who had poorer-quality economic alternatives, were more heavily invested in their relationship, and who experienced less dissatisfaction…

  7. Simulation of Microdamage and Evaluation of Remaining Life of Steam Conduit Components from New-Generation Refractory Steel 10Kh9MF-Sh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladshtein, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of microdamage on the remaining life of high-temperature components of steam conduits from high-chromium steel 10Kh9MF-Sh and low-alloy steel 12Kh1M1F are compared. To simulate the microdamage, specimens with a circular notch and different relative diameters are fabricated. Specimens with a notch simulating the highest degree of microdamage and smooth specimens are tested for long-term strength. The coefficient of the remaining life of a conduit is computed for the range of relative damage presenting practical interest.

  8. A new time-series methodology for estimating relationships between elderly frailty, remaining life expectancy, and ambient air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christian J; Lipfert, Frederick W

    2012-01-01

    Many publications estimate short-term air pollution-mortality risks, but few estimate the associated changes in life-expectancies. We present a new methodology for analyzing time series of health effects, in which prior frailty is assumed to precede short-term elderly nontraumatic mortality. The model is based on a subpopulation of frail individuals whose entries and exits (deaths) are functions of daily and lagged environmental conditions: ambient temperature/season, airborne particles, and ozone. This frail susceptible population is unknown; its fluctuations cannot be observed but are estimated using maximum-likelihood methods with the Kalman filter. We used an existing 14-y set of daily data to illustrate the model and then tested the assumption of prior frailty with a new generalized model that estimates the portion of the daily death count allocated to nonfrail individuals. In this demonstration dataset, new entries into the high-risk pool are associated with lower ambient temperatures and higher concentrations of particulate matter and ozone. Accounting for these effects on antecedent frailty reduces this at-risk population, yielding frail life expectancies of 5-7 days. Associations between environmental factors and entries to the at-risk pool are about twice as strong as for mortality. Nonfrail elderly deaths are seen to make only small contributions. This new model predicts a small short-lived frail population-at-risk that is stable over a wide range of environmental conditions. The predicted effects of pollution on new entries and deaths are robust and consistent with conventional morbidity/mortality times-series studies. We recommend model verification using other suitable datasets.

  9. PIXE analysis of remaining bromine in fumigated old manuscripts and books

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, M.; Yoshida, K.; Moritani, K.; Naito, M.; Enami, K.; Kasajima, H.; Takada, J.; Matsushita, R.

    1999-01-01

    Buddhist scriptures in Reeky University Library have been fumigated regularly for protecting them from vermin. Methyl bromide (CH 3 Br) had been used there till 1985. In order to examine whether the chemical remains on the fumigated objects or not, paper fragments of old manuscripts and books, modern paper placed together with them, and non-fumigated ones were analyzed by PIXE. The bromine concentration of fumigated paper was more than from several tens to several hundreds times higher than non-fumigated ones. (author)

  10. Activation and track analysis of the bone remains found in the territory of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Saidullaev, B.J.; Akhmadshaev, A.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : As a rule bones of animals and persons, are plentiful enough in archeology monuments and are frequently also the most numerous materials. Therefore the research of components and microelements in bones can give the valuable information about age and lifestyle of prehistoric relicts on Earth. To ancient bone remains bear and archantrope concernfrom ancient settlement of Selungur located in the territory of Southern Fergana and was found out by Institute of Archaeology in Uzbekistan in 1980. Whereas in the scientific literature there is very poor information about element composition variation in bones during ground bedding

  11. Molecular genetic analysis on the remains of the Dark Countess: Revisiting the French Royal family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, Walther; Berger, Cordula; Sänger, Timo; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine

    2015-11-01

    The "Dark Counts" were a mysterious couple that appeared in the Thuringian village Eishausen in 1807. After living in self imposed solitude for 30 years the woman died and was buried under the name Sophia Botta. Her companion, who presented himself as Vavel de Versay, died in 1845 and was later identified as Leonardus Cornelius van der Valck, secretary of the Dutch embassy in Paris. Their lifestyle led to speculations that she was the true princess Marie Thérèse Charlotte of France, daughter of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. According to these speculations she was substituted by another young woman on a voyage from Paris to Vienna. Molecular genetic analyses were set out to test the remains attributed to the Dark Countess. Mitochondrial DNA testing brought concordant results determined in two forensic laboratories (Innsbruck, Austria and Freiburg, Germany) on parallel samples of the remains. The results were in exclusion to both, the mitochondrial lineage earlier reported for the French Royal family and the mitochondrial haplotype observed in a living descendant of the Royal family. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of Dextromethorphan and Dextrorphan in Skeletal Remains Following Decomposition in Different Microclimate Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, K A; Watterson, J H

    2016-10-01

    The effects of decomposition microclimate on the distribution of dextromethorphan (DXM) and dextrorphan (DXT) in skeletonized remains of rats acutely exposed to DXM were examined. Animals (n = 10) received DXM (75 mg/kg, i.p.), were euthanized 30 min post-dose and immediately allowed to decompose at either Site A (shaded forest microenvironment on a grass-covered soil substrate) or Site B (rocky substrate exposed to direct sunlight, 600 m from Site A). Ambient temperature and relative humidity were automatically recorded 3 cm above rats at each site. Skeletal elements (vertebral columns, ribs, pelvic girdles, femora, tibiae, humeri and scapulae) were harvested, and analyzed using microwave assisted extraction, microplate solid phase extraction, and GC/MS. Drug levels, expressed as mass-normalized response ratios, and the ratios of DXT and DXM levels were compared across bones and between microclimate sites. No significant differences in DXT levels or metabolite/parent ratios were observed between sites or across bones. Only femoral DXM levels differed significantly between microclimate sites. For pooled data, microclimate was not observed to significantly affect analyte levels, nor the ratio of levels of DXT and DXM. These data suggest that microclimate conditions do not influence DXM and metabolite distribution in skeletal remains. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. 309 proteomic analysis of the blastocoel fluid and remaining cells of bovine blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P L; Groendahl, M L; Beck, Helle

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are derived from the human blastocyst and possess the potential to differentiate into any cell type present in the adult human body. Human ESC are considered to have great potential in regenerative medicine for the future treatment of severe diseases and conditions...... such as Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and spinal cord injury. One of today's challenges in regenerative medicine is to define proper culture conditions for hESC. The natural milieu in the blastocyst may provide clues on how to improve culture conditions, and the aim of the present study was to determine...... the proteome of the blastocoel fluid and the remaining cells of bovine blastocysts. Bovine blastocysts were produced by in vitro fertilization of oocytes retrieved from slaughterhouse ovaries. The blastocoel from 195 blastocysts (1-8nL per blastocyst) were isolated by micromanipulation and analysed by nano...

  14. An integrated unscented kalman filter and relevance vector regression approach for lithium-ion battery remaining useful life and short-term capacity prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiujuan; Fang, Huajing

    2015-01-01

    The gradual decreasing capacity of lithium-ion batteries can serve as a health indicator for tracking the degradation of lithium-ion batteries. It is important to predict the capacity of a lithium-ion battery for future cycles to assess its health condition and remaining useful life (RUL). In this paper, a novel method is developed using unscented Kalman filter (UKF) with relevance vector regression (RVR) and applied to RUL and short-term capacity prediction of batteries. A RVR model is employed as a nonlinear time-series prediction model to predict the UKF future residuals which otherwise remain zero during the prediction period. Taking the prediction step into account, the predictive value through the RVR method and the latest real residual value constitute the future evolution of the residuals with a time-varying weighting scheme. Next, the future residuals are utilized by UKF to recursively estimate the battery parameters for predicting RUL and short-term capacity. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is validated and compared to other predictors with the experimental data. According to the experimental and analysis results, the proposed approach has high reliability and prediction accuracy, which can be applied to battery monitoring and prognostics, as well as generalized to other prognostic applications. - Highlights: • An integrated method is proposed for RUL prediction as well as short-term capacity prediction. • Relevance vector regression model is employed as a nonlinear time-series prediction model. • Unscented Kalman filter is used to recursively update the states for battery model parameters during the prediction. • A time-varying weighting scheme is utilized to improve the accuracy of the RUL prediction. • The proposed method demonstrates high reliability and prediction accuracy.

  15. The 2007 Analysis of Information Remaining on Disks Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available All organisations, whether in the public or private sector, increasingly use computers and other devices that contain computer hard disks for the storage and processing of information relating to their business, their employees or their customers. Individual home users also increasingly use computers and other devices containing computer hard disks for the storage and processing of information relating to their private, personal affairs. It continues to be clear that the majority of organisations and individual home users still remain ignorant or misinformed of the volume and type of information that is stored on the hard disks that these devices contain and have not considered, or are unaware of, the potential impact of this information becoming available to their competitors or to people with criminal intent.This is the third study in an ongoing research effort that is being conducted into the volume and type of information that remains on computer hard disks offered for sale on the second hand market.  The purpose of the research has been to gain an understanding of the information that remains on the disk and to determine the level of damage that could, potentially be caused, if the information fell into the wrong hands.  The study examines disks that have been obtained in a number of countries to determine whether there is any detectable national or regional variance in the way that the disposal of computer disks is addressed and to compare the results for any other detectable regional or temporal trends.The first study was carried out in 2005 and was repeated in 2006 with the scope extended to include additional countries. The studies were carried out by British Telecommunications, the University of Glamorgan in the UK and Edith Cowan University in Australia. The basis of the research was to acquire a number of second hand computer disks from various sources and then determine whether they still contained information relating to a

  16. A New Predictive Model Based on the ABC Optimized Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines Approach for Predicting the Remaining Useful Life in Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino José García Nieto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Remaining useful life (RUL estimation is considered as one of the most central points in the prognostics and health management (PHM. The present paper describes a nonlinear hybrid ABC–MARS-based model for the prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. Indeed, it is well-known that an accurate RUL estimation allows failure prevention in a more controllable way so that the effective maintenance can be carried out in appropriate time to correct impending faults. The proposed hybrid model combines multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, which have been successfully adopted for regression problems, with the artificial bee colony (ABC technique. This optimization technique involves parameter setting in the MARS training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. However, its use in reliability applications has not yet been widely explored. Bearing this in mind, remaining useful life values have been predicted here by using the hybrid ABC–MARS-based model from the remaining measured parameters (input variables for aircraft engines with success. A correlation coefficient equal to 0.92 was obtained when this hybrid ABC–MARS-based model was applied to experimental data. The agreement of this model with experimental data confirmed its good performance. The main advantage of this predictive model is that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the aircraft engine.

  17. Quantifying inter-laboratory variability in stable isotope analysis of ancient skeletal remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Pestle

    Full Text Available Over the past forty years, stable isotope analysis of bone (and tooth collagen and hydroxyapatite has become a mainstay of archaeological and paleoanthropological reconstructions of paleodiet and paleoenvironment. Despite this method's frequent use across anthropological subdisciplines (and beyond, the present work represents the first attempt at gauging the effects of inter-laboratory variability engendered by differences in a sample preparation, and b analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration. Replicate analyses of a 14C-dated ancient human bone by twenty-one archaeological and paleoecological stable isotope laboratories revealed significant inter-laboratory isotopic variation for both collagen and carbonate. For bone collagen, we found a sizeable range of 1.8‰ for δ13Ccol and 1.9‰ for δ15Ncol among laboratories, but an interpretatively insignificant average pairwise difference of 0.2‰ and 0.4‰ for δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol respectively. For bone hydroxyapatite the observed range increased to a troublingly large 3.5‰ for δ13Cap and 6.7‰ for δ18Oap, with average pairwise differences of 0.6‰ for δ13Cap and a disquieting 2.0‰ for δ18Oap. In order to assess the effects of preparation versus analysis on isotopic variability among laboratories, a subset of the samples prepared by the participating laboratories were analyzed a second time on the same instrument. Based on this duplicate analysis, it was determined that roughly half of the isotopic variability among laboratories could be attributed to differences in sample preparation, with the other half resulting from differences in analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration. These findings have serious implications for choices made in the preparation and extraction of target biomolecules, the comparison of results obtained from different laboratories, and the interpretation of small differences in bone collagen and hydroxyapatite

  18. Quantifying inter-laboratory variability in stable isotope analysis of ancient skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestle, William J; Crowley, Brooke E; Weirauch, Matthew T

    2014-01-01

    Over the past forty years, stable isotope analysis of bone (and tooth) collagen and hydroxyapatite has become a mainstay of archaeological and paleoanthropological reconstructions of paleodiet and paleoenvironment. Despite this method's frequent use across anthropological subdisciplines (and beyond), the present work represents the first attempt at gauging the effects of inter-laboratory variability engendered by differences in a) sample preparation, and b) analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration). Replicate analyses of a 14C-dated ancient human bone by twenty-one archaeological and paleoecological stable isotope laboratories revealed significant inter-laboratory isotopic variation for both collagen and carbonate. For bone collagen, we found a sizeable range of 1.8‰ for δ13Ccol and 1.9‰ for δ15Ncol among laboratories, but an interpretatively insignificant average pairwise difference of 0.2‰ and 0.4‰ for δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol respectively. For bone hydroxyapatite the observed range increased to a troublingly large 3.5‰ for δ13Cap and 6.7‰ for δ18Oap, with average pairwise differences of 0.6‰ for δ13Cap and a disquieting 2.0‰ for δ18Oap. In order to assess the effects of preparation versus analysis on isotopic variability among laboratories, a subset of the samples prepared by the participating laboratories were analyzed a second time on the same instrument. Based on this duplicate analysis, it was determined that roughly half of the isotopic variability among laboratories could be attributed to differences in sample preparation, with the other half resulting from differences in analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration). These findings have serious implications for choices made in the preparation and extraction of target biomolecules, the comparison of results obtained from different laboratories, and the interpretation of small differences in bone collagen and hydroxyapatite isotope values

  19. Analysis of Information Remaining on Hand Held Devices Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The ownership and use of mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistants and other hand held devices is now ubiquitous both for home and business use. The majority of these devices have a high initial cost, a relatively short period before they become obsolescent and a relatively low second hand value.  As a result of this, when the devices are replaced, there are indications that they tend to be discarded.  As technology has continued to develop, it has led to an increasing diversity in the number and type of devices that are available, and the processing power and the storage capacity of the digital storage in the device. All organisations, whether in the public or private sector increasingly use hand held devices that contain digital media for the storage of information relating to their business, their employees or their customers. Similarly, individual private users increasingly use hand held devices containing digital media for the storage of information relating to their private lives.The research revealed that a significant number of organisations and private users are ignorant or misinformed about the volume and type of information that is stored on the hand held devices and the media on which it is stored.  It is apparent that they have either not considered, or are unaware of, the potential impact of this information becoming available to their competitors or those with criminal intent.This main purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the volume and type of information that may remain on hand held devices that are offered for sale on the second hand market.  A second aim of the research was to determine the level of damage that could, potentially be caused, if the information that remains on the devices fell into the wrong hands.  The study examined a number of hand held devices that had been obtained from sources in the UK and Australia that ranged from internet auction sites, to private sales and commercial

  20. The Life Cycle Analysis Toolbox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, L.; Tonn, B.E.; Williams, K.A.; Yerace, P.; Yuracko, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    The life cycle analysis toolbox is a valuable integration of decision-making tools and supporting materials developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to help Department of Energy managers improve environmental quality, reduce costs, and minimize risk. The toolbox provides decision-makers access to a wide variety of proven tools for pollution prevention (P2) and waste minimization (WMin), as well as ORNL expertise to select from this toolbox exactly the right tool to solve any given P2/WMin problem. The central element of the toolbox is a multiple criteria approach to life cycle analysis developed specifically to aid P2/WMin decision-making. ORNL has developed numerous tools that support this life cycle analysis approach. Tools are available to help model P2/WMin processes, estimate human health risks, estimate costs, and represent and manipulate uncertainties. Tools are available to help document P2/WMin decision-making and implement programs. Tools are also available to help track potential future environmental regulations that could impact P2/WMin programs and current regulations that must be followed. An Internet-site will provide broad access to the tools

  1. Hybrid PSO–SVM-based method for forecasting of the remaining useful life for aircraft engines and evaluation of its reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Nieto, P.J.; García-Gonzalo, E.; Sánchez Lasheras, F.; Cos Juez, F.J. de

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes a hybrid PSO–SVM-based model for the prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The proposed hybrid model combines support vector machines (SVMs), which have been successfully adopted for regression problems, with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. This optimization technique involves kernel parameter setting in the SVM training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. However, its use in reliability applications has not been yet widely explored. Bearing this in mind, remaining useful life values have been predicted here by using the hybrid PSO–SVM-based model from the remaining measured parameters (input variables) for aircraft engines with success. A coefficient of determination equal to 0.9034 was obtained when this hybrid PSO–RBF–SVM-based model was applied to experimental data. The agreement of this model with experimental data confirmed its good performance. One of the main advantages of this predictive model is that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the engine. Finally, the main conclusions of this study are exposed. - Highlights: • A hybrid PSO–SVM-based model is built as a predictive model of the RUL values for aircraft engines. • The remaining physical–chemical variables in this process are studied in depth. • The obtained regression accuracy of our method is about 95%. • The results show that PSO–SVM-based model can assist in the diagnosis of the RUL values with accuracy

  2. Experience of childhood abuse and later number of remaining teeth in older Japanese: a life-course study from Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Takeo; Aida, Jun; Watt, Richard G; Kondo, Naoki; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Kondo, Katsunori; Osaka, Ken

    2016-12-01

    From a life-course perspective, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as childhood abuse are known risk factors for adult diseases and death throughout life. ACEs could also cause poor dental health in later life because they could induce poor dental health in childhood, initiate unhealthy behaviors, and lower immune and physiological functions. However, it is not known whether ACEs have a longitudinal adverse effect on dental health in older age. This study aimed to investigate the association between experience of childhood abuse until the age of 18 and current number of remaining teeth among a sample of older Japanese adults. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), a large-scale, self-reported survey in 2013 including 27 525 community-dwelling Japanese aged ≥65 years (response rate=71.1%). The outcome, current number of remaining teeth was used categorically: ≥20, 10-19, 5-9, 1-4, and no teeth. Childhood abuse was defined as having any experience of physical abuse, psychological abuse, and psychological neglect up until the age of 18 years. Ordered logistic regression models were applied. Of the 25 189 respondents who indicated their number of remaining teeth (mean age: 73.9; male: 46.5%), 14.8% had experience of childhood abuse. Distributions of ≥20, 10-19, 5-9, 1-4, and no teeth were as follows: 46.6%, 22.0%, 11.4%, 8.2%, and 11.8% among respondents with childhood abuse, while 52.3%, 21.3%, 10.3%, 6.6%, and 9.5% among respondents without childhood abuse. Childhood abuse was significantly associated with fewer remaining teeth after adjusting for covariates including socioeconomic status (odds ratio=1.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.22). Childhood abuse could have a longitudinal adverse effect on later dental health in older age. This study emphasizes the importance of early life experiences on dental health throughout later life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by

  3. Relationship Between the Remaining Years of Healthy Life Expectancy in Older Age and National Income Level, Educational Attainment, and Improved Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2016-10-01

    The remaining years of healthy life expectancy (RYH) at age 65 years can be calculated as RYH (65) = healthy life expectancy-aged 65 years. This study confirms the associations between socioeconomic indicators and the RYH (65) in 148 countries. The RYH data were obtained from the World Health Organization. Significant positive correlations between RYH (65) in men and women and the socioeconomic indicators national income, education level, and improved drinking water were found. Finally, the predictors of RYH (65) in men and women were used to build a model of the RYH using higher socioeconomic indicators (R(2 )= 0.744, p educational attainment, national income level, and improved water quality influenced the RYH at 65 years. Therefore, policymaking to improve these country-level socioeconomic factors is expected to have latent effects on RYH in older age. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Direct Analysis as a historical documentation tool of the remains of the Castielfabib ramparts and their evolution (Valencian Community, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Vázquez Esparza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available   Castielfabib is a small town on the frontier between the old Spanish kingdoms of Castilla and Aragon. Due to the fact that the few remaining segments of its old walls are widely separated from each other, it is not possible to establish with any certainty a plan of the original ramparts. There is also the added complication of the wide variety of materials of which the different segments are composed, which makes it difficult to date or establish relationships between them. This meant that direct analysis of the masonry and paraments by digital tools was the only practical method of obtaining scientific data on the evolution of the different remains as a basis for forming sound hypotheses on their construction and evolution.

  5. Evidence of a high-Andean, mid-Holocene plant community: An ancient DNA analysis of glacially preserved remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Billie A; León, Blanca; Buffen, Aron M; Thompson, Lonnie G

    2010-09-01

    Around the world, tropical glaciers and ice caps are retreating at unprecedented rates because of climate change. In at least one location, along the margin of the Quelccaya Ice Cap in southeastern Peru, ancient plant remains have been continually uncovered since 2002. We used genetic analysis to identify plants that existed at these sites during the mid-Holocene. • We examined remains between 4576 and 5222 yr old, using PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing of a fragment of the chloroplast trnL intron. We then matched these sequences to sequences in GenBank. • We found evidence of at least five taxa characteristic of wetlands, which occur primarily at lower elevations in the region today. • A diverse community most likely existed at these locations the last time they were ice-free and thus has the potential to reestablish with time. This is the first genetic analysis of vegetation uncovered by receding glacial ice, and it may become one of many as ancient plant materials are newly uncovered in a changing climate.

  6. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2

  7. Status, remaining service-life and quality assurance of PP-materials in flue-gas applications; Status, kvarvarande livslaengd och kvalitetssaekring av PP-material i anlaeggningar foer rening och kondensering av roekgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Karin

    2011-10-15

    Background: The project is intended to provide a better understanding of how the service life of PP-materials is affected when used in flue-gas applications. It intends to form a basis for the development of relevant techniques and a methodology from which it is possible to give advice and guidance so that the quality of PP-materials can be ensured for a given desired service life. In addition it aims as being able to assess the status and remaining life of PP-materials in current components. Project outline - An inventory, contact and choice of facilities for closer cooperation. Plants with high proportions of PP in the equipment have been prioritised. - Visits to the chosen sites during shut-down periods for inspection and collection of samples from different PP details for further analysis in the laboratory. Collection of operating data and experiences of the use of PP (operating time/exposure conditions in different parts, component substitutions that have been made, etc.). - Systematic studies of the processes and mechanisms for stabiliser consumption over time. - Developing methods and methodology on which advice and guidance can be based so that the quality of PP-materials can be ensured for a given desired service life. The goal is to be able to assess the status and remaining service-life of the PP-materials in flue-gas applications. Results and Conclusions: It has been found that corrosion is relatively rare and that the main factors limiting the use and longevity of polypropylene are the thermal properties (thermal expansion and heat distortion). Leaching of stabilisers from the material is also commonly found but only a few cases of oxidative degradation, as a result of this, have been observed. An important part of the project has been to develop techniques and methodologies to assure the quality PP-material for a desired service life, and to assess the status and remaining life of the PP- materials in flue-gas applications. To do this, samples that

  8. The analysis of plant remains from the fortress Ras - the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borojević Ksenija

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of macro plant remains from the medieval site of Ras that is situated in the southwest Serbia, 11 km southwest from the city of Novi Pazar. The site of Gradina at Ras occupies a plateau on the top of a hill delineated by the remains of the medieval ramparts. The settlement of Podgrađe is situated on the a flat surface along the slopes of Gradina and together form a part of the single settlement and fortification complex Ras characterized by several stages of occupation and development. During archaeological excavations of Ras, macro plant remains were gathered (1972–1984 where observed with a naked eye. Dr. Marko Popović (Archaeological Institute, Belgrade, the principal investigator of Ras and the author of the monograph The Fortress of Ras (1999 provided me with twelve plant samples from the medieval layers of the fortress Gradina, and one sample from the site Podgrađe below the fortress (Table 1. Three samples are from the third building horizon dated to the second half of the 12 century, and the remaining samples are from the fourth building horizon dated to the first decades of the 13 century. This is a period when the fortress was abandoned by the Byzantines and became a stronghold of the territory where the first Serbian state was formed. All plant samples were carbonized, except one that contained five uncarbonized hazelnut shells and a plum pit that were determined to be recent intrusions. Most samples represent material from cereal storages found at features (houses 49, 50, and 52–situated along the west wall of the fortress (Figure 1. One sample is a piece of bread found at feature 36, and one sample represents the contents of a pot found in feature 51. Carbonized peach pits were recovered from cultural layers of the fourth horizon, one from a southeast quadrant of Gradina and the other from a cultural layer excavated in Podgrađe (Table 1.This analysis of plant remains from Ras (Table 2 is the first

  9. Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    The future use of Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis is discussed in this paper. A more complete analysis including not only the traditional factors and user costs, but also factors which are difficult to include in the analysis is needed in the future.......The future use of Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis is discussed in this paper. A more complete analysis including not only the traditional factors and user costs, but also factors which are difficult to include in the analysis is needed in the future....

  10. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  11. Smoking prevalence among lesbian, bisexual and queer women in Sydney remains high: Analysis of trends and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Rachel M; Mooney-Somers, Julie

    2017-07-01

    To investigate smoking prevalence trends and correlates among lesbian, bisexual and queer-identifying (LBQ) women in Sydney, Australia. Data from 5007 respondents to a repeated cross-sectional community survey were used to examine smoking trends between 2004 and 2014. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine smoking correlates. Thirty percent of respondents were current smokers, including 48% of 16 to 24-year-olds. A slight decrease in all-ages smoking over time was not reflected in the youngest age group. LBQ women who smoke have fewer economic, social and psychological resources than both women who never smoke and ex-smokers. High levels of alcohol and illicit drug use are also correlated with current smoking. Population-wide interventions have failed to address the persistently high prevalence of smoking among this sample of LBQ women. Tailored interventions may find utility focusing on personal resilience to deal with general and sexuality-specific stressors, as well as attending to poly-substance use. Acknowledgment of LBQ women as a priority group for tobacco reduction is urgently needed. We call on tobacco control agencies to consider sexuality and gender orientation in policy and partner with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community organisations to develop culturally appropriate interventions. [Deacon RM, Mooney-Somers J Smoking prevalence among lesbian, bisexual and queer women in Sydney remains high: Analysis of trends and correlates Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:546-554]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. New Eocene Coleoid (Cephalopoda Diversity from Statolith Remains: Taxonomic Assignation, Fossil Record Analysis, and New Data for Calibrating Molecular Phylogenies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Neige

    Full Text Available New coleoid cephalopods are described from statolith remains from the Middle Eocene (Middle Lutetian of the Paris Basin. Fifteen fossil statoliths are identified and assigned to the Sepiidae (Sepia boletzkyi sp. nov.,? Sepia pira sp. nov., Loliginidae (Loligo clarkei sp. nov., and Ommastrephidae (genus indet. families. The sediments containing these fossils indicate permanent aquatic settings in the infralittoral domain. These sediments range in age from 46 Mya to 43 Mya. Analysis of the fossil record of statoliths (from findings described here, together with a review of previously published data indicates marked biases in our knowledge. Fossil statoliths are known from as far back as the Early Jurassic (199.3 to 190.8 Mya but surprisingly, to the best of our knowledge, no record occurs in the Cretaceous. This is a "knowledge bias" and clearly calls for further studies. Finally, we attempt to compare findings described here with fossils previously used to constrain divergence and/or diversification ages of some coleoid subclades in molecular phylogenies. This comparison clearly indicates that the new records detailed here will challenge some estimated divergence times of coleoid cephalopod subclades.

  13. New Eocene Coleoid (Cephalopoda) Diversity from Statolith Remains: Taxonomic Assignation, Fossil Record Analysis, and New Data for Calibrating Molecular Phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neige, Pascal; Lapierre, Hervé; Merle, Didier

    2016-01-01

    New coleoid cephalopods are described from statolith remains from the Middle Eocene (Middle Lutetian) of the Paris Basin. Fifteen fossil statoliths are identified and assigned to the Sepiidae (Sepia boletzkyi sp. nov.,? Sepia pira sp. nov.), Loliginidae (Loligo clarkei sp. nov.), and Ommastrephidae (genus indet.) families. The sediments containing these fossils indicate permanent aquatic settings in the infralittoral domain. These sediments range in age from 46 Mya to 43 Mya. Analysis of the fossil record of statoliths (from findings described here, together with a review of previously published data) indicates marked biases in our knowledge. Fossil statoliths are known from as far back as the Early Jurassic (199.3 to 190.8 Mya) but surprisingly, to the best of our knowledge, no record occurs in the Cretaceous. This is a "knowledge bias" and clearly calls for further studies. Finally, we attempt to compare findings described here with fossils previously used to constrain divergence and/or diversification ages of some coleoid subclades in molecular phylogenies. This comparison clearly indicates that the new records detailed here will challenge some estimated divergence times of coleoid cephalopod subclades.

  14. Multistate analysis of life histories with R

    CERN Document Server

    Willekens, Frans

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to multistate event history analysis. It is an extension of survival analysis, in which a single terminal event (endpoint) is considered and the time-to-event is studied. Multistate models focus on life histories or trajectories, conceptualized as sequences of states and sequences of transitions between states. Life histories are modeled as realizations of continuous-time Markov processes. The model parameters, transition rates, are estimated from data on event counts and populations at risk, using the statistical theory of counting processes. The Comprehensive R Network Archive (CRAN) includes several packages for multistate modeling. This book is about Biograph. The package is designed to (a) enhance exploratory analysis of life histories and (b) make multistate modeling accessible. The package incorporates utilities that connect to several packages for multistate modeling, including survival, eha, Epi, mvna, etm, mstate, msm, and TraMineR for sequence analysis. The book ...

  15. Analysis of Dextromethorphan and Dextrorphan in Skeletal Remains Following Differential Microclimate Exposure: Comparison of Acute vs. Repeated Drug Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Lucas M; Unger, Kirk A; Watterson, James H

    2017-07-01

    Analysis of dextromethorphan (DXM) and its metabolite dextrorphan (DXT) in skeletal remains of rats following acute (ACU, 75 mg/kg, IP, n = 10) or three repeated (REP, 25 mg/kg, IP, n = 10, 40-min interval) doses of DXM is described. Following dosing and euthanasia, rats decomposed outdoors to skeleton in two different microclimate environments (n = 5 ACU and n = 5 REP at each site): Site A (shaded forest microenvironment) and Site B (rocky substrate exposed to direct sunlight, 600 m from Site A). Two drug-free rats at each site served as negative controls. Skeletal elements (vertebrae, ribs, pelvic girdles, femora, tibiae, skulls and scapulae) were recovered, pulverized and underwent methanolic microwave assisted extraction (MAE). Extracts were analyzed by GC-MS following clean-up by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Drug levels, expressed as mass-normalized response ratios and the ratios of DXT and DXM levels (RRDXT/RRDXM) were compared between drug exposures, microclimate sites, and across skeletal elements. DXM levels differed significantly (P < 0.05) between corresponding bone elements across exposure groups (5/7-site A; 4/7-site B), but no significant differences in DXT levels were observed between corresponding elements. RRDXT/RRDXM differed significantly (P < 0.05) between corresponding bone elements across exposure groups (6/7-site A; 5/7-site B). No significant differences were observed in levels of DXM, DXT or RRDXT/RRDXM between corresponding elements from either group between sites. When data from all bone elements was pooled, levels of DXM and RRDXT/RRDXM differed significantly between exposure groups at each site, while those of DXT did not. For both exposure groups, comparison of pooled data between sites showed no significant differences in levels of DXM, DXT or RRDXT/RRDXM. Different decomposition microclimates did not impede the discrimination of DXM exposure patterns from the analyses of DXM, DXT and RRDXT/RRDXM in bone samples. © The Author 2017

  16. Complex investigations for the technical diagnosis and constructive optimization of the pipe systems from Rovinari power plant to extend their remaining life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delamarian, C. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Sueddeutschland (TUeV), Muenchen (Germany); Lupescu, L.; Nicolescu, N. [Institutul de Studii si Proiectari Energetice, Bucharest (Romania); Pisc, I.; Botis, A. [ISIM, Timisoara (Romania)

    2003-07-01

    The remnant life assessment of power plant components is an issue of a high importance all over the Europe and not only. The need of power products, the environmental-related restrictions within this field as well as the task of lowering the fabrication costs led to and increased importance of maintenance and retrofit activities of old power equipment during the last decade. Replacement of pipe lines exceeding their designed life is no longer regarded as an option for power plant managers. Instead, life assessment techniques combined with state of the art design and fabrication methods focusing on the replacement of damaged components as well as redesign of pipe line systems in order to eliminate overloading and/or secondary stresses that usually lead to premature life exhaustion are only some of the issues discussed within this paper. It deals with the retrofit of a conventional power plant (Group no. 3 of Rovinari Power Plant) which reached its designed life after about 110.000 operating hours. The need of improvement of the boiler efficiency as well as the extension of the plant life, maintaining in the same time old, but still good components determined the three companies (ISPE, ISIM and TUeV) to gather their skills in order to reach this task. (orig.)

  17. Accuracy analysis of the State-of-Charge and remaining run-time determination for lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the various error sources in a real-time State-of-Charge (SoC) evaluation system and their effects on the overall accuracy in the calculation of the remaining run-time of a battery-operated system. The SoC algorithm for Li-ion batteries studied in this paper combines direct

  18. Accuracy analysis of the state-of-charge and remaining run-time determination for lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the various error sources in a real-time State-of-Charge (SoC) evaluation system and their effects on the overall accuracy in the calculation of the remaining run-time of a battery-operated system. The SoC algorithm for Li-ion batteries studied in this paper combines direct

  19. A National Perspective: An Analysis of Factors That Influence Special Educators to Remain in the Field of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickson, Lautrice M.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze factors that influence special educators to remain in the field of education. School administrators are perplexed by the large number of teachers who decide to leave the field of education after three years. The retention rates of special educators' require school administrators to focus on developing a…

  20. Monitoring microstructural evolution of alloy 617 with non-linear acoustics for remaining useful life prediction; multiaxial creep-fatigue and creep-ratcheting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lissenden, Cliff [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Hassan, Tasnin [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Rangari, Vijaya [Tuskegee Univ., Tuskegee, AL (United States)

    2014-10-30

    The research built upon a prior investigation to develop a unified constitutive model for design-­by-­analysis of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design of next generation nuclear plants (NGNPs). Model development requires a set of failure data from complex mechanical experiments to characterize the material behavior. Therefore uniaxial and multiaxial creep-­fatigue and creep-­ratcheting tests were conducted on the nickel-­base Alloy 617 at 850 and 950°C. The time dependence of material behavior, and the interaction of time dependent behavior (e.g., creep) with ratcheting, which is an increase in the cyclic mean strain under load-­controlled cycling, are major concerns for NGNP design. This research project aimed at characterizing the microstructure evolution mechanisms activated in Alloy 617 by mechanical loading and dwell times at elevated temperature. The acoustic harmonic generation method was researched for microstructural characterization. It is a nonlinear acoustics method with excellent potential for nondestructive evaluation, and even online continuous monitoring once high temperature sensors become available. It is unique because it has the ability to quantitatively characterize microstructural features well before macroscale defects (e.g., cracks) form. The nonlinear acoustics beta parameter was shown to correlate with microstructural evolution using a systematic approach to handle the complexity of multiaxial creep-­fatigue and creep-­ratcheting deformation. Mechanical testing was conducted to provide a full spectrum of data for: thermal aging, tensile creep, uniaxial fatigue, uniaxial creep-­fatigue, uniaxial creep-ratcheting, multiaxial creep-fatigue, and multiaxial creep-­ratcheting. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Optical Microscopy were conducted to correlate the beta parameter with individual microstructure mechanisms. We researched

  1. Monitoring microstructural evolution of alloy 617 with non-linear acoustics for remaining useful life prediction; multiaxial creep-fatigue and creep-ratcheting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lissenden, Cliff; Hassan, Tasnin; Rangari, Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    The research built upon a prior investigation to develop a unified constitutive model for design-@by-@analysis of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design of next generation nuclear plants (NGNPs). Model development requires a set of failure data from complex mechanical experiments to characterize the material behavior. Therefore uniaxial and multiaxial creep-@fatigue and creep-@ratcheting tests were conducted on the nickel base Alloy 617 at 850 and 950°C. The time dependence of material behavior, and the interaction of time dependent behavior (e.g., creep) with ratcheting, which is an increase in the cyclic mean strain under load-@controlled cycling, are major concerns for NGNP design. This research project aimed at characterizing the microstructure evolution mechanisms activated in Alloy 617 by mechanical loading and dwell times at elevated temperature. The acoustic harmonic generation method was researched for microstructural characterization. It is a nonlinear acoustics method with excellent potential for nondestructive evaluation, and even online continuous monitoring once high temperature sensors become available. It is unique because it has the ability to quantitatively characterize microstructural features well before macroscale defects (e.g., cracks) form. The nonlinear acoustics beta parameter was shown to correlate with microstructural evolution using a systematic approach to handle the complexity of multiaxial creep-@fatigue and creep-@ratcheting deformation. Mechanical testing was conducted to provide a full spectrum of data for: thermal aging, tensile creep, uniaxial fatigue, uniaxial creep-@fatigue, uniaxial creep-ratcheting, multiaxial creep-fatigue, and multiaxial creep-@ratcheting. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Optical Microscopy were conducted to correlate the beta parameter with individual microstructure mechanisms. We researched application of the

  2. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.baptista@ist.utl.pt [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  3. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Patricia; Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla; Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO 2 emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: → A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. → The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO 2 emissions results. → A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  4. Sensitivity analysis in life cycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.A.; Heijungs, R.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle assessments require many input parameters and many of these parameters are uncertain; therefore, a sensitivity analysis is an essential part of the final interpretation. The aim of this study is to compare seven sensitivity methods applied to three types of case stud-ies. Two

  5. Mitochondrial DNA analysis on remains of a putative son of Louis XVI, King of France and Marie-Antoinette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehaes, E; Decorte, R; Peneau, A; Petrie, J H; Boiry, P A; Gilissen, A; Moisan, J P; Van den Berghe, H; Pascal, O; Cassiman, J J

    1998-01-01

    Carl Wilhelm Naundorff was buried in 1845 in Delft as Louis Charles, Duc de Normandie, 'Louis XVII'. However, the son of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette-Louis XVII--officially died in the Temple of Paris in 1795. In order to resolve the identity of Naundorff, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences of his remains were compared with the sequences obtained from the hairs of two sisters of Marie-Antoinette, Marie-Antoinette herself, and with the sequences obtained from DNA samples of two living maternal relatives. The mtDNA sequence of a bone sample from Naundorff showed two nucleotide differences from the sequences of the three sisters and four differences from the sequences of living maternal relatives. Based on this evidence it becomes very unlikely that Naundroff is the son of Marie-Antoinette.

  6. Anthropological analysis of the Second World War skeletal remains from three karst sinkholes located in southern Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Ivan; Bašić, Željana; Bečić, Kristijan; Jambrešić, Gordana; Grujić, Ivan; Alujević, Antonio; Kružić, Ivana

    2016-11-01

    Although in the cases of war crimes the main effort goes to the identification of victims, it is crucial to consider the execution event as a whole. Thus, the goal of the research was to determine the trauma type and probable cause of death on skeletal remains of civilians executed by partisans from WWS found in the three karst sinkholes and to explain the context in which the injuries occurred. We determined biological profiles, pathological conditions, traumas, and assessed their lethality. Nineteen skeletons were found, 68.4% had, at least, one perimortem trauma, classified as lethal/lethal if untreated in 69.2% cases. The type of execution and administered violence showed to be age and health dependent: elderly and diseased were executed with the intention to kill, by the gunshot facing victims, whilst the more violent behavior expressed towards younger and healthy individuals was indicated by the higher frequency of blunt force trauma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory Drain Field Septic System. Attachment to Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The 331 Life Sciences Laboratory Drain Field (LSLDF) septic system waste site consists of a diversion chamber, two septic tanks, a distribution box, and a drain field. This septic system was designed to receive sanitary waste water, from animal studies conducted in the 331-A and 331-B Buildings, for discharge into the soil column. However, field observations and testing suggest the 331 LSLDF septic system did not receive any discharges. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of the 331 LSLDF waste site to No Action. This site does not have a deep zone or other condition that would warrant an institutional control in accordance with the 300-FF-2 ROD under the industrial land use scenario

  8. Spatial analysis of charcoal kiln remains in the former royal forest district Tauer (Lower Lusatia, North German Lowlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Alexandra; Schneider, Anna; Bonhage, Alexander; Takla, Melanie; Hirsch, Florian; Müller, Frank; Rösler, Horst; Heußner, Karl-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological excavations have revealed more than thousand charcoal kiln remains (CKRs) in the prefield of the active opencast lignite mine Jänschwalde, situated about 150 km SE of Berlin (SE Brandenburg, Germany). The charcoal was mainly produced for the ironwork Peitz nearby, which operated from the 16th to the mid-19th centuries. In a first approach, to estimate the dimension of the charcoal production, CKRs were mapped on shaded-relief maps (SRMs) derived from high-resolution LiDAR data (Raab et al. 2015). Subsequently, for a selected test area, identified CKRs on the SRMs were compared with archaeologically excavated CKRs in the field. This survey showed a considerably number of falsely detected sites. Therefore, the data was critically re-evaluated using additional relief visualisations. Further, we extended the CKR mapping to areas which are not archaeologically investigated. The study area, the former royal forest district Tauer, consists of two separate areas: the Tauersche Heide (c. 96 km2 area) N of Peitz and the area Jänschwalde (c. 32 km2 area) NE of Peitz. The study area is characterized by a flat topography. Different former and current anthropogenic uses (e.g., military training, solar power plant, forestry measures) have affected the study area, resulting in extensive disturbances of the terrain surface. The revised CKR abundance in the study area Jänschwalde was considerably smaller than the numbers produced by our first approach. Further, the CKR mapping revealed, that a total record of the CKRs is not possible for various reasons. Despite these limitations, a solid database can be provided for a much larger area than before. Basic statistic parameters of the CKR diameters and all comparative statistical tests were calculated using SPSS. To detect underlying spatial relationships in the CKR site distribution, we applied the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic, a method to test for local spatial autocorrelation between neighbouring sites. The test is

  9. Remote sensing, planform, and facies analysis of the Plain of Tineh, Egypt for the remains of the defunct Pelusiac River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar, Jessica; Khan, Shuhab D.; Fathy, Mohamed S.; Zalat, Abdel-Fattah A.

