WorldWideScience

Sample records for rem counter based

  1. A Neutron Rem Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, I Oe; Braun, J

    1964-01-15

    A neutron detector is described which measures the neutron dose rate in rem/h independently of the energy of the neutrons from thermal to 15 MeV. The detector consists of a BF{sub 3} proportional counter surrounded by a shield made of polyethylene and boron plastic that gives the appropriate amount of moderation and absorption to the impinging neutrons to obtain rem response. Two different versions have been developed. One model can utilize standard BF{sub 3} counters and is suitable for use in installed monitors around reactors and accelerators and the other model is specially designed for use in a portable survey instrument. The neutron rem counter for portable instruments has a sensitivity of 2.4 cps/mrem/h and is essentially nondirectional in response. With correct bias setting the counter is insensitive to gamma exposure up to 200 r/h from Co-60.

  2. An extended range neutron rem counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birattari, C.; Nuccetelli, C.; Pelliccioni, M.; Silari, M.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out to assess the possibility of extending the sensitivity of a neutron rem counter of the Andersson-Braun type up to several hundred MeV. The validity of the model adopted has first been checked by comparing with experimental data the calculated response curve and the angular dependence of the sensitivity for a well known commercial rem counter. Next, a number of modifications to the configuration of the moderator-attenuator have been investigated. The response functions and angular distributions produced by two simple solutions yielding an instrument with a sensitivity extended up to 400 MeV are presented. The response of the original rem counter and of its two modified versions to nine test spectra has also been calculated. The resulting instrument is transportable rather than portable, but the availability of an extended range neutron survey meter would be of great advantage at medium and high energy particle accelerator facilities. (orig.)

  3. Study of the response of a lithium yttrium borate scintillator based neutron rem counter by Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, C.; Tyagi, Mohit; Biju, K.; Shanbhag, A. A.; Bandyopadhyay, T.

    2015-12-01

    The scarcity and the high cost of 3He has spurred the use of various detectors for neutron monitoring. A new lithium yttrium borate scintillator developed in BARC has been studied for its use in a neutron rem counter. The scintillator is made of natural lithium and boron, and the yield of reaction products that will generate a signal in a real time detector has been studied by FLUKA Monte Carlo radiation transport code. A 2 cm lead introduced to enhance the gamma rejection shows no appreciable change in the shape of the fluence response or in the yield of reaction products. The fluence response when normalized at the average energy of an Am-Be neutron source shows promise of being used as rem counter.

  4. Study of the response of a lithium yttrium borate scintillator based neutron rem counter by Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunil, C., E-mail: csunil11@gmail.com [Accelerator Radiation Safety Section, Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tyagi, Mohit [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Biju, K.; Shanbhag, A.A.; Bandyopadhyay, T. [Accelerator Radiation Safety Section, Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-12-11

    The scarcity and the high cost of {sup 3}He has spurred the use of various detectors for neutron monitoring. A new lithium yttrium borate scintillator developed in BARC has been studied for its use in a neutron rem counter. The scintillator is made of natural lithium and boron, and the yield of reaction products that will generate a signal in a real time detector has been studied by FLUKA Monte Carlo radiation transport code. A 2 cm lead introduced to enhance the gamma rejection shows no appreciable change in the shape of the fluence response or in the yield of reaction products. The fluence response when normalized at the average energy of an Am–Be neutron source shows promise of being used as rem counter.

  5. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Devnani; Racheal Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, ...

  6. The extended range neutron rem counter LINUS: overview and latest developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birattari, C.; Rancati, T.; Esposito, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Ferrari, A.; Silari, M.

    1997-01-01

    The 'history' of the extended range neutron rem counter LINUS, since its first conception in 1990 is reviewed, along with the latest developments. These include the calibration of the initially cylindrical version with nearly monoenergetic neutrons in the energy range 34-66 MeV, a detailed evaluation of the anisotropy of its response function, the construction and calibration of an improved spherical version, and recent measurements in reference high energy stray radiation fields. The instrument can now be considered as being fully characterized. Similar monitors built by other laboratories following the present design have confirmed its performances. The instrument is now in semi-routine use at a number of particle accelerator facilities and is one of several devices used on-board of aircrafts for assessing the exposure to cosmic rays at commercial flight altitudes. (author)

  7. Response functions of the Andersson-Braun and extended range rem counters for neutron energies from thermal to 10 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Mares, V; Schraube, H

    2002-01-01

    This work is devoted to the calculation of responses as functions of neutron energy for a paired set of Andersson-Braun rem counters, which is commercially available. Different Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP, LAHET, HADRON and MCNPX were applied in the calculations. The study extended to frontal, lateral and isotropic neutron incidence. For an estimation of the contribution of charged high-energy particles to the reading, the responses to protons and pions were also determined. The results obtained give good bases for the practical use of the new instrument in high-energy neutron fields.

  8. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devnani, Preeti; Fernandes, Racheal

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, impact on falls, and effect on polysomnography (PSG) while highlighting the non-motor, autonomic, and cognitive impact of this entity. PubMed databases were reviewed upto May 2013 in peer-reviewed scientific literature regarding the pathophysiology and management of RBD in adults. The literature was graded according to the Oxford centre of evidence-based Medicine Levels. An early intervention that helps prevent consequences such as falls and provides a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms and allocates a unique platform that RBD portrays with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency. RBD provides a unique platform with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency, providing an opportunity for early intervention both to prevent consequences such as falls and provide a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms.

  9. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Devnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, impact on falls, and effect on polysomnography (PSG while highlighting the non-motor, autonomic, and cognitive impact of this entity. PubMed databases were reviewed upto May 2013 in peer-reviewed scientific literature regarding the pathophysiology and management of RBD in adults. The literature was graded according to the Oxford centre of evidence-based Medicine Levels. An early intervention that helps prevent consequences such as falls and provides a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms and allocates a unique platform that RBD portrays with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency. RBD provides a unique platform with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency, providing an opportunity for early intervention both to prevent consequences such as falls and provide a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms.

  10. Test of the rem-counter WENDI-II from Eberline in different energy-dispersed neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutermuth, F.; Radon, T.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Siekmann, R.

    2004-03-01

    The neutron rem-counter WENDI-II from Eberline was tested in high-energy particle accelerator produced neutron fields. A radioactive 241 Am-Be(αn) source was used as a reference. The experimentally determined responses are compared to Monte-Carlo simulations of the response function done by R. H. Olsher et al. (2000). The energy spectra of the accelerator produced neutron fields were determined employing Monte-Carlo simulations, too. According to the simulations done by C. Birattari et al. (1998) and in this work these neutron fields exhibit large contributions to the ambient dose equivalent resulting from neutrons with kinetic energy of more than 20 MeV up to a few 100 MeV. The WENDI-II detector proved to show a response of approximately 3.10 9 pulses per Sievert ambient dose equivalent. Considering the experimental and statistical uncertainties the results are consistent with the assumption that the dose response of the WENDI-II reproduces quite accurately the function for the ambient dose equivalent of the ICRP 74

  11. Scintillation counter based radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jeong Hyun

    2009-02-01

    The average human exposure per year is about 240mrem which is come from Radon and human body and terrestrial and cosmic radiation and man-made source. Specially radiation exposure through air from environmental radiation sources is 80mrem/yr(= 0.01mR/hr) which come from Terrestrial and cosmic radiation. Radiation dose is defined as energy deposit/mass. There are two major methods to detect radiation. First method is the energy integration using Air equivalent material like GM counter wall material. Second method is the spectrum to dose conversion method using NaI(Tl), HPGe. These two methods are using generally to detect radiation. But these methods are expensive. So we need new radiation detection method. The research purpose is the development of economical environmental radiation dosimeter. This system consists of Plastic/Inorganic scintillator and Si photo-diode based detector and counting based circuitry. So count rate(cps) can be convert to air exposure rate(R/hr). There are three major advantages in this system. First advantages is no high voltage power supply like GM counter. Second advantage is simple electronics. Simple electronics system can be achieved by Air-equivalent scintillation detector with Al filter for the same detection efficiency vs E curve. From former two advantages, we can know the most important advantages of the this system. Third advantage is economical system. The price of typical GM counter is about $1000. But the price of our system is below $100 because of plastic scintillator and simple electronics. The role of scintillation material is emitting scintillation which is the flash of light produced in certain materials when they absorb ionizing radiation. Plastic scintillator is organic scintillator which is kind of hydrocarbons. The special point are cheap price, large size production(∼ton), moderate light output, fast light emission(ns). And the role of Al filter is equalizing counting efficiency of air and scintillator for

  12. Design and development of wide energy neutron REM equivalent spectrometer-dosimeters based on polycarbonates and Cr-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faermann, S.

    1985-03-01

    This work describes a system composed of a Rem response personnel neutron dosemeter, based on boron radiators and a polycarbonate track detector, for monitoring dose equivalents in the energy range 1 eV to 14 MeV, an electrochemical etching system for revealing damage sites in solid state track etch detectors, a reader for magnifying the etched pits and a microprocessor for evaluating the dose equivalents and their uncertainties. The performance and directional dependence of the dosemeter when exposed to monoenergetic and polyenergetic neutron fields in the epithermal and fast energy regions are discussed. Saturation effects in polycarbonate foils are presented and a comparison is made between the response of polycarbonate and CR-39 foils, used as passive detectors in the dosemeter. A new passive miniature fast neutron spectrometer-dosimeter is also described. The device is based on the detection of proton tracks by electrochemical etching of CR-39 foils covered with thin polyethylene layers of different thicknesses. By means of this device it is possible to assess the fast neutron energy spectrum in 10 energy intervals in the energy range 0.5-15 MeV. Dose equivalents can be determined in the dose equivalent range 20 mRem to 8 Rem, approximately (author)

  13. Introduction to Neutron Coincidence Counter Design Based on Boron-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-01-22

    The Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation Policy (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is ultimately to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report, providing background information for this project, is the deliverable under Task 1 of the project.

  14. Countering oversegmentation in partitioning-based connectivities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouzounis, Georgios K.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2005-01-01

    A new theoretical development is presented for handling the over-segmentation problem in partitioning-based connected openings. The definition we propose treats singletons generated with the earlier method, as elements of a larger connected component. Unlike the existing formalism, this new method

  15. A methodology for costing man-rem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, C.

    1976-03-01

    An attempt is made to provide a methodology for costing man-rem in a way that can be applied to station conditions, based on 1974 Pickering G.S. data. Factors taken into account were social costs, exposure costs (dose accounting, training, dosimetry) temporary labour costs, and permanent replacement labour costs. A figure of $620/ man-rem was derived. (LL)

  16. Longitudinal connectome-based predictive modeling for REM sleep behavior disorder from structural brain connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancardo, Luca; Ellmore, Timothy M.; Suescun, Jessika; Ocasio, Laura; Kamali, Arash; Riascos-Castaneda, Roy; Schiess, Mya C.

    2018-02-01

    Methods to identify neuroplasticity patterns in human brains are of the utmost importance in understanding and potentially treating neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinson disease (PD) research will greatly benefit and advance from the discovery of biomarkers to quantify brain changes in the early stages of the disease, a prodromal period when subjects show no obvious clinical symptoms. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows for an in-vivo estimation of the structural connectome inside the brain and may serve to quantify the degenerative process before the appearance of clinical symptoms. In this work, we introduce a novel strategy to compute longitudinal structural connectomes in the context of a whole-brain data-driven pipeline. In these initial tests, we show that our predictive models are able to distinguish controls from asymptomatic subjects at high risk of developing PD (REM sleep behavior disorder, RBD) with an area under the receiving operating characteristic curve of 0.90 (pParkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. By analyzing the brain connections most relevant for the predictive ability of the best performing model, we find connections that are biologically relevant to the disease.

  17. A physiologically based nonhomogeneous Poisson counter model of visual identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe H; Markussen, Bo; Bundesen, Claus

    2018-01-01

    A physiologically based nonhomogeneous Poisson counter model of visual identification is presented. The model was developed in the framework of a Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990; Kyllingsbæk, Markussen, & Bundesen, 2012) and meant for modeling visual identification of objects that are ......A physiologically based nonhomogeneous Poisson counter model of visual identification is presented. The model was developed in the framework of a Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990; Kyllingsbæk, Markussen, & Bundesen, 2012) and meant for modeling visual identification of objects...... that mimicked the dynamics of receptive field selectivity as found in neurophysiological studies. Furthermore, the initial sensory response yielded theoretical hazard rate functions that closely resembled empirically estimated ones. Finally, supplied with a Naka-Rushton type contrast gain control, the model...

  18. Is the nonREM-REM sleep cycle reset by forced awakenings from REM sleep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grozinger, M; Beersma, DGM; Fell, J; Roschke, J

    In selective REM sleep deprivation (SRSD), the occurrence of stage REM is repeatedly interrupted by short awakenings. Typically, the interventions aggregate in clusters resembling the REM episodes in undisturbed sleep. This salient phenomenon can easily be explained if the nonREM-REM sleep process

  19. A physiologically based nonhomogeneous Poisson counter model of visual identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jeppe H; Markussen, Bo; Bundesen, Claus; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2018-04-30

    A physiologically based nonhomogeneous Poisson counter model of visual identification is presented. The model was developed in the framework of a Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990; Kyllingsbæk, Markussen, & Bundesen, 2012) and meant for modeling visual identification of objects that are mutually confusable and hard to see. The model assumes that the visual system's initial sensory response consists in tentative visual categorizations, which are accumulated by leaky integration of both transient and sustained components comparable with those found in spike density patterns of early sensory neurons. The sensory response (tentative categorizations) feeds independent Poisson counters, each of which accumulates tentative object categorizations of a particular type to guide overt identification performance. We tested the model's ability to predict the effect of stimulus duration on observed distributions of responses in a nonspeeded (pure accuracy) identification task with eight response alternatives. The time courses of correct and erroneous categorizations were well accounted for when the event-rates of competing Poisson counters were allowed to vary independently over time in a way that mimicked the dynamics of receptive field selectivity as found in neurophysiological studies. Furthermore, the initial sensory response yielded theoretical hazard rate functions that closely resembled empirically estimated ones. Finally, supplied with a Naka-Rushton type contrast gain control, the model provided an explanation for Bloch's law. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The Biology of REM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peever, John; Fuller, Patrick M.

    2018-01-01

    Considerable advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep have occurred over the past decade. Much of this progress can be attributed to the development of new neuroscience tools that have enabled high-precision interrogation of brain circuitry linked with REM sleep control, in turn revealing how REM sleep mechanisms themselves impact processes such as sensorimotor function. This review is intended to update the general scientific community about the recent mechanistic, functional and conceptual developments in our current understanding of REM sleep biology and pathobiology. Specifically, this review outlines the historical origins of the discovery of REM sleep, the diversity of REM sleep expression across and within species, the potential functions of REM sleep (e.g., memory consolidation), the neural circuits that control REM sleep, and how dysfunction of REM sleep mechanisms underlie debilitating sleep disorders such as REM sleep behaviour disorder and narcolepsy. PMID:26766231

  1. Family history of idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Postuma, Ronald B; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    To compare the frequency of proxy-reported REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) among relatives of patients with polysomnogram-diagnosed idiopathic RBD (iRBD) in comparison to controls using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort.......To compare the frequency of proxy-reported REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) among relatives of patients with polysomnogram-diagnosed idiopathic RBD (iRBD) in comparison to controls using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort....

  2. A Direct Test of the Differentiation Mechanism: REM, BCDMEM, and the Strength-Based Mirror Effect in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starns, Jeffrey J.; White, Corey N.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2010-01-01

    We explore competing explanations for the reduction in false alarm rate observed when studied items are strengthened. Some models, such as Retrieving Effectively from Memory (REM; Shiffrin & Steyvers, 1997), attribute the false alarm rate reduction to differentiation, a process in which strengthening memory traces at study directly reduces the…

  3. A CZT-based blood counter for quantitative molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espagnet, Romain; Frezza, Andrea; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Hamel, Louis-André; Lechippey, Laëtitia; Beauregard, Jean-Mathieu; Després, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Robust quantitative analysis in positron emission tomography (PET) and in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) typically requires the time-activity curve as an input function for the pharmacokinetic modeling of tracer uptake. For this purpose, a new automated tool for the determination of blood activity as a function of time is presented. The device, compact enough to be used on the patient bed, relies on a peristaltic pump for continuous blood withdrawal at user-defined rates. Gamma detection is based on a 20 × 20 × 15 mm 3 cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector, read by custom-made electronics and a field-programmable gate array-based signal processing unit. A graphical user interface (GUI) allows users to select parameters and easily perform acquisitions. This paper presents the overall design of the device as well as the results related to the detector performance in terms of stability, sensitivity and energy resolution. Results from a patient study are also reported. The device achieved a sensitivity of 7.1 cps/(kBq/mL) and a minimum detectable activity of 2.5 kBq/ml for 18 F. The gamma counter also demonstrated an excellent stability with a deviation in count rates inferior to 0.05% over 6 h. An energy resolution of 8% was achieved at 662 keV. The patient study was conclusive and demonstrated that the compact gamma blood counter developed has the sensitivity and the stability required to conduct quantitative molecular imaging studies in PET and SPECT.

  4. Data base for man-rem management at Madras Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswambharan, K.R.; Nair, B.S.K.; Ramamirtham, B.; Varadhan, R.S.; Chudalayandi, K.

    1988-01-01

    In view of the observed steady increase in the collective dose to the radiation workers at MAPP, a sound data base is essential to ensure an effective exposure control programme. A new system of data collection and analysis of the exposure to the station workers is discussed in the paper. (author). 3 tabs

  5. On the Performance of Counter-Based Broadcast Scheme for Mobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite its simplicity, it can result in high redundant retransmission, contention and collision, a phenomenon collectively referred to as the broadcast storm problem. Counter-based broadcast scheme has been proposed to mitigate this inherent problem and it relies on counter threshold value for rebroadcast decision. Thus ...

  6. Is counter-terrorism policy evidence-based? What works, what harms, and what is unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Cynthia; Kennedy, Leslie W; Sherley, Alison

    2008-02-01

    Is counter-terrorism policy evidence-based? What works, what harms, and what is unknown. One of the central concerns surrounding counter-terrorism interventions today, given the attention and money spent on them, is whether such interventions are effective. To explore this issue, we conducted a general review of terrorism literature as well as a Campbell systematic review on counter-terrorism strategies. In this article, we summarize some of our findings from these works. Overall, we found an almost complete absence of evaluation research on counter-terrorism strategies and conclude that counter-terrorism policy is not evidence-based. The findings of this review emphasise the need for government leaders, policy makers, researchers, and funding agencies to include and insist on evaluations of the effectiveness of these programs in their agendas.

  7. REM sleep estimation only using respiratory dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Gih Sung; Choi, Byung Hoon; Lee, Jeong Su; Lee, Jin-Seong; Jeong, Do-Un; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-01-01

    Polysomnography (PSG) is currently considered the gold standard for assessing sleep quality. However, the numerous sensors that must be attached to the subject can disturb sleep and limit monitoring to within hospitals and sleep clinics. If data could be obtained without such constraints, sleep monitoring would be more convenient and could be extended to ordinary homes. During rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, respiration rate and variability are known to be greater than in other sleep stages. Hence, we calculated the average rate and variability of respiration in an epoch (30 s) by applying appropriate smoothing algorithms. Increased and irregular respiratory patterns during REM sleep were extracted using adaptive and linear thresholds. When both parameters simultaneously showed higher values than the thresholds, the epochs were assumed to belong to REM sleep. Thermocouples and piezoelectric-type belts were used to acquire respiratory signals. Thirteen healthy adults and nine obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients participated in this study. Kappa statistics showed a substantial agreement (κ > 0.60) between the standard and respiration-based methods. One-way ANOVA analysis showed no significant difference between the techniques for total REM sleep. This approach can also be applied to the non-intrusive measurement of respiration signals, making it possible to automatically detect REM sleep without disturbing the subject

  8. Development of a spherical neutron rem monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchal, C.G.; Madhavi, V.; Bansode, P.Y.; Jakati, R.K.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Desai, S.S.; Shaikh, A.M.; Sathian, V.

    2007-01-01

    A new neutron rem monitor based on spherical LINUS with the state of art electronic circuits has been designed in Electronics Division. This prototype instrument encompasses a spherical double polythene moderator to improve an isotropic response and a lead layer to extend its energy response compared to the conventional neutron rem monitors. A systematic testing and calibration of the energy and directional response of the prototype monitor have been carried out. Although the monitor is expected to perform satisfactorily upto an energy ∼ 55 MeV, at present its response has been tested upto 5 MeV. (author)

  9. Xenon-based Penning mixtures for proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, B.D.; Agrawal, P.C.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL

    1989-01-01

    The choice of quench gas can have a significant effect on the gas gain and energy resolution of gas-filed proportional counters. Details are given on the performance obtained with a variety of quench additives of varying ionization potentials for use in xenon-filled systems. It is confirmed that optimum performance is obtained when the ionization potential is closely matched to the first metastable level of xenon (8.3 eV) as is the case with xenon + trimethylamine and xenon + dimethylamine. For these mixtures the Penning effect is at its strongest. (orig.)

  10. Infant breathing rate counter based on variable resistor for pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakti, Novi Angga; Hardiyanto, Ardy Dwi; La Febry Andira R., C.; Camelya, Kesa; Widiyanti, Prihartini

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in new born baby in Indonesia. According to WHO in 2002, breathing rate is very important index to be the symptom of pneumonia. In the Community Health Center, the nurses count with a stopwatch for exactly one minute. Miscalculation in Community Health Center occurs because of long time concentration and focus on two object at once. This calculation errors can cause the baby who should be admitted to the hospital only be attended at home. Therefore, an accurate breathing rate counter at Community Health Center level is necessary. In this work, resistance change of variable resistor is made to be breathing rate counter. Resistance change in voltage divider can produce voltage change. If the variable resistance moves periodically, the voltage will change periodically too. The voltage change counted by software in the microcontroller. For the every mm shift at the variable resistor produce average 0.96 voltage change. The software can count the number of wave generated by shifting resistor.

  11. Training Post-9/11 Police Officers with a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training Model: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative holistic multiple-case study was to identify the optimal theoretical approach for a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training (CTRBT) model to train post-9/11 police officers to perform effectively in their counter-terrorism assignments. Post-9/11 police officers assigned to counter-terrorism duties are not trained…

  12. REM and NREM sleep mentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Patrick; Johnson, Patricia; McLaren, Deirdre; Harris, Erica; Beauharnais, Catherine; Auerbach, Sanford

    2010-01-01

    We review the literature on the neurobiology of rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep states and associated dreams. REM is associated with enhanced activation of limbic and amygdalar networks and decreased activation in dorsal prefrontal regions while stage II NREM is associated with greater cortical activation than REM. Not surprisingly, these disparate brain activation patterns tend to be associated with dramatically different dream phenomenologies and dream content. We present two recent studies which content-analyzed hundreds of dream reports from REM and NREM sleep states. These studies demonstrated that dreamer-initiated aggressive social interactions were more characteristic of REM than NREM, and dreamer-initiated friendliness was more characteristic of NREM than REM reports. Both REM and NREM dreams therefore may function to simulate opposing types of social interactions, with the REM state specializing in simulation of aggressive interactions and the NREM state specializing in simulation of friendly interactions. We close our review with a summary of evidence that dream content variables significantly predict daytime mood and social interactions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dye-sensitized solar cells using graphene-based carbon nano composite as counter electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyonkwang; Kim, Hyunkook; Hwang, Sookhyun; Jeon, Minhyon [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center of Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang, Gimhae, Gyungnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Wonbong [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    We demonstrated a counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using the graphene-based multi-walled carbon nanotubes (GMWNTs) structure. Graphene layers were prepared by drop casting on a SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were synthesized on graphene layers using iron catalyst by chemical vapor deposition. The structural properties of GMWNTs were investigated by transmission electron microscope and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The GMWNTs sheets were lifted off from the Si substrate by buffered oxide etching and were transplanted on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by Van der Waals force as a counter electrode. From the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and energy conversion efficiencies, electrochemical properties of GMWNTs were comparable with those of MWNTs counter electrode. The results suggested that GMWNTs were one of the candidates for a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. (author)

  14. VOICES AGAINST EXTREMISM: A CASE STUDY OF A COMMUNITY-BASED CVE COUNTER-NARRATIVE CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Macnair

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of the recently conceived and ongoing counter-extremism campaign, Voices Against Extremism, a campaign designed and implemented by university students from Vancouver, Canada. Through a multifaceted approach that includes extensive use of social media, academic research, and grassroots community activities and involvement, Voices Against Extremism operates under the mission statement of countering and preventing violent extremism and radicalization through the humanization of minority groups and through the education and engagement of the silent majority. This article examines the effectiveness of this campaign as a proactive counter-radicalization strategy by outlining its specific components and activities. Based on the results of this campaign, suggestions are then offered regarding specific counter-extremism and counter-radicalizations policies that may be adopted by law enforcement, policymakers – or any other organizations concerned with countering and preventing radicalization and violent extremism – with a specific focus on the potential benefits of proactive and long-term social and community engagement.

  15. Implementation of nuclear material surveillance system based on the digital video capture card and counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Song, Dae Yong; Ko, Won Il; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Ho Dong

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, the implementation techniques of nuclear material surveillance system based on the digital video capture board and digital counter was described. The surveillance system that is to be developed is consist of CCD cameras, neutron monitors, and PC for data acquisition. To develop the system, the properties of the PCI based capture board and counter was investigated, and the characteristics of related SDK library was summarized. This report could be used for the developers who want to develop the surveillance system for various experimental environments based on the DVR and sensors using Borland C++ Builder

  16. An accurate and portable solid state neutron rem meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakes, T.M. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Bellinger, S.L. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States); Miller, W.H. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Missouri University Research Reactor, Columbia, MO (United States); Myers, E.R. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States); Fronk, R.G.; Cooper, B.W [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States); Sobering, T.J. [Electronics Design Laboratory, Kansas State University, KS (United States); Scott, P.R. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States); Ugorowski, P.; McGregor, D.S; Shultis, J.K. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States); Caruso, A.N., E-mail: carusoan@umkc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2013-08-11

    Accurately resolving the ambient neutron dose equivalent spanning the thermal to 15 MeV energy range with a single configuration and lightweight instrument is desirable. This paper presents the design of a portable, high intrinsic efficiency, and accurate neutron rem meter whose energy-dependent response is electronically adjusted to a chosen neutron dose equivalent standard. The instrument may be classified as a moderating type neutron spectrometer, based on an adaptation to the classical Bonner sphere and position sensitive long counter, which, simultaneously counts thermalized neutrons by high thermal efficiency solid state neutron detectors. The use of multiple detectors and moderator arranged along an axis of symmetry (e.g., long axis of a cylinder) with known neutron-slowing properties allows for the construction of a linear combination of responses that approximate the ambient neutron dose equivalent. Variations on the detector configuration are investigated via Monte Carlo N-Particle simulations to minimize the total instrument mass while maintaining acceptable response accuracy—a dose error less than 15% for bare {sup 252}Cf, bare AmBe, an epi-thermal and mixed monoenergetic sources is found at less than 4.5 kg moderator mass in all studied cases. A comparison of the energy dependent dose equivalent response and resultant energy dependent dose equivalent error of the present dosimeter to commercially-available portable rem meters and the prior art are presented. Finally, the present design is assessed by comparison of the simulated output resulting from applications of several known neutron sources and dose rates.

  17. Comorbidity and medication in REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauscher, Birgit; Jennum, Poul; Ju, Yo-El S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This controlled study investigated associations between comorbidity and medication in patients with polysomnographically confirmed idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD), using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort. METHODS: Data of a self-administered questionnaire...

  18. Automatic detection of REM sleep in subjects without atonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul; Nikolic, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic Rapid-Rye-Movement (REM) sleep Behavior Disorder (iRBD) is a strong early marker of Parkinson's Disease and is characterized by REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) and increased phasic muscle activity. Current proposed methods for detecting RSWA assume the presence of a manually scored...... hypnogram. In this study a full automatic REM sleep detector, using the EOG and EEG channels, is proposed. Based on statistical features, combined with subject specific feature scaling and post-processing of the classifier output, it was possible to obtain an mean accuracy of 0.96 with a mean sensititvity...

  19. REM-containing silicate concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, V F; Shabanova, O V; Pavlov, I V; Pavlov, M V; Shabanov, A V

    2016-01-01

    A new method of advanced complex processing of ores containing rare-earth elements (REE) is proposed to obtain porous X-ray amorphous aluminosilicate material with a stable chemical composition which concentrates oxides of rare-earth metals (REM). The ferromanganese oxide ores of Chuktukon deposit (Krasnoyarsk Region, RF) were used for the experiment. The obtained aluminosilicate material is appropriate for treatment with 5 - 15% solutions of mineral acids to leach REM. (paper)

  20. REM-containing silicate concentrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, V. F.; Shabanova, O. V.; Pavlov, I. V.; Pavlov, M. V.; Shabanov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    A new method of advanced complex processing of ores containing rare-earth elements (REE) is proposed to obtain porous X-ray amorphous aluminosilicate material with a stable chemical composition which concentrates oxides of rare-earth metals (REM). The ferromanganese oxide ores of Chuktukon deposit (Krasnoyarsk Region, RF) were used for the experiment. The obtained aluminosilicate material is appropriate for treatment with 5 - 15% solutions of mineral acids to leach REM.

  1. Vanadium oxide (VO) based low cost counter electrode in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, P.; Pandian, Muthu Senthil; Ramasamy, P., E-mail: ramasamyp@ssn.edu.in [SSN Research Centre, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam-603 110, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India)

    2015-06-24

    Vanadium oxide nanostars were synthesized by chemical method. The prepared Vanadium oxide nanostars are introduced into dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) as counter electrode (CE) catalyst to replace the expensive platinum (Pt). The products were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method. The photovoltaic performance of the VO as counter electrode based DSSC was evaluated under simulated standard global AM 1.5G sunlight (100 mW/cm{sup 2}). The solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency (η) of the DSSC was found to be 0.38%.This work expands the Counter electrode catalyst, which can help to reduce the cost of DSSC and thereby encourage their fundamental research and commercial application.

  2. A theory of timing in scintillation counters based on maximum likelihood estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomitani, Takehiro

    1982-01-01

    A theory of timing in scintillation counters based on the maximum likelihood estimation is presented. An optimum filter that minimizes the variance of timing is described. A simple formula to estimate the variance of timing is presented as a function of photoelectron number, scintillation decay constant and the single electron transit time spread in the photomultiplier. The present method was compared with the theory by E. Gatti and V. Svelto. The proposed method was applied to two simple models and rough estimations of potential time resolution of several scintillators are given. The proposed method is applicable to the timing in Cerenkov counters and semiconductor detectors as well. (author)

  3. Performance Analyses of Counter-Flow Closed Wet Cooling Towers Based on a Simplified Calculation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most widely used units in water cooling systems, the closed wet cooling towers (CWCTs have two typical counter-flow constructions, in which the spray water flows from the top to the bottom, and the moist air and cooling water flow in the opposite direction vertically (parallel or horizontally (cross, respectively. This study aims to present a simplified calculation method for conveniently and accurately analyzing the thermal performance of the two types of counter-flow CWCTs, viz. the parallel counter-flow CWCT (PCFCWCT and the cross counter-flow CWCT (CCFCWCT. A simplified cooling capacity model that just includes two characteristic parameters is developed. The Levenberg–Marquardt method is employed to determine the model parameters by curve fitting of experimental data. Based on the proposed model, the predicted outlet temperatures of the process water are compared with the measurements of a PCFCWCT and a CCFCWCT, respectively, reported in the literature. The results indicate that the predicted values agree well with the experimental data in previous studies. The maximum absolute errors in predicting the process water outlet temperatures are 0.20 and 0.24 °C for the PCFCWCT and CCFCWCT, respectively. These results indicate that the simplified method is reliable for performance prediction of counter-flow CWCTs. Although the flow patterns of the two towers are different, the variation trends of thermal performance are similar to each other under various operating conditions. The inlet air wet-bulb temperature, inlet cooling water temperature, air flow rate, and cooling water flow rate are crucial for determining the cooling capacity of a counter-flow CWCT, while the cooling tower effectiveness is mainly determined by the flow rates of air and cooling water. Compared with the CCFCWCT, the PCFCWCT is much more applicable in a large-scale cooling water system, and the superiority would be amplified when the scale of water

  4. Frequency-tuned microwave photon counter based on a superconductive quantum interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnyrkov, V. I.; Yangcao, Wu; Soroka, A. A.; Turutanov, O. G.; Lyakhno, V. Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Various types of single-photon counters operating in infrared, ultraviolet, and optical wavelength ranges are successfully used to study electromagnetic fields, analyze radiation sources, and solve problems in quantum informatics. However, their operating principles become ineffective at millimeter band, S-band, and ultra-high frequency bands of wavelengths due to the decrease in quantum energy by 4-5 orders of magnitude. Josephson circuits with discrete Hamiltonians and qubits are a good foundation for the construction of single-photon counters at these frequencies. This paper presents a frequency-tuned microwave photon counter based on a single-junction superconducting quantum interferometer and flux qutrit. The control pulse converts the interferometer into a two-level system for resonance absorption of photons. Decay of the photon-induced excited state changes the magnetic flux in the interferometer, which is measured by a SQUID magnetometer. Schemes for recording the magnetic flux using a DC SQUID or ideal parametric detector, based on a qutrit with high-frequency excitation, are discussed. It is shown that the counter consisting of an interferometer with a Josephson junction and a parametric detector demonstrates high performance and is capable of detecting single photons in a microwave band.

  5. Simulations of Lithium-Based Neutron Coincidence Counter for Gd-Loaded Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowles, Christian C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Siciliano, Edward R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Lithium-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology Coincidence Counting for Gd-loaded Fuels at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the development of a lithium-based neutron coincidence counter for nondestructively assaying Gd loaded nuclear fuel. This report provides results from MCNP simulations of a lithium-based coincidence counter for the possible measurement of Gd-loaded nuclear fuel. A comparison of lithium-based simulations and UNCL-II simulations with and without Gd loaded fuel is provided. A lithium-based model, referred to as PLNS3A-R1, showed strong promise for assaying Gd loaded fuel.

  6. Design of nuclear pulse shaped circuit based on proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qianqian; Cheng Yi; Tuo Xianguo

    2011-01-01

    Use the self-developed proportional to sample gas tritium in environment and make the measurement. For this detector, a kind of pulse shape circuit based on second order active low pass filtering circuit realized filtering and shaping nuclear pulse by high-speed operational amplifier, with less stages that has been approved for filter Gaussian wave. Use Multisim 10.0 to simulate the different parameters of the filter circuit. The simulation result was consistent with the theoretical results. The experiments proved the feasibility of this circuit, and at the same time provided a convenient and reliable method for analysis and optimization of the nuclear pulse waveform in order for discriminating by MCA. (authors)

  7. Occupancy-counter-based control system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, G.; Hoagland, L. C.; Bowman, J. K.