    2013-11-01

    The Pelusiac Branch was a distributary river in the Nile Delta that splits off from the main trunk of the Nile River as it flowed toward the Mediterranean. At approximately 25 A.D., it was chocked by sand and silt deposits from prograding beach accretion processes. The lower course of the river and its bifurcation point from the trunk of the Nile have been hypothesized based on ancient texts and maps, as well as previous research, but results have been inconsistent. Previous studies partly mapped the lower course of the Pelusiac River in the Plain of Tineh, east of the Suez Canal, but rapid urbanization related to the inauguration of the Peace Canal mega-irrigation project has covered any trace of the linear feature reported by these previous studies. The present study used multispectral remote sensing data of GeoEYE-1 and Landsat-TM to locate and accurately map the course of the defunct Pelusiac River within the Plain of Tineh. Remote sensing analysis identified a linear feature that is 135 m wide at its maximum and approximately 13 km long. It extends from the Pelusium ruins to the Suez Canal, just north of the Peace Canal. This remotely located linear feature corresponds to the path of the Pelusiac River during Roman times. Planform geomorphology was applied to determine the hydrological regime and paleodischarge of the river prior to becoming defunct. Planform analysis derived a bankfull paleodischarge value of ~ 5700 m3 s- 1 and an average discharge of 650 m3 s- 1, using the reach average for the interpreted Pelusiac River. The derived values show a river distributary similar in discharge to the modern dammed Damietta river. Field work completed in April of 2012 derived four sedimentary lithofacies of the upper formation on the plain that included pro-delta, delta-front and delta-plain depositional environments. Diatom and fossil mollusk samples were also identified that support coastal beach and lagoonal environments of deposition. Measured section columns

  10. Case study on prediction of remaining methane potential of landfilled municipal solid waste by statistical analysis of waste composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sel, İlker; Çakmakcı, Mehmet; Özkaya, Bestamin; Suphi Altan, H

    2016-10-01

    Main objective of this study was to develop a statistical model for easier and faster Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) prediction of landfilled municipal solid waste by analyzing waste composition of excavated samples from 12 sampling points and three waste depths representing different landfilling ages of closed and active sections of a sanitary landfill site located in İstanbul, Turkey. Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used as a decision support tool to evaluation and describe the waste composition variables. Four principal component were extracted describing 76% of data set variance. The most effective components were determined as PCB, PO, T, D, W, FM, moisture and BMP for the data set. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models were built by original compositional data and transformed data to determine differences. It was observed that even residual plots were better for transformed data the R(2) and Adjusted R(2) values were not improved significantly. The best preliminary BMP prediction models consisted of D, W, T and FM waste fractions for both versions of regressions. Adjusted R(2) values of the raw and transformed models were determined as 0.69 and 0.57, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of pavement life cycle cost analysis: Review and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Babashamsi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The cost of road construction consists of design expenses, material extraction, construction equipment, maintenance and rehabilitation strategies, and operations over the entire service life. An economic analysis process known as Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA is used to evaluate the cost-efficiency of alternatives based on the Net Present Value (NPV concept. It is essential to evaluate the above-mentioned cost aspects in order to obtain optimum pavement life-cycle costs. However, pavement managers are often unable to consider each important element that may be required for performing future maintenance tasks. Over the last few decades, several approaches have been developed by agencies and institutions for pavement Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA. While the transportation community has increasingly been utilising LCCA as an essential practice, several organisations have even designed computer programs for their LCCA approaches in order to assist with the analysis. Current LCCA methods are analysed and LCCA software is introduced in this article. Subsequently, a list of economic indicators is provided along with their substantial components. Collecting previous literature will help highlight and study the weakest aspects so as to mitigate the shortcomings of existing LCCA methods and processes. LCCA research will become more robust if improvements are made, facilitating private industries and government agencies to accomplish their economic aims. Keywords: Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA, Pavement management, LCCA software, Net Present Value (NPV

  12. Borosonic inspection and remaining useful operational life estimation of steam turbine rotors; Inspeccion borosonica y estimacion de vida remanente de rotores de turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnero P, Jose A; Dorantes G, Oscar; Munoz Q, Rodolfo; Serrano R, Luis E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The turbo-generators used in the electric power generation frequently go through transitory operations (start ups, shut downs or power changes). Such actions cause that certain critical components of the turbines, such as rotors and casings, are put under cycles of repetitive stresses, which consume its useful life. The frequency whereupon these transitory thermal cycles happen result in the presence of high thermo-mechanical stresses that produce fatigue (damage) in the rotor material. With time, at the increase of the material fatigue, fissures form that can inclusively lead to severe, catastrophic faults. The borosonic inspection consists in introducing and positioning an automatic probe in the central drill of the rotor, this allows the non-destructive inspection with longitudinal ultrasonic beam, ultrasonic cross-sectional and ultrasonic superficial. This way, it is possible to detect and locate geometric discontinuities (superficial and volumetric), in at least 100 mm of depth from the drill surface in its entire periphery and throughout the rotor length. [Spanish] Los turbogeneradores empleados en la generacion de energia electrica con frecuencia realizan operaciones transitorias (arranques, paros o cambios de potencia). Acciones tales, provocan que ciertos componentes criticos de las turbinas, como los rotores y carcasas, sean sometidos a ciclos de esfuerzos repetitivos, lo que consume su vida util. La frecuencia con que ocurren estos ciclos termicos transitorios da como resultado la presencia de altos esfuerzos termomecanicos que producen una fatiga (dano) en el material del rotor. Con el tiempo, al incrementarse la fatiga del material, se forman fisuras que pueden conducir a fallas severas, catastroficas inclusive. La inspeccion borosonica consiste en introducir y posicionar una sonda automatica en el barreno central del rotor, ello permite la inspeccion no destructiva con haz ultrasonico longitudinal, haz ultrasonico transversal y haz ultrasonico

  13. Long-term prospective longitudinal evaluation of emotional distress and quality of life in cervical cancer patients who remained disease-free 2-years from diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantegna, Giovanna; Petrillo, Marco; Fuoco, Gilda; Venditti, Laura; Terzano, Serena; Anchora, Luigi Pedone; Scambia, Giovanni; Ferrandina, Gabriella

    2013-03-18

    A long-term prospective assessment of QoL in cervical cancer patients is still lacking. Here, we provide the first 2-years prospective, longitudinal study evaluating emotional distress and QoL in early stage (ECC) and locally advanced (LACC) cervical cancer patients who remained disease-free 2-years from diagnosis. The questionnaires: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Global Health Status items of EORTC QLQ-C30 (GHS), and EORTC QLQ-CX24 (CX24) have been administered by a dedicated team of psycho-oncologists, administered at baseline, and after 3, 6, 12 and 24 months from surgery The Generalized Linear Model for repeated measure was used to analyze modifications of QoL measures over time. In both groups, an early reduction of the percentage of patients with anxiety levels ≥11 was observed at the 3-month evaluation (ECC: 25.7% at baseline Vs 14.7% after 3 months, p value=0.001; LACC: 22.2% at baseline Vs 15.4% after 3 months, p value=0.001). Despite this favorable trend, after 2 years from diagnosis, 11.9% of ECC and 15.6% of LACC patients still showed an anxiety score ≥11. No significant changes over time were observed in term of Depression levels. Focusing on QoL issues, mean GHS and Sexual Activity scores showed an improvement over time in both groups compared to baseline (GHS: 5.7% difference for ECC, p value=0.001, and 11.0% in LACC, p value=0.001; SXA: 13.9% difference for ECC, p value=0.001; and 6.1% in LACC, p value=0.008). On the other hand, Body Image mean scores were significantly impaired by chemoradiation administration in LACC patients, without long-term recovery (7.5% difference, p value=0.001). Finally, in both groups, lymphedema (LY) and menopausal symptoms (MS) showed an early worsening which persisted 2-year after surgery (LY: 19.5% difference for ECC, p value=0.014, and 27.3% in LACC, p value=0.001; MS: 14.4% difference for ECC, p value=0.004, and 16.0% in LACC, p value=0.002). Despite a significant improvement over time, elevated

  14. A comparison of temperature and humidity effects on phosphor-converted LED packages and the prediction of remaining useful life with state estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep; Zhang, Hao; Davis, Lynn

    2016-05-31

    This paper focuses on the failure mechanisms and color stability of a commercially available high power LED under harsh environmental conditions. 3 groups of the same pc-HB warm white LED were used in the experiment. The first group was subjected to both high temperature and high relative humidity (85°C/85%RH) with a 350mA bias current. The second group was subjected to only temperature stress at 105°C with a 350mA bias current. The last group was subjected to extreme high temperature 175°C and high bias current (500mA). Samples were taken out from the chamber for both photometric and colorimetric analysis at periodic intervals to investigate the change of the optical parameters. The physics of failure due to the material degradation has been correlated with the change in the photometric and colorimetric parameters of the LED packages. At the end of the experiment, 6000 hours of data is projected forward with state estimation methods to compare with projections made with the TM-21 method. Experimental results shows that only optical parts degrades at high temperature conditions. However, at both high temperature and high relative humidity condition, the phosphor layer of the pc-LED can swell and the color stability of LEDs degrades significantly. Also, comparison between TM-21 method and state estimation method shows that state estimation can achieve the same goal with a relatively easy method.

  15. Development of computer software for pavement life cycle cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The life cycle cost analysis program (LCCA) is designed to automate and standardize life cycle costing in Virginia. It allows the user to input information necessary for the analysis, and it then completes the calculations and produces a printed copy...

  16. Multiple chronic conditions and life expectancy: a life table analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuGoff, Eva H; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Buttorff, Christine; Leff, Bruce; Anderson, Gerard F

    2014-08-01

    The number of people living with multiple chronic conditions is increasing, but we know little about the impact of multimorbidity on life expectancy. We analyze life expectancy in Medicare beneficiaries by number of chronic conditions. A retrospective cohort study using single-decrement period life tables. Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries (N=1,372,272) aged 67 and older as of January 1, 2008. Our primary outcome measure is life expectancy. We categorize study subjects by sex, race, selected chronic conditions (heart disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, and Alzheimer disease), and number of comorbid conditions. Comorbidity was measured as a count of conditions collected by Chronic Conditions Warehouse and the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Life expectancy decreases with each additional chronic condition. A 67-year-old individual with no chronic conditions will live on average 22.6 additional years. A 67-year-old individual with 5 chronic conditions and ≥10 chronic conditions will live 7.7 fewer years and 17.6 fewer years, respectively. The average marginal decline in life expectancy is 1.8 years with each additional chronic condition-ranging from 0.4 fewer years with the first condition to 2.6 fewer years with the sixth condition. These results are consistent by sex and race. We observe differences in life expectancy by selected conditions at 67, but these differences diminish with age and increasing numbers of comorbid conditions. Social Security and Medicare actuaries should account for the growing number of beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions when determining population projections and trust fund solvency.

  17. Confronting product life thinking with product life cycle analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.

    2001-01-01

    to "read" the environment out of the product, in order to systematically, quickly and efficiently come to some design recommendations for the company. The phrases "LCA" and "product life thinking" will be described and differentiated and a pattern identified for their cooperative effect in use....

  18. The comparative performance of PMI estimation in skeletal remains by three methods (C-14, luminol test and OHI): analysis of 20 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Annalisa; Gibelli, Daniele; Muccino, Enrico; Scarpulla, Valentina; Cerutti, Elisa; Caruso, Valentina; Sguazza, Emanuela; Mazzarelli, Debora; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-01-27

    When estimating post-mortem interval (PMI) in forensic anthropology, the only method able to give an unambiguous result is the analysis of C-14, although the procedure is expensive. Other methods, such as luminol tests and histological analysis, can be performed as preliminary investigations and may allow the operators to gain a preliminary indication concerning PMI, but they lack scientific verification, although luminol testing has been somewhat more accredited in the past few years. Such methods in fact may provide some help as they are inexpensive and can give a fast response, especially in the phase of preliminary investigations. In this study, 20 court cases of human skeletonized remains were dated by the C-14 method. For two cases, results were chronologically set after the 1950s; for one case, the analysis was not possible technically. The remaining 17 cases showed an archaeological or historical collocation. The same bone samples were also screened with histological examination and with the luminol test. Results showed that only four cases gave a positivity to luminol and a high Oxford Histology Index (OHI) score at the same time: among these, two cases were dated as recent by the radiocarbon analysis. Thus, only two false-positive results were given by the combination of these methods and no false negatives. Thus, the combination of two qualitative methods (luminol test and microscopic analysis) may represent a promising solution to cases where many fragments need to be quickly tested.

  19. sensitivity analysis on flexible road pavement life cycle cost model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    of sensitivity analysis on a developed flexible pavement life cycle cost model using varying discount rate. The study .... organizations and specific projects needs based. Life-cycle ... developed and completed urban road infrastructure corridor ...

  20. Ways of life analysis and food culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Birgit

    Executive Summary 1. People's food patterns are among other things influenced by their social environments. Analysing the relationship between the social environment and food culture is an important lead in trying to derive consumer objectives directed towards the food sector. 2. The way of life...... typology proposed by Højrup may be a useful device for analysing how the social environment impacts food patterns. Højrup proposes three ways of life: the independent way of life, the wage-earner way of life, and the career-bound way of life. He relates these types to empirical observation by qualitative...

  1. Ways of life analysis and food culture

    OpenAIRE

    Land, Birgit

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary 1. People's food patterns are among other things influenced by their social environments. Analysing the relationship between the social environment and food culture is an important lead in trying to derive consumer objectives directed towards the food sector. 2. The way of life typology proposed by Højrup may be a useful device for analysing how the social environment impacts food patterns. Højrup proposes three ways of life: the independent way of life, the wage-earner way ...

  2. Toward applied behavior analysis of life aloft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, J. V.

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with systems at multiple levels, at least from cell to organization. It also deals with learning, decision making, and other behavior at multiple levels. Technological development of a human behavioral ecosystem appropriate to space environments requires an analytic and synthetic orientation, explicitly experimental in nature, dictated by scientific and pragmatic considerations, and closely approximating procedures of established effectiveness in other areas of natural science. The conceptual basis of such an approach has its roots in environmentalism which has two main features: (1) knowledge comes from experience rather than from innate ideas, divine revelation, or other obscure sources; and (2) action is governed by consequences rather than by instinct, reason, will, beliefs, attitudes or even the currently fashionable cognitions. Without an experimentally derived data base founded upon such a functional analysis of human behavior, the overgenerality of "ecological systems" approaches render them incapable of ensuring the successful establishment of enduring space habitats. Without an experimentally derived function account of individual behavioral variability, a natural science of behavior cannot exist. And without a natural science of behavior, the social sciences will necessarily remain in their current status as disciplines of less than optimal precision or utility. Such a functional analysis of human performance should provide an operational account of behavior change in a manner similar to the way in which Darwin's approach to natural selection accounted for the evolution of phylogenetic lines (i.e., in descriptive, nonteleological terms). Similarly, as Darwin's account has subsequently been shown to be consonant with information obtained at the cellular level, so too should behavior principles ultimately prove to be in accord with an account of ontogenetic adaptation at a biochemical level. It would thus seem obvious that the most

  3. Environmental analysis of natural gas life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; D'Angelosante, S.; Trebeschi, C.

    2000-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment is a method aimed at identifying the environmental effects connected with a given product, process or activity during its whole life cycle. The evaluation of published studies and the application of the method to electricity production with fossil fuels, by using data from published databases and data collected by the gas industry, demonstrate the importance and difficulties to have reliable and updated data required for a significant life cycle assessment. The results show that the environmental advantages of natural gas over the other fossil fuels in the final use stage increase still further if the whole life cycle of the fuels, from production to final consumption, is taken into account [it

  4. Quantitative analysis of crystalline and remaining glass phases in CaO-B2O3-SiO2 ternary system glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ming; Wu Mengqiang; Zhang Shuren; Zhou Xiaohua; Zhang Ting; Chen Song

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → As for CBS ternary system glass ceramics, due to the complex phase compositions, many methods could be difficult to determine quantitatively the absolute amounts of crystalline and remaining oxides. In this study, an available method based on the Rietveld method was used to quantitatively analyze the relative weight fraction and densities of crystalline phases. These above data are used to obtain a table of both relative weight fraction of crystalline phases and densities of all phases including CBS LTCC. Using volume additivity rule, it is possible to analysis quantitatively the absolute weight fraction of crystalline phases and also the oxides molar content in the remaining glass. - Abstract: Based on Rietveld method of X-ray techniques and volume additivity rule, a new method was developed to quantitatively analyze the phase composition of CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary system glass ceramics. Lattice parameters, densities and relative weight fractions of crystalline phases in CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary system were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) refinement. According to the relative weight fraction of crystalline phases and densities of various components, the volume additivity rule was revealed by calculating the absolute weight fraction of crystalline phases of CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 glass ceramics. In addition, molar contents of the oxides in the remaining glass can also be determined by this method. Comparing this method with internal standard method, it is found that the maximum deviations of the crystallinity and the absolute weight fraction of crystalline phases are less than 2.6% and 2.9%, respectively. As a result, quantitative evaluation of CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary system glass ceramics can be achieved using this method.

  5. Microbial Desulfurization of a Crude Oil Middle-Distillate Fraction: Analysis of the Extent of Sulfur Removal and the Effect of Removal on Remaining Sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M. J.; Lee, M. K.; Prince, R. C.; Garrett, K. K.; George, G. N.; Pickering, I. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 was evaluated for its ability to desulfurize a 232 to 343°C middle-distillate (diesel range) fraction of Oregon basin (OB) crude oil. OB oil was provided as the sole source of sulfur in batch cultures, and the extent of desulfurization and the chemical fate of the residual sulfur in the oil after treatment were determined. Gas chromatography (GC), flame ionization detection, and GC sulfur chemiluminesce detection analysis were used to qualitatively evaluate the effect of Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 treatment on the hydrocarbon and sulfur content of the oil, respectively. Total sulfur was determined by combustion of samples and measurement of released sulfur dioxide by infrared absorption. Up to 30% of the total sulfur in the middle distillate cut was removed, and compounds across the entire boiling range of the oil were affected. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption-edge spectroscopy was used to examine the chemical state of the sulfur remaining in the treated OB oil. Approximately equal amounts of thiophenic and sulfidic sulfur compounds were removed by ECRD-1 treatment, and over 50% of the sulfur remaining after treatment was in an oxidized form. The presence of partially oxidized sulfur compounds indicates that these compounds were en route to desulfurization. Overall, more than two-thirds of the sulfur had been removed or oxidized by the microbial treatment. PMID:9872778

  6. Analysis of radiocarbon dates of an archaeological site in the Russian Far East: The marine reservoir effect as seen on charred remains on pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunikita, Dai; Yoshida, Kunio; Miyazaki, Yumiko; Saito, Keita; Endo, Aya; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Shinji; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Fujimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kuznetsov, A.M.; Krupyanko, A.A.; Tabarev, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In order to obtain precise and accurate calibrated radiocarbon chronologies for archaeological sites, it is necessary to determine the provenance of the carbon material being dated. Of particular note is determining the provenance and radiocarbon age of charcoal remains on pottery. In this context, we discuss the decipherment of dates on the Ustinovka-8 site in the Russian Far East. Using δ 13 C, δ 15 N and C:N it is possible to ascribe charcoal provenance to terrestrial and marine origins. Our data show radiocarbon age difference that are clearly associated with carbon origin, and a maximum estimated ΔR of approximately 400 years during the Zaisanovskaya culture, 4400 cal BP. A combination of pottery analysis and 14 C dating at this site determined the Zaisanovskaya cultural period to be 4000-5000 cal BP, the Boismanskaya and the Late Rudninskaya cultural period 5800-6500 cal BP, and the Early Rudninskaya cultural period of 6800-7100 cal BP

  7. Life cycle analysis of transportation fuel pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-24

    The purpose of this work is to improve the understanding of the concept of life cycle analysis (LCA) of transportation fuels and some of its pertinent issues among non-technical people, senior managers, and policy makers. This work should provide some guidance to nations considering LCA-based policies and to people who are affected by existing policies or those being developed. While the concept of employing LCA to evaluate fuel options is simple and straightforward, the act of putting the concept into practice is complex and fraught with issues. Policy makers need to understand the limitations inherent in carrying out LCA work for transportation fuel systems. For many systems, even those that have been employed for a 100 years, there is a lack of sound data on the performance of those systems. Comparisons between systems should ideally be made using the same tool, so that differences caused by system boundaries, allocation processes, and temporal issues can be minimized (although probably not eliminated). Comparing the results for fuel pathway 1 from tool A to those of fuel system 2 from tool B introduces significant uncertainty into the results. There is also the question of the scale of system changes. LCA will give more reliable estimates when it is used to examine small changes in transportation fuel pathways than when used to estimate large scale changes that replace current pathways with completely new pathways. Some LCA tools have been developed recently primarily for regulatory purposes. These tools may deviate from ISO principles in order to facilitate simplicity and ease of use. In a regulatory environment, simplicity and ease of use are worthy objectives and in most cases there is nothing inherently wrong with this approach, particularly for assessing relative performance. However, the results of these tools should not be confused with, or compared to, the results that are obtained from a more complex and rigorous ISO compliant LCA. It should be

  8. Relationship between mediation analysis and the structured life course approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Laura D; Smith, Andrew D; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Anderson, Emma L; Galobardes, Bruna; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Rachel; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many questions in life course epidemiology involve mediation and/or interaction because of the long latency period between exposures and outcomes. In this paper, we explore how mediation analysis (based on counterfactual theory and implemented using conventional regression approaches) links with a structured approach to selecting life course hypotheses. Using theory and simulated data, we show how the alternative life course hypotheses assessed in the structured life course approach correspond to different combinations of mediation and interaction parameters. For example, an early life critical period model corresponds to a direct effect of the early life exposure, but no indirect effect via the mediator and no interaction between the early life exposure and the mediator. We also compare these methods using an illustrative real-data example using data on parental occupational social class (early life exposure), own adult occupational social class (mediator) and physical capability (outcome). PMID:27681097

  9. Relationship between mediation analysis and the structured life course approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Laura D; Smith, Andrew D; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Anderson, Emma L; Galobardes, Bruna; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Rachel; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail

    2016-08-01

    Many questions in life course epidemiology involve mediation and/or interaction because of the long latency period between exposures and outcomes. In this paper, we explore how mediation analysis (based on counterfactual theory and implemented using conventional regression approaches) links with a structured approach to selecting life course hypotheses. Using theory and simulated data, we show how the alternative life course hypotheses assessed in the structured life course approach correspond to different combinations of mediation and interaction parameters. For example, an early life critical period model corresponds to a direct effect of the early life exposure, but no indirect effect via the mediator and no interaction between the early life exposure and the mediator. We also compare these methods using an illustrative real-data example using data on parental occupational social class (early life exposure), own adult occupational social class (mediator) and physical capability (outcome). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  10. The more it changes; the more it remains the same: a Foucauldian analysis of Canadian policy documents relevant to student selection for medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razack, Saleem; Lessard, David; Hodges, Brian D; Maguire, Mary H; Steinert, Yvonne

    2014-05-01

    Calls to increase the demographic representativeness of medical classes to better reflect the diversity of society are part of a growing international trend. Despite this, entry into medical school remains highly competitive and exclusive of marginalized groups. To address these questions, we conducted a Foucauldian discourse analysis of 15 publically available policy documents from the websites of Canadian medical education regulatory bodies, using the concepts of "excellence" (institutional or in an applicant), "diversity," and "equity" to frame the analysis. In most documents, there were appeals to broaden definitions of institutional excellence to include concerns for greater social accountability. Equity concerns tended to be represented as needing to be dealt with by people in positions of authority in order to counter a "hidden curriculum." Diversity was represented as an object of value, situated within a discontinuous history. As a rhetorical strategy, documents invoked complex societal shifts to promote change toward a more humanistic medical education system and profession. "Social accountability" was reified as an all-encompassing solution to most issues of representation. Although the policy documents proclaimed rootedness in an ethos of improving the societal responsiveness of the medical profession, our analysis takes a more critical stance towards the discourses identified. On the basis of our research findings, we question whether these calls may contribute to the maintenance of the specific power relations they seek to address. These conclusions lead us to consider the possibility that the discourses represented in the documents might be reframed to take into account issues of power distribution and its productive and reproductive features. A reframing of discourses could potentially generate greater inclusiveness in policy development processes, and afford disadvantaged and marginalized groups more participatory roles in the discussion.

  11. Mathematical Methods in Survival Analysis, Reliability and Quality of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Catherine; Mesbah, Mounir

    2008-01-01

    Reliability and survival analysis are important applications of stochastic mathematics (probability, statistics and stochastic processes) that are usually covered separately in spite of the similarity of the involved mathematical theory. This title aims to redress this situation: it includes 21 chapters divided into four parts: Survival analysis, Reliability, Quality of life, and Related topics. Many of these chapters were presented at the European Seminar on Mathematical Methods for Survival Analysis, Reliability and Quality of Life in 2006.

  12. Analysis within the systems development life-cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, Rosemary

    1987-01-01

    Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle: Book 2, Data Analysis-The Methods describes the methods for carrying out data analysis within the systems development life-cycle and demonstrates how the results of fact gathering can be used to produce and verify the analysis deliverables. A number of alternative methods of analysis other than normalization are suggested. Comprised of seven chapters, this book shows the tasks to be carried out in the logical order of progression-preparation, collection, analysis of the existing system (which comprises the tasks of synthesis, verification, an

  13. Life cycle analysis in preliminary design stages

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo , Lina-Maria; Mejía-Gutiérrez , Ricardo; Nadeau , Jean-Pierre; PAILHES , Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In a design process the product is decomposed into systems along the disciplinary lines. Each stage has its own goals and constraints that must be satisfied and has control over a subset of design variables that describe the overall system. When using different tools to initiate a product life cycle, including the environment and impacts, its noticeable that there is a gap in tools that linked the stages of preliminary design and the stages of materialization. Differen...

  14. A Life-Cycle Analysis of Social Security with Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kaiji

    2009-01-01

    This paper incorporates two features of housing in a life-cycle analysis of social security: housing as a durable good and housing market frictions. We find that with housing as a durable good unfunded social security substantially crowds out housing consumption throughout the life cycle. By contrast, aggregate non-durable consumption is higher when social security is present, although it is postponed until late in life. Moreover, in the presence of housing market frictions, social security l...

  15. Direct U-series analysis of the Lezetxiki humerus reveals a Middle Pleistocene age for human remains in the Basque Country (northern Iberia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Rúa, Concepción; Altuna, Jesús; Hervella, Monserrat; Kinsley, Leslie; Grün, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    In 1964, a human humerus was found in a sedimentary deposit in Lezetxiki Cave (Basque Country, northern Iberia). The first studies on the stratigraphy, associated mammal faunal remains and lithic implements placed the deposits containing the humerus into the Riss glacial stage. Direct chronometric evidence has so far been missing, and the previous chronostratigraphic framework and faunal dating gave inconsistent results. Here we report laser ablation U-series analyses on the humerus yielding a minimum age of 164 ± 9 ka, corresponding to MIS 6. This is the only direct dating analysis of the Lezetxiki humerus and confirms a Middle Pleistocene age for this hominin fossil. Morphometric analyses suggest that the Lezetxiki humerus has close affinities to other Middle Pleistocene archaic hominins, such as those from La Sima de los Huesos at Atapuerca. This emphasizes the significance of the Lezetxiki fossil within the populations that predate the Neanderthals in south-western Europe. It is thus an important key fossil for the understanding of human evolution in Europe during the Middle Pleistocene, a time period when a great morphological diversity is observed but whose phylogenetic meaning is not yet fully understood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An analysis of factors that influence secondary science teachers in an urban school district in South Texas to remain in the teaching profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Bonnie

    This quantitative study is an examination of personal and professional factors that contribute to science teachers continuing to teach science in an urban area in South Texas despite the growing demands of the profession. This study examines why teachers in general leave the profession but focuses on what factors influenced these teachers to stay. Personal retention factors measured included being an effective teacher and positive rapport with students. Professional retention factors included administrative support and adequate time to meet professional obligations. There are 149 secondary science teachers in this large urban school district. Data was gathered from 109 of these educators to analyze factors personal and professional factors in regards to why these teachers remain in the field. For the purposes of this study a secondary science teacher will be any teacher who teaches science in grades 6-12, which is considered middle (6 through 8) and high school (9 through 12) in this area. The data for this quantitative study was collected by a paper survey (N=109) that was distributed at a professional learning session at the beginning of the school year. A Principal Component Analysis was run followed by three multiple regression analyses of the pertinent components to determine if there is any relationship between the demographics of the participants and personal and professional factors that cause these teachers to remain in the field. The results of this study will contribute to the literature regarding teacher education and theory that examines teacher practice affecting change. The results showed that professional factors like the amount of resources and the quality of those resources to assist teachers with job efficacy mattered as much as the personal factors such as positive teaching experience and an intrinsic sense of being an effective educator. Further implications of this study include an exploration of Generalist certifications at the middle grades

  17. Analysis within the systems development life-cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, Rosemary

    1987-01-01

    Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle: Book 4, Activity Analysis-The Methods describes the techniques and concepts for carrying out activity analysis within the systems development life-cycle. Reference is made to the deliverables of data analysis and more than one method of analysis, each a viable alternative to the other, are discussed. The """"bottom-up"""" and """"top-down"""" methods are highlighted. Comprised of seven chapters, this book illustrates how dependent data and activities are on each other. This point is especially brought home when the task of inventing new busin

  18. Analysis within the systems development life-cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, Rosemary

    1987-01-01

    Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle: Book 1, Data Analysis-The Deliverables provides a comprehensive treatment of data analysis within the systems development life-cycle and all the deliverables that need to be collected in analysis. The purpose of deliverables is explained and a number of alternative ways of collecting them are discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of what """"analysis"""" actually means, with particular reference to tasks such as hardware planning and software evaluation and where they fit into the overall cycle. The ne

  19. Revised analysis of the Transition Joint Life Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartory, W K

    1984-07-01

    The Transition Joint Life Test was performed by General Electric and the Energy Technology Engineering Center and was analyzed earlier by General Electric. Because of later developments in analysis techniques and in our understanding of the stress behavior near a dissimilar metal weldment, agreement was reached between General Electric and Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s High-Temperature Structural Design program that a more up-to-date analysis was needed. This report presents results of a new analysis incorporating modified mechanical properties, revised constitutive equations, and a more refined finite element grid. The structural life prediction of the present report is quite conservative (approximately 3 cycles of predicted life compared to 12 to 25 cycles of measured life), whereas the earlier General Electric analysis was underconservative by a similar factor.

  20. A comparative analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    curriculum and the new Life Sciences textbooks that are in accord with the National Curriculum Statement. The analysis .... lems and generate new ideas for improvement. (Castells, 2005). ... Accordingly, the following research questions were.

  1. Electric vehicle life cycle cost analysis : final research project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This project compared total life cycle costs of battery electric vehicles (BEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICE). The analysis considered capital and operati...

  2. Life-cycle analysis of renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    1994-01-01

    An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants......An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants...

  3. Smallpox still haunts scientists: results of a questionnaire-based inquiry on the views of health care and life science experts and students on preserving the remaining variola virus stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Thangavelu; Dedeepiya, Vidyasagar Devaprasad; John, Sudhakar; Senthilkumar, Rajappa; Reena, Helen C; Rajendran, Paramasivam; Balamurugan, Madasamy; Kurosawa, Gene; Iwasaki, Masaru; Preethy, Senthilkumar; Abraham, Samuel J K

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) declared eradication of the dreadful disease "smallpox" in 1980. Though the disease has died down, the causative virus "variola" has not, as it has been well preserved in two high security laboratories-one in USA and another in Russia. The debate on whether the remaining stocks of the smallpox virus should be destroyed or not is ongoing, and the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 2011 has decided to postpone the review on this debate to the 67th WHA in 2014. A short questionnaire-based inquiry was organized during a one-day stem cell meeting to explore the views of various health care and life science specialists especially students on this aspect. Among the 200 participants of the meeting, only 66 had answered the questionnaire. 60.6% of participants who responded to the questionnaire were for preserving the virus for future reference, while 36.4% of the participants were for destroying the virus considering the magnitude with which it killed millions. However, 3% of the respondents were not able to decide on any verdict. Therefore, this inquiry expresses the view that "what we cannot create, we do not have the right to destroy."

  4. Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Insulated Gate Biploar Transistors (IGBTs Based on a Novel Volterra k-Nearest Neighbor Optimally Pruned Extreme Learning Machine (VKOPP Model Using Degradation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT is a kind of excellent performance switching device used widely in power electronic systems. How to estimate the remaining useful life (RUL of an IGBT to ensure the safety and reliability of the power electronics system is currently a challenging issue in the field of IGBT reliability. The aim of this paper is to develop a prognostic technique for estimating IGBTs’ RUL. There is a need for an efficient prognostic algorithm that is able to support in-situ decision-making. In this paper, a novel prediction model with a complete structure based on optimally pruned extreme learning machine (OPELM and Volterra series is proposed to track the IGBT’s degradation trace and estimate its RUL; we refer to this model as Volterra k-nearest neighbor OPELM prediction (VKOPP model. This model uses the minimum entropy rate method and Volterra series to reconstruct phase space for IGBTs’ ageing samples, and a new weight update algorithm, which can effectively reduce the influence of the outliers and noises, is utilized to establish the VKOPP network; then a combination of the k-nearest neighbor method (KNN and least squares estimation (LSE method is used to calculate the output weights of OPELM and predict the RUL of the IGBT. The prognostic results show that the proposed approach can predict the RUL of IGBT modules with small error and achieve higher prediction precision and lower time cost than some classic prediction approaches.

  5. Automatic updating of times remaining in surgical cases using bayesian analysis of historical case duration data and "instant messaging" updates from anesthesia providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H; Lee, John D; Ledolter, Johannes

    2009-03-01

    Operating room (OR) whiteboards (status displays) communicate times remaining for ongoing cases to perioperative stakeholders (e.g., postanesthesia care unit, anesthesiologists, holding area, and control desks). Usually, scheduled end times are shown for each OR. However, these displays are inaccurate for predicting the time that remains in a case. Once a case scheduled for 2 h has been on-going for 1.5 h, the median time remaining is not 0.5 h but longer, and the amount longer differs among procedures. We derived the conditional Bayesian lower prediction bound of a case's duration, conditional on the minutes of elapsed OR time. Our derivations make use of the posterior predictive distribution of OR times following an exponential of a scaled Student t distribution that depends on the scheduled OR time and several parameters calculated from historical case duration data. The statistical method was implemented using Structured Query Language (SQL) running on the anesthesia information management system (AIMS) database server. In addition, AIMS workstations were sent instant messages displaying a pop-up dialog box asking for anesthesia providers' estimates for remaining times. The dialogs caused negotiated interruptions (i.e., the anesthesia provider could reply immediately, keep the dialog displayed, or defer response). There were no announcements, education, or efforts to promote buy-in. After a case had been in the OR longer than scheduled, the median remaining OR time for the case changes little over time (e.g., 35 min left at 2:30 pm and also at 3:00 pm while the case was still on-going). However, the remaining time differs substantially among surgeons and scheduled procedure(s) (16 min longer [10th percentile], 35 min [50th], and 86 min [90th]). We therefore implemented an automatic method to estimate the times remaining in cases. The system was operational for >119 of each day's 120 5-min intervals. When instant message dialogs appearing on AIMS workstations

  6. Anthropological and palaeopathological analysis of the human remains from three "Tombs of the Nobles" of the necropolis of Thebes-west, upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, A; Zink, A; Hagedorn, H G; Szeimies, U; Weyss, C

    2000-12-01

    During several recent excavation campaigns at the necropolis of Sheikh-Abd-el-Gurna, Thebes-West, Upper Egypt, we investigated the human remains of three "Tombs of the Nobles" totalling at least 273 individuals. The investigation covered the human material (skeletons and mummy residues) from the tombs TT-84, TT-85 and TT-95. These tombs had been built in the New Kingdom (approx. 1500-1000 B.C.) and used until the Late period (up to 330 BC). All samples were analyzed macroscopically, isolated findings were further investigated by endoscopic and radiological techniques. The at least 273 individuals covered an age range from newborns to senile individuals with a main age of death between 20 and 40 years of age. The rate of infants and subadults was at 20.2% of all individuals and there was a slight male predominance comprising 54.5% of the adults. In this population a fairly high rate of pathological lesions was seen. Thus, dental conditions generally were poor with a high degree of dental abrasion, an also high rate of carious dental lesions (affecting between 13.8% and 27.7% of the yaws) and consequently a significant number of dental abscesses (mean 15.9%). Residues of trauma were observed in a considerable number of individuals ranging between 12.3% and 22.6% depending on the burial place (mean 15.8%). Inflammatory bone reactions (except the dental abscesses) were present to variable extent, in some locations ranging up to 6.8% of the cases (mean 5.1%). In addition, we noted several cases showing cribra orbitalia (mean 29.2%) and porotic hyperostosis (15.4% of cases), mild to severe osteopenia (7.5%) and in several cases subperiosteal new bone formation suggestive of chronic vitamin D-deficiency ("scurvy") (9.5%). The data support the notion of a significant impairment of living conditions in a high number of individuals. The rates of osteoarthrotic joint alterations were considerably variable depending on the burial places (between 1.9% and 18.5%) providing

  7. Prognosis of Combining Remaining Teeth and Implants in Double-Crown-Retained Removable Dental Prostheses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Meifei; Zhao, Kai; Feng, Yunzhi; Yao, Qian

    The reliability of combining natural teeth and implants in one removable prosthesis is controversial. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the prognosis of combined tooth/implant-supported double-crown-retained removable dental prostheses (DCR-RDPs) and to compare them with solely implant-supported prostheses with a minimum observation period of 3 years. Electronic database (PubMed, Embase, Central, and SCI) and manual searches up to August 2016 were conducted to identify human clinical studies on tooth/implant-supported DCR-RDPs. Literature selection and data extraction were accomplished by two independent reviewers. Meta-analyses of survival and complication rates were performed separately for combined tooth/implant-supported and solely implant-supported DCRRDPs. Among the initially identified 366 articles, 17 were included in a quantitative analysis. The estimated overall cumulative survival rate (CSR) for implants in combined tooth/implant-supported DCRRDPs was 98.72% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 96.98% to 99.82%), and that for implants in solely implant-supported DCR-RDPs was 98.83% (95% CI: 97.45% to 99.75%). The summary CSR for abutment teeth was 92.96% (95% CI: 85.38% to 98.12%). Double-crown-retained dentures with both abutment types showed high CSRs, most of which were approximately 100%. Regarding prosthetic maintenance treatment, the estimated incidence for patients treated with combined tooth/implant-supported RDPs was 0.164 (95% CI: 0.089 to 0.305) per patient per year (T/P/Y) and that for patients restored with solely implant-supported RDPs was 0.260 (95% CI: 0.149 to 0.454) T/P/Y. Based on four studies with combined tooth/implant-supported DCR-RDPs, no intrusion phenomena were encountered. Subject to the limitations of the present review, combining remaining teeth and implants in DCR-RDPs is a reliable and predictable treatment modality for partially edentulous patients. Comparable high survival rates and minor biologic or

  8. Stress analysis and life prediction of gas turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, H. C.; Dunn, A. J.; Woodling, D. R.; Loh, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    A stress analysis procedure is presented for a redesign of the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure fuel turbopump turbine blades. The analysis consists of the one-dimensional scoping analysis to support the design layout and the follow-on three-dimensional finite element analysis to confirm the blade design at operating loading conditions. Blade life is evaluated based on high-cycle fatigue and low-cycle fatigue.

  9. Multimodal brain connectivity analysis in unmedicated late-life depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tadayonnejad

    Full Text Available Late-life depression (LLD is a common disorder associated with emotional distress, cognitive impairment and somatic complains. Structural abnormalities have been suggested as one of the main neurobiological correlates in LLD. However the relationship between these structural abnormalities and altered functional brain networks in LLD remains poorly understood. 15 healthy elderly comparison subjects from the community and 10 unmedicated and symptomatic subjects with geriatric depression were selected for this study. For each subject, 87 regions of interest (ROI were generated from whole brain anatomical parcellation of resting state fMRI data. Whole-brain ROI-wise correlations were calculated and compared between groups. Group differences were assessed using an analysis of covariance after controlling for age, sex and education with multiple comparison correction using the false discovery rate. Structural connectivity was assessed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS. LLD subjects had significantly decreased connectivity between the right accumbens area (rA and the right medial orbitofrontal cortex (rmOFC as well as between the right rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rrACC and bilateral superior frontal gyrus (bsSFG. Altered connectivity of rrACC with the bsSFG was significantly correlated with depression severity in depressed subjects. TBSS analysis showed a 20% reduction in fractional anisotropy (FA in the right Forceps Minor (rFM in depressed subjects. rFM FA values were positively correlated with rA-rmOFC and rrACC-bsFG functional connectivity values in our total study sample. Coordinated structural and functional impairment in circuits involved in emotion regulation and reward pathways play an important role in the pathophysiology of LLD.

  10. Analysis of interconnecting energy systems over a synchronized life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology is developed for evaluating a life cycle of interconnected systems. • A new concept of partial temporal boundary is introduced via quantitative formulation. • The interconnecting systems are synchronized through the partial temporal boundary. • A case study on the life cycle of the coal–uranium system is developed. - Abstract: Life cycle analysis (LCA) using the process chain analysis (PCA) approach has been widely applied to energy systems. When applied to an individual energy system, such as coal or nuclear electricity generation, an LCA–PCA methodology can yield relatively accurate results with its detailed process representation based on engineering data. However, there are fundamental issues when applying conventional LCA–PCA methodology to a more complex life cycle, namely, a synchronized life cycle of interconnected energy systems. A synchronized life cycle of interconnected energy systems is established through direct interconnections among the processes of different energy systems, and all interconnecting systems are bounded within the same timeframe. Under such a life cycle formation, there are some major complications when applying conventional LCA–PCA methodology to evaluate the interconnecting energy systems. Essentially, the conventional system and boundary formulations developed for a life cycle of individual energy system cannot be directly applied to a life cycle of interconnected energy systems. To address these inherent issues, a new LCA–PCA methodology is presented in this paper, in which a new concept of partial temporal boundary is introduced to synchronize the interconnecting energy systems. The importance and advantages of these new developments are demonstrated through a case study on the life cycle of the coal–uranium system.

  11. Life insurance density and penetration: panel data analysis across countries

    OpenAIRE

    Urbanavičiūtė, Greta

    2016-01-01

    Life Insurance Density and Penetration: Panel Data Analysis Across Countries This bachelor thesis examines two key indicators in the life insurance market: density and penetration. The main purpose is to analyse which factors have the biggest impact on these two indicators in 39 countries around the world. Panel data models, which represent the collected data best, were created. This paper examines the latest public data available in 39 countries, including the Baltic States, and new signific...

  12. Some Aspects Regarding the Analysis of the Life Insurance Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to draw-up an analysis of the life insurance market in Romania. This survey is drawn up for the period 2003-2006 and the data used for this analysis were taken over from the Annual Reports published by the Insurance Supervision Commission. Life insurance market in Romania is a steady growing market as a result of the economic growth and the purchase power but is still far away from the development stage of the European markets.

  13. Analysis of sediments and plant remains from the find-spot of a cache of Polynesian gardening tools at Ruakaka, northern New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Best, S.B.; Byrami, M.

    2001-01-01

    We outline a record of sedimentology and fossil plant remains of a prehistoric archaeological site in a small valley at Ruakaka, northern New Zealand. The evidence provides a ca. 850-year record of the sedimentation, hydrology and vegetation of the catchment, allowing the following deductions to be made: 1) the dramatically increased erosion rate of local hill slopes was a result of Polynesian deforestation by fire commencing at an estimated date of 700-550 14 C yr BP, and 2) the subsequent stabilisation of these hill slope soils occurred as a result of establishment of European pasture in the catchment after ca. AD 1800. (author). 41 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  14. "Life history space": a multivariate analysis of life history variation in extant and extinct Malagasy lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlett, Kierstin K; Schwartz, Gary T; Godfrey, Laurie R; Jungers, William L

    2010-07-01

    Studies of primate life history variation are constrained by the fact that all large-bodied extant primates are haplorhines. However, large-bodied strepsirrhines recently existed. If we can extract life history information from their skeletons, these species can contribute to our understanding of primate life history variation. This is particularly important in light of new critiques of the classic "fast-slow continuum" as a descriptor of variation in life history profiles across mammals in general. We use established dental histological methods to estimate gestation length and age at weaning for five extinct lemur species. On the basis of these estimates, we reconstruct minimum interbirth intervals and maximum reproductive rates. We utilize principal components analysis to create a multivariate "life history space" that captures the relationships among reproductive parameters and brain and body size in extinct and extant lemurs. Our data show that, whereas large-bodied extinct lemurs can be described as "slow" in some fashion, they also varied greatly in their life history profiles. Those with relatively large brains also weaned their offspring late and had long interbirth intervals. These were not the largest of extinct lemurs. Thus, we distinguish size-related life history variation from variation that linked more strongly to ecological factors. Because all lemur species larger than 10 kg, regardless of life history profile, succumbed to extinction after humans arrived in Madagascar, we argue that large body size increased the probability of extinction independently of reproductive rate. We also provide some evidence that, among lemurs, brain size predicts reproductive rate better than body size. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Social Network Changes and Life Events across the Life Span: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Hanel, Martha; Wagner, Jenny; Neyer, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    For researchers and practitioners interested in social relationships, the question remains as to how large social networks typically are, and how their size and composition change across adulthood. On the basis of predictions of socioemotional selectivity theory and social convoy theory, we conducted a meta-analysis on age-related social network…

  16. Why Agricultural Educators Remain in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Nina; Ritz, Rudy; Burris, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe factors that are related to agricultural educator career retention and to explore the relationships between work engagement, work-life balance, occupational commitment, and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for…

  17. Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power System And Diesel Generator System For Remote Residential Application In Nigeria. ... like capital cost, and diesel fuel costs are varied. The results show the photovoltaic system to be more cost-effective at low-power ranges of electrical energy supply.

  18. A comparative analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports on the analysis of South African Life Sciences and Biology textbooks for the inclusion of the nature of science using a conceptual framework developed by Chiappetta, Fillman and Sethna (1991). In particular, we investigated the differences between the representation of the nature of science in Biology ...