    1979-07-01

    Excessive mechanical ventilation of commercial and institutional buildings can result in significant waste of energy required for space heating and cooling. Ventilation rates are typically set to satisfy building design occupancy levels, in accordance with local codes, even though the building may seldom or never experience design occupancy. A method of eliminating this waste to utilize an occupancy-based ventilation control system wherein a counting device records people entering and leaving the building, to maintain a continuous record of people inventory, and to regulate mechanical ventilation control dampers to supply only that amount of ventilation air required for current occupancy levels is described. A device of this type was installed and tested in a department store in Framingham, Massachusetts and fully instrumented and operated over a 14 month period. Test results on energy usage were correlated with weather severity in order to determine the savings resulting from use of the control system. This system provided a savings of 33% in gas usage during the winter period and a savings of 23% in electricity usage during the summer period. These savings would return the installed cost of the control system in about 1 1/2 years. Projections of the performance of this system in other climatic regions (Chicago, Los Angeles, Kansas City, Miami, Minneapolis) are also presented illustrating payback periods ranging from 1/3 year in Miami to 2 2/3 years in Los Angeles. Complete details of the occupancy based ventilation control system, the test site instrumentation and data gathering procedure, the test results and their interpretation are given. (MCW)

  8. Development of a lithium fluoride zinc sulfide based neutron multiplicity counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Christian; Behling, Spencer; Baldez, Phoenix; Folsom, Micah; Kouzes, Richard; Kukharev, Vladislav; Lintereur, Azaree; Robinson, Sean; Siciliano, Edward; Stave, Sean; Valdez, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    The feasibility of a full-scale lithium fluoride zinc sulfide (LiF/ZnS) based neutron multiplicity counter has been demonstrated. The counter was constructed of modular neutron detecting stacks that each contain five sheets of LiF/ZnS interleaved between six sheets of wavelength shifting plastic with a photomultiplier tube on each end. Twelve such detector stacks were placed around a sample chamber in a square arrangement with lithiated high-density polyethylene blocks in the corners to reflect high-energy neutrons and capture low-energy neutrons. The final system design was optimized via modeling and small-scale test. Measuring neutrons from a 252Cf source, the counter achieved a 36% neutron detection efficiency (ɛ) and an 11 . 7 μs neutron die-away time (τ) for a doubles figure-of-merit (ɛ2 / τ) of 109. This is the highest doubles figure-of-merit measured to-date for a 3He-free neutron multiplicity counter.

  9. Efficient Test Application for Core-Based Systems Using Twisted-Ring Counters

    OpenAIRE

    Anshuman Chandra; Krishnendu Chakrabarty; Mark C. Hansen

    2001-01-01

    We present novel test set encoding and pattern decompression methods for core-based systems. These are based on the use of twisted-ring counters and offer a number of important advantages–significant test compression (over 10X in many cases), less tester memory and reduced testing time, the ability to use a slow tester without compromising test quality or testing time, and no performance degradation for the core under test. Surprisingly, the encoded test sets obtained from partially-specified...

  10. REM sleep modulation by perifornical orexinergic inputs to the pedunculo-pontine tegmental neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanday, M A; Mallick, B N

    2015-11-12

    Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is regulated by the interaction of the REM-ON and REM-OFF neurons located in the pedunculo-pontine-tegmentum (PPT) and the locus coeruleus (LC), respectively. Many other brain areas, particularly those controlling non-REMS (NREMS) and waking, modulate REMS by modulating these REMS-related neurons. Perifornical (PeF) orexin (Ox)-ergic neurons are reported to increase waking and reduce NREMS as well as REMS; dysfunction of the PeF neurons are related to REMS loss-associated disorders. Hence, we were interested in understanding the neural mechanism of PeF-induced REMS modulation. As a first step we have recently reported that PeF Ox-ergic neurons modulate REMS by influencing the LC neurons (site for REM-OFF neurons). Thereafter, in this in vivo study we have explored the role of PeF inputs on the PPT neurons (site for REM-ON neurons) for the regulation of REMS. Chronic male rats were surgically prepared with implanted bilateral cannulae in PeF and PPT and electrodes for recording sleep-waking patterns. After post-surgical recovery sleep-waking-REMS were recorded when bilateral PeF neurons were stimulated by glutamate and simultaneously bilateral PPT neurons were infused with either saline or orexin receptor1 (OX1R) antagonist. It was observed that PeF stimulation increased waking and decreased NREMS as well as REMS, which were prevented by OX1R antagonist into the PPT. We conclude that the PeF stimulation-induced reduction in REMS was likely to be due to inhibition of REM-ON neurons in the PPT. As waking and NREMS are inversely related, subject to confirmation, the reduction in NREMS could be due to increased waking or vice versa. Based on our findings from this and earlier studies we have proposed a model showing connections between PeF- and PPT-neurons for REMS regulation. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-cost carbon-based counter electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberio, M; Imbrogno, A; Bonanno, A; Xu, F; Grosso, D R

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present the realization of four carbon-based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The photovoltaic behaviours of counter electrodes realized with graphene, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and nanocomposites of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and metal nanoparticles are compared with those of classical electrodes (amorphous carbon and platinum). Our results show an increase of about 50% in PCE for graphene and Ag/carbon nanotube electrodes with respect to amorphous carbon and of 25% in comparison to platinum. An improvement in cell stability is also observed; in fact, the PCE of all carbon-based cells assumes a constant value during a period of one month while that with the Pt electrode decreases by 50% in one week. (paper)

  12. Nonlinear Effects in Transformation Optics-Based Metamaterial Shields for Counter Directed Energy Weapon Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    employs the in- variance of the Maxwell equations under coordinate transformations to convert the free- space wave solutions in a coordinate... ENERGY WEAPON DEFENSE by Jacob D. Thompson June 2016 Thesis Co-Advisors: James Luscombe Brett Borden Approved for public release; distribution is...2014 to 06-17-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONLINEAR EFFECTS IN TRANSFORMATION OPTICS-BASED METAMATE- RIAL SHIELDS FOR COUNTER DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPON

  13. Counter-Based Broadcast Scheme Considering Reachability, Network Density, and Energy Efficiency for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji-Young; Seo, Dong-Yoon; Lee, Jung-Ryun

    2018-01-04

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is emerging as an innovative method for gathering information that will significantly improve the reliability and efficiency of infrastructure systems. Broadcast is a common method to disseminate information in WSNs. A variety of counter-based broadcast schemes have been proposed to mitigate the broadcast-storm problems, using the count threshold value and a random access delay. However, because of the limited propagation of the broadcast-message, there exists a trade-off in a sense that redundant retransmissions of the broadcast-message become low and energy efficiency of a node is enhanced, but reachability become low. Therefore, it is necessary to study an efficient counter-based broadcast scheme that can dynamically adjust the random access delay and count threshold value to ensure high reachability, low redundant of broadcast-messages, and low energy consumption of nodes. Thus, in this paper, we first measure the additional coverage provided by a node that receives the same broadcast-message from two neighbor nodes, in order to achieve high reachability with low redundant retransmissions of broadcast-messages. Second, we propose a new counter-based broadcast scheme considering the size of the additional coverage area, distance between the node and the broadcasting node, remaining battery of the node, and variations of the node density. Finally, we evaluate performance of the proposed scheme compared with the existing counter-based broadcast schemes. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing schemes in terms of saved rebroadcasts, reachability, and total energy consumption.

  14. Is the nonREM–REM sleep cycle reset by forced awakenings from REM sleep?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grözinger, Michael; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Fell, Jürgen; Röschke, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    In selective REM sleep deprivation (SRSD), the occurrence of stage REM is repeatedly interrupted by short awakenings. Typically, the interventions aggregate in clusters resembling the REM episodes in undisturbed sleep. This salient phenomenon can easily be explained if the nonREM–REM sleep process

  15. A 2.9 ps equivalent resolution interpolating time counter based on multiple independent coding lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szplet, R; Jachna, Z; Kwiatkowski, P; Rozyc, K

    2013-01-01

    We present the design, operation and test results of a time counter that has an equivalent resolution of 2.9 ps, a measurement uncertainty at the level of 6 ps, and a measurement range of 10 s. The time counter has been implemented in a general-purpose reprogrammable device Spartan-6 (Xilinx). To obtain both high precision and wide measurement range the counting of periods of a reference clock is combined with a two-stage interpolation within a single period of the clock signal. The interpolation involves a four-phase clock in the first interpolation stage (FIS) and an equivalent coding line (ECL) in the second interpolation stage (SIS). The ECL is created as a compound of independent discrete time coding lines (TCL). The number of TCLs used to create the virtual ECL has an effect on its resolution. We tested ECLs made from up to 16 TCLs, but the idea may be extended to a larger number of lines. In the presented time counter the coarse resolution of the counting method equal to 2 ns (period of the 500 MHz reference clock) is firstly improved fourfold in the FIS and next even more than 400 times in the SIS. The proposed solution allows us to overcome the technological limitation in achievable resolution and improve the precision of conversion of integrated interpolators based on tapped delay lines. (paper)

  16. Localization of rem2 in the central nervous system of the adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Anna G; Scholles, Katie R; Hollis, David M

    2016-12-01

    Rem2 is member of the RGK (Rem, Rad, and Gem/Kir) subfamily of the Ras superfamily of GTP binding proteins known to influence Ca 2+ entry into the cell. In addition, Rem2, which is found at high levels in the vertebrate brain, is also implicated in cell proliferation and synapse formation. Though the specific, regional localization of Rem2 in the adult mammalian central nervous system has been well-described, such information is lacking in other vertebrates. Rem2 is involved in neuronal processes where the capacities between adults of different vertebrate classes vary. Thus, we sought to localize the rem2 gene in the central nervous system of an adult anamniotic vertebrate, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In situ hybridization using a digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled RNA probe was used to identify the regional distribution of rem2 expression throughout the trout central nervous system, while real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) further supported these findings. Based on in situ hybridization, the regional distribution of rem2 occurred within each major subdivision of the brain and included large populations of rem2 expressing cells in the dorsal telencephalon of the cerebrum, the internal cellular layer of the olfactory bulb, and the optic tectum of the midbrain. In contrast, no rem2 expressing cells were resolved within the cerebellum. These results were corroborated by rtPCR, where differential rem2 expression occurred between the major subdivisions assayed with the highest levels being found in the cerebrum, while it was nearly absent in the cerebellum. These data indicate that rem2 gene expression is broadly distributed and likely influences diverse functions in the adult fish central nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a lithium fluoride zinc sulfide based neutron multiplicity counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowles, Christian; Behling, Spencer; Baldez, Phoenix; Folsom, Micah; Kouzes, Richard; Kukharev, Vladislav; Lintereur, Azaree; Robinson, Sean; Siciliano, Edward; Stave, Sean; Valdez, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Past 3He shortages led to investigations into replacement options for neutron detectors in systems that previously used 3He-based technologies. The goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of a full-scale lithium fluoride with silver activated zinc sulfide (LiF/ZnS) based neutron multiplicity counter. The LiF/ZnS based neutron multiplicity counter (LiNMC) was developed based on an iterative process between modeling and experimental measurements. Each active region of the LiNMC contains five sheets of LiF/ZnS sandwiched between six sheets of wavelength shifting plastic to form neutron detection stacks. The wavelength shifted scintillation light was collected by photomultiplier tubes located on each end of the stacks. Twelve such detector stacks were placed around a sample chamber in a square arrangement with lithiated high density polyethylene blocks in the corners to reflect high energy neutrons and capture low energy neutrons. Preliminary calibration with a 252Cf neutron source showed that the LiNMC was able to achieve 36% neutron detection efficiency (ε) and an 11.7 μs neutron die-away time (τ) for a doubles Figure-of-merit (ε2/ τ) of 109. This is the highest doubles Figure-of-merit performance measured to-date for a 3He-free neutron multiplicity counter system. By the end of this project, the LiNMC’s basic components were integrated into a single laboratory scale system capable of proof-of-concept measurements.

  18. Study of micro pixel photon counters for a high granularity scintillator-based hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ascenzo, N.; Eggemann, A.; Garutti, E.

    2007-11-01

    A new Geiger mode avalanche photodiode, the Micro Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC), was recently released by Hamamatsu. It has a high photo-detection efficiency in the 420 nm spectral region. This product can represent an elegant candidate for the design of a high granularity scintillator based hadron calorimeter for the International Linear Collider. In fact, the direct readout of the blue scintillation photons with a MPPC is a feasible techological solution. The readout of a plastic scintillator by a MPPC, both mediated by the traditional wavelength shifting fiber, and directly coupled, has been systematically studied. (orig.)

  19. Automation of a Beckman liquid scintillation counter for data capture and data-base management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil, W.; Irwin, T.J.; Yang, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    A software package for the automation of a Beckman LS9000 liquid scintillation counter is presented. The package provides effective on-line data capture (with a Perkin Elmer 3230 32-bit minicomputer), data-base management, audit trail and archiving facilities. Key features of the package are rapid and flexible data entry, background subtraction, half-life correction, ability to queue several sample sets pending scintillation counting, and formatted report generation. A brief discussion is given on the development of customized data processing programs. (author)

  20. Sleep stability and transitions in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and patients with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Jennum, Poul; Koch, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at high risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). As wake/sleep-regulation is thought to involve neurons located in the brainstem and hypothalamic areas, we hypothesize that the neurodegeneration in i......RBD/PD is likely to affect wake/sleep and REM/non-REM (NREM) sleep transitions. Methods: We determined the frequency of wake/sleep and REM/NREM sleep transitions and the stability of wake (W), REM and NREM sleep as measured by polysomnography (PSG) in 27 patients with PD, 23 patients with iRBD, 25 patients...... with periodic leg movement disorder (PLMD) and 23 controls. Measures were computed based on manual scorings and data-driven labeled sleep staging. Results: Patients with PD showed significantly lower REM stability than controls and patients with PLMD. Patients with iRBD had significantly lower REM stability...

  1. DOSIMETRIC response of a REM-500 in low energy neutron fields typical of nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam; Matysiak, W; Atanackovic, J; Waker, A J

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the response of a REM-500 to assess neutron quality factor and dose equivalent in low energy neutron fields, which are commonly encountered in the workplace environment of nuclear power stations. The McMaster University 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator facility was used to measure the response of the instrument in monoenergetic neutron fields in the energy range 51 to 727 keV by bombarding a thin LiF target with 1.93-2.50 MeV protons. The energy distribution of the neutron fields produced in the facility was measured by a (3)He filled gas ionization chamber. The MCA mode of the REM-500 instrument was used to collect lineal energy distributions at varying neutron energies and to calculate the frequency and dose-mean lineal energies. The effective quality factor, Q-, was also calculated using the values of Q(y)listed in the REM-500 operation manual and compared with those of ICRP 60. The authors observed a continuously increasing trend in y - F, y-D, and Q-with an increase in neutron energy. It is interesting to note that standard tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) filled with tissue equivalent(TE) gas give rise to a similar trend for these microdosimetric quantities of interest in the same energy range; however, the averages calculated in this study are larger by about 15%compared to a TEPC filled with propane-based TE gas probably because of the larger stopping power of protons in propane compared to TE gas. These somewhat larger event sizes did not result in any significant increase in the Q-compared to those obtained from a TEPC filled with TE gas and were found to be in good agreement with other measurements reported earlier at corresponding neutron energies. The instrument quality factor response, R(Q), defined as the ratio of measured quality factor to the calculated quality factor in an ICRU tissue sphere,was found to vary with neutron energy. The instrument response,R(Q), was ~0.6 at 727 keV, which deteriorates further to

  2. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS): educating the prescriber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Susan C; Peterson, Janet; Yektashenas, Behin

    2012-02-01

    The US FDA Amendments Act of 2007 was signed into law on 27 September 2007. A provision of this law granted the FDA new powers to enhance drug safety by requiring the pharmaceutical industry to develop Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS). REMS are deemed necessary when a question exists as to whether the benefits of a drug outweigh its risks. REMS constitute a safety plan with several potential components, including a medication guide, a communication plan, elements to ensure safe use and an implementation system to help guide the prescribers, pharmacists and patients. This applies to existing drugs on the market, new drug applications (NDAs), abbreviated NDAs (generics) and biologics licence applications. REMS represent an 'upgrade' from previously required risk minimization action plans, based on the strengthening of FDA powers of authority and enforceability to incur monetary penalties against individuals representing the pharmaceutical industry who fail to comply. For illustrative purposes, we chose the drug romiplostim (Nplate®) to present an REMS, as all components were utilized to help assuage risks associated with the drug. Romiplostim is an FDA-approved drug used to treat thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura that has a significant adverse safety profile based on the risk of changes in bone marrow reticulin formation and bone marrow fibroses, and other associated risks. This review of current REMS policy is intended to provide the prescriber with a better understanding of current modalities in FDA-mandated drug safety programmes, which will impact day-to-day healthcare provider practices.

  3. Needle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Yuzo

    1977-01-01

    Needle counter had been devised by Geiger about 60 years ago before the present GM counter appeared. It is suitable for the detection of weak radiation because it is limited in effective volume, if the background due to mainly cosmic ray is proportional to the effective volume of the counter. Recently the very low β detector having a needle counter as the main detector has been developed. It showed highly excellent performance in the measurements of small area samples, about ten times sensitive as compared with other detectors. The counter is installed in the very low radiation measuring well at Nokogiriyama, Chiba Prefecture, using a NaI scintillator as its guard counter. D. H. Wilkinson first treated a gas amplification counter theoretically and quantitatively. The authors have obtained good results in the comparison with the experiments of the counter using a generalized form of Wilkinson theory. The findings obtained through this study seem to be applicable to the electrode arrangement which is important for the counter design. It was found that the excellent rise time of induced pulses in a gas amplification counter was achieved in larger amplification factor and smaller convolution effect. In the detection of charged particles with small obstructing capability such as γ ray, faster rise time and higher pulses can be obtained with needle counters than wire counters. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  4. The establishment of bed type germanium-based whole body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.C.; Sun, C.L.; Yeh, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    A coaxial germanium detector was installed in a shadow-shield counter for the in-vivo measurement of γ emitters in the body. It is divided into two subparts, automatic liquid nitrogen transfer system and the Ge-based counting system. The automatic liquid nitrogen transfer system and a complete gamma spectroscopy software package were manufactured by EG and G ORTEC company. Some experiments were finished to get the optimum three setting parameters for how to operate the auto liquid nitrogen transfer system in good conditions. The filling interval should be setting at eight hours, the filling time should be setting at ten minutes, and the pressure of dewar should operate in a range from 14 to 26 PSI. The RMC-II phantom that is designed by Canberra company is used as standard man for all kinds of calibrations. The detector has resolutions that are less than 2.5 keV with an average of 1.87 keV for the 60 Co 1.33-MeV γ-ray peak. The efficiency value of thyroid geometry for four different organs is highest in the phantom. The resolution of the Germanium detector for measuring radioactivity in the body that is better than the sodium iodide detector is used to measure the internal depositions of radionuclide mixtures. So, the advantage of the germanium counter can just compensate the disadvantage of the NaI(TI) detector. The qualitative and quantitative analysis for whole body counting can keep in the best conditions if both whole body counters are operated at the same time for routine measurement purpose in the laboratory

  5. REM Sleep Phase Preference in the Crepuscular Octodon degus Assessed by Selective REM Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Garcés, Adrián; Hernández, Felipe; Palacios, Adrian G.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phase preference in a crepuscular mammal (Octodon degus) by challenging the specific REM sleep homeostatic response during the diurnal and nocturnal anticrepuscular rest phases. Design: We have investigated REM sleep rebound, recovery, and documented REM sleep propensity measures during and after diurnal and nocturnal selective REM sleep deprivations. Subjects: Nine male wild-captured O. degus prepared for polysomnographic recordings Interventions: Animals were recorded during four consecutive baseline and two separate diurnal or nocturnal deprivation days, under a 12:12 light-dark schedule. Three-h selective REM sleep deprivations were performed, starting at midday (zeitgeber time 6) or midnight (zeitgeber time 18). Measurements and Results: Diurnal and nocturnal REM sleep deprivations provoked equivalent amounts of REM sleep debt, but a consistent REM sleep rebound was found only after nocturnal deprivation. The nocturnal rebound was characterized by a complete recovery of REM sleep associated with an augment in REM/total sleep time ratio and enhancement in REM sleep episode consolidation. Conclusions: Our results support the notion that the circadian system actively promotes REM sleep. We propose that the sleep-wake cycle of O. degus is modulated by a chorus of circadian oscillators with a bimodal crepuscular modulation of arousal and a unimodal promotion of nocturnal REM sleep. Citation: Ocampo-Garcés A; Hernández F; Palacios AG. REM sleep phase preference in the crepuscular Octodon degus assessed by selective REM sleep deprivation. SLEEP 2013;36(8):1247-1256. PMID:23904685

  6. Development and validation of an app-based cell counter for use in the clinical laboratory setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Thurman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For decades cellular differentials have been generated exclusively on analog tabletop cell counters. With the advent of tablet computers, digital cell counters - in the form of mobile applications ("apps" - now represent an alternative to analog devices. However, app-based counters have not been widely adopted by clinical laboratories, perhaps owing to a presumed decrease in count accuracy related to the lack of tactile feedback inherent in a touchscreen interface. We herein provide the first systematic evidence that digital cell counters function similarly to standard tabletop units. Methods: We developed an app-based cell counter optimized for use in the clinical laboratory setting. Paired counts of 188 peripheral blood smears and 62 bone marrow aspirate smears were performed using our app-based counter and a standard analog device. Differences between paired data sets were analyzed using the correlation coefficient, Student′s t-test for paired samples and Bland-Altman plots. Results: All counts showed excellent agreement across all users and touch screen devices. With the exception of peripheral blood basophils (r = 0.684, differentials generated for the measured cell categories within the paired data sets were highly correlated (all r ≥ 0.899. Results of paired t-tests did not reach statistical significance for any cell type (all P > 0.05, and Bland-Altman plots showed a narrow spread of the difference about the mean without evidence of significant outliers. Conclusions: Our analysis suggests that no systematic differences exist between cellular differentials obtained via app-based or tabletop counters and that agreement between these two methods is excellent.

  7. Multimode pulse counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natanzon, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    A pulse counter with code conversion is described. The counter is based on the integrated circuits of direct-counting devices of medium integration. The counter ensures various modes of pulse counting depending on the logical control signals: reversible, two-channel summing, one-channel summing binary, summing with ''storage'' signal code fixation without interrupting pulse counting. Arrangement of the suggested structure as a microcircuit of medium integration might contribute to reduction in the counter type nomenclature in digital families of widely used integrated circuits

  8. REM sleep and dreaming functions beyond reductionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Roumen

    2013-12-01

    Brain activation patterns and mental, electrophysiological, and neurobiological features of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep suggest more functions than only elaborative encoding. Hence, the periodic occurrence of REM sleep episodes and dreaming may be regarded as a recurrent adaptive interference, which incorporates recent memories into a broader vital context comprising emotions, basic needs and individual genetic traits.

  9. Evaluation of the dose committed as based on direct measurements with the Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meladani, C.; Castellani, C.M.; Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G.

    1989-01-01

    During normal working activities or in accidental situations, when the introduction of radioactive gamma emitters is non-negligible amount, accurate determination of effective committed dose equivalent based on direct measurements of the internal contamination cannot be avoided. Internal contamination measurements carried out by Whole Body Counter and the application of dosimetric and metabolic models as proposed by ICRP Publication 30 allow the intakes and committed dose equivalents to be evaluated. This paper presents the evaluation methodologies of committed dose equivalent both for istantaneous and extended contaminations. Furthermore, some advice about useful, opportune modes and time uncertainties due to the application of generalized models to particular situations, are also reported. On the basis of the Chernobyl experience, the general criteria for the chice and size of homogeneous groups of individuals to be measured, are finally submitted with a view to collecting the necessary radiation protection information concerning contamination of a part or a whole population

  10. Highly efficient and stable dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanographite/polypyrrole counter electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Gentian; Zhang, Xin’an; Wang, Lei; Tan, Furui; Wu, Jihuai; Jiang, Qiwei; Lin, Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang; Lan, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Much higher photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cell with nanographite/PPy counter electrode as well as that of Pt configuration device. - Highlights: • Pt-free dye-sensitized solar cells. • The nanographite/PPy composite film showed high catalytic activity as well as Pt electrode. • The enhanced catalytic activity was attributed to increased active sites. • The DSSC based on the nanographite/PPy electrode showed a high photovoltaic performance. - Abstract: Nanographite/polypyrrole (NG/PPy) composite film was successfully prepared via in situ polymerization on rigid fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate and served as counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The surface morphology and composition of the composite film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The electrochemical performance of the NG/PPy electrode was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results of CV and EIS revealed that the NG/PPy electrode possessed excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction reaction of triiodide to iodide and low charge transfer resistance at the interface between electrolyte and CE, respectively. The DSSC assembled with the novel NG/PPy CE exhibited an enhanced power conversion efficiency of 7.40% under full sunlight illumination as comparing to that of the DSSC based on sputtered-Pt electrode. Thus, the NG/PPy CE could be premeditated as a promising alternative CE for low-cost and high- efficient DSSCs

  11. Development of Graphene Nano-Platelet Based Counter Electrodes for Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ahmad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphene has been envisaged as a highly promising material for various field emission devices, supercapacitors, photocatalysts, sensors, electroanalytical systems, fuel cells and photovoltaics. The main goal of our work is to develop new Pt and transparent conductive oxide (TCO free graphene based counter electrodes (CEs for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. We have prepared new composites which are based on graphene nano-platelets (GNPs and conductive polymers such as poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS. Films of these composites were deposited on non-conductive pristine glass substrates and used as CEs for DSSCs which were fabricated by the “open cell” approach. The electrical conductivity studies have clearly demonstrated that the addition of GNPs into PEDOT:PSS films resulted in a significant increase of the electrical conductivity of the composites. The highest solar energy conversion efficiency was achieved for CEs comprising of GNPs with the highest conductivity (190 S/cm and n-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP treated PEDOT:PSS in a composite film. The performance of this cell (4.29% efficiency compares very favorably to a DSSC with a standard commercially available Pt and TCO based CE (4.72% efficiency in the same type of open DSSC and is a promising replacement material for the conventional Pt and TCO based CE in DSSCs.

  12. Automatic REM Sleep Detection Associated with Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    2011-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a strong early marker of later development of Parkinsonism. Currently there are no objective methods to identify and discriminate abnormal from normal motor activity during REM sleep. Therefore, a REM sleep detection without the use of chin...... electromyography (EMG) is useful. This is addressed by analyzing the classification performance when implementing two automatic REM sleep detectors. The first detector uses the electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG) and EMG to detect REM sleep, while the second detector only uses the EEG and EOG......, an automatic computerized REM detection algorithm has been implemented, using wavelet packet combined with artificial neural network. Results: When using the EEG, EOG and EMG modalities, it was possible to correctly classify REM sleep with an average Area Under Curve (AUC) equal to 0:900:03 for normal subjects...

  13. Automatic REM sleep detection associated with idiopathic rem sleep Behavior Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, J; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Sorensen, H B D

    2011-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a strong early marker of later development of Parkinsonism. Currently there are no objective methods to identify and discriminate abnormal from normal motor activity during REM sleep. Therefore, a REM sleep detection without the use of chin...... electromyography (EMG) is useful. This is addressed by analyzing the classification performance when implementing two automatic REM sleep detectors. The first detector uses the electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG) and EMG to detect REM sleep, while the second detector only uses the EEG and EOG....

  14. Sleep stability and transitions in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Jennum, Poul; Koch, Henriette; Frandsen, Rune; Zoetmulder, Marielle; Arvastson, Lars; Christensen, Søren Rahn; Sorensen, Helge Bjarrup Dissing

    2016-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at high risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). As wake/sleep-regulation is thought to involve neurons located in the brainstem and hypothalamic areas, we hypothesize that the neurodegeneration in iRBD/PD is likely to affect wake/sleep and REM/non-REM (NREM) sleep transitions. We determined the frequency of wake/sleep and REM/NREM sleep transitions and the stability of wake (W), REM and NREM sleep as measured by polysomnography (PSG) in 27 patients with PD, 23 patients with iRBD, 25 patients with periodic leg movement disorder (PLMD) and 23 controls. Measures were computed based on manual scorings and data-driven labeled sleep staging. Patients with PD showed significantly lower REM stability than controls and patients with PLMD. Patients with iRBD had significantly lower REM stability compared with controls. Patients with PD and RBD showed significantly lower NREM stability and significantly more REM/NREM transitions than controls. We conclude that W, NREM and REM stability and transitions are progressively affected in iRBD and PD, probably reflecting the successive involvement of brain stem areas from early on in the disease. Sleep stability and transitions determined by a data-driven approach could support the evaluation of iRBD and PD patients. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Time Course of the Probability of Transition Into and Out of REM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Alejandro; Vivaldi, Ennio A.; Ocampo-Garcés, Adrián

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: A model of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep expression is proposed that assumes underlying regulatory mechanisms operating as inhomogenous Poisson processes, the overt results of which are the transitions into and out of REM sleep. Design: Based on spontaneously occurring REM sleep episodes (“Episode”) and intervals without REM sleep (“Interval”), 3 variables are defined and evaluated over discrete 15-second epochs using a nonlinear logistic regression method: “Propensity” is the instantaneous rate of into-REM transition occurrence throughout an Interval, “Volatility” is the instantaneous rate of out-of-REM transition occurrence throughout an Episode, and “Opportunity” is the probability of being in non-REM (NREM) sleep at a given time throughout an Interval, a requisite for transition. Setting: 12:12 light:dark cycle, isolated boxes. Participants: Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats Interventions: None. Spontaneous sleep cycles. Measurements and Results: The highest levels of volatility and propensity occur, respectively, at the very beginning of Episodes and Intervals. The new condition stabilizes rapidly, and variables reach nadirs at minute 1.25 and 2.50, respectively. Afterward, volatility increases markedly, reaching values close to the initial level. Propensity increases moderately, the increment being stronger through NREM sleep bouts occurring at the end of long Intervals. Short-term homeostasis is evidenced by longer REM sleep episodes lowering propensity in the following Interval. Conclusions: The stabilization after transitions into Episodes or Intervals and the destabilization after remaining for some time in either condition may be described as resulting from continuous processes building up during Episodes and Intervals. These processes underlie the overt occurrence of transitions. Citation: Bassi A; Vivaldi EA; Ocampo-Garcées A. The time course of the probability of transition into and out of REM sleep. SLEEP 2009

  16. International whole body counter intercomparison based on BOMAB phantom simulating 4 years old child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G.

    1995-11-01

    In April 1993 a whole body counter intercomparison campaign, The 1993 Intercomparison/Intercalibration, started. The campaign has been organized by The Canadian National Reference Centre for In-Vivo Monitoring of Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada and The United States Department of Energy and it was based on measurements on a BOMAB type phantom simulating a 4 years old child. The phantom was filled with radioactive tissue substitute resin and an unknown quantity of radioactivity. Each facility was asked to determine the identity and amount of the radionuclide(s), knowing that the specific activity in the 10 BOMAB's sections was the same. Each facility was also asked to calculate the minimum detectable activity of all the radionuclides detected in the phantom. 35 Facilities from 20 different Countries took part in the initiative. The Institute for Radiation Protection of the Environment Department of ENEA (ENEA AMB IRP) represented Italy. Intercomparison results supplied by ENEA AMB IRP as radionuclides identification, activity data and associated precision, minimum detectable activity levels, can be considered satisfactory and comparable with results supplied by similar-facilities

  17. Developing GIS based decision-support tools for agricultural counter-measurements after radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepka, Pavel; Prochazka, Jan; Brom, Jakub; Pecharova, Emilie

    2009-01-01

    There is a whole variety of possibilities proposed by EURANOS data sheets for agriculture, for mid-term and long-term counter-measures after contamination of crops by radiation. We have developed a set of supportive tools for decision-makers within the project 'Methods of evaluation of contaminated territory after radiation accident - the importance of structure and functioning of a land cover'. Our TM tools are based on ArcGIS platform and Python programming language. We have developed a simple model for estimating the current biomass of the polluted crops. Inputs for this model are: a shape file of land cover data, database table with customisable plant growth characteristics and shape file of polluted areas. The model provides a shape file data set of estimated amounts of biomass of selected crops per hectare for a given day. The results are helpful for better performing of the countermeasure 'Early removal of crops'. The total amount of polluted waste, logistic costs (transport of people and material; required time; other costs) could be estimated only with basic GIS tools. The number of days expected for the harvest can be also calculated and compared with the dose and half-lives of the contaminating radionuclides. This analysis could also lead to a 'Do nothing' decision, especially in case of radionuclides with short times of half-life. (author)

  18. Counter-propagating dual-trap optical tweezers based on linear momentum conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribezzi-Crivellari, M.; Huguet, J. M.; Ritort, F.

    2013-01-01

    We present a dual-trap optical tweezers setup which directly measures forces using linear momentum conservation. The setup uses a counter-propagating geometry, which allows momentum measurement on each beam separately. The experimental advantages of this setup include low drift due to all-optical manipulation, and a robust calibration (independent of the features of the trapped object or buffer medium) due to the force measurement method. Although this design does not attain the high-resolution of some co-propagating setups, we show that it can be used to perform different single molecule measurements: fluctuation-based molecular stiffness characterization at different forces and hopping experiments on molecular hairpins. Remarkably, in our setup it is possible to manipulate very short tethers (such as molecular hairpins with short handles) down to the limit where beads are almost in contact. The setup is used to illustrate a novel method for measuring the stiffness of optical traps and tethers on the basis of equilibrium force fluctuations, i.e., without the need of measuring the force vs molecular extension curve. This method is of general interest for dual trap optical tweezers setups and can be extended to setups which do not directly measure forces.

  19. Counter-propagating dual-trap optical tweezers based on linear momentum conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribezzi-Crivellari, M.; Huguet, J. M. [Small Biosystems Lab, Dept. de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ritort, F. [Small Biosystems Lab, Dept. de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ciber-BBN de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    We present a dual-trap optical tweezers setup which directly measures forces using linear momentum conservation. The setup uses a counter-propagating geometry, which allows momentum measurement on each beam separately. The experimental advantages of this setup include low drift due to all-optical manipulation, and a robust calibration (independent of the features of the trapped object or buffer medium) due to the force measurement method. Although this design does not attain the high-resolution of some co-propagating setups, we show that it can be used to perform different single molecule measurements: fluctuation-based molecular stiffness characterization at different forces and hopping experiments on molecular hairpins. Remarkably, in our setup it is possible to manipulate very short tethers (such as molecular hairpins with short handles) down to the limit where beads are almost in contact. The setup is used to illustrate a novel method for measuring the stiffness of optical traps and tethers on the basis of equilibrium force fluctuations, i.e., without the need of measuring the force vs molecular extension curve. This method is of general interest for dual trap optical tweezers setups and can be extended to setups which do not directly measure forces.

  20. The spectrum of REM sleep-related episodes in children with type 1 narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antelmi, Elena; Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Neccia, Giulia; Ferri, Raffaele; Bruni, Oliviero; Filardi, Marco; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Liguori, Rocco; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    Type 1 narcolepsy is a central hypersomnia due to the loss of hypocretin-producing neurons and characterized by cataplexy, excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and disturbed nocturnal sleep. In children, close to the disease onset, type 1 narcolepsy has peculiar clinical features with severe cataplexy and a complex admixture of movement disorders occurring while awake. Motor dyscontrol during sleep has never been systematically investigated. Suspecting that abnormal motor control might affect also sleep, we systematically analysed motor events recorded by means of video polysomnography in 40 children with type 1 narcolepsy (20 females; mean age 11.8 ± 2.6 years) and compared these data with those recorded in 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Motor events were classified as elementary movements, if brief and non-purposeful and complex behaviours, if simulating purposeful behaviours. Complex behaviours occurring during REM sleep were further classified as 'classically-defined' and 'pantomime-like' REM sleep behaviour disorder episodes, based on their duration and on their pattern (i.e. brief and vivid-energetic in the first case, longer and with subcontinuous gesturing mimicking daily life activity in the second case). Elementary movements emerging either from non-REM or REM sleep were present in both groups, even if those emerging from REM sleep were more numerous in the group of patients. Conversely, complex behaviours could be detected only in children with type 1 narcolepsy and were observed in 13 patients, with six having 'classically-defined' REM sleep behaviour disorder episodes and seven having 'pantomime-like' REM sleep behaviour disorder episodes. Complex behaviours during REM sleep tended to recur in a stereotyped fashion for several times during the night, up to be almost continuous. Patients displaying a more severe motor dyscontrol during REM sleep had also more severe motor disorder during daytime (i

  1. Conducting polymers based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veerender, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Saxena, Vibha, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Jha, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Koiry, S. P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Aswal, D. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gupta, S. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Conducting polymer films were synthesized and employed as an alternative to expensive platinum counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films were spin-coated and polypyrrole films were electrochemically deposited via cyclic voltammetry method on ITO substrates. The morphology of the films were imaged by SEM and AFM. These films show good catalytic activity towards triiodide reduction as compared to Pt/FTO electrodes. Finally the photovoltaic performance of DSSC fabricated using N3 dye were compared with PT/FTO, PEDOT/ITO, and e-PPy counter electrodes.

  2. Calculations of dosimetric parameter and REM meter response for BE(d, n) source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changmao

    1988-01-01

    Based on the recent data about neutron spectra, the average energy, effictive energy and conversion coefficient of fluence to dose equivalent are calculated for some Be (α, n) neutron sources which have differene types and structures. The responses of 2202D and 0075 REM meter for thses spectral neutrons are also estimated. The results indicate that the relationship between average energy and conversion coefficient or REM meter responses can be described by simple functions

  3. Spartan Release Engagement Mechanism (REM) stress and fracture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, D. S.; West, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    The revised stress and fracture analysis of the Spartan REM hardware for current load conditions and mass properties is presented. The stress analysis was performed using a NASTRAN math model of the Spartan REM adapter, base, and payload. Appendix A contains the material properties, loads, and stress analysis of the hardware. The computer output and model description are in Appendix B. Factors of safety used in the stress analysis were 1.4 on tested items and 2.0 on all other items. Fracture analysis of the items considered fracture critical was accomplished using the MSFC Crack Growth Analysis code. Loads and stresses were obtaind from the stress analysis. The fracture analysis notes are located in Appendix A and the computer output in Appendix B. All items analyzed met design and fracture criteria.

  4. Relabeling exchange method (REM) for learning in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Mammone, Richard J.

    1994-02-01

    The supervised training of neural networks require the use of output labels which are usually arbitrarily assigned. In this paper it is shown that there is a significant difference in the rms error of learning when `optimal' label assignment schemes are used. We have investigated two efficient random search algorithms to solve the relabeling problem: the simulated annealing and the genetic algorithm. However, we found them to be computationally expensive. Therefore we shall introduce a new heuristic algorithm called the Relabeling Exchange Method (REM) which is computationally more attractive and produces optimal performance. REM has been used to organize the optimal structure for multi-layered perceptrons and neural tree networks. The method is a general one and can be implemented as a modification to standard training algorithms. The motivation of the new relabeling strategy is based on the present interpretation of dyslexia as an encoding problem.

  5. REM Behaviour Disorder Detection Associated with Neurodegerative Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal skeleton muscle activity during REM sleep is characterized as REM Behaviour Disorder (RBD), and may be an early marker for different neurodegenerative diseases. Early detection of RBD is therefore highly important, and in this ongoing study a semi-automatic method for RBD detection...... is proposed by analyzing the motor activity during sleep. Method: A total number of twelve patients have been involved in this study, six normal controls and six patients diagnosed with Parkinsons Disease (PD) with RBD. All subjects underwent at least one ambulant polysomnographic (PSG) recording. The sleep...... recordings were scored, according to the new sleep-scoring standard from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, by two independent sleep specialists. A follow-up analysis of the scoring consensus between the two specialists has been conducted. Based on the agreement of the two manual scorings...

  6. Differential effects of non-REM and REM sleep on memory consolidation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Sandra; Rasch, Björn

    2014-02-01

    Sleep benefits memory consolidation. Previous theoretical accounts have proposed a differential role of slow-wave sleep (SWS), rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and stage N2 sleep for different types of memories. For example the dual process hypothesis proposes that SWS is beneficial for declarative memories, whereas REM sleep is important for consolidation of non-declarative, procedural and emotional memories. In fact, numerous recent studies do provide further support for the crucial role of SWS (or non-REM sleep) in declarative memory consolidation. However, recent evidence for the benefit of REM sleep for non-declarative memories is rather scarce. In contrast, several recent studies have related consolidation of procedural memories (and some also emotional memories) to SWS (or non-REM sleep)-dependent consolidation processes. We will review this recent evidence, and propose future research questions to advance our understanding of the role of different sleep stages for memory consolidation.

  7. REM sleep deprivation during 5 hours leads to an immediate REM sleep rebound and to suppression of non-REM sleep intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, D.G.M.; Dijk, D.J.; Blok, Guus; Everhardus, I.

    Nine healthy male subjects were deprived of REM sleep during the first 5 h after sleep onset. Afterwards recovery sleep was undisturbed. During the deprivation period the non-REM EEG power spectrum was reduced when compared to baseline for the frequencies up to 7 Hz, despite the fact that non-REM

  8. Intrahippocampal administration of anandamide increases REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Orozco, Pavel Ernesto; Soria-Gómez, Edgar; Montes-Rodríguez, Corinne Jennifer; Pérez-Morales, Marcel; Prospéro-García, Oscar

    2010-04-05

    A nascent literature has postulated endocannabinoids (eCBs) as strong sleep-inducing lipids, particularly rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMs), nevertheless the exact mechanisms behind this effect remain to be determined. Anandamide and 2-arachidonyl glycerol, two of the most important eCBS, are synthesized in the hippocampus. This structure also expresses a high concentration of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). Recent extensive literature supports eCBs as important regulators of hippocampal activity. It has also been shown that these molecules vary their expression on the hippocampus depending on the light-dark cycle. In this context we decided to analyze the effect of intrahippocampal administration of the eCB anandamide (ANA) on the sleep-waking cycle at two points of the light-dark cycle. Our data indicate that the administration of ANA directly into the hippocampus increases REMs in a dose dependent manner during the dark but not during the light phase of the cycle. The increase of REMs was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM251. This effect was specific for the hippocampus since ANA administrations in the surrounding cortex did not elicit any change in REMs. These results support the idea of a direct relationship between hippocampal activity and sleep mechanisms by means of eCBs. The data presented here show, for the first time that eCBs administered into the hippocampus trigger REMs and support previous studies where chemical stimulation of limbic areas triggered sleep.

  9. Designing Nanoscale Counter Using Reversible Gate Based on Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharrami, Elham; Navimipour, Nima Jafari

    2018-04-01

    Some new technologies such as Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is suggested to solve the physical limits of the Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The QCA as one of the novel technologies at nanoscale has potential applications in future computers. This technology has some advantages such as minimal size, high speed, low latency, and low power consumption. As a result, it is used for creating all varieties of memory. Counter circuits as one of the important circuits in the digital systems are composed of some latches, which are connected to each other in series and actually they count input pulses in the circuit. On the other hand, the reversible computations are very important because of their ability in reducing energy in nanometer circuits. Improving the energy efficiency, increasing the speed of nanometer circuits, increasing the portability of system, making smaller components of the circuit in a nuclear size and reducing the power consumption are considered as the usage of reversible logic. Therefore, this paper aims to design a two-bit reversible counter that is optimized on the basis of QCA using an improved reversible gate. The proposed reversible structure of 2-bit counter can be increased to 3-bit, 4-bit and more. The advantages of the proposed design have been shown using QCADesigner in terms of the delay in comparison with previous circuits.

  10. Removal of ocular artifacts from the REM sleep EEG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterman, D.; Woestenburg, J.C.; Elton, M.; Hofman, W.; Kok, A.

    1992-01-01

    The present report concerns the first study in which electrooculographic (EOG) contamination of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is systematically investigated. Contamination of REM sleep EEG recordings in six subjects was evaluated in the frequency domain.

  11. Quantitative differences among EMG activities of muscles innervated by subpopulations of hypoglossal and upper spinal motoneurons during non-REM sleep - REM sleep transitions: a window on neural processes in the sleeping brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukhadze, I; Kamani, H; Kubin, L

    2011-12-01

    In the rat, a species widely used to study the neural mechanisms of sleep and motor control, lingual electromyographic activity (EMG) is minimal during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep and then phasic twitches gradually increase after the onset of REM sleep. To better characterize the central neural processes underlying this pattern, we quantified EMG of muscles innervated by distinct subpopulations of hypoglossal motoneurons and nuchal (N) EMG during transitions from non-REM sleep to REM sleep. In 8 chronically instrumented rats, we recorded cortical EEG, EMG at sites near the base of the tongue where genioglossal and intrinsic muscle fibers predominate (GG-I), EMG of the geniohyoid (GH) muscle, and N EMG. Sleep-wake states were identified and EMGs quantified relative to their mean levels in wakefulness in successive 10 s epochs. During non-REM sleep, the average EMG levels differed among the three muscles, with the order being N>GH>GG-I. During REM sleep, due to different magnitudes of phasic twitches, the order was reversed to GG-I>GH>N. GG-I and GH exhibited a gradual increase of twitching that peaked at 70-120 s after the onset of REM sleep and then declined if the REM sleep episode lasted longer. We propose that a common phasic excitatory generator impinges on motoneuron pools that innervate different muscles, but twitching magnitudes are different due to different levels of tonic motoneuronal hyperpolarization. We also propose that REM sleep episodes of average durations are terminated by intense activity of the central generator of phasic events, whereas long REM sleep episodes end as a result of a gradual waning of the tonic disfacilitatory and inhibitory processes.

  12. CAN NON-REM SLEEP BE DEPRESSOGENIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEERSMA, DGM; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    Sleep and mood are clearly interrelated in major depression, as shown by the antidepressive effects of various experiments, such as total sleep deprivation, partial sleep deprivation, REM sleep deprivation, and temporal shifts of the sleep period. The prevailing hypotheses explaining these effects

  13. Can non-REM sleep be depressogenic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1992-01-01

    Sleep and mood are clearly interrelated in major depression, as shown by the antidepressive effects of various experiments, such as total sleep deprivation, partial sleep deprivation, REM sleep deprivation, and temporal shifts of the sleep period. The prevailing hypotheses explaining these effects

  14. REM sleep rescues learning from interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Duggan, Katherine A.; Mednick, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    Classical human memory studies investigating the acquisition of temporally-linked events have found that the memories for two events will interfere with each other and cause forgetting (i.e., interference; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, sleep helps consolidate memories and protect them from subsequent interference (Ellenbogen, Hulbert, Stickgold, Dinges, & Thompson-Schill, 2006). We asked whether sleep can also repair memories that have already been damaged by interference. Using a perceptual learning paradigm, we induced interference either before or after a consolidation period. We varied brain states during consolidation by comparing active wake, quiet wake, and naps with either non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), or both NREM and REM sleep. When interference occurred after consolidation, sleep and wake both produced learning. However, interference prior to consolidation impaired memory, with retroactive interference showing more disruption than proactive interference. Sleep rescued learning damaged by interference. Critically, only naps that contained REM sleep were able to rescue learning that was highly disrupted by retroactive interference. Furthermore, the magnitude of rescued learning was correlated with the amount of REM sleep. We demonstrate the first evidence of a process by which the brain can rescue and consolidate memories damaged by interference, and that this process requires REM sleep. We explain these results within a theoretical model that considers how interference during encoding interacts with consolidation processes to predict which memories are retained or lost. PMID:25498222

  15. RemBench: A Digital Workbench for Rembrandt Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, Suzan; Van Leeuwen, Rudie; Gerritsen, G.H.; Boves, Lou

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present RemBench, a search engine for research into the life and works of Rembrandt van Rijn. RemBench combines the data from four different databases behind one interface using federated search technology. Metadata filtering is enabled through faceted search. RemBench enables art

  16. An ion beam tracking system based on a parallel plate avalanche counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, I. P.; Ramachandran, K.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.; Rafiei, R.; Luong, D. H.; Williams, E.; Cook, K. J.; McNeil, S.; Rafferty, D. C.; Harding, A. B.; Muirhead, A. G.; Tunningley, T.

    2013-01-01

    A pair of twin position-sensitive parallel plate avalanche counters have been developed at the Australian National University as a tracking system to aid in the further rejection of unwanted beam particles from a 6.5 T super conducting solenoid separator named SOLEROO. Their function is to track and identify each beam particle passing through the detectors on an event-by-event basis. In-beam studies have been completed and the detectors are in successful operation, demonstrating the tracking capability. A high efficiency 512-pixel wide-angle silicon detector array will then be integrated with the tracking system for nuclear reactions studies of radioactive ions. (authors)

  17. High performance dye-sensitized solar cell based on hydrothermally deposited multiwall carbon nanotube counter electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriroj, Sumeth; Pimanpang, Samuk; Towannang, Madsakorn; Maiaugree, Wasan; Phumying, Santi; Jarernboon, Wirat; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya

    2012-06-01

    Conductive glass was coated with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by a hydrothermal method. MWCNTs films were subsequently used as dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) counter electrodes. The performance of hydrothermal MWCNT DSSC was ˜2.37%. After film annealing in an Ar atmosphere, annealed-hydrothermal MWCNT (AHT-CNT) DSSC efficiency was significantly increased to ˜7.66%, in comparison to ˜8.01% for sputtered-Pt DSSC. Improvement of AHT-CNT DSSC performance is attributed to a decrease in charge-transfer resistance from 1500 Ω to 30 Ω as observed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  18. Radiation protection instruments based on tissue equivalent proportional counters: Part II of an international intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.; Dietz, E.; Guldbakke, S.; Kluge, H.; Schumacher, H.

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the irradiation conditions and procedures of Part II of an international intercomparison of tissue-equivalent proportional counters used for radiation protection measurements. The irradiations took place in monoenergetic reference neutron fields produced by the research reactor and accelerator facilities of the PTB Braunschweig in the range from thermal neutrons to 14.8 MeV. In addition measurements were performed in 60 Co and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf radiation fields. Prototype instruments from 7 European groups were investigated. The results of the measurements are summarized and compared with the reference data of the irradiations. (orig.) [de

  19. Posttraining Increases in REM Sleep Intensity Implicate REM Sleep in Memory Processing and Provide a Biological Marker of Learning Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Rebecca S.; Smith, Carlyle T.; Nixon, Margaret R.

    2004-01-01

    Posttraining rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been reported to be important for efficient memory consolidation. The present results demonstrate increases in the intensity of REM sleep during the night of sleep following cognitive procedural/implicit task acquisition. These REM increases manifest as increases in total number of rapid eye…

  20. Model to Counter the Threats in the Data Transmission System PLC-based Technology with the Use of Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Balaev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the most important aspects of information security technology Power Line Communica tions, namely the provision of conditions accessibility and integrity, are considered. It is shown that these aspects of the PLC-Technology has some internal “potential” counter, at least, such a widespread threat to both natural disturbances and/or artificial origin. The possibility of such an implementation using the simplified mathematical model of the PLC-based technologies of the theory of Petri nets is presented.

  1. Proposed man-rem reference values of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents a proposal of referent collective dose (man-rem) values for occupational exposure related to operation of French pressurized water reactors. These values, permitting adequate choice of protection both at design and operation level, are dependent on the level of annual individual doses. The man-rem value, originating from annual individual doses less than 0.5 rem are estimated to 1 kf. The proposed value is 20 kf for annual individual exposures between 0.5 and 3 rem, and 90 kf for annual individual exposures between 3 and 5 rem. (author) [fr

  2. Body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.

    1975-01-01

    The paper gives a survey on some applications of the whole body counter in clinical practice and a critical study of its application as a routine testing method. Remarks on the necessary precautions are followed by a more detailed discussion of the determination of the natural potassium content, the iron metabolism, the vitamin B12 test, investigations of the metabolism of the bone using 47 Ca and 85 Sr, investigations with iodine and iodine-labelled substances, clearance investigations (in particular the 51 Cr EDTA clearance test), as well as the possibilities of neutron activation in vivo. (ORU/AK) [de

  3. Simulation of counter-current imbibition in water-wet fractured reservoirs based on discrete-fracture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yueying

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolated fractures usually exist in fractured media systems, where the capillary pressure in the fracture is lower than that of the matrix, causing the discrepancy in oil recoveries between fractured and non-fractured porous media. Experiments, analytical solutions and conventional simulation methods based on the continuum model approach are incompetent or insufficient in describing media containing isolated fractures. In this paper, the simulation of the counter-current imbibition in fractured media is based on the discrete-fracture model (DFM. The interlocking or arrangement of matrix and fracture system within the model resembles the traditional discrete fracture network model and the hybrid-mixed-finite-element method is employed to solve the associated equations. The Behbahani experimental data validates our simulation solution for consistency. The simulation results of the fractured media show that the isolated-fractures affect the imbibition in the matrix block. Moreover, the isolated fracture parameters such as fracture length and fracture location influence the trend of the recovery curves. Thus, the counter-current imbibition behavior of media with isolated fractures can be predicted using this method based on the discrete-fracture model.

  4. Methods of Optimisation of the Structure of the Dealing Bank with a Limited Base of Counter-Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Sergіy M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers methods of assessment of optimal parameters of the dealing bank service with a limited base of counter-agents. The methods are based on the mathematical model of micro-structure of the inter-bank currency market. The key parameters of the infrastructure of the dealing service within the framework of the model are: number of authorised traders, contingent of counter-agents, quotation policy, main parameters of the currency market – spread and volatility of quotations and the resulting indicators of efficiency of the dealing service – profit and probability of breakeven operation. The methods allow identification of optimal parameters of the infrastructure of the dealing bank service based on indicators of dynamics of currency risks and market environment of the bank. On the basis of the developed mathematical model the article develops methods of planning calculations of parameters of the infrastructure of the dealing bank service, which are required for ensuring a necessary level of efficiency with set parameters of the currency market. Application of the said methods gives a possibility to assess indicators of operation of the bank’s front office depending on its scale.

  5. Nuclear timer/counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuthayavanich, S.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis represents the development of a Timer/COUNTER compatible to the standard Nuclear Instrument Module Specifications. The unit exhibits high accuracy, light weight and ease of maintenance. The unit also has a built-in precision discriminator to discriminate unwanted signals that may cause interference in counting. With line frequency time base the timer can be preset in steps from 0.1 sec. to 9 x 10 5 min. The counter with six digits miniature display and an overflow output has a maximum counting rate of 10 MHz. The accumulated counting data can be transferred to a teletype or printer for hard copy printout with the aid of ORTEC 777 Line Printer or 432 A Print-out Control or any print out interface with input compatible to the print output of the Timer/Counter. Owing to its NIM compatibility the unit is directly powered by the NIM power supply

  6. Rev and Rex proteins of human complex retroviruses function with the MMTV Rem-responsive element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudley Jaquelin P

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV encodes the Rem protein, an HIV Rev-like protein that enhances nuclear export of unspliced viral RNA in rodent cells. We have shown that Rem is expressed from a doubly spliced RNA, typical of complex retroviruses. Several recent reports indicate that MMTV can infect human cells, suggesting that MMTV might interact with human retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV, and human endogenous retrovirus type K (HERV-K. In this report, we test whether the export/regulatory proteins of human complex retroviruses will increase expression from vectors containing the Rem-responsive element (RmRE. Results MMTV Rem, HIV Rev, and HTLV Rex proteins, but not HERV-K Rec, enhanced expression from an MMTV-based reporter plasmid in human T cells, and this activity was dependent on the RmRE. No RmRE-dependent reporter gene expression was detectable using Rev, Rex, or Rec in HC11 mouse mammary cells. Cell fractionation and RNA quantitation experiments suggested that the regulatory proteins did not affect RNA stability or nuclear export in the MMTV reporter system. Rem had no demonstrable activity on export elements from HIV, HTLV, or HERV-K. Similar to the Rem-specific activity in rodent cells, the RmRE-dependent functions of Rem, Rev, or Rex in human cells were inhibited by a dominant-negative truncated nucleoporin that acts in the Crm1 pathway of RNA and protein export. Conclusion These data argue that many retroviral regulatory proteins recognize similar complex RNA structures, which may depend on the presence of cell-type specific proteins. Retroviral protein activity on the RmRE appears to affect a post-export function of the reporter RNA. Our results provide additional evidence that MMTV is a complex retrovirus with the potential for viral interactions in human cells.

  7. Brain prolactin is involved in stress-induced REM sleep rebound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ricardo Borges; Rocha, Murilo Ramos; Suchecki, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    REM sleep rebound is a common behavioural response to some stressors and represents an adaptive coping strategy. Animals submitted to multiple, intermittent, footshock stress (FS) sessions during 96h of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) display increased REM sleep rebound (when compared to the only REMSD ones, without FS), which is correlated to high plasma prolactin levels. To investigate whether brain prolactin plays a role in stress-induced REM sleep rebound two experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, rats were either not sleep-deprived (NSD) or submitted to 96h of REMSD associated or not to FS and brains were evaluated for PRL immunoreactivity (PRL-ir) and determination of PRL concentrations in the lateral hypothalamus and dorsal raphe nucleus. In experiment 2, rats were implanted with cannulas in the dorsal raphe nucleus for prolactin infusion and were sleep-recorded. REMSD associated with FS increased PRL-ir and content in the lateral hypothalamus and all manipulations increased prolactin content in the dorsal raphe nucleus compared to the NSD group. Prolactin infusion in the dorsal raphe nucleus increased the time and length of REM sleep episodes 3h after the infusion until the end of the light phase of the day cycle. Based on these results we concluded that brain prolactin is a major mediator of stress-induced REMS. The effect of PRL infusion in the dorsal raphe nucleus is discussed in light of the existence of a bidirectional relationship between this hormone and serotonin as regulators of stress-induced REM sleep rebound. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alpha–beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); NRC-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Orion, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-08-11

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha–beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha–beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha–beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  9. Comparison of dye solar cell counter electrodes based on different carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitola, Kerttu; Halme, Janne; Halonen, Niina; Kaskela, Antti; Toivola, Minna; Nasibulin, Albert G.; Kordas, Krisztian; Toth, Geza; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Lund, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    Three characteristically different carbon nanomaterials were compared and analyzed as platinum-free counter electrodes for dye solar cells: 1) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) random network films on glass, 2) aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) forest films on Inconel steel and quartz, and 3) pressed carbon nanoparticle composite films on indium tin oxide-polyethylene terephtalate plastic. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electron microscopy were discussed in terms of the catalytic activity, conductivity, thickness, transparency and flexibility of the electrode films. The SWCNT films showed reasonable catalytic performance at similar series resistance compared to platinized fluorine doped tin oxide-coated glass. The MWCNTs had similar catalytic activity, but the electrochemical performance of the films was limited by their high porosity. Carbon nanoparticle films had the lowest charge transfer resistance resulting from a combination of high catalytic activity and dense packing of the material.

  10. Comparison of dye solar cell counter electrodes based on different carbon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitola, Kerttu, E-mail: kerttu.aitola@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Halme, Janne [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Halonen, Niina [Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Kaskela, Antti; Toivola, Minna; Nasibulin, Albert G. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Kordas, Krisztian; Toth, Geza [Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Kauppinen, Esko I. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland); VTT Biotechnology, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Lund, Peter D. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2011-09-01

    Three characteristically different carbon nanomaterials were compared and analyzed as platinum-free counter electrodes for dye solar cells: 1) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) random network films on glass, 2) aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) forest films on Inconel steel and quartz, and 3) pressed carbon nanoparticle composite films on indium tin oxide-polyethylene terephtalate plastic. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electron microscopy were discussed in terms of the catalytic activity, conductivity, thickness, transparency and flexibility of the electrode films. The SWCNT films showed reasonable catalytic performance at similar series resistance compared to platinized fluorine doped tin oxide-coated glass. The MWCNTs had similar catalytic activity, but the electrochemical performance of the films was limited by their high porosity. Carbon nanoparticle films had the lowest charge transfer resistance resulting from a combination of high catalytic activity and dense packing of the material.

  11. Bases for calibration of whole body counters using anthropomorphic physical simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao

    1998-01-01

    The quantification of radionuclides in the human body can be carried out through in vivo measurements performed in facilities generically called whole body counters. The calibration of such units is usually done by using physical anthropomorphic phantoms, which can be defined as artificial structures with geometrical characteristics and attenuation properties similar to the living tissues. This work presents the development of the phantoms necessary to the monitoring of the internal contamination by the radionuclides manipulated in Brazil. It also presents the procedures for the calibration of the detectors used for the in vivo measurements. The developed phantoms are applied in the determination of radionuclides deposited in specific organs, such as Th-232 and Am-241 in the lungs and skull, isotopes of iodine in the thyroid and photon emitters in the energy range from 100 to 3000 keV in the whole body. (author)

  12. Performance of diethylene glycol-based particle counters in the sub-3 nm size range

    CERN Document Server

    Wimmer, D; Franchin, A; Kangasluoma, J; Kreissl, F; Kürten, A; Kupc, A; Metzger, A; Mikkilä, J; Petäjä, J; Riccobono, F; Vanhanen, J; Kulmala, M; Curtius, J

    2013-01-01

    When studying new particle formation, the uncertainty in determining the "true" nucleation rate is considerably reduced when using condensation particle counters (CPCs) capable of measuring concentrations of aerosol particles at sizes close to or even at the critical cluster size (1–2 nm). Recently, CPCs able to reliably detect particles below 2 nm in size and even close to 1 nm became available. Using these instruments, the corrections needed for calculating nucleation rates are substantially reduced compared to scaling the observed formation rate to the nucleation rate at the critical cluster size. However, this improved instrumentation requires a careful characterization of their cut-off size and the shape of the detection efficiency curve because relatively small shifts in the cut-off size can translate into larger relative errors when measuring particles close to the cut-off size. Here we describe the development of two continuous-flow CPCs using diethylene glycol (DEG) as the working fluid. The desig...

  13. Measurement of the volume growth rate of single budding yeast with the MOSFET-based microfluidic Coulter counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiashu; Stowers, Chris C; Boczko, Erik M; Li, Deyu

    2010-11-07

    We report on measurements of the volume growth rate of ten individual budding yeast cells using a recently developed MOSFET-based microfluidic Coulter counter. The MOSFET-based microfluidic Coulter counter is very sensitive, provides signals that are immune from the baseline drift, and can work with cell culture media of complex composition. These desirable features allow us to directly measure the volume growth rate of single cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae LYH3865 strain budding yeast in YNB culture media over a whole cell cycle. Results indicate that all budding yeast follow a sigmoid volume growth profile with reduced growth rates at the initial stage before the bud emerges and the final stage after the daughter gets mature. Analysis of the data indicates that even though all piecewise linear, Gomperitz, and Hill's function models can fit the global growth profile equally well, the data strongly support local exponential growth phenomenon. Accurate volume growth measurements are important for applications in systems biology where quantitative parameters are required for modeling and simulation.

  14. Surface-atmospheric water cycle at Gale crater through multi-year MSL/REMS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A. M.; Genzer, M.; McConnochie, T. H.; Savijarvi, H. I.; Smith, M. D.; Martinez, G.; de la Torre Juarez, M.; Haberle, R. M.; Polkko, J.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Renno, N. O.; Kemppinen, O.; Paton, M.; Richardson, M. I.; Newman, C. E.; Siili, T. T.; Mäkinen, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Mars Science laboratory (MSL) has been successfully operating for almost three Martian years. That includes an unprecedented long time series of atmospheric observations by the REMS instrument performing measurements of atmospheric pressure, relative humidity (REMS-H), temperature of the air, ground temperature, UV and wind speed and direction. The REMS-H relative humidity device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc. and it makes use of three (3) humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The REMS-H humidity instrument has created an unprecedented data record of more than two full Martian. REMS-H measured the relative humidity and temperature at 1.6 m height for a period of 5 minutes every hour as part of the MSL/REMS instrument package. We focus on describing the annual in situ water cycle with the REMS-H instrument data for the period of almost three Martian years. The results will be constrained through comparison with independent indirect observations and through modeling efforts. We inferred the hourly atmospheric VMR from the REMS-H observations and compared these VMR measurements with predictions of VMR from our 1D column Martian atmospheric model and regolith to investigate the local water cycle, exchange processes and the local climate in Gale Crater. The strong diurnal variation suggests there are surface-atmosphere exchange processes at Gale Crater during all seasons, which depletes moisture to the ground in the evening and nighttime and release the moisture back to the atmosphere during the daytime. On the other hand, these processes do not seem to result in significant water deposition on the ground. Hence, our modelling results presumably indicate that adsorption processes take place during the nighttime and desorption during the daytime. Other processes, e.g. convective

  15. Over-the-counter but out of reach: a pharmacy-based survey of OTC syringe sales in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollini, Robin A; Gallardo, Manuel; Ruiz, Serena; Case, Patricia; Zaller, Nickolas; Lozada, Remedios

    2014-05-01

    Sterile syringe access is critical to HIV prevention efforts targeting injection drug users (IDUs) but some pharmacies do not sell syringes over-the-counter (OTC) even where such sales are legal. We conducted a pharmacy survey in Tijuana, Mexico (where OTC sales are legal) to characterize attitudes toward syringe sales and to explore support for expanding pharmacy-based HIV prevention efforts. Of 203 respondents, 28% supported OTC syringe sales to IDUs and 74% said their pharmacy required a prescription for at least some syringe sales. Support for OTC syringe sales was independently associated with selling OTC syringes, understanding the role of sterile syringes in HIV prevention, and recognizing pharmacies as an important health resource for IDUs. Most respondents supported an expanded role for pharmacies in HIV prevention, exclusive of OTC syringe sales. Our study provides information for developing interventions to promote OTC syringe sales and expanding pharmacy-based distribution of HIV-related information and resources.

  16. A novel current mode operating beam counter based on not preamplified HPDs

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    A novel system to monitor the intensity and the stability of a bunched beam of $\\simeq 1.2\\times 10^{7}$ antiprotons ($\\bar{p}$s) with a length of $\\simeq$ 250 ns (FWHM) and to measure its trapping efficiency in a Penning trap is described. This system operates parasitically detecting the pions from the annihilation of part of the beam in a degrader. Six plastic scintillators have been coupled from one side to six proximity focused HPDs without preamplifiers and operating in current mode. This device works in the stray field of the ATHENA magnet with no loss of efficiency; the gain can be varied from zero to a few thousands with a precision better than 0.1% and the dynamic range is larger than 8 orders of magnitude. Linearity and stability have been measured up to charge responses of 100 nC, corresponding to the beam completely dumped. The beam counter has been calibrated in two different and independent ways giving consistent results.

  17. Permanently calibrated interpolating time counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachna, Z; Szplet, R; Kwiatkowski, P; Różyc, K

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new architecture of an integrated time interval counter that provides its permanent calibration in the background. Time interval measurement and the calibration procedure are based on the use of a two-stage interpolation method and parallel processing of measurement and calibration data. The parallel processing is achieved by a doubling of two-stage interpolators in measurement channels of the counter, and by an appropriate extension of control logic. Such modification allows the updating of transfer characteristics of interpolators without the need to break a theoretically infinite measurement session. We describe the principle of permanent calibration, its implementation and influence on the quality of the counter. The precision of the presented counter is kept at a constant level (below 20 ps) despite significant changes in the ambient temperature (from −10 to 60 °C), which can cause a sevenfold decrease in the precision of the counter with a traditional calibration procedure. (paper)

  18. Over-the-Counter "Adrenal Support" Supplements Contain Thyroid and Steroid-Based Adrenal Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Chindris, Ana Maria; Hines, Jolaine M; Singh, Ravinder J; Bernet, Victor J

    2018-03-01

    To assess whether dietary supplements that are herbal and/or animal-derived products, marketed for enhancing metabolism or promoting energy, "adrenal fatigue," or "adrenal support," contain thyroid or steroid hormones. Twelve dietary adrenal support supplements were purchased. Pregnenolone, androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, cortisol, cortisone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, synthetic glucocorticoids (betamethasone, dexamethasone, fludrocortisone, megestrol acetate, methylprednisolone, prednisolone, prednisone, budesonide, and triamcinolone acetonide) levels were measured twice in samples in a blinded fashion. This study was conducted between February 1, 2016, and November 1, 2016. Among steroids, pregnenolone was the most common hormone in the samples. Budesonide, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, cortisol, and cortisone were the others in order of prevalence. All the supplements revealed a detectable amount of triiodothyronine (T3) (63-394.9 ng/tablet), 42% contained pregnenolone (66.12-205.2 ng/tablet), 25% contained budesonide (119.5-610 ng/tablet), 17% contained androstenedione (1.27-7.25 ng/tablet), 8% contained 17-OH progesterone (30.09 ng/tablet), 8% contained cortisone (79.66 ng/tablet), and 8% contained cortisol (138.5 ng/tablet). Per label recommended doses daily exposure was up to 1322 ng for T3, 1231.2 ng for pregnenolone, 1276.4 ng for budesonide, 29 ng for androstenedione, 60.18 ng for 17-OH progesterone, 277 ng for cortisol, and 159.32 ng for cortisone. All the supplements studied contained a small amount of thyroid hormone and most contained at least 1 steroid hormone. This is the first study that measured thyroid and steroid hormones in over-the-counter dietary "adrenal support" supplements in the United States. These results may highlight potential risks of hidden ingredients in unregulated supplements. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Counter-discourse in Zimbabwean literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangena, Tendai

    2015-01-01

    Counter-Discourse in Zimbabwean Literature is a study of specific aspects of counter-discursive Zimbabwean narratives in English. In discussing the selected texts, my thesis is based on Terdiman’s (1989) the postcolonial concept of counter-discourse. In Zimbabwean literature challenges to a dominant

  20. Highly catalytic carbon nanotube counter electrode on plastic for dye solar cells utilizing cobalt-based redox mediator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitola, Kerttu; Halme, Janne; Feldt, Sandra; Lohse, Peter; Borghei, Maryam; Kaskela, Antti; Nasibulin, Albert G.; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Lund, Peter D.; Boschloo, Gerrit; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2013-01-01

    A flexible, slightly transparent and metal-free random network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on plain polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic substrate outperformed platinum on conductive glass and on plastic as the counter electrode (CE) of a dye solar cell employing a Co(II/III)tris(2,2′-bipyridyl) complex redox mediator in 3-methoxypropionitrile solvent. The CE charge-transfer resistance of the SWCNT film was 0.60 Ω cm 2 , 4.0 Ω cm 2 for sputtered platinum on indium tin oxide-PET substrate and 1.7 Ω cm 2 for thermally deposited Pt on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass, respectively. The solar cell efficiencies were in the same range, thus proving that an entirely carbon-based SWCNT film on plastic is as good CE candidate for the Co electrolyte

  1. A Mitigation Approach to Counter Initial Ranging Based DoS Attacks on IEEE 802.16-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Y.; Asif, K.H.; Ahmad, T.; Bashir, K.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years increase in wireless accessed devices does not prerequisite any evidence. Security is the main concern for the researchers in 802.16e now-a-days. The layer structures defines that the security sub-layer resides over the physical layer and provides security on the link layer. This paper discusses the security threats present and still unsolved at the initial network entry stage. A mitigation approach to counter Initial Ranging Based DoS attacks on IEEE 802.16-2009 are particularized in this paper. Furthermore the existing solutions of initial ranging vulnerability are analyzed and their limitations are discussed. Proposed solution was checked against these limitations to ensure their absence. Moreover the solution was implemented in OMNET++ and results were analyzed to ensure the practicality and efficiency. (author)

  2. REM behaviour disorder detection associated with neurodegenerative diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sorensen, Gertrud; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal skeleton muscle activity during REM sleep is characterized as REM Behaviour Disorder (RBD), and may be an early marker for different neurodegenerative diseases. Early detection of RBD is therefore highly important, and in this ongoing study a semi-automatic method for RBD detection......, a computerized algorithm has been attempted implemented. By analysing the REM and non-REM EMG activity, using advanced signal processing tools combined with a statistical classifier, it is possible to discriminate normal and abnormal EMG activity. Due to the small number of patients, the overall performance...