  19. Methods for global sensitivity analysis in life cycle assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Evelyne A.; Bokkers, Eddy; Heijungs, Reinout; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Input parameters required to quantify environmental impact in life cycle assessment (LCA) can be uncertain due to e.g. temporal variability or unknowns about the true value of emission factors. Uncertainty of environmental impact can be analysed by means of a global sensitivity analysis to

  20. Guidelines to perform Life Cycle Analysis of Buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, R.; Gervasio, H.; Braganca, L.; Koukkari, H.; Blok, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a short introduction and attempts to give guidelines on how to perform a life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of a Building. Because a building is a complex system with many subsystems with building elements out of different materials, each fulfilling different functions the LCA of a building

  1. Infrastructures and Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Design and maintenance of infrastructures using Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis is discussed in this paper with special emphasis on users costs. This is for several infrastructures such as bridges, highways etc. of great importance. Repair or/and failure of infrastructures will usually result...

  2. Analysis within the systems development life-cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, Rosemary

    1987-01-01

    Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle, Book 3: Activity Analysis - The Deliverables provides a comprehensive coverage of the deliverables of activity analysis. The book also details purpose of each deliverable in the context of the next tasks in the systems development cycle (SDC). The text first covers the concept of deliverables and the benefits of making deliverables visible. In the second chapter, the book introduces the main concepts and diagrammatic techniques of activity analysis. The third chapter deals with the important classes or categories of concept, while the fourth

  3. The role of lubricant analysis in maximizing lubricant and equipment life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janis, J.

    1995-01-01

    Lubricant analysis has always played an important yet somewhat invisible role in equipment health monitoring. At its most primitive, simple observations and field testing alert equipment operators to changing conditions. At its most advanced, data from performance and analytical tests are used to develop or select optimum lubricants for service, stretch drain intervals, predict remaining equipment life and identify potential equipment or system problems at an incipient stage. Coupled with thermography and vibration analysis, lubricant analysis can become a major component of a comprehensive predictive maintenance (PM) program. Ontario Hydro finds itself at a turning point regarding the use and monitoring of lubricants. Increasing emphasis on equipment reliability and plant life extension, coupled with major, recent changes in lubricant composition in response to environmental, energy and safety concerns, forces an upgrading of many aspects of lubricant monitoring so that it may establish itself as a key part of modern PM practices. This paper discusses some of these aspects. (author)

  4. CABG Surgery Remains the best Option for Patients with Left Main Coronary Disease in Comparison with PCI-DES: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros Oliveira; Soares, Artur Freire; Miranda, Rodrigo Gusmão Albuquerque; Araújo, Mayara Lopes; Menezes, Alexandre Motta; Silva, Frederico Pires Vasconcelos; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using drug-eluting stents (DES) in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for clinical studies that reported outcomes at 1-year follow-up after PCI with DES and CABG for the treatment of ULMCA stenosis. Five studies fulfilled our eligibility criteria and they included a total of 4.595 patients (2.298 for CABG and 2.297 for PCI with DES). Results At 1-year follow-up, there was no significant difference between CABG and DES groups concerning the risk for death (risk ratio [RR] 0.973, P=0.830), myocardial infarction (RR 0.694, P=0.148), stroke (RR 1.224, P=0.598), and major adverse cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events (RR 0.948, P=0.680). The risk for target vessel revascularization (TVR) was significantly lower in the CABG group compared to the DES group (RR 0.583, P<0.001). It was observed no publication bias regarding the outcomes, but only the outcome TVR was free from substantial statistical heterogeneity of the effects. In the meta-regression, there was evidence that the factor "female gender" modulated the effect regarding myocardial infarction rates, favoring the CABG strategy. Conclusion CABG surgery remains the best option of treatment for patients with ULMCA disease, with lower TVR rates. PMID:29211222

  5. End-of-Life Care Interventions: An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, B; Krahn, M

    2014-01-01

    The annual cost of providing care for patients in their last year of life is estimated to account for approximately 9% of the Ontario health care budget. Access to integrated, comprehensive support and pain/symptom management appears to be inadequate and inequitable. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of end-of-life (EoL) care interventions included in the EoL care mega-analysis. Multiple sources were used, including systematic reviews, linked health administration databases, survey data, planning documents, expert input, and additional literature searches. We conducted a literature review of cost-effectiveness studies to inform the primary economic analysis. We conducted the primary economic analysis and budget impact analysis for an Ontario cohort of decedents and their families and included interventions pertaining to team-based models of care, patient care planning discussions, educational interventions for patients and caregivers, and supportive interventions for informal caregivers. The time horizon was the last year of life. Costs were in 2013 Canadian dollars. Effectiveness measures included days at home, percentage dying at home, and quality-adjusted life-days. We developed a Markov model; model inputs were obtained from a cohort of Ontario decedents assembled from Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences databases and published literature. In-home palliative team care was cost-effective; it increased the chance of dying at home by 10%, increased the average number of days at home (6 days) and quality-adjusted life-days (0.5 days), and it reduced costs by approximately $4,400 per patient. Expanding in-home palliative team care to those currently not receiving such services (approximately 45,000 per year, at an annual cost of $76-108 million) is likely to improve quality of life, reduce the use of acute care resources, and save $191-$385 million in health care costs. Results for the other interventions were uncertain. The cost-effectiveness analysis was

  6. The Oswestry Disability Index, confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of 35,263 verifies a one-factor structure but practicality issues remain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Charles Philip; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio; Qian, Meihua; Vengust, Rok; Berlemann, Ulrich; Aghayev, Emin; Melloh, Markus

    2017-08-01

    To analyze the factor structure of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) in a large symptomatic low back pain (LBP) population using exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Analysis of pooled baseline ODI LBP patient data from the international Spine Tango registry of EUROSPINE, the Spine Society of Europe. The sample, with n = 35,263 (55.2% female; age 15-99, median 59 years), included 76.1% of patients with a degenerative disease, and 23.9% of the patients with various other spinal conditions. The initial EFA provided a hypothetical construct for consideration. Subsequent CFA was considered in three scenarios: the full sample and separate genders. Models were compared empirically for best fit. The EFA indicated a one-factor solution accounting for 54% of the total variance. The CFA analysis based on the full sample confirmed this one-factor structure. Sub-group analyses by gender achieved good model fit for configural and partial metric invariance, but not scalar invariance. A possible two-construct model solution as outlined by previous researchers: dynamic-activities (personal care, lifting, walking, sex and social) and static-activities (pain, sleep, standing, travelling and sitting) was not preferred. The ODI demonstrated a one-factor structure in a large LBP sample. A potential two-factor model was considered, but not found appropriate for constructs of dynamic and static activity. The use of the single summary score for the ODI is psychometrically supported. However, practicality limitations were reported for use in the clinical and research settings. Researchers are encouraged to consider a shift towards newer, more sensitive and robustly developed instruments.

  7. Operational data collection and analysis for nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Berg, R.M.; Bailey, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes initial work undertaken by the US Department of Energy, through Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to define the operational data necessary for support of nuclear plant life extension (PLEX) programs. This work is being performed in coordination with the Working Group on Plant Life Extension of the US Nuclear Management and Resources Council. The intent of the effort is to use results gained initially from pilot PLEX programs a US BWR and a US PWR to build towards the use of ''PLEX indicators'' by which a plant's readiness for successful life extension can be measured. Another objective of the study was to examine chemistry data in detail to determine how well US plants are collecting, preserving, and trending the chemistry data that is important to PLEX. The methods used to disseminate this data to outside agencies and other utilities were studied. Finally, an analysis was made to determine additional chemistry data needed to support PLEX

  8. A study on the environmental impacts analysis with life cycle analysis of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, H. S.; Moon, K. H.; Youn, S. W.

    2003-01-01

    This Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) work was accomplished based on the ISO-14040 framework goal and scope definition, including life cycle inventory analysis, and life cycle impact assessment. For the selection of impact categories, resource use, global affairs, local affairs, and nuclear specific affair were considered. It was unexpected that environmental burdens are generally heavier in an electricity generation process than in upper stream and fabrication processes, except ODP and ETPs. It has been normally thought that environmental burden in upper steam would be heavier than those in other processes. This misconception could have originated from the ambiguous thought for end-of-pipe emissions and life cycle inventories

  9. Socio-economic status over the life course and obesity: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Suzy; Braithwaite, Dejana; Akinyemiju, Tomi F

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarize the published literature on the association of childhood, adulthood and life course socio-economic status (SES) with obesity between January 1990 and June 2015. The major medical electronic databases were searched to identify studies that examined SES over the life-course in relation to obesity. A total of 219 studies were identified through the initial search, and 35 qualified for full review. Of these, 14 publications met our inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis, all from developed or upper-middle income countries. There was a consistent association between lower life course SES and obesity among women (summary OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.76), but not among men (summary OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.60, 1.40). Overall, mean BMI was higher among individuals with lower life course SES compared with those with higher life course SES (summary mean BMI difference: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.71). Mean waist circumference (WC) was higher among women with lower life course SES compared with those with higher life course SES (summary mean WC: 4.67, 95% CI: 4.15, 5.20), but lower among men (summary mean WC difference: -0.10, 95% CI: -0.11, -0.08). The inverse relationship between life course SES and obesity among women was consistent, based mostly on studies in developed countries. Nevertheless, critical information gaps remain in relation to the impact of childhood and life course SES on obesity in developing countries.

  10. Multilevel survival analysis of health inequalities in life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlo Juan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health status of individuals is determined by multiple factors operating at both micro and macro levels and the interactive effects of them. Measures of health inequalities should reflect such determinants explicitly through sources of levels and combining mean differences at group levels and the variation of individuals, for the benefits of decision making and intervention planning. Measures derived recently from marginal models such as beta-binomial and frailty survival, address this issue to some extent, but are limited in handling data with complex structures. Beta-binomial models were also limited in relation to measuring inequalities of life expectancy (LE directly. Methods We propose a multilevel survival model analysis that estimates life expectancy based on survival time with censored data. The model explicitly disentangles total health inequalities in terms of variance components of life expectancy compared to the source of variation at the level of individuals in households and parishes and so on, and estimates group differences of inequalities at the same time. Adjusted distributions of life expectancy by gender and by household socioeconomic level are calculated. Relative and absolute health inequality indices are derived based on model estimates. The model based analysis is illustrated on a large Swedish cohort of 22,680 men and 26,474 women aged 65–69 in 1970 and followed up for 30 years. Model based inequality measures are compared to the conventional calculations. Results Much variation of life expectancy is observed at individual and household levels. Contextual effects at Parish and Municipality level are negligible. Women have longer life expectancy than men and lower inequality. There is marked inequality by the level of household socioeconomic status measured by the median life expectancy in each socio-economic group and the variation in life expectancy within each group. Conclusion Multilevel

  11. The power of contextual effects in forensic anthropology: a study of biasability in the visual interpretations of trauma analysis on skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Hanson, Ian; Dozzi, Nathalie

    2014-09-01

    The potential for contextual information to bias assessments in the forensic sciences has been demonstrated, in several forensic disiplines. In this paper, biasability potential within forensic anthropology was examined by analyzing the effects of external manipulations on judgments and decision-making in visual trauma assessment. Three separate websites were created containing fourteen identical images. Participants were randomly assigned to one website. Each website provided different contextual information, to assess variation of interpretation of the same images between contexts. The results indicated a higher scoring of trauma identification responses for the Mass grave context. Furthermore, a significant biasing effect was detected in the interpretation of four images. Less experienced participants were more likely to indicate presence of trauma. This research demonstrates bias impact in forensic anthropological trauma assessments and highlights the importance of recognizing and limiting cognitive vulnerabilities that forensic anthropologists might bring to the analysis. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Multielemental analysis of osseous remains by x-ray fluorescence to determine types of diets from the Cultura Lima (II B.C. - VIII A.C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvo B, A.

    1997-01-01

    The multielemental analysis of 29 human bone samples and sediments from the Lima Culture (III c. BC to IX c. AC) were analyzed by x-ray fluorescence technique with Cd-109 excitation source Si(Li) detector, Canberra associated electronic and PCA-II nucleus multichannel card, in order to determine to determine the diet type of these antique inhabitant. The elements found in bone rests were Ca, Sr, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Rb, Zn and Pb, and As in one of the clavicles. In sediment samples we obtained a major quantity of elements. According to the Sr an Zn obtained values in osseous rest and the developed regression model, we can conclude that the ancient inhabitants of Lima Culture had an omnivorous feeding with a carnivore tendency due to its geographic location. (author). 35 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs., 6 ills

  13. Idiopathic Parkinson's disease: vocal and quality of life analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Furtado e Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare voice and life quality of male patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, with individuals without disease (Control Group. METHODS: A cross-sectional study that evaluated the voice of individuals with Parkinson's disease, the group was composed of 27 subjects, aged from 39 to 79 years-old (average 59.96. The Control Group was matched on sex and age. Participants underwent voice recording. Perceptual evaluation was made using GRBASI scale, which considers G as the overall degree of dysphonia, R as roughness, B as breathiness, A as asthenia, S as strain and I as instability. The acoustic parameters analyzed were: fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and harmonic to noise ratio (NHR. For vocal self-perception analysis, we used the Voice Related Quality of Life protocol. RESULTS: Fundamental frequency and jitter presented higher values in the Parkinson's group. NHR values were higher in the Control Group. Perceptual analysis showed a deviation ranging. The vocal disorder self-perception demonstrated a worse impact on quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with Parkinson's disease have an altered voice quality and a negative impact on quality of life.

  14. Altair Lander Life Support: Design Analysis Cycles 4 and 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Curley, Su; Rotter, Henry; Stambaugh, Imelda; Yagoda, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Life support systems are a critical part of human exploration beyond low earth orbit. NASA s Altair Lunar Lander team is pursuing efficient solutions to the technical challenges of human spaceflight. Life support design efforts up through Design Analysis Cycle (DAC) 4 focused on finding lightweight and reliable solutions for the Sortie and Outpost missions within the Constellation Program. In DAC-4 and later follow on work, changes were made to add functionality for new requirements accepted by the Altair project, and to update the design as knowledge about certain issues or hardware matured. In DAC-5, the Altair project began to consider mission architectures outside the Constellation baseline. Selecting the optimal life support system design is very sensitive to mission duration. When the mission goals and architecture change several trade studies must be conducted to determine the appropriate design. Finally, several areas of work developed through the Altair project may be applicable to other vehicle concepts for microgravity missions. Maturing the Altair life support system related analysis, design, and requirements can provide important information for developers of a wide range of other human vehicles.

  15. Life Modeling and Design Analysis for Ceramic Matrix Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The primary research efforts focused on characterizing and modeling static failure, environmental durability, and creep-rupture behavior of two classes of ceramic matrix composites (CMC), silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) and carbon fibers in a silicon carbide matrix (C/SiC). An engineering life prediction model (Probabilistic Residual Strength model) has been developed specifically for CMCs. The model uses residual strength as the damage metric for evaluating remaining life and is posed probabilistically in order to account for the stochastic nature of the material s response. In support of the modeling effort, extensive testing of C/SiC in partial pressures of oxygen has been performed. This includes creep testing, tensile testing, half life and residual tensile strength testing. C/SiC is proposed for airframe and propulsion applications in advanced reusable launch vehicles. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the models predictive capabilities as well as the manner in which experimental tests are being selected in such a manner as to ensure sufficient data is available to aid in model validation.

  16. Methodological issues underlying multiple decrement life table analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mode, C J; Avery, R C; Littman, G S; Potter, R G

    1977-02-01

    In this paper, the actuarial method of multiple decrement life table analysis of censored, longitudinal data is examined. The discussion is organized in terms of the first segment of usage of an intrauterine device. Weaknesses of the actuarial approach are pointed out, and an alternative approach, based on the classical model of competing risks, is proposed. Finally, the actuarial and the alternative method of analyzing censored data are compared, using data from the Taichung Medical Study on Intrauterine Devices.

  17. Computational Fatigue Life Analysis of Carbon Fiber Laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Shrimukhi G.; Chandrashekara, C. V., Dr.

    2018-02-01

    In the present scenario, many traditional materials are being replaced by composite materials for its light weight and high strength properties. Industries like automotive industry, aerospace industry etc., are some of the examples which uses composite materials for most of its components. Replacing of components which are subjected to static load or impact load are less challenging compared to components which are subjected to dynamic loading. Replacing the components made up of composite materials demands many stages of parametric study. One such parametric study is the fatigue analysis of composite material. This paper focuses on the fatigue life analysis of the composite material by using computational techniques. A composite plate is considered for the study which has a hole at the center. The analysis is carried on (0°/90°/90°/90°/90°)s laminate sequence and (45°/-45°)2s laminate sequence by using a computer script. The life cycles for both the lay-up sequence are compared with each other. It is observed that, for the same material and geometry of the component, cross ply laminates show better fatigue life than that of angled ply laminates.

  18. Authenticity, life satisfaction, and distress: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Güler; Waits, J Brandon; Felix, Victoria A

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the reciprocal relationships between authenticity and measures of life satisfaction and distress using a 2-wave panel study design. Data were collected from 232 college students attending 2 public universities. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results of the cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that after controlling for temporal stability, initial authenticity (Time 1) predicted later distress and life satisfaction (Time 2). Specifically, higher levels of authenticity at Time 1 were associated with increased life satisfaction and decreased distress at Time 2. Neither distress nor life satisfaction at Time 1 significantly predicted authenticity at Time 2. However, the relationship between Time 1 distress and Time 2 authenticity was not significantly different from the relationship between Time 1 authenticity and Time 2 distress. Results are discussed in light of humanistic-existential theories and the empirical research on well-being. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Life cycle analysis of photovoltaic cell and wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yohji

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents life cycle analyses of net energy and CO 2 emissions on photovoltaic cell and wind power generation plants. Energy requirements associated with a plant are estimated for producing materials, manufacturing equipment, constructing facilities, acid operating plants. Energy ratio and net supplied energy are calculated by the process energy analysis that examines the entire energy inventory of input and output during life time of a plant. Life cycle CO 2 emission can also be calculated from the energy requirements obtained by the net energy analysis. The emission also includes greenhouse effect equivalent to CO 2 emission of methane gas leakage at a mining as well as CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion during generating electricity, natural gas treatment at an extracting well and cement production in industry. The commercially available and future-commercial technologies are dealt with in the study. Regarding PV technologies, two different kinds of installation are investigated; roof-top typed installation of residential houses and ground installation of electric utilities. (author)

  20. Analysis of arsenic and mercury content in human remains of the 16th and 17th centuries from Moscow Kremlin necropolises by neutron activation analysis at the IREN facility and the IBR-2 reactor FLNP JINR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova, T. D.; Dmitriev, A. Yu.; Borzakov, S. B.; Hramco, C.

    2018-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis (NAA) of three samples of human remains of the 16th and 17th centuries from the necropolises of the Moscow Kremlin has been carried out at FLNP JINR. The samples were irradiated at two facilities: the IREN source of resonance neutrons and the IBR-2 reactor. Spectra of the induced activity of the irradiated samples were measured by using the automatic measurement system developed at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR). This system consists of a high-purity germanium detector with spectrometric electronics, a sample changer, and control software. Mass fraction of arsenic, mercury, and some other elements were calculated using two NAA methods—relative and absolute. The obtained values confirm the fact of acute mercury poisoning of Anastasia Romanovna, the first wife of Tsar Ivan Vasil'evich the Terrible, the first Russian Tsarina (died in 1560). High levels of mercury were detected in the bone remains of Tsarevich Ivan Ivanovich (died in 1581), the son of Tsar Ivan the Terrible, and Prince Mikhail Vasil'evich Skopin-Shuiskii (died in 1610). The results provide an opportunity to introduce into scientific circulation the exact values of mass fraction of mercury, arsenic, and other elements in the samples taken from the burials of the Russian historical figures of the second half of 16th-early 17th century.

  1. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of arsenic and mercury in human remains of the XVI-XVII centuries from the Moscow Kremlin necropolises by neutron activation analysis at the IREN facility and the IBR-2 reactor of FLNP, JINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panova, T.D.; Dmitriev, A.Yu.; Borzakov, S.B.; Khramko, K.

    2017-01-01

    The neutron activation analysis (NAA) of three samples of human remains of the XVI-XVII centuries from the necropolises of the Moscow Kremlin has been carried out at FLNP JINR. The samples were irradiated at two facilities: at the IREN source of resonance neutrons and at the IBR-2 reactor. Spectra of induced activity of the irradiated samples were measured by using the automatic measurement system developed at FLNP JINR. This system consists of a high-purity germanium detector with spectrometric electronics, a sample changer, and a control software. Mass fractions of arsenic, mercury and other elements were calculated by relative and absolute NAA methods. The obtained values confirmed the fact of an acute mercury poisoning of the first wife of Tsar Ivan Vasilievich the Terrible - Tsarina Anastasia Romanovna. Increased mercury content was detected in the bone remains of the son of Tsar Ivan the Terrible, Tsarevich Ivan Ivanovich, and Prince M. V. Skopin-Shuisky. The obtained results allow us to introduce into scientific circulation the exact values of mass fraction of mercury, arsenic and some other elements in the samples from the graves of Russian historical figures of the second half of XVI - early XVII centuries. [ru

  2. Life-cycle analysis of product integrated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    A life cycle analysis (LCA) on a product integrated polymer solar module is carried out in this study. These assessments are well-known to be useful in developmental stages of a product in order to identify the bottlenecks for the up-scaling in its production phase for several aspects spanning from...... economics through design to functionality. An LCA study was performed to quantify the energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity use in the manufacture of a light-weight lamp based on a plastic foil, a lithium-polymer battery, a polymer solar cell, printed circuitry, blocking diode......, switch and a white light emitting semiconductor diode. The polymer solar cell employed in this prototype presents a power conversion efficiency in the range of 2 to 3% yielding energy payback times (EPBT) in the range of 1.3–2 years. Based on this it is worthwhile to undertake a life-cycle study...

  3. The cost analysis of hydrogen life cycle in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Fei; Jia, Yuan; Mao, Zongqiang

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the increasing price of oil and the possibility of global energy crisis demand for substitutive energy to replace fossil energy. Many kinds of renewable energy have been considered, such as hydrogen, solar energy, and wind energy. Many countries including China have their own plan to support the research of hydrogen, because of its premier features. But, at present, the cost of hydrogen energy production, storage and transportation process is higher than that of fossil energy and its commercialization progress is slow. Life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) was used in this paper to evaluate the cost of hydrogen energy throughout the life cycle focused on the stratagem selection, to demonstrate the costs of every step and to discuss their relationship. Finally, the minimum cost program is as follows: natural gas steam reforming - high-pressure hydrogen bottles transported by car to hydrogen filling stations - hydrogen internal-combustion engines. (author)

  4. Dynamic Path Analysis in Life-Course Epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael Orland; Boje Jensen, Gorm; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2011-01-01

    it works through other risk factors. In this paper, the dynamic path analysis model is presented as a tool to analyze these dynamic mechanisms in life-course epidemiology. A key feature of dynamic path analysis is its ability to decompose the total effect of a risk factor into a direct effect (not mediated...... by other variables) and indirect effects (mediated through other variables). This is illustrated by examining the associations between repeated measurements of body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the risk of CHD in a sample of Danish men between 1976 and 2006. The effect of baseline...... BMI on the risk of CHD is decomposed into a direct effect and indirect effects going through later BMI, concurrent SBP, or later SBP. In conclusion, dynamic path analysis is a flexible tool that by the decomposition of effects can be used to increase the understanding of mechanisms that underlie...

  5. Life cycle inventory analysis of fossil energies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon Sungyee; Yamada, Tatsuya

    1999-01-01

    Given growing concerns over global warming problems in recent years, a matter of great importance has been to grasp GHG emissions from fossil energy use as accurately as possible by figuring out how much GHGs result from a life cycle (production, transportation and consumption) of various fossil energies. The objective of this study is to make a life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis of major fossil energies (coal, oil, LNG, LPG) consumed in Japan pursuant to ISO 14040. On these fossil energies imported to Japan in 1997, LCI analysis results of GHG emissions (specifically carbon dioxide and methane) put CO 2 intensity during their combustion stage (gross heat value basis) at 100:121:138:179 among LNG:LPG:oil:coal. But, in life cycle terms, the ratios turned to be 100:110:120:154. The world average (gross heat value basis) gained from IPCC data, among others, puts the ratios among LNG:LPG:oil:coal at 100:105:110:151. In comparison, our study that focused on Japan found their corresponding figures at 100:110:120:154. COP 3 set forth country-by-country targets. Yet, global warming, that is a worldwide problem, also requires a more comprehensive assessment based on a life cycle analysis (LCA). The estimation results of our study can be of some help in shaping some criteria when considering energy and environmental policies from a global viewpoint. In addition, our study results suggest the importance of the best energy mix that is endorsed by LCI analysis results, if global warming abatement efforts should successfully be in advance. As specific institutional designs of Kyoto Mechanism are currently under examination, the introduction of LCI method deserves to be considered in discussing the baseline issue of joint implementation and clean development mechanism. In the days ahead, by gathering and analysing detailed-ever data, and through fossil-energy LCA by use, we had better consider supply and demand of the right energies in the right uses. (author)

  6. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  7. Failure analysis and seal life prediction for contacting mechanical seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J. J.; He, X. Y.; Wei, L.; Feng, X.

    2008-11-01

    Fault tree analysis method was applied to quantitatively investigate the causes of the leakage failure of mechanical seals. It is pointed out that the change of the surface topography is the main reasons causing the leakage of mechanical seals under the condition of constant preloads. Based on the fractal geometry theory, the relationship between the surface topography and working time were investigated by experiments, and the effects of unit load acting on seal face on leakage path in a mechanical seal were analyzed. The model of predicting seal life of mechanical seals was established on the basis of the relationship between the surface topography and working time and allowable leakage. The seal life of 108 mechanical seal operating at the system of diesel fuel storage and transportation was predicted and the problem of the condition monitoring for the long-period operation of mechanical seal was discussed by this method. The research results indicate that the method of predicting seal life of mechanical seals is feasible, and also is foundation to make scheduled maintenance time and to achieve safe-reliability and low-cost operation for industrial devices.

  8. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  9. Comparing methods of classifying life courses: Sequence analysis and latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga, C.H.; Liefbroer, Aart C.; Han, Sapphire

    2017-01-01

    We compare life course typology solutions generated by sequence analysis (SA) and latent class analysis (LCA). First, we construct an analytic protocol to arrive at typology solutions for both methodologies and present methods to compare the empirical quality of alternative typologies. We apply this

  10. Comparing methods of classifying life courses: sequence analysis and latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Y.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Elzinga, C.

    2017-01-01

    We compare life course typology solutions generated by sequence analysis (SA) and latent class analysis (LCA). First, we construct an analytic protocol to arrive at typology solutions for both methodologies and present methods to compare the empirical quality of alternative typologies. We apply this

  11. Design and analysis of seals for extended service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1992-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is being developed for a service life of up to thirty years. As a consequence, the design requirements for the seals to be used are unprecedented. Full scale testing to assure the selected seals can satisfy the design requirements are not feasible. As an alternative, a sub-scale test program has been developed by MSFC to calibrate the analysis tools to be used to certify the proposed design. This research has been conducted in support of the MSFC Integrated Seal Test Program. The ultimate objective of this research is to correlate analysis and test results to qualify the analytical tools, which in turn, are to be used to qualify the flight hardware. This research is totally focused on O-rings that are compressed by perpendicular clamping forces. In this type of seal the O-ring is clamped between the sealing surfaces by loads perpendicular to the circular cross section.

  12. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-01-01

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  13. Red Assembly: the work remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Witz

    installed. What to do at this limit, at the transgressive encounter between saying yes and no to history, remains the challenge. It is the very challenge of what insistently remains.

  14. Application of life cycle analysis: The case of green bullets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogard, J.S.; Yuracko, K.L.; Murray, M.E.; Lowden, R.A.; Vaughn, N.L.

    1998-06-01

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) has been used to analyze the desirability of replacing lead with a composite of tungsten and tin in projectile slugs used in small arms ammunition at US Department of Energy (DOE) training facilities for security personnel. The analysis includes consideration of costs, performance, environmental and human health impacts, availability of raw materials, and stakeholder acceptance. The DOE expends approximately 10 million rounds of small-arms ammunition each year training security personnel. This deposits over 300,000 pounds of lead and copper annually into DOE firing ranges, contributing to lead migration in the surrounding environment. Human lead intake occurs by inhalation of contaminated indoor firing range air and air containing lead particles that are resuspended during regular maintenance and cleanup, and by skin absorption while cleaning weapons. Projectiles developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using a composite of tungsten and tin perform as well as, or better than, those fabricated using lead. A cost analysis shows that tungsten-tin is less costly to use than lead, since, for the current number of rounds used annually, the higher tungsten-tin purchase price is small compared with higher maintenance costs associated with lead. The tungsten-tin composite presents a much smaller potential for adverse human health and environmental impacts than lead. Only a small fraction of the world`s tungsten production occurs in the United States, however, and market-economy countries account for only around 15% of world tungsten production. Life cycle analysis clearly shows that advantages outweigh risks in replacing lead with tungsten-tin in small-caliber projectiles at DOE training facilities. Concerns about the availability of raw tungsten are mitigated by the ease of converting back to lead (if necessary) and the recyclability of tungsten-tin rounds.

  15. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  16. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  17. Stator winding service life analysis of wet winding motor RCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeoh Eingyee; Li Linsen; Wang Ziguan; Shen Feng

    2017-01-01

    The reactor coolant pump type RUV of KSB is specially designed for the Westinghouse AP1000 reactor. It is hermetically sealed, wet winding motor pump. This wet winding motor concept has higher efficiency as compared to a canned motor since there are no eddy current losses, but this makes the stator cable insulator face the challenge of degradation by γ-irradiation in coolant. Radiation dose at the RUV is evaluated in interest from the material degradation point of view and the service life of stator winding in RUV is preliminarily analyzed. The values obtained are less than the dose rate and the dose which change the mechanical properties of the insulator material. According to the preliminary analysis, it can be concluded that the degradation of cable insulator of stator winding by γ-irradiation in coolant is negligible for the 60 years' service life of reactor coolant pump. This result also ensures crosslinked polyethylene used as cable insulator of stator winding is reliable in reactor coolant pump. (author)

  18. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Ready Mix Concrete Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkar, V. M.; Duggar, A. R.; Kumar, A.; Bonde, P. P.; Girwalkar, R. S.; Gade, S. B.

    2013-11-01

    India, being a developing nation is experiencing major growth in its infrastructural sector. Concrete is the major component in construction. The requirement of good quality of concrete in large quantities can be fulfilled by ready mix concrete batching and mixing plants. The paper presents a technique of applying the value engineering tool life cycle cost analysis to a ready mix concrete plant. This will help an investor or an organization to take investment decisions regarding a ready mix concrete facility. No economic alternatives are compared in this study. A cost breakdown structure is prepared for the ready mix concrete plant. A market survey has been conducted to collect realistic costs for the ready mix concrete facility. The study establishes the cash flow for the ready mix concrete facility helpful in investment and capital generation related decisions. Transit mixers form an important component of the facility and are included in the calculations. A fleet size for transit mixers has been assumed for this purpose. The life cycle cost has been calculated for the system of the ready mix concrete plant and transit mixers.

  19. Quality of life in eating disorders: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Christiansen, Erik; Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Hansen, Nina Beck; Bilenberg, Niels; Støving, René Klinkby

    2014-09-30

    Eating disorders (EDs) comprise a variety of symptoms and have a profound impact on everyday life. They are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to analyse published data on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in EDs so as to compare the results to general population norm data and to investigate potential differences between ED diagnostic groups. A systematic review of the current literature was conducted using a keyword-based search in PubMed and PsychInfo. The search covered anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and binge eating disorder (BED) and used the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) as a measure of HRQoL. Of the 102 citations identified, 85 abstracts were reviewed and seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. AN patients were included in five studies (n=227), BN in four studies (n=216), EDNOS in two studies (n=166) and BED in four studies (n=148). We tested for between-study variation and significant differences between the diagnostic groups. The results confirmed a significantly lower level of HRQoL in all EDs compared to a population mean. It was not possible to establish any differences between the diagnostic groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reliability and life-cycle analysis of deteriorating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Silva, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    This book compiles and critically discusses modern engineering system degradation models and their impact on engineering decisions. In particular, the authors focus on modeling the uncertain nature of degradation considering both conceptual discussions and formal mathematical formulations. It also describes the basics concepts and the various modeling aspects of life-cycle analysis (LCA).  It highlights the role of degradation in LCA and defines optimum design and operation parameters. Given the relationship between operational decisions and the performance of the system’s condition over time, maintenance models are also discussed. The concepts and models presented have applications in a large variety of engineering fields such as Civil, Environmental, Industrial, Electrical and Mechanical engineering. However, special emphasis is given to problems related to large infrastructure systems. The book is intended to be used both as a reference resource for researchers and practitioners and as an academic text ...

  1. Using Behavior Sequence Analysis to Map Serial Killers' Life Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, David A; Golightly, Hayley; Shephard, Rebecca; Yaksic, Enzo; Reid, Sasha

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the current research was to provide a novel method for mapping the developmental sequences of serial killers' life histories. An in-depth biographical account of serial killers' lives, from birth through to conviction, was gained and analyzed using Behavior Sequence Analysis. The analyses highlight similarities in behavioral events across the serial killers' lives, indicating not only which risk factors occur, but the temporal order of these factors. Results focused on early childhood environment, indicating the role of parental abuse; behaviors and events surrounding criminal histories of serial killers, showing that many had previous convictions and were known to police for other crimes; behaviors surrounding their murders, highlighting differences in victim choice and modus operandi; and, finally, trial pleas and convictions. The present research, therefore, provides a novel approach to synthesizing large volumes of data on criminals and presenting results in accessible, understandable outcomes.

  2. Using Survival Analysis to Evaluate Medical Equipment Battery Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhajda, David

    2016-01-01

    As hospital medical device managers obtain more data, opportunities exist for using the data to improve medical device management, enhance patient safety, and evaluate costs of decisions. As a demonstration of the ability to use data analytics, this article applies survival analysis statistical techniques to assist in making decisions on medical equipment maintenance. The analysis was performed on a large amount of data related to failures of an infusion pump manufacturer's lithium battery and two aftermarket replacement lithium batteries from one hospital facility. The survival analysis resulted in statistical evidence showing that one of the third-party batteries had a lower survival curve than the infusion pump manufacturer's battery. This lower survival curve translates to a shorter expected life before replacement is needed. The data suggested that to limit unexpected failures, replacing batteries at a two-year interval, rather than the current industry recommendation of three years, may be warranted. For less than $5,400 in additional annual cost, the risk of unexpected battery failures can be reduced from an estimated 28% to an estimated 7%.

  3. Life Cycle Analysis of Dedicated Nano-Launch Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar; McCleskey, Carey (Editor); Martin, John; Lepsch, Roger; Ternani, Tosoc

    2014-01-01

    Recent technology advancements have enabled the development of small cheap satellites that can perform useful functions in the space environment. Currently, the only low cost option for getting these payloads into orbit is through ride share programs - small satellites awaiting the launch of a larger satellite, and then riding along on the same launcher. As a result, these small satellite customers await primary payload launches and a backlog exists. An alternative option would be dedicated nano-launch systems built and operated to provide more flexible launch services, higher availability, and affordable prices. The potential customer base that would drive requirements or support a business case includes commercial, academia, civil government and defense. Further, NASA technology investments could enable these alternative game changing options. With this context, in 2013 the Game Changing Development (GCD) program funded a NASA team to investigate the feasibility of dedicated nano-satellite launch systems with a recurring cost of less than $2 million per launch for a 5 kg payload to low Earth orbit. The team products would include potential concepts, technologies and factors for enabling the ambitious cost goal, exploring the nature of the goal itself, and informing the GCD program technology investment decision making process. This paper provides an overview of the life cycle analysis effort that was conducted in 2013 by an inter-center NASA team. This effort included the development of reference nano-launch system concepts, developing analysis processes and models, establishing a basis for cost estimates (development, manufacturing and launch) suitable to the scale of the systems, and especially, understanding the relationship of potential game changing technologies to life cycle costs, as well as other factors, such as flights per year.

  4. Quality of Life in Autism across the Lifespan: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijst, Barbara F. C.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, with a known impact on quality of life. Yet the developmental trajectory of quality of life is not well understood. First, the effect of age on quality of life was studied with a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis included 10 studies (published between 2004 and 2012) with a combined sample size of…

  5. Life history of the Harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis; a global meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Hemerik, A.; Werf, van der W.; Jong, de P.W.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Data collected en used for a meta analysis on life history data of H. axyridis. And the resulting 20 best models for each life history characteristic. Published in the paper: Life history of the Harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis; a global meta-analysis.

  6. Quality of life in autism across the lifespan: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijst, B.F.C.; Geurts, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, with a known impact on quality of life. Yet the developmental trajectory of quality of life is not well understood. First, the effect of age on quality of life was studied with a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis included 10 studies (published between

  7. Life-Cycle Analysis of Alternative Aviation Fuels in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Carter, N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Stratton, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hileman, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Malwitz, A. [Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Balasubramanian, S. [Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1_2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or(2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55–85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources — such as natural gas and coal — could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  8. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet

  9. Life cycle cost analysis of wind power considering stochastic uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chiao-Ting; Peng, Huei; Sun, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a long-term cost analysis of wind power and compares its competitiveness to non-renewable generating technologies. The analysis considers several important attributes related to wind intermittency that are sometimes ignored in traditional generation planning or LCOE (levelized cost of energy) studies, including the need for more nameplate capacity due to intermittency, hourly fluctuations in wind outputs and cost for reserves. The competitiveness of wind power is assessed by evaluating four scenarios: 1) adding natural gas generating capacity to the power grid; 2) adding coal generating capacity to the power grid; 3) adding wind capacity to the power grid; and, 4) adding wind capacity and energy storage to the power grid where an energy storage device is used to cover wind intermittency. A case study in the state of Michigan is presented to demonstrate the use of the proposed methodology, in which a time horizon from 2010 to 2040 is considered. The results show that wind energy will still be more expensive than natural gas power plants in the next three decades, but will be cheaper than coal capacities if wind intermittency is mitigated. Furthermore, if the costs of carbon emissions and environmental externalities are considered, wind generation will be a competitive option for grid capacity expansion. - Highlights: • The competitiveness of wind power is analyzed via life cycle cost analysis. • Wind intermittency and reserve costs are explicitly considered in the analysis. • Results show that wind is still more expensive than natural gas power plants. • Wind can be cheaper than coal capacities if wind intermittency is mitigated. • Wind will be competitive if costs of carbon emissions are considered

  10. Residential Preferences and Moving Behavior: A Family Life Cycle Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, William J.; Nutty, Cheri L.

    The relationship of family life cycle changes to housing preferences and residential mobility is examined. Two residential decision-making issues are explored in detail--how family life cycle stages influence what people view as important to their choice of residential setting and what individuals at different family life cycle stages view as the…

  11. Life cycle analysis of advanced nuclear power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yoji; Yokoyama, Hayaichi

    1996-01-01

    In this research, as for light water reactors and fast breeder reactors, for the object of all the processes from the mining, transport and refining of fuel, electric power generation to the treatment and disposal of waste, the amount of energy input and the quantity of CO 2 emission over the life cycle were analyzed, and regarding the influence that the technical progress of nuclear power generation exerted to environment, the effect of improvement was elucidated. Attention has been paid to nuclear power generation as its CO 2 emission is least, and the effect of global warming is smallest. In order to reduce the quantity of radioactive waste generation in LWRs and the cost of fuel cycle, and to extend the operation cycle, the technical development for heightening fuel burnup is in progress. The process of investigation of the new technologies of nuclear power generation taken up in this research is described. The analysis of the energy balance of various power generation methods is discussed. In the case of pluthermal process, the improvement of energy balance ratio is dependent on uranium enrichment technology. Nuclear power generation requires much materials and energy for the construction, and emits CO 2 indirectly. The CO 2 unit emission based on the analysis of energy balance was determined for the new technologies of nuclear power generation, and the results are shown. (K.I.)

  12. Life-cycle cost analysis of adsorption cycles for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the thermo-economic analysis of the adsorption desalination (AD) cycle that is driven by low-temperature waste heat from exhaust of industrial processes or renewable sources. The AD cycle uses an adsorbent such as the silica gel to desalt the sea or brackish water. Based on an experimental prototype AD plant, the life-cycle cost analysis of AD plants of assorted water production capacities has been simulated and these predictions are translated into unit cost of water production. Our results show that the specific energy consumption of the AD cycle is 1.38 kWh/m3 which is the lowest ever reported. For a plant capacity of 1000 m3/d, the AD cycle offers a unit cost of $0.457/m3 as compared to more than $0.9 for the average RO plants. Besides being cost-effective, the AD cycle is also environment-friendly as it emits less CO2 emission per m3 generated, typically 85% less, by comparison to an RO process. © 2010 Desalination Publications.

  13. Life cycle primary energy analysis of residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif; Joelsson, Anna [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    The space heating demand of residential buildings can be decreased by improved insulation, reduced air leakage and by heat recovery from ventilation air. However, these measures result in an increased use of materials. As the energy for building operation decreases, the relative importance of the energy used in the production phase increases and influences optimization aimed at minimizing the life cycle energy use. The life cycle primary energy use of buildings also depends on the energy supply systems. In this work we analyse primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emission for the production and operation of conventional and low-energy residential buildings. Different types of energy supply systems are included in the analysis. We show that for a conventional and a low-energy building the primary energy use for production can be up to 45% and 60%, respectively, of the total, depending on the energy supply system, and with larger variations for conventional buildings. The primary energy used and the CO{sub 2} emission resulting from production are lower for wood-framed constructions than for concrete-framed constructions. The primary energy use and the CO{sub 2} emission depend strongly on the energy supply, for both conventional and low-energy buildings. For example, a single-family house from the 1970s heated with biomass-based district heating with cogeneration has 70% lower operational primary energy use than if heated with fuel-based electricity. The specific primary energy use with district heating was 40% lower than that of an electrically heated passive row house. (author)

  14. Obesity in adulthood and its consequences for life expectancy: a life-table analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Peeters (Anna); J.J.M. Barendregt (Jan); F. Willekens; J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); A. Al Mamun; L.G.A. Bonneux (Luc)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity in adulthood are linked to an increased risk for death and disease. Their potential effect on life expectancy and premature death has not yet been described. OBJECTIVE: To analyze reductions in life expectancy and increases in

  15. Population cycles: generalities, exceptions and remaining mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Population cycles are one of nature's great mysteries. For almost a hundred years, innumerable studies have probed the causes of cyclic dynamics in snowshoe hares, voles and lemmings, forest Lepidoptera and grouse. Even though cyclic species have very different life histories, similarities in mechanisms related to their dynamics are apparent. In addition to high reproductive rates and density-related mortality from predators, pathogens or parasitoids, other characteristics include transgenerational reduced reproduction and dispersal with increasing-peak densities, and genetic similarity among populations. Experiments to stop cyclic dynamics and comparisons of cyclic and noncyclic populations provide some understanding but both reproduction and mortality must be considered. What determines variation in amplitude and periodicity of population outbreaks remains a mystery. PMID:29563267

  16. Profiled Roller Stress/Fatigue Life Analysis Methodology and Establishment of an Appropriate Stress/Life Exponent

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the three dimensional volumetric stress field, surface pressure distribution and actual contact area between a 0.50" square roller with different crown profiles and a flat raceway surface using Finite Element Analysis. The 3-dimensional stress field data was used in conjunction with several bearing fatigue life theories to extract appropriate values for stress-life exponents. Also, results of the FEA runs were used to evaluate the laminated roller model presently used for stress and life prediction.

  17. Application of life cycle analysis: The case of green bullets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogard, J.S.; Yuracko, K.L.; Lowden, R.A.; Murray, M.E.; Vaughn, N.L.

    1998-11-01

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) provides a general framework for assessing and summarizing all of the information important to a decision. LCA has been used to analyze the desirability of replacing lead (Pb) with a composite of tungsten (W) and tin (Sn) in projectile slugs used in small arms ammunition at US Department of Energy (DOE) training facilities for security personnel. The analysis includes consideration of costs, performance, environmental and human health impacts, availability of raw materials, and stakeholder acceptance. The DOE expends approximately 10 million rounds of small-arms ammunition each year training security personnel. This deposits over 300,000 pounds of lead and copper annually into DOE firing ranges, contributing to lead migration in the surrounding environment. Human lead intake occurs by inhalation of contaminated indoor firing range air and air containing lead particles that are resuspended during regular maintenance and cleanup, and by skin absorption while cleaning weapons. Projectiles developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) using a composite of tungsten and tin perform as well as, or better than, those fabricated using lead. A cost analysis shows that tungsten-tin is less costly to use than lead, since, for the current number of rounds used annually, the higher tungsten-tin purchase price is small compared with higher maintenance costs associated with lead. The tungsten-tin composite presents a much smaller potential for adverse human health and environmental impacts than lead. Only a small fraction of the world`s tungsten production occurs in the US, however, and market-economy countries account for only around 15% of world tungsten production. Stakeholders would prefer tungsten-tin on the basis of total cost, performance, reduced environmental impact and lower human toxicity. Lead is preferable on the basis of material availability.