  3. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchou, Florian; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Rainville, Pierre; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers). Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1) placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2) pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3) REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated.

  4. Monitoring of the prompt GRB afterglow with the REM telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covino, S.; Zerbi, F.; Chincarini, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Conconi, P.; Molinari, E.; Rodono, M.; Cutispoto, G.; Antonelli, L.A.; Nicastro, L.; Palazzi, E.

    2003-01-01

    In these pages we present REM (Rapid Eye Mount), a fully robotized fast slewing telescope equipped with a high throughput NIR (Z', J, H, K) camera and an Optical slitless spectrograph (ROSS) optimized for the monitoring of the prompt afterglow of Gamma Ray Bursts. Covering the NIR domain REM can discover objects at extremely high red-shift and trigger large telescopes to observe them when they are still bright. The synergy between REM-IR cam and ROSS makes REM a powerful observing tool for any kind of fast transient phenomena

  5. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic...... symptoms has never been systematically performed. Patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD (318 cases) and controls (137 healthy volunteers and 181 sleep center controls with sleep diagnoses other than RBD) were recruited from 13 neurological centers in 10 countries from 2008 to 2011. A validated scale...

  6. REM Sleep EEG Instability in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Clonazepam Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Silvani, Alessandro; Zucconi, Marco; Bruni, Oliviero; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Manconi, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to analyze quantitatively rapid eye movement (REM) sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in controls, drug-naïve idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder patients (iRBD), and iRBD patients treated with clonazepam. Twenty-nine drug-naïve iRBD patients (mean age 68.2 years), 14 iRBD patients under chronic clonazepam therapy (mean age 66.3 years), and 21 controls (mean age 66.8 years) were recruited. Power spectra were obtained from sleep EEG (central derivation), using a 2-second sliding window, with 1-second steps. The power values of each REM sleep EEG spectral band (one every second) were normalized with respect to the average power value obtained during sleep stage 2 in the same individual. In drug-naïve patients, the normalized power values showed a less pronounced REM-related decrease of power in all bands with frequency sleep EEG structure changes found in this study disclose subtle but significant alterations in the cortical electrophysiology of RBD that might represent the early expression of the supposed neurodegenerative processes already taking place at this stage of the disease and might be the target of better and effective future therapeutic strategies for this condition. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. APhA 2011 REMS white paper: Summary of the REMS stakeholder meeting on improving program design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pharmacists Association; Bough, Marcie

    2011-01-01

    To develop an improved risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) system for maximizing effective and safe patient medication use while minimizing burden on the health care delivery system. 34 stakeholders gathered October 6-7, 2010, in Arlington, VA, for the REMS Stakeholder Meeting, convened by the American Pharmacists Association (APhA). Participants included national health care provider associations, including representatives for physicians, physician assistants, nurses, nurse practitioners, and pharmacists, as well as representatives for patient advocates, drug distributors, community pharmacists (chain and independent), drug manufacturer associations (brand, generic, and biologic organizations), and health information technology, standards, and safety organizations. Staff from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Drug Evaluation and Research participated as observers. The meeting built on themes from the APhA's 2009 REMS white paper. The current REMS environment presents many challenges for health care providers due to the growing number of REMS programs and the lack of standardization or similarities among various REMS programs. A standardized REMS process that focuses on maximizing patient safety and minimizing impacts on patient access and provider implementation could offset these challenges. A new process that includes effective provider interventions and standardized tools and systems for implementing REMS programs may improve patient care and overcome some of the communication issues providers and patients currently face. Metrics could be put in place to evaluate the effectiveness of REMS elements. By incorporating REMS program components into existing technologies and data infrastructures, achieving REMS implementation that is workflow neutral and minimizes administrative burden may be possible. An appropriate compensation model could ensure providers have adequate resources for patient care and REMS implementation. Overall

  8. A novel safety device with metal counter meshing gears discriminator directly driven by axial flux permanent magnet micromotors based on MEMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiping; Chen, Wenyuan; Zhao, Xiaolin; Li, Shengyong; Jiang, Yong

    2005-08-01

    In a novel safety device based on MEMS technology for high consequence systems, the discriminator consists of two groups of metal counter meshing gears and two pawl/ratchet wheel mechanisms. Each group of counter meshing gears is onepiece and driven directly by an axial flux permanent magnet micromotor respectively. The energy-coupling element is an optical shutter with two collimators and a coupler wheel. The safety device's probability is less than 1/106. It is fabricated by combination of an LiGA-like process and precision mechanical engineering. The device has simple structure, few dynamic problems, high strength and strong reliability.

  9. Distributed performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristan D; Evans, Kahn C; Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L

    2013-11-26

    A plurality of first performance counter modules is coupled to a plurality of processing cores. The plurality of first performance counter modules is operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of processing cores respectively. A plurality of second performance counter modules are coupled to a plurality of L2 cache units, and the plurality of second performance counter modules are operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of L2 cache units respectively. A central performance counter module may be operable to coordinate counter data from the plurality of first performance counter modules and the plurality of second performance modules, the a central performance counter module, the plurality of first performance counter modules, and the plurality of second performance counter modules connected by a daisy chain connection.

  10. Respiration amplitude analysis for REM and NREM sleep classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, X.; Foussier, J.; Fonseca, P.; Haakma, R.; Aarts, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    In previous work, single-night polysomnography recordings (PSG) of respiratory effort and electrocardiogram (ECG) signals combined with actigraphy were used to classify sleep and wake states. In this study, we aim at classifying rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep states. Besides the

  11. REM sleep at its core—Circuits, neurotransmitters and pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ePeever

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available REM sleep is generated and maintained by the interaction of a variety of neurotransmitter systems in the brainstem, forebrain and hypothalamus. Within these circuits lies a core region that is active during REM sleep, known as the subcoeruleus nucleus (SubC or sublaterodorsal nucleus. It is hypothesized that glutamatergic SubC neurons regulate REM sleep and its defining features such as muscle paralysis and cortical activation. REM sleep paralysis is initiated when glutamatergic SubC activate neurons in the ventral medial medulla (VMM, which causes release of GABA and glycine onto skeletal motoneurons. REM sleep timing is controlled by activity of GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG and dorsal paragigantocellular reticular nucleus (DPGi as well as melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH neurons in the hypothalamus and cholinergic cells in the laterodorsal (LDT and pedunculo-pontine tegmentum (PPT in the brainstem. Determining how these circuits interact with the SubC is important because breakdown in their communication is hypothesized to underlie cataplexy/narcolepsy and REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD. This review synthesizes our current understanding of mechanisms generating healthy REM sleep and how dysfunction of these circuits contributes to common REM sleep disorders such as cataplexy/narcolepsy and RBD.

  12. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...... for REM sleep behavior disorder....

  13. Post training REMs coincident auditory stimulation enhances memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C; Weeden, K

    1990-06-01

    Sleep activity was monitored in 20 freshman college students for two consecutive nights. Subjects were assigned to 4 equal groups and all were asked to learn a complex logic task before bed on the second night. Two groups of subjects learned the task with a constant clicking noise in the background (cued groups), while two groups simply learned the task (non cued). During the night, one cued and one non cued group were presented with auditory clicks during REM sleep such as to coincide with all REMs of at least 100 microvolts. The second cued group was given auditory clicks during REM sleep, but only during the REMs "quiet" times. The second non-cued control group was never given any nighttime auditory stimulations. The cued REMs coincident group showed a significant 23% improvement in task performance when tested one week later. The non cued REMs coincident group showed only an 8.8% improvement which was not significant. The cued REMs quiet and non-stimulated control groups showed no change in task performance when retested. The results were interpreted as support for the idea that the cued auditory stimulation induced a "recall" of the learned material during the REM sleep state in order for further memory processing to take place.

  14. Nuclear electronic components of surface contamination monitor based on multi-electrode proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiangyang; Zhang Yong; Han Shuping; Rao Xianming; Fang Jintu

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear electronic components applying in Portal Monitor and Hands and Feet Surface Contamination Monitor were based on modern integrated circuit are introduced. The detailed points in circuit design and manufacturing technique are analyzed

  15. Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shypailo, R J; Ellis, K J

    2011-01-01

    During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40 K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration.

  16. Over the counter drugs (and dietary supplement) exercise: a team-based introduction to biochemistry for health professional students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadtare, Sangita; Abali, Emine; Brodsky, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    For successful delivery of basic science topics for health-professional students, it is critical to reduce apprehension and illustrate relevance to clinical settings and everyday life. At the beginning of the Biochemistry course for Physician Assistants, a team-based assignment was designed to develop an understanding of the mechanism of action, effectiveness, and toxicity of five common over the counter (OTC) drugs and dietary supplements, and place these familiar medicines in a political and historical context. The objectives of this exercise were to stimulate interest in biochemistry; to provide basic information on enzymes and enzyme inhibitors related to these drugs to be expanded upon later in the course; and to encourage active and interactive learning. Teams of five students were formed, and each student was given an information sheet on aspirin, alpha-galactosidase, orlistat, dextromethorphan, or simvastatin, a low dose statin, which was previously available without prescription at pharmacies in the UK. After each member of the team acquired information on one OTC drug/dietary supplement by reading an assigned information sheet, the team was asked to go through a series of questions, and then submit answers to a quiz as a group. A high rate of success on the quiz, an overwhelmingly positive response on formal course evaluations, and enthusiastic exchanges during class suggested this team-based session accomplished its goals. Copyright © 2013 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Differential effects of non-REM and REM sleep on memory consolidation?

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann Sandra; Rasch  Bjoern

    2013-01-01

    Sleep benefitsmemory consolidation. Previous theoretical accounts have proposed a differential role of slowwave sleep (SWS) rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and stage N2 sleep for different types of memories. For example the dual process hypothesis proposes that SWS is beneficial for declarative memories whereas REMsleep is important for consolidation of non declarative procedural and emotional memories. In fact numerous recent studies do provide further support for the crucial role of SWS (or ...

  18. Countering the Pedagogy of Extremism: Reflective Narratives and Critiques of Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Chris W. H.; Laxman, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a critique against "purist" pedagogies found in the literature of student-centred learning. The article reproves extremism in education and questions the absolutism and teleological truths expounded in exclusive problem-based learning. The paper articulates the framework of a unifying pedagogical practice through Eve…

  19. Antidepressants Increase REM Sleep Muscle Tone in Patients with and without REM Sleep Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Sandness, David J; Arndt, Katlyn; Erickson, Maia; Tabatabai, Grace; Boeve, Bradley F; Silber, Michael H

    2015-06-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is associated with antidepressant treatment, especially in younger patients; but quantitative REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) analyses of psychiatric RBD patients remain limited. We analyzed RSWA in adults receiving antidepressants, with and without RBD. We comparatively analyzed visual, manual, and automated RSWA between RBD and control groups. RSWA metrics were compared between groups, and regression was used to explore associations with clinical variables. Tertiary-care sleep center. Participants included traditional RBD without antidepressant treatment (n = 30, 15 Parkinson disease [PD-RBD] and 15 idiopathic); psychiatric RBD receiving antidepressants (n = 30); and adults without RBD, including antidepressant-treated psychiatric (n = 30), untreated psychiatric (n = 15), and OSA (n = 60) controls. N/A. RSWA was highest in traditional and psychiatric RBD, intermediate in treated psychiatric controls, and lowest in untreated psychiatric and OSA controls (P sleep without atonia (RSWA) even without REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), suggesting that antidepressants, not depression, promote RSWA. Differences in RSWA distribution and type were also seen, with higher anterior tibialis RSWA in antidepressant-treated patients and higher tonic RSWA in Parkinson disease-RBD patients, which could aid distinction between RBD subtypes. These findings suggest that antidepressants may mediate different RSWA mechanisms or, alternatively, that RSWA type and distribution evolve during progressive neurodegeneration. Further prospective RSWA analyses are necessary to clarify the relationships between antidepressant treatment, psychiatric disease, and RBD. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Auditory Verbal Experience and Agency in Waking, Sleep Onset, REM, and Non-REM Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Jana; Harley, Trevor A; Speth, Clemens

    2017-04-01

    We present one of the first quantitative studies on auditory verbal experiences ("hearing voices") and auditory verbal agency (inner speech, and specifically "talking to (imaginary) voices or characters") in healthy participants across states of consciousness. Tools of quantitative linguistic analysis were used to measure participants' implicit knowledge of auditory verbal experiences (VE) and auditory verbal agencies (VA), displayed in mentation reports from four different states. Analysis was conducted on a total of 569 mentation reports from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, non-REM sleep, sleep onset, and waking. Physiology was controlled with the nightcap sleep-wake mentation monitoring system. Sleep-onset hallucinations, traditionally at the focus of scientific attention on auditory verbal hallucinations, showed the lowest degree of VE and VA, whereas REM sleep showed the highest degrees. Degrees of different linguistic-pragmatic aspects of VE and VA likewise depend on the physiological states. The quantity and pragmatics of VE and VA are a function of the physiologically distinct state of consciousness in which they are conceived. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Applying Agnotology-Based Learning in a Mooc to Counter Climate Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J.

    2014-12-01

    A key challenge facing educators and climate communicators is the wide array of misconceptions about climate science, often fostered by misinformation. A number of myths interfere with a sound understanding of the science, with key myths moderating public support for mitigation policies. An effective way to reduce the influence of misinformation is through agnotology-based learning. Agnotology is the study of ignorance while agnotology-based learning teaches students through the direct addressing of myths and misconceptions. This approach of "refutational teaching" is being applied in a MOOC (Massive Online Open Course) currently being developed by Skeptical Science and The University of Queensland, in collaboration with universities in Canada, USA and the UK. The MOOC will examine the science of climate change denial. Why is the issue so controversial given there is an overwhelming consensus on human-caused global warming? How do climate myths distort the science? What can scientists and laypeople do in response to misinformation? The MOOC will be released on the EdX platform in early 2015. I will summarise the research underpinning agnotology-based learning and present the approach taken in the MOOC to be released in early 2015

  2. Study of argon-based Penning gas mixtures for use in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, P.C.; Ramsey, B.D.; Weisskopf, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of three Penning gas mixtures, namely argon-acetylene (Ar-C 2 H 2 ), argon-xenon (Ar-Xe) and argon-xenon-trimethylamine (Ar-Xe-TMA), are reported. The measurements, carried out in cylindrical geometry as well as parallel plate geometry detectors, demonstrate that the Ar-C 2 H 2 mixtures show a significant Penning effect even at an acetylene concentration of 10% and provide the best energy resolution among all the argon-based gas mixtures (≤13% FWHM at 5.9 keV and 6.7% at 22.2 keV). In the parallel plate detector the Ar-C 2 H 2 fillings provide a resolution of ≅7% FWHM at 22.2 keV up to a gas gain of at least ≅10 4 . The nonmetastable Penning mixture Ar-Xe provides the highest gas gain among all the argon-based gas mixtures and is well suited for use in long-duration space-based experiments. Best results are obtained with 5% and 20% Xe in Ar, the energy resolution being ≅7% FWHM at 22.2 keV and ≅4.5% at 59.6 keV for gas gain 3 . Addition of ≥1% TMA to an 80% Ar-20% Xe mixture produces a dramatic increase in gas gain but the energy resolution remains unaffected (≅7% FWHM at 22.2 keV). This increase in gas gain is attributed to the occurrence of a Penning effect between Xe and TMA, the ionization potential of TMA being 8.3 eV, just below the xenon metastable potential of 8.39 eV. (orig.)

  3. Development of a gamma camera based on a multiwire proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, Yu.S.; Zanevskij, Yu.V.; Ivanov, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    The developed high-pressure gamma-chamber based on a gas multiwire detector is discussed. The main characteristics of the detector for a gamma-ray energy of up to 100 keV are given. The chamber operation is possible at a pressure of up to 10 atm. The detector is filled with a Xe-CH 4 (90-10) mixture. The detector efficiency is about 50%, the space resolution is better than 2 mm at a working region of 280x280 mm [ru

  4. Measurement of the time resolution of small SiPM-based scintillation counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, E. A.; Porosev, V. V.; Savinov, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this research, we evaluated the timing resolution of SiPM-based scintillation detector on a 1-GeV electron beam "extracted" from VEPP-4M. We tested small scintillation crystals of pure CsI, YAP, LYSO, and LFS-3 with HAMAMATSU S10362-33-025C and S13360-3050CS. The CsI scintillator together with HAMAMATSU S13360-3050CS demonstrated the best results. Nevertheless, the achieved time resolution of ~80 ps (RMS) relates mainly to the photodetector itself. It makes the silicon photomultiplier an attractive candidate to replace other devices in applications where sub-nanosecond accuracy is required.

  5. Cerenkov counters at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, A.; Kostoulas, I.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Thun, R.

    1977-01-01

    The Cherenkov counter described for use at Isabelle is a threshold counter in which light is focussed on phototubes. The counter is applicable in large-angle, small-aperture magnetic spectrometers for measurement of particle yields at large p/sub T/. Three of these counters will provide complete π-K-p separation in the range of 7-20 GeV/c. Other Cherenkov counters are discussed and a bibliography of relevant literature on the counters utilizing photoionization is included

  6. Study and Fabrication of Super Low-Cost Solar Cell (SLC-SC) Based on Counter Electrode from Animal’s Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlilah, D. R.; Fajar, M. N.; Aini, A. N.; Haqqiqi, R. I.; Wirawan, P. R.; Endarko

    2018-04-01

    The synthesized carbon from bones of chicken, cow, and fish with the calcination temperature at 450 and 600°C have been successfully fabricated for counter electrode in the Super Low-Cost Solar Cell (SLC-LC) based the structure of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC). The main proposed study was to fabricate SLC-SC and investigate the influence of the synthesized carbon from animal’s bone for counter electrode towards to photovoltaic performance of SLC-SC. X-Ray Diffraction and UV-Vis was used to characterize the phase and the optical properties of TiO2 as photoanode in SLC-SC. Meanwhile, the morphology and particle size distribution of the synthesized carbon in counter electrodes were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Particle Size Analyzer (PSA). The results showed that the TiO2 has anatase phase with the absorption wavelength of 300 to 550 nm. The calcination temperature for synthesizing of carbon could affect morphology and particle size distribution. The increasing temperature gave the effect more dense in morphology and increased the particle size of carbon in the counter electrode. Changes in morphology and particle size of carbon give effect to the performance of the SLC-SC where the increased morphology’s compact and particle size make decreased in the performance of the SLC-SC.

  7. Hamming Weight Counters and Comparators based on Embedded DSP Blocks for Implementation in FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKLYAROV, V.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the design, implementation and evaluation of fast FPGA-based circuits that compute Hamming weights for binary vectors and compare the results with fixed thresholds and variable bounds. It is shown that digital signal processing (DSP slices that are widely available in contemporary FPGAs may be used efficiently and they frequently provide the fastest and least resource consuming solutions. A thorough analysis and comparison of these with the best known alternatives both in hardware and in software is presented. The results are supported by numerous experiments in recent prototyping boards. A fully synthesizable hardware description language (VHDL specification for one of the proposed core components is given that is ready to be synthesized, implemented, tested and compared in any FPGA that contains embedded DSP48E1 slices (or alternatively DSP48A1 slices from previous generations. Finally, the results of comparisons are provided that include discussions of designs in an ARM processor combined with reconfigurable logic for very long vectors.

  8. Obstructive Sleep Apnea during REM Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora, R Nisha; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Kim, Ji Soo; Punjabi, Naresh M

    2018-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during REM sleep is a common disorder. Data on whether OSA that occurs predominantly during REM sleep is associated with health outcomes are limited. The present study examined the association between OSA during REM sleep and a composite cardiovascular endpoint in a community sample with and without prevalent cardiovascular disease. Full-montage home polysomnography was conducted as part of the Sleep Heart Health Study. The study cohort was followed for an average of 9.5 years, during which time cardiovascular events were assessed. Only participants with a non-REM apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of less than 5 events/h were included. A composite cardiovascular endpoint was determined as the occurrence of nonfatal or fatal events, including myocardial infarction, coronary artery revascularization, congestive heart failure, and stroke. Proportional hazards regression was used to derive the adjusted hazards ratios for the composite cardiovascular endpoint. The sample consisted of 3,265 subjects with a non-REM AHI of less than 5.0 events/h. Using a REM AHI of less than 5.0 events/h as the reference group (n = 1,758), the adjusted hazards ratios for the composite cardiovascular endpoint in those with severe REM OSA (≥30 events/h; n = 180) was 1.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.85). Stratified analyses demonstrated that the association was most notable in those with prevalent cardiovascular disease and severe OSA during REM sleep with an adjusted hazards ratio of 2.56 (95% confidence interval, 1.46-4.47). Severe OSA that occurs primarily during REM sleep is associated with higher incidence of a composite cardiovascular endpoint, but in only those with prevalent cardiovascular disease.

  9. Intercomparison of radiation protection instruments based on microdosimetric principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, G.; Guldbakke, S.; Kluge, H.; Schmitz, T.

    1986-11-01

    Dosemeters based on low-pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters were developed for the application in radiation protection area monitoring by several groups in Europe. Five different prototypes have been intercompared in a 60 Co photon field, in monoenergetic neutron fields with various energies between 73 keV and 5 MeV and in three neutron fields at a 252 Cf source moderated by a D 2 O sphere. This report describes the radiation fields, the measuring devices and first results of the intercomparison. Additional measurements with a system used in microdosimetry and with a conventional dose equivalent rate meter for neutrons (Rem Counter) were also described. (orig.) [de

  10. CEDAR counter (internal part)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Here on the mounting bench. The counter is a differential Cerenkov, corrected for chromaticity, able to differentiate pions from kaons up to 350 GeV. Counters of this type were used in all SPS hadron beams.

  11. Whole Body Counters (rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodburn, John H. [Walter Johnson High School, Rockville, MD; Lengemann, Frederick W. [Cornell University

    1967-01-01

    Whole body counters are radiation detecting and measuring instruments that provide information about the human body. This booklet describes different whole body counters, scientific principles that are applied to their design, and ways they are used.

  12. The Antarctic permafrost as a testbed for REMS (Rover Environmental Monitoring Station-Mars Science Laboratory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, B.; Ramos, M.; Sebastián, E.; Armiens, C.; Gómez-Elvira, J.; Cabos, W.; de Pablo, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    two soil temperature plates based on Pt100 sensors are in close contact with the surface in the angle of view of the GT-REMS thermopiles. In this work, we present a preliminary analysis of the data obtained in the Antarctic field campaign 2008-2009. For the analysis we developed a theoretical model which is briefly outlined here. We also present the results of simulations carried out with the model and their validation against the antarctic data. Complementary to the Antarctic experiments, we carried out an experience with all the instruments during the last summer in the CAB-Spain which are also used in the analysis. Finally, we compare the results of the last polar and CAB experiments in order to check the improvements introduced in GT-REMS.

  13. Process for the automatic compensation of spectral displacement based on quenching processes in a liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nather, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    In measurements in a liquid scintillation counter, the tritium or C 14 isotope to be examined is situated in a scintillator solution. It is excited according to the energy of the β particle to emit light. An electrical signal is proportional to the light signal, and from the former, selective counting in the β spectrum can be undertaken in an impulse height analyser. The influence of the quenching effects by colour quenching or chemical quenching would reduce the gain of the counter. To compensate for the displacement of the spectrum, the required adjustment of a system parameter is carried out by calibration with a sample of low quenching effect. The calibration process is directly set for the energy end-point of the spectrum. Well known processes can be used to determine the quenching effect of the quenching represented by the sample. For example, the system parameters can be the discriminator level of the counter window. (DG) 891 HP [de

  14. Using sub-micron silver-nanoparticle based films to counter biofilm formation by Gram-negative bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, A. R.; Baxter, S. N.; Hodgson, S. D.; Smith, G. C.; Thomas, P. J.

    2018-06-01

    Composite films comprised of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) grown using a low-cost straightforward chemical bath based method have been deposited on glass microscope slides to investigate their potential as a sacrificial antibacterial coating. The as-deposited films have been characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometry. These suggested that the films were relatively uniform in coverage. Chemical composition of the AgNP films has been studied by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS analysis indicated that the Ag was in a metallic form able to sustain plasmon behaviour, and that low levels of residual nanoparticle precursors were present. Particle size was characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which showed an average particle size of 10.6 nm. The effectiveness of the films as an antibacterial coating was tested against Escherichia coli. The AgNP film was determined to be effective in the killing of E. coli cells over a 24 h period when compared to equivalent samples that contained no silver. Of particular note was that only minimal bacterial growth was detected over the first 12 h of testing, up to 78.6 times less than the control samples, suggesting the film is very efficient at slowing initial biofilm formation. The use of AgNP based films that have been synthesised using a novel low-cost, low-temperature and highly upscalable method is demonstrated as a promising solution for the deployment of silver as an effective sacrifical antimicrobial coating to counter the formation of potentially hazardous Gram negative biofilms.

  15. Increased Ventricular Premature Contraction Frequency During REM Sleep in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari A. Watanabe

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Patients with obstructive sleep apnea are reported to have a peak of sudden cardiac death at night, in contrast to patients without apnea whose peak is in the morning. We hypothesized that ventricular premature contraction (VPC frequency would correlate with measures of apnea and sympathetic activity.Methods Electrocardiograms from a sleep study of 125 patients with coronary artery disease were evaluated. Patients were categorized by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI into Moderate (AHI 15 apnea groups. Sleep stages studied were Wake, S1, S2, S34, and rapid eye movement (REM. Parameters of a potent autonomically-based risk predictor for sudden cardiac death called heart rate turbulence were calculated.Results There were 74 Moderate and 51 Severe obstructive sleep apnea patients. VPC frequency was affected significantly by sleep stage (Wake, S2 and REM, F=5.8, p<.005 and by AHI (F=8.7, p<.005. In Severe apnea patients, VPC frequency was higher in REM than in Wake (p=.011. In contrast, patients with Moderate apnea had fewer VPCs and exhibited no sleep stage dependence (p=.19. Oxygen desaturation duration per apnea episode correlated positively with AHI (r2=.71, p<.0001, and was longer in REM than in non-REM (p<.0001. The heart rate turbulence parameter TS correlated negatively with oxygen desaturation duration in REM (r2=.06, p=.014.Conclusions Higher VPC frequency coupled with higher sympathetic activity caused by longer apnea episodes in REM sleep may be one reason for increased nocturnal death in apneic patients.

  16. Community pharmacy customer segmentation based on factors influencing their selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevrekidis, Dimitrios Phaedon; Minarikova, Daniela; Markos, Angelos; Malovecka, Ivona; Minarik, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Within the competitive pharmacy market environment, community pharmacies are required to develop efficient marketing strategies based on contemporary information about consumer behavior in order to attract clients and develop customer loyalty. This study aimed to investigate the consumers' preferences concerning the selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, and to identify customer segments in relation to these preferences. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2016 on a convenient quota sample of 300 participants recruited in the metropolitan area of Thessaloniki, Greece. The main instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire with close-ended, multiple choice questions. To identify customer segments, Two-Step cluster analysis was conducted. Three distinct pharmacy customer clusters emerged. Customers of the largest cluster (49%; 'convenience customers') were mostly younger consumers. They gave moderate to positive ratings to factors affecting the selection of pharmacy and OTCs; convenience, and previous experience and the pharmacist's opinion, received the highest ratings. Customers of the second cluster (35%; 'loyal customers') were mainly retired; most of them reported visiting a single pharmacy. They gave high ratings to all factors that influence pharmacy selection, especially the pharmacy's staff, and factors influencing the purchase of OTCs, particularly previous experience and the pharmacist's opinion. Customers of the smallest cluster (16%; 'convenience and price-sensitive customers') were mainly retired or unemployed with low to moderate education, and low personal income. They gave the lowest ratings to most of the examined factors; convenience among factors influencing pharmacy selection, whereas previous experience, the pharmacist's opinion and product price among those affecting the purchase of OTCs, received the highest ratings. The community pharmacy market comprised of distinct

  17. Multiwalled carbon nanotube coated polyester fabric as textile based flexible counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Sun, Kyung Chul; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2015-05-21

    Textile wearable electronics offers the combined advantages of both electronics and textile characteristics. The essential properties of these flexible electronics such as lightweight, stretchable, and wearable power sources are in strong demand. Here, we have developed a facile route to fabricate multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) coated polyester fabric as a flexible counter electrode (CE) for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A variety of MWCNT and enzymes with different structures were used to generate individual enzyme-dispersed MWCNT (E-MWCNT) suspensions by non-covalent functionalization. A highly concentrated colloidal suspension of E-MWCNT was deposited on polyester fabric via a simple tape casting method using an air drying technique. In view of the E-MWCNT coating, the surface structure is represented by topologically randomly assembled tubular graphene units. This surface morphology has a high density of colloidal edge states and oxygen-containing surface groups which execute multiple catalytic sites for iodide reduction. A highly conductive E-MWCNT coated fabric electrode with a surface resistance of 15 Ω sq(-1) demonstrated 5.69% power conversion efficiency (PCE) when used as a flexible CE for DSSCs. High photo voltaic performance of our suggested system of E-MWCNT fabric-based DSSCs is associated with high sheet conductivity, low charge transfer resistance (RCT), and excellent electro catalytic activity (ECA). Such a conductive fabric demonstrated stable conductivity against bending cycles and strong mechanical adhesion of E-MWCNT on polyester fabric. Moreover, the polyester fabric is hydrophobic and, therefore, has good sealing capacity and retains the polymer gel electrolyte without seepage. This facile E-MWCNT fabric CE configuration provides a concrete fundamental background towards the development of textile-integrated solar cells.

  18. Computer models and output, Spartan REM: Appendix B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, D. S.; West, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    A computer model of the Spartan Release Engagement Mechanism (REM) is presented in a series of numerical charts and engineering drawings. A crack growth analysis code is used to predict the fracture mechanics of critical components.

  19. Materials properties, loads, and stress analysis, Spartan REM: Appendix A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, D. S.; West, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanical properties, load tests, and stress analysis of the Spartan Release Engagement Mechanism (REM) is presented. The fracture properties of the components of the unit are also discussed. Detailed engineering drawings are included.

  20. Slow waves, sharp waves, ripples, and REM in sleeping dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shein-Idelson, Mark; Ondracek, Janie M; Liaw, Hua-Peng; Reiter, Sam; Laurent, Gilles

    2016-04-29

    Sleep has been described in animals ranging from worms to humans. Yet the electrophysiological characteristics of brain sleep, such as slow-wave (SW) and rapid eye movement (REM) activities, are thought to be restricted to mammals and birds. Recording from the brain of a lizard, the Australian dragon Pogona vitticeps, we identified SW and REM sleep patterns, thus pushing back the probable evolution of these dynamics at least to the emergence of amniotes. The SW and REM sleep patterns that we observed in lizards oscillated continuously for 6 to 10 hours with a period of ~80 seconds. The networks controlling SW-REM antagonism in amniotes may thus originate from a common, ancient oscillator circuit. Lizard SW dynamics closely resemble those observed in rodent hippocampal CA1, yet they originate from a brain area, the dorsal ventricular ridge, that has no obvious hodological similarity with the mammalian hippocampus. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Representation of the Self in REM and NREM Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Patrick; McLaren, Deirdre; Durso, Kate

    2008-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that representations of the Self (or the dreamer) in dreams would change systematically, from a prereflective form of Self to more complex forms, as a function of both age and sleep state (REM vs. non-REM). These hypotheses were partially confirmed. While the authors found that all the self-concept-related dream content indexes derived from the Hall/Van de Castle dream content scoring system did not differ significantly between the dreams of children and adults, adult Selves were more likely to engage in “successful” social interactions. The Self never acted as aggressor in NREM dream states and was almost always the befriender in friendly interactions in NREM dreams. Conversely, the REM-related dream Self preferred aggressive encounters. Our results suggests that while prereflective forms of Self are the norm in children’s dreams, two highly complex forms of Self emerge in REM and NREM dreams. PMID:19169371

  2. The REM route to more syncrude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C

    1980-09-03

    Norcen will become the first industry major to support a feasibility study of REM, an acronym for Resource and Energy Management. The prospective joint project involving Norcen Energy Resources and the Federal Department of Energy, Mines and Resources will consider coal utilization in the recovery and upgrading of heavy crude from Western Canadian deposits. The project will facilitate smaller projects at Cold Lake and will also be relevant to large scale plants, whether in-situ or surface-mined tar sands or heavy oil applications. The innovation: gasifying coal (rather than burning natural gas or liquids) to raise steam and electric power in a synergistic combined cycle system, and electrolyzing water to win essential hydrogen and oxygen for the upgrading process. The bonuses: the generation of hydrogen and oxygen without the consumption of premium light hydrocarbons in a clean, energy efficient process. The objective: higher yield of light oil at lower unit cost, better sulfur control and modular design for small or large scale plants.

  3. REM meter for pulsed sources of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorngate, J.E.; Hunt, G.F.; Rueppel, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    A rem meter was constructed specifically for measuring neutrons produced by fusion experiments for which the source pulses last 10 ms or longer. The detector is a 6 Li glass scintillator, 25.4 mm in diameter and 3.2 mm thick, surrounded by 11.5 cm of polyethylene. This detector has a sensitivity of 8.5 x 10 4 counts/mrem. The signals from this fast scintillator are shaped using a shorted delay line to produce pulses that are only 10 ns long so that dose equivalent rates up to 12 mrem/s can be measured with less than a 1% counting loss. The associated electronic circuits store detector counts only when the count rate exceeds a preset level. When the count rate returns to background, a conversion from counts to dose equivalent is made and the results are displayed. As a means of recording the number of source pulses that have occurred, a second display shows how many times the preset count rate has been exceeded. Accumulation of detector counts and readouts can also be controlled manually. The unit will display the integrated dose equilavent up to 200 mrem in 0.01 mrem steps. A pulse-height discriminator rejects gamma-ray interactions below 1 MeV, and the detector size limits the response above that energy. The instrument can be operated from an ac line or will run on rechargeable batteries for up to 12 hours

  4. The role of REM theta activity in emotional memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Camilla Hutchison

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available While NREM sleep has been strongly implicated in the reactivation and consolidation of memory traces, the role of REM sleep remains unclear. A growing body of research on humans and animals provide behavioral evidence for a role of REM sleep in the strengthening and modulation of emotional memories. Theta activity – which describes low frequency oscillations in the local field potential within the hippocampus, amygdala and neocortex – is a prominent feature of both wake and REM sleep in humans and rodents. Theta coherence between the hippocampus and amygdala drives large-scale PGO waves, the density of which predicts increases in plasticity-related gene expression. This could potentially facilitate the processing of emotional memory traces within the hippocampus during REM sleep. Further, the timing of hippocampal activity in relation to theta phase is vital in determining subsequent potentiation of neuronal activity. This could allow the emotionally modulated strengthening of novel and the gradual weakening of consolidated hippocampal memory traces observed in both wake and REM sleep. Hippocampal theta activity is also correlated with REM sleep acetylcholine levels – which are thought to reduce hippocampal afferent inputs in the neocortex. The additional low levels of noradrenaline during REM sleep, which facilitate recurrent activation within the neocortex, could allow the integration of novel memory traces previously consolidated during NREM sleep. We therefore propose that REM sleep mediates the prioritized processing of emotional memories within the hippocampus, the integration of previously consolidated memory traces within the neocortex, as well as the disengagement of consolidated neocortical memory traces from the hippocampus.

  5. Vocabulary learning benefits from REM after slow-wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J; Westerberg, Carmen E; Paller, Ken A

    2017-10-01

    Memory reactivation during slow-wave sleep (SWS) influences the consolidation of recently acquired knowledge. This reactivation occurs spontaneously during sleep but can also be triggered by presenting learning-related cues, a technique known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR). Here we examined whether TMR can improve vocabulary learning. Participants learned the meanings of 60 novel words. Auditory cues for half the words were subsequently presented during SWS in an afternoon nap. Memory performance for cued versus uncued words did not differ at the group level but was systematically influenced by REM sleep duration. Participants who obtained relatively greater amounts of REM showed a significant benefit for cued relative to uncued words, whereas participants who obtained little or no REM demonstrated a significant effect in the opposite direction. We propose that REM after SWS may be critical for the consolidation of highly integrative memories, such as new vocabulary. Reactivation during SWS may allow newly encoded memories to be associated with other information, but this association can include disruptive linkages with pre-existing memories. Subsequent REM sleep may then be particularly beneficial for integrating new memories into appropriate pre-existing memory networks. These findings support the general proposition that memory storage benefits optimally from a cyclic succession of SWS and REM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ventromedial medulla inhibitory neuron inactivation induces REM sleep without atonia and REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia Garcia, Sara; Brischoux, Frédéric; Clément, Olivier; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Arthaud, Sébastien; Lazarus, Michael; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice

    2018-02-05

    Despite decades of research, there is a persistent debate regarding the localization of GABA/glycine neurons responsible for hyperpolarizing somatic motoneurons during paradoxical (or REM) sleep (PS), resulting in the loss of muscle tone during this sleep state. Combining complementary neuroanatomical approaches in rats, we first show that these inhibitory neurons are localized within the ventromedial medulla (vmM) rather than within the spinal cord. We then demonstrate their functional role in PS expression through local injections of adeno-associated virus carrying specific short-hairpin RNA in order to chronically impair inhibitory neurotransmission from vmM. After such selective genetic inactivation, rats display PS without atonia associated with abnormal and violent motor activity, concomitant with a small reduction of daily PS quantity. These symptoms closely mimic human REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), a prodromal parasomnia of synucleinopathies. Our findings demonstrate the crucial role of GABA/glycine inhibitory vmM neurons in muscle atonia during PS and highlight a candidate brain region that can be susceptible to α-synuclein-dependent degeneration in RBD patients.

  7. Community pharmacy customer segmentation based on factors influencing their selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Phaedon Kevrekidis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the competitive pharmacy market environment, community pharmacies are required to develop efficient marketing strategies based on contemporary information about consumer behavior in order to attract clients and develop customer loyalty. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the consumers’ preferences concerning the selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter (OTC medicines, and to identify customer segments in relation to these preferences. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2016 on a convenient quota sample of 300 participants recruited in the metropolitan area of Thessaloniki, Greece. The main instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire with close-ended, multiple choice questions. To identify customer segments, Two-Step cluster analysis was conducted. Results: Three distinct pharmacy customer clusters emerged. Customers of the largest cluster (49%; ‘convenience customers’ were mostly younger consumers. They gave moderate to positive ratings to factors affecting the selection of pharmacy and OTCs; convenience, and previous experience and the pharmacist’s opinion, received the highest ratings. Customers of the second cluster (35%; ‘loyal customers’ were mainly retired; most of them reported visiting a single pharmacy. They gave high ratings to all factors that influence pharmacy selection, especially the pharmacy’s staff, and factors influencing the purchase of OTCs, particularly previous experience and the pharmacist’s opinion. Customers of the smallest cluster (16%; ‘convenience and price-sensitive customers’ were mainly retired or unemployed with low to moderate education, and low personal income. They gave the lowest ratings to most of the examined factors; convenience among factors influencing pharmacy selection, whereas previous experience, the pharmacist’s opinion and product price among those affecting the purchase of OTCs

  8. Change in Counter movement Jump Strategy by Varying Jump Height Based on Simplified Framework for Center of Mass Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seyoung

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how a jumping strategy changes with an increase in the vertical jump height for a resultant ground reaction force (GRF) vector. We expected that the resultant force vector between two sequential motion phases (i.e., countermovement and push-off) of the counter movement jump would significantly change with the vertical jump height to take advantage of the resulting supportive force (i.e., an initial push-off force larger than the body weight) through the counter movement phase. Nine healthy young subjects were instructed to jump straight up to five different height levels ranging from 191 cm to 221 cm, and the kinematic and kinetic data were obtained in regular trials. The results showed that a lower center of mass position and larger resultant force vector were clearly observed in a higher jump, implying that the counter movement strategy changed with the vertical jump height to prepare for sufficient joint deviation and obtain a force advantage for larger push-off work.

  9. Change in Counter movement Jump Strategy by Varying Jump Height Based on Simplified Framework for Center of Mass Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seyoung [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials(KIMM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, we investigated how a jumping strategy changes with an increase in the vertical jump height for a resultant ground reaction force (GRF) vector. We expected that the resultant force vector between two sequential motion phases (i.e., countermovement and push-off) of the counter movement jump would significantly change with the vertical jump height to take advantage of the resulting supportive force (i.e., an initial push-off force larger than the body weight) through the counter movement phase. Nine healthy young subjects were instructed to jump straight up to five different height levels ranging from 191 cm to 221 cm, and the kinematic and kinetic data were obtained in regular trials. The results showed that a lower center of mass position and larger resultant force vector were clearly observed in a higher jump, implying that the counter movement strategy changed with the vertical jump height to prepare for sufficient joint deviation and obtain a force advantage for larger push-off work.

  10. REM sleep respiratory behaviours mental content in narcoleptic lucid dreamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudiette, Delphine; Dodet, Pauline; Ledard, Nahema; Artru, Emilie; Rachidi, Inès; Similowski, Thomas; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2018-02-08

    Breathing is irregular during rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, whereas it is stable during non-REM sleep. Why this is so remains a mystery. We propose that irregular breathing has a cortical origin and reflects the mental content of dreams, which often accompany REM sleep. We tested 21 patients with narcolepsy who had the exceptional ability to lucid dream in REM sleep, a condition in which one is conscious of dreaming during the dream and can signal lucidity with an ocular code. Sleep and respiration were monitored during multiple naps. Participants were instructed to modify their dream scenario so that it involved vocalizations or an apnoea, -two behaviours that require a cortical control of ventilation when executed during wakefulness. Most participants (86%) were able to signal lucidity in at least one nap. In 50% of the lucid naps, we found a clear congruence between the dream report (e.g., diving under water) and the observed respiratory behaviour (e.g., central apnoea) and, in several cases, a preparatory breath before the respiratory behaviour. This suggests that the cortico-subcortical networks involved in voluntary respiratory movements are preserved during REM sleep and that breathing irregularities during this stage have a cortical/subcortical origin that reflects dream content.

  11. Cholinergic Oculomotor Nucleus Activity Is Induced by REM Sleep Deprivation Negatively Impacting on Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Patrícia Dos; Targa, Adriano D S; Noseda, Ana Carolina D; Rodrigues, Lais S; Fagotti, Juliane; Lima, Marcelo M S

    2017-09-01

    Several efforts have been made to understand the involvement of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep for cognitive processes. Consolidation or retention of recognition memories is severely disrupted by REM sleep deprivation (REMSD). In this regard, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) and other brainstem nuclei, such as pontine nucleus (Pn) and oculomotor nucleus (OCM), appear to be candidates to take part in this REM sleep circuitry with potential involvement in cognition. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate a possible association between the performance of Wistar rats in a declarative memory and PPT, Pn, and OCM activities after different periods of REMSD. We examined c-Fos and choline acetyltransferase (ChaT) expressions as indicators of neuronal activity as well as a familiarity-based memory test. The animals were distributed in groups: control, REMSD, and sleep rebound (REB). At the end of the different REMSD (24, 48, 72, and 96 h) and REB (24 h) time points, the rats were immediately tested in the object recognition test and then the brains were collected. Results indicated that OCM neurons presented an increased activity, due to ChaT-labeling associated with REMSD that negatively correlated (r = -0.32) with the cognitive performance. This suggests the existence of a cholinergic compensatory mechanism within the OCM during REMSD. We also showed that 24 h of REMSD impacted similarly in memory, compared to longer periods of REMSD. These data extend the notion that REM sleep is influenced by areas other than PPT, i.e., Pn and OCM, which could be key players in both sleep processes and cognition.

  12. The first CEDAR counter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The first differential Cerenkov counter with chromatic corrections (called CEDAR) successfully tested at the PS in July 75. These counters were used in the SPS hadronic beams for particle identification. Some of the eight photomultipliers can be seen: they receive the light reflected back through the annular diaphragm. René Maleyran stands on the left.

  13. Why Does REM Sleep Occur? A Wake-up Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. W. R. eKlemm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses REM to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, 1 when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV, a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, 2 conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, 3 the last awakening during a night’s sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, 4 both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system 5 N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and 6 corticofugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness.

  14. Why does rem sleep occur? A wake-up hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, W R

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses rapid eye movement (REM) to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, (1) when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV), a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, (2) conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, (3) the last awakening during a night's sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, (4) both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system (5) N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and (6) cortico-fugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness.

  15. Study of the switching rate of gas-discharge devices based on the open discharge with counter-propagating electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhan, P. A.; Gugin, P. P.; Lavrukhin, M. A.; Zakrevsky, Dm. E.

    2015-01-01

    The switching rate of gas-discharge devices “kivotrons” based on the open discharge with counter-propagating electron beams has been experimentally studied. Structures with 2-cm 2 overall cathode area were examined. The switching time was found to show a monotonic decrease with increasing the working-gas helium pressure and with increasing the voltage across the discharge gap at breakdown. The minimum switching time was found to be ∼240 ps at 17 kV voltage, and the maximum rate of electric-current rise limited by the discharge-circuit inductance was 3 × 10 12  A/s

  16. Design and Numerical Analysis of a Novel Counter-Rotating Self-Adaptable Wave Energy Converter Based on CFD Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongfei Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of an efficient and reliable power supply is currently one of the bottlenecks restricting the practical application of unmanned ocean detectors. Wave energy is the most widely distributed ocean energy, with the obvious advantages of high energy density and predictability. In this paper, a novel wave energy converter (WEC for power supply of low-power unmanned ocean detectors is proposed, which is a small-scale counter-rotating self-adaptive point absorber-type WEC. The double-layer counter-rotating absorbers can achieve the torque balance of the whole device. Besides, the self-adaptation of the blade to the water flow can maintain a unidirectional continuous rotation of the single-layer absorber. The WEC has several advantages, including small occupied space, simple exchange process and convenient modular integration. It is expected to meet the power demand of low-power ocean detectors. Through modeling and CFD analysis, it was found that the power and efficiency characteristics of WEC are greatly influenced by the relative flow velocity, the blade angle of the absorber and the interaction between the upper and lower absorbers. A physical prototype of the WEC was made and some related experiments were conducted to verify the feasibility of WEC working principle and the reliability of CFD analysis.

  17. Dye sensitized solar cell based on platinum decorated multiwall carbon nanotubes as catalytic layer on the counter electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Ambily; Rao, G. Mohan; Munichandraiah, N.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: I-V characteristics of the DSSCs with Pt CE and Pt/MWCNT CE measured at 100 mW/cm 2 . It shows relatively better performance with Pt/MWCNT counter electrodes. Highlights: → Synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by pyrolysis. → Synthesis of Pt/MWCNT composite by chemical reduction. → Fabrication DSSC using Pt/MWCNT as catalytic layer on the counter electrode. → Study of catalytic activity by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. -- Abstract: In this study we have employed multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), decorated with platinum as catalytic layer for the reduction of tri-iodide ions in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). MWCNTs have been prepared by a simple one step pyrolysis method using ferrocene as the catalyst and xylene as the carbon source. Platinum decorated MWCNTs have been prepared by chemical reduction method. The as prepared MWCNTs and Pt/MWCNTs have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In combination with a dye adsorbed TiO 2 photoanode and an organic liquid electrolyte, Pt/MWCNT composite showed an enhanced short circuit current density of 16.12 mA/cm 2 leading to a cell efficiency of 6.50% which is comparable to that of Platinum.

  18. Dye sensitized solar cell based on platinum decorated multiwall carbon nanotubes as catalytic layer on the counter electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Ambily [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 India (India); Rao, G. Mohan, E-mail: gmrao@isu.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 India (India); Munichandraiah, N. [Department of Inorgonic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 India (India)

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: I-V characteristics of the DSSCs with Pt CE and Pt/MWCNT CE measured at 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. It shows relatively better performance with Pt/MWCNT counter electrodes. Highlights: {yields} Synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by pyrolysis. {yields} Synthesis of Pt/MWCNT composite by chemical reduction. {yields} Fabrication DSSC using Pt/MWCNT as catalytic layer on the counter electrode. {yields} Study of catalytic activity by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. -- Abstract: In this study we have employed multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), decorated with platinum as catalytic layer for the reduction of tri-iodide ions in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). MWCNTs have been prepared by a simple one step pyrolysis method using ferrocene as the catalyst and xylene as the carbon source. Platinum decorated MWCNTs have been prepared by chemical reduction method. The as prepared MWCNTs and Pt/MWCNTs have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In combination with a dye adsorbed TiO{sub 2} photoanode and an organic liquid electrolyte, Pt/MWCNT composite showed an enhanced short circuit current density of 16.12 mA/cm{sup 2} leading to a cell efficiency of 6.50% which is comparable to that of Platinum.

  19. Aerogel Cherenkov Counters of the KEDR Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ovtin, I V; Barnyakov, M Y; Bobrovnikov, V S; Buzykaev, A R; Danilyuk, A F; Katcin, A A; Kononov, S A; Kravchenko, E A; Kuyanov, I A; Onuchin, A P; Rodiakin, V A

    2017-01-01

    The particle identification system of the KEDR detector is based on aerogel threshold Cherenkov counters called ASHIPH counters. The system consists of 160 counters arranged in two layers. An event reconstruction program for the ASHIPH system was developed. The position of each counter relative to the tracking system was determined using cosmic muons and Bhabha events. The geometric efficiency of the ASHIPH system was verified with Bhabha events. The efficiency of relativistic particle detection was measured with cosmic muons. A π/K separation of 4δ in the momentum range 0.95 −1.45 GeV/c was confirmed. A simulation program for the ASHIPH counters has been developed.

  20. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi B

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown......-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....... the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. METHODS: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients...

  1. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown...... in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....... the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. METHODS: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients...

  2. The Micro Trench Gas Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.

    1991-07-01

    A novel design is presented for a gas avalanche chamber with micro-strip gas readout. While existing gaseous microstrip detectors (Micro-strip Gas Counters, Knife edge chambers) have a minimum anode pitch of the order of 100 μm, the pitch of the discussed Micro Trench Gas Counter goes down to 30-50 μm. This leads to a better position resolution and two track separation, and a higher radiation resistivity. Its efficiency and signal speed are expected to be the same as the Microstrip Gas Counter. The energy resolution of the device is expected to be equal to or better than 10 percent for the 55 Fe peak. Since the anode strip dimensions are larger than those in a MSGC, the device may be not as sensitive to discharges and mechanical damage. In this report production of the device is briefly described, and predictions on its operation are made based on electric field calculations and experience with the Microstrip Gas Counter. The authors restrict themselves to the application in High Energy Physics. (author). 10 refs.; 9 figs

  3. Universal low-temperature MWCNT-COOH-based counter electrode and a new thiolate/disulfide electrolyte system for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Abdulla; Shoker, Tharallah A; Ghaddar, Tarek H

    2014-06-11

    A new thiolate/disulfide organic-based electrolyte system composed of the tetrabutylammonium salt of 2-methyl-5-trifluoromethyl-2H-[1,2,4]triazole-3-thiol (S(-)) and its oxidized form 3,3'-dithiobis(2-methyl-5-trifluoromethyl-2H-[1,2,4]triazole) (DS) has been formulated and used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The electrocatalytic activity of different counter electrodes (CEs) has been evaluated by means of measuring J-V curves, cyclic voltammetry, Tafel plots, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A stable and low-temperature CE based on acid-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-COOH) was investigated with our S(-)/DS, I(-)/I3(-), T(-)/T2, and Co(II/III)-based electrolyte systems. The proposed CE showed superb electrocatalytic activity toward the regeneration of the different electrolytes. In addition, good stability of solar cell devices based on the reported electrolyte and CE was shown.

  4. The hypocretins (orexins mediate the “phasic” components of REM sleep: A new hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Torterolo

    2014-03-01

    The hypocretinergic neurons are active during wakefulness in conjunction with the presence of motor activity that occurs during survival-related behaviors. These neurons decrease their firing rate during non-REM sleep; however there is still controversy upon the activity and role of these neurons during REM sleep. Hence, in the present report we conducted a critical review of the literature of the hypocretinergic system during REM sleep, and hypothesize a possible role of this system in the generation of REM sleep.

  5. Rapid Eye Movements (REMs) and visual dream recall in both congenitally blind and sighted subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bértolo, Helder; Mestre, Tiago; Barrio, Ana; Antona, Beatriz

    2017-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate rapid eye movements (REMs) associated with visual dream recall in sighted subjects and congenital blind. During two consecutive nights polysomnographic recordings were performed at subjects home. REMs were detected by visual inspection on both EOG channels (EOG-H, EOG-V) and further classified as occurring isolated or in bursts. Dream recall was defined by the existence of a dream report. The two groups were compared using t-test and also the two-way ANOVA and a post-hoc Fisher test (for the features diagnosis (blind vs. sighted) and dream recall (yes or no) as a function of time). The average of REM awakenings per subject and the recall ability were identical in both groups. CB had a lower REM density than CS; the same applied to REM bursts and isolated eye movements. In the two-way ANOVA, REM bursts and REM density were significantly different for positive dream recall, mainly for the CB group and for diagnosis; furthermore for both features significant results were obtained for the interaction of time, recall and diagnosis; the interaction of recall and time was however, stronger. In line with previous findings the data show that blind have lower REMs density. However the ability of dream recall in congenitally blind and sighted controls is identical. In both groups visual dream recall is associated with an increase in REM bursts and density. REM bursts also show differences in the temporal profile. REM visual dream recall is associated with increased REMs activity.

  6. Counter-cryptanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. Stevens (Marc); R. Canetti; J.A. Garay

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce \\emph{counter-cryptanalysis} as a new paradigm for strengthening weak cryptographic primitives against cryptanalytic attacks. Redesigning a weak primitive to more strongly resist cryptanalytic techniques will unavoidably break backwards compatibility. Instead,

  7. Privação de sono REM em um modelo experimental da doença de Parkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. F. Andrade

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigação prévia mostrou que ratos privados de sono (REM SD mostram acentuação de resposta a agonistas dopaminérgicos. As evidências indicam que essa ação parece ser mediada por supersensibilização de receptores dopaminérgicos pós-sinápticos. Com base nisso, foi feita REM SD em ratos com modelo experimental da doença de Parkinson, nos quais foi feita lesão eletrolítica bilateral de ambas as vias nigro-estriatais. Sete dias após a cirurgia os animais eram submetidos a REM SD por 72 horas. Imediatamente após o final deste período era feita observação em campo aberto para a ambulação, "rearing", "grooming" e latência. Em comparação com ratos não-privados foi observado aumento significativo na ambulação e "rearing", resposta que reapareceu após um segundo período de REM SD, realizado 21 dias após a cirurgia. Estes dados, de melhora de dois parâmetros de modelo experimental da doença de Parkinson, sugerem que a privação de sono pode ser útil nesta doença.

  8. Diagnostic REM sleep muscle activity thresholds in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder with and without obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Sandness, David J; Duwell, Ethan J; Timm, Paul C; Boeve, Bradley F; Silber, Michael H

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to determine whether visual and automated rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RSWA) methods could accurately diagnose patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and comorbid obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In iRBD patients (n = 15) and matched controls (n = 30) with and without OSA, we visually analyzed RSWA phasic burst durations, phasic, tonic, and "any" muscle activity by 3-s mini-epochs, phasic activity by 30-s (AASM rules) epochs, and automated REM atonia index (RAI). Group RSWA metrics were analyzed with regression models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the best diagnostic cutoff thresholds for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Both split-night and full-night polysomnographic studies were analyzed. All mean RSWA phasic burst durations and muscle activities were higher in iRBD patients than in controls (p sleep behavior disorder (PD-RBD), consistent with a common mechanism and presumed underlying etiology of synucleinopathy in both groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence-based treatment of frequent heartburn: the benefits and limitations of over-the-counter medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRorie, Johnson W; Gibb, Roger D; Miner, Philip B

    2014-06-01

    This review summarizes the pharmacological effects of over-the-counter (OTC) heartburn drugs, and the implications for treating frequent heartburn. PubMed and SCOPUS were searched across all years to identify well-controlled, randomized clinical studies that assessed mechanism of action and efficacy. Antacids can transiently neutralize acid in the esophagus, but do not significantly affect gastric pH or prevent subsequent heartburn episodes. Histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2 RAs) rapidly develop tolerance with repeat dosing, and exhibit an analgesic effect that may provide heartburn relief while leaving the esophagus exposed to acid. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) provide a sustained inhibition of gastric acid production, and are superior to antacids and H2 RAs for control of gastric acid and treatment of frequent heartburn. When recommending therapies for frequent heartburn, it is of particular importance to understand the strengths and weaknesses of available OTC medications. Antacids and H2 RAs are not recommended for treatment of frequent heartburn, while OTC PPIs are both indicated for, and effective for, treatment of frequent heartburn. A PPI dose of 20 mg is optimal for empiric treatment of frequent heartburn, and consistent with the 2013 treatment guidelines established by the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) for treatment with a minimum effective dose. ©2014 The Author(s) ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  10. Levels of Interference in Long and Short-Term Memory Differentially Modulate Non-REM and REM Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraize, Nicolas; Carponcy, Julien; Joseph, Mickaël Antoine; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Salin, Paul-Antoine; Malleret, Gaël; Parmentier, Régis

    2016-12-01

    It is commonly accepted that sleep is beneficial to memory processes, but it is still unclear if this benefit originates from improved memory consolidation or enhanced information processing. It has thus been proposed that sleep may also promote forgetting of undesirable and non-essential memories, a process required for optimization of cognitive resources. We tested the hypothesis that non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) promotes forgetting of irrelevant information, more specifically when processing information in working memory (WM), while REM sleep (REMS) facilitates the consolidation of important information. We recorded sleep patterns of rats trained in a radial maze in three different tasks engaging either the long-term or short-term storage of information, as well as a gradual level of interference. We observed a transient increase in REMS amount on the day the animal learned the rule of a long-term/reference memory task (RM), and, in contrast, a positive correlation between the performance of rats trained in a WM task involving an important processing of interference and the amount of NREMS or slow wave activity. Various oscillatory events were also differentially modulated by the type of training involved. Notably, NREMS spindles and REMS rapid theta increase with RM training, while sharp-wave ripples increase with all types of training. These results suggest that REMS, but also rapid oscillations occurring during NREMS would be specifically implicated in the long-term memory in RM, whereas NREMS and slow oscillations could be involved in the forgetting of irrelevant information required for WM. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Discharge quenching circuit for counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A circuit for quenching discharges in gas-discharge detectors with working voltage of 3-5 kV based on transistors operating in the avalanche mode is described. The quenching circuit consists of a coordinating emitter follower, amplifier-shaper for avalanche key cascade control which changes potential on the counter electrodes and a shaper of discharge quenching duration. The emitter follower is assembled according to a widely used flowsheet with two transistors. The circuit permits to obtain a rectangular quenching pulse with front of 100 ns and an amplitude of up to 3.2 kV at duration of 500 μm-8 ms. Application of the quenching circuit described permits to obtain countering characteristics with the slope less than or equal to 0.02%/V and plateau extent greater than or equal to 300 V [ru

  12. Evaluating the evidence surrounding pontine cholinergic involvement in REM sleep generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin P Grace

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep - characterized by vivid dreaming, motor paralysis, and heightened neural activity - is one of the fundamental states of the mammalian central nervous system. Initial theories of rapid eye movement (REM sleep generation posited that induction of the state required activation of the ‘pontine REM sleep generator’ by cholinergic inputs. Here we review and evaluate the evidence surrounding cholinergic involvement in REM sleep generation. We submit that: (i the capacity of pontine cholinergic neurotransmission to generate REM sleep has been firmly established by gain-of-function experiments, (ii the function of endogenous cholinergic input to REM sleep generating sites cannot be determined by gain-of-function experiments; rather, loss-of-function studies are required, (iii loss-of-function studies show that endogenous cholinergic input to the PFT is not required for REM sleep generation, and (iv Cholinergic input to the pontine REM sleep generating sites serve an accessory role in REM sleep generation: reinforcing non-REM-to-REM sleep transitions making them quicker and less likely to fail.

  13. Why REM sleep? Clues beyond the laboratory in a more challenging world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Jim

    2013-02-01

    REM sleep (REM) seems more likely to prepare for ensuing wakefulness rather than provides recovery from prior wakefulness, as happens with 'deeper' nonREM. Many of REM's characteristics are 'wake-like' (unlike nonREM), including several common to feeding. These, with recent findings outside sleep, provide perspectives on REM beyond those from the laboratory. REM can interchange with a wakefulness involving motor output, indicating that REM's atonia is integral to its function. Wakefulness for 'wild' mammals largely comprises exploration; a complex opportunistic behaviour mostly for foraging, involving: curiosity, minimising risks, (emotional) coping, navigation, when (including circadian timing) to investigate new destinations; all linked to 'purposeful, goal directed movement'. REM reflects these adaptive behaviours (including epigenesis), masked in laboratories having constrained, safe, unchanging, unchallenging, featureless, exploration-free environments with ad lib food. Similarly masked may be REM's functions for today's humans living safe, routine lives, with easy food accessibility. In these respects animal and human REM studies are not sufficiently 'ecological'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. REM sleep selectively prunes and maintains new synapses in development and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ma, Lei; Yang, Guang; Gan, Wen-Biao

    2017-03-01

    The functions and underlying mechanisms of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep remain unclear. Here we show that REM sleep prunes newly formed postsynaptic dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the mouse motor cortex during development and motor learning. This REM sleep-dependent elimination of new spines facilitates subsequent spine formation during development and when a new motor task is learned, indicating a role for REM sleep in pruning to balance the number of new spines formed over time. Moreover, REM sleep also strengthens and maintains newly formed spines, which are critical for neuronal circuit development and behavioral improvement after learning. We further show that dendritic calcium spikes arising during REM sleep are important for pruning and strengthening new spines. Together, these findings indicate that REM sleep has multifaceted functions in brain development, learning and memory consolidation by selectively eliminating and maintaining newly formed synapses via dendritic calcium spike-dependent mechanisms.

  15. Lifetime characteristics of Gaiger-Muller counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartalović Nenad M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the process of functional aging of Geiger-Muller counters. Two types of Geiger-Muller counter chambers were characterized in an experiment using a combined constant voltage. Chamber A had a coaxial geometry and chamber B had a plan-parallel geometry. The experimental results indicate that the aging process was faster in the case of chambers with a coaxial geometry. The results are explained based on the process of electrical discharges in gasses.

  16. Did Immanuel Kant have dementia with Lewy bodies and REM behavior disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marcelo; Slachevsky, Andrea; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego

    2010-06-01

    Immanuel Kant, one of the most brilliant minds of the XVIII century and of western philosophy, suffered from dementia in his late years. Based on the analysis of testimonies of his close friends, in this report we describe his neurological disorder which, after 8years of evolution, led to his death. His cognitive decline was strongly associated with a parasomnia compatible with a severe rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder (RBD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Automatic detection of slow-wave sleep and REM-sleep stages using polysomnographic ECG signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khemiri, S.; Aloui, K.; Naceur, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    We describe in this paper a new approach of classifying the different sleep stages only by focusing on the polysomnographic ECG signals. We show the pre-processing technique of the ECG signals. At the same time the identifcation and elimination of the different types of artifacts which contain the signal and its reconstruction are shown. The automatic classification of the slow-deep sleep and the rapid eye movement sleep called in this work REM-sleep consists in extracting physiological indicators that characterize these two sleep stages through the polysomnographic ECG signal. In other words, this classification is based on the analysis of the cardiac rhythm during a night's sleep.

  18. REM - the Shape of Potentials for f(R) Theories in Cosmology and Tachyons

    CERN Document Server

    Vulcanov, Dumitru N; Sporea, Ciprian A

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the reverse engineering method (REM) for constructing the potential of the scalar field in cosmological theories based on metric f(R) gravity and Friedman Robertson Walker (FRW) metric. Then transposing the new field and Friedman equations in an algebraic computing special library (in Maple + GrTennsorII platform) we graphically investigate the shape of the potentials in terms of the scalar field in at least two type of cosmology with exponential and linear scale factor expansion. Some perspectives and conclusions relating these results with tachyonic cosmology theories are noticed.

  19. Why Does REM Sleep Occur? A Wake-up Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. W. R. eKlemm

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses REM to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, 1) when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly ca...

  20. An efficient anticoincidence counter

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This scintillation counter (about 25 cm diameter) was prepared at CERN for an experiment at the Saclay 600 MeV electron linac studying molecular processes originated in liquid hydrogen by muons. The counter is meant to surround the target and detect charged particles emerging from the hydrogen. The experiment was a CERN-Saclay collaboration which used the linac so as to take advantage of the time structure of the electron beam(see CERN Courier Sep 1977 and J. Bardin et al. Phys. Lett. B104 (1981) 320)

  1. El trastorno de conducta del sueño rem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Iranzo De Riquer, Dr.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El trastorno de conducta durante el sueño REM (TCSR se caracteriza por conductas motoras vigorosas, pesadillas y ausencia de atonía muscular durante el sueño REM. Se debe a la disfunción directa o indirecta de las estructuras del tronco cerebral que regulan el sueño REM, especialmente el núcleo subceruleus. El TCSR puede ser idiopático o asociado a enfermedades neurológicas como la enfermedad de Parkinson (EP, la demencia con cuerpos de Lewy (DCL, la atrofia multisistémica (AMS y la narcolepsia. Los pacientes con la forma idiopática, especialmente los que tienen alterados el SPECT del transportador de la dopamina, la sonografía de la sustancia negra, los test de olfato y de la visión de colores, tienen un elevado riesgo de desarrollar la E P, DCL y AMS. El TCSR no debe considerarse como un simple trastorno del sueño, sino como una manifestación de una enfermedad neurológica. El clonazepam (0.25-4 mg y la melatonina (3-12 mg a la hora de acostarse mejoran los síntomas del TCSR pero no evitan, en la forma idiopática, la conversión a una enfermedad neurodegenerativa.

  2. Hardware support for software controlled fast multiplexing of performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Performance counters may be operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities, and registers may be operable to store a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine may be operable to automatically select a register from the registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters in response to receiving a first signal. The state machine may be further operable to reconfigure the one or more performance counters based on a configuration specified in the selected register. The state machine yet further may be operable to copy data in selected one or more of the performance counters to a memory location, or to copy data from the memory location to the counters, in response to receiving a second signal. The state machine may be operable to store or restore the counter values and state machine configuration in response to a context switch event.

  3. Irradiated fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Todd, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a prototype safeguards instrument for determining the number of irradiated fuel assemblies leaving an on-power refueled reactor is described. Design details include radiation detection techniques, data processing and display, unattended operation capabilities and data security methods. Development and operating history of the bundle counter is reported. (U.S.)

  4. Irradiated fuel bundle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Todd, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a prototype safeguards instrument for determining the number of irradiated fuel assemblies leaving an on-power refueled reactor is described. Design details include radiation detection techniques, data processing and display, unattended operation capabilities and data security methods. Development and operating history of the bundle counter is reported

  5. Counter radicalization development assistance

    OpenAIRE

    van Hippel, Karin

    2006-01-01

    The paper reviews current research and practice and recommends strategies for development agencies working in the Arab and Muslim world. It builds on the basic assumption that the realization of the Millennium Development Goals will be vital to reduce support for terrorism in the long term. Within this overall framework, emphasis is placed on particular programs that could be specifically applied to counter radicalization.

  6. Whole-body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, G A; Kosterev, V V

    1975-01-24

    A counter for detecting radiation of a man (CRM) is described, which consists of two measuring converters and a recording device. In order to obtain data on spatial distribution of a gamma-radiating nuclide studied, a fixed collimator and a mobile coder made of separate slit elements are placed between the measuring converters and an object investigated.