  18. A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE BALANCE BETWEEN WORK AND LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    Eleftheria Charitou; Evgeniia Kolobova; Tryfon Ziatas; Miltiadis Chalikias; Michalis Skordoulis

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the balancing of professional and personal life and its importance for a company’s profitability. Α qualitative research was taken up. The research findings revealed another that the hierarchical level to which an employee belongs differentiates the degree of balancing between professional and personal life. Furthermore it was found that an imbalance between work and life leads mainly to stress, anger and reduced job satisfaction and other negati...

  19. Life cycle inventory analysis for electricity in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun-Mo Lee; Sang-Yong Lee; Tak Hur

    2004-01-01

    A life cycle inventory analysis (LCI) database that encompasses the entire Korean electrical energy grid was developed. The CO 2 emission per functional unit of electricity, 1 kWh of usable electricity, was 0.49 kg/fu. Contribution of direct emission of CO 2 to the total CO 2 emission was around 95%. In the case of emissions of SO x , NO x , and PM, contribution of the upstream processes including raw energy material extraction, transport, and fuel processing to the total emissions were 29%, 26%, and 43%, respectively. Emissions of air pollutants from power generation or direct emissions are much greater in quantity than those from the upstream processes. On the other hand, the opposite is true for the emissions of water pollutants. Bituminous coal was the largest source of emissions of air and water pollutants including CO 2 , Natural gas was the best fuel and anthracite coal was the worst fuel with respect to the direct and upstream emissions of air and water pollutants and wastes. (author)

  20. Fatigue Life Analysis of Tapered Hybrid Composite Flexbeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murri, Gretchen B.; Schaff, Jeffery R.; Dobyns, Alan L.

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear-tapered flexbeam laminates from a full-size composite helicopter rotor hub flexbeam were tested under combined constant axial tension and cyclic bending loads. The two different graphite/glass hybrid configurations tested under cyclic loading failed by delamination in the tapered region. A 2-D finite element model was developed which closely approximated the flexbeam geometry, boundary conditions, and loading. The analysis results from two geometrically nonlinear finite element codes, ANSYS and ABAQUS, are presented and compared. Strain energy release rates (G) obtained from the above codes using the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) at a resin crack location in the flexbeams are presented for both hybrid material types. These results compare well with each other and suggest that the initial delamination growth from the resin crack toward the thick region of the flexbeam is strongly mode II. The peak calculated G values were used with material characterization data to calculate fatigue life curves and compared with test data. A curve relating maximum surface strain to number of loading cycles at delamination onset compared reasonably well with the test results.

  1. Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Water and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    changes in drinking and wastewater infrastructure need to incorporate a holistic view of the water service sustainability tradeoffs and potential benefits when considering shifts towards new treatment technology, decentralized systems, energy recovery and reuse of treated wastewater. The main goal of this study is to determine the influence of scale on the energy and cost performance of different transitional membrane bioreactors (MBR) in decentralized wastewater treatment (WWT) systems by performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis. LCA is a tool used to quantify sustainability-related metrics from a systems perspective. The study calculates the environmental and cost profiles of both aerobic MBRs (AeMBR) and anaerobic MBRs (AnMBR), which not only recover energy from waste, but also produce recycled water that can displace potable water for uses such as irrigation and toilet flushing. MBRs represent an intriguing technology to provide decentralized WWT services while maximizing resource recovery. A number of scenarios for these WWT technologies are investigated for different scale systems serving various population density and land area combinations to explore the ideal application potentials. MBR systems are examined from 0.05 million gallons per day (MGD) to 10 MGD and serve land use types from high density urban (100,000 people per square mile) to semi-rural single family (2,000 people per square mile). The LCA and cost model was built with ex

  2. An Exploratory Analysis of Job and Life Satisfaction among Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul R.; DeCarlo, James F.

    An exploratory study examined the job and life satisfaction of a sample of 32 female entrepreneurs residing in the tri-state area of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. To compare the entrepreneurs' concepts of life and job satisfaction to those of women in more traditional occupations, researchers also studied a sample of 32 female nursing…

  3. Economic Freedom and Life Satisfaction : A Cross Country Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Compen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper estimates the relationship between various sub-indicators of economic freedom and life satisfaction for 122 countries. The estimation results show that life satisfaction is positively related to the quality of the legal system and protection of property rights. For poor

  4. Career, Migration and the Life CV: A Relational Cultural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Donna E.; Watts, Jane; Sterland, Ljaja; O'Neill, Maggie

    2011-01-01

    In response to the precarious and disadvantaged position of forced migrants in the United States and the UK, marked by unemployment, under employment and loss of career capital, this paper draws upon a relational cultural paradigm and a life design career model in order to understand migrant work life, shape the career intervention process and…

  5. Energy policy and externalities: the life cycle analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virdis, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    In the energy sector, getting the prices right is a prerequisite for market mechanisms to work effectively towards sustainable development. However, energy production and use creates 'costs' external to traditional accounting practices, such as damages to human health and the environment resulting from residual emissions or risks associated with dependence on foreign suppliers. Energy market prices do not fully reflect those external costs. For example, the costs of climate change are not internalized and, therefore, consumers do not get the right price signals leading them to make choices that are optimised from a societal viewpoint. Economic theory has developed approaches to assessing and internalizing external costs that can be applied to the energy sector and, in principle, provide means to quantify and integrate relevant information in a comprehensive framework. The tools developed for addressing these issues are generally aimed at monetary valuation of impacts and damages and integration of the valued 'external costs' in total cost of the product, e.g. electricity. The approach of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) provides a conceptual framework for a detailed and comprehensive comparative evaluation of energy supply options. This paper offers a summary of the LCA methodology and an overview of some of its limitations. It then illustrates, through a few examples, how the methodology can be used to inform or correct policy making and to orient investment decisions. Difficulties and issues emerging at various stages in the application and use of LCA results are discussed, although in such a short note, it is impossible to address all issues related to LCA. Therefore, as part of the concluding section, some issues are left open - and areas in which further analytical work may be needed are described. (author)

  6. Signal and image analysis for biomedical and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Changming; Pham, Tuan D; Vallotton, Pascal; Wang, Dadong

    2014-01-01

    With an emphasis on applications of computational models for solving modern challenging problems in biomedical and life sciences, this book aims to bring collections of articles from biologists, medical/biomedical and health science researchers together with computational scientists to focus on problems at the frontier of biomedical and life sciences. The goals of this book are to build interactions of scientists across several disciplines and to help industrial users apply advanced computational techniques for solving practical biomedical and life science problems. This book is for users in t

  7. Life cycle and economic efficiency analysis: durable pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project examined the life cycle and economic efficiency of two pavement marking : materials inlaid tape and thermoplastic to find the most economical product for specific : traffic and weather conditions. Six locations in the state of Ma...

  8. A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE BALANCE BETWEEN WORK AND LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria Charitou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the balancing of professional and personal life and its importance for a company’s profitability. Α qualitative research was taken up. The research findings revealed another that the hierarchical level to which an employee belongs differentiates the degree of balancing between professional and personal life. Furthermore it was found that an imbalance between work and life leads mainly to stress, anger and reduced job satisfaction and other negative results. Last but not least, the research results indicate that the balance between work and life can be affected by job insecurity and lifestyle. Businesses must pay more attention to their employees in order to reduce a possible imbalance between their works and lives.

  9. Integrate life-cycle assessment and risk analysis results, not methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Trump, Benjamin D; Wender, Ben A; Seager, Thomas P; Kennedy, Alan J; Keisler, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-04

    Two analytic perspectives on environmental assessment dominate environmental policy and decision-making: risk analysis (RA) and life-cycle assessment (LCA). RA focuses on management of a toxicological hazard in a specific exposure scenario, while LCA seeks a holistic estimation of impacts of thousands of substances across multiple media, including non-toxicological and non-chemically deleterious effects. While recommendations to integrate the two approaches have remained a consistent feature of environmental scholarship for at least 15 years, the current perception is that progress is slow largely because of practical obstacles, such as a lack of data, rather than insurmountable theoretical difficulties. Nonetheless, the emergence of nanotechnology presents a serious challenge to both perspectives. Because the pace of nanomaterial innovation far outstrips acquisition of environmentally relevant data, it is now clear that a further integration of RA and LCA based on dataset completion will remain futile. In fact, the two approaches are suited for different purposes and answer different questions. A more pragmatic approach to providing better guidance to decision-makers is to apply the two methods in parallel, integrating only after obtaining separate results.

  10. Psychometric Analysis of the Work/Life Balance Self-Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Cantrell, Mary Ann; Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C; Heverly, Mary Ann; Jenkinson, Amanda; Nthenge, Serah

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Work/Life Balance Self-Assessment scale among nurse faculty involved in doctoral education. A national random sample of 554 respondents completed the Work/Life Balance Self-Assessment scale, which addresses 3 factors: work interference with personal life (WIPL), personal life interference with work (PLIW), and work/personal life enhancement (WPLE). A principal components analysis with varimax rotation revealed 3 internally consistent aspects of work-life balance, explaining 40.5% of the variance. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for reliability of the scale were .88 for the total scale and for the subscales, .93 (WIPL), .85 (PLIW), and .69 (WPLE). The Work/Life Balance Self-Assessment scale appears to be a reliable and valid instrument to examine work-life balance among nurse faculty.

  11. Analysis of integrated plant upgrading/life extension programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCutchan, D.A.; Massie, H.W. Jr.; McFetridge, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    A present-worth generating cost model has been developed and used to evaluate the economic value of integrated plant upgrading life extension project in nuclear power plants. This paper shows that integrated plant upgrading programs can be developed in which a mix of near-term availability, power rating, and heat rate improvements can be obtained in combination with life extension. All significant benefits and costs are evaluated from the viewpoint of the utility, as measured in discounted revenue requirement differentials between alternative plans which are equivalent in system generating capacity. The near-term upgrading benefits are shown to enhance the benefit picture substantially. In some cases the net benefit is positive, even if the actual life extension proves to be less than expected

  12. Life Is Strange : a mediated game reception analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mänder, Leili

    2017-01-01

    In this essay a mediated video game reception of the game Life Is Strange is made, with the purpose of examining the players' meaning-making processes from a gender perspective. The materials of this essay consist of videos from six different YouTube channels where each player film themselves whilst playing through Life Is Strange as a way to review and share the gaming experience. The results show how the meaning-making processes are littered with gender discourses and affects. The affects o...

  13. Econometric analysis of ship life cycles - are safety inspections effective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); S. Knapp (Sabine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractDue to the shipping industry’s international legal framework and the existence of loopholes in the system, an estimated 5-10 percent of substandard ships exist which are more likely to have incidents with high economic cost. This article uses ship life cycles to provide insight into

  14. Future of lignite resources: a life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingsong; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Xueliang; Zheng, Xiaoning; Zuo, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Lignite is a low-quality energy source which accounts for 13 % of China's coal reserves. It is imperative to improve the quality of lignite for large-scale utilization. To further explore and analyze the influence of various key processes on the environment and economic costs, a lignite drying and compression technology is evaluated using an integrated approach of life cycle assessment and life cycle costs. Results showed that lignite mining, direct air emissions, and electricity consumption have most significant impacts on the environment. An integrated evaluation of life cycle assessment and life cycle costs showed that the most significant contributor to the environmental impacts and economic costs was the lignite mining process. The impact of transportation and wastewater treatment process on the environment and economic costs was small enough to be ignored. Critical factors were identified for reducing the environmental and economic impacts of lignite drying and compression technology. These findings provide useful inputs for both industrial practice and policy making for exploitation, processing, and utilization of lignite resources.

  15. Life-Cycle Inventory Analysis of Manufacturing Redwood Decking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Han-Sup Han; Elaine Oneil; Ivan L. Eastin

    2012-01-01

    Green building has become increasingly important. Therefore, consumers and builders often take into account the environmental attributes of a building material. This study determined the environmental attributes associated with manufacturing 38-mm × 138-mm (nominal 2 × 6) redwood decking in northern California using the life-cycle inventory method. Primary data...

  16. Analysis of Daily Life Time in Women's Junior College Students

    OpenAIRE

    樫村, 修生

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was understand the correlationship between the energy expenditure of living activity and body structure or physical fitness in the students of a women's junior college. The resulut were as follows; It was shown that the physical activites in the daily life was necessary for prevention of obesity in the students.

  17. Chronic Offenders: A Life-Course Analysis of Marijuana Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Daniel T.; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug, and the use of marijuana has been linked to a wide array of maladaptive outcomes. As a result, there is great interest in identifying the factors that are associated with the use of marijuana and with desistance from marijuana. The current study employed a life-course framework to examine the factors…

  18. Associations of Quality of Life with Service Satisfaction in Psychotic Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkari, Eleni; Pietschnig, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QoL) has gained increasing attention as a desired outcome of psychosocial treatments targeting psychotic patients. Yet, the relationship between the patients’ satisfaction with services and QoL has not been clearly established, perhaps due to the multidimensionality of the QoL concept and the variability in its assessment. Aim This is the first systematic meta-analysis of all available evidence assessing the relationship between QoL and service satisfaction. Methods: In all, 19 studies reporting data of 21 independent samples (N = 5,337) were included in the present meta-analysis. In moderator analyses, effects of age, sex, diagnoses (schizophrenia vs. other psychoses), treatment context (inpatients vs. outpatients), study design (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal), and QoL domain (subjective vs. health-related) were examined. Results Analyses revealed a highly significant medium-sized effect (r = .30, p service satisfaction. Effect sizes were significantly stronger for subjective than health-related quality of life (r = .35 vs. r = .14, respectively). Moreover, associations with subjective QoL remained largely robust when accounting for moderating variables, although there was a trend of stronger associations for outpatients compared to inpatients. In contrast, effect sizes for health-related QoL were small and only observable for samples with longitudinal designs. Conclusion Associations between QoL and service satisfaction appear to be robust but are differentiated in regard to QoL domain. Our findings suggest that agents responsible for service design and implementation need to take the patients’ perception of the service adequacy for achieving QoL enhancement into account. PMID:26275139

  19. The role of life skills promotion in substance abuse prevention: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Anneke; Schröder, Elke; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2008-08-01

    Research has shown that life skills programs are the most effective single activity in school-based substance abuse prevention. However, little is known about the processes through which they are effective. This study examines whether an evidence-based prevention program targeting general competence is effective through the promotion of knowledge about life skills and enhanced related behaviors. Based on a sample of 442 fifth graders participating in a quasi-experimental prevention study, as expected, mediation analyses revealed that increased knowledge about life skills paralleled an increase in students' distant attitudes toward alcohol and nicotine use. Unexpectedly, behaviors manifesting enhanced life skills were found not only among program participants who remained experimental/non-smokers or stopped smoking but also among smokers. In general, findings suggest that favorable prevention outcomes may be influenced through building knowledge about general life skills. The notion of uniform mechanisms of effectiveness in prevention programs is discussed.

  20. Optimal Life-Cycle Investing with Flexible Labor Supply: A Welfare Analysis of Life-Cycle Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. Gomes; Laurence J. Kotlikoff; Luis M. Viceira

    2008-01-01

    We investigate optimal consumption, asset accumulation and portfolio decisions in a realistically calibrated life-cycle model with flexible labor supply. Our framework allows for wage rate uncertainly, variable labor supply, social security benefits and portfolio choice over safe bonds and risky equities. Our analysis reinforces prior findings that equities are the preferred asset for young households, with the optimal share of equities generally declining prior to retirement. However, variab...

  1. The health care cost analysis for VZP clients during their last year of life

    OpenAIRE

    Jirsová, Karolína

    2017-01-01

    The health care cost analysis for VZP clients during their last year of life Abstract Objective of this thesis is a health care cost analysis for VZP clients, who died in 2014. An analysis of cost has been approached from a few different aspects, but mainly by segmentation of health care providers and chapters of diagnosis by ICD-10. Following analysis has been also processed in this thesis - the analysis of average health care costs of one day in life and the regional analysis of average hea...

  2. Process integrated modelling for steelmaking Life Cycle Inventory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iosif, Ana-Maria; Hanrot, Francois; Ablitzer, Denis

    2008-01-01

    During recent years, strict environmental regulations have been implemented by governments for the steelmaking industry in order to reduce their environmental impact. In the frame of the ULCOS project, we have developed a new methodological framework which combines the process integrated modelling approach with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method in order to carry out the Life Cycle Inventory of steelmaking. In the current paper, this new concept has been applied to the sinter plant which is the most polluting steelmaking process. It has been shown that this approach is a powerful tool to make the collection of data easier, to save time and to provide reliable information concerning the environmental diagnostic of the steelmaking processes

  3. Recent Methodologies for Creep Deformation Analysis and Its Life Prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo-Gon; Park, Jae-Young; Iung

    2016-01-01

    To design the high-temperature creeping materials, various creep data are needed for codification, as follows: i) stress vs. creep rupture time for base metals and weldments (average and minimum), ii) stress vs. time to 1% total strain (average), iii) stress vs. time to onset of tertiary creep (minimum), and iv) constitutive eqns. for conducting time- and temperature- dependent stress-strain (average), and v) isochronous stress-strain curves (average). Also, elevated temperature components such as those used in modern power generation plant are designed using allowable stress under creep conditions. The allowable stress is usually estimated on the basis of up to 10"5 h creep rupture strength at the operating temperature. The master curve of the “sinh” function was found to have a wider acceptance with good flexibility in the low stress ranges beyond the experimental data. The proposed multi-C method in the LM parameter revealed better life prediction than a single-C method. These improved methodologies can be utilized to accurately predict the long-term creep life or strength of Gen-IV nuclear materials which are designed for life span of 60 years

  4. Analysis of environmental impact phase in the life cycle of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez del M, C.

    2015-01-01

    The life-cycle analysis covers the environmental aspects of a product throughout its life cycle. The focus of this study was to apply a methodology of life-cycle analysis for the environmental impact assessment of a nuclear power plant by analyzing international standards ISO 14040 and 14044. The methodology of life-cycle analysis established by the ISO 14044 standard was analyzed, as well as the different impact assessment methodologies of life cycle in order to choose the most appropriate for a nuclear power plant; various tools for the life-cycle analysis were also evaluated, as is the use of software and the use of databases to feed the life cycle inventory. The functional unit chosen was 1 KWh of electricity, the scope of analysis ranging from the construction and maintenance, disposal of spent fuel to the decommissioning of the plant, the manufacturing steps of the fuel were excluded because in Mexico is not done this stage. For environmental impact assessment was chosen the Recipe methodology which evaluates up to 18 impact categories depending on the project. In the case of a nuclear power plant were considered only categories of depletion of the ozone layer, climate change, ionizing radiation and formation of particulate matter. The different tools for life-cycle analysis as the methodologies of impact assessment of life cycle, different databases or use of software have been taken according to the modeling of environmental sensitivities of different regions, because in Mexico the methodology for life-cycle analysis has not been studied and still do not have all the tools necessary for the evaluation, so the uncertainty of the data supplied and results could be higher. (Author)

  5. Do Exercise Interventions Improve Participation in Life Roles in Older Adults? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Marla K; Lee, Annemarie; Ward, Rachel F; Harrison, Samantha M; Bain, Paul A; Goldstein, Roger S; Brooks, Dina; Bean, Jonathan F; Jette, Alan M

    2017-10-01

    The World Health Organization recognizes participation in meaningful life roles as a key component of health. However, the evidence base for interventions to improve participation remains inconclusive. In particular, whether exercise interventions improve participation in life roles is unclear. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effect of physical exercise interventions on participation in life roles in older adults residing in the community. The PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane, and PEDro databases were searched from inception through March 2015. Randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of an exercise intervention to usual care on participation in life roles in adults who were 60 years of age or older were included in this review. Teams of 2 investigators independently extracted data on participation. Methodological quality was appraised using the Cochrane tool for assessing the risk of bias. The protocol was registered with Prospero (CRD42014014880). Eighteen randomized controlled trials with a total of 2,315 participants met the inclusion criteria. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs were calculated using a random-effects model. A meta-analysis of 16 studies showed no overall effect of the exercise interventions on participation (SMD = 0.03; 95% CI = -0.10 to 0.16). Subgroup analysis showed that exercise interventions lasting 12 months or more had a small positive effect on participation (SMD = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.28). Limitations included variability in definitions and measures of participation. In general, exercise interventions do not improve participation in life roles in older adults. The results do not support the implicit assumption that exercise-based interventions associated with improved function/activity also result in improved participation. Investigation of complex interventions that go beyond exercise to address participation in life roles for older adults is warranted. © 2017 American Physical Therapy

  6. Generational Change in the Argentine Academic Profession through the Analysis of "Life Courses"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquina, Monica; Yuni, Jose; Ferreiro, Mariela

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the effects of the socio-political processes on the academic profession in Argentina from the life course perspective. The analysis of differences in the individuals' life course was made by dividing them into three groups, representing different generations of academics: the novel, the intermediate, and the…

  7. Statistical analysis of longitudinal quality of life data with missing measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinderman, A. H.

    1992-01-01

    The statistical analysis of longitudinal quality of life data in the presence of missing data is discussed. In cancer trials missing data are generated due to the fact that patients die, drop out, or are censored. These missing data are problematic in the monitoring of the quality of life during the

  8. Ageing, Health and Life Satisfaction of the Oldest Old: An Analysis for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    This analysis uses data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe to assess the effect of ageing and health on the life satisfaction of the oldest old (defined as 75 and older). We observe a U-shaped relationship between age and levels of life satisfaction for individuals aged between 16 and 65.…

  9. Fatigue in cold-forging dies: Tool life analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Hansen, P.; Bay, Niels; Grønbæk, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the present investigation it is shown how the tool life of heavily loaded cold-forging dies can be predicted. Low-cycle fatigue and fatigue crack growth testing of the tool materials are used in combination with finite element modelling to obtain predictions of tool lives. In the models...... the number of forming cycles is calculated first to crack initiation and then during crack growth to fatal failure. An investigation of a critical die insert in an industrial cold-forging tool as regards the influence of notch radius, the amount and method of pre-stressing and the selected tool material...

  10. Introduction to statistical data analysis for the life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Ekstrom, Claus Thorn

    2014-01-01

    This text provides a computational toolbox that enables students to analyze real datasets and gain the confidence and skills to undertake more sophisticated analyses. Although accessible with any statistical software, the text encourages a reliance on R. For those new to R, an introduction to the software is available in an appendix. The book also includes end-of-chapter exercises as well as an entire chapter of case exercises that help students apply their knowledge to larger datasets and learn more about approaches specific to the life sciences.

  11. A critical analysis of the End of Life Choice Bill 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, David E

    2014-07-04

    This paper aims to alert medical practitioners to the legal and ethical problems that passage of the End of Life Choice Bill (which seeks to legalise euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide) would have for them in New Zealand. Although sponsor MP Maryan Street withdrew the Bill on political grounds in October 2013, she has pledged to reintroduce the Bill after the next Parliamentary elections and remains committed to its objectives. A clause by clause analysis of the Bill was undertaken from a clinical perspective, following the sequence of requesting, validating, providing and reporting episodes of euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide rather than following the administrative sequence in which the Bill has been drawn up for Parliamentary debate. Where possible, the experience of other jurisdictions where these end of life options are legal has been drawn upon to enable inferences to be drawn as to the likely effects of the legislation. The analysis supporting this paper reveals that the legislation would: make it possible for virtually any person over the age of 18 to request and receive euthanasia provided they took care in the way they phrased the request, expose medical practitioners who attempted to deter applicants too vigorously to the possibility of legal action on the grounds of attempting to frustrate the applicant's wishes, compromise the ability of practitioners to opt out on conscience grounds, allow the easy circumvention of reporting requirements for each event, provide minimal protection against some people suffering euthanasia without consent or request, and exempt medical practitioners providing euthanasia services from prosecution for any action in the provision of such services, even if they were negligent. The branch of medical practice that specialises in killing people would be the least regulated of all. If passed into legislation, the End of Life Choice Bill will create the most momentous changes to clinical practice and the regulation

  12. Life cycle analysis of electricity systems: Methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Marheineke, T.

    1996-01-01

    The two methods for full energy chain analysis, process analysis and input/output analysis, are discussed. A combination of these two methods provides the most accurate results. Such a hybrid analysis of the full energy chains of six different power plants is presented and discussed. The results of such analyses depend on time, site and technique of each process step and, therefore have no general validity. For renewable energy systems the emissions form the generation of a back-up system should be added. (author). 7 figs, 1 fig

  13. A cardiovascular life history: a life course analysis of the original Framingham Heart Objective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, A.; Mamun, A.A.; Willekens, F.J.; Bonneux, L.

    2002-01-01

    dietary behaviour and to further examine the associations of different dietary compositions with selected characteristics. Design: Latent class analysis was applied to data from the recent cross-sectional National Family Health Survey that collected information on the intake frequency of selected

  14. Longitudinal Analysis of Genetic Susceptibility and BMI Throughout Adult Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Zheng, Yan; Qi, Lu; Hu, Frank B; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about the genetic influence on BMI trajectory throughout adulthood. We created a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising 97 adult BMI-associated variants among 9,971 women and 6,405 men of European ancestry. Serial measures of BMI were assessed from 18 (women) or 21 (men) years to 85 years of age. We also examined BMI change in early (from 18 or 21 to 45 years of age), middle (from 45 to 65 years of age), and late adulthood (from 65 to 80 years of age). GRS was positively associated with BMI across all ages, with stronger associations in women than in men. The associations increased from early to middle adulthood, peaked at 45 years of age in men and at 60 years of age in women (0.91 and 1.35 kg/m 2 per 10-allele increment, respectively) and subsequently declined in late adulthood. For women, each 10-allele increment in the GRS was associated with an average BMI gain of 0.54 kg/m 2 in early adulthood, whereas no statistically significant association was found for BMI change in middle or late adulthood or for BMI change in any life period in men. Our findings indicate that genetic predisposition exerts a persistent effect on adiposity throughout adult life and increases early adulthood weight gain in women. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  15. Quality of life on hemodialysis and inflammation: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, M R; Adami, F; Figueiredo, F W S; Alves, B C A; da Veiga, G L; Fonseca, F L A

    2018-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent worldwide. Patients with CKD on hemodialysis are more likely to present behavioral changes and worse quality of life as a result of their routine and complications. They also have higher levels of cytokines. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between the inflammatory profile and quality of life measured by KDOQL-SF36 in hemodialysis outpatients. Patients older than 21 years of age and on routine hemodialysis for at least 6 months with treatment on a regular weekly basis were included and their anthropometric parameters and serum inflammatory markers were evaluated. Thirty patients consented to participate. Homocysteine (Hcy) levels were correlated with worse glomerular filtration rate (GFR; P=0.003) and creatinine (P=0.002). IL-6 was not correlated with worse nutritional status taking into account body mass index (BMI; kg/m2; P=0.83). On the other hand, TNF-alpha was positively correlated with albumin (P=0.008), nutritional status by BMI (P=0.04), and nutritional status by arm circumference area (P=0.04). IL-6 was correlated with activity limitation (P=0.02) and Hcy with work status (P=0.04). Hcy was correlated with nutritional status and inflammatory markers. In this population, the majority of the sections in KDOQL-SF36 were not correlated with cytokines levels.

  16. Analysis of the Water Resources Potential and Useful Life of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full Length R ... Keywords: Shiroro dam reservoir, water resources potential, useful life, hydropower, ... Water balance analysis is a highly effective tool that .... from operation each time the reservoir capacity ..... validity of this research work. iii.

  17. Authentic leadership: becoming and remaining an authentic nurse leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lin G

    2012-11-01

    This article explores how chief nurse executives became and remained authentic leaders. Using narrative inquiry, this qualitative study focused on the life stories of participants. Results demonstrate the importance of reframing, reflection in alignment with values, and the courage needed as nurse leaders progress to authenticity.

  18. [Perinatal bioethics: euthanasia or end-of-life decisions? Analysis of the Groningen Protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halac, Jacobo; Halac, Eduardo; Moya, Martín P; Olmas, José M; Dopazo, Silvina L; Dolagaray, Nora

    2009-12-01

    The so called "Groningen Protocol" was conceived as a framework to discuss the euthanasia in neonates. Originally, it presents three groups of babies who might be candidates to this option. We analyzed the protocol in its original context and that of the Dutch society in which it was created. The analysis started with a careful reading of the protocol in both English and Dutch versions, translated later into Spanish. The medical and nursing staff participated in discussing it. A final consensus was reached. The Institutional Ethics Committee at our hospital discussed it freely and made recommendations for its application as a guideline to honestly discuss with parents the clinical condition of their babies, without permitting the option included literally in the word euthanasia. We selected four extremely ill infants. Their parents were interviewed at least twice daily: three stages were identified: the initial one of promoting all possible treatments; a second one of guarded and cautious request for the staff to evaluate "suffering", and a last one where requests were made to reduce therapeutic efforts to provide dignified death. A week after the death of their infants, they were presented with the facts of the protocol and the limits of our legal system. In all four cases the parents suggested that they would have chosen ending the life of their infants, in order to avoid them undue suffering. They clearly pointed out that this option emerged as a viable one to them once the ultimate outcome was evident. The protocol must not be viewed as a guideline for euthanasia in newborns, but rather as a mean to discuss the critical condition of an infant with the parents. Its direct implementation in our setting remains difficult. As a clear limitation for its overall application remains the definition of what is considered "unbearable suffering" in newborns, and how to certify when the infant has "no prospect". We emphasize the benefits of securing the help of the Ethics

  19. The role of interest and inflation rates in life-cycle cost analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, I.; Remer, D. S.; Lorden, G.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of projected interest and inflation rates on life cycle cost calculations is discussed and a method is proposed for making such calculations which replaces these rates by a single parameter. Besides simplifying the analysis, the method clarifies the roles of these rates. An analysis of historical interest and inflation rates from 1950 to 1976 shows that the proposed method can be expected to yield very good projections of life cycle cost even if the rates themselves fluctuate considerably.

  20. The Human Remains from HMS Pandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Steptoe

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1977 the wreck of HMS Pandora (the ship that was sent to re-capture the Bounty mutineers was discovered off the north coast of Queensland. Since 1983, the Queensland Museum Maritime Archaeology section has carried out systematic excavation of the wreck. During the years 1986 and 1995-1998, more than 200 human bone and bone fragments were recovered. Osteological investigation revealed that this material represented three males. Their ages were estimated at approximately 17 +/-2 years, 22 +/-3 years and 28 +/-4 years, with statures of 168 +/-4cm, 167 +/-4cm, and 166cm +/-3cm respectively. All three individuals were probably Caucasian, although precise determination of ethnicity was not possible. In addition to poor dental hygiene, signs of chronic diseases suggestive of rickets and syphilis were observed. Evidence of spina bifida was seen on one of the skeletons, as were other skeletal anomalies. Various taphonomic processes affecting the remains were also observed and described. Compact bone was observed under the scanning electron microscope and found to be structurally coherent. Profiles of the three skeletons were compared with historical information about the 35 men lost with the ship, but no precise identification could be made. The investigation did not reveal the cause of death. Further research, such as DNA analysis, is being carried out at the time of publication.

  1. The multiple decrement life table: a unifying framework for cause-of-death analysis in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, James R

    1989-01-01

    The multiple decrement life table is used widely in the human actuarial literature and provides statistical expressions for mortality in three different forms: i) the life table from all causes-of-death combined; ii) the life table disaggregated into selected cause-of-death categories; and iii) the life table with particular causes and combinations of causes eliminated. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the multiple decrement life table to the ecological literature by applying the methods to published death-by-cause information on Rhagoletis pomonella. Interrelations between the current approach and conventional tools used in basic and applied ecology are discussed including the conventional life table, Key Factor Analysis and Abbott's Correction used in toxicological bioassay.

  2. Life Cycle Energy Analysis of Reclaimed Water Reuse Projects in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yupeng; Guo, Erhui; Zhai, Yuanzheng; Chang, Andrew C; Qiao, Qi; Kang, Peng

    2018-01-01

      To illustrate the benefits of water reuse project, the process-based life cycle analysis (LCA) could be combined with input-output LCA to evaluate the water reuse project. Energy is the only evaluation parameter used in this study. Life cycle assessment of all energy inputs (LCEA) is completed mainly by the life cycle inventory (LCI), taking into account the full life cycle including the construction, the operation, and the demolition phase of the project. Assessment of benefit from water reuse during the life cycle should focus on wastewater discharge reduction and water-saving benefits. The results of LCEA of Beijing water reuse project built in 2014 in a comprehensive way shows that the benefits obtained from the reclaimed water reuse far exceed the life cycle energy consumption. In this paper, the authors apply the LCEA model to estimate the benefits of reclaimed water reuse projects quantitatively.

  3. Return emigration: analysis of the situation through life stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Pino Juste

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the importance presently acquired by return immigration in Spain, in this article a descriptive study around the returned emigrants over 65 years old in Galicia is presented.After a brief theoretical introduction on return migration,the research carried out is developed. In the first place, the methodology used in the investigation which allowed an approach to the point of view of the persons concerned is explained: the biographical method through the technique of life stories. In second term, the specific results of the research are presented. After out lining the profile of the returned emigrant, different categories relating to the migratory project in its different phases have been analyzed: fromits beginning —reasons for emigrating—, in their arrival to destiny—labour activity, adaptation, uprooting, etc.—, to the return—reasons for returning, problems of readjustment to the place of origin, etc.—

  4. Quality of Life Analysis in Ostomized Colorectal Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristilene Akiko Kimura

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the oncological patient submitted to ostomy faces multiple losses which affect their quality of life.Objective: assess quality of life in ostomized patients due to colorectal cancer, regarding the physical, psychological, social and environmental relationships, treated at the Ostomy Program of the Health Department of Distrito Federal, Brazil.Methods: epidemiological-based, analytical, cross-sectional and descriptive study. The sample consisted of 54 patients enrolled in the Ostomy Program of the Health Department of Distrito Federal - Brazil. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to evaluate quality of life. Data was analyzed by Microsoft ® Office Excel 2010 and SPSS 20.0.Results: the Physical, Social and Environmental aspects were correlated to the mean score, resulting in statistical significance (p<0.0001. The item “Positive feelings” in the Psychological Domain was the only one that did not achieve statistical significance.Conclusion: the results demonstrate that the care of cancer patients with ostomies should focus on the technical-scientific, political and socio-educational actions, to allow a multidisciplinary team to recognize health as a right for all, working to guarantee the health care process. Resumo: Introdução: a pessoa estomizada oncológica, depara-se com o enfrentamento de várias per- das, comprometendo sua qualidade de vida.Objetivo: analisar a qualidade de vida de pacientes estomizados por câncer colorretal, sob as dimensões física, psicológica, de relações sociais e do meio ambiente, atendidos pelo Programa de Estomizados da Secretaria de Saúde do Distrito Federal, Brasil.Métodos: estudo de base epidemiológica, de caráter analítico, com delineamento transversal e descritivo. Amostra constituída por 54 pacientes cadastrados no Programa de Estomiza- dos da Secretaria de Saúde do Distrito Federal – Brasil. Utilizou-se o questionário WHOQOL-bref para avaliar a qualidade de vida. Os dados

  5. Stochastic cost estimating in repository life-cycle cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzemos, S.; Dippold, D.

    1986-01-01

    The conceptual development, the design, and the final construction and operation of a nuclear repository span many decades. Given this lengthy time frame, it is quite challenging to obtain a good approximation of the repository life-cycle cost. One can deal with this challenge by using an analytic method, the method of moments, to explicitly assess the uncertainty of the estimate. A series expansion is used to approximate the uncertainty distribution of the cost estimate. In this paper, the moment methodology is derived and is illustrated through a numerical example. The range of validity of the approximation is discussed. The method of moments is compared to the traditional stochastic cost estimating methods and found to provide more and better information on cost uncertainty. The tow methods converge to identical results as the number of convolved variables increases and approaches the range where the central limit theorem is valid

  6. Teardown analysis for detecting shelf-life degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, A. S.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis is guideline in examining component materials, analytically determining physical properties and chemical compositions, and developing control data necessary for ascertaining effects of environments and their influence on deterioration and degradation mechanisms.

  7. Residual life assessment of French PWR vessel head penetrations through metallurgical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, C.; Boudot, R.; Benhamou, C.; Gelpi, A.

    1994-01-01

    In September 1991, a vessel head penetration was found leaking at Bugey 3 plant during the hydrotest included in the framework of decennial In Service Inspections. Non destructive examinations performed afterwards on several other plants have shown some cracked penetrations. Destructive expertise confirmed quickly that again this new problem is related to stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 used as base material. During the last 15 years, similar cracking have been met in steam generator tubes and secondly in pressurizer instrumentation tubes. In spite of all the work performed since that time an extension appears to be necessary for explaining the features of this new event; however material sensitivity, stress and temperature still remain the key parameters governing the behavior of Alloy 600 in PWR environment. In this paper, only the material sensitivity of vessel head penetrations is examined through metallurgical analysis in relation with SCC tests. On the basis of vessel head field experience in combination with thermomechanical process used for fabrication of original bars criteria for a sensitivity ranking of penetrations are proposed. Metallurgical investigations and SCC tests were carried out to support this sensitivity ranking. The final aim is to use such information among those quoted above for assessment of vessel heads residual life. This document is an overview of the work performed in France concerning the material sensitivity of forged Alloy 600. It represents an important part of the assessments and investigations undertaken in France on the stress corrosion cracking phenomenon affecting the reactor vessel head penetrations in PWR's

  8. Nonparametric Bayesian inference for mean residual life functions in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynor, Valerie; Kottas, Athanasios

    2018-01-19

    Modeling and inference for survival analysis problems typically revolves around different functions related to the survival distribution. Here, we focus on the mean residual life (MRL) function, which provides the expected remaining lifetime given that a subject has survived (i.e. is event-free) up to a particular time. This function is of direct interest in reliability, medical, and actuarial fields. In addition to its practical interpretation, the MRL function characterizes the survival distribution. We develop general Bayesian nonparametric inference for MRL functions built from a Dirichlet process mixture model for the associated survival distribution. The resulting model for the MRL function admits a representation as a mixture of the kernel MRL functions with time-dependent mixture weights. This model structure allows for a wide range of shapes for the MRL function. Particular emphasis is placed on the selection of the mixture kernel, taken to be a gamma distribution, to obtain desirable properties for the MRL function arising from the mixture model. The inference method is illustrated with a data set of two experimental groups and a data set involving right censoring. The supplementary material available at Biostatistics online provides further results on empirical performance of the model, using simulated data examples. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Life-cycle cost analysis for Foreign Research Reactor, Spent Nuclear Fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, P.B.; Geddes, R.L.; Jackson, W.N.; McDonell, W.R.; Dupont, M.E.; McWhorter, D.L.; Liutkus, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    DOE-EM-37 requested a life-cycle cost analysis for disposal of the Foreign Research Reactor-Spent Nuclear Fuel (FRR-SNF). The analysis was to address life-cycle and unit costs for a range of FRR-SNF elements from those currently available (6,000 elements) to the (then) bounding case (15,000 elements). Five alternative disposition strategies were devised for the FRR-SNF elements. Life-cycle costs were computed for each strategy. In addition, the five strategies were evaluated in terms of six societal and technical goals. This report summarizes the study that was originally documented to DOE-EM

  10. Full Life Cycle of Data Analysis with Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Zhai, C.; Pan, L.; Tang, B.; Zhang, J.; Bao, Q.; Malarout, N.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a system that supports the full life cycle of a data analysis process, from data discovery, to data customization, to analysis, to reanalysis, to publication, and to reproduction. The system called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA) is designed to demonstrate that the full life cycle of data analysis can be supported within one integrated system for climate model diagnostic evaluation with global observational and reanalysis datasets. CMDA has four subsystems that are highly integrated to support the analysis life cycle. Data System manages datasets used by CMDA analysis tools, Analysis System manages CMDA analysis tools which are all web services, Provenance System manages the meta data of CMDA datasets and the provenance of CMDA analysis history, and Recommendation System extracts knowledge from CMDA usage history and recommends datasets/analysis tools to users. These four subsystems are not only highly integrated but also easily expandable. New datasets can be easily added to Data System and scanned to be visible to the other subsystems. New analysis tools can be easily registered to be available in the Analysis System and Provenance System. With CMDA, a user can start a data analysis process by discovering datasets of relevance to their research topic using the Recommendation System. Next, the user can customize the discovered datasets for their scientific use (e.g. anomaly calculation, regridding, etc) with tools in the Analysis System. Next, the user can do their analysis with the tools (e.g. conditional sampling, time averaging, spatial averaging) in the Analysis System. Next, the user can reanalyze the datasets based on the previously stored analysis provenance in the Provenance System. Further, they can publish their analysis process and result to the Provenance System to share with other users. Finally, any user can reproduce the published analysis process and results. By supporting the full life cycle of climate data analysis

  11. Life Values as an Intrinsic Guide for Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Program Engagement: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jordan M; Whited, Matthew C; Freeman, John Taylor; Corson, Ansley T; Jameson, John Paul; Greenway, Stacey; Sager, David M; Midgette, Emily P; Varju, Eliza V

    2017-11-08

    Participation in cardiovascular and pulmonary rehabilitation (CVPR) programs can lead to improved functional abilities and improved quality of life, but attendance and adherence to these programs remain suboptimal. Behavioral therapies have emphasized the importance of life value identification as a guide for goal setting and behavior change for both psychological and physical health conditions. Individuals who choose to engage in behaviors that align with their life values are thought to be intrinsically reinforced. The purpose of the following qualitative study was to interview patients enrolled in CVPR about their own life values and motivating factors related to healthy behavior changes. Thirty cardiac or pulmonary patients were recruited from a CVPR program and participated in a semistructured interview about their life values and motivating factors related to program engagement. The data were transcribed and analyzed thematically. Participants identified a wide range of values related to program engagement, and only half of the participants endorsed health as a value. The most frequently endorsed life values included being active, family, and independence. The interviews indicated that, although patients make lifestyle changes in the program to improve their physical health, there are often other values that primarily guide their choice to engage in and maintain lifestyle behaviors. Life values can serve as a powerful guide for individual behavior change. The present study suggests that the piloting of brief values interventions early in CVPR treatment is warranted and has the potential to improve patient outcomes.

  12. Crack initiation life analysis in notched pipe under cyclic bending loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Seong; Kwak, Sang Log; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Youn Won

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve leak-before-break methodology, more precisely the crack growth evaluation, a round robin analysis was proposed by the CEA Saclay. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the crack initiation life, penetration life and shape of through wall crack under cyclic bending loads. The proposed round robin analysis is composed of three main topic; fatigue crack initiation, crack propagation and crack penetration. This paper deals with the first topic, crack initiation in a notched pipe under four point bending. Both elastic-plastic finite element analysis and Neuber's rule were used to estimate the crack initiation life and the finite element models were verified by mesh-refinement, stress distribution and global deflection. In elastic-plastic finite element analysis, crack initiation life was determined by strain amplitude at the notch tip and strain-life curve of the material. In the analytical method, Neuber's rule with the consideration of load history and mean stress effect, was used for the life estimation. The effect of notch tip radius, strain range, cyclic hardening rule were examined in this study. When these results were compared with the experimental ones, the global deformation was a good agreement but crack initiation cycle was higher than the experimental result

  13. A Critical Analysis of the Conventionally Employed Creep Lifing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Zakaria; Gray, Veronica; Whittaker, Mark; Perkins, Karen

    2014-04-29

    The deformation of structural alloys presents problems for power plants and aerospace applications due to the demand for elevated temperatures for higher efficiencies and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The materials used in such applications experience harsh environments which may lead to deformation and failure of critical components. To avoid such catastrophic failures and also increase efficiency, future designs must utilise novel/improved alloy systems with enhanced temperature capability. In recognising this issue, a detailed understanding of creep is essential for the success of these designs by ensuring components do not experience excessive deformation which may ultimately lead to failure. To achieve this, a variety of parametric methods have been developed to quantify creep and creep fracture in high temperature applications. This study reviews a number of well-known traditionally employed creep lifing methods with some more recent approaches also included. The first section of this paper focuses on predicting the long-term creep rupture properties which is an area of interest for the power generation sector. The second section looks at pre-defined strains and the re-production of full creep curves based on available data which is pertinent to the aerospace industry where components are replaced before failure.