  7. Electromagnetically Operated Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, H D; Goldberg, M I

    1951-12-18

    An electromagnetically operated counter wherein signals to be counted are applied to cause stepwise rotation of a rotatable element which is connected to a suitable register. The mechanism involved consists of a rotatable armature having three spaced cores of magnetic material and a pair of diametrically opposed electromagnets with a suitable pulsing circuit to actuate the magnets.

  8. Microchip Coulter particle counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik Darling; Blankenstein, Gert; Branebjerg, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a micro device employing the Coulter principle for counting and sizing of living cells and particles in liquid suspension. The microchip Coulter particle counter (μCPC) has been employed in a planar silicon structure covered with glass, which enables detailed observation during...

  9. Proportional counter end effects eliminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meekins, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    An improved gas-filled proportional counter which includes a resistor network connected between the anode and cathode at the ends of the counter in order to eliminate ''end effects'' is described. 3 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  10. Over-the-Counter Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains and itches. ... medicine is safe enough to sell over-the-counter. Taking OTC medicines still has risks. Some interact ...

  11. Altered functional connectivity in lesional peduncular hallucinosis with REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Maiya R; Tie, Yanmei; Gabrieli, John D E; McGinnis, Scott M; Golby, Alexandra J; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Brainstem lesions causing peduncular hallucinosis (PH) produce vivid visual hallucinations occasionally accompanied by sleep disorders. Overlapping brainstem regions modulate visual pathways and REM sleep functions via gating of thalamocortical networks. A 66-year-old man with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation developed abrupt-onset complex visual hallucinations with preserved insight and violent dream enactment behavior. Brain MRI showed restricted diffusion in the left rostrodorsal pons suggestive of an acute ischemic stroke. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) was diagnosed on polysomnography. We investigated the integrity of ponto-geniculate-occipital circuits with seed-based resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) in this patient compared to 46 controls. Rs-fcMRI revealed significantly reduced functional connectivity between the lesion and lateral geniculate nuclei (LGN), and between LGN and visual association cortex compared to controls. Conversely, functional connectivity between brainstem and visual association cortex, and between visual association cortex and prefrontal cortex (PFC) was significantly increased in the patient. Focal damage to the rostrodorsal pons is sufficient to cause RBD and PH in humans, suggesting an overlapping mechanism in both syndromes. This lesion produced a pattern of altered functional connectivity consistent with disrupted visual cortex connectivity via de-afferentation of thalamocortical pathways. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fundamentals of gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)

  13. Study on the chemical stability of catalyst counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells using a simple X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jungmin; Chung, Jongwon; Park, SungHoon; Baek, WoonJoong; Kim, Yongsu; Kim, Seongheon; Kwon, Young-Nam; Chung, JaeGwan; Kyoung, Yongkoo; Kim, Ki-Hong; Heo, Sung

    2014-12-01

    Since the chemical/electrical stability and catalytic activity are essential conditions for catalyst counter electrodes (CCEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a simple dipping method is employed for evaluating the chemical stability of CCE candidates in an iodine-based liquid electrolyte (I-electrolyte). The chemical stabilities and transition mechanisms of the CCEs are successfully analyzed by studying the chemical transitions in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core levels after dipping in the I-electrolyte. All films including the Pt film undergo degradation depending on the type of material. While dipping in the I-electrolyte, Cu and Au films scarcely dissolves as their respective metal sulfides, and the Al film gradually loss its metallic properties owing to Al2O3 growth. On the other hand, a previously unknown transition mechanism of organic conducting CCEs is determined based on the proposed method. Compared to the other metal films, the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and multi wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/PEDOT:PSS films undergo an entirely unique transition mechanism, which results from the chemical adsorption of organic molecules onto PEDOT:PSS molecules in the I-electrolyte. Consequently, these chemical structure transitions correspond well to the degrees of alternation in the electrical properties of DSSCs with all the investigated CCEs.

  14. Cu{sub 2−x}S films as counter-electrodes for dye solar cells with ferrocene-based liquid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congiu, M., E-mail: mirko.congiu@fc.unesp.br [UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista, POSMAT — Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Materiais, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube14-01, 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil); Nunes-Neto, O. [UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista, POSMAT — Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Materiais, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube14-01, 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil); De Marco, M.L.; Dini, D. [University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Department of Chemistry, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, Rome, RM (Italy); Graeff, C.F.O. [UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista, POSMAT — Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Materiais, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube14-01, 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil); DC-FC, UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube14-01, 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the application of hexagonal CuS nanoparticle layers as counter electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells has been studied. A fast, cheap and reliable deposition method was proposed for the one-step preparation of Cu{sub 2−x}S layers on F-doped SnO{sub 2} within 30 min through an ink-based technique. The electrodes prepared with our method were tested with iodine/iodide electrolyte, Co(II)/(III) bipyridine redox shuttle and Fe(II)/(III) ferrocene-based liquid electrolyte. The Cu{sub 2−x}S layers showed high efficiency and stability with the ferrocene/ferrocenium redox couple, showing a fast charge recombination kinetic, low charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct} = 0.73 Ω cm{sup 2}), reasonably high limiting current (11.8 mA cm{sup −2}) and high stability in propylene carbonate. - Highlights: • We proposed a low-cost Cu{sub 2−x}S electrode for dye solar cells. • Easy deposition and processing • Suitable for large-area applications • Advantages and limitations of Cu{sub 2−x}S with three different redox electrolytes • High electro-catalytic efficiency and stability with the ferrocene/ferrocenium redox couple.

  15. Overnight improvements in two REM sleep-sensitive tasks are associated with both REM and NREM sleep changes, sleep spindle features, and awakenings for dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T; O'Reilly, C; Carr, M; Dumel, G; Godin, I; Solomonova, E; Lara-Carrasco, J; Blanchette-Carrière, C; Paquette, T

    2015-07-01

    Memory consolidation is associated with sleep physiology but the contribution of specific sleep stages remains controversial. To clarify the contribution of REM sleep, participants were administered two REM sleep-sensitive tasks to determine if associated changes occurred only in REM sleep. Twenty-two participants (7 men) were administered the Corsi Block Tapping and Tower of Hanoi tasks prior to and again after a night of sleep. Task improvers and non-improvers were compared for sleep structure, sleep spindles, and dream recall. Control participants (N = 15) completed the tasks twice during the day without intervening sleep. Overnight Corsi Block improvement was associated with more REM sleep whereas Tower of Hanoi improvement was associated with more N2 sleep. Corsi Block improvement correlated positively with %REM sleep and Tower of Hanoi improvement with %N2 sleep. Post-hoc analyses suggest Tower of Hanoi effects-but not Corsi Block effects-are due to trait differences. Sleep spindle density was associated with Tower of Hanoi improvement whereas spindle amplitude correlated with Corsi Block improvement. Number of REM awakenings for dream reporting (but not dream recall per se) was associated with Corsi Block, but not Tower of Hanoi, improvement but was confounded with REM sleep time. This non-replication of one of 2 REM-sensitive task effects challenges both 'dual-process' and 'sequential' or 'sleep organization' models of sleep-dependent learning and points rather to capacity limitations on REM sleep. Experimental awakenings for sampling dream mentation may not perturb sleep-dependent learning effects; they may even enhance them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An Overseas Naval Presence without Overseas Bases: China’s Counter-piracy Operation in the Gulf of Aden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kamerling

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to assess how China is using its navy to secure its interests in the Gulf of Aden, and what this means for the European Union. The analysis of how China’s naval presence in the Gulf of Aden has evolved since early 2009 suggests that China’s increasing interests and involvement in Africa do not necessarily lead to the establishment of Chinese naval bases in or close to the continent. To supply its ships, the Chinese navy may well continue using the commercial-diplomatic model that China has been developing. This model is based on China’s close diplomatic relations with countries in the region and the extensive presence of Chinese companies to whom logistical services can be outsourced and who are under a greater degree of state influence than most Western multinationals. One of the consequences of this approach is that although China may not establish overseas military bases, it may be able to keep expanding its naval presence in or around Africa.

  17. Why does serotonergic activity drastically decrease during REM sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kohji

    2013-10-01

    Here, I postulate two hypotheses that can explain the missing link between sleep and the serotonergic system in terms of spine homeostasis and memory consolidation. As dendritic spines contain many kinds of serotonin receptors, and the activation of serotonin receptors generally increases the number of spines in the cortex and hippocampus, I postulate that serotonin neurons are down-regulated during sleep to decrease spine number, which consequently maintains the total spine number at a constant level. Furthermore, since synaptic consolidation during REM sleep needs long-term potentiation (LTP), and serotonin is reported to inhibit LTP in the cortex, I postulate that serotonergic activity must drastically decrease during REM sleep to induce LTP and do memory consolidation. Until now, why serotonergic neurons show these dramatic changes in the sleep-wake cycle remains unexplained; however, making these hypotheses, I can confer physiological meanings on these dramatic changes of serotonergic neurons in terms of spine homeostasis and memory consolidation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Perifornical orexinergic neurons modulate REM sleep by influencing locus coeruleus neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, R C; Khanday, M A; Mitra, A; Mallick, B N

    2014-10-24

    Activation of the orexin (OX)-ergic neurons in the perifornical (PeF) area has been reported to induce waking and reduce rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). The activities of OX-ergic neurons are maximum during active waking and they progressively reduce during non-REMS (NREMS) and REMS. Apparently, the locus coeruleus (LC) neurons also behave in a comparable manner as that of the OX-ergic neurons particularly in relation to waking and REMS. Further, as PeF OX-ergic neurons send dense projections to LC, we argued that the former could drive the LC neurons to modulate waking and REMS. Studies in freely moving normally behaving animals where simultaneously neuro-chemo-anatomo-physio-behavioral information could be deciphered would significantly strengthen our understanding on the regulation of REMS. Therefore, in this study in freely behaving chronically prepared rats we stimulated the PeF neurons without or with simultaneous blocking of specific subtypes of OX-ergic receptors in the LC while electrophysiological recording characterizing sleep-waking was continued. Single dose of glutamate stimulation as well as sustained mild electrical stimulation of PeF (both bilateral) significantly increased waking and reduced REMS as compared to baseline. Simultaneous application of OX-receptor1 (OX1R) antagonist bilaterally into the LC prevented PeF stimulation-induced REMS suppression. Also, the effect of electrical stimulation of the PeF was long lasting as compared to that of the glutamate stimulation. Further, sustained electrical stimulation significantly decreased both REMS duration as well as REMS frequency, while glutamate stimulation decreased REMS duration only. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-06-18

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  20. Cosmic Ray Background Analysis For A Cargo Container Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, Norbert; Geist, W.H.; Lestone, J.P.; Mayo, D.R.; Menlove, Howard O.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a new model for calculating the expected yield of cosmic-ray spallation neutrons in a Cargo Container Counter, and we have benchmarked the model against measurements made with several existing large neutron counters. We also developed two versions of a new measurement uncertainty prediction code based on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. The codes calculate the minimum detectability limit for the Cargo Container Counter for either neutron singles or doubles counting, and also propagate the uncertainties associated with efficiency normalization flux monitors and cosmic ray flux monitors. This paper will describe the physics basis for this analysis, and the results obtained for several different counter designs.

  1. Electromagnetic shower counter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The octogonal block of lead glass is observed by eight photomultiplier tubes. Four or five such counters, arranged in succession, are used on each arm of the bispectrometer in order to detect heavy particles of the same family as those recently observed at Brookhaven and SLAC. They provide a means of identifying electrons. The arrangement of eight lateral photomultiplier tubes offers an efficient means of collecting the photons produced in the showers and determining, with a high resolution, the energy of the incident electrons. The total width at half-height is less than 6.9% for electrons having an energy of 1 GeV.

  2. Design and manufacture of a three-counter channel system based on delayed coincidence principle using for 22'3Ra and 224Ra measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuong Thi Thu Huong; Pham Ngoc Tuan; Dang Hong Ngoc Quy; Truong Van Dat; Tran Anh Khoi; Chau Thi Nhu Quynh

    2016-01-01

    The research group has designed and fabricated a radiation detection system for measuring low activities of 223 Ra and 224 Ra in natural waters based on a design of Giffin et al (1963). Samples are obtained by adsorbing 223 Ra and 224 Ra onto a column of MnO 2 coated fiber (Mn fiber). The short-lived Rn daughters of 223 Ra and 224 Ra which recoil from the Mn fiber are swept into a scintillation detector where alpha decays of Rn and Po occur. Signals from the detector are sent to a delayed coincidence circuit which discriminates decay of the 224 Ra daughters, 220 Ra and 216 Po, from decays of the 223 Ra daughters, 219 Ra and 215 Po. The main product of this project is a “Low Alpha counting system” based on digital technology. This system consists of some main electronic circuit such as amplifier, single channel analyzer, counters/timers, micro-processor, RS232 interfacing. Almost of mentioned-above components have been designed and fabricated using ISE 10.1 software toolkits from Xilinx. The application program for controlling and collecting data from the device is written in LabView. In comparison with conventional analog circuits, the design of this system is smaller and easy to use owing to being connected to personal computer through RS232 interface in order to data acquisition and processing. This is also a new trend in the field of development of nuclear equipment with the aim to simple design, cost-saving (Reuse of hardware components can further reduce the system development cost), flexible (arbitrarily adjust measurement parameters by setting parameters from software), user-Friendly Environment (program directly embedded into the FPGA). (author)

  3. Views of pharmacy graduates and pharmacist tutors on evidence-based practice in relation to over-the-counter consultations: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Peter; Hughes, Carmel; Hanna, Lezley-Anne

    2015-12-01

    Health care services offered to the public should be based on the best available evidence. We aimed to explore pharmacy tutors' and trainees' views on the importance of evidence when making decisions about over-the-counter (OTC) medicines and also to investigate whether the tutor influenced the trainee in practice. Following ethical approval and piloting, semi-structured interviews were conducted with pharmacy graduates (trainees) and pharmacist tutors. Transcribed interview data were entered into the NVivo software package (version 10), coded and analysed via thematic analysis. Twelve trainees (five males, seven females) and 11 tutors (five males, six females) participated. Main themes that emerged were (in)consistency and contradiction, confidence, acculturation, and continuation and perpetuation. Despite having an awareness of the importance and potential benefits, an evidence-based approach did not seem to be routinely or consistently implemented in practice. Confidence in products was largely derived from personal use and patient feedback. A lack of discussion about evidence was justified on the basis of not wanting to lessen patient confidence in requested product(s) or possibly negating the placebo effect. Trainees became acculturated to 'real-life' practice; university teaching and evidence was deemed less relevant than meeting customer expectations. The tutor's actions were mirrored by their trainee resulting in continuation and perpetuation of the same professional attitudes and behaviours. Evidence appeared to have limited influence on OTC decision making. The tutor played a key role in the trainee's professional development. More work could be performed to investigate how evidence can be regarded as relevant and something that is consistently implemented in practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Selective REM-sleep deprivation does not diminish emotional memory consolidation in young healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, Jarste; Wiesner, Christian D; Hinze, Karoline; Abels, Lena C; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation and it has been hypothesized that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in particular facilitates the consolidation of emotional memory. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis using selective REM-sleep deprivation. We used a recognition memory task in which participants were shown negative and neutral pictures. Participants (N=29 healthy medical students) were separated into two groups (undisturbed sleep and selective REM-sleep deprived). Both groups also worked on the memory task in a wake condition. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for negative than for neutral stimuli and better after the sleep than the wake condition. There was, however, no difference in the recognition accuracy (neutral and emotional) between the groups. In summary, our data suggest that REM-sleep deprivation was successful and that the resulting reduction of REM-sleep had no influence on memory consolidation whatsoever.

  5. Visual hallucinations and pontine demyelination in a child: possible REM dissociation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Maria Gabriella; Batocchi, Anna Paola; Dittoni, Serena; Losurdo, Anna; Cianfoni, Alessandro; Stefanini, Maria Chiara; Vollono, Catello; Della Marca, Giacomo; Mariotti, Paolo

    2008-12-15

    An 11 year-old-boy acutely developed complex visual and acoustic hallucinations. Hallucinations, consisting of visions of a threatening, evil character of the Harry Potter saga, persisted for 3 days. Neurological and psychiatric examinations were normal. Ictal EEG was negative. MRI documented 3 small areas of hyperintense signal in the brainstem, along the paramedian and lateral portions of pontine tegmentum, one of which showed post-contrast enhancement. These lesions were likely of inflammatory origin, and treatment with immunoglobulins was started. Polysomnography was normal, multiple sleep latency test showed a mean sleep latency of 8 minutes, with one sleep-onset REM period. The pontine tegmentum is responsible for REM sleep regulation, and contains definite "REM-on" and "REM-off" regions. The anatomical distribution of the lesions permits us to hypothesize that hallucinations in this boy were consequent to a transient impairment of REM sleep inhibitory mechanisms, with the appearance of dream-like hallucinations during wake.

  6. Analysis of automated quantification of motor activity in REM sleep behaviour disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rune; Nikolic, Miki; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and REM sleep without atonia. Atonia is evaluated on the basis of visual criteria, but there is a need for more objective, quantitative measurements. We aimed to define and optimize a method for establishing...... baseline and all other parameters in automatic quantifying submental motor activity during REM sleep. We analysed the electromyographic activity of the submental muscle in polysomnographs of 29 patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD), 29 controls and 43 Parkinson's (PD) patients. Six adjustable parameters...... were validated on PD patients. Automatic baseline estimation improved characterization of atonia during REM sleep, as it eliminates inter/intra-observer variability and can be standardized across diagnostic centres. We found an optimized method for quantifying motor activity during REM sleep...

  7. Estimate of man-rem expenditures for a mature CANDU 600 MW(e) station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperman, I.

    1978-08-01

    In recent years, man-rem expenditures at operating stations have come under close scrutiny in order to reduce operating personnel dosage. This increased awareness has led to concerted efforts to improve station design and to improve operating procedures to achieve lower man-rem expenditures. This paper is intended to highlight design improvements that have been made in the CANDU 600 MW(e) design and to show how these improvements will reduce man-rem expenditures. Other considerations, such as station decontaminations of the primary heat transport system and the fuelling machines and stricter chemistry control are presently available to help reduce man-rem consumption. Also, station management operating policy should emphasize man-rem awareness. (author)

  8. Merging a Terrain-Based Parameter and Snow Particle Counter Data for the Assessment of Snow Redistribution in the Col du Lac Blanc Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, Peter; Prokop, Alexander; Naaim-Bouvet, Florence; Vionnet, Vincent; Guyomarc'h, Gilbert; Heiser, Micha; Nishimura, Kouichi

    2015-04-01

    Wind and the associated snow drift are dominating factors determining the snow distribution and accumulation in alpine areas, resulting in a high spatial variability of snow depth that is difficult to evaluate and quantify. The terrain-based parameter Sx characterizes the degree of shelter or exposure of a grid point provided by the upwind terrain, without the computational complexity of numerical wind field models. The parameter has shown to qualitatively predict snow redistribution with good reproduction of spatial patterns. It does not, however, provide a quantitative estimate of changes in snow depths. The objective of our research was to introduce a new parameter to quantify changes in snow depths in our research area, the Col du Lac Blanc in the French Alps. The area is at an elevation of 2700 m and particularly suited for our study due to its consistently bi-modal wind directions. Our work focused on two pronounced, approximately 10 m high terrain breaks, and we worked with 1 m resolution digital snow surface models (DSM). The DSM and measured changes in snow depths were obtained with high-accuracy terrestrial laser scan (TLS) measurements. First we calculated the terrain-based parameter Sx on a digital snow surface model and correlated Sx with measured changes in snow-depths (Δ SH). Results showed that Δ SH can be approximated by Δ SHestimated = α * Sx, where α is a newly introduced parameter. The parameter α has shown to be linked to the amount of snow deposited influenced by blowing snow flux. At the Col du Lac Blanc test side, blowing snow flux is recorded with snow particle counters (SPC). Snow flux is the number of drifting snow particles per time and area. Hence, the SPC provide data about the duration and intensity of drifting snow events, two important factors not accounted for by the terrain parameter Sx. We analyse how the SPC snow flux data can be used to estimate the magnitude of the new variable parameter α . To simulate the development

  9. A questionnaire based survey study for the evaluation of knowledge of Pakistani University teachers regarding their awareness about ibuprofen as an over the counter analgesic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianxian; Murtaza, Ghulam; Nadeem, Nida; Shao, Xiaokuai; Siddiqi, Bushra G; Shafique, Zainab; Ahmad, Saeed; Amjad, Seyyeda T; Haroon, Saima; Tanoli, Mamoona; Zhou, Mei

    2014-01-01

    In recent time, due to convenient availability of number of over the counter (OTC) drugs, patients are able to treat minor ailments by themselves. The self-medicated regimen has lead to certain health problems in all age groups irrespective of their professions. People are usually unaware about the safe use of NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and currently there is no study carried out in COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Abbottabad, regarding the choice of faculty members for NSAIDs to relieve pain and their knowledge about its safety and use. A questionnaire based survey was carried out to collectdata about the choice of CIIT faculty for a specific NSAID and their cognition related to ibuprofen. Two hundred fifty faculty members (comprising of 53 pharmacy faculty members and 197 faculty members who belonged to other departments) of which 87 were females, took part in this study. Average age of participants was 34.86 +/- 9.02 years. Ibuprofen was the drug of choice NSAID among the participants. Four percent participants experienced pain almost every day. Analgesia was the well known indication for ibuprofen (31%) by both the groups and in general more educated and younger participants showed better apprehension related to indications. Sixty one percent participants comprising of non-pharmacy faculty were unaware of any undesirable effects and 79% (comprising of 72% pharmacists and 5% non-pharmacists) were affirmative that ibuprofen had no adverse effects. Fifteen percent participants of department other than pharmacy were not aware of any interactions of ibuprofen. 34% of participants (comprising of 32% non-pharmacists and 2% pharmacists) entrusted their physician for an analgesic. Regardless that many participants suffered from pain almost every day and their drug of choice would be ibuprofen, they had inadequate information related to the safety and use of ibuprofen.

  10. Development of Rural Emergency Medical System (REMS) with Geospatial Technology in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, W. H.; Shahrizal, I. M.; Noordin, A.; Nurulain, M. I.; Norhan, M. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Emergency medical services are dedicated services in providing out-of-hospital transport to definitive care or patients with illnesses and injuries. In this service the response time and the preparedness of medical services is of prime importance. The application of space and geospatial technology such as satellite navigation system and Geographical Information System (GIS) was proven to improve the emergency operation in many developed countries. In collaboration with a medical service NGO, the National Space Agency (ANGKASA) has developed a prototype Rural Emergency Medical System (REMS), focusing on providing medical services to rural areas and incorporating satellite based tracking module integrated with GIS and patience database to improve the response time of the paramedic team during emergency. With the aim to benefit the grassroots community by exploiting space technology, the project was able to prove the system concept which will be addressed in this paper.

  11. Rivastigmine for refractory REM behavior disorder in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Valerio; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Lapenta, Leonardo; Mariotti, Paolo; Marra, Camillo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-03-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and REM Behavior Disorder (RBD) are both associated with a degeneration of ponto-medullary cholinergic pathways. We conducted a placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot trial of Rivastigmine (RVT) in 25 consecutive patients with MCI, who presented RBD refractory to conventional first-line treatments (melatonin up to 5 mg/day and clonazepam up to 2 mg/day). RVT treatment was followed by a significant reduction of RBD episodes when compared with placebo. Our data suggest that, in MCI patients with RBD resistant to conventional therapies (muscle relaxants benzodiazepines or melatonin,) treatment with RVT may induce a reduction in the frequency of RBD episodes compared to placebo.

  12. A nuclear proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a nuclear proportional counter comprising in a bulb filled with a low-pressure gas, a wire forming an anode and a cathode, characterized in that said cathode is constituted by two plane plates parallel to each other and to the anode wire, and in that two branches of a circuit are connected to the anode wire end-portions, each branch comprising a pre-amplifier, a measuring circuit consisting of a differentiator-integrator-differentiator amplifier and a zero detector, one of the branches comprising an adjustable delay circuit, both branches jointly attacking a conversion circuit for converting the pulse duration into amplitudes said conversion circuit being followed by a multi-channel analyzer, contingently provided with a recorder [fr

  13. Silica aerogel Cerenkov counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumi, S.; Masaike, A.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kawai, H.

    1984-03-01

    In order to obtain silica aerogel radiators of good quality, the prescription used by Saclay group has been developed. We have done several experiments using beams from KEK.PS to test the performance of a Cerenkov counter with aerogel modules produced in KEK. It turned out that these modules had excellent quality. The production rate of silica aerogel in KEK is 15 -- 20 litres a week. Silica aerogel modules of 20 x 10 x 3 cm 3 having the refractive index of 1.058 are successfully being used by Kyoto University group in the KEK experiment E92 (Σ). Methodes to produce silica aerogel with higher refractive index than 1.06 has been investigated both by heating an module with the refractive index of 1.06 and by hydrolyzing tetraethyl silicate. (author)

  14. Scintillation counter, segmented shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.; Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  15. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Salapura, Valentina [Chappaqua, NY

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  16. Micropipette as Coulter counter for submicron particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzevich, Yauheni; Ordonez, Tony; Evans, Grant; Chow, Lee

    2011-03-01

    Coulter counter based on micropipette has been around for several decades. Typical commercial Coulter counter has a pore size of 20 μ m, and is designed to detect micron-size blood cells. In recent years, there are a lot of interests in using nanometer pore size Coulter counter to detect single molecule and to sequence DNA. Here we describe a simple nanoparticle counter based on pulled micropipettes with a diameter of 50 -- 500 nm. Borosilicate micropipettes with an initial outer diameter of 1.00 mm and inner diameter of 0.5 mm are used. After pulling, the micropipettes are fire polished and ultrasound cleaned. Chlorinated Ag/AgCl electrodes and 0.1 M of KCl solution are used. The ionic currents are measured using an Axopatch 200B amplifier in the voltage-clamp mode. Several types and sizes of nanoparticles are measured, including plain silica and polystyrene nanospheres. The results will be discussed in terms of pH values of the solution and concentrations of the nanoparticles. Financial support from National Science Foundation (NSF-0901361) is acknowledged.

  17. Application of an efficient strategy based on liquid-liquid extraction, high-speed counter-current chromatography, and preparative HPLC for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of four anthraquinones from Rheum tanguticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Yongling; Zou, Denglang; Chen, Chen; You, Jinmao; Zhou, Guoying; Sun, Jing; Li, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an efficient strategy based on liquid-liquid extraction, high-speed counter-current chromatography, and preparative HPLC for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of four anthraquinones from Rheum tanguticum. A new solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/water (4:2:1, v/v/v) was developed for the liquid-liquid extraction of the crude extract from R. tanguticum. As a result, emodin, aloe-emodin, physcion, and chrysophanol were greatly enriched in the organic layer. In addition, an efficient method was successfully established to separate and purify the above anthraquinones by high-speed counter-current chromatography and preparative HPLC. This study supplies a new alternative method for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of emodin, aloe-emodin, physcione, and chrysophanol. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Thermophysical Properties Along Curiosity's Traverse in Gale Crater, Mars, Derived from the REMS Ground Temperature Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Lewis, Kevin W.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Smith, Michael Doyle

    2016-01-01

    The REMS instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, has measured ground temperature nearly continuously at hourly intervals for two Mars years. Coverage of the entire diurnal cycle at 1 Hz is available every few martian days. We compare these measurements with predictions of surface atmosphere thermal models to derive the apparent thermal inertia and thermally derived albedo along the rovers traverse after accounting for the radiative effects of atmospheric water ice during fall and winter, as is necessary to match the measured seasonal trend. The REMS measurements can distinguish between active sand, other loose materials, mudstone, and sandstone based on their thermophysical properties. However, the apparent thermal inertias of bedrock dominated surfaces [approx. 350-550 J m(exp. -2) K(exp. -1 s(exp. -1/2 )] are lower than expected. We use rover imagery and the detailed shape of the diurnal ground temperature curve to explore whether lateral or vertical heterogeneity in the surface materials within the sensor footprint might explain the low inertias. We find that the bedrock component of the surface can have a thermal inertia as high as 650-1700 J m(exp. -2) K(exp. -1) s(exp. -1/2) for mudstone sites and approx. 700 J m(exp. -2) K(exp. -1) s(exp. - 1/2) for sandstone sites in models runs that include lateral and vertical mixing. Although the results of our forward modeling approach may be non-unique, they demonstrate the potential to extract information about lateral and vertical variations in thermophysical properties from temporally resolved measurements of ground temperature.

  19. Daytime Ayahuasca administration modulates REM and slow-wave sleep in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanoj, Manel J; Riba, Jordi; Clos, S; Giménez, S; Grasa, E; Romero, S

    2008-02-01

    Ayahuasca is a traditional South American psychoactive beverage and the central sacrament of Brazilian-based religious groups, with followers in Europe and the United States. The tea contains the psychedelic indole N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and beta-carboline alkaloids with monoamine oxidase-inhibiting properties that render DMT orally active. DMT interacts with serotonergic neurotransmission acting as a partial agonist at 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor sites. Given the role played by serotonin in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle, we investigated the effects of daytime ayahuasca consumption in sleep parameters. Subjective sleep quality, polysomnography (PSG), and spectral analysis were assessed in a group of 22 healthy male volunteers after the administration of a placebo, an ayahuasca dose equivalent to 1 mg DMT kg(-1) body weight, and 20 mg d-amphetamine, a proaminergic drug, as a positive control. Results show that ayahuasca did not induce any subjectively perceived deterioration of sleep quality or PSG-measured disruptions of sleep initiation or maintenance, in contrast with d-amphetamine, which delayed sleep initiation, disrupted sleep maintenance, induced a predominance of 'light' vs 'deep' sleep and significantly impaired subjective sleep quality. PSG analysis also showed that similarly to d-amphetamine, ayahuasca inhibits rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, decreasing its duration, both in absolute values and as a percentage of total sleep time, and shows a trend increase in its onset latency. Spectral analysis showed that d-amphetamine and ayahuasca increased power in the high frequency range, mainly during stage 2. Remarkably, whereas slow-wave sleep (SWS) power in the first night cycle, an indicator of sleep pressure, was decreased by d-amphetamine, ayahuasca enhanced power in this frequency band. Results show that daytime serotonergic psychedelic drug administration leads to measurable changes in PSG and sleep power spectrum and suggest an

  20. The effect of REM sleep deprivation on motivation for food reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Erin C; Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Harder, Bridgette K; Kelley, Ann E; Benca, Ruth M

    2005-08-30

    Prolonged sleep deprivation in rats produces a characteristic syndrome consisting of an increase in food intake yet a decrease in weight. Moreover, the increase in food intake generally precedes the weight loss, suggesting that sleep deprivation may affect appetitive behaviors. Using the multiple platform method to produce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation, we investigated the effect of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) on motivation for food reward utilizing food-reinforced operant tasks. In acquisition or maintenance of an operant task, REM sleep-deprived rats, with or without simultaneous food restriction, decreased responding for sucrose pellet reward in comparison to controls, despite the fact that all REM sleep-deprived rats lost weight. Furthermore, the overall response deficit of the REM sleep-deprived rats was due to a within-session decline in responding. REM sleep-deprived rats showed evidence of understanding the contingency of the task comparable to controls throughout deprivation period, suggesting that the decrements in responding were not primarily related to deficits in learning or memory. Rather, REM sleep deprivation appears to alter systems involved in motivational processes, reward, and/or attention.

  1. Effects of selective REM sleep deprivation on prefrontal gamma activity and executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi-Cabrera, M; Rosales-Lagarde, A; del Río-Portilla, Y; Sifuentes-Ortega, R; Alcántara-Quintero, B

    2015-05-01

    Given that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in executive functions and is deactivated and decoupled from posterior associative regions during REM sleep, that Gamma temporal coupling involved in information processing is enhanced during REM sleep, and that adult humans spend about 90 min of every 24h in REM sleep, it might be expected that REM sleep deprivation would modify Gamma temporal coupling and have a deteriorating effect on executive functions. We analyzed EEG Gamma activity and temporal coupling during implementation of a rule-guided task before and after REM sleep deprivation and its effect on verbal fluency, flexible thinking and selective attention. After two nights in the laboratory for adaptation, on the third night subjects (n=18) were randomly assigned to either selective REM sleep deprivation effectuated by awakening them at each REM sleep onset or, the same number of NREM sleep awakenings as a control for unspecific effects of sleep interruptions. Implementation of abstract rules to guide behavior required greater activation and synchronization of Gamma activity in the frontopolar regions after REM sleep reduction from 20.6% at baseline to just 3.93% of total sleep time. However, contrary to our hypothesis, both groups showed an overall improvement in executive task performance and no effect on their capacity to sustain selective attention. These results suggest that after one night of selective REM sleep deprivation executive functions can be compensated by increasing frontal activation and they still require the participation of supervisory control by frontopolar regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In-vivo staging of pathology in REM sleep behaviour disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Karoline; Fedorova, Tatyana D.; Hansen, Allan K.

    2018-01-01

    originating in the locus coeruleus, and 18F-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) PET to assess nigrostriatal dopamine storage capacity. For each imaging modality, we compared patients with idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder with previously published reference data of controls without neurological disorders...... or cognitive impairment and with symptomatic patients with Parkinson's disease. We assessed imaging data using one-way ANOVA corrected for multiple comparisons. Findings: Between June 3, 2016, and Dec 19, 2017, we recruited 22 consecutive patients with idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder to the study...... REM sleep behaviour disorder (pequal to that in diagnosed Parkinson's disease. These patients also showed noradrenergic...

  3. Venlafaxine-induced REM sleep behavioral disorder presenting as two fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ryan Williams

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavioral disorder is characterized by the absence of muscular atonia during REM sleep. In this disorder, patients can violently act out their dreams, placing them at risk for traumatic fractures during these episodes. REM sleep behavioral disorder (RBD can be a sign of future neurodegenerative disease and has also been found to be a side effect of certain psychiatric medications. We present a case of venlafaxine-induced RBD in a 55 year old female who presented with a 13 year history of intermittent parasomnia and dream enactment in addition to a recent history of two fractures requiring intervention.

  4. Venlafaxine-induced REM sleep behavioral disorder presenting as two fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan Williams, R; Sandigo, Gustavo

    2017-10-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavioral disorder is characterized by the absence of muscular atonia during REM sleep. In this disorder, patients can violently act out their dreams, placing them at risk for traumatic fractures during these episodes. REM sleep behavioral disorder (RBD) can be a sign of future neurodegenerative disease and has also been found to be a side effect of certain psychiatric medications. We present a case of venlafaxine-induced RBD in a 55 year old female who presented with a 13 year history of intermittent parasomnia and dream enactment in addition to a recent history of two fractures requiring intervention.

  5. 3D characterization of the forces in optical traps based on counter-propagation beams shaped by a spatial light modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M. V.; Lindballe, T.; Kylling, A.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental characterization of the 3D forces, acting on a trapped polystyrene bead in a counter-propagating beam geometry, is reported. Using a single optical trap with a large working distance (in the BioPhotonics Workstation), we simultaneously measure the transverse and longitudinal...... trapping force constants. Two different methods were used: The Drag force method and the Equipartition method. We show that the counterpropagating beams traps are simple harmonic for small displacements. The force constants reveal a transverse asymmetry as - = 9.7 pN/µm and + = 11.3 pN/µm (at a total laser...... power of 2x35 mW) for displacements in opposite directions. The Equipartition method is limited by mechanical noise and is shown to be applicable only when the total laser power in a single 10 µm counter-propagating trap is below 2x20 mW....

  6. Townsend coefficients of gases in avalanche counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, G.

    1978-01-01

    Though much work has been done by many authors in the last few years in the development and application of avalanche counters for ion radiation, it is based upon values of the Townsend coefficients as the essential gas parameter, which were determined many years ago for much lower reduced field strengths F/p than prevail in such counters. Therefore absolute determinations of α in vapours of methyl alcohol, cyclohexane, acetone, and n-heptene were performed under original conditions of avalanche counters. The values obtained do not differ by more than 30%-50% from the former values indeed, extrapolated over F/p for the first three mentioned substances, but the amounts of A and B in the usual representation α/p=A exp(-B(F/p)) are much greater for the stronger reduced fields. This is of importance for such counter properties as the dependence of pulse heights on pressure, voltage, electrode distance etc., which are governed by other combinations of A and B than α/p itself. A comparison of results for different ionic radiations shows a marked influence of the primary ionization density along the particle tracks which is hard to explain. (Auth.)

  7. Calibration of proportional counters in microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, M.N.

    1982-01-01

    Many microdosimetric spectra for low LET as well as high LET radiations are measured using commercially available (similar to EG and G) Rossi proportional counters. This paper discusses the corrections to be applied to data when calibration of the counter is made using one type of radiation, and then the counter is used in a different radiation field. The principal correction factor is due to differences in W-value of the radiation used for calibration and the radiation for which microdosimetric measurements are made. Both propane and methane base tissue-equivalent (TE) gases are used in these counters. When calibrating the detectors, it is important to use the correct stopping power value for that gas. Deviations in y-bar/sub F/ and y-bar/sub D/ are calculated for 60 Co using different extrapolation procedures from 0.15 keV/μm to zero event size. These deviations can be as large as 30%. Advantages of reporting microdosimetric parameters such as y-bar/sub F/ and y-bar/sub D/ above a certain minimum cut-off are discussed

  8. Time-resolved imaging of prompt-gamma rays for proton range verification using a knife-edge slit camera based on digital photon counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambraia Lopes, Patricia; Clementel, Enrico; Crespo, Paulo; Henrotin, Sebastien; Huizenga, Jan; Janssens, Guillaume; Parodi, Katia; Prieels, Damien; Roellinghoff, Frauke; Smeets, Julien; Stichelbaut, Frederic; Schaart, Dennis R.

    2015-08-01

    Proton range monitoring may facilitate online adaptive proton therapy and improve treatment outcomes. Imaging of proton-induced prompt gamma (PG) rays using a knife-edge slit collimator is currently under investigation as a potential tool for real-time proton range monitoring. A major challenge in collimated PG imaging is the suppression of neutron-induced background counts. In this work, we present an initial performance test of two knife-edge slit camera prototypes based on arrays of digital photon counters (DPCs). PG profiles emitted from a PMMA target upon irradiation with a 160 MeV proton pencil beams (about 6.5   ×   109 protons delivered in total) were measured using detector modules equipped with four DPC arrays coupled to BGO or LYSO : Ce crystal matrices. The knife-edge slit collimator and detector module were placed at 15 cm and 30 cm from the beam axis, respectively, in all cases. The use of LYSO : Ce enabled time-of-flight (TOF) rejection of background events, by synchronizing the DPC readout electronics with the 106 MHz radiofrequency signal of the cyclotron. The signal-to-background (S/B) ratio of 1.6 obtained with a 1.5 ns TOF window and a 3 MeV-7 MeV energy window was about 3 times higher than that obtained with the same detector module without TOF discrimination and 2 times higher than the S/B ratio obtained with the BGO module. Even 1 mm shifts of the Bragg peak position translated into clear and consistent shifts of the PG profile if TOF discrimination was applied, for a total number of protons as low as about 6.5   ×   108 and a detector surface of 6.6 cm  ×  6.6 cm.

  9. A portable neutron coincidence counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, A.J.; Bowyer, S.M.; Craig, R.A.; Dudder, G.B.; Knopf, M.A.; Panisko, M.E.; Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Sunberg, D.S.

    1996-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has designed and constructed a prototype portable neutron coincidence counter intended for use in a variety of applications, such as the verification and inspection of weapons components, safety measurements for novel and challenging situations, portable portal deployment to prevent the transportation of fissile materials, uranium enrichment measurements in hard-to-reach locations, waste assays for objects that cannot be measured by existing measurement systems, and decontamination and decommissioning. The counting system weighs less than 40 kg and is composed of parts each weighing no more than 5 kg. In addition, the counter`s design is sufficiently flexible to allow rapid, reliable assembly around containers of nearly arbitrary size and shape. The counter is able to discern the presence of 1 kg of weapons-grade plutonium within an ALR-8 (30-gal drum) in roughly 100 seconds and 10 g in roughly 1000 seconds. The counter`s electronics are also designed for maximum adaptability, allowing operation under a wide variety of circumstances, including exposure to gamma-ray fields of 1 R/h. This report provides a detailed review of the design and construction process. Finally, preliminary experimental measurements that confirm the performance capabilities of this counter are discussed. 6 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  11. What is Counter-Enlightenment?

    OpenAIRE

    Darrin M. McMahon

    2017-01-01

    This article counters recent suggestions that there was no such thing as a “Counter-Enlightenment” or “Counter-Enlightenments,” and that such terms ought thus to be abandoned.   While acknowledging inevitable difficulties with the terms, the article argues that there can be no doubting the reality.   European countries faced a variety of vehement and self-conscious movements that defined themselves precisely through their opposition to what they took to be the corrosive effects of the Enlight...

  12. Analysis of the environmental conditions at Gale Crater from MSL/REMS measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G.; Torre-Juarez, M. de la; Vicente-Retortillo, A.; Kemppinen, O.; Renno, N.; Lemmon, M.

    2016-07-01

    The environmental conditions at Gale Crater during the first 1160 sols of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission are assessed using measurements taken by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on-board the MSL Curiosity rover. REMS is a suite of sensors developed to assess the environmental conditions along the rover traverse. In particular, REMS has been measuring atmospheric pressure, atmospheric and ground temperature, relative humidity, UV radiation flux and wind speed. Here we analyze processed data with the highest confidence possible of atmospheric pressure, atmospheric and ground temperature and relative humidity. In addition, we estimate the daily UV irradiation at the surface of Gale Crater using dust opacity values derived from the Mastcam instrument. REMS is still in operation, but it has already provided the most comprehensive coverage of surface environmental conditions recorded by a spacecraft landed on Mars. (Author)

  13. Differential modulation of global and local neural oscillations in REM sleep by homeostatic sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bowon; Kocsis, Bernat; Hwang, Eunjin; Kim, Youngsoo; Strecker, Robert E; McCarley, Robert W; Choi, Jee Hyun

    2017-02-28

    Homeostatic rebound in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep normally occurs after acute sleep deprivation, but REM sleep rebound settles on a persistently elevated level despite continued accumulation of REM sleep debt during chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Using high-density EEG in mice, we studied how this pattern of global regulation is implemented in cortical regions with different functions and network architectures. We found that across all areas, slow oscillations repeated the behavioral pattern of persistent enhancement during CSR, whereas high-frequency oscillations showed progressive increases. This pattern followed a common rule despite marked topographic differences. The findings suggest that REM sleep slow oscillations may translate top-down homeostatic control to widely separated brain regions whereas fast oscillations synchronizing local neuronal ensembles escape this global command. These patterns of EEG oscillation changes are interpreted to reconcile two prevailing theories of the function of sleep, synaptic homeostasis and sleep dependent memory consolidation.

  14. Schiphol - üks saar muudab Hollandi / Rem Koolhaas ; tõlk. Inga Raukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koolhaas, Rem, 1944-

    2000-01-01

    Schipholi lennuvälja ümberpaigutamine kunstlikule saarele meres. Hollandi arhitektuuribüroo OMA arhitektuurse projekti kirjeldus. Projekteerijad Rem Koolhaas, Reinier de Graaf, Jens Hommert, Mateo Poli, Adam Kurdahl, Anna Little, Bert Karel Deuten. 23 ill

  15. REM sleep behavior disorder and narcoleptic features in anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compta, Yaroslau; Iranzo, Alex; Santamaría, Joan; Casamitjana, Roser; Graus, Francesc

    2007-06-01

    A 69-year-old man with anti-Ma2 paraneoplastic encephalitis presented with subacute onset of severe hypersomnia, memory loss, parkinsonism, and gaze palsy. A brain magnetic resonance imaging study showed bilateral damage in the dorsolateral midbrain, amygdala, and paramedian thalami. Videopolysomnography disclosed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, and a Multiple Sleep Latency Test showed a mean sleep latency of 7 minutes and 4 sleep-onset REM periods. The level of hypocretin-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid was low (49 pg/mL). This observation illustrates that REM sleep behavior disorder and narcoleptic features are 2 REM-sleep abnormalities that (1) may share the same autoimmune-mediated origin affecting the brainstem, limbic, and diencephalic structures and (2) may occur in the setting of the paraneoplastic anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis.

  16. Motivation and affect in REM sleep and the mentation reporting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark R; Antrobus, John S; Gordon, Evelyn; Tucker, Matthew A; Hirota, Yasutaka; Wamsley, Erin J; Ross, Lars; Doan, Tieu; Chaklader, Annie; Emery, Rebecca N

    2004-09-01

    Although the emotional and motivational characteristics of dreaming have figured prominently in folk and psychoanalytic conceptions of dream production, emotions have rarely been systematically studied, and motivation, never. Because emotions during sleep lack the somatic components of waking emotions, and they change as the sleeper awakens, their properties are difficult to assess. Recent evidence of limbic system activation during REM sleep suggests a basis in brain architecture for the interaction of motivational and cognitive properties in dreaming. Motivational and emotional content in REM and NREM laboratory mentation reports from 25 participants were compared. Motivational and emotional content was significantly greater in REM than NREM sleep, even after controlling for the greater word count of REM reports.

  17. Augmented In Situ Subsurface Bioremediation Process™BIO-REM, Inc. - Demonstration Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Augmented In Situ Subsurface Bioremediation Process™ developed by BIO-REM, Inc., uses microaerophilic bacteria and micronutrients (H-10) and surface tension depressants/penetrants for the treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils and groundwater. The bacteria utilize hydroc...

  18. Diagnostic thresholds for quantitative REM sleep phasic burst duration, phasic and tonic muscle activity, and REM atonia index in REM sleep behavior disorder with and without comorbid obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Duwell, Ethan J; Timm, Paul C; Sandness, David J; Boeve, Bradley F; Silber, Michael H

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to determine whether phasic burst duration and conventional REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) methods could accurately diagnose REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients with comorbid OSA. We visually analyzed RSWA phasic burst durations, phasic, "any," and tonic muscle activity by 3-s mini-epochs, phasic activity by 30-s (AASM rules) epochs, and conducted automated REM atonia index (RAI) analysis. Group RSWA metrics were analyzed and regression models fit, with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determining the best diagnostic cutoff thresholds for RBD. Both split-night and full-night polysomnographic studies were analyzed. N/A. Parkinson disease (PD)-RBD (n = 20) and matched controls with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) OSA. N/A. All mean RSWA phasic burst durations and muscle activities were higher in PD-RBD patients than controls (P sleep without atonia diagnostic thresholds applicable in Parkinson disease-REM sleep behavior disorder (PD-RBD) patient populations with comorbid OSA that may be useful toward distinguishing PD-RBD in typical outpatient populations. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. Psychoanalytic dream theory and recent neurobiological findings about REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, M D

    1984-01-01

    I have reviewed Hobson and McCarley's activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming which attempts to show that the instigation and certain formal aspects of dreaming are physiologically determined by a brainstem neuronal mechanism, their reasons for suggesting major revisions in psychoanalytic dream theory, and neurophysiological data that are inconsistent with their hypothesis. I then discussed the concept of mind-body isomorphism pointing out that they use this concept inconsistently, that despite their denials they regularly view physiology as primary and psychological processes as secondary, and that they frequently make the error of mixing the languages of physiology and psychology in their explanatory statements. Finally, in order to evaluate Hobson and McCarley's claim that their findings require revision of psychoanalytic dream theory, I examined their discussions of chase dreams, flying dreams, sexual dreams, the formal characteristics of dreams, the forgetting of dreams, and the instigation of dreams. I concluded that although their fascinating physiological findings may be central to understanding the neurobiology of REM sleep, they do not alter the meaning and interpretation of dreams gleaned through psychoanalytic study.

  20. Sleepiness in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Neutel, Dulce; Herlin, Bastien; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Cochen de Cock, Valérie; Vidailhet, Marie

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether patients with idiopathic and symptomatic RBD were sleepier than controls, and if sleepiness in idiopathic RBD predicted earlier conversion to Parkinson disease. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and its determinants were compared at the time of a video-polysomnography for an RBD diagnosis in patients with idiopathic RBD, in patients with Parkinson disease, and in controls. Whether sleepiness at time of RBD diagnosis predicted an earlier conversion to neurodegenerative diseases was retrospectively analyzed in the followed-up patients. The 75 patients with idiopathic RBD were sleepier (ESS: 7.8 ± 4.6) at the time of RBD diagnosis than 74 age- and sex-matched controls (ESS: 5.0 ± 3.6, P sleep measures. Among the 69 patients with idiopathic RBD who were followed up for a median 3 years (1-15 years), 16 (23.2%) developed parkinsonism (n = 6), dementia (n = 6), dementia plus parkinsonism (n = 2), and multiple system atrophy (n = 2). An ESS greater than 8 at time of RBD diagnosis predicted a shorter time to phenoconversion to parkinsonism and dementia, from RBD onset, and from RBD diagnosis (when adjusted for age and time between RBD onset and diagnosis). Sleepiness is associated with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and predicts more rapid conversion to parkinsonism and dementia, suggesting it is an early marker of neuronal loss in brainstem arousal systems. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. Abnormal metabolic network activity in REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtbernd, Florian; Gagnon, Jean-François; Postuma, Ron B; Ma, Yilong; Tang, Chris C; Feigin, Andrew; Dhawan, Vijay; Vendette, Mélanie; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Eidelberg, David; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2014-02-18

    To determine whether the Parkinson disease-related covariance pattern (PDRP) expression is abnormally increased in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and whether increased baseline activity is associated with greater individual risk of subsequent phenoconversion. For this cohort study, we recruited 2 groups of RBD and control subjects. Cohort 1 comprised 10 subjects with RBD (63.5 ± 9.4 years old) and 10 healthy volunteers (62.7 ± 8.6 years old) who underwent resting-state metabolic brain imaging with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET. Cohort 2 comprised 17 subjects with RBD (68.9 ± 4.8 years old) and 17 healthy volunteers (66.6 ± 6.0 years old) who underwent resting brain perfusion imaging with ethylcysteinate dimer SPECT. The latter group was followed clinically for 4.6 ± 2.5 years by investigators blinded to the imaging results. PDRP expression was measured in both RBD groups and compared with corresponding control values. PDRP expression was elevated in both groups of subjects with RBD (cohort 1: p abnormalities in subjects with idiopathic RBD are associated with a greater likelihood of subsequent phenoconversion to a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome.

  2. Costly Signaling Theory of REM Sleep and Dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick McNamara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of REM sleep dreaming is still unknown. We situate our approach to understanding dream phenomenology and dream function within that part of evolutionary theory known as Costly Signaling Theory (CST. We contend that many of the signals produced by the dreaming brain can be and should be construed as “costly signals”—emotions or mental simulations that produce daytime behavioral dispositions that are costly to the dreamer. For example, often the dreamer will appear in the dream as handicapped in some way (i.e., no clothes, no ID, no money, is under attack, being chased etc.. The dreamer, during waking life, is then influenced by the carry-over effect of the unpleasant dream content. The informational and affective content of the dream creates a mental set in the dreamer that operates during the daytime to facilitate the signaling of a “handicapped” Self. The subtle signaling effect might be via display of the intense emotions or physical demeanor that had first appeared in the dream. When the dreamer shares his dream with others the dream has a more direct impact on waking life and social interactions. In effect, the dreamer uses his or her dreams to adopt a self-handicapping strategy when dealing with significant others. The increased use of costly signals (the self-handicapping strategy during the daytime then facilitates some vital communicative goal of the dreamer.

  3. Influence of tube volume on measurement uncertainty of GM counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Koviljka Đ.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available GM counters are often used in radiation detection since they generate a strong signal which can be easily detected. The working principal of a GM counter is based on the interaction of ionizing radiation with the atoms and molecules of the gas present in the counter's tube. Free electrons created as a result of this interaction become initial electrons, i. e. start an avalanche process which is detected as a pulse of current. This current pulse is independent of the energy imparted on the gas, that being the main difference between a GM counter and the majority of other radiation detectors. In literature, the dependence on the incidence of radiation energy, tube's orientation and characteristics of the reading system are quoted as the main sources of measurement uncertainty of GM counters. The aim of this paper is to determine the dependence of measurement uncertainty of a GM counter on the volume of its counter's tube. The dependence of the pulse current on the size of the counter's tube has, therefore, been considered here, both in radial and parallel geometry. The initiation and expansion of the current pulse have been examined by means of elementary processes of electrical discharge such as the Markov processes, while the changes in the counter's tube volume were put to test by the space - time enlargement law. The random variable known as the 'current pulse in the counter's tube' (i. e. electrical breakdown of the electrode configuration has also been taken into account and an appropriate theoretical distribution statistically determined. Thus obtained theoretical results were then compared to corresponding experimental results established in controlled laboratory conditions.

  4. Assessing the dream-lag effect for REM and NREM stage 2 dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Fouquet, Nathalie C; Henley-Einion, Josephine A; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Davies, Anna C; Neuschaffer, Jennifer L; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates evidence, from dream reports, for memory consolidation during sleep. It is well-known that events and memories from waking life can be incorporated into dreams. These incorporations can be a literal replication of what occurred in waking life, or, more often, they can be partial or indirect. Two types of temporal relationship have been found to characterize the time of occurrence of a daytime event and the reappearance or incorporation of its features in a dream. These temporal relationships are referred to as the day-residue or immediate incorporation effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring on the immediately preceding day, and the dream-lag effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring 5-7 days prior to the dream. Previous work on the dream-lag effect has used spontaneous home recalled dream reports, which can be from Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM) and from non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREM). This study addresses whether the dream-lag effect occurs only for REM sleep dreams, or for both REM and NREM stage 2 (N2) dreams. 20 participants kept a daily diary for over a week before sleeping in the sleep laboratory for 2 nights. REM and N2 dreams collected in the laboratory were transcribed and each participant rated the level of correspondence between every dream report and every diary record. The dream-lag effect was found for REM but not N2 dreams. Further analysis indicated that this result was not due to N2 dream reports being shorter, in terms of number of words, than the REM dream reports. These results provide evidence for a 7-day sleep-dependent non-linear memory consolidation process that is specific to REM sleep, and accord with proposals for the importance of REM sleep to emotional memory consolidation.

  5. Assessing the Dream-Lag Effect for REM and NREM Stage 2 Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Fouquet, Nathalie C.; Henley-Einion, Josephine A.; Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Davies, Anna C.; Neuschaffer, Jennifer L.; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates evidence, from dream reports, for memory consolidation during sleep. It is well-known that events and memories from waking life can be incorporated into dreams. These incorporations can be a literal replication of what occurred in waking life, or, more often, they can be partial or indirect. Two types of temporal relationship have been found to characterize the time of occurrence of a daytime event and the reappearance or incorporation of its features in a dream. These temporal relationships are referred to as the day-residue or immediate incorporation effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring on the immediately preceding day, and the dream-lag effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring 5–7 days prior to the dream. Previous work on the dream-lag effect has used spontaneous home recalled dream reports, which can be from Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM) and from non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREM). This study addresses whether the dream-lag effect occurs only for REM sleep dreams, or for both REM and NREM stage 2 (N2) dreams. 20 participants kept a daily diary for over a week before sleeping in the sleep laboratory for 2 nights. REM and N2 dreams collected in the laboratory were transcribed and each participant rated the level of correspondence between every dream report and every diary record. The dream-lag effect was found for REM but not N2 dreams. Further analysis indicated that this result was not due to N2 dream reports being shorter, in terms of number of words, than the REM dream reports. These results provide evidence for a 7-day sleep-dependent non-linear memory consolidation process that is specific to REM sleep, and accord with proposals for the importance of REM sleep to emotional memory consolidation. PMID:22046336

  6. Assessing the dream-lag effect for REM and NREM stage 2 dreams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Blagrove

    Full Text Available This study investigates evidence, from dream reports, for memory consolidation during sleep. It is well-known that events and memories from waking life can be incorporated into dreams. These incorporations can be a literal replication of what occurred in waking life, or, more often, they can be partial or indirect. Two types of temporal relationship have been found to characterize the time of occurrence of a daytime event and the reappearance or incorporation of its features in a dream. These temporal relationships are referred to as the day-residue or immediate incorporation effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring on the immediately preceding day, and the dream-lag effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring 5-7 days prior to the dream. Previous work on the dream-lag effect has used spontaneous home recalled dream reports, which can be from Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM and from non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREM. This study addresses whether the dream-lag effect occurs only for REM sleep dreams, or for both REM and NREM stage 2 (N2 dreams. 20 participants kept a daily diary for over a week before sleeping in the sleep laboratory for 2 nights. REM and N2 dreams collected in the laboratory were transcribed and each participant rated the level of correspondence between every dream report and every diary record. The dream-lag effect was found for REM but not N2 dreams. Further analysis indicated that this result was not due to N2 dream reports being shorter, in terms of number of words, than the REM dream reports. These results provide evidence for a 7-day sleep-dependent non-linear memory consolidation process that is specific to REM sleep, and accord with proposals for the importance of REM sleep to emotional memory consolidation.

  7. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH: role in REM sleep and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo eTorterolo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH is a peptidergic neuromodulator synthesized by neurons of the lateral hypothalamus and incerto-hypothalamic area. MCHergic neurons project throughout the central nervous system, including areas such as the dorsal (DR and median (MR raphe nuclei, which are involved in the control of sleep and mood.Major Depression (MD is a prevalent psychiatric disease diagnosed on the basis of symptomatic criteria such as sadness or melancholia, guilt, irritability and anhedonia. A short REM sleep latency (i.e. the interval between sleep onset and the first REM sleep period, as well as an increase in the duration of REM sleep and the density of rapid-eye movements during this state, are considered important biological markers of depression. The fact that the greatest firing rate of MCHergic neurons occurs during REM sleep and that optogenetic stimulation of these neurons induces sleep, tends to indicate that MCH plays a critical role in the generation and maintenance of sleep, especially REM sleep. In addition, the acute microinjection of MCH into the DR promotes REM sleep, while immunoneutralization of this peptide within the DR decreases the time spent in this state. Moreover, microinjections of MCH into either the DR or MR promote a depressive-like behavior. In the DR, this effect is prevented by the systemic administration of antidepressant drugs (either fluoxetine or nortriptyline and blocked by the intra-DR microinjection of a specific MCH receptor antagonist. Using electrophysiological and microdialysis techniques we demonstrated also that MCH decreases the activity of serotonergic DR neurons.Therefore, there are substantive experimental data suggesting that the MCHergic system plays a role in the control of REM sleep and, in addition, in the pathophysiology of depression. Consequently, in the present report, we summarize and evaluate the current data and hypotheses related to the role of MCH in REM sleep and MD.

  8. Lithium prevents REM sleep deprivation-induced impairments on memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Simone M; Moreira, Karin Di Monteiro; Suchecki, Deborah; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela M; Tiba, Paula A

    2013-11-01

    Pre-training rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) deprivation affects memory acquisition and/or consolidation. It also produces major REMS rebound at the cost of waking and slow wave sleep (SWS). Given that both SWS and REMS appear to be important for memory processes, REMS rebound after training may disrupt the organization of sleep cycles, i.e., excessive amount of REMS and/or little SWS after training could be harmful for memory formation. To examine whether lithium, a drug known to increase SWS and reduce REMS, could prevent the memory impairment induced by pre-training sleep deprivation. Animals were divided in 2 groups: cage control (CC) and REMS-deprived (REMSDep), and then subdivided into 4 subgroups, treated either with vehicle or 1 of 3 doses of lithium (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg) 2 h before training on the multiple trial inhibitory avoidance task. Animals were tested 48 h later to make sure that the drug had been already metabolized and eliminated. Another set of animals was implanted with electrodes and submitted to the same experimental protocol for assessment of drug-induced sleep-wake changes. Wistar male rats weighing 300-400 g. Sleep deprived rats required more trials to learn the task and still showed a performance deficit during test, except from those treated with 150 mg/kg of lithium, which also reduced the time spent in REM sleep during sleep recovery. Lithium reduced rapid eye movement sleep and prevented memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation. These results indicate that these phenomena may be related, but cause-effect relationship cannot be ascertained.

  9. In-vivo radiation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    This patent specification describes a radiation counter utilizing at least one detector for sensing radiation from a living body. The radiation counter also includes an aperture for forming a corridor between the body and the detector. A shield outside the corridor prevents passage of background radiation through the corridor and gaining access to the detector. The counter also includes a device for isolating a selected portion of the body from the corridor such that radiation counting is restricted to a region of the body through a separate detector. The corridor formation permits a user to stand in an upright position while the detector and detectors are able to separately monitor different sections of the body. The radiation counter overcomes the problem of obtaining accurate and quick measurements or radiation doses sustained by a large group of persons. (author)

  10. High-speed parallel counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kov, B.N.; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Krastev, V.R.; Maksimov, A.N.; Nikityuk, N.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a high-speed parallel counter that contains 31 inputs and 15 outputs and is implemented by integrated circuits of series 500. The counter is designed for fast sampling of events according to the number of particles that pass simultaneously through the hodoscopic plane of the detector. The minimum delay of the output signals relative to the input is 43 nsec. The duration of the output signals can be varied from 75 to 120 nsec

  11. Channel coincidence counter: version 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick, M.S.; Menlove, H.O.

    1980-06-01

    A thermal neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the assay of fast critical assembly fuel drawers and plutonium-bearing fuel rods. The principal feature of the detector is a 7-cm by 7-cm by 97-cm detector channel, which provides a uniform neutron detection efficiency of 16% along the central 40 cm of the channel. The electronics system is identical to that used for the High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter

  12. Loss of Gnas imprinting differentially affects REM/NREM sleep and cognition in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Lassi

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that imprinted genes are important in the regulation of sleep. However, the fundamental question of whether genomic imprinting has a role in sleep has remained elusive up to now. In this work we show that REM and NREM sleep states are differentially modulated by the maternally expressed imprinted gene Gnas. In particular, in mice with loss of imprinting of Gnas, NREM and complex cognitive processes are enhanced while REM and REM-linked behaviors are inhibited. This is the first demonstration that a specific overexpression of an imprinted gene affects sleep states and related complex behavioral traits. Furthermore, in parallel to the Gnas overexpression, we have observed an overexpression of Ucp1 in interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT and a significant increase in thermoregulation that may account for the REM/NREM sleep phenotypes. We conclude that there must be significant evolutionary advantages in the monoallelic expression of Gnas for REM sleep and for the consolidation of REM-dependent memories. Conversely, biallelic expression of Gnas reinforces slow wave activity in NREM sleep, and this results in a reduction of uncertainty in temporal decision-making processes.

  13. From bench to bed: putative animal models of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzer, Martina; Lu, Jun; Mayer, Geert; Oertel, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    REM behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by REM sleep without atonia, leading to abnormal and potentially injurious behavior during REM sleep. It is considered one of the most specific predictors of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. In this paper, we provide an overview of animal models contributing to our current understanding of REM-associated atonia, and, as a consequence, the pathophysiology of RBD. The generator of REM-associated atonia is located in glutamatergic neurons of the pontine sublaterodorsal nucleus (SLD), as shown in cats, rats and mice. These findings are supported by clinical cases of patients with lesions of the homologous structure in humans. Glutamatergic SLD neurons, presumably in conjunction with others, project to (a) the ventromedial medulla, where they either directly target inhibitory interneurons to alpha motor neurons or are relayed, and (b) the spinal cord directly. At the spinal level, alpha motor neurons are inhibited by GABAergic and glycinergic interneurons. Our current understanding is that lesions of the glutamatergic SLD are the key factor for REM sleep behavior disorder. However, open questions remain, e.g. other features of RBD (such as the typically aggressive dream content) or the frequent progression from idiopathic RBD to neurodegenerative disorders, to name only a few. In order to elucidate these questions, a constant interaction between basic and clinical researchers is required, which might, ultimately, create an early therapeutic window for neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. Functional role of diverse changes in sympathetic nerve activity in regulating arterial pressure during REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Misa; Yoshida, Ikue; Miki, Kenju

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether REM sleep evoked diverse changes in sympathetic outflows and, if so, to elucidate why REM sleep evokes diverse changes in sympathetic outflows. Male Wistar rats were chronically implanted with electrodes to measure renal (RSNA) and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA), electroencephalogram, electromyogram, and electrocardiogram, and catheters to measure systemic arterial and central venous pressure; these parameters were measured simultaneously and continuously during the sleep-awake cycle in the same rat. REM sleep resulted in a step reduction in RNSA by 36.1% ± 2.7% (P sleep. In contrast to REM sleep, RSNA, LSNA, systemic arterial pressure, and heart rate increased in a unidirectional manner associated with increases in physical activity levels in the order from NREM sleep, quiet awake, moving, and grooming state. Thus, the relationship between RSNA vs. LSNA and systemic arterial pressure vs. heart rate observed during REM sleep was dissociated compared with that obtained during the other behavioral states. It is suggested that the diverse changes in sympathetic outflows during REM sleep may be needed to increase systemic arterial pressure by balancing vascular resistance between muscles and vegetative organs without depending on the heart.

  15. Portable microcomputer controlled radiation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, E.W.; Weber, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A portable microcomputer controlled counter for use as a radiation counter is described. The counter uses digital processing of input pulses from a radiation detector. The number of counts received by the microcomputer per unit time is used to calculate a value for display using a calibration factor obtained during physical calibration of the instrument with a radiation source or with a pulse generator. The keyboard is used to enter calibration points. The number of calibration points which may be entered depends on the degree of accuracy desired by the user. The high voltage generator which drives the detector is triggered by pulses from the microcomputer in relation to the count rate. After processing the count, the resulting count rate or dose rate is displayed on the liquid crystal display. The counter is autoranging in which the decimal point is shifted as necessary by the microcomputer. The units displayed are determined by the user by means of a multiposition switch. Low battery and an overrange condition are displayed. An interface is provided via a connector to allow parallel transmission of data to peripheral devices. Low battery power consumption is featured. The counter is capable of providing more accurate readings than currently available counters

  16. Countering the ‘Natural’ Organizational Self on Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Trine Susanne

    2017-01-01

    , challenge and contradict organizational self-narration in light of market place skepticism and cynicism. The study identifies three strategies of counter-narrativizing (authenticity, legitimacy and irony) based on juxtaposing pairs of opposites. Moreover, it suggests counter-narration to be a natural......Using narrative as a theoretical and methodological lens, this study explores digital processes of organizational identity construction in the intersection between organization and market.The purpose is to understand the ways in which online interactions produce counter-narratives that contrast...

  17. SIFAT MEKANIK BAHAN GESEK REM KOMPOSIT DIPERKUAT SERAT BAMBU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno -

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bahan gesek komposit diperkuat serat bambu untuk kampas rem otomotif dibuat menggunakan mesin pres isostatik panas pada 19oC selama 3 jam. Jumlah serat bambu dan serbuk logam di dalam pencampuran dioptimasi, setiap komposisi komponen lain dibuat tetap, pengaruhnya pada sifat-sifat mekanik dan struktur mikro diselidiki. Serat bambu disini digunakan sebagai pengganti serat asbes yang jumlahnya divariasi antara 2,86-17,14% dari volume total dan fraksi berat masing-masing unsur penyusun ditentukan menggunakan energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Angka kekerasan Brinell, kekuatan tarik maksimum, dan ketahanan aus khas bahan gesek yang difabrikasi berada pada rentang 21,7-43,4 kg/mm2, 0,021-0,036 ton, dan 1,5exp-11-5,2exp-11 m2/N.Friction materials of bamboo fibers reinforced composites for automotive brakes were made using hot isostatic pressing machine at 190oC for 3 hours. The contents of bamboo fiber and metal powder in the mixing were optimized, each composition of other components was fixed, its effects on mechanical properties and microstructure were investigated. Bamboo fibers were used here as substitutes for asbestos fibers whose number varied between 2.86 to 17.14% of the total volume and weight fraction of each constituent element is determined using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Brinell hardness number, the maximum tensile strength and specific wear resistance of friction materials fabricated in the ranges of 21.7 to 43.4 kg/mm2, 0.021 to 0.036 tons, and 1.5 exp-11-5, 2exp-11 m2 / N, respectively.