  14. Life-cycle cost analysis of adsorption cycles for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Chakraborty, A.; Saha, B.B.; Chun, Won Gee; Ng, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the thermo-economic analysis of the adsorption desalination (AD) cycle that is driven by low-temperature waste heat from exhaust of industrial processes or renewable sources. The AD cycle uses an adsorbent such as the silica gel

  15. Flow cytometric life cycle analysis in cellular radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Three approaches to flow cytometric histogram analysis were developed: (1) differential histogram analysis, (2) DNA histogram analysis, and (3) multiparameter data analysis. These techniques were applied to an important unresolved problem in radiation biology. The initial responses to irradiation of a mammalian cell which occur during the first two cell cycles following the irradiation are of considerable interest to the radiation biologist. During the first two post-irradiation cell cycles, cells which ultimately will survive repair radiation-induced damage, while some cells begin to express some of the radiation-induced nuclear and chomatin damage. Caffeine- and thymidine-treated, and untreated gamma-irradiated cell populations were studied with respect to the radiation-induced G2 delay, deficient DNA synthesis, and the appearance of cells with abnormal DNA contents. It is hypothesized that the measured deficiency in DNA synthesis observed in the first post-irradiation cell cycle may be a result of daughter cells from abnormal first post-irradiation mitoses

  16. Late Life Employment Histories and Their Association With Work and Family Formation During Adulthood: A Sequence Analysis Based on ELSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Zaninotto, Paola; Hoven, Hanno; Head, Jenny; Carr, Ewan

    2017-05-31

    To extend research on workforce participation beyond age 50 by describing entire employment histories in later life and testing their links to prior life course conditions. We use data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, with retrospective information on employment histories between age 50 and 70 for 1,103 men and 1,195 women (n = 2,298). We apply sequence analysis and group respondents into eight clusters with similar histories. Using multinomial regressions, we then test their links to labor market participation, partnership, and parenthood histories during early (age 20-34) and mid-adulthood (age 35-49). Three clusters include histories dominated by full-time employees but with varying age of retirement (before, at, and after age 60). One cluster is dominated by self-employment with comparatively later retirement. Remaining clusters include part-time work (retirement around age 60 or no retirement), continuous domestic work (mostly women), or other forms of nonemployment. Those who had strong attachments to the labor market during adulthood are more likely to have histories of full-time work up until and beyond age 60, especially men. Parenthood in early adulthood is related to later retirement (for men only). Continued domestic work was not linked to parenthood. Partnered women tend to work part-time or do domestic work. The findings remain consistent after adjusting for birth cohort, childhood adversity, life course health, and occupational position. Policies aimed at increasing the proportion of older workers not only need to address later stages of the life course but also early and mid-adulthood. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment and resource analysis of all-solid-state batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troy, Stefanie; Schreiber, Andrea; Reppert, Thorsten; Gehrke, Hans-Gregor; Finsterbusch, Martin; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Stenzel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laboratory scale production of an all-solid-state battery cell is assessed using Life Cycle Assessment. • The foremost share of overall emissions results from electricity consumption on site. • Possible improvement potential when upscaling production processes is investigated. • LCA results prove: early research stage products are not comparable to competing technologies at commercial stage. • Additional resource analysis shows: lanthanum, lithium and zirconium are critical materials. - Abstract: In this investigation the environmental impacts of the manufacturing processes of a new all-solid-state battery (SSB) concept in a pouch bag housing were assessed using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology for the first time. To do so, the different production steps were investigated in detail, based on actual laboratory scale production processes. All in- and outputs regarding material and energy flows were collected and assessed. As LCA investigations of products in an early state of research and development usually result in comparatively higher results than those of mature technologies in most impact categories, potential future improvements of production processes and efficiency were considered by adding two concepts to the investigation. Apart from the laboratory production which depicts the current workflow, an idealized laboratory production and a possible industrial production were portrayed as well. The results indicate that electricity consumption plays a big role due to a lot of high temperature production steps. It needs to be improved for future industrial production. Also enhanced battery performance can strongly influence the results. Overall the laboratory scale results indeed improve strongly when assuming a careful use of resources, which will likely be a predominant target for industrial production. These findings therefore highlight hotspots and give improvement targets for future developments. It can also be deducted

  18. Preparation and analysis of standardized waste samples for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, J. L.; Browner, R.

    1982-01-01

    The preparation and analysis of standardized waste samples for controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) are considered. Analysis of samples from wet oxidation experiments, the development of ion chromatographic techniques utilizing conventional high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipment, and an investigation of techniques for interfacing an ion chromatograph (IC) with an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICPOES) are discussed.

  19. Analysis of the link between a definition of sustainability and the life cycle methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Bjørn, Anders

    2013-01-01

    explicit analysis of the claim has been made. The purpose of this article is to analyse this claim.An interpretation of the goals of sustainability, as outlined in the report Our Common Future (WCED 1987), which is the basis for most literature on sustainability assessment in the LCA community......It has been claimed that in order to assess the sustainability of products, a combination of the results from a life cycle assessment (LCA), social life cycle assessment (SLCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) is needed. Despite the frequent reference to this claim in the literature, very little......, is presented and detailed to a level enabling an analysis of the relation to the impact categories at midpoint level considered in life cycle (LC) methodologies.The interpretation of the definition of sustainability as outlined in Our Common Future (WCED 1987) suggests that the assessment of a product...

  20. Stuttering and work life: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker-Katz, Geraldine; Lincoln, Michelle; Cumming, Steven

    2013-12-01

    The experiential claims of nine people who stuttered were examined with the purpose of determining the impact of stuttering on their work lives and to further examine what meaning they derive from these experiences. Six male and three female participants aged 29-61 years (mean age, 41.4) who stuttered were interviewed and verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Credibility was established by way of member checking, researcher comparison with only consensual themes and interpretations presented in the final analysis. Four Superordinate themes, "stuttering is always there; stuttering at work reveals a problem; stuttering limits communication; and stuttering limits occupational progression" were distilled by descriptive and interpretative treatment of the interview transcripts. The interpretative level of analysis identified self-stigma as central to the meaning derived from these experiences. Participants' expectation of stigmatizing public attitudes, together with their own self-validation of such attitudes perpetuated diminished feelings about self-esteem and self-efficacy. Fear of negative evaluation may be heightened in the work context and might mediate feelings of self-stigma in this context. Superordinate themes and their subthemes indicate that stuttering is problematic at work by way of perpetuating in the PWS an expectation of negative evaluation by others. Findings implicate issues of self-stigma as generating feelings of self-doubt and self-reproach in PWS in the workplace. The development and effects of self-stigma in PWS have broader implications than the workplace context alone and further examination of the issues of self-stigma in stuttering is recommended. At the end of this activity the reader will be able to: (a) describe how stuttering might affect workplace experiences; (b) describe the impact of stuttering on communication in the work context; (c) describe how qualitative methods can provide

  1. Ethical objections against including life-extension costs in cost-effectiveness analysis: a consistent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, Afschin; Müller, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    One of the major ethical concerns regarding cost-effectiveness analysis in health care has been the inclusion of life-extension costs ("it is cheaper to let people die"). For this reason, many analysts have opted to rule out life-extension costs from the analysis. However, surprisingly little has been written in the health economics literature regarding this ethical concern and the resulting practice. The purpose of this work was to present a framework and potential solution for ethical objections against life-extension costs. This work found three levels of ethical concern: (i) with respect to all life-extension costs (disease-related and -unrelated); (ii) with respect to disease-unrelated costs only; and (iii) regarding disease-unrelated costs plus disease-related costs not influenced by the intervention. Excluding all life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-for reasons of consistency-a simultaneous exclusion of savings from reducing morbidity. At the other extreme, excluding only disease-unrelated life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-again for reasons of consistency-the exclusion of health gains due to treatment of unrelated diseases. Therefore, addressing ethical concerns regarding the inclusion of life-extension costs necessitates fundamental changes in the calculation of cost effectiveness.

  2. Overview of statistical methods, models and analysis for predicting equipment end of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Utility equipment can be operated and maintained for many years following installation. However, as the equipment ages, utility operators must decide whether to extend the service life or replace the equipment. Condition assessment modelling is used by many utilities to determine the condition of equipment and to prioritize the maintenance or repair. Several factors are weighted and combined in assessment modelling, which gives a single index number to rate the equipment. There is speculation that this index alone may not be adequate for a business case to rework or replace an asset because it only ranks an asset into a particular category. For that reason, a new methodology was developed to determine the economic end of life of an asset. This paper described the different statistical methods available and their use in determining the remaining service life of electrical equipment. A newly developed Excel-based demonstration computer tool is also an integral part of the deliverables of this project.

  3. Supplier Relationship Management at Army Life Cycle Management Commands: Gap Analysis of Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    contracts. - 76 - In step 9, maintaining momentum in supplier management , the relationship between the customer and supplier continues to develop...REPORT DATE 2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Supplier Relationship Management at Army Life... Relationship Management at Army Life Cycle Management Commands Gap Analysis of Best Practices Nancy Y. Moore, Amy G. Cox, Clifford A. Grammich

  4. MANAGEMENT CONSULTANCIES DISCURSIVE CONSTRUCTION OF WORK-LIFE BALANCE : A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF WEB PAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Bergqvist, Sofie; Vestin, Mikaela

    2014-01-01

    Academics, practitioners and media agree that the topic of work-life balance is on the agenda and valued by the new business generation. Although Sweden might be considered a working friendly country, the management consultancy industry is not recognized to be the same. With an institutional perspective we will through a discourse analysis investigate the communication on Swedish management consultancies web pages in order to explore how consultancies relate to the work-life balance discourse...

  5. Typology of end-of-life priorities in Saudi females: averaging analysis and Q-methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Muhammad M; Hammami, Safa; Amer, Hala A; Khodr, Nesrine A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding culture-and sex-related end-of-life preferences is essential to provide quality end-of-life care. We have previously explored end-of-life choices in Saudi males and found important culture-related differences and that Q-methodology is useful in identifying intraculture, opinion-based groups. Here, we explore Saudi females' end-of-life choices. A volunteer sample of 68 females rank-ordered 47 opinion statements on end-of-life issues into a nine-category symmetrical distribution. The ranking scores of the statements were analyzed by averaging analysis and Q-methodology. The mean age of the females in the sample was 30.3 years (range, 19-55 years). Among them, 51% reported average religiosity, 78% reported very good health, 79% reported very good life quality, and 100% reported high-school education or more. The extreme five overall priorities were to be able to say the statement of faith, be at peace with God, die without having the body exposed, maintain dignity, and resolve all conflicts. The extreme five overall dis-priorities were to die in the hospital, die well dressed, be informed about impending death by family/friends rather than doctor, die at peak of life, and not know if one has a fatal illness. Q-methodology identified five opinion-based groups with qualitatively different characteristics: "physical and emotional privacy concerned, family caring" (younger, lower religiosity), "whole person" (higher religiosity), "pain and informational privacy concerned" (lower life quality), "decisional privacy concerned" (older, higher life quality), and "life quantity concerned, family dependent" (high life quality, low life satisfaction). Out of the extreme 14 priorities/dis-priorities for each group, 21%-50% were not represented among the extreme 20 priorities/dis-priorities for the entire sample. Consistent with the previously reported findings in Saudi males, transcendence and dying in the hospital were the extreme end-of-life priority and dis

  6. Typology of end-of-life priorities in Saudi females: averaging analysis and Q-methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Muhammad M; Hammami, Safa; Amer, Hala A; Khodr, Nesrine A

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding culture-and sex-related end-of-life preferences is essential to provide quality end-of-life care. We have previously explored end-of-life choices in Saudi males and found important culture-related differences and that Q-methodology is useful in identifying intraculture, opinion-based groups. Here, we explore Saudi females’ end-of-life choices. Methods A volunteer sample of 68 females rank-ordered 47 opinion statements on end-of-life issues into a nine-category symmetrical distribution. The ranking scores of the statements were analyzed by averaging analysis and Q-methodology. Results The mean age of the females in the sample was 30.3 years (range, 19–55 years). Among them, 51% reported average religiosity, 78% reported very good health, 79% reported very good life quality, and 100% reported high-school education or more. The extreme five overall priorities were to be able to say the statement of faith, be at peace with God, die without having the body exposed, maintain dignity, and resolve all conflicts. The extreme five overall dis-priorities were to die in the hospital, die well dressed, be informed about impending death by family/friends rather than doctor, die at peak of life, and not know if one has a fatal illness. Q-methodology identified five opinion-based groups with qualitatively different characteristics: “physical and emotional privacy concerned, family caring” (younger, lower religiosity), “whole person” (higher religiosity), “pain and informational privacy concerned” (lower life quality), “decisional privacy concerned” (older, higher life quality), and “life quantity concerned, family dependent” (high life quality, low life satisfaction). Out of the extreme 14 priorities/dis-priorities for each group, 21%–50% were not represented among the extreme 20 priorities/dis-priorities for the entire sample. Conclusion Consistent with the previously reported findings in Saudi males, transcendence and dying in

  7. Meaning in life and physical health: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekierda, Katarzyna; Banik, Anna; Park, Crystal L; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2017-12-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to clarify the associations between meaning in life and physical health using random-effects models. Conceptualisation of meaning (order in world vs. purpose in life), type of health indicators, participants' health status, and age issues were investigated as moderators. Systematic searches of six databases resulted in inclusion of k = 66 studies (total N = 73,546). Findings indicated that meaning in life and physical health formed weak-to-moderate associations (the overall estimate of the average effect = 0.258). Conceptualisation of meaning, participants' health status, and their age did not moderate these associations. Operationalisation of health moderated the relationship between meaning in life and health. The strongest associations were found for subjective indicators of physical health. Significant albeit weak associations between meaning in life and objective indices of health were found. Furthermore, stronger effects were observed when the measures of meaning combined items referring to meaning in life and meaning-related sense of harmony, peace, and well-being, compared to measures focusing solely on meaning in life. Overall, the results point to the potential role of meaning in life in explaining physical health.

  8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE LIFE INSURANCE IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA AND REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORDANA VITANOVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The insurance companies are important participants in the capital market. They have significant contributions in providing financial stability and encouraging competitiveness on the financial market. The insurance companies mobilize huge financial resources, investing them into different financial instruments, and so it is real to expect that they will take a role of leading institutional mediators in future. The insurance companies offer life and common insurance. Policies for life insurance offer possibility to invest into own safety and easier tackling with life challenges and uncertainties. They are especially important for the individual , because he/she is constantly exposed to risks during his/her life and work, that are manifested into decreasing of working ability and lack of resources for life in some defined period. In the developed countries, there is a tradition for possessing policies for life insurance, but it is not a case in R.Macedonia. Therefore, in this study, we shall carry out comparative analysis of life insurance in R. Macedonia and R. Serbia, the politics of insurance companies and supervision of the insurance sector, and we shall give proposals for encouraging development of insurance market in these two countries, and for increasing individual’s awareness of the benefits of having policies for life insurance.

  9. Estimation of failure criteria in multivariate sensory shelf life testing using survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Ana; Gagliardi, Andrés; Ares, Gastón

    2017-09-01

    For most food products, shelf life is determined by changes in their sensory characteristics. A predetermined increase or decrease in the intensity of a sensory characteristic has frequently been used to signal that a product has reached the end of its shelf life. Considering all attributes change simultaneously, the concept of multivariate shelf life allows a single measurement of deterioration that takes into account all these sensory changes at a certain storage time. The aim of the present work was to apply survival analysis to estimate failure criteria in multivariate sensory shelf life testing using two case studies, hamburger buns and orange juice, by modelling the relationship between consumers' rejection of the product and the deterioration index estimated using PCA. In both studies, a panel of 13 trained assessors evaluated the samples using descriptive analysis whereas a panel of 100 consumers answered a "yes" or "no" question regarding intention to buy or consume the product. PC1 explained the great majority of the variance, indicating all sensory characteristics evolved similarly with storage time. Thus, PC1 could be regarded as index of sensory deterioration and a single failure criterion could be estimated through survival analysis for 25 and 50% consumers' rejection. The proposed approach based on multivariate shelf life testing may increase the accuracy of shelf life estimations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Life-cycle analysis of bio-based aviation fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q

    2013-12-01

    Well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of bio-based aviation fuels, including hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) from various oil seeds, Fischer-Tropsch jet (FTJ) from corn-stover and co-feeding of coal and corn-stover, and pyrolysis jet from corn stover, is conducted and compared with petroleum jet. WTWa GHG emission reductions relative to petroleum jet can be 41-63% for HRJ, 68-76% for pyrolysis jet and 89% for FTJ from corn stover. The HRJ production stage dominates WTWa GHG emissions from HRJ pathways. The differences in GHG emissions from HRJ production stage among considered feedstocks are much smaller than those from fertilizer use and N2O emissions related to feedstock collection stage. Sensitivity analyses on FTJ production from coal and corn-stover are also conducted, showing the importance of biomass share in the feedstock, carbon capture and sequestration options, and overall efficiency. For both HRJ and FTJ, co-product handling methods have significant impacts on WTWa results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Hazard function and life table: an introduction to the failure time analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, K; Inaba, H

    1987-04-01

    Failure time analysis has become popular in demographic studies. It can be viewed as a part of regression analysis with limited dependent variables as well as a special case of event history analysis and multistate demography. The idea of hazard function and failure time analysis, however, has not been properly introduced to nor commonly discussed by demographers in Japan. The concept of hazard function in comparison with life tables is briefly described, where the force of mortality is interchangeable with the hazard rate. The basic idea of failure time analysis is summarized for the cases of exponential distribution, normal distribution, and proportional hazard models. The multiple decrement life table is also introduced as an example of lifetime data analysis with cause-specific hazard rates.

  12. Life-cycle analysis and external costs in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delucchi, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of greenhouse gas impacts in the US shows that against a baseline gasoline vehicle, the impact of including the full fuel cycle generally reduces the relative advantages of alternative transportation fuels. While a switch to diesel is estimated to save 30% as compared to gasoline, the savings from natural gas/LPG are (around 20%), for ethanol from corn (8%) and for battery electricity vehicles using power from coal (6%) are much smaller. This is largely due to the use of LCA rather than end-use comparisons. However, the results also show that there would be large savings from the use of ethanol from fuel cells using methanol (39%) or natural gas (50%), while ethanol from wood in a conventional engine appears to have the greatest savings (63%). In external costs of motor vehicle use, analysis results were presented for both air pollution and energy security impacts (including SPR, military expenditures, macro-economic costs and pecuniary costs) as well as water pollution, noise and congestion impacts. The results suggest that externalities amount to 1.2 US cents per mile travelled in gasoline powered vehicle. The most significant externality is related to air pollution. Costs associated with US defence, the SPR, and climate change are quite insignificant. The only other variable of significance is the impact on the economy, through the transfer of wealth outside the US (referred to as 'pecuniary externality') and the oil price shock impacts on the economy. A comparison of external costs and subsidies for different transportation modes in the US (gas or electric cars, transit bus, light rail, heavy rail) showed that subsidies available to public transit system greatly outweigh the benefit in reduced externalities avoided. In the comparison of social costs of transportation alternatives, differences in external cost, while not trivial, are outweighed by the differences in direct costs or in subsidies. (author)

  13. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  14. Analysis of factors affecting the quality of life of those suffering from Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrobak-Bień, Joanna; Gawor, Anna; Paplaczyk, Małgorzata; Małecka-Panas, Ewa; Gąsiorowska, Anita

    2017-08-31

    Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. Its chronic nature, as well as symptoms of intestinal and overall significantly impedes the daily functioning of patients. Alternately occurring periods of exacerbation and remission are the cause of reduced quality of life of patients. Understanding the factors that caused the decrease in the quality of life, it allows us to understand the behavior and the situation of the patient and the ability to cope with stress caused by the disease. The aim of the study was to analyze the factors affecting the quality of life of people with Crohn's disease. The study group consisted of 50 people diagnosed with Crohn's disease. Respondents were treated at the Department of General Surgery and Colorectal Medical University of Lodz and Gastroenterological Clinic at the University Clinical Hospital No. 1 in Lodz. Quality of Life Survey was carried out by a diagnostic survey using a research tool SF-36v2 and surveys of its own design. Analysis of the results demonstrated that the quality of life of patients with Crohn's disease was reduced, especially during exacerbations. Evaluation of the quality of life of respondents in physical terms was slightly higher than in the mental aspect. Higher education subjects and the lack of need for surgical treatment significantly improves the quality of life. The occurrence of chronic disease reduces the quality of life of respondents. Elderly patients are better able to adapt to the difficult situation caused by the disease. The quality of life of women and men is at a similar level and patients in remission of the disease have a better quality of life of patients during exacerbations.

  15. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  16. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  17. The Annuity Puzzle Remains a Puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, J.M.J.; Werker, Bas; Nijman, Theo

    We examine incomplete annuity menus and background risk as possible drivers of divergence from full annuitization. Contrary to what is often suggested in the literature, we find that full annuitization remains optimal if saving is possible after retirement. This holds irrespective of whether real or

  18. Socioeconomic position and cognitive function in the Seychelles: a life course analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrosly, Roni W; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Galea, Sandro; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Love, Tanzy; Hong, Caroline; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Davidson, Philip W

    2011-01-01

    Poorer socioeconomic conditions early in life have been linked with memory, attention and learning deficits in adulthood, as well as with specific areas of educational achievement. It remains unclear, however, whether these distal associations are mediated by more current socioeconomic factors. In this study, we sought to confirm the relation between early-life socioeconomic position (SEP) and adult cognitive function, and to examine potential mediation by contemporaneous SEP. Data from 463 young adults from the Main Cohort of the Seychelles Child Development Study were analyzed using subtests of the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery and the Woodcock Johnson Test of Scholastic Achievement in relation to maternal Hollingshead Social Status Index scores at study enrollment (infancy), follow-up at 107 months, and follow-up at 17 years. Findings include evidence of a link between infant-period SEP and 17-year memory, which was not mediated by childhood and 17-year SEP. Verbal and mathematical achievement at 17 years was associated with SEP at all points in the life course. SEP at different points during the young-adult life course may affect different cognitive domains later in life, which may provide targets for societal investment in ensuring adequate family resources throughout childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Entrepreneurial Woman and Analysis of Barriers and Opportunities Ensuring the Work-Life Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep OYURYÜZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, there is an increase in the number of women participating in working life with the result of developing technology and industrialization. In our country, there are still many problems that prevent women to become business owners and business owners to continue their business. In this context; potential barriers and opportunities associated with women who could establish a business owner's work-life balance has been identified in Tekirdağ. Women business owners in the sectors of agriculture and agro-based entrepreneurship and participate in 22 different comments associated with being a woman in business levels were evaluated and findings were grouped by factor analysis. According to the reduced factor; ensuring women's work-life balance of barriers or opportunities that may be 6 groups of factors have been identified. In evaluating the distribution of the factor group analysis; "personality characteristics, time constraints, marital status, gender roles, social position and communicative features" titles were created. The factors of entrepreneurial women’s work-life balance have been interpreted to establish the feasibility of barriers or opportunities. For the continuity of business life of women, entrepreneurs are required to continuously improve themselves and their business. In this context, to establish a women's work-life balance training should be provided by the universities and professional chambers. Personal development trainings such as; management skills, motivation, organization, efficient use of time, gain control capability, produce a solution in the face of challenges should be given by the institutions.

  20. Non anti-coagulant factors associated with filter life in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Matthew; Winson, Elizabeth; Roodenburg, Owen; McNeil, John

    2017-02-20

    ventilation, elevated SOFA or LOD score, elevations in ionized calcium, elevated platelet count, red cell transfusion, platelet factor 4 (PF-4) antibodies, and elevated fibrinogen. Majority of studies are observational or report circuit factors in sub-analysis. Risk of bias is high and findings require targeted investigations to confirm. The interaction of patient, pathology, anticoagulation, vascular access, circuit and staff factors contribute to CRRT filter life. There remains an ambiguity from published data as to which site and side should be the first choice for vascular access placement and what interaction this has with patient factors and timing. Early consideration of tunnelled semi-permanent access may provide optimal filter life if longer periods of CRRT are anticipated. There remains an absence of robust evidence outside of anti-coagulation strategies despite over 20 years of therapy delivery however trends favour CVVHD-F over CVVH.

  1. What is the cost of a life in a disaster? - Examples, Practice and Global Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Schaefer, Andreas; Wenzel, Friedemann; Khazai, Bijan

    2015-04-01

    An analysis is presented based on historical evidence and global exposure metrics using the CATDAT Socioeconomic databases, in order to create a global distribution of the cost of life in a disaster using various metrics. Casualty insurance models require a value of life & mitigation and cost-benefit studies require a value of life in order to make decisions and set premiums. Although this is a contentious concept, there are two general approaches to human life costing: the first is based on human capital which looks at the production capacity and potential output as a proxy for future earning; the second looks at willingness to pay which estimates people's value on reducing risk and compensation payouts. A combination approach is used. For each of the 245 nations, a value of life is estimated using the following parameters:- (1) Age of people in a country using the life expectancy and distribution data in CATDAT (2) Output of the economy and wage distribution (3) Household and community interactions (4) Lost quality of life The range of statistical life costs are examined globally from different sources, with the range of a life value being from 10,000 up to in the order of 10 million between different countries. The difference of the cost for a fatality vs. that of a severe injury is also discussed with a severe injury often having higher costs than a fatality for loss purposes. The losses in terms of historical disasters are looked at and examined with the percentage of life cost shown as a proportion of total losses. The losses of a future major earthquake in a low seismicity region show some of the largest potential life cost losses with that of a M6.8 in Adelaide, Australia; having around 160 billion in life costs (25,000 deaths, 15,000 severe injuries). This study has benefits post-disaster for quantification of human capital losses in major disasters, and pre-disaster for the analysis of insurance and mitigation options.

  2. Evaluating the Impact of Conservatism in Industrial Fatigue Analysis of Life-Limited Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoole Joshua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the conservatism approaches applied by different industrial sectors to the stress-life (S-N analysis of ‘life-limited’ or ‘safe-life’ components. A comparison of the fatigue design standards for 6 industrial sectors identified that the conservatism approaches are highly inconsistent when comparing the areas of variability and uncertainty accounted for along with the conservatism magnitude and method of application. Through the use of a case-study based on the SAE keyhole benchmark and 4340 steel S-N data, the industrial sector which introduces the greatest reduction of a component life-limit was identified as the nuclear sector. The results of the case-study also highlighted that conservatism applied to account for scatter in S-N data currently provides the greatest contribution to the reduction of component life-limits.

  3. Analysis of Fatigue Life of PMMA at Different Frequencies Based on a New Damage Mechanics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aifeng Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-cycle fatigue tests at different frequencies and creep tests under different stress levels of Plexiglas Resist 45 were conducted. Correspondingly, the creep fracture time, S-N curves, cyclic creep, and hysteresis loop were obtained. These results showed that the fatigue life increases with frequency at low frequency domain. After analysis, it was found that fatigue life is dependent on the load rate and is affected by the creep damage. In addition, a new continuum damage mechanics (CDM model was established to analyze creep-fatigue life, where the damage increment nonlinear summation rule was proposed and the frequency modification was made on the fatigue damage evolution equation. Differential evolution (DE algorithm was employed to determine the parameters within the model. The proposed model described fatigue life under different frequencies, and the calculated results agreed well with the experimental results.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of the Concept of "Life Skills" in Denmark, USA and UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carsten Hvid; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE CONCEPT OF "LIFE SKILLS" IN DENMARK, USA AND UK Larsen, C. H. & Christensen, M. K., Department of Sports Sciences and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark   Introduction It is unclear which life skills are needed by adolescent athletes. Research...... (Jones & Lavallee, 2009). The purpose of this study is to examine and compare the concept of life skills needs of adolescent athletes in Danish, American and British literature. Furthermore, the aim of the study is to discuss the psychological concept of life skills in relation to a systems theory...... approach to studying adolescent athletes' way of balancing elite sport and school. Methods The study is a comparative literature study, which prepare the theoretical basis for a Ph.D. project (2010-2013). The Ph.D. project consists of two studies with different purposes and groups of target. The first...

  5. Change impact analysis on the life cycle carbon emissions of energy systems – The nuclear example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper evaluates the life cycle carbon emission of nuclear power in a scenario based approach. • It quantifies the impacts to the LCA results from the change in design parameters. • The methodology can give indications towards preferred or favorable designs. • The findings contribute to the life cycle inventories of energy systems. - Abstract: The life cycle carbon emission factor (measured by t-CO 2 /GW h) of nuclear power is much lower than those of fossil fueled power generation technologies. However, the fact of nuclear energy being a low carbon power source comes with many assumptions. These assumptions range from system and process definitions, to input–output definitions, to system boundary and cut-off criteria selections, and life cycle inventory dataset. However, there is a somewhat neglected but critical aspect – the design aspect. This refers to the impacts on the life cycle carbon emissions from the change in design parameters related to nuclear power. The design parameters identified in this paper include: (1) the uranium ore grade, (2) the critical process technologies, represented by the average initial enrichment concentration of 235 U in the reactor fuel, and (3) the size of the nuclear power reactor (measured by the generating capacity). If not properly tested, assumptions in the design aspect can lead to an erroneous estimation on the life cycle carbon emission factor of nuclear power. In this paper, a methodology is developed using the Process Chain Analysis (PCA) approach to quantify the impacts of the changes in the selected design parameters on the life cycle carbon emission factor of nuclear power. The concept of doing so broadens the scope of PCAs on energy systems from “one-off” calculation to analysis towards favorable/preferred designs. The findings from the analyses can serve as addition to the life cycle inventory database for nuclear power as well as provide indications for the sustainability of

  6. Life Support Goals Including High Closure and Low Mass Should Be Reconsidered Using Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    Recycling space life support systems have been built and tested since the 1960s and have operated on the International Space Station (ISS) since the mid 2000s. The development of space life support has been guided by a general consensus focused on two important related goals, increasing system closure and reducing launch mass. High closure is achieved by recycling crew waste products such as carbon dioxide and condensed humidity. Recycling directly reduces the mass of oxygen and water for the crew that must be launched from Earth. The launch mass of life support can be further reduced by developing recycling systems with lower hardware mass and reduced power. The life support consensus has also favored using biological systems. The goal of increasing closure using biological systems suggests that food should be grown in space and that biological processors be used for air, water, and waste recycling. The goal of reducing launch mass led to use of Equivalent System Mass (ESM) in life support advocacy and technology selection. The recent consensus assumes that the recycling systems architecture developed in the 1960s and implemented on ISS will be used on all future long missions. NASA and other project organizations use the standard systems engineering process to guide hardware development. The systems process was used to develop ISS life support, but it has been less emphasized in planning future systems for the moon and Mars. Since such missions are far in the future, there has been less immediate need for systems engineering analysis to consider trade-offs, reliability, and Life Cycle Cost (LCC). Preliminary systems analysis suggests that the life support consensus concepts should be revised to reflect systems engineering requirements.

  7. Life cycle cost analysis of solar heating and DHW systems in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, R.; Gilliaert, D.

    1992-01-01

    Economic Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ELCCA) is an easy and friendly computer program, IBM compatible for economic evaluation of solar energy system which involves comparison of the capital and operating costs of a conventional system. In this section we would like to suggest the ELCCA-PC program as a new tools using life cycle cost analysis for annual and cumulative cash flow methodology that take into account all future expenses. ELCCA-PC program considers fixed and changeable items that are involved in installing the equipment such as interest of money borrowed, property and income taxes, current energy cost for electricity operating system, maintenance, insurance and fuel costs and other economic operating expenses. Moreover fraction of annual heating load supplied from solar system is considered in this analysis. ECC-PC program determines the yearly outflow of money over the period of an economic analysis that can be converted to a series of equal payments in today's money

  8. Software Integration of Life Cycle Assessment and Economic Analysis for Process Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakula, Sawitree; Malakula, Pomthong; Siemanonda, Kitipat

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design...... of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, to definedesign/retrofit targets for process improvements. Economic analysis is performed to evaluate the profitability of the process........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...

  9. Life cycle cost analysis changes mixed waste treatment program at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.; England, J.L.; Martin, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    A direct result of the reduced need for weapons production has been a re-evaluation of the treatment projects for mixed (hazardous/radioactive) wastes generated from metal finishing and plating operations and from a mixed waste incinerator at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis was conducted for two waste treatment projects to determine the most cost effective approach in response to SRS mission changes. A key parameter included in the LCC analysis was the cost of the disposal vaults required for the final stabilized wasteform(s) . The analysis indicated that volume reduction of the final stabilized wasteform(s) can provide significant cost savings. The LCC analysis demonstrated that one SRS project could be eliminated, and a second project could be totally ''rescoped and downsized.'' The changes resulted in an estimated Life Cycle Cost saving (over a 20 year period) of $270,000,000

  10. The Attitudes, Needs, and Requirements at End of Life in the Republic of Georgia (Comparative Analysis of Groups of Patients With Cancer and Elders).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhladze, Nana; Tebidze, Nino; Chabukiani, Tamar; Chabukiani, Nana; Chkhartishvili, Nikoloz; Jincharadze, Memed; Kordzaia, Dimitri

    2018-01-01

    In developing a model of palliative care, the attitudes, needs, and requirements of its beneficiaries recognizing the limited remaining life expectancy need to be met. We aimed to map and compare these issues at the end of life in the groups of patients with advanced cancer and elderly individuals. The prospective study based on the analysis of semistructured interviews was conducted. Fifty individuals aged older than 85 and 50 incurable patients with advanced cancer were studied. Transcripts of interviews were analyzed qualitatively (the interviews were divided into logically completed themes, and the compliance of each with one of the levels of Abraham Maslow pyramid was determined) and quantitatively (data comparisons of 2 groups were tested in bivariate analysis using Pearson χ 2 or Fisher exact test. Two-sided significance tests were used; P value of Maslow pyramid. Their comparison showed small differences in the narratives of the patients with advanced cancer and elderly individuals aged 85 and older-concerning the past, present, and future terms of lives. In studied themes explicitly prevail the stories that are consistent with satisfaction of the upper levels of the hierarchy of needs and demands of Maslow: social relation (belonging), love, esteem, and transcendence. The attitudes, needs, and requirements at the end of life of the people are basically similar, regardless of what determined the sense of limitation of the remaining life-incurable disease or advanced age.

  11. Crack initiation life analysis in notched pipe under cyclic bending loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goak, S. R.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, J. S.; Park, Y. W.

    2000-01-01

    In order to improve LBB(Leak-Before-Break) methodology, more precisely the crack growth evaluation, a benchmark problem was proposed by the CEA Saclay. The aim of this benchmark analysis was to evaluate the crack growth in a notched pipe under cyclic bending loads. The proposed benchmark analysis is composed of three main topic; fatigue crack initiation, crack propagation and crack penetration. This paper deals with the first topic, crack initiation in a notched pipe under four point bending. Both elastic-plastic finite element analysis and Neuber's rule were used to estimate the crack initiation life and the finite element models were verified by mesh-refinement, stress distribution and global deflection. In elastic-plastic finite element analysis, crack initiation life was determined by strain amplitude at the notch tip and strain-life curve of the material. In the analytical method, Neuber's rule with the consideration of load history and mean stress effect, was used for the life estimation. The effect of notch tip radius, strain range, cyclic hardening rule were examined in this study. When these results were compared with the experimental ones, the global deformation was a good agreement but the crack initiation cycle was higher than the experimental result

  12. Analysis of ship life cycles: the impact of economic cycles and ship inspection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.; Knapp, S.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the shipping industry's international legal framework, there are loopholes in the system, which can increase the risk of incidents with high economic costs due to the substandard operation of vessels. This article uses duration analysis and through the creation of ship life cycles provides

  13. Life-Cycle Inventory Analysis of Bioproducts from a Modular Advanced Biomass Pyrolysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Hongmei Gu

    2014-01-01

    Expanding bioenergy production has the potential to reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improve energy security. Science-based assessments of new bioenergy technologies are essential tools for policy makers dealing with expanding renewable energy production. Using life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis, this study evaluated a 200-kWe...

  14. Gender and Poverty : A Life Cycle Approach to the Analysis of the Differences in Gender Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lokshin, Michael; Mroz, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    The authors study complex interactions between gender and poverty in postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina. The goal of their analysis is to uncover how a spectrum of gender differentials at different parts of the life cycle varies across income groups. Using the data from the 2001 Bosnia and Herzegovina Living Standards Measurement Study, the authors find strong gender-poverty interaction in the...

  15. Life cycle and economic efficiency analysis phase II : durable pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report details the Phase II analysis of the life cycle and economic efficiency of inlaid tape : and thermoplastic. Waterborne paint was included as a non-durable for comparison purposes : only. In order to find the most economical product for sp...

  16. Determining the Life Cycle Energy Efficiency of Six Biofuel Systems in China: A Data Envelopment Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2014-01-01

    This aim of this study was to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuels in China. DEA can differentiate efficient and non-efficient scenarios, and it can identify wasteful energy losses in biofuel production. More specifically, the study has...

  17. Modelling User-Costs in Life Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2008-01-01

    The importance of including user's costs in Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis of structures is discussed in this paper. This is especially for bridges of great importance. Repair or/and failure of a bridge will usually result in user costs greater than the repair or replacement costs of the bridge...

  18. Life-Threatening Adverse Events Following Therapeutic Opioid Administration in Adults: Is Pharmacogenetic Analysis Useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaz Madadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systemic approaches are needed to understand how variations in the genes associated with opioid pharmacokinetics and response can be used to predict patient outcome. The application of pharmacogenetic analysis to two cases of life-threatening opioid-induced respiratory depression is presented. The usefulness of genotyping in the context of these cases is discussed.

  19. Parametric and semiparametric models with applications to reliability, survival analysis, and quality of life

    CERN Document Server

    Nikulin, M; Mesbah, M; Limnios, N

    2004-01-01

    Parametric and semiparametric models are tools with a wide range of applications to reliability, survival analysis, and quality of life. This self-contained volume examines these tools in survey articles written by experts currently working on the development and evaluation of models and methods. While a number of chapters deal with general theory, several explore more specific connections and recent results in "real-world" reliability theory, survival analysis, and related fields.

  20. Probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis for the life extension estimate of the high flux isotope reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    The state of the vessel steel embrittlement as a result of neutron irradiation can be measured by its increase in the nil ductility temperature (NDT). This temperature is sometimes referred to as the brittle-ductile transition temperature (DBT) for fracture. The life extension of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) vessel is calculated by using the method of fracture mechanics. A new method of fracture probability calculation is presented in this paper. The fracture probability as a result of the hydrostatic pressure test (hydrotest) is used to determine the life of the vessel. The hydrotest is performed in order to determine a safe vessel static pressure. It is then followed by using fracture mechanics to project the safe reactor operation time from the time of the satisfactory hydrostatic test. The life extension calculation provides the following information on the remaining life of the reactor as a function of the NDT increase: (1) the life of the vessel is determined by the probability of vessel fracture as a result of hydrotest at several hydrotest pressures and vessel embrittlement conditions, (2) the hydrotest time interval vs the NDT increase rate, and (3) the hydrotest pressure vs the NDT increase rate. It is understood that the use of a complete range of uncertainties of the NDT increase is equivalent to the entire range of radiation damage that can be experienced by the vessel steel. From the numerical values for the probabilities of the vessel fracture as a result of hydrotest, it is estimated that the reactor vessel life can be extended up to 50 EFPY (100 MW) with the minimum vessel operating temperature equal to 85 degrees F

  1. The Power of Contextual Effects in Forensic Anthropology: A Study of Biasability in the Visual Interpretations of Trauma Analysis on Skeletal Remains.(Proceedings of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. February 2013. Volume XIX.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Ian; Nakhaeizadeh, S.; Dozzi, N.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for contextual information to bias assessments in the forensic sciences has been demonstrated, focusing on the DNA, ballistics, and friction ridge analysis disciplines. This has been discussed in the National Academy of Sciences Report, Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward. However, in many forensic disciplines, such as anthropology, the presence of bias, its impact on objectivity, and how to mitigate its effects is still not fully assessed or appr...

  2. Typology of end-of-life priorities in Saudi females: averaging analysis and Q-methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami MM

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad M Hammami,1,2 Safa Hammami,1 Hala A Amer,1 Nesrine A Khodr1 1Clinical Studies and Empirical Ethics Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, 2College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Understanding culture-and sex-related end-of-life preferences is essential to provide quality end-of-life care. We have previously explored end-of-life choices in Saudi males and found important culture-related differences and that Q-methodology is useful in identifying intraculture, opinion-based groups. Here, we explore Saudi females’ end-of-life choices.Methods: A volunteer sample of 68 females rank-ordered 47 opinion statements on end-of-life issues into a nine-category symmetrical distribution. The ranking scores of the statements were analyzed by averaging analysis and Q-methodology.Results: The mean age of the females in the sample was 30.3 years (range, 19–55 years. Among them, 51% reported average religiosity, 78% reported very good health, 79% reported very good life quality, and 100% reported high-school education or more. The extreme five overall priorities were to be able to say the statement of faith, be at peace with God, die without having the body exposed, maintain dignity, and resolve all conflicts. The extreme five overall dis-priorities were to die in the hospital, die well dressed, be informed about impending death by family/friends rather than doctor, die at peak of life, and not know if one has a fatal illness. Q-methodology identified five opinion-based groups with qualitatively different characteristics: “physical and emotional privacy concerned, family caring” (younger, lower religiosity, “whole person” (higher religiosity, “pain and informational privacy concerned” (lower life quality, “decisional privacy concerned” (older, higher life quality, and “life quantity concerned, family dependent” (high life quality, low life satisfaction. Out of the

  3. Quality of life in breast cancer patients--a quantile regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Safaee, Azadeh; Moghimi-Dehkordi, Bijan; Zeighami, Bahram; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Tabatabaee, Hamid Reza; Pourhoseingholi, Asma

    2008-01-01

    Quality of life study has an important role in health care especially in chronic diseases, in clinical judgment and in medical resources supplying. Statistical tools like linear regression are widely used to assess the predictors of quality of life. But when the response is not normal the results are misleading. The aim of this study is to determine the predictors of quality of life in breast cancer patients, using quantile regression model and compare to linear regression. A cross-sectional study conducted on 119 breast cancer patients that admitted and treated in chemotherapy ward of Namazi hospital in Shiraz. We used QLQ-C30 questionnaire to assessment quality of life in these patients. A quantile regression was employed to assess the assocciated factors and the results were compared to linear regression. All analysis carried out using SAS. The mean score for the global health status for breast cancer patients was 64.92+/-11.42. Linear regression showed that only grade of tumor, occupational status, menopausal status, financial difficulties and dyspnea were statistically significant. In spite of linear regression, financial difficulties were not significant in quantile regression analysis and dyspnea was only significant for first quartile. Also emotion functioning and duration of disease statistically predicted the QOL score in the third quartile. The results have demonstrated that using quantile regression leads to better interpretation and richer inference about predictors of the breast cancer patient quality of life.

  4. Efficacy-mediated effects of spirituality and physical activity on quality of life: A path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopack James F

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has been established as an important determinant of quality of life, particularly among older adults. Previous research has suggested that physical activity’s influence on quality of life perceptions is mediated by changes in self-efficacy and health status. In the same vein, spirituality may be a salient quality of life determinant for many individuals. Methods In the current study, we used path analysis to test a model in which physical activity, spirituality, and social support were hypothesized to influence global quality of life in paths mediated by self-efficacy and health status. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of 215 adults (male, n = 51; female, n = 164 over the age of 50 (M age = 66.55 years. Results The analysis resulted in a model that provided acceptable fit to the data (χ2 = 33.10, df = 16, p  Conclusions These results support previous findings of an efficacy-mediated relationship between physical activity and quality of life, with the exception that self-efficacy in the current study was moderately associated with physical health status (.38 but not mental health status. Our results further suggest that spirituality may influence health and well-being via a similar, efficacy-mediated path, with strongest effects on mental health status. These results suggest that those who are more spiritual and physically active report greater quality of life, and the effects of these factors on quality of life may be partially mediated by perceptions of self-efficacy.

  5. The effects of life review on psycho-spiritual well-being among patients with life-threatening illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Xiao, Huimin; Yang, Yanqing; Lan, Xiuyan

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the strength of evidence regarding the effects of life review on psycho-spiritual well-being among patients with life-threatening illness. Life-threatening illness not only causes physical symptoms but also psycho-spiritual burdens. Life review has been widely implemented to assist people coping with these burdens. However, the effectiveness of life review is not clear. To date, no systematic review or meta-analysis has been published on this topic. A systematic review with meta- analysis consistent with the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration was conducted. Database searches included MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, CNKI and VIP et al. up to April 2015. We also searched the grey literature, reviewed reference lists from relevant articles and book chapters and contacted experts. Nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and two controlled clinical trials (CCTs) were eligible for this systematic review and meta-analysis. The risk of bias for those studies were rated as moderate (n = 11). The meta-analyses demonstrated significant standardized mean differences or mean differences in favour of life review compared with the control for depression, quality of life and self-esteem. The findings indicate that life review can decrease depressive symptoms, improve quality of life and enhance self-esteem among patients with life-threatening illnesses. Multi-centre studies with adequate sample size and rigorous designs are needed in future research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Industry remains stuck in a transitional mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garb, F.A.

    1991-01-01

    The near future for industry remains foggy for several obvious reasons. The shake-up of the Soviet Union and how the pieces will reform remains unclear. How successful efforts are to privatize government oil company operations around the world has yet to be determined. A long sought peace in the Middle East seems to be inching closer, but will this continue? If it does continue, what impact will it have on world energy policy? Will American companies, which are now transferring their attention to foreign E and P, also maintain an interest in domestic activities? Is the U.S. economy really on the upswing? We are told that the worst of the recession is over, but try telling this to thousands of workers in the oil patch who are being released monthly by the big players in domestic operations. This paper reports that 1992 should be a better year than 1991, if measured in opportunity. There are more exploration and acquisition options available, both domestically and internationally, than there have been in years. Probably more opportunities exist than there are players-certainly more than can be funded with current financial resources

  7. Biomedical image analysis recipes in Matlab for life scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Aldasoro, Constantino Carlos

    2015-01-01

    As its title suggests, this innovative book has been written for life scientists needing to analyse their data sets, and programmers, wanting a better understanding of the types of experimental images life scientists investigate on a regular basis. Each chapter presents one self-contained biomedical experiment to be analysed. Part I of the book presents its two basic ingredients: essential concepts of image analysis and Matlab. In Part II, algorithms and techniques are shown as series of 'recipes' or solved examples that show how specific techniques are applied to a biomedical experiments like

  8. Analysis of Phenix end-of-life natural convection test with the MARS-LMR code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, H. Y.; Ha, K. S.; Lee, K. L.; Chang, W. P.; Kim, Y. I.

    2012-01-01

    The end-of-life test of Phenix reactor performed by the CEA provided an opportunity to have reliable and valuable test data for the validation and verification of a SFR system analysis code. KAERI joined this international program for the analysis of Phenix end-of-life natural circulation test coordinated by the IAEA from 2008. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the capability of existing SFR system analysis code MARS-LMR and to identify any limitation of the code. The analysis was performed in three stages: pre-test analysis, blind posttest analysis, and final post-test analysis. In the pre-test analysis, the design conditions provided by the CEA were used to obtain a prediction of the test. The blind post-test analysis was based on the test conditions measured during the tests but the test results were not provided from the CEA. The final post-test analysis was performed to predict the test results as accurate as possible by improving the previous modeling of the test. Based on the pre-test analysis and blind test analysis, the modeling for heat structures in the hot pool and cold pool, steel structures in the core, heat loss from roof and vessel, and the flow path at core outlet were reinforced in the final analysis. The results of the final post-test analysis could be characterized into three different phases. In the early phase, the MARS-LMR simulated the heat-up process correctly due to the enhanced heat structure modeling. In the mid phase before the opening of SG casing, the code reproduced the decrease of core outlet temperature successfully. Finally, in the later phase the increase of heat removal by the opening of the SG opening was well predicted with the MARS-LMR code. (authors)

  9. Creep Rupture Life Prediction Based on Analysis of Large Creep Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YE Wenming

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A creep rupture life prediction method for high temperature component was proposed. The method was based on a true stress-strain elastoplastic creep constitutive model and the large deformation finite element analysis method. This method firstly used the high-temperature tensile stress-strain curve expressed by true stress and strain and the creep curve to build materials' elastoplastic and creep constitutive model respectively, then used the large deformation finite element method to calculate the deformation response of high temperature component under a given load curve, finally the creep rupture life was determined according to the change trend of the responsive curve.The method was verified by durable test of TC11 titanium alloy notched specimens under 500 ℃, and was compared with the three creep rupture life prediction methods based on the small deformation analysis. Results show that the proposed method can accurately predict the high temperature creep response and long-term life of TC11 notched specimens, and the accuracy is better than that of the methods based on the average effective stress of notch ligament, the bone point stress and the fracture strain of the key point, which are all based on small deformation finite element analysis.

  10. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Jónsson, Hákon

    2014-01-01

    the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach...... to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial...... community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using...

  11. Political, energy events will remain interwoven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it is possible to discuss the significance of political and energy events separately, but, in truth, they are intricately interwoven. Furthermore, there are those who will argue that since the two are inseparable, the future is not predictable; so why bother in the endeavor. It is possible that the central point of the exercise may have been missed-yes, the future is unpredictable exclamation point However, the objective of prediction is secondary. The objective of understanding the dynamic forces of change is primary exclamation point With this view of recent history, it is perhaps appropriate to pause and think about the future of the petroleum industry. The future as shaped by political, energy, economic, environmental and technological forces will direct our lives and markets during this decade. Most importantly, what will be the direction that successful businesses take to remain competitive in a global environment? These are interesting issues worthy of provocative thoughts and innovative ideas

  12. Nuclear remains an economic and ecologic asset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The author herein outlines the several benefits of nuclear energy and nuclear industry for France. He first outlines that France possesses 97 per cent of de-carbonated electricity thanks to nuclear energy (77 pc) and renewable energies (20 pc, mainly hydraulic), and that renewable energies must be developed in the building and transport sectors to be able to get rid of the environmentally and financially costly fossil energies. He outlines that reactor maintenance and the nuclear fuel cycle industry are fields of technological leadership for the French nuclear industry which is, after motor industry and aircraft industry, the third industrial sector in France. He indicates that nuclear electricity is to remain the most competitive one, and that nuclear energy and renewable energies must not be opposed to it but considered as complementary in the struggle against climate change, i.e. to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to get rid of the prevalence of fossil energies

  13. Integrating Life-cycle Assessment into Transport Cost-benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional transport Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) commonly ignores the indirect environmental impacts of an infrastructure project deriving from the overall life-cycle of the different project components. Such indirect impacts are instead of key importance in order to assess the long......-term sustainability of a transport infrastructure project. In the present study we suggest to overcome this limit by combining a conventional life-cycle assessment approach with standard transport cost-benefit analysis. The suggested methodology is tested upon a case study project related to the construction of a new...... fixed link across the Roskilde fjord in Frederikssund (Denmark). The results are then compared with those from a standard CBA framework. The analysis shows that indirect environmental impacts represent a relevant share of the estimated costs of the project, clearly affecting the final project evaluation...

  14. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  15. Fatigue life analysis of unexpected failure in a lamellar TiAl alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.S.

    1999-07-01

    Unexpected catastrophic failure occurred in specimens of a lamellar TiAl alloy tested by axial fatigue. The failure initiated at locations away from artificial defects introduced to the specimens as crack starters. Fractographic examination of the fracture surface revealed the presence of featureless, low-energy facets that suggested the catastrophic crack may have initiated in one or more large grains that cleaved on a cleavage plane or an interface. A crack growth analysis of fatigue life of the test specimens suggested that the catastrophic crack propagated at stress intensity levels below the large crack threshold. Furthermore, the catastrophic crack propagated at rates that were higher than the average rates exhibited by small cracks, as well as by the large crack under equivalent stress intensity ranges. Because of this, the conventional life prediction approach based on the large crack growth data grossly overpredicted the fatigue life.

  16. Statistical analysis of fatigue strain-life data for carbon and low-alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisler, J.; Chopra, O.K.

    1995-03-01

    The existing fatigue strain vs life (S-N) data, foreign and domestic, for carbon and low-alloy steels used in the construction of nuclear power plant components have been compiled and categorized according to material, loading, and environmental conditions. A statistical model has been developed for estimating the effects of the various test conditions on fatigue life. The results of a rigorous statistical analysis have been used to estimate the probability of initiating a fatigue crack. Data in the literature were reviewed to evaluate the effects of size, geometry, and surface finish of a component on its fatigue life. The fatigue S-N curves for components have been determined by applying design margins for size, geometry, and surface finish to crack initiation curves estimated from the model

  17. Adenotonsillectomy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Quality of Life: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Cameron A; Bareiss, Anna K; McCoul, Edward D; Rodriguez, Kimsey H

    2017-11-01

    Objective To determine the impact of adenotonsillectomy on the quality of life of pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and to identify gaps in the current research. Data Sources The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched via the Ovid portal on June 18, 2016, for English-language articles. Review Methods Full-text articles were selected that studied boys and girls 6 months) showed mixed results. Modifications to and concurrent procedures with conventional adenotonsillectomy were also identified that showed quality-of-life improvements. Three studies were identified for meta-analysis that compared pre- and postoperative Obstructive Sleep Apnea-18 scores. Short- and long-term follow-up versus preoperative scores showed significant improvement ( P quality of life of pediatric patients with OSA. This is well demonstrated in the short term and has strong indications in the long term.

  18. Comparative analysis of the life cycle impact assessment of available cement inventories in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, Alejandro; Aguado, Antonio; Cardim, Arnaldo; Byars, Ewan

    2007-01-01

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is one of basic steps in life cycle assessment methodology (LCA). This paper presents a comparative study of the LCIA of different life cycle inventories (LCI) for EU cements. The analysis unit used is the manufacture of 1 kg of cement, from 'cradle to gate'. The impact categories considered are those resulting from the manufacture of cement and include greenhouse effects, acidification, eutrophication and summer and winter smog, amongst others. The results of the study highlighted some inconsistencies in existing inventories. As for the LCIA, the main environmental interventions related to cement manufacture were classified and characterised and their effect on different impact categories analysed. Differences observed in evaluation of the impact of cement type were essentially related to their clinker content

  19. Development and Use of Life-Cycle Analysis Capabilities To Evaluate, Select, and Implement Plans to Accelerate Hanford Site Cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, Michael R.; Johnson, Wayne L.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past year the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has made significant progress in developing and executing plans to transform and accelerate cleanup of the Hanford Site. Notable progress has been in the cleanup of the River Corridor, including the relocation of spent nuclear fuel to the Central Plateau, and the stabilization of plutonium materials. However, difficult work still remains. DOE has already accelerated the completion of the Environmental Management (EM) cleanup mission from 2070 to 2035 and believes its completion can be achieved even sooner by reducing excess conservatism, substantively changing technical strategy and management approach, and making new front-end investments. Work is well under way in the detailed planning, analyses and decision making required to implement and support the execution of the accelerated cleanup program at Hanford. Various cleanup, contract, and regulatory approaches are being explored. DOE has instituted a process that allows DOE to efficiently explore and test alternative cleanup approaches using a life-cycle model. This paper provides a means to share the planning approach and the life-cycle modeling and analysis tools used with other sites and interested parties. This paper will be of particular interest to analysts performing similar planning and evaluations at other sites as well as provide insight into the current status of Hanford's cleanup program and DOE's plans for the future

  20. Life goals and social identity in people with severe acquired brain injury: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rachelle; Levack, William M M; Sinnott, K Anne

    2015-01-01

    While there is a growing body of literature exploring life goals in rehabilitation, little research has been undertaken that includes the voice of the end-user. This study examined the views and experiences of people with severe acquired brain injury regarding the place of "life goals" in residential rehabilitation. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to collect and analyze data from five semi-structured interviews with participants in a residential rehabilitation setting. Three inter-related themes emerged from this study. Social connectedness (being 'part of things') emerged as a life goal of central importance for all participants (Theme 1). However, in order to achieve this sense of belonging, the participants needed to tentatively balance the opportunities arising within their environmental milieu (Theme 2) with the interpersonal factors relating to their unchanged, changed and changing self-identity (Theme 3). This study suggests that social identity and social connectedness ought to be primary foci of rehabilitation rather than matters only of secondary concern. Consideration needs to be given to both the environmental contexts and the intrapersonal strategies that support people who require residential rehabilitation services to achieve social connection, and thus their life goals, following a severe acquired brain injury. Implications for Rehabilitation There is a need to better support people with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) in terms of their social relationships and social identity during the delivery of person-centered rehabilitation services. Within the clinical setting there should be regular, in depth and open dialogue in which the individuals' values and preferences are discovered. A focus on the coherence between daily activities and the person's life goals is required for people with severe ABI. Clinicians need to consider how life goals for individual people change or are re-prioritized over the life span.

  1. Quality of services and quality of life from service providers' perspectives: analysis with focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenaro, C; Vega, V; Flores, N; Cruz, M

    2013-06-01

    Concepts such as support, quality of life and quality of services are customary in services for people with intellectual disabilities. The identification of the different ways of conceiving, prioritising and implementing these concepts by service providers can help to drive changes to achieve better personal outcomes for this population. The current study aims to identify service providers' perceptions regarding the quality of life of their clients and the quality of services they provide. It also aims to identify similarities and differences of appraisals among professionals, and to identify associations between supports, quality of life and quality of services. Data were collected from 22 service providers who attended three focus groups (professionals, direct support staff, and managers) from whom 424 comments were analysed. Service providers were asked about the required support for users, the meaning of quality of life for those users, and about features that should characterise quality services. Thematic analysis was employed and transcripts of the sessions were coded according to the dimensions of models on supports, quality of life and quality of services. Chi-squared tests were utilised to test for potential differences among groups. Each professional group has its own priorities concerning required supports. Among the organisation different and potentially conflicting perceptions regarding the meaning of experiencing quality of life coexist. Concerning quality of services, only managers mentioned personal outcomes. Finally, institutionalisation has a negative impact on supports, quality of life and quality of services. It is necessary to move beyond a shared awareness of the negative impact of institutionalisation towards the transformation of services in search of personal quality outcomes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  2. A survey-based analysis of life-long learning patterns of young entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rînciog Johana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our approach, in this paper, is focused on life-long learning tools that are available for young Romanian entrepreneurs, in their early career stages. Life-long learning in the case of entrepreneurs is not a topic widely covered in scientific literature up to this moment. Most of the scientific papers related to entrepreneurship focus on the idea of innovation and creativity that characterizes entrepreneurship. On the other side, the scientific literature that considers life-long learning, discusses the case of employees or managers, who are required to improve their knowledge and skills in order to perform at the work place. For the current paper, it was aimed to survey the lifelong learning tools available to young Romanian people and to evaluate their efficiency with the help of interviews with young entrepreneurs on their educational path. Otherwise stated, we intended to provide more insights on the learning methods and practices of entrepreneurs, and to establish whether the current formal education represents a strong basis for entrepreneurs’ life-long learning. The research that we performed revealed that young Romanian entrepreneurs practice indeed a lifelong learning based not as much on formal education, as on learning by practicing and networking. Starting from the observations obtained, it was conceived, based on current European best practices and projective discussions with the same young entrepreneurs, a set of life-long learning initiatives that may be promoted in the entrepreneurial community, and we identify the actual steps to be taken by life-long learning education providers in order to implement these initiatives. This paper’s conclusions serve as both a state of the art analysis, in a field which is vital for entrepreneurs surviving in competitive environments, and as a prospective guide for improving the present market of life-long learning programs.

  3. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  4. An integrated factor analysis model for product eco-design based on full life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.; Xiao, T.; Li, D.

    2016-07-01

    Among the methods of comprehensive analysis for a product or an enterprise, there exist defects and deficiencies in traditional standard cost analyses and life cycle assessment methods. For example, some methods only emphasize one dimension (such as economic or environmental factors) while neglecting other relevant dimensions. This paper builds a factor analysis model of resource value flow, based on full life cycle assessment and eco-design theory, in order to expose the relevant internal logic between these two factors. The model considers the efficient multiplication of resources, economic efficiency, and environmental efficiency as its core objectives. The model studies the status of resource value flow during the entire life cycle of a product, and gives an in-depth analysis on the mutual logical relationship of product performance, value, resource consumption, and environmental load to reveal the symptoms and potentials in different dimensions. This provides comprehensive, accurate and timely decision-making information for enterprise managers regarding product eco-design, as well as production and management activities. To conclude, it verifies the availability of this evaluation and analysis model using a Chinese SUV manufacturer as an example. (Author)

  5. Tooth loss and oral health-related quality of life: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gerritsen, Anneloes E

    2010-11-05

    Abstract Background It is increasingly recognized that the impact of disease on quality of life should be taken into account when assessing health status. It is likely that tooth loss, in most cases being a consequence of oral diseases, affects Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). The aim of the present study is to systematically review the literature and to analyse the relationship between the number and location of missing teeth and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). It was hypothesized that tooth loss is associated with an impairment of OHRQoL. Secondly, it was hypothesized that location and distribution of remaining teeth play an important role in this. Methods Relevant databases were searched for papers in English, published from 1990 to July 2009 following a broad search strategy. Relevant papers were selected by two independent readers using predefined exclusion criteria, firstly on the basis of abstracts, secondly by assessing full-text papers. Selected studies were grouped on the basis of OHRQoL instruments used and assessed for feasibility for quantitative synthesis. Comparable outcomes were subjected to meta-analysis; remaining outcomes were subjected to a qualitative synthesis only. Results From a total of 924 references, 35 were eligible for synthesis (inter-reader agreement abstracts κ = 0.84 ± 0.03; full-texts: κ = 0.68 ± 0.06). Meta-analysis was feasible for 10 studies reporting on 13 different samples, resulting in 6 separate analyses. All studies showed that tooth loss is associated with unfavourable OHRQoL scores, independent of study location and OHRQoL instrument used. Qualitative synthesis showed that all 9 studies investigating a possible relationship between number of occluding pairs of teeth present and OHRQoL reported significant positive correlations. Five studies presented separate data regarding OHRQoL and location of tooth loss (anterior tooth loss vs. posterior tooth loss). Four of these reported highest impact

  6. A review of battery life-cycle analysis : state of knowledge and critical needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2010-12-22

    A literature review and evaluation has been conducted on cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory studies of lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, and lithium-ion battery technologies. Data were sought that represent the production of battery constituent materials and battery manufacture and assembly. Life-cycle production data for many battery materials are available and usable, though some need updating. For the remaining battery materials, lifecycle data either are nonexistent or, in some cases, in need of updating. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and material flows is missing. For all but the lithium-ion batteries, enough constituent material production energy data are available to approximate material production energies for the batteries, though improved input data for some materials are needed. Due to the potential benefit of battery recycling and a scarcity of associated data, there is a critical need for life-cycle data on battery material recycling. Either on a per kilogram or per watt-hour capacity basis, lead-acid batteries have the lowest production energy, carbon dioxide emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions. Some process-related emissions are also reviewed in this report.

  7. Life cycle assessments of urban water systems: a comparative analysis of selected peer-reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Loiseau, Eleonore; Bellon-Maurel, Veronique

    2014-12-15

    Water is a growing concern in cities, and its sustainable management is very complex. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used to assess the environmental impacts of water technologies during the last 20 years. This review aims at compiling all LCA papers related to water technologies, out of which 18 LCA studies deals with whole urban water systems (UWS). A focus is carried out on these 18 case studies which are analyzed according to criteria derived from the four phases of LCA international standards. The results show that whereas the case studies share a common goal, i.e., providing quantitative information to policy makers on the environmental impacts of urban water systems and their forecasting scenarios, they are based on different scopes, resulting in the selection of different functional units and system boundaries. A quantitative comparison of life cycle inventory and life cycle impact assessment data is provided, and the results are discussed. It shows the superiority of information offered by multi-criteria approaches for decision making compared to that derived from mono-criterion. From this review, recommendations on the way to conduct the environmental assessment of urban water systems are given, e.g., the need to provide consistent mass balances in terms of emissions and water flows. Remaining challenges for urban water system LCAs are identified, such as a better consideration of water users and resources and the inclusion of recent LCA developments (territorial approaches and water-related impacts). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What remains of the Arrow oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergy, G.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    In February 1970, the tanker Arrow became grounded 6.5 km off the north shore of Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia, and nearly 72,000 bbl of Bunker C fuel oil were released from the vessel during its subsequent breakup and sinking. The oil was washed ashore in various degrees over an estimated 305 km of the bay's 604-km shoreline, of which only 48 km were cleaned. In addition, the tanker Kurdistan broke in two in pack ice in March 1979 in the Cabot Strait area, spilling ca 54,000 bbl of Bunker C, some of which was later found at 16 locations along the northeast and east shorelines of Chedabucto Bay. In summer 1992, a systematic ground survey of the bay's shorelines was conducted using Environment Canada Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) procedures. Standard observations were made of oil distribution and width, thickness, and character of the oil residues in 419 coastal segments. Results from the survey are summarized. Oil was found to be present on 13.3 km of the shoreline, with heavy oiling restricted to 1.3 km primarily in the areas of Black Duck Cove and Lennox Passage. Some of this residual oil was identified as coming from the Arrow. Natural weathering processes account for removal of most of the spilled oil from the bay. Oil remaining on the shore was found in areas outside of the zone of physical wave action, in areas of nearshore mixing where fine sediments are not present to weather the oil through biophysical processes, or in crusts formed by oil weathered on the surface. The systematic description of oiled shorelines using the SCAT methodology proved very successful, even for such an old spill. 6 refs

  9. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  10. Life expectancies of South African adults starting antiretroviral treatment: collaborative analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leigh F; Mossong, Joel; Dorrington, Rob E; Schomaker, Michael; Hoffmann, Christopher J; Keiser, Olivia; Fox, Matthew P; Wood, Robin; Prozesky, Hans; Giddy, Janet; Garone, Daniela Belen; Cornell, Morna; Egger, Matthias; Boulle, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Few estimates exist of the life expectancy of HIV-positive adults receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to estimate the life expectancy of patients starting ART in South Africa and compare it with that of HIV-negative adults. Data were collected from six South African ART cohorts. Analysis was restricted to 37,740 HIV-positive adults starting ART for the first time. Estimates of mortality were obtained by linking patient records to the national population register. Relative survival models were used to estimate the excess mortality attributable to HIV by age, for different baseline CD4 categories and different durations. Non-HIV mortality was estimated using a South African demographic model. The average life expectancy of men starting ART varied between 27.6 y (95% CI: 25.2-30.2) at age 20 y and 10.1 y (95% CI: 9.3-10.8) at age 60 y, while estimates for women at the same ages were substantially higher, at 36.8 y (95% CI: 34.0-39.7) and 14.4 y (95% CI: 13.3-15.3), respectively. The life expectancy of a 20-y-old woman was 43.1 y (95% CI: 40.1-46.0) if her baseline CD4 count was ≥ 200 cells/µl, compared to 29.5 y (95% CI: 26.2-33.0) if her baseline CD4 count was <50 cells/µl. Life expectancies of patients with baseline CD4 counts ≥ 200 cells/µl were between 70% and 86% of those in HIV-negative adults of the same age and sex, and life expectancies were increased by 15%-20% in patients who had survived 2 y after starting ART. However, the analysis was limited by a lack of mortality data at longer durations. South African HIV-positive adults can have a near-normal life expectancy, provided that they start ART before their CD4 count drops below 200 cells/µl. These findings demonstrate that the near-normal life expectancies of HIV-positive individuals receiving ART in high-income countries can apply to low- and middle-income countries as well. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  11. Life expectancies of South African adults starting antiretroviral treatment: collaborative analysis of cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh F Johnson

    Full Text Available Few estimates exist of the life expectancy of HIV-positive adults receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to estimate the life expectancy of patients starting ART in South Africa and compare it with that of HIV-negative adults.Data were collected from six South African ART cohorts. Analysis was restricted to 37,740 HIV-positive adults starting ART for the first time. Estimates of mortality were obtained by linking patient records to the national population register. Relative survival models were used to estimate the excess mortality attributable to HIV by age, for different baseline CD4 categories and different durations. Non-HIV mortality was estimated using a South African demographic model. The average life expectancy of men starting ART varied between 27.6 y (95% CI: 25.2-30.2 at age 20 y and 10.1 y (95% CI: 9.3-10.8 at age 60 y, while estimates for women at the same ages were substantially higher, at 36.8 y (95% CI: 34.0-39.7 and 14.4 y (95% CI: 13.3-15.3, respectively. The life expectancy of a 20-y-old woman was 43.1 y (95% CI: 40.1-46.0 if her baseline CD4 count was ≥ 200 cells/µl, compared to 29.5 y (95% CI: 26.2-33.0 if her baseline CD4 count was <50 cells/µl. Life expectancies of patients with baseline CD4 counts ≥ 200 cells/µl were between 70% and 86% of those in HIV-negative adults of the same age and sex, and life expectancies were increased by 15%-20% in patients who had survived 2 y after starting ART. However, the analysis was limited by a lack of mortality data at longer durations.South African HIV-positive adults can have a near-normal life expectancy, provided that they start ART before their CD4 count drops below 200 cells/µl. These findings demonstrate that the near-normal life expectancies of HIV-positive individuals receiving ART in high-income countries can apply to low- and middle-income countries as well. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  12. Analysis and modeling of hot extrusion die for its service life enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Syed Sohail

    Aluminum extrusion finds extensive application in the construction, automobile and aerospace industries. High pressures, elevated temperatures, complex and intricate section geometries lead to repeated mechanical and thermal stresses in the die and affiliated tooling. Product rework and rejects can be traced back to various defects spread over the die life cycle: die design, die manufacture and heat treatment, process parameters, inprocess die maintenance/correction and, billet type and quality. Therefore, improved and efficient service life of die and related tooling used in the extrusion press is one the most important factors in maximizing productivity and minimizing cost for ensuring the economical efficiency of an aluminum extrusion plant. How often a die has to be scrapped and replaced with a new one directly contributes to the commercial viability of producing a certain profile. The focus of the current work is on three distinct yet inter-related studies pertaining to the improvement of aluminum extrusion die. Study-A (Die Failure Analysis) is an investigation of various modes and critical failure types based on industrial data (Chapter-2 ), examination of failed dies and finite element simulation for identification of critical process parameters and design features in die fatigue-life (Chapter-3). In Study-B (Die Surface Hardening Treatment), two-stage controlled gas nitriding process for H13 steel is evaluated, both experimentally and numerically, in terms of nitrided case morphology and properties (Chapter-4) followed by experimental and numerical investigation of the effects of repeated nitriding (Chapter-5), pre-nitriding surface preparation (Chapter-6) and die profile geometry (Chapter-7) on nitriding performance in regard to die service life. In Study-C (Effect of Billet Quality on Die Life), the effect of billet quality and related influencing extrusion parameters on the die service life is investigated based on industrial data and some regression

  13. Goal and Scope in Life Cycle Sustainability Analysis: The Case of Hydrogen Production from Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Stefanova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The framework for life cycle sustainability analysis (LCSA developed within the project CALCAS (Co-ordination Action for innovation in Life-Cycle Analysis for Sustainability is introducing a truly integrated approach for sustainability studies. However, it needs to be further conceptually refined and to be made operational. In particular, one of the gaps still hindering the adoption of integrated analytic tools for sustainability studies is the lack of a clear link between the goal and scope definition and the modeling phase. This paper presents an approach to structure the goal and scope phase of LCSA so as to identify the relevant mechanisms to be further detailed and analyzed in the modeling phase. The approach is illustrated with an on-going study on a new technology for the production of high purity hydrogen from biomass, to be used in automotive fuel cells.

  14. Life Cycle Multi-Criteria Analysis Of Alternative Energy Supply Systems For A Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Rogoža

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses energy supply alternatives for a partially renovated residential building. In addition to the existing district heating (base case alternative systems, gas boilers, heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, solar cells, and combinations of these systems have been examined. Actual heat consumption of the building and electricity demand determined by the statistical method are used for simulating the systems. The process of simulation is performed using EnergyPro software. In order to select an optimal energy supply option, the life cycle analysis of all systems has been carried out throughout a life span of the building, and the estimated results of energy, environmental and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi–criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  15. Optimum Envelope of a Single-Family House Based on Life Cycle Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Hamelin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology used for the life cycle cost (LCC and life cycle energy (LCE analyses of the case study house in Quebec, Canada. The TRNSYS energy analysis program is coupled with GenOpt, a general purpose optimization program, for the purpose of this study. The particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is used for the search for the optimum solution. Results show that the optimum levels of insulation should be higher than the reference values, even for the case of LCC analysis. The results are for the most part still valid if electricity costs are assumed to increase below the inflation rate for the duration of the study period.

  16. Brief communication: Post-event analysis of loss of life due to hurricane Harvey

    OpenAIRE

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.; Godfroy, Maartje; Sebastian, Antonia; Kolen, Bas

    2018-01-01

    An analysis was made of the loss of life directly caused by hurricane Harvey. Information was collected for 70 fatalities that occurred directly due to the event. Most of the fatalities occurred in the greater Houston area, which was most severely affected by extreme rainfall and heavy flooding. The majority of fatalities in this area were recovered outside the designated 100 and 500 year flood zones. Most fatalities occurred due to drowning (81 %), particularly in and around vehicles...

  17. Life cycle analysis of kidney gene expression in male F344 rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Kwekel

    Full Text Available Age is a predisposing condition for susceptibility to chronic kidney disease and progression as well as acute kidney injury that may arise due to the adverse effects of some drugs. Age-related differences in kidney biology, therefore, are a key concern in understanding drug safety and disease progression. We hypothesize that the underlying suite of genes expressed in the kidney at various life cycle stages will impact susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. Therefore, establishing changes in baseline expression data between these life stages is the first and necessary step in evaluating this hypothesis. Untreated male F344 rats were sacrificed at 2, 5, 6, 8, 15, 21, 78, and 104 weeks of age. Kidneys were collected for histology and gene expression analysis. Agilent whole-genome rat microarrays were used to query global expression profiles. An ANOVA (p1.5 in relative mRNA expression, was used to identify 3,724 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs. Principal component analyses of these DEGs revealed three major divisions in life-cycle renal gene expression. K-means cluster analysis identified several groups of genes that shared age-specific patterns of expression. Pathway analysis of these gene groups revealed age-specific gene networks and functions related to renal function and aging, including extracellular matrix turnover, immune cell response, and renal tubular injury. Large age-related changes in expression were also demonstrated for the genes that code for qualified renal injury biomarkers KIM-1, Clu, and Tff3. These results suggest specific groups of genes that may underlie age-specific susceptibilities to adverse drug reactions and disease. This analysis of the basal gene expression patterns of renal genes throughout the life cycle of the rat will improve the use of current and future renal biomarkers and inform our assessments of kidney injury and disease.

  18. Women's job quality across family life stages: An analysis of female employees across 27 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Piasna, A.; Plagnol, A.

    2017-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence on how working conditions affect women’s employment and fertility choices, despite a number of studies on the impact of individual-level and institutional factors. The article addresses this gap by examining how family life stages are related to particular aspects of job quality among employed women in 27 European countries. The central argument of the analysis is that high-quality jobs are conducive to both transitions to motherhood and employment after chi...

  19. Numerical analysis of rolling contact fatigue crack initiation and fatigue life prediction of the railway crossing

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, L.; Markine, V.L.; Shevtsov, I.

    2015-01-01

    The procedure for analysing rolling contact fatigue crack initiation and fatigue life prediction of the railway turnout crossing is developed. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model is used to obtain stress and strain results, considering the dynamic effects of wheel-crossing rolling contact. Material model accounting for elastic- plastic isotropic and kinematic hardening effects is adopted. The results from FE analysis are combined with J-S fatigue model that is based on critical plan...

  20. Mars exploration program analysis group goal one: determine if life ever arose on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M; Westall, Frances

    2010-11-01

    The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) maintains a standing document that articulates scientific community goals, objectives, and priorities for mission-enabled Mars science. Each of the goals articulated within the document is periodically revisited and updated. The astrobiology-related Goal One, "Determine if life ever arose on Mars," has recently undergone such revision. The finalized revision, which appears in the version of the MEPAG Goals Document posted on September 24, 2010, is presented here.

  1. Fatigue analysis and life prediction of composite highway bridge decks under traffic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando N. Leitão

    Full Text Available Steel and composite (steel-concrete highway bridges are currently subjected to dynamic actions of variable magnitude due to convoy of vehicles crossing on the deck pavement. These dynamic actions can generate the nucleation of fractures or even their propagation on the bridge deck structure. Proper consideration of all of the aspects mentioned pointed our team to develop an analysis methodology with emphasis to evaluate the stresses through a dynamic analysis of highway bridge decks including the action of vehicles. The design codes recommend the application of the curves S-N associated to the Miner's damage rule to evaluate the fatigue and service life of steel and composite (steel-concrete bridges. In this work, the developed computational model adopted the usual mesh refinement techniques present in finite element method simulations implemented in the ANSYS program. The investigated highway bridge is constituted by four longitudinal composite girders and a concrete deck, spanning 40.0m by 13.5m. The analysis methodology and procedures presented in the design codes were applied to evaluate the fatigue of the bridge determining the service life of the structure. The main conclusions of this investigation focused on alerting structural engineers to the possible distortions, associated to the steel and composite bridge's service life when subjected to vehicle's dynamic actions.

  2. Environmental and economic analysis of end of life management options for an HDPE product using a life cycle thinking approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Carla L; Pinto, Lígia M Costa; Bernardo, C A

    2014-05-01

    Manufacturers have been increasingly considering the implication of materials used in commercial products and the management of such products at the end of their useful lives (as waste or as post-consumer secondary materials). The present work describes the application of the life cycle thinking approach to a plastic product, specifically an anti-glare lamellae (used for road safety applications) made with high-density polyethylene (HDPE). This study shows that optimal environmental and economic outcomes associated with this product can be realized by recovering the material at the end of its useful life (end of life, EoL) and by using the recycled HDPE as a raw material in the production of new similar products. The study confirmed the applicability of the life cycle thinking approach by industry in sustainable products development, supporting the development of robust environmental and economic guidelines.

  3. Remaining Calm in the Midst of Chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Robin S.; Ryan, Grant W.; Young, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    At the DOE Hanford site in Washington State, Fluor Hanford, Inc is in the process of developing and, procuring systems to remove and disposition sludge from the 100 Area K Basins. The K Basins were used to store spent fuel from the operating reactors at the Hanford Site. The sludge is a by-product from th corrosion of the fuel and fuel storage canisters. The sludge removal project is very dynamic involving two basins, K East and K West, and has an ambitious schedule for removal and subsequent Basin D and D. The challenge for the safety basis development for this project is how to integrate the analysis with the project schedule and still provide the required project design, development, and regulatory (10CFR830) support. During the development of new project/systems, safety analysis activities are used throughout the design phase to assist in identifying design/safety issues before the design is complete. Control allocation and identification processes assist procurement of equipment during the development phase and a PDSA is required to support the decision to proceed with construction/installation. For the K Basins project, all the safety basis development activities need to be done in the context of new and existing facilities/equipment and an existing safety basis for the K Basins. When schedules are demanding and design, procurement, and safety documentation activities must be completed in parallel, it creates complex issues for maintaining the safety basis current. In addition, developing a safety basis that will cover the lifecycle of the facility creates issues when using it to support the necessary short term decisions at the same time as long term planning. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a safety basis strategy to deal with this situation. This paper discusses the strategy developed to deal with the complexity and project schedule issues and the methods for safety analysis development and documentation being used to assist in maintaining some

  4. Living with Risk in Everyday Life - A Comparative Analysis on Handling and Reflecting Risk in Everyday Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elverdam, Beth; Hoel Felde, Lina Klara

    phones; chemicals in a nursery; elevated cholesterol was combined to analyse the concept of risk in everyday life. In-depth qualitative interviews with 46 people made it possible to analyse a general perception of risk in everyday life. Interviews were analysed using a phenomenological thematical content...... analysis. Results: Although risk is communicated in the media and by health personnel, and thus has a general presence in society, participants in everyday life place risk at the periphery of life. Risk is not part of their everyday reflections. When risk manifests itself in everyday life, it is reflected...

  5. The use of life-cycle analysis to address energy cycle externality problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, B.

    1996-01-01

    Life-cycle analysis is defined and the various impacts from energy systems to be included in such analysis are discussed. A preliminary version of a scenario for a future Danish energy systems based upon a bottom-up energy demand scenario and renewable energy sources. LCAs of wind turbine and Si solar roof-top modules are presented. The various impacts from Danish wind and building-integrated solar power generation are discussed and compared with the impacts from coal-fired power generation. The former electricity generating system looks more favorable. (author). 20 refs, 9 figs

  6. A Framework for Sustainable Design of Algal Biorefineries: Economic Aspects and Life Cycle Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    mathematically as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem, and is solved first to identify the optimal designs with respect to economic optimality. These optimal designs are then analyzed further in terms of environmental performance using life cycle analysis. For sustainability analysis, in total five...... of algae feedstock for the production of biodiesel and co-products. Relevant data and parameters for each process such as yield, conversion, operational cost is then collected using a standardized format (a generic model) and stored in a database. The sustainable design problem is then formulated...... of future and sustainable algal biorefinery concepts....

  7. Development of a remaining lifetime management system for NPPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, J.C.; Regano, M.; Hevia Ruperez, F.

    1994-01-01

    The interest evinced by Spain nuclear power plants in providing a tool to support remaining lifetime management led to UNESA's application to OCIDE in 1992, and the latter's approval, for financing the project to develop a Remaining Lifetime Evaluation System for LWR nuclear power plants. This project is currently being developed under UNESA leadership, and the collaboration of three Spanish engineering companies and a research centre. The paper will describe its objectives, activities, current status and prospects. The project is defined in two phases, the first consisting of the identification and analysis of the main ageing phenomena and their significant parameters and specification of the Remaining Lifetime Evaluation System (RLES), and the second implementation of a pilot application of the RLES to verify its effectiveness. (Author)

  8. Has the sanctity of life law 'gone too far'?: analysis of the sanctity of life doctrine and English case law shows that the sanctity of life law has not 'gone too far'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu, Abdul-Rasheed; Sugand, Kapil

    2014-02-22

    The medical profession consistently strives to uphold patient empowerment, equality and safety. It is ironic that now, at a time where advances in technology and knowledge have given us an increased capacity to preserve and prolong life, we find ourselves increasingly asking questions about the value of the lives we are saving. A recent editorial by Professor Raanan Gillon questions the emphasis that English law places on the sanctity of life doctrine. In what was described by Reverend Nick Donnelly as a "manifesto for killing patients", Professor Gillon argues that the sanctity of life law has gone too far because of its disregard for distributive justice and an incompetent person's previously declared autonomy. This review begins by outlining the stance of the sanctity of life doctrine on decisions about administering, withholding and withdrawing life-prolonging treatment. Using this as a foundation for a rebuttal, a proposal is made that Professor Gillon's assertions do not take the following into account:1) A sanctity of life law does not exist since English Common Law infringes the sanctity doctrine by tolerating quality of life judgements and a doctor's intention to hasten death when withdrawing life-prolonging treatment.2) Even if a true sanctity of life law did exist:a) The sanctity of life doctrine allows for resource considerations in the wider analysis of benefits and burdens.b) The sanctity of life doctrine yields to a competent person's autonomous decision.This review attempts to demonstrate that at present, and with the legal precedent that restricts it, a sanctity of life law cannot go too far.

  9. Space Shuttle Rudder Speed Brake Actuator-A Case Study Probabilistic Fatigue Life and Reliability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Savage, Michael; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Space Shuttle fleet was originally intended to have a life of 100 flights for each vehicle, lasting over a 10-year period, with minimal scheduled maintenance or inspection. The first space shuttle flight was that of the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102), launched April 12, 1981. The disaster that destroyed Columbia occurred on its 28th flight, February 1, 2003, nearly 22 years after its first launch. In order to minimize risk of losing another Space Shuttle, a probabilistic life and reliability analysis was conducted for the Space Shuttle rudder/speed brake actuators to determine the number of flights the actuators could sustain. A life and reliability assessment of the actuator gears was performed in two stages: a contact stress fatigue model and a gear tooth bending fatigue model. For the contact stress analysis, the Lundberg-Palmgren bearing life theory was expanded to include gear-surface pitting for the actuator as a system. The mission spectrum of the Space Shuttle rudder/speed brake actuator was combined into equivalent effective hinge moment loads including an actuator input preload for the contact stress fatigue and tooth bending fatigue models. Gear system reliabilities are reported for both models and their combination. Reliability of the actuator bearings was analyzed separately, based on data provided by the actuator manufacturer. As a result of the analysis, the reliability of one half of a single actuator was calculated to be 98.6 percent for 12 flights. Accordingly, each actuator was subsequently limited to 12 flights before removal from service in the Space Shuttle.

  10. A Regional Analysis of the Life Cycle Environmental and Economic Tradeoffs of Different Economic Growth Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Mo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Different economic development strategies may result in varied socioeconomic and environmental synergies or tradeoffs, suggesting an opportunity for environmentally conscious planning. To understand such synergies or tradeoffs, a dynamic environmental life cycle assessment was conducted for eleven groups of New Hampshire industries. Historical state level Gross Domestic Product (GDP-by-industry data was combined with economic input-output analysis to calculate the direct and life cycle energy use, freshwater use, greenhouse gas emissions, and eutrophication potential of each industry on a yearly basis for the period of 1997–2012. The future development of agriculture, traditional manufacturing, high tech, and tourism industries were investigated based on government projections. Total life cycle impacts of the 11 industries were found to represent around three to seven times those of direct impacts, indicating the significance of the supply chain impacts. Traditional manufacturing has the highest life cycle impacts even though it contributes to less than 10% of the state GDP. Future development of high tech was found to be the best strategy to increase GDP while imposing the least additional environmental impacts. Tourism presents relatively high impacts in terms of freshwater use and eutrophication potential, and a change in recreational style might be able to reduce its impacts.

  11. [Analysis of the quality of life in patients affected by scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Hernández, M; Martínez-Monje, F; Pérez-Valencia, M; García-Romero, R; Mena-Poveda, R; Caballero-Cánovas, J

    2017-05-11

    To assess the quality of life using the SRS 22 test in patients with scoliosis of 20 or more degrees Cobb. A prospective descriptive study was conducted between April and May 2016 on patients with scoliosis of at least 20 degrees Cobb and aged between 10 and 20 years. A record was made of weight, height, body mass index, and the SR 22 specific quality of life questionnaire for patients with scoliosis was completed. Patients were divided into two groups for analysis: a) scoliosis between 20 and 29 degrees Cobb (n=44); and b) scoliosis with a Cobb of 30 degrees or greater (n=32). There were significant differences in the dimensions that assess pain, image self-perception, and satisfaction with treatment, being valued worse when the degree of scoliosis Cobb is 30 degrees or higher. There were no significant differences in function/activity or mental health. The overall score of the questionnaire was also worse in the group with the highest degree of scoliosis. The weight, height, and BMI showed no significant differences due to the varying degrees of scoliosis. Scoliosis significantly affects the quality of life of people who suffer it, and there is a negative correlation between the severity of scoliosis measured by degrees Cobb and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Relative Tranquility in Ostomy Patients' Social Life: A Qualitative Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabi, Nasrin; Navipour, Hassan; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2017-08-01

    Ostomy significantly alters one's elimination pattern and can affect the individual in physiological, psychosocial and spiritual aspects. Over time, the ostomy patient's experience changes and they develop coping strategies to handle the new reality. The aims of this study sought Iranian ostomy patients' main problem, how they deal and the outcome of their efforts to manage that problem in their daily lives. A qualitative content analysis was conducted involving twenty-seven ostomy patients that were chosen by purposeful sampling and referred to the Iranian Ostomy Association from October 2015 to June 2016. The mean age of the participants was 55 years, 15 were males, the major cause of ostomy was colorectal cancer and the colostomy was the most common type of ostomy, and nineteen of them between one and twenty years lived with an ostomy. Most of them were married, had bachelor degree and received adjuvant therapy, and few were employed. Guarantee indecisive to maintain a stable life with an ostomy and the possibility of ostomy disclosure unpredictability show relative tranquility in patients' social life. Because of the ostomy nature, there is not the possibility of full control over life with an ostomy and this issue is causing concerns in their family and social life.

  13. Overall quality of life and difficulty paying for ostomy supplies in the Veterans Affairs ostomy health-related quality of life study: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Stephen Joel; Chongpison, Yuda; Wendel, Christopher S; Grant, Marcia; Krouse, Robert S

    2007-09-01

    To explore whether there was a significant relationship between difficulty paying for ostomy supplies and overall quality of life among a sample of ostomates receiving care from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The data were collected as part of the Veterans Affairs (VA) Ostomy Health-Related Quality of Life Study, in which 511 respondents (239 cases, 272 controls) completed a survey instrument that included the modified City of Hope Quality of Life (mCOH-QOL) Ostomy questionnaire, SF-36V, and sociodemographic items. Responses from the 239 cases (ie, patients with intestinal stomas) were used in this analysis. The modified City of Hope Quality of Life Ostomy questionnaire item, "How good is your overall quality of life?," was the dependent variable for this analysis. The primary independent variable was the response (yes/no) to the item, "If you pay for any of the (ostomy) costs, is it difficult for you?" A hierarchical regression model was used to examine whether difficulty paying was significantly related to overall quality of life after adjusting for age, income, race/ethnicity, and physical health. After accounting for the proportion of variance explained by age, income, race/ethnicity, and physical health, the additional proportion of variance explained by difficulty paying was statistically significant. Individuals reporting difficulty paying had a roughly 1 point lower (ie, beta-coefficient = -1.052; SE = 0.481) overall quality of life score on the 11-point scale. We found a significant association between difficulty paying for ostomy supplies and overall quality of life. Although the cross-sectional study design does not allow causal inference, the results suggest a relationship that merits further examination.

  14. Maternal anaemia at delivery and haemoglobin evolution in children during their first 18 months of life using latent class analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobto G Koura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaemia during pregnancy and at delivery is an important public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. Its association with the children's haemoglobin level over time remains unclear. Our goals were to identify distinct haemoglobin level trajectories using latent class analysis and to assess the association between these trajectories and maternal anaemia and other risk factors. METHOD: A prospective study of children from birth to 18 months of life was conducted in a rural setting in Tori-Bossito, Benin. The main outcome measure was the haemoglobin levels repeatedly measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. Variables were collected from the mothers at delivery and from their children at birth and during the follow-up. The analyses were performed by means of Latent Class Analysis which has never been used for this kind of data. All the analyses were performed with Stata software, version 11.0, using the generalized linear latent and mixed model (GLLAMM framework. RESULTS: We showed that 33.7% of children followed a low haemoglobin trajectory and 66.3% a high trajectory during the first 18 months of life. Newborn anaemia, placental malaria, malaria attack, sickle cell trait and male gender were significantly associated with a lower children's haemoglobin level over time, whereas maternal age, children living in a polygamous family and with good feeding practices had a higher Hb level in the first18 months. We also showed that maternal anaemia was a predictor for 'low haemoglobin level trajectory' group membership but have no significant effect on children haemoglobin level over time. CONCLUSION: Latent Class Analyses framework seems well suited to analyse longitudinal data under the hypothesis that different subpopulations of subjects are present in the data, each with its own set of parameters, with distinctive evolutions that themselves may reflect distinctive aetiologies.

  15. KNIME for reproducible cross-domain analysis of life science data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillbrunn, Alexander; Dietz, Christian; Pfeuffer, Julianus; Rahn, René; Landrum, Gregory A; Berthold, Michael R

    2017-11-10

    Experiments in the life sciences often involve tools from a variety of domains such as mass spectrometry, next generation sequencing, or image processing. Passing the data between those tools often involves complex scripts for controlling data flow, data transformation, and statistical analysis. Such scripts are not only prone to be platform dependent, they also tend to grow as the experiment progresses and are seldomly well documented, a fact that hinders the reproducibility of the experiment. Workflow systems such as KNIME Analytics Platform aim to solve these problems by providing a platform for connecting tools graphically and guaranteeing the same results on different operating systems. As an open source software, KNIME allows scientists and programmers to provide their own extensions to the scientific community. In this review paper we present selected extensions from the life sciences that simplify data exploration, analysis, and visualization and are interoperable due to KNIME's unified data model. Additionally, we name other workflow systems that are commonly used in the life sciences and highlight their similarities and differences to KNIME. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Life support systems analysis and technical trades for a lunar outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrall, J. F.; Ganapathi, G. B.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Seshan, P. K.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/JPL life support systems analysis (LISSA) software tool was used to perform life support system analysis and technology trades for a Lunar Outpost. The life support system was modeled using a chemical process simulation program on a steady-state, one-person, daily basis. Inputs to the LiSSA model include metabolic balance load data, hygiene load data, technology selection, process operational assumptions and mission parameter assumptions. A baseline set of technologies has been used against which comparisons have been made by running twenty-two cases with technology substitutions. System, subsystem, and technology weights and powers are compared for a crew of 4 and missions of 90 and 600 days. By assigning a weight value to power, equivalent system weights are compared. Several less-developed technologies show potential advantages over the baseline. Solid waste treatment technologies show weight and power disadvantages but one could have benefits associated with the reduction of hazardous wastes and very long missions. Technology development towards reducing the weight of resupplies and lighter materials of construction was recommended. It was also recommended that as technologies are funded for development, contractors should be required to generate and report data useful for quantitative technology comparisons.

  17. Analysis of the quality of work life in the sewing sector of a clothing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly Silva de Aquino

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze the quality of work life in the sewing sector of a clothing industry located in the Northwest of the Paraná. The research is characterized as an exploratory and descriptive case study. The instrument of data collection was an adaptation of the model considered for Walton. For data analysis descriptive statistics and the diagram of boxes were used (boxplot. The results had disclosed that the eight criterions of the quality of work life investigated had presented levels of satisfaction greater than 50%. A satisfactory general average can be evidenced (66.85% among the employees of the sewing sector in relation to the quality of work life. Although the presented levels of satisfaction, it would be interesting to take some measures aiming to improve them even more. These measures should be directed to the analysis of the criterion “proper and fair compensation”, which presented the worst average and greater dispersion among investigated criteria.

  18. Life cycle analysis of management options for organic waste collected in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Different options for managing the organic fraction (OF) of municipal solid waste generated in a given urban area were analyzed by life cycle assessment (LCA) for different source segregation (SS) intensities ranging from 0 to 52%. The best management option for processing the OF remaining in the residual organic fraction (ROF) for the different SS intensities was by incineration. Landfilling and mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of ROF gave higher impacts. Aerobic treatment alone or combined with anaerobic digestion (AD) for processing the source-segregated organic fraction (SSOF) led to relevant environmental impact reduction even if the difference between the two options was quite negligible. The weighted impact showed that scenarios using incineration always gave environmental gains, whereas there was a higher environmental burden with the scenarios using MBT.

  19. Life cycle analysis of small scale pellet boilers characterized by high efficiency and low emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, B.; Chiesa, M.; Marzuoli, R.; Verma, V.K.; Schwarz, M.; Carlon, E.; Schmidl, C.; Ballarin Denti, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LCA was performed on innovative small scale pellet boilers. • Pellet boilers impacts were compared to oil and natural gas boilers impacts. • Both literature and experimental data were used for life cycle analysis. • The environmental impact due to all life cycle phases was envisaged. • Sensitivity tests evidenced realistic ways for pellet boilers impact reduction. - Abstract: This study focuses on the environmental impact assessment through Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of two innovative 10 kW pellet boilers. In particular, the second boiler represents a technological evolution of the first one developed to improve its performance in terms of efficiency and environmental impact. For both boilers, emission factors measured during laboratory tests (full load tests and specific load cycle tests representative of real life boiler operation) have been used as input data in the life cycle analysis. The SimaPro software (v.8.0.4.30) was used for the LCA and the ReCiPe Midpoint method (European version H) was chosen to assess the environmental impact of all boilers (according to LCA ISO standards). In addition, the ReCiPe Endpoint method was used to compare the final results of all 5 boilers with literature data. The pelletisation process represented the most relevant share of the overall environmental impact followed by the operational phase, the manufacturing phase and the disposal phase. A sensitivity analysis performed on the most efficient pellet boiler evidenced the variation of the boiler’s environmental impact as a function of PM10 and NO X emission factors with respect to emission factors monitored during boiler full load operation. Moreover, the reduction of the boiler’s weight and the adoption of new electronic components led to a consistent reduction (−18%) of its environmental impact with respect to the previous technology. A second LCA has been carried on for a 15 kW oil boiler, a 15 kW natural gas boiler and a 15 kW pellet boiler

  20. Current hybrid-electric powertrain architectures: Applying empirical design data to life cycle assessment and whole-life cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, Tim; Burgess, Stuart; Herrmann, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Design data for 44 hybrid cars available in the US has been gathered and analysed. • An empirical life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions is performed. • Empirical whole-life cost modelling is used to evaluate powertrain architectures. • The value to be seen in each architecture is highly dependent on its application. • Mild, HSD and Plug-in HSD powertrains are the most likely architectures to dominate. - Abstract: The recent introduction of hybrid-electric powertrain technology has disrupted the automotive industry, causing significant powertrain design divergence. As this radical powertrain innovation matures, will hybrid vehicles dominate the future automotive market and does this represent a positive shift in the environmental impact of the industry? The answer to this question is sought within this paper. It seeks to take advantage of the position that the industry has reached, replacing previous theoretical studies with the first extensive empirical models of life cycle emissions and whole-life costing. A comprehensive snapshot of today’s hybrid market is presented, with detailed descriptions of the various hybrid powertrain architectures. Design data has been gathered for 44 hybrid passenger cars currently available in the US. The empirical data is used to explore the relative life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and whole-life costing of different hybrid powertrain architectures. Potential dominant designs are identified and their emissions are shown to be reduced. However, both the emissions and economic competitiveness of different hybrid powertrains are shown to vary significantly depending on how the vehicle is used

  1. Identifying changes in the support networks of end-of-life carers using social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Rosemary; Horsfall, Debbie; Noonan, Kerrie

    2015-06-01

    End-of-life caring is often associated with reduced social networks for both the dying person and for the carer. However, those adopting a community participation and development approach, see the potential for the expansion and strengthening of networks. This paper uses Knox, Savage and Harvey's definitions of three generations social network analysis to analyse the caring networks of people with a terminal illness who are being cared for at home and identifies changes in these caring networks that occurred over the period of caring. Participatory network mapping of initial and current networks was used in nine focus groups. The analysis used key concepts from social network analysis (size, density, transitivity, betweenness and local clustering) together with qualitative analyses of the group's reflections on the maps. The results showed an increase in the size of the networks and that ties between the original members of the network strengthened. The qualitative data revealed the importance between core and peripheral network members and the diverse contributions of the network members. The research supports the value of third generation social network analysis and the potential for end-of-life caring to build social capital. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Environmental analysis of the life cycle emissions of 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran solvent manufactured from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, C Stewart; Savelski, Mariano J; Hitchcock, David; Cavanagh, Eduardo J

    2016-01-01

    An environmental analysis has been conducted to determine the cradle to gate life cycle emissions to manufacture the green solvent, 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran. The solvent is considered a greener chemical since it can be manufactured from renewable resources with a lower life cycle footprint. Analyses have been performed using different methods to show greenness in both its production and industrial use. This solvent can potentially be substituted for other ether and chlorinated solvents commonly used in organometallic and biphasic reactions steps in pharmaceutical and fine chemical syntheses. The 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran made from renewable agricultural by-products is marketed by Penn A Kem under the name ecoMeTHF™. The starting material, 2-furfuraldehyde (furfural), is produced from corn cob waste by converting the available pentosans by acid hydrolysis. An evaluation of each step in the process was necessary to determine the overall life cycle and specific CO2 emissions for each raw material/intermediate produced. Allocation of credits for CO2 from the incineration of solvents made from renewable feedstocks significantly reduced the overall carbon footprint. Using this approach, the overall life cycle emissions for production of 1 kg of ecoMeTHF™ were determined to be 0.191 kg, including 0.150 kg of CO2. Life cycle emissions generated from raw material manufacture represents the majority of the overall environmental impact. Our evaluation shows that using 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran in an industrial scenario results in a 97% reduction in emissions, when compared to typically used solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, made through a conventional chemical route.

  3. Use of autologous bone graft in anterior cervical decompression: morbidity & quality of life analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Heneghan, Helen M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autologous iliac crest graft has long been the gold standard graft material used in cervical fusion. However its harvest has significant associated morbidity, including protracted postoperative pain scores at the harvest site. Thus its continued practice warrants scrutiny, particularly now that alternatives are available. Our aims were to assess incidence and nature of complications associated with iliac crest harvest when performed in the setting of Anterior Cervical Decompression (ACD). Also, to perform a comparative analysis of patient satisfaction and quality of life scores after ACD surgeries, when performed with and without iliac graft harvest. METHODS: All patients who underwent consecutive ACD procedures, with and without the use of autologous iliac crest graft, over a 48 month period were included (n = 53). Patients were assessed clinically at a minimum of 12 months postoperatively and administered 2 validated quality of life questionnaires: the SF-36 and Cervical Spine Outcomes Questionnaires (Response rate 96%). Primary composite endpoints included incidence of bone graft donor site morbidity, pain scores, operative duration, and quality of life scores. RESULTS: Patients who underwent iliac graft harvest experienced significant peri-operative donor site specific morbidity, including a high incidence of pain at the iliac crest (90%), iliac wound infection (7%), a jejunal perforation, and longer operative duration (285 minutes vs. 238 minutes, p = 0.026). Longer term follow-up demonstrated protracted postoperative pain at the harvest site and significantly lower mental health scores on both quality of life instruments, for those patients who underwent autologous graft harvest CONCLUSION: ACD with iliac crest graft harvest is associated with significant iliac crest donor site morbidity and lower quality of life at greater than 12 months post operatively. This is now avoidable by using alternatives to autologous bone without compromising clinical

  4. Childhood poverty and depressive symptoms for older adults in Mexico: a life-course analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Wong, Rebeca

    2013-09-01

    This study applies life-course theories of latent (direct), pathway (indirect) and conditional effects in an analysis of childhood poverty on later-life depressive symptoms among older adults in Mexico. Data are from the 2001 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), a nationally representative sample of older adults born before 1951 (n = 8696). Respondents had a mean of 3.6 past-week depressive symptoms and 71% had no household sanitation facilities before age 10; this measure served as a proxy for childhood poverty. Childhood poverty is significantly related to scores on an adapted 9-item CES-D scale in the full model (b = 0.27, p Mexico's rapidly aging population as well as efforts for childhood poverty reduction and gains in education.

  5. Modelling of pesticide emissions for Life Cycle Inventory analysis: Model development, applications and implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes

    with variations in the climates and soils present in Europe. Emissions of pesticides to surface water and groundwater calculated by PestLCI 2.0 were compared with models used for risk assessment. Compared to the MACRO module in SWASH 3.1 model, which calculates surface water emissions by runoff and drainage...... chromatographic flow of water through the soil), which was attributed to the omission of emissions via macropore flow in the latter model. The comparison was complicated by the fact that the scenarios used were not fully identical. In order to quantify the implications of using PestLCI 2.0, human toxicity......The work presented in this thesis deals with quantification of pesticide emissions in the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) analysis phase of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The motivation to model pesticide emissions is that reliable LCA results not only depend on accurate impact assessment models, but also...

  6. LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY ANALYSIS IN THE PRODUCTION OF METALS USED IN PHOTOVOLTAICS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FTHENAKIS,V.M.; KIM, H.C.; WANG, W.

    2007-03-30

    Material flows and emissions in all the stages of production of zinc, copper, aluminum, cadmium, indium, germanium, gallium, selenium, tellurium, and molybdenum were investigated. These metals are used selectively in the manufacture of solar cells, and emission and energy factors in their production are used in the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of photovoltaics. Significant changes have occurred in the production and associated emissions for these metals over the last 10 years, which are not described in the LCA databases. Furthermore, emission and energy factors for several of the by-products of the base metal production were lacking. This report aims in updating the life-cycle inventories associated with the production of the base metals (Zn, Cu, Al, Mo) and in defining the emission and energy allocations for the minor metals (Cd, In, Ge, Se, Te and Ga) used in photovoltaics.

  7. Childhood Poverty and Depressive Symptoms for Older Adults in Mexico: A Life-Course Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rebeca

    2013-01-01

    This study applies life-course theories of latent (direct), pathway (indirect) and conditional effects in an analysis of childhood poverty on later-life depressive symptoms among older adults in Mexico. Data are from the 2001 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), a nationally representative sample of older adults born before 1951 (n=8696). Respondents had a mean of 3.6 past-week depressive symptoms and 71 % had no household sanitation facilities before age 10; this measure served as a proxy for childhood poverty. Childhood poverty is significantly related to scores on an adapted 9-item CES-D scale in the full model (b=0.27, pMexico’s rapidly aging population as well as efforts for childhood poverty reduction and gains in education. PMID:23783887

  8. Life cycle based dynamic assessment coupled with multiple criteria decision analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohn, Joshua; Kalbar, Pradip; Birkved, Morten

    2017-01-01

    the service life of the building. This case study uses both the established and the coupled MCDA assessment methods to quantify and assess the balance of impacts between the production of mineral wool insulation versus the production of space heat. The use of TOPSIS method for calculating single scores......This work looks at coupling Life cycle assessment (LCA) with a dynamic inventory and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to improve the validity and reliability of single score results for complex systems. This is done using the case study of a representative Danish single family home over...... not matter which impact assessment is applied. However, for the scenarios where other impact categories vary inversely or independently from the climate change impact indicator, such as with renewable energy production, there is need for a more unconventional method, such as the TOPSIS method...

  9. The application of probabilistic fracture analysis to residual life evaluation of embrittled reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.; Simonen, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis is a major element of the comprehensive probabilistic methodology on which current NRC regulatory requirements for pressurized water reactor vessel integrity evaluation are based. Computer codes such as OCA-P and VISA-11 perform probabilistic fracture analyses to estimate the increase in vessel failure probability that occurs as the vessel material accumulates radiation damage over the operating life of the vessel. The results of such analyses, when compared with limits of acceptable failure probabilities, provide an estimation of the residual life of a vessel. Such codes can be applied to evaluate the potential benefits of plant-specific mitigating actions designed to reduce the probability of failure of a reactor vessel

  10. Out of Conclusion - On Recurrence and Open-endedness in Life and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Martin Demant; Dalsgård, Anne Line

    2013-01-01

    describe, daily life is marked by poor prospects and lack of possibility, especially for young people. Rather than letting this guide our analyses and ways of writing, this article argues for the necessity of paying attention to the openness and potential of experienced moments of change. We propose...... that even relapses into former habits and predicaments may present a potential for change on a subjective level, as they call for re-starting one’s personal life. As a meta-story to this discussion, we reflect upon the process of putting our informants’ stories into words and analysis. Revisiting both field...... and text constitutes a hopeful practice similar to the one our informants practice. When hesitating to conclude, something is understood (i.e. something is possible), which would otherwise be left unarticulated....

  11. The application of probabilistic fracture analysis to residual life evaluation of embrittled reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.; Simonen, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis is a major element of comprehensive probabilistic methodology on which current NRC regulatory requirements for pressurized water reactor vessel integrity evaluation are based. Computer codes such as OCA-P and VISA-II perform probabilistic fracture analyses to estimate the increase in vessel failure probability that occurs as the vessel material accumulates radiation damage over the operating life of the vessel. The results of such analyses, when compared with limits of acceptable failure probabilities, provide an estimation of the residual life of a vessel. Such codes can be applied to evaluate the potential benefits of plant-specific mitigating actions designed to reduce the probability of failure of a reactor vessel. 10 refs

  12. Co-Inheritance Analysis within the Domains of Life Substantially Improves Network Inference by Phylogenetic Profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junha Shin

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic profiling, a network inference method based on gene inheritance profiles, has been widely used to construct functional gene networks in microbes. However, its utility for network inference in higher eukaryotes has been limited. An improved algorithm with an in-depth understanding of pathway evolution may overcome this limitation. In this study, we investigated the effects of taxonomic structures on co-inheritance analysis using 2,144 reference species in four query species: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Homo sapiens. We observed three clusters of reference species based on a principal component analysis of the phylogenetic profiles, which correspond to the three domains of life-Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota-suggesting that pathways inherit primarily within specific domains or lower-ranked taxonomic groups during speciation. Hence, the co-inheritance pattern within a taxonomic group may be eroded by confounding inheritance patterns from irrelevant taxonomic groups. We demonstrated that co-inheritance analysis within domains substantially improved network inference not only in microbe species but also in the higher eukaryotes, including humans. Although we observed two sub-domain clusters of reference species within Eukaryota, co-inheritance analysis within these sub-domain taxonomic groups only marginally improved network inference. Therefore, we conclude that co-inheritance analysis within domains is the optimal approach to network inference with the given reference species. The construction of a series of human gene networks with increasing sample sizes of the reference species for each domain revealed that the size of the high-accuracy networks increased as additional reference species genomes were included, suggesting that within-domain co-inheritance analysis will continue to expand human gene networks as genomes of additional species are sequenced. Taken together, we propose that co

  13. On relations between quality management, doing business and life quality (a comparative analysis of Balkans with western European countries)

    OpenAIRE

    CEKO ENRIKO

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of research: Determination of relations between quality management, doing business and life quality and giving some thoughts to improve the situation regarding the quality institutions and quality infrastructure parallel with doing business climate and life quality. Methods: Collection of information, data and facts for quality management, doing business and life quality mainly from primary sources, comparing the information, data and facts gathered, conducting relevant analysis a...

  14. Improvement of system code importing evaluation of Life Cycle Analysis of tokamak fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobori, Hikaru; Kasada, Ryuta; Hiwatari, Ryoji; Konishi, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We incorporated the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of tokamak type DEMO reactor and following commercial reactors as an extension of a system code. • We calculated CO_2 emissions from reactor construction, operation and decommissioning that is considered as a major environmental cost. • We found that the objective of conceptual design of the tokamak fusion power reactor is moved by changing evaluation index. • The tokamak fusion reactor can reduce CO_2 emissions in the life cycle effectively by reduction of the amount involved in the replacement of internal components. • The tokamak fusion reactor achieves under 0.174$/kWh electricity cost, the tokamak fusion reactor is contestable with 1500 degrees-class LNG-fired combined cycle power plant. - Abstract: This study incorporate the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of tokamak type DEMO reactor and following commercial reactors as an extension of a system code to calculate CO_2 emissions from reactor construction, operation and decommissioning that is considered as a major environmental cost. Competitiveness of tokamak fusion power reactors is expected to be evaluated by the cost and environmental impact represented by the CO_2 emissions, compared with present and future power generating systems such as fossil, nuclear and renewables. Result indicated that (1) The objective of conceptual design of the tokamak fusion power reactor is moved by changing evaluation index. (2) The tokamak fusion reactor can reduce CO_2 emissions in the life cycle effectively by reduction of the amount involved in the replacement of internal components. (3) The tokamak fusion reactor achieves under 0.174$/kWh electricity cost, the tokamak fusion reactor is contestable with 1500 degrees-class LNG-fired combined cycle power plant.

  15. Improvement of system code importing evaluation of Life Cycle Analysis of tokamak fusion power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobori, Hikaru [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hiwatari, Ryoji [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We incorporated the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of tokamak type DEMO reactor and following commercial reactors as an extension of a system code. • We calculated CO{sub 2} emissions from reactor construction, operation and decommissioning that is considered as a major environmental cost. • We found that the objective of conceptual design of the tokamak fusion power reactor is moved by changing evaluation index. • The tokamak fusion reactor can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the life cycle effectively by reduction of the amount involved in the replacement of internal components. • The tokamak fusion reactor achieves under 0.174$/kWh electricity cost, the tokamak fusion reactor is contestable with 1500 degrees-class LNG-fired combined cycle power plant. - Abstract: This study incorporate the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of tokamak type DEMO reactor and following commercial reactors as an extension of a system code to calculate CO{sub 2} emissions from reactor construction, operation and decommissioning that is considered as a major environmental cost. Competitiveness of tokamak fusion power reactors is expected to be evaluated by the cost and environmental impact represented by the CO{sub 2} emissions, compared with present and future power generating systems such as fossil, nuclear and renewables. Result indicated that (1) The objective of conceptual design of the tokamak fusion power reactor is moved by changing evaluation index. (2) The tokamak fusion reactor can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the life cycle effectively by reduction of the amount involved in the replacement of internal components. (3) The tokamak fusion reactor achieves under 0.174$/kWh electricity cost, the tokamak fusion reactor is contestable with 1500 degrees-class LNG-fired combined cycle power plant.

  16. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Supplemental Environmental Project: Aquatic Life Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryhill, Jesse Tobias [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gaukler, Shannon Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-26

    As part of a settlement agreement for nuclear waste incidents in 2014, several supplemental environment projects (SEPs) were initiated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) between the U.S. Department of Energy and the state of New Mexico. One SEP from this agreement consists of performing aquatic life surveys and will be used to assess the applicability of using generic ambient water-quality criteria (AWQC) for aquatic life. AWQC are generic criteria developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to cover a broad range of aquatic species and are not unique to a specific region or state. AWQC are established by a composition of toxicity data, called species sensitivity distributions (SSDs), and are determined by LC50 (lethal concentration of 50% of the organisms studied) acute toxicity experiments for chemicals of interest. It is of interest to determine whether aquatic species inhabiting waters on the Pajarito Plateau are adequately protected using the current generic AWQC. The focus of this study will determine which aquatic species are present in ephemeral, intermittent, and perennial waters within LANL boundaries and from reference waters adjacent to LANL. If the species identified from these waters do not generally represent species used in the SSDs, then SSDs may need to be modified and AWQC may need to be updated. This sampling and analysis plan details the sampling methodology, surveillance locations, temporal scheduling, and analytical approaches that will be used to complete aquatic life surveys. A significant portion of this sampling and analysis plan was formalized by referring to Appendix E: SEP Aquatic Life Surveys DQO (Data Quality Objectives).

  17. [Quality of life of patients with asthma on beclomethasone/formoterol. Cost-utility analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, A J; Quintano Jiménez, J A; García-Agua Soler, N; Ginel Mendoza, L; Hidalgo Requena, A; Del Moral, F

    2016-01-01

    To perform a cost-utility analysis on asthmatic patients on beclomethasone/formoterol fixed combination in Primary Health Care. Material and methods Non-probability sampling was used to select a group of asthmatic patients with moderate/severe persistent severity (GEMA 2009), treated with beclomethasone/formoterol fixed combination, over 18 years, had given their informed consent. The study observation period was 6 months. The variables studied were: age, sex, duration of disease, health resources used, analysis of health related quality of life by EQ-5D and SF-36, and the specific Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire. For the qualitative variables, the frequency and percentages were calculated, and for the quantitative variables, the mean, SD and 95% CI. Chi-square, Student t-test and ANOVA were used for statistical inference. Comparisons were made with a statistical significance of 0.05. Of the 64 patients that completed the study, 59.4% were female. The mean age was 49 years, and mean disease duration was 93 months. For asthma control, 53% of patients had a prescription pattern of one/12h. All health related quality of life scales were modified with respect to the baseline and the differences were statistically significant. Our patients had a better health related quality of life than Spanish asthma cohort. The incremental cost utility beclomethasone/formoterol versus usual treatment option was € 6,256/QALY. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Negative life events and depression in adolescents with HIV: a stress and coping analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jennifer V; Abramowitz, Susan; Koenig, Linda J; Chandwani, Sulachni; Orban, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of negative life events (NLE) and daily hassles, and their direct and moderated associations with depression, were examined among HIV-infected adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether the negative association with depression of NLE, daily hassles, and/or passive coping were moderated by social support or active coping strategies. Demographic characteristics, depression, coping, social support, NLE, and daily hassles were collected at baseline as part of the Adolescent Impact intervention via face-to-face and computer-assisted interviews. Of 166 HIV-infected adolescents, 53% were female, 72.9% black, 59.6% with perinatally acquired HIV (PIY), the most commonly reported NLE were death in family (81%), violence exposure (68%), school relocation (67%), and hospitalization (61%); and for daily hassles "not having enough money (65%)". Behaviorally infected youth (BIY--acquired HIV later in life) were significantly more likely to experience extensive (14-21) lifetime NLE (38.8% vs. 16.3%, p effect of NLE, such that NLE were associated with greater depression when social support was low, although the effect did not remain statistically significant when main effects of other variables were accounted for. Daily hassles, poor coping, and limited social support can adversely affect the psychological well-being of HIV-infected adolescents, particularly sexual minority youth with behaviorally acquired HIV. Multimodal interventions that enhance social support and teach adaptive coping skills may help youth cope with environmental stresses and improve mental health outcomes.

  19. Coping strategies, satisfaction with life, and quality of life in Crohn's disease: A gender perspective using structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarid, O; Slonim-Nevo, V; Pereg, A; Friger, M; Sergienko, R; Schwartz, D; Greenberg, D; Shahar, I; Chernin, E; Vardi, H; Eidelman, L; Segal, A; Ben-Yakov, G; Gaspar, N; Munteanu, D; Rozental, A; Mushkalo, A; Dizengof, V; Abu-Freha, N; Fich, A; Odes, S

    2017-01-01

    To identify coping strategies and socio-demographics impacting satisfaction with life and quality of life in Crohn's disease (CD). 402 patients completed the Patient Harvey-Bradshaw Index, Brief COPE Inventory, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ). We performed structural equation modeling (SEM) of mediators of quality of life and satisfaction with life. The cohort comprised: men 39.3%, women 60.1%; P-HBI 4.75 and 5.74 (p = 0.01). In inactive CD (P-HBI≤4), both genders had SWLS score 23.8; men had SIBDQ score 57.4, women 52.6 (p = 0.001); women reported more use of emotion-focused, problem-focused and dysfunctional coping than men. In active CD, SWLS and SIBDQ scores were reduced, without gender differences; men and women used coping strategies equally. A SEM model (all patients) had a very good fit (X2(6) = 6.68, p = 0.351, X2/df = 1.114, SRMR = 0.045, RMSEA = 0.023, CFI = 0.965). In direct paths, economic status impacted SWLS (β = 0.39) and SIBDQ (β = 0.12), number of children impacted SWLS (β = 0.10), emotion-focused coping impacted SWLS (β = 0.11), dysfunctional coping impacted SWLS (β = -0.25). In an indirect path, economic status impacted dysfunctional coping (β = -0.26), dysfunctional coping impacted SIBDQ (β = -0.36). A model split by gender and disease activity showed that in active CD economic status impacted SIBDQ in men (β = 0.43) more than women (β = 0.26); emotional coping impacted SWLS in women (β = 0.36) more than men (β = 0.14). Gender differences in coping and the impacts of economic status and emotion-focused coping vary with activity of CD. Psychological treatment in the clinic setting might improve satisfaction with life and quality of life in CD patients.

  20. Coping strategies, satisfaction with life, and quality of life in Crohn's disease: A gender perspective using structural equation modeling analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Sarid

    Full Text Available To identify coping strategies and socio-demographics impacting satisfaction with life and quality of life in Crohn's disease (CD.402 patients completed the Patient Harvey-Bradshaw Index, Brief COPE Inventory, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ. We performed structural equation modeling (SEM of mediators of quality of life and satisfaction with life.The cohort comprised: men 39.3%, women 60.1%; P-HBI 4.75 and 5.74 (p = 0.01. In inactive CD (P-HBI≤4, both genders had SWLS score 23.8; men had SIBDQ score 57.4, women 52.6 (p = 0.001; women reported more use of emotion-focused, problem-focused and dysfunctional coping than men. In active CD, SWLS and SIBDQ scores were reduced, without gender differences; men and women used coping strategies equally. A SEM model (all patients had a very good fit (X2(6 = 6.68, p = 0.351, X2/df = 1.114, SRMR = 0.045, RMSEA = 0.023, CFI = 0.965. In direct paths, economic status impacted SWLS (β = 0.39 and SIBDQ (β = 0.12, number of children impacted SWLS (β = 0.10, emotion-focused coping impacted SWLS (β = 0.11, dysfunctional coping impacted SWLS (β = -0.25. In an indirect path, economic status impacted dysfunctional coping (β = -0.26, dysfunctional coping impacted SIBDQ (β = -0.36. A model split by gender and disease activity showed that in active CD economic status impacted SIBDQ in men (β = 0.43 more than women (β = 0.26; emotional coping impacted SWLS in women (β = 0.36 more than men (β = 0.14.Gender differences in coping and the impacts of economic status and emotion-focused coping vary with activity of CD. Psychological treatment in the clinic setting might improve satisfaction with life and quality of life in CD patients.

  1. The application of computer image analysis in life sciences and environmental engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, R.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.; Raba, B.

    2014-04-01

    The main aim of the article was to present research on the application of computer image analysis in Life Science and Environmental Engineering. The authors used different methods of computer image analysis in developing of an innovative biotest in modern biomonitoring of water quality. Created tools were based on live organisms such as bioindicators Lemna minor L. and Hydra vulgaris Pallas as well as computer image analysis method in the assessment of negatives reactions during the exposition of the organisms to selected water toxicants. All of these methods belong to acute toxicity tests and are particularly essential in ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants. Developed bioassays can be used not only in scientific research but are also applicable in environmental engineering and agriculture in the study of adverse effects on water quality of various compounds used in agriculture and industry.

  2. Integrated risk assessment for the natomas basin (California) analysis of loss of life and emergency management for floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Hiel, L.A.; Bea, R.G.; Foster, H.; Tsioulou, A.; Arroyo, P.; Stallard, T.; Harris, L.

    2012-01-01

    This article assesses the risk to life for the Natomas Basin, a low-lying, rapidly urbanizing region in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California. Using an empirical method, the loss of life is determined for a flood (high water), seismic, and sunny-day levee breach scenario. The analysis

  3. Sensitivity analysis of the use of Life Cycle Impact Assessment methods: a case study on building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bueno, Cristiane; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Rossignolo, Joao Adriano

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to perform a sensitivity analysis of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) case study to understand if the use of different Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods may lead to different conclusions by decision makers and stakeholders. A complete LCA was applied to non...

  4. De-standardization of family-life trajectories of young adults: a cross-national comparison using sequence analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga, C.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a number of new methods based on sequence analysis to test hypotheses on the de-standardization of family-life trajectories in early adulthood, using Fertility and Family Survey data on 19 countries. Across cohorts, family-life trajectories of young adults have not become more

  5. Quality of Life and Psychosocial Adaptation to Chronic Illness and Disability: Preliminary Analysis of a Conceptual and Theoretical Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Malachy

    2005-01-01

    This article describes and presents an initial analysis of a quality-of-life?based model of psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability. This model, termed disability centrality, represents a conceptual and theoretical synthesis of several existing theories and models, drawn from the quality-of life, rehabilitation counseling, and…

  6. Can virtual reality exposure therapy gains be generalized to real life? A meta-analysis of studies applying behavioral assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Ijntema, H.; Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), patients are exposed to virtual environments that resemble feared real-life situations. The aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which VRET gains can be observed in real-life situations. We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical trials

  7. Emergy Analysis and Sustainability Efficiency Analysis of Different Crop-Based Biodiesel in Life Cycle Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Mazzi, Anna

    2013-01-01

    kinds of crop-based biodiesel including soybean-, rapeseed-, sunflower-, jatropha- and palm-based biodiesel production options are studied by emergy analysis; soybean-based scenario is recognized as the most sustainable scenario that should be chosen for further study in China. DEA method is used...

  8. [Typologies of Madrid's citizens (Spain) at the end-of-life: cluster analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gonçalves, Belén; Perea-Pérez, Bernardo; Labajo González, Elena; Albarrán Juan, Elena; Santiago-Sáez, Andrés

    2018-03-06

    To establish typologies within Madrid's citizens (Spain) with regard to end-of-life by cluster analysis. The SPAD 8 programme was implemented in a sample from a health care centre in the autonomous region of Madrid (Spain). A multiple correspondence analysis technique was used, followed by a cluster analysis to create a dendrogram. A cross-sectional study was made beforehand with the results of the questionnaire. Five clusters stand out. Cluster 1: a group who preferred not to answer numerous questions (5%). Cluster 2: in favour of receiving palliative care and euthanasia (40%). Cluster 3: would oppose assisted suicide and would not ask for spiritual assistance (15%). Cluster 4: would like to receive palliative care and assisted suicide (16%). Cluster 5: would oppose assisted suicide and would ask for spiritual assistance (24%). The following four clusters stood out. Clusters 2 and 4 would like to receive palliative care, euthanasia (2) and assisted suicide (4). Clusters 4 and 5 regularly practiced their faith and their family members did not receive palliative care. Clusters 3 and 5 would be opposed to euthanasia and assisted suicide in particular. Clusters 2, 4 and 5 had not completed an advance directive document (2, 4 and 5). Clusters 2 and 3 seldom practiced their faith. This study could be taken into consideration to improve the quality of end-of-life care choices. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Multiple Vehicle Fuel Pathways in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianduo Peng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Tsinghua University Life Cycle Analysis Model (TLCAM is applied to calculate the life cycle fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions for more than 20 vehicle fuel pathways in China. In addition to conventional gasoline and diesel, these include coal- and gas-based vehicle fuels, and electric vehicle (EV pathways. The results indicate the following. (1 China’s current dependence on coal and relative low-efficiency processes limits the potential for most alternative fuel pathways to decrease energy consumption and emissions; (2 Future low-carbon electricity pathways offer more obvious advantages, with coal-based pathways needing to adopt carbon dioxide capture and storage technology to compete; (3 A well-to-wheels analysis of the fossil energy consumption of vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG showed that they are comparable to conventional gasoline vehicles. However, importing rather than domestically producing LNG for vehicle use can decrease domestic GHG emissions by 35% and 31% compared with those of conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles, respectively; (4 The manufacturing and recovery of battery and vehicle in the EV analysis has significant impact on the overall ability of EVs to decrease fossil energy consumption and GHG emissions from ICEVs.

  10. Simplified life-cycle analysis of PV systems in buildings: present situation and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankl, P.; Masini, A.; Gamberale, M.; Toccaceli, D.

    1998-01-01

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems in buildings shows several advantages compared to conventional PV power plants. The main objectives of the present study are the quantitative evaluation of the benefits of building-integrated PV systems over their entire life-cycle and the identification of best solutions to maximise their energy efficiency and CO 2 mitigation potential. In order to achieve these objectives, a simplified life-cycle analysis (LCA) has been carried out. Firstly, a number of existing applications have been studied. Secondly, a parametric analysis of possible improvements in the balance-of-system (BOS) has been developed. Finally, the two steps have been combined with the analysis of crystalline silicon technologies. Results are reported in terms of several indicators: energy pay-back time, CO 2 yield and specific CO 2 emissions. The Indicators show that the integration of PV systems in buildings clearly increases the environmental benefits of present PV technology. These benefits will further increase with future PV technologies. Future optimised PV roof-integrated systems are expected to have an energy pay-back time of around 1-5 years (1 year with heat recovery) and to save during their lifetime more than 20 times the amount of CO 2 emitted during their manufacturing (34 times with heat recovery). (Author)

  11. Longitudinal multigroup invariance analysis of the satisfaction with food-related life scale in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Grunert, Klaus G; Lobos, Germán; Sepúlveda, José; Orellana, Ligia; Hueche, Clementina; Bonilla, Héctor

    2017-06-01

    This study examined longitudinal measurement invariance in the Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) scale using follow-up data from university students. We examined this measure of the SWFL in different groups of students, separated by various characteristics. Through non-probabilistic longitudinal sampling, 114 university students (65.8% female, mean age: 22.5) completed the SWFL questionnaire three times, over intervals of approximately one year. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine longitudinal measurement invariance. Two types of analysis were conducted: first, a longitudinal invariance by time, and second, a multigroup longitudinal invariance by sex, age, socio-economic status and place of residence during the study period. Results showed that the 3-item version of the SWFL exhibited strong longitudinal invariance (equal factor loadings and equal indicator intercepts). Longitudinal multigroup invariance analysis also showed that the 3-item version of the SWFL displays strong invariance by socio-economic status and place of residence during the study period over time. Nevertheless, it was only possible to demonstrate equivalence of the longitudinal factor structure among students of both sexes, and among those older and younger than 22 years. Generally, these findings suggest that the SWFL scale has satisfactory psychometric properties for longitudinal measurement invariance in university students with similar characteristics as the students that participated in this research. It is also possible to suggest that satisfaction with food-related life is associated with sex and age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Low temperature heat from natural gas. Life cycle analysis for efficient systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zogg, M.

    2000-01-01

    A life cycle analysis drawn up on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy shows that the combined cycle power plant + heat pump (GuD-WP) combination produces less greenhouse effect and makes only about half the contribution to summer smog formation as the operation of heat pumps with the power mix habitually used in Western Europe today. In the co-generation unit + heat pump (BHKW-WP) combination, the environmental impact shows the same values as in current West European power generation

  13. The process of life-cycle cost analysis on the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.Y.; Jacoboski, J.A.; Fisher, L.A.; Beirne, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Estimating Services Department of the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) is formalizing the process of life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) for the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The LCCA process is based on the concepts, principles, and guidelines described by applicable Department of Energy's (DOE) orders, pertinent published literature, and the National Bureau of Standards handbook 135. LCC analyses will be performed following a ten-step process on the FEMP at the earliest possible decision point to support the selection of the least-cost alternatives for achieving the FERMCO mission

  14. Interference fits and stress-corrosion failure. [aircraft parts fatigue life analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanagud, S.; Carter, A. E.

    1976-01-01

    It is pointed out that any proper design of interference fit fastener, interference fit bushings, or stress coining processes should consider both the stress-corrosion susceptibility and fatigue-life improvement together. Investigations leading to such a methodology are discussed. A service failure analysis of actual aircraft parts is considered along with the stress-corrosion susceptibility of cold-working interference fit bushings. The optimum design of the amount of interference is considered, giving attention to stress formulas and aspects of design methodology.

  15. Coal handling system structural analysis for modifications or plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufault, A.; Weider, F.; Doyle, P.

    1989-01-01

    One neglected aspect of plant modification or life extension is the extent to which previous projects may have affected the integrity of existing structures. During the course of a project to backfit fire protection facilities to existing coal handling systems, it was found that past modifications had added loads to existing coal handling structures which exceeded the available design margin. This paper describes the studies that discovered the original problem areas, as well as the detailed analysis and design considerations used to repair these structures

  16. Class I review of LOFT steam generator stress and fatigue life analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fors, R.M.; Silverman, S.

    1977-01-01

    Review of the LOFT steam generator stress and fatigue life analysis report is presented. Deficiencies were found which will require evaluation and in some areas reanalysis. The effects of these deficiencies upon the steam generator will include: to further reduce the allowable ΔP across the tubesheet for the abnormal design case of pressure on primary; and to reduce the allowable number of LOCE transients at some locations of the steam generator from the numbers listed in the stress report and to increase them at other locations

  17. Gauss-Vanicek Spectral Analysis of the Sepkoski Compendium: No New Life Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Omerbashich, M.

    2006-01-01

    New periods can emerge from data as a byproduct of incorrect processing or even the method applied. In one such recent instance, a new life cycle with a 62+-3 Myr period was reportedly found (about trend) in genus variations from the Sepkoski compendium, the world most complete fossil record. The approach that led to reporting this period was based on Fourier method of spectral analysis. I show here that no such period is found when the original data set is considered rigorously and processed...

  18. Life expectancy and health expenditure evolution in Eastern Europe-DiD and DEA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B; Vukovic, Mira; Fontanesi, John

    2016-08-01

    Exploration of long-term health expenditure and longevity trends across three major sub-regions of Eastern Europe since 1989. 24 countries were classified as EU 2004, CIS, or SEE. European Health for All Database (HFA-DB) 1989-2012 data were processed using difference-in-difference (DiD) and data envelopment analysis (DEA). The strongest expenditure growth was recorded in EU 2004 followed by SEE and the CIS. A surprisingly similar longevity increase was present in SEE and EU 2004. In 1989, countries that joined EU in 2004 were relatively inefficient in the number of life-years gained yet had a lower life expectancy than the SEE region and was only slightly higher than the CIS region (DEA). By 2012 the revenue spent was roughly linear to additional life-year expectancies. EU 2004 members were the best performers in terms of balanced longevity increase followed by health expenditure growth. The SEE economies' longevity gains were lagging slightly behind at a far lower cost. An extrapolated CIS expenditure to longevity increase ratio has the fastest-growing long-term promise.

  19. Life cycle cost analysis of single slope hybrid (PV/T) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shiv; Tiwari, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the life cycle cost analysis of the single slope passive and hybrid photovoltaic (PV/T) active solar stills, based on the annual performance at 0.05 m water depth. Effects of various parameters, namely interest rate, life of the system and the maintenance cost have been taken into account. The comparative cost of distilled water produced from passive solar still (Rs. 0.70/kg) is found to be less than hybrid (PV/T) active solar still (Rs. 1.93/kg) for 30 years life time of the systems. The payback periods of the passive and hybrid (PV/T) active solar still are estimated to be in the range of 1.1-6.2 years and 3.3-23.9 years, respectively, based on selling price of distilled water in the range of Rs. 10/kg to Rs. 2/kg. The energy payback time (EPBT) has been estimated as 2.9 and 4.7 years, respectively. (author)

  20. The impact of endometriosis upon quality of life: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Georgina; Jenkinson, Crispin; Kennedy, Stephen

    2004-06-01

    to explore and describe the impact of endometriosis upon quality of life. Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford. qualitative study. twenty-four women with a laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis. face to face, individual, in-depth interviews. analysis of the data revealed 15 descriptive categories. Pain, physical functioning, role performance, social functioning, emotional well-being, relationship with the medical profession, treatment, sexual intercourse, energy and vitality, employment and infertility were found to be a particular concern for women with endometriosis. Physical appearance, lack of control and powerlessness, feelings of social isolation and concerns that their daughters might develop endometriosis were new areas found to be negatively affected by the condition. the impact of endometriosis-associated symptoms upon quality of life is multidimensional and more complex than just negatively affecting psychosocial parameters. Conducting in-depth interviews to explore the subjective experiences of patients with endometriosis enabled the diverse areas of quality of life to be identified. Adopting a qualitative methodology is essential for item generation on disease specific health status questionnaires.

  1. Qualitative Analysis of Parental Observations on Quality of Life in Australian Children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nada; Epstein, Amy; Leonard, Helen; Davis, Elise; Reddihough, Dinah; Whitehouse, Andrew; Jacoby, Peter; Bourke, Jenny; Williams, Katrina; Downs, Jenny

    There are many challenges to health, functioning, and participation for children with Down syndrome; yet, the quality-of-life (QOL) domains important for this group have never been clearly articulated. This study investigated parental observations to identify QOL domains in children with Down syndrome and determined whether domains differed between children and adolescents. The sample comprised 17 families whose child with Down syndrome was aged 6 to 18 years. Primary caregivers took part in semistructured telephone interviews to explore aspects of their child's life that were satisfying or challenging. Qualitative thematic analysis was implemented using a grounded theory framework to identify domains. The coded data set was divided into 2 groups (childhood and adolescence) at 3 age cut points to observe whether differences existed between the coded domains and domain elements: (1) 6 to 11 years with 12 to 18 years; (2) 6 to 13 years with 14 to 18 years; and (3) 6 to 15 years with 16 to 18 years. Eleven domains were identified: physical health, behavior and emotion, personal value, communication, movement and physical activity, routines and predictability, independence and autonomy, social connectedness and relationships, variety of activities, nature and outdoors, and access to services. No differences in domains and domain elements were identified across childhood and adolescence. Our data form a preliminary framework from which to design investigations of the child's perspectives on life quality and suggest a range of necessary supports and services.

  2. A cross-national analysis of measurement invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Judd, Charles M

    2016-02-01

    Measurement invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was examined in probability samples of adults 50-79 years of age living in the United States, England, and Japan. Confirmatory factor analysis modeling was used to test for multigroup measurement invariance of a single-factor structure of the SWLS. Results support a single-factor structure of the SWLS across the 3 countries, with tests of measurement invariance of the SWLS supporting its configural invariance and metric invariance. These results suggest that the SWLS may be used as a single-factor measure of life satisfaction in the United States, England, and Japan, and that it is appropriate to compare correlates of the SWLS in middle-aged and older adults across these 3 countries. However, results provided evidence for only partial scalar invariance, with the intercept for SWLS Item 4 varying across countries. Cross-national comparisons of means revealed a lower mean at the latent variable level for the Japanese sample than for the other 2 samples. In addition, over and above the latent mean difference, the Japanese sample also manifested a significantly lower intercept on Item 4. Implications of the findings for research on cross-national comparisons of life satisfaction in European American and East Asian countries are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Evaluation of Service Life of Polystyrene in Tropical Marine Environment by Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To predict the service life of polystyrene (PS under an aggressive environment, the nondimensional expression Z was established from a data set of multiple properties of PS by principal component analysis (PCA. In this study, PS specimens were exposed to the tropical environment on Xisha Islands in China for two years. Chromatic aberration, gloss, tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength, and impact strength were tested to evaluate the aging behavior of PS. Based on different needs of industries, each of the multiple properties could be used to evaluate the service life of PS. However, selecting a single performance variation will inevitably hide some information about the entire aging process. Therefore, finding a comprehensive measure representing the overall aging performance of PS can be highly significant. Herein, PCA was applied to obtain a specific property (Z which can represent all properties of PS. Z of PS degradation showed a slight decrease for the initial two months of exposure after which it increased rapidly in the next eight months. Subsequently, a slower increase of Z value was observed. From the three different stages shown as Z value increases, three stages have been identified for PS service life.

  4. Statistical analysis of fatigue strain-life data for carbon and low-alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisler, J.; Chopra, O.K.; Shack, W.J.

    1994-08-01

    The existing fatigue strain vs. life (S-N) data, foreign and domestic, for carbon and low-alloy steels used in the construction of nuclear power plant components have been compiled and categorized according to material, loading, and environmental conditions. A statistical model has been developed for estimating the effects of the various test conditions on fatigue life. The results of a rigorous statistical analysis have been used to estimate the probability of initiating a fatigue crack. Data in the literature were reviewed to evaluate the effects of size, geometry, and surface finish of a component on its fatigue life. The fatigue S-N curves for components have been determined by applying design margins for size, geometry, and surface finish to crack initiation curves estimated from the model. The significance of the effect of environment on the current Code design curve and on the proposed interim design curves for carbon and low-alloy steels presented in NUREG/CR-5999 is discussed

  5. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, M., E-mail: montse.meneses@uab.cat [Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Systems Engineering and Telecomunication Department, ESE, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Torres, C.M.; Castells, F. [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Environmental Analysis and Management Group, AGA, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  6. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses, M.; Torres, C.M.; Castells, F.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  7. Economic downturns during the life-course and late-life health: an analysis of 11 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

    2016-10-01

    Research has shown that individual socio-economic circumstances throughout life affect health in older ages. However, little attention has been paid to the broad economic context affecting individual's life-chances. This paper examines whether economic downturns experienced during young and mid-adulthood have long-run effects on physical health. We exploit data on economic fluctuations in the period 1945-2010 in 11 European countries, linked to longitudinal data from three waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. We estimate a country fixed effect model assessing whether downturns experienced at 5-year intervals between ages 25 and 54 are associated with levels and onset of new limitations with Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) in older age (55-80). Experiencing an economic downturn at ages 45-59 is associated with increased risk of having at least one disability limitation in later-life (odds ratio [OR] for ADL = 1.66, 95% CI [Confidence Interval] 1.24, 2.22; OR for IADL = 1.46, 95% CI 1.10, 1.94). Economic downturns at ages 40-44 and 45-49 also increase the risk of a new functional limitation in later-life (OR for IADL ages 40-44 = 1.20, 95% CI 1.03, 1.40; OR for IADL ages 45-49 = 1.44, CI 1.10-1.88). Economic downturns experienced around these ages are also associated with significantly greater risks of smoking and excessive alcohol consumption as well as lower incomes in older age. Exposure to an economic downturn at ages 40-49 is associated with poorer health in older ages, possibly by increasing risk of unhealthy behaviours and low incomes persisting into older age. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of the appropriate use of pavement surface history in the KDOT life-cycle analysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate KDOTs pavement surfacing history and recommend : whether or not the departments life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) procedure should include a surfacing history : component, and, if so, how the LC...

  9. Five years after the accident, whiplash casualties still have poorer quality of life in the physical domain than other mildly injured casualties: analysis of the ESPARR cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Charlène; Hours, Martine; Charnay, Pierrette; Chossegros, Laetitia; Tardy, Hélène

    2016-01-05

    This study aims to compare health status and quality of life five years after a road accident between casualties with whiplash versus other mild injuries, to compare evolution of quality of life at 1 and 5 years after the accident, and to explore the relation between initial injury (whiplash vs. other) and quality of life. The study used data from the ESPARR cohort (a representative cohort of road accident casualties) and included 167 casualties with "pure" whiplash and a population of 185 casualties with other mild injuries (MAIS-1). All subjects with lesions classified as cervical contusion (AIS code 310402) or neck sprain (AIS code 640278) were considered as whiplash casualties. Diagnosis was made by physicians, at the outset of hospital care, based on interview, clinical findings and X-ray. Whiplash injuries were then classified following the Quebec classification (grades 1 and 2). Quality of life was assessed on the WHOQoL-Bref questionnaire. Correlations between explanatory variables and quality of life were explored by Poisson regression and variance analysis. Between 1 and 5 years, global QoL improved for both whiplash and non-whiplash casualties; but, considering the two whiplash groups separately, improvement in grade 2 was much less than in grade 1. At 5 years, grade-2 whiplash casualties were more dissatisfied with their health (39.4%; p whiplash (24.3%) or grade-1 whiplash casualties (27.0%). Deteriorated quality of life in the mental, social and environmental domains was mainly related to psychological and socioeconomic factors for both whiplash and other mildly injured road-accident casualties. While PTSD was a major factor for the physical domain, whiplash remained a predictive factor after adjustment on PTSD; unsatisfactory health at 5 years, with deteriorated quality of life in the physical domain, was observed specifically in the whiplash group, pain playing a predominant intermediate role. Deteriorated quality of life in the physical domain

  10. Substance flow analysis and environmental releases of PBDEs in life cycle of automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghyun; Jang, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2017-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants, have been widely used in many applications in industry such as automobiles, textiles, and electronics. This study focused on a quantitative substance flow analysis (SFA) of PBDEs in automobiles in order to identify their flow by life cycle and treatment pathways of PBDEs-containing materials in end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea. In addition, this study has estimated environmental releases of PBDEs in automobiles by life cycle in Korea. During this study, PBDEs were analyzed for the samples collected from several ELVs treatment facilities using X-ray fluorescence and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. The system boundary for SFA of PBDEs ranged from manufacturing/trade to disposal stage of automobiles by life cycle. Based on the result of the SFA, it was found that the amount of PBDEs in automobiles were the highest in use stage (7748ton/year), followed by production stage (1743ton/year) in 2014. In disposal stage, automobile shredded residues (ASR) and seat fabrics were the main components with relatively high levels of PBDEs in ELVs. The major treatment methods of such components included incineration (84%), energy recovery (9%), and landfilling (6%). This research indicates that PBDEs were emitted the highest amount from interior components during the use stage of automobiles, followed by recycling processes such as dismantling and shredding. This study suggests that PBDEs in ASR and seat fabrics should be properly managed to prevent the widespread dispersion in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Health for Life in Primary Schools Program, United Kingdom: a Program Impact Pathways (PIP) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Sandra; Donovan, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The Health for Life in Primary Schools Program helps schools promote healthy, active lifestyles through curriculum support related to healthy eating and cooking, growing food, physical activity, and family involvement. These interrelated strands are shown to have the greatest impact on healthy lifestyles, and the Health for Life in Primary Schools Program seeks to make these not one-off lessons, but a sustainable part of a school's culture. Each school involved with the program develops its own Action Plan in order to achieve program goals. Each school is assessed by an audit of facilities, skills, and curriculum at baseline and follow-up, and the pupils complete an on-line questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Other impact measures are individual to the school and relate to its own Action Plan. Health for Life in Primary Schools sought to assess the cohesiveness and strength of the program using the Program Impact Pathways (PIP) model. The program was deconstructed to its individual parts, with each part assessed in terms of its contribution to the overall program and constraints upon its effectiveness. The PIP analysis helped clarify the logic and structure of the program, whether its objectives can be achieved, the Critical Quality Control Points (CCPs), and the impact measures required to demonstrate success. The core indicators identified for impact evaluation were knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of pupils around healthy eating cooking, growing food, and physical activity. The PIP model confirmed that the Health for Life in Primary Schools Program is well structured and is well suited to achieve its goals. The findings were presented at the Healthy Lifestyles Program Evaluation Workshop held in Granada, Spain, 13-14 September 2013, under the auspices of the Mondelēz International Foundation.

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE BEEF LIFE CYCLE OF CHICHÍ PADRÓN SLAUGHTERHOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulexis Meneses Linares

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work combines the methodologies Analysis of the Life Cycle and Analysis of Hazards and Critical Control Points. In addition, we incorporate the category of impact innocuousness food assisted by the software Sima Pro 7.3 with the ReCipe method. We take as case of study the obtaining of beef bones in the slaughterhouse Chichí Padrón of Santa Clara city. As a result, there are critical points related with the innocuousness bovine livestock, the remove of leather and storage and the category of eutrophication of the waters as the most affected, which is why some minimization techniques of liquid residuals and a system of treatment of these effluents are settled down, this last one is economically analyzed demonstrating its feasibility.

  13. Longitudinal multigroup invariance analysis of the satisfaction with food-related life scale in university students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo

    2017-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal measurement invariance in the Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) scale using follow-up data from university students. We examined this measure of the SWFL in different groups of students, separated by various characteristics. Through non......-probabilistic longitudinal sampling, 114 university students (65.8% female, mean age: 22.5) completed the SWFL questionnaire three times, over intervals of approximately one year. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine longitudinal measurement invariance. Two types of analysis were conducted: first, a longitudinal...... students of both sexes, and among those older and younger than 22 years. Generally, these findings suggest that the SWFL scale has satisfactory psychometric properties for longitudinal measurement invariance in university students with similar characteristics as the students that participated...

  14. Life cycle analysis on carbon emissions from power generation – The nuclear energy example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian, Victor; Chou, S.K.; Su, Bin; Bauly, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper discusses about a methodology on the life cycle analysis of power generation using nuclear as an example. • The methodology encompasses generic system, input–output, and boundaries definitions. • The boundaries facilitate the use of Kaya Identity and decomposition technique to identify carbon emission streams. - Abstract: A common value of carbon emission factor, t-CO 2 /GWh, in nuclear power generation reported in the literature varies by more than a factor of 100. Such a variation suggests a margin of uncertainty and reliability. In this study, we employ a bottom-up approach to better define the system, its input and output, and boundaries. This approach offers improved granularity at the process level and consistency in the results. Based on this approach, we have developed a methodology to enable comparison of carbon emissions from nuclear power generation. The proposed methodology employs the principle of energy balance on a defined power generation system. The resulting system boundary facilitates the use of the “Kaya Identity” and the decomposition technique to identify the carbon emission streams. Using nuclear power as a case study, we obtained a carbon emission factor of 22.80 t-CO 2 /GWh, which falls to within 2.5% of the median of globally reported LCA results. We demonstrate that the resulting methodology could be used as a generic tool for life cycle analysis of carbon emissions from other power generation technologies and systems

  15. Life support technology investment strategies for flight programs: An application of decision analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlater, Nelson J.; Simonds, Charles H.; Ballin, Mark G.

    1993-01-01

    Applied research and technology development (R&TD) is often characterized by uncertainty, risk, and significant delays before tangible returns are obtained. Given the increased awareness of limitations in resources, effective R&TD today needs a method for up-front assessment of competing technologies to help guide technology investment decisions. Such an assessment approach must account for uncertainties in system performance parameters, mission requirements and architectures, and internal and external events influencing a development program. The methodology known as decision analysis has the potential to address these issues. It was evaluated by performing a case study assessment of alternative carbon dioxide removal technologies for NASA's proposed First Lunar Outpost program. An approach was developed that accounts for the uncertainties in each technology's cost and performance parameters as well as programmatic uncertainties such as mission architecture. Life cycle cost savings relative to a baseline, adjusted for the cost of money, was used as a figure of merit to evaluate each of the alternative carbon dioxide removal technology candidates. The methodology was found to provide a consistent decision-making strategy for development of new life support technology. The case study results provided insight that was not possible from more traditional analysis approaches.

  16. Comparative life-cycle cost analysis for low-level mixed waste remediation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.A.; White, T.P.; Kloeber, J.M.; Toland, R.J.; Cain, J.P.; Buitrago, D.Y.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to develop a generic, life-cycle cost model for evaluating low-level, mixed waste remediation alternatives, and (2) to apply the model specifically, to estimate remediation costs for a site similar to the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, OH. Life-cycle costs for vitrification, cementation, and dry removal process technologies are estimated. Since vitrification is in a conceptual phase, computer simulation is used to help characterize the support infrastructure of a large scale vitrification plant. Cost estimating relationships obtained from the simulation data, previous cost estimates, available process data, engineering judgment, and expert opinion all provide input to an Excel based spreadsheet for generating cash flow streams. Crystal Ball, an Excel add-on, was used for discounting cash flows for net present value analysis. The resulting LCC data was then analyzed using multi-attribute decision analysis techniques with cost and remediation time as criteria. The analytical framework presented allows alternatives to be evaluated in the context of budgetary, social, and political considerations. In general, the longer the remediation takes, the lower the net present value of the process. This is true because of the time value of money and large percentage of the costs attributed to storage or disposal

  17. Life cycle cost analysis of commercial buildings with energy efficient approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima N. Kale

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In any construction project, cost effectiveness plays a crucial role. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC analysis provides a method of determining entire cost of a structure over its expected life along with operational and maintenance cost. LCC can be improved by adopting alternative modern techniques without much alteration in the building. LCC effectiveness can be calculated at various stages of entire span of the building. Moreover this provides decision makers with the financial information necessary for maintaining, improving, and constructing facilities. Financial benefits associated with energy use can also be calculated using LCC analysis. In the present work, case study of two educational buildings has been considered. The LCC of these buildings has been calculated with existing condition and with proposed energy efficient approach (EEA using net present value method. A solar panel having minimum capacity as well as solar panel with desired capacity as per the requirements of the building has been suggested. The comparison of LCC of existing structure with proposed solar panel system shows that 4% of cost can be reduced in case of minimum capacity solar panel and 54% cost can be reduced for desired capacity solar panel system, along with other added advantages of solar energy.

  18. Analysis of the extension and reduction method of qualified life used in equipment with ambiental qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano R, M.L. .e -mail: mlserrano@cnsns.gob.mx

    2005-01-01

    With the purpose of reducing costs of acquisition, maintenance, design, hour-man, dose, production, etc. or by changes in the temperature of service, diverse Nuclear Plants (NP) in the world have been carried out extensions and reductions of life of equipment and/or components related with the safety. The used methods are mainly tests type on equipment or component aged quickly, tests type on equipment or component aged naturally and use of the Arrhenius model with monitoring of temperatures in place. The present article carries out an analysis of the Arrhenius model with monitoring of temperatures in place, which is presented in two variants, equation (1) and (2), since it is the but used by the NP with extension purposes and reduction of qualified life. As back information, it was made one search of investigations, applied to diverse fields of the science that try about the reliability of the results provided by Arrhenius for the aging case. The results of the analysis indicate: I) that this method make uncertainties in some intervals of temperature and 2) which of the two variants it provides data more reliable. (Author)

  19. Laser cutting of various materials: Kerf width size analysis and life cycle assessment of cutting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shaukat, Mian Mobeen; Ashraf, Farhan

    2017-08-01

    Laser cutting of various materials including Ti-6Al-4V alloy, steel 304, Inconel 625, and alumina is carried out to assess the kerf width size variation along the cut section. The life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impact of the laser cutting in terms of the material waste during the cutting process. The kerf width size is formulated and predicted using the lump parameter analysis and it is measured from the experiments. The influence of laser output power and laser cutting speed on the kerf width size variation is analyzed using the analytical tools including scanning electron and optical microscopes. In the experiments, high pressure nitrogen assisting gas is used to prevent oxidation reactions in the cutting section. It is found that the kerf width size predicted from the lump parameter analysis agrees well with the experimental data. The kerf width size variation increases with increasing laser output power. However, this behavior reverses with increasing laser cutting speed. The life cycle assessment reveals that material selection for laser cutting is critical for the environmental protection point of view. Inconel 625 contributes the most to the environmental damages; however, recycling of the waste of the laser cutting reduces this contribution.

  20. Life Cycle Inventory Analysis for a Small-Scale Trawl Fishery in Sendai Bay, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhito Watanabe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A reduced environmental burden, while maintaining high quality and low cost, has become an important factor for achieving sustainability in the fisheries sector. The authors performed life cycle inventory (LCI analysis targeting the fish production for a small-scale trawl fishery including small trawlers operating in Sendai Bay, Japan. The average annual cumulative CO2 emissions for the small trawlers were 4.7 ton-CO2/ton-product and 8.3 ton-CO2/million Japanese yen (JPN. Total fuel consumption contributed to 97% of the global warming potential. The range of variation in the basic unit of CO2 for each small trawler was also elucidated. Energy conservation through lower fuel consumption is shown to be an effective measure for reducing CO2 in a small trawler fishery. Moreover, the authors examined the system boundary, the determination of the functional unit, and the allocation method of applying LCI analysis to fisheries. Finally, the economy and environment of small trawler fisheries are discussed as important factors for sustainable fisheries, and the life cycle approach is applied to a new fishery type in Japan.

  1. Life cycle cost estimation and systems analysis of Waste Management Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.; Feizollahi, F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents general conclusions from application of a system cost analysis method developed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Waste Management Division (WM), Waste Management Facilities Costs Information (WMFCI) program. The WMFCI method has been used to assess the DOE complex-wide management of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. The Idaho Engineering Laboratory, along with its subcontractor Morrison Knudsen Corporation, has been responsible for developing and applying the WMFCI cost analysis method. The cost analyses are based on system planning level life-cycle costs. The costs for life-cycle waste management activities estimated by WMFCI range from bench-scale testing and developmental work needed to design and construct a facility, facility permitting and startup, operation and maintenance, to the final decontamination, decommissioning, and closure of the facility. For DOE complex-wide assessments, cost estimates have been developed at the treatment, storage, and disposal module level and rolled up for each DOE installation. Discussions include conclusions reached by studies covering complex-wide consolidation of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, system cost modeling, system costs sensitivity, system cost optimization, and the integration of WM waste with the environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning secondary wastes

  2. An approach to prospective consequential life cycle assessment and net energy analysis of distributed electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Christopher; Gilbert, Paul; Raugei, Marco; Mander, Sarah; Leccisi, Enrica

    2017-01-01

    Increasing distributed renewable electricity generation is one of a number of technology pathways available to policy makers to meet environmental and other sustainability goals. Determining the efficacy of such a pathway for a national electricity system implies evaluating whole system change in future scenarios. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and net energy analysis (NEA) are two methodologies suitable for prospective and consequential analysis of energy performance and associated impacts. This paper discusses the benefits and limitations of prospective and consequential LCA and NEA analysis of distributed generation. It concludes that a combined LCA and NEA approach is a valuable tool for decision makers if a number of recommendations are addressed. Static and dynamic temporal allocation are both needed for a fair comparison of distributed renewables with thermal power stations to account for their different impact profiles over time. The trade-offs between comprehensiveness and uncertainty in consequential analysis should be acknowledged, with system boundary expansion and system simulation models limited to those clearly justified by the research goal. The results of this approach are explorative, rather than for accounting purposes; this interpretive remit, and the assumptions in scenarios and system models on which results are contingent, must be clear to end users. - Highlights: • A common LCA and NEA framework for prospective, consequential analysis is discussed. • Approach to combined LCA and NEA of distributed generation scenarios is proposed. • Static and dynamic temporal allocation needed to assess distributed generation uptake.

  3. Functional Status, Quality of Life, and Costs Associated With Fibromyalgia Subgroups: A Latent Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Juan V; Forero, Carlos G; Cerdà-Lafont, Marta; Peñarrubia-María, María Teresa; Fernández-Vergel, Rita; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Ruíz, José M; Rozadilla-Sacanell, Antoni; Sirvent-Alierta, Elena; Santo-Panero, Pilar; García-Campayo, Javier; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Pérez-Aranda, Adrián; Rubio-Valera, María

    2016-10-01

    Although fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is considered a heterogeneous condition, there is no generally accepted subgroup typology. We used hierarchical cluster analysis and latent profile analysis to replicate Giesecke's classification in Spanish FM patients. The second aim was to examine whether the subgroups differed in sociodemographic characteristics, functional status, quality of life, and in direct and indirect costs. A total of 160 FM patients completed the following measures for cluster derivation: the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, the Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Control over Pain subscale. Pain threshold was measured with a sphygmomanometer. In addition, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised, the EuroQoL-5D-3L, and the Client Service Receipt Inventory were administered for cluster validation. Two distinct clusters were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis ("hypersensitive" group, 69.8% and "functional" group, 30.2%). In contrast, the latent profile analysis goodness-of-fit indices supported the existence of 3 FM patient profiles: (1) a "functional" profile (28.1%) defined as moderate tenderness, distress, and pain catastrophizing; (2) a "dysfunctional" profile (45.6%) defined by elevated tenderness, distress, and pain catastrophizing; and (3) a "highly dysfunctional and distressed" profile (26.3%) characterized by elevated tenderness and extremely high distress and catastrophizing. We did not find significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics between the 2 clusters or among the 3 profiles. The functional profile was associated with less impairment, greater quality of life, and lower health care costs. We identified 3 distinct profiles which accounted for the heterogeneity of FM patients. Our findings might help to design tailored interventions for FM patients.

  4. Canonical integration and analysis of periodic maps using non-standard analysis and life methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, E.; Berz, M.

    1988-06-01

    We describe a method and a way of thinking which is ideally suited for the study of systems represented by canonical integrators. Starting with the continuous description provided by the Hamiltonians, we replace it by a succession of preferably canonical maps. The power series representation of these maps can be extracted with a computer implementation of the tools of Non-Standard Analysis and analyzed by the same tools. For a nearly integrable system, we can define a Floquet ring in a way consistent with our needs. Using the finite time maps, the Floquet ring is defined only at the locations s/sub i/ where one perturbs or observes the phase space. At most the total number of locations is equal to the total number of steps of our integrator. We can also produce pseudo-Hamiltonians which describe the motion induced by these maps. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Team-Based Models for End-of-Life Care: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background End of life refers to the period when people are living with advanced illness that will not stabilize and from which they will not recover and will eventually die. It is not limited to the period immediately before death. Multiple services are required to support people and their families during this time period. The model of care used to deliver these services can affect the quality of the care they receive. Objectives Our objective was to determine whether an optimal team-based model of care exists for service delivery at end of life. In systematically reviewing such models, we considered their core components: team membership, services offered, modes of patient contact, and setting. Data Sources A literature search was performed on October 14, 2013, using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and EBM Reviews, for studies published from January 1, 2000, to October 14, 2013. Review Methods Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and full-text articles were obtained that met the inclusion criteria. Studies were included if they evaluated a team model of care compared with usual care in an end-of-life adult population. A team was defined as having at least 2 health care disciplines represented. Studies were limited to English publications. A meta-analysis was completed to obtain pooled effect estimates where data permitted. The GRADE quality of the evidence was evaluated. Results Our literature search located 10 randomized controlled trials which, among them, evaluated the following 6 team-based models of care: hospital, direct contact home, direct contact home, indirect contact comprehensive, indirect contact comprehensive, direct contact comprehensive, direct, and early contact Direct contact is when team members see the patient; indirect contact is when they advise another health care practitioner (e.g., a family doctor) who sees

  6. Mobility impairment, social engagement, and life satisfaction among the older population in China: a structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linna; Loo, Becky P Y

    2017-05-01

    Revealing the relationship between mobility impairment and life satisfaction can help to propose effective interventions to secure mobility and life satisfaction. However, the relationship remains unclear and lacks quantitative evidence in China. This study therefore assesses the association of mobility impairment, social engagement, and life satisfaction among the older population in China. Based on the sample of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey database in 2013, a structural equation modeling is established. The sample size is 4245 with 55.9% with mobility impairment. The model shows that the length of suffering from disability is significantly related to mobility impairment (β = 0.058, p life satisfaction (β = -0.311, p life satisfaction (β = 0.211, p life satisfaction partly because they usually participate less in social activities. Different strategies are suggested to be adopted to improve the life satisfaction of the older population from the aspects of promoting mobility and social engagement, including improving the design of transport facilitates, providing assistive facilities for the seniors with severe mobility impairment, promoting the accessibility of community leisure and healthcare services, and constructing more community senior activity centers.

  7. Inter-individual inequality in BMI: An analysis of Indonesian Family Life Surveys (1993–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Vaezghasemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Widening inequalities in mean Body Mass Index (BMI between social and economic groups are well documented. However, whether changes in mean BMI are followed by changes in dispersion (or variance and whether these inequalities are also occurring within social groups or across individuals remain understudied. In addition, a substantial body of literature exists on the global increase in mean BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity. However, whether this weight gain is shared proportionately across the whole spectrum of BMI distribution, also remains understudied. We examined changes in the distribution of BMI at the population level over time to understand how changes in the dispersion reflect between-group compared to within-group inequalities in weight gain. Moreover, we investigated the entire distribution of BMI to determine in which percentiles the most weight gain is occurring over time. Utilizing four waves (from 1993 to 2007 of Indonesian Family Life Surveys (IFLS, we estimated changes in the mean and the variance of BMI over time and across various socioeconomic groups based on education and households’ expenditure per capita in 53,648 men and women aged 20–50 years. An increase in mean and standard deviation was observed among men (by 4.3% and 25%, respectively and women (by 7.3% and 20%, respectively over time. Quantile-Quantile plots showed that higher percentiles had greater increases in BMI compared to the segment of the population at lower percentiles. While between socioeconomic group differences decreased over time, within-group differences increased and were more prominent among individuals with poor education and lower per capita expenditures. Population changes in BMI cannot be fully described by average trends or single parameters such as the mean BMI. Moreover, greater increases in within-group dispersion compared with between-group differences imply that growing inequalities are not merely driven by these

  8. Regional Variation of Cost of Care in the Last 12 Months of Life in Switzerland: Small-area Analysis Using Insurance Claims Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Luta, Xhyljeta; Maessen, Maud; Stuck, Andreas E; Berlin, Claudia; Schmidlin, Kurt; Reich, Oliver; von Wyl, Viktor; Goodman, David C; Egger, Matthias; Zwahlen, Marcel; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M

    2017-02-01

    Health care spending increases sharply at the end of life. Little is known about variation of cost of end of life care between regions and the drivers of such variation. We studied small-area patterns of cost of care in the last year of life in Switzerland. We used mandatory health insurance claims data of individuals who died between 2008 and 2010 to derive cost of care. We used multilevel regression models to estimate differences in costs across 564 regions of place of residence, nested within 71 hospital service areas. We examined to what extent variation was explained by characteristics of individuals and regions, including measures of health care supply. The study population consisted of 113,277 individuals. The mean cost of care during last year of life was 32.5k (thousand) Swiss Francs per person (SD=33.2k). Cost differed substantially between regions after adjustment for patient age, sex, and cause of death. Variance was reduced by 52%-95% when we added individual and regional characteristics, with a strong effect of language region. Measures of supply of care did not show associations with costs. Remaining between and within hospital service area variations were most pronounced for older females and least for younger individuals. In Switzerland, small-area analysis revealed variation of cost of care during the last year of life according to linguistic regions and unexplained regional differences for older women. Cultural factors contribute to the delivery and utilization of health care during the last months of life and should be considered by policy makers.

  9. Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Vine-Growing Combining Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Costing and Multicriterial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Falcone

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The wine sector is going through a significant evolution dealing with the challenges of competition issues in international markets and with necessary commitments to sustainability improvement. In the wine supply chain, the agricultural phase represents a potential source of pollution and costs. From the farmers’ point of view, these contexts require them to be more attentive and find a compromise among environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs linked to farming practices. This paper aims to make a sustainability assessment of different wine-growing scenarios located in Calabria (Southern Italy that combines conflicting insights, i.e., environmental and economic ones, by applying Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and Life Cycle Costing (LCC to identify the main hotspots and select the alternative scenarios closest to the ideal solution through the VIKOR multicriteria method. In particular, the latter allowed us to obtain synthetic indices for a two-dimensional sustainability assessment. Conventional practices associated to the espalier training system represent the best compromise from both environmental and economic points of view, due to the higher yield per hectare. The choices regarding Functional Unit (FU and indicators were shown to have a high influence on results.

  10. Duplex Alu Screening for Degraded DNA of Skeletal Human Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Haß

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The human-specific Alu elements, belonging to the class of Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs, have been shown to be a powerful tool for population genetic studies. An earlier study in this department showed that it was possible to analyze Alu presence/absence in 3000-year-old skeletal human remains from the Bronze Age Lichtenstein cave in Lower Saxony, Germany. We developed duplex Alu screening PCRs with flanking primers for two Alu elements, each combined with a single internal Alu primer. By adding an internal primer, the approximately 400–500 bp presence signals of Alu elements can be detected within a range of less than 200 bp. Thus, our PCR approach is suited for highly fragmented ancient DNA samples, whereas NGS analyses frequently are unable to handle repetitive elements. With this analysis system, we examined remains of 12 individuals from the Lichtenstein cave with different degrees of DNA degradation. The duplex PCRs showed fully informative amplification results for all of the chosen Alu loci in eight of the 12 samples. Our analysis system showed that Alu presence/absence analysis is possible in samples with different degrees of DNA degradation and it reduces the amount of valuable skeletal material needed by a factor of four, as compared with a singleplex approach.

  11. A contribution to analysis of thermal processes and management life in oil-immersed transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najdenkoski, Krste I.

    2003-01-01

    The temperature has a great significance for the transformer, not only when defining its power, but also during exploitation. The increased heating causes deterioration of the insulation characteristics, first of all to the windings. Hot spot temperature, along with ambient conditions (temperature, sun radiation, moisture) where the transformer is installed has decisive effects on the loss of life of transformer, as well as to its loading. In great number of research projects have been defined the temperature models for a transformer which today are entered in the relevant international standards. The temperature model is a mathematical formulation for the thermal processes in the transformer and by means of which most often are determined: the top and bottom oil temperature rise, hot spot temperature, overloading, loss of life of transformer etc. In order to make the thermal analysis more realistic and more accurate, it is necessary to define a temperature model on the basis of recent research work in this area. So-called alternative temperature model has been made and also a computer program for temperature calculations has been developed. By this program can be determined the hot spot temperature, top and bottom oil temperature, as well as,the temperature in the oil duct, and additionally a calculation of the loss of life of transformer can be made. This program provides sufficient information to manage the loading of the transformer, and it can also be a basis for dynamic management with transformer operation, and it can be a part of SCADA system for control of the operation of a transformer substation. The use of an adequate temperature model can make possible the transformer to operate at higher operating temperature, and this will mean reduction of the dimensions of transformer tank as well as the volume of the cooling medium in order to provide the required power of the transformer. For research purposes of this paper, a design has been done and then

  12. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, M; Torres, C M; Castells, F

    2016-08-15

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  13. Quality of Life and Aesthetic Plastic Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Rodrigo; Blaya, Carolina; Tenório, Juliana L C; Saltz, Renato; Ely, Pedro B; Ferrão, Ygor A

    2016-09-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome in plastic surgery. However, authors use different scales to address this subject, making it difficult to compare the outcomes. To address this discrepancy, the aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and a random effect meta-analysis. The search was made in two electronic databases (LILACS and PUBMED) using Mesh and non-Mesh terms related to aesthetic plastic surgery and QoL. We performed qualitative and quantitative analyses of the gathered data. We calculated a random effect meta-analysis with Der Simonian and Laird as variance estimator to compare pre- and postoperative QoL standardized mean difference. To check if there is difference between aesthetic surgeries, we compared reduction mammoplasty to other aesthetic surgeries. Of 1,715 identified, 20 studies were included in the qualitative analysis and 16 went through quantitative analysis. The random effect of all aesthetic surgeries shows that QoL improved after surgery. Reduction mammoplasty has improved QoL more than other procedures in social functioning and physical functioning domains. Aesthetic plastic surgery increases QoL. Reduction mammoplasty seems to have better improvement compared with other aesthetic surgeries.

  14. Living well to the end: A phenomenological analysis of life in extra care housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rachel L; West, Karen; Hagger, Barbara; Holland, Carol A

    2016-01-01

    To understand older adults' experiences of moving into extra care housing which offers enrichment activities alongside social and healthcare support. A longitudinal study was conducted which adopted a phenomenological approach to data generation and analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the first 18 months of living in extra care housing. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used because its commitment to idiography enabled an in-depth analysis of the subjective lived experience of moving into extra care housing. Themes generated inductively were examined against an existential-phenomenological theory of well-being. Learning to live in an extra care community showed negotiating new relationships was not straightforward; maintaining friendships outside the community became more difficult as capacity declined. In springboard for opportunity/confinement, living in extra care provided new opportunities for social engagement and a restored sense of self. Over time horizons began to shrink as incapacities grew. Seeking care illustrated reticence to seek care, due to embarrassment and a sense of duty to one's partner. Becoming aged presented an ontological challenge. Nevertheless, some showed a readiness for death, a sense of homecoming. An authentic later life was possible but residents required emotional and social support to live through the transition and challenges of becoming aged. Enhancement activities boosted residents' quality of life but the range of activities could be extended to cater better for quieter, smaller scale events within the community; volunteer activity facilitators could be used here. Peer mentoring may help build new relationships and opportunities for interactive stimulation. Acknowledging the importance of feeling-empathic imagination-in caregiving may help staff and residents relate better to each other, thus helping individuals to become ontologically secure and live well to the end.

  15. Living well to the end: A phenomenological analysis of life in extra care housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Shaw

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To understand older adults’ experiences of moving into extra care housing which offers enrichment activities alongside social and healthcare support. Design: A longitudinal study was conducted which adopted a phenomenological approach to data generation and analysis. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the first 18 months of living in extra care housing. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used because its commitment to idiography enabled an in-depth analysis of the subjective lived experience of moving into extra care housing. Themes generated inductively were examined against an existential–phenomenological theory of well-being. Results: Learning to live in an extra care community showed negotiating new relationships was not straightforward; maintaining friendships outside the community became more difficult as capacity declined. In springboard for opportunity/confinement, living in extra care provided new opportunities for social engagement and a restored sense of self. Over time horizons began to shrink as incapacities grew. Seeking care illustrated reticence to seek care, due to embarrassment and a sense of duty to one's partner. Becoming aged presented an ontological challenge. Nevertheless, some showed a readiness for death, a sense of homecoming. Conclusions: An authentic later life was possible but residents required emotional and social support to live through the transition and challenges of becoming aged. Enhancement activities boosted residents’ quality of life but the range of activities could be extended to cater better for quieter, smaller scale events within the community; volunteer activity facilitators could be used here. Peer mentoring may help build new relationships and opportunities for interactive stimulation. Acknowledging the importance of feeling—empathic imagination—in caregiving may help staff and residents relate better to each other, thus helping individuals to

  16. Analysis of underlying and multiple-cause mortality data: the life table methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, M A

    1987-02-01

    The stochastic compartment model concepts are employed to analyse and construct complete and abbreviated total mortality life tables, multiple-decrement life tables for a disease, under the underlying and pattern-of-failure definitions of mortality risk, cause-elimination life tables, cause-elimination effects on saved population through the gain in life expectancy as a consequence of eliminating the mortality risk, cause-delay life tables designed to translate the clinically observed increase in survival time as the population gain in life expectancy that would occur if a treatment protocol was made available to the general population and life tables for disease dependency in multiple-cause data.

  17. Postmortem Scavenging of Human Remains by Domestic Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Suntirukpong, M.D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crime scene investigators, forensic medicine doctors and pathologists, and forensic anthropologists frequently encounter postmortem scavenging of human remains by household pets. Case presentation: The authors present a case report of a partially skeletonized adult male found dead after more than three months in his apartment in Thailand. The body was in an advanced stage of decomposition with nearly complete skeletonization of the head, neck, hands, and feet. The presence of maggots and necrophagous (flesh eating beetles on the body confirmed that insects had consumed much of the soft tissues. Examination of the hand and foot bones revealed canine tooth puncture marks. Evidence of chewing indicated that one or more of the decedent’s three house cats had fed on the body after death. Recognizing and identifying carnivore and rodent activity on the soft flesh and bones of human remains is important in interpreting and reconstructing postmortem damage. Thorough analysis may help explain why skeletal elements are missing, damaged, or out of anatomical position. Conclusion: This report presents a multi-disciplinary approach combining forensic anthropology and forensic medicine in examining and interpreting human remains.

  18. Analysis of aspects of quality of life in teachers' voice after discharged: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Josiane Mendes; Campos, Nathália Ferreira; Bassi, Iara Barreto; Santos, Marco Aurélio Rocha; Teixeira, Letícia Caldas; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of voice therapy on the life quality of teachers who were discharged or abandoned the voice therapy for dysphonia. This was a longitudinal study based on analysis of assessments with teachers of municipal schools in Belo Horizonte, who were referred to voice therapy and were discharged or abandoned the speech-language therapy for more than six months. A total of 33 teachers in the discharged group and 20 teachers in the abandoned group were contacted by phone and invited to participate in the study by answering the Voice activity and participation profile, which was forwarded to the researchers and sent via letter. At the moment of the pre speech therapy, the discharged and abandoned groups were homogeneous, except in relation to daily communication parameter. Comparing the discharged group in the pre and post speech-language therapy, it was showed improvements in social communication parameter as well as in the total score. The discharged group presented worsening in self-perception parameter when comparing the average values in the post therapy and current moments, and the group abandoned presented worsening in work, social communication and total score when comparing to the average values in the pre therapy and current moments. The discharged and abandoned groups differ in the present moment in all investigated parameters. Speech-language therapy for dysphonia have long term positive effects on life quality and voice of teachers who were soon discharged from the therapy and in a period of two years on average. Teachers who have abandoned treatment and did not obtain improvement in the voice showed negative impact in life quality and voice in a time of 2 years and 2 months on average.

  19. The System Cost Model: A tool for life cycle cost and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, K.; Lundeen, A.; Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.

    1996-01-01

    In May of 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) in Idaho Falls, Idaho and subcontractors began development of the System Cost Model (SCM) application. The SCM estimates life cycle costs of the entire US Department of Energy (DOE) complex for designing; constructing; operating; and decommissioning treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, and transuranic waste. The SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing waste management facilities at DOE installations. In addition, SCM can model new TSD facilities based on capacity needs over the program life cycle. The user can provide input data (default data is included in the SCM) including the volume and nature of waste to be managed, the time period over which the waste is to be managed, and the configuration of the waste management complex (i.e., where each installation's generated waste will be treated, stored, and disposed). Then the SCM uses parametric cost equations to estimate the costs of pre-operations (designing), construction, operations and maintenance, and decommissioning these waste management facilities. The SCM also provides transportation costs for DOE wastes. Transportation costs are provided for truck and rail and include transport of contact-handled, remote-handled, and alpha (transuranic) wastes. A complement to the SCM is the System Cost Model-Risk (SCM-R) model, which provides relative Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES and H) risk information. A relative ES and H risk basis has been developed and applied by LITCO at the INEL. The risk basis is now being automated in the SCM-R to facilitate rapid risk analysis of system alternatives. The added risk functionality will allow combined cost and risk evaluation of EM alternatives

  20. Regulation strategies of contemporary school life: an analysis of the 8th brazilian teacher prize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Salete Traversini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze some regulation strategies of contemporary school life taking place under the neoliberal governmentality in Brazil according to authors such as Foucault (2008, Veiga-Neto & Saraiva (2011 and Young (2011, and researchers of teacher education and contemporary teaching, such as Nóvoa (2009, 2012 and Silva (2014. The publication of the 8th Brazilian Teacher Prize, 2014 edition, with 39 teachers awarded, and the syntheses of the winning projects were selected for analysis. The question raised is which regulation strategies of contemporary school life are present in the set of projects in the 8th edition of the Brazilian Teacher Prize? Two regulation strategies of contemporary school life have been identified. In one of them, called pedagogy of protections, according to Silva (2014, knowledge related to social issues is central. The other one concerns the emphasis given on full-time education, which takes place by extending school hours, as a means for the early intervention of students in social issues. Based on Nóvoa (2013, the authors have proposed the refocusing of school roles by considering the appropriation of school knowledge as central to school. An intersectoral coordination is needed so that the political pedagogical project and school daily actions can be planned along with other social agencies that assist to the community. This enables the partner sectors to perform protection roles, and both the school and the teachers are able to focus on their specific functions, i.e. teaching and educating in the full sense of education.