  18. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Natalia; Postuma, Ronald B; Montplaisir, Jacques; Latreille, Véronique; Panisset, Michel; Chouinard, Sylvain; Bourgouin, Pierre-Alexandre; Gagnon, Jean-François

    2017-08-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia affecting 33% to 46% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The existence of a unique and specific impaired cognitive profile in PD patients with RBD is still controversial. We extensively assessed cognitive functions to identify whether RBD is associated with more severe cognitive deficits in nondemented patients with PD. One hundred sixty-two participants, including 53 PD patients with RBD, 40 PD patients without RBD, and 69 healthy subjects, underwent polysomnography, a neurological assessment and an extensive neuropsychological exam to assess attention, executive functions, episodic learning and memory, visuospatial abilities, and language. PD patients with RBD had poorer and clinically impaired performance in several cognitive tests compared to PD patients without RBD and healthy subjects. These two latter groups were similar on all cognitive measures. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosis frequency was almost threefold higher in PD patients with RBD compared to PD patients without RBD (66% vs. 23%, p < .001). Moreover, subjective cognitive decline was reported in 89% of PD patients with RBD compared to 58% of PD patients without RBD (p = .024). RBD in PD is associated with a more impaired cognitive profile and higher MCI diagnosis frequency, suggesting more severe and widespread neurodegeneration. This patient subgroup and their caregivers should receive targeted medical attention to better detect and monitor impairment and to enable the development of management interventions for cognitive decline and its consequences. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Quantitative assessment of isolated rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia without clinical REM sleep behavior disorder: clinical and research implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai-Sakuma, Taeko; Frauscher, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Ehrmann, Laura; Gabelia, David; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Inoue, Yuichi; Poewe, Werner; Högl, Birgit

    2014-09-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia (RWA) is observed in some patients without a clinical history of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). It remains unknown whether these patients meet the refined quantitative electromyographic (EMG) criteria supporting a clinical RBD diagnosis. We quantitatively evaluated EMG activity and investigated its overnight distribution in patients with isolated qualitative RWA. Fifty participants with an incidental polysomnographic finding of RWA (isolated qualitative RWA) were included. Tonic, phasic, and 'any' EMG activity during REM sleep on PSG were quantified retrospectively. Referring to the quantitative cut-off values for a polysomnographic diagnosis of RBD, 7/50 (14%) and 6/50 (12%) of the patients showed phasic and 'any' EMG activity in the mentalis muscle above the respective cut-off values. No patient was above the cut-off value for tonic EMG activity or phasic EMG activity in the anterior tibialis muscles. Patients with RWA above the cut-off value showed higher amounts of RWA during later REM sleep periods. This is the first study showing that some subjects with incidental RWA meet the refined quantitative EMG criteria for a diagnosis of RBD. Future longitudinal studies must investigate whether this subgroup with isolated qualitative RWA is at an increased risk of developing fully expressed RBD and/or neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Calibration of the neutron scintillation counter threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, V.I.; Ranyuk, Yu.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    1978-01-01

    A method for calibrating the threshold of a neutron counter in the form of a 10x10x40 cm plastic scintillator is described. The method is based on the evaluation of the Compton boundary of γ-spectrum from the discrimination curve of counter loading. The results of calibration using 60 Co and 24 Na γ-sources are given. In order to eValuate the Compton edge rapidly, linear extrapolation of the linear part of the discrimination curve towards its intersection with the X axis is recommended. Special measurements have shown that the calibration results do not practically depend on the distance between the cathode of a photomultiplier and the place where collimated γ-radiation of the calibration source reaches the scintillator

  1. The first film presentation of REM sleep behavior disorder precedes its scientific debut by 35 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Slavko M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The perplexing and tantalizing disease of rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is characterized by peculiar, potentially dangerous behavior during REM sleep. It was described both in animals and humans. RBD in mammals was first described by Jouvet and Delorme in 1965, based on an experimental model induced by lesion in pontine region of cats [1]. In 1972, Passouant et al. described sleep with eye movements and persistent tonic muscle activity induced by tricyclic antidepressant medication [2], and Tachibana et al., in 1975, the preservation of muscle tone during REM sleep in the acute psychosis induced by alcohol and meprobamate abuse [3]. However, the first formal description of RBD in humans as new parasomnia was made by Schenck et al in 1986 [4-7]. Subsequently, in 1990, the International Classification of Sleep Disorders definitely recognized RBD as new parasomnia [8]. To our knowledge, arts and literature do not mention RBD. Except for the quotation, made by Schenck et al [6] in 2002, of Don Quixote de la Mancha whose behavior in sleep strongly suggested that Miguel de Servantes actually described RBD, no other artistic work has portrayed this disorder. Only recently we become aware of the cinematic presentation of RBD which by decades precedes the first scientific description. The first presentation of RBD on film was made prior to the era of advanced electroencephalography and polysomnography, and even before the discovery of REM sleep by Aserinsky and Kleitman in 1953. [9]. The artistic and intuitive presentation of RBD was produced in Technicolor in a famous film "Cinderella" created by Walt Disney in 1950, some 35 years prior to its original publication in the journal "Sleep" [2]. Since there is an earlier version of the film initially produced in 1920, presumably containing this similar scene, we can only speculate that the first cinematic presentation of RBD might precede its scientific debut by 65 years. In a scene

  2. [The first film presentation of REM sleep behavior disorder precedes its scientific debut by 35 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Slavko M; Sokić, Dragoslav V; Vojvodić, Nikola M; Ristić, Aleksandar J

    2006-01-01

    The perplexing and tantalizing disease of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by peculiar, potentially dangerous behavior during REM sleep. It was described both in animals and humans. RBD in mammals was first described by Jouvet and Delorme in 1965, based on an experimental model induced by lesion in pontine region of cats. In 1972, Passouant et al. described sleep with eye movements and persistent tonic muscle activity induced by tricyclic antidepressant medication, and Tachibana et al., in 1975, the preservation of muscle tone during REM sleep in the acute psychosis induced by alcohol and meprobamate abuse. wever, the first formal description of RBD in humans as new parasomnia was made by Schenck et al in 1986. Subsequently, in 1990, the International Classification of Sleep Disorders definitely recognized RBD as new parasomnia. To our knowledge, arts and literature do not mention RBD. Except for the quotation, made by Schenck et al [n 2002, of Don Quixote de la Mancha whose behavior in sleep strongly suggested that Miguel de Servantes actually described RBD, no other artistic work has portrayed this disorder. Only recently we become aware of the cinematic presentation of RBD which by decades precedes the first scientific description. The first presentation of RBD on film was made prior to the era of advanced electroencephalography and polysomnography, and even before the discovery of REM sleep by Aserinsky and Kleitman in 1953. The artistic and intuitive presentation of RBD was produced in Technicolor in a famous film "Cinderella" created by Walt Disney in 1950, some 35 years prior to its original publication in the journal "Sleep". Since there is an earlier version of the film initially produced in 1920, presumably containing this similar scene, we can only speculate that the first cinematic presentation of RBD might precede its scientific debut by 65 years. In a scene in a barn, clumsy and goofy dog Bruno is, as dogs

  3. A Bayesian statistical method for particle identification in shower counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashimizu, N.; Kimura, A.; Shibata, A.; Sasaki, T.

    2004-01-01

    We report an attempt on identifying particles using a Bayesian statistical method. We have developed the mathematical model and software for this purpose. We tried to identify electrons and charged pions in shower counters using this method. We designed an ideal shower counter and studied the efficiency of identification using Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. Without having any other information, e.g. charges of particles which are given by tracking detectors, we have achieved 95% identifications of both particles

  4. A comprehensive test specification for pulse fission counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D L [Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1962-02-15

    The following test specification is based on the memorandum AERE - M 728 which it now replaces It contains a standard acceptance test procedure for the many U.K.A.E.A, designed pulse fission counters now commercially available. This test specification may be used for any pulse fission counter provided a specification sheet as shown in Appendix 3 is supplied to the contractor quoting this report and including specified values for the measured quantities. (author)

  5. Case study for co and counter swirling domestic burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Kotb

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this case study, the influence of equivalence ratio for co and counter-swirl domestic burners compared with non-swirl design on the thermal efficiency as well as CO emissions has been studied using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. Also, the flame stability, and pot height, which is defined as the burner-to-pot distance (H, of the co and counter domestic burners were compared. The analysis of the results showed that, for both swirl burners co and counter one the thermal efficiency under all operation conditions tested is higher than the non-swirled burner (base burner. For example, the thermal efficiency increased by 8.8%, and 5.8% than base burner for co and counter swirl, respectively at Reynolds number equal 2000 and equivalence ratio 1. The co and counter swirl burners show lower CO emission than the base burner. The co swirl burner has wider operation range than counter swirl. With the increase of pot height, the thermal efficiency of all burners decreases because the flame and combustion gases are cooled due to mixing with ambient air. As a result, the heat transfer is decreased due to atmospheric loss, which decrease the thermal efficiency.

  6. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Dulac, François; Berthet, Gwenaël; Lurton, Thibaut; Vignelles, Damien; Jégou, Fabrice; Tonnelier, Thierry; Jeannot, Matthieu; Couté, Benoit; Akiki, Rony; Verdier, Nicolas; Mallet, Marc; Gensdarmes, François; Charpentier, Patrick; Mesmin, Samuel; Duverger, Vincent; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Elias, Thierry; Crenn, Vincent; Sciare, Jean; Zieger, Paul; Salter, Matthew; Roberts, Tjarda; Giacomoni, Jérôme; Gobbi, Matthieu; Hamonou, Eric; Olafsson, Haraldur; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Mazel, Christophe; Décamps, Thierry; Piringer, Martin; Surcin, Jérémy; Daugeron, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    In the companion (Part I) paper, we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter), based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60°. That allows for some typology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size-segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 µm up to possibly more than 100 µm depending on sampling conditions (Renard et al., 2016). Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 µm in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from a UAV and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  7. What is Counter-Enlightenment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrin M. McMahon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article counters recent suggestions that there was no such thing as a “Counter-Enlightenment” or “Counter-Enlightenments,” and that such terms ought thus to be abandoned.   While acknowledging inevitable difficulties with the terms, the article argues that there can be no doubting the reality.   European countries faced a variety of vehement and self-conscious movements that defined themselves precisely through their opposition to what they took to be the corrosive effects of the Enlightenment.  In the process, they defined the main terms of an enduring vision of the world that we now associate with the Right.

  8. Plea and counter-plea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The bulk of papers written during the hearing 'Plea and counter-plea', the so-called 'Gorleben hearing', which was held from 28th March until 3rd April 1979, comprises ca. 4,200 pages. It consists of the written comments put forward by the critics of nuclear energy, the minutes of the hearing as well as the supplementary statements of the counter-critics. This report is trying to confront those essential objections made by the critics which put in doubt the feasibility of a fuel-cycle centre with regard to safety engineering with the facts which are considered correct from the view of the DWK. The oral and written explanations of the counter-critics are particularly referred to in this debate. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Brainstem circuitry regulating phasic activation of trigeminal motoneurons during REM sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Anaclet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS is characterized by activation of the cortical and hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG and atonia of non-respiratory muscles with superimposed phasic activity or twitching, particularly of cranial muscles such as those of the eye, tongue, face and jaw. While phasic activity is a characteristic feature of REMS, the neural substrates driving this activity remain unresolved. Here we investigated the neural circuits underlying masseter (jaw phasic activity during REMS. The trigeminal motor nucleus (Mo5, which controls masseter motor function, receives glutamatergic inputs mainly from the parvocellular reticular formation (PCRt, but also from the adjacent paramedian reticular area (PMnR. On the other hand, the Mo5 and PCRt do not receive direct input from the sublaterodorsal (SLD nucleus, a brainstem region critical for REMS atonia of postural muscles. We hypothesized that the PCRt-PMnR, but not the SLD, regulates masseter phasic activity during REMS.To test our hypothesis, we measured masseter electromyogram (EMG, neck muscle EMG, electrooculogram (EOG and EEG in rats with cell-body specific lesions of the SLD, PMnR, and PCRt. Bilateral lesions of the PMnR and rostral PCRt (rPCRt, but not the caudal PCRt or SLD, reduced and eliminated REMS phasic activity of the masseter, respectively. Lesions of the PMnR and rPCRt did not, however, alter the neck EMG or EOG. To determine if rPCRt neurons use glutamate to control masseter phasic movements, we selectively blocked glutamate release by rPCRt neurons using a Cre-lox mouse system. Genetic disruption of glutamate neurotransmission by rPCRt neurons blocked masseter phasic activity during REMS.These results indicate that (1 premotor glutamatergic neurons in the medullary rPCRt and PMnR are involved in generating phasic activity in the masseter muscles, but not phasic eye movements, during REMS; and (2 separate brainstem neural circuits control postural and cranial muscle

  10. Portable counter for geological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, O J

    1949-05-01

    A portable counter which has been developed for prospecting for radio-active uranium and thorium minerals, for general geological investigations, and as an ultra-sensitive detector of lost or mislaid radium, is described. The aforementioned general usage includes the identification of changes in strata by means of the investigation of the slight amount of residual activity pressent in most minerals. The apparatus, which consists essentially of a scaled-down version of a standard laboratory Geiger-Muller counter, is highly sensitive since a variation equivalent to 4% of the cosmic ray background can be detected by a three-minute count.

  11. ''Conventional'' Cerenkov counters at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    Cherenkov counters to be used with ISABELLE are described. The three counters used in the Hadron Spectrometer can be used to identify particles in the range 10 to 40 GeV/c with pions separated from heavier particles down to approximately 3 GeV/c. A longer spectrometer for 400 x 400 GeV operation should also be used. The spectrometers may be used with CO 2 and H 2 . The range of particle identification of 8 to 60 GeV/c with pions separated from heavier particles down to approximately 5 GeV/c is possible

  12. Expanded and combined uncertainty in measurements by GM counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, K.; Arandjic, D.; Lazarevic, Dj.; Osmokrovic, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with possible ways of obtaining expanded and combined uncertainty in measurements for four types of GM counters with a same counter's tube, in cases when the contributors of these uncertainties are cosmic background radiation and induced overvoltage phenomena. Nowadays, as a consequence of electromagnetic radiation, the latter phenomenon is especially marked in urban environments. Based on experimental results obtained, it has been established that the uncertainties of an influenced random variable 'number of pulses from background radiation' and 'number of pulses induced by overvoltage' depend on the technological solution of the counter's reading system and contribute in different ways to the expanded and combined uncertainty in measurements of the applied types of GM counters. (author)

  13. Visual short-term memory deficits in REM sleep behaviour disorder mirror those in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Zokaei, Nahid; Baig, Fahd; Giehl, Kathrin; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Mackay, Clare E; Husain, Masud; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder are at significantly higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Here we examined visual short-term memory deficits--long associated with Parkinson's disease--in patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder without Parkinson's disease using a novel task that measures recall precision. Visual short-term memory for sequentially presented coloured bars of different orientation was assessed in 21 patients with polysomnography-proven idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder, 26 cases with early Parkinson's disease and 26 healthy controls. Three tasks using the same stimuli controlled for attentional filtering ability, sensorimotor and temporal decay factors. Both patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder and Parkinson's disease demonstrated a deficit in visual short-term memory, with recall precision significantly worse than in healthy controls with no deficit observed in any of the control tasks. Importantly, the pattern of memory deficit in both patient groups was specifically explained by an increase in random responses. These results demonstrate that it is possible to detect the signature of memory impairment associated with Parkinson's disease in individuals with REM sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high risk of developing Parkinson's disease. The pattern of visual short-term memory deficit potentially provides a cognitive marker of 'prodromal' Parkinson's disease that might be useful in tracking disease progression and for disease-modifying intervention trials. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  14. Hallucinations and REM sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's disease: dream imagery intrusions and other hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Raffaele; Terzaghi, Michele; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Repetto, Alessandra; Zangaglia, Roberta; Pacchetti, Claudio

    2011-12-01

    REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is a REM sleep-related parasomnia which may be considered a "dissociated state of wakefulness and sleep", given that conflicting elements of REM sleep (dreaming) and of wakefulness (sustained muscle tone and movements) coexist during the episodes, leading to motor and behavioural manifestations reminiscent of an enacted dream. RBD has been reported in association with α-synucleinopathies: around a third of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have full-blown RBD. Recent data indicate that PD patients with RBD are more prone to hallucinations than PD patients without this parasomnia. However it is still not clear why RBD in PD is associated with an increased prevalence of VHs. Data exist which suggest that visual hallucinations in PD may be the result of untimely intrusions of REM visual imagery into wakefulness. RBD, which is characterised by a REM sleep dissociation pattern, might be a condition that particularly favours such intrusions. However, other hypotheses may be advanced. In fact, deficits in attentional, executive, visuoperceptual and visuospatial abilities have been documented in RBD and found to occur far more frequently in PD with RBD than in PD without RBD. Neuropsychological deficits involving visual perception and attentional processes are thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of VHs. On this basis, RBD in PD could be viewed as a contributory risk factor for VHs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of energy response of neutron rem monitor applied to high-energy accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshihiro; Harada, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    A neutron rem monitor was newly developed for applying to the high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC) that is under construction as a joint project between the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. To measure the dose rate accurately for wide energy range of neutrons from thermal to high-energy region, the neutron rem monitor was fabricated by adding a lead breeder layer to a conventional neutron rem monitor. The energy response of the monitor was evaluated by using neutron transport calculations for the energy range from thermal to 150 MeV. For verifying the results, the response was measured at neutron fields for the energy range from thermal to 65 MeV. The comparisons between the energy response and dose conversion coefficients show that the newly developed neutron rem monitor has a good performance in energy response up to 150 MeV, suggesting that the present study offered prospects of a practical fabrication of the rem monitor applicable to the high intensity proton accelerator facility. (author)

  16. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Narcoleptic Features in Anti–Ma2-associated Encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compta, Yaroslau; Iranzo, Alex; Santamaría, Joan; Casamitjana, Roser; Graus, Francesc

    2007-01-01

    A 69-year-old man with anti-Ma2 paraneoplastic encephalitis presented with subacute onset of severe hypersomnia, memory loss, parkinsonism, and gaze palsy. A brain magnetic resonance imaging study showed bilateral damage in the dorsolateral midbrain, amygdala, and paramedian thalami. Videopolysomnography disclosed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, and a Multiple Sleep Latency Test showed a mean sleep latency of 7 minutes and 4 sleep-onset REM periods. The level of hypocretin-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid was low (49 pg/mL). This observation illustrates that REM sleep behavior disorder and narcoleptic features are 2 REM-sleep abnormalities that (1) may share the same autoimmune-mediated origin affecting the brainstem, limbic, and diencephalic structures and (2) may occur in the setting of the paraneoplastic anti–Ma2-associated encephalitis. Citation: Compta Y; Iranzo A; Santamaría J et al. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Narcoleptic Features in Anti–Ma2-associated Encephalitis. SLEEP 2007;30(6):767-769. PMID:17580598

  17. Daytime REM sleep affects emotional experience but not decision choices in moral dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Nicola; Lotto, Lorella; Pletti, Carolina; Sarlo, Michela

    2017-09-11

    Moral decision-making depends on the interaction between automatic emotional responses and rational cognitive control. A natural emotional regulator state seems to be sleep, in particular rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. We tested the impact of daytime sleep, either with or without REM, on moral decision. Sixty participants were presented with 12 sacrificial (6 Footbridge- and 6 Trolley-type) and 8 everyday-type moral dilemmas at 9 AM and at 5 PM. In sacrificial dilemmas, participants had to decide whether or not to kill one person to save more people (utilitarian choice), and to judge how morally acceptable the proposed choice was. In everyday-type dilemmas, participants had to decide whether to endorse moral violations involving dishonest behavior. At 12 PM, 40 participants took a 120-min nap (17 with REM and 23 with NREM only) while 20 participants remained awake. Mixed-model analysis revealed that participants judged the utilitarian choice as less morally acceptable in the afternoon, irrespective of sleep. We also observed a negative association between theta activity during REM and increased self-rated unpleasantness during moral decisions. Nevertheless, moral decision did not change across the day and between groups. These results suggest that although both time and REM sleep may affect the evaluation of a moral situation, these factors did not ultimately impact the individual moral choices.

  18. Tobacco counter-advertising: a review of the literature and a conceptual model for understanding effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinelli, Gina; Grube, Joel W

    2003-01-01

    The tobacco counter-advertising literature is reviewed as it relates to basic process questions concerning what makes counter-advertisements effective. Limitations in addressing (a) counter-advertisement content and the psychological mediators targeted, (b) counter-advertisement style and the affective reactions targeted, (c) prior smoking experience, and (d) other audience factors are enumerated. A theoretical model based on alcohol advertising research is presented to address those limitations. The model addresses the practical research question of predicting when tobacco counter-advertising will work by examining the independent influence of each of these enumerated factors, as well as how these factors operate in concert, qualifying each other. The model also addresses the process question of explaining how counter-advertising works by identifying affective and cognitive processes as mediators. By understanding the processes that underlie the qualified findings, one can better advise the designers of tobacco counter-advertisements how to be more effective.

  19. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A B; Grimsson, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. METHODS: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using an interru......BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. METHODS: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using...... an interrupted time series design that contrasts the monthly sales data for over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine before and after the legislation took effect. RESULTS: The total use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine as well as those containing paracetamol and codeine has risen...... leads to irrational use of over-the-counter medicines is not substantiated in the case of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine....

  20. Clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of patients with REM sleep disordered breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Chaves Loureiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a 10–36% rate of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS associated with rapid eye movement (REM in the OSAS population. Prior studies have suggested an increased prevalence of psychiatric disorders and an effect of gender and age on these patients.Our aim was to study the clinical and polysomnograph (PSG characteristics of our patients with REM-related sleep disordered breathing (REM SDB.Inclusion criteria was the identification of REM SDB detected by PSG defined as apnea-hypopnea index (AHI in REM sleep ≥ 5 h, AHI in non-REM sleep (NREM ≤ 15 h and REM/NREM AHI ≥ 2.Several Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SDQ version 1.02 parameters were analysed.The study comprised 19 patients with a mean age of 54.0 (SD ± 13.97, a mean BMI of 29.01 (SD ± 4.10 and a 0.58 female / male ratio. The mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was 12.74 (SD ± 4.86. Mean AHI was 9.16/h (SD 4.09; mean AHI in REM sleep 37.08/h (SD 25.87 and mean REM-AHI/NREM-AHI 8.86 (SD 8.63.The anxiety disorder rate was 33.3%; 44.4% in females, 16.7% in males.The average deep sleep was 20.7% (SD 10.42 and REM sleep 15.45% (SD 9.96, with a sleep efficiency of 85.3 (SD 8.70.No significant statistical correlation was found between the REM/NREM AHI index and anxiety symptoms, daytime sleepiness and sleep quality (REM and deep sleep percentages.These patients differ from the general OSAS population: on average, they are not obese, there are a greater number of females affected and they do not present a very significant diurnal hypersomnia. Reduced deep sleep and increased REM sleep were also present versus general population data, and sleep efficiency was just below the normal limit.Anxiety disorders were more prevalent in this group than described for the general population (3% and OSAS patients. Resumo: A síndroma de apneia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS associada ao sono REM tem uma incidência de 10–36% na

  1. The Eros of Counter Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzon, Pinhas

    2016-01-01

    Erotic Counter Education (ECE) is the educational position of the late Ilan Gur-Ze'ev. In ECE Gur-Ze'ev combines two opposing positions in the philosophy of education, one teleological and anti-utopian, the other teleological and utopian. In light of this unique combination, I ask what mediates between these two poles and suggest that the answer…

  2. Dimensions of Counter-Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2019-01-01

    The book welcomes proposals for chapter contributions on a wide array of topics related to the narratological notion of counter-narratives. By way of example, the topic has hitherto been treated by disciplines and subjects such as literature studies, organization studies, corporate communication...

  3. Countering 21st Century Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    ), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas...

  4. Reassessment of NRC's dollar per person-rem conversion factor policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed a review and analysis of its dollar per person-rem conversion factor policy. As a result of this review, the NRC has decided to adopt a $2000 per person-rem conversion factor, subject it to present worth considerations, and limit its scope solely to health effects. This is in contrast to the previous policy and staff practice of using an undiscounted $1000 per person-rem conversion factor that served as a surrogate for all offsite consequences (health and offsite property). The policy shift has been incorporated in ''Regulatory Analysis Guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission,'' NUREG/BR-0058, Revision 2, November 1995

  5. Thermodynamics of micellization of cationic surfactants based on O-alkyl and O-perfluoro-N,N'-diisopropylisourea: Effect of the counter ion nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehanine, Zineb; Badache, Leila

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The pseudo phase thermodynamic model was applied to study the process of micellization of O-dodecyl- and O-tridecafluorooctyl-N,N'-diisopropylisourea hydrohalogenides. Free energy of micellization is weakly temperature dependent and decreased slightly with the size of the counterion, indicating a more favored micellization. Enthalpies and entropies of micellization decrease strongly with increasing temperature. The enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon was observed for all the surfactants studied. Highlights: → The pseudo phase thermodynamic model was applied to study the process of micellization of O-dodecyl- and O-tridecafluorooctyl-N,N'-diisopropylisourea hydrohalogenides. → Free energy of micellization is weakly temperature dependent and decreased slightly with the size of the counterion, indicating a more favored micellization. → Enthalpies and entropies of micellization decrease strongly with increasing temperature. → The enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon was observed for all the surfactants studied. - Abstract: A thermodynamic study on the micellization process of two series of cationic surfactants, viz. the O-dodecyl-N,N'-diisopropylisourea hydrochloride, hydrobromide, and hydroiodide and the O-tridecafluorooctyl-N,N'-diisopropylisourea hydrochloride, and hydrobromide, is reported. In order to explain the effect of the counter ion nature in the micellization process, thermodynamic parameters to include the standard free energy (ΔG mic 0 ), enthalpy (ΔH mic 0 ), entropy (ΔS mic 0 ), and heat capacity (ΔC p,mic 0 ) of micellization have been discussed. These parameters are evaluated from the variation of the critical micelle concentration (CMC) with temperature by fitting these values to expressions derived on the basis of a micellization thermodynamic model. The heat capacities of micellization (ΔC p,mic 0 ) were determined from the temperature dependence of ΔH mic 0 . For both surfactant series, the free energy of

  6. Slow wave and REM sleep deprivation effects on explicit and implicit memory during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Sarah J; Solomons, Luke C; Steier, Joerg; Kabra, Neeraj; Burnside, Anna; Pengo, Martino F; Moxham, John; Goldstein, Laura H; Kopelman, Michael D

    2016-11-01

    It has been debated whether different stages in the human sleep cycle preferentially mediate the consolidation of explicit and implicit memories, or whether all of the stages in succession are necessary for optimal consolidation. Here we investigated whether the selective deprivation of slow wave sleep (SWS) or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep over an entire night would have a specific effect on consolidation in explicit and implicit memory tasks. Participants completed a set of explicit and implicit memory tasks at night, prior to sleep. They had 1 control night of undisturbed sleep and 2 experimental nights, during which either SWS or REM sleep was selectively deprived across the entire night (sleep conditions counterbalanced across participants). Polysomnography recordings quantified precisely the amount of SWS and REM sleep that occurred during each of the sleep conditions, and spindle counts were recorded. In the morning, participants completed the experimental tasks in the same sequence as the night before. SWS deprivation disrupted the consolidation of explicit memories for visuospatial information (ηp2 = .23), and both SWS (ηp2 = .53) and REM sleep (ηp2 = .52) deprivation adversely affected explicit verbal recall. Neither SWS nor REM sleep deprivation affected aspects of short-term or working memory, and did not affect measures of verbal implicit memory. Spindle counts did not correlate significantly with memory performance. These findings demonstrate the importance of measuring the sleep cycles throughout the entire night, and the contribution of both SWS and REM sleep to memory consolidation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Black clay. Domestic stove based on counter current combustion, a principle used during the Iron Age and utilized in a baking oven from the Middle Ages; Sortemuld; Braendovn med modstroemsforbraending et princip fra jernalderen anvendt i bageovne fra middelalderen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, E.

    1994-01-01

    Sortemuld (Black clay) ovens, based on the counter-current combustion principle, were used during the Iron Age and throughout the following centuries. It is claimed that the use of this technique results in the wood fuel being burnt so quickly that the oven temperature remains so high and for such a long time that the heat will be retained in the walls of such clay ovens. Prototype ovens were constructed, based on this principle, and various types of wood fuel were burnt in them. About 20 - 40 kg of fuel was combusted with each firing which lasted from 2-4 hours, answering to 20 - 40 kW/hrs. The carbon dioxide content reached 0.1% at times. The designs and construction of the prototypes ovens are described in detail and their performance documented. The text is illustrated with diagrams and the results of the performance testing are given in detail. (AB)

  8. Advertising health: the case for counter-ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, L; Wallack, L

    1993-01-01

    Public service advertisements have been used by many in hopes of "selling" good health behaviors. But selling good behavior--even if it could be done more effectively--is not the best goal for using mass media to prevent health problems. Personal behavior is only part of what determines health status. Social conditions and the physical environment are important determinants of health that are usually ignored by health promotion advertising. Public service advertising may be doing more harm than good if it is diverting attention from more effective socially based health promotion strategies. Counter-ads are one communications strategy that could be used to promote a broader responsibility for rectifying health problems. In the tradition of advocacy advertising directly promoting policy rather than products, counter-ads promote views consistent with a public health perspective. Counter-ads set the agenda for health issues, conferring status on policy-oriented strategies for addressing health problems. The primary purpose of counter-ads is to challenge the dominant view that public health problems reflect personal health habits. They are controversial because they place health issues in a social and political context. Advertising strategies for health promotion range over a spectrum from individually oriented public service advertising to socially oriented counter-advertising. The recent anti-tobacco campaign from the California Department of Health Services represents advertisements across the spectrum. Counter-ads that focus on a politically controversial definition for health problems are an appropriate and necessary alternative to public service advertising. PMID:8265756

  9. Heuristic method of fabricating counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells based on a PEDOT:PSS layer as a catalytic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edalati, Sh; Houshangi far, A; Torabi, N; Baneshi, Z; Behjat, A

    2017-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was deposited on a fluoride-doped tin oxide glass substrate using a heuristic method to fabricate platinum-free counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this heuristic method a thin layer of PEDOT:PPS is obtained by spin coating the PEDOT:PSS on a Cu substrate and then removing the substrate with FeCl 3 . The characteristics of the deposited PEDOT:PSS were studied by energy dispersive x-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy, which revealed the micro-electronic specifications of the cathode. The aforementioned DSSCs exhibited a solar conversion efficiency of 3.90%, which is far higher than that of DSSCs with pure PEDOT:PSS (1.89%). This enhancement is attributed not only to the micro-electronic specifications but also to the HNO 3 treatment through our heuristic method. The results of cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization plots show the modified cathode has a dual function, including excellent conductivity and electrocatalytic activity for iodine reduction. (paper)

  10. Investigating the Usage Pattern of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Users of E-journals during 2010-2012 based on Counter Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Jalalzaeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The increase in the use of electronic resources in academic and scientific research centers and rising cost of preparing and getting access to these resources is the main reason for the importance of evaluating the amount of use from electronic resources considering appropriate use of funds in this paper. In this study, full-text usage of e-journals of five publishers (Elsevier, John Wiley, Oxford, Emrald and ProQuest was investigated in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from 2010 to 2012. Material and Methods: This is a descriptive-survey research. The required data were acquired from publishers by Counter Reporting. Then, the data were analyzed and tables and diagrams were drawn by Excel software. Results: According to the research findings, among five studied publishers, Elsevier journals had the highest number of downloading full-text articles. After Elsevier, Wiley, Oxford Journals, ProQuest and Emerald were in next ranks respectively. Conclusion: Tabriz University of Medical Sciences has a good manner in meeting the users’ information needs by appropriate policy-making and specifying efficient fund in selecting available journals by Elsevier. Also, there could be a direct relationship between Tabriz University of Medical Sciences’ users’ level of familiarity and Elsevier journals. ​

  11. From the skyscraper to the ground-scraper. Rem Koolhaas’s Japanese Kasbah

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Arce, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Rem Koolhaas, as a contemporary architect, draws from the proposals which were devel-oped by the architects who reacted to the ideas formulated on the International Congresses of Modern Architecture, like the Team 10 members. Woods, along with Candilis and Josic, worked out a new type of building that he called ground-scrapper, although it is better known by the name given by Alison Smithson: the mat-building. Rem Koolhaas, in the Nexus World building in Fukuoka, propose, as he says in S,M,L,...

  12. Disappearance of "phantom limb" and amputated arm usage during dreaming in REM sleep behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrugno, Roberto; Arnulf, Isabelle; Montagna, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    Limb amputation is followed, in approximately 90% of patients, by "phantom limb" sensations during wakefulness. When amputated patients dream, however, the phantom limb may be present all the time, part of the time, intermittently or not at all. Such dreaming experiences in amputees have usually been obtained only retrospectively in the morning and, moreover, dreaming is normally associated with muscular atonia so the motor counterpart of the phantom limb experience cannot be observed directly. REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), in which muscle atonia is absent during REM sleep and patients act out their dreams, allows a more direct analysis of the "phantom limb" phenomena and their modifications during sleep.

  13. Is a purpose of REM sleep atonia to help regenerate intervertebral disc volumetric loss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryer Jerome CJ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The nature of atonia in sleep continues to be enigmatic. This article discusses a new hypothesis for complete core muscle relaxation in REM sleep, suggesting a bottom-up recuperative perspective. That is, does the atonia in REM sleep provide a utility to help restore the mechanobiology and respective diurnal intervertebral disc hydraulic loss? By combining the effects of gravity with current compressive concepts in spinal stability, this article looks at vertebral approximation as a deleterious experience with an intrinsic biological need to keep vertebrae separated. Methods using polysomnography and recumbent MRI are discussed.

  14. A moderate increase of physiological CO2 in a critical range during stable NREM sleep episode: A potential gateway to REM sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha eMadan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is characterized as rapid eye movement (REM and non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. Studies suggest that wake-related neurons in the basal forebrain, posterior hypothalamus and brainstem and NREM sleep-related neurons in the anterior-hypothalamic area inhibit each other, thus alternating sleep-wakefulness. Similarly, pontine REM-ON and REM-OFF neurons reciprocally inhibit each other for REM sleep modulation. It has been proposed that inhibition of locus coeruleus (LC REM-OFF neurons is pre-requisite for REM sleep genesis, but it remains ambiguous how REM-OFF neurons are hyperpolarized at REM sleep onset. The frequency of breathing pattern remains high during wake, slows down during NREM sleep but further escalates during REM sleep. As a result, brain CO2 level increases during NREM sleep, which may alter REM sleep manifestation. It has been reported that hypocapnia decreases REM sleep while hypercapnia increases REM sleep periods. The groups of brainstem chemosensory neurons, including those present in LC, sense the alteration in CO2 level and respond accordingly. For example; one group of LC neurons depolarize while other hyperpolarize during hypercapnia. In another group, hypercapnia initially depolarizes but later hyperpolarizes LC neurons. Besides chemosensory functions, LC’s REM-OFF neurons are an integral part of REM sleep executive machinery. We reason that increased CO2 level during a stable NREM sleep period may hyperpolarize LC neurons including REM-OFF, which may help initiate REM sleep. We propose that REM sleep might act as a sentinel to help maintain normal CO2 level for unperturbed sleep.

  15. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  16. REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson′s disease: A case from India confirmed with polysomnographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder is a condition characterized by dream enactment. This condition may accompany neurodegenerative disorders. However, only a few reports from India are available, that too, without any polysomnographic evidence. We are reporting a case of REM sleep behavior disorder with polysomnographic evidence.

  17. Changes in EEG power density of non-REM sleep in depressed patients during treatment with trazodone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, Alex L. van; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1995-01-01

    Recently, it was hypothesized that acute or cumulative suppression of non-REM sleep intensity might be related to the therapeutic effects of antidepressants. This intensity has been proposed to be expressed in the EEG power density in non-REM sleep. In the present study, the relationship was

  18. Replay of conditioned stimuli during late REM and stage N2 sleep influences affective tone rather than emotional memory strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihm, Julia S; Rasch, Björn

    2015-07-01

    Emotional memories are reprocessed during sleep, and it is widely assumed that this reprocessing occurs mainly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In support for this notion, vivid emotional dreams occur mainly during REM sleep, and several studies have reported emotional memory enhancement to be associated with REM sleep or REM sleep-related parameters. However, it is still unknown whether reactivation of emotional memories during REM sleep strengthens emotional memories. Here, we tested whether re-presentation of emotionally learned stimuli during REM sleep enhances emotional memory. In a split-night design, participants underwent Pavlovian conditioning after the first half of the night. Neutral sounds served as conditioned stimuli (CS) and were either paired with a negative odor (CS+) or an odorless vehicle (CS-). During sound replay in subsequent late REM or N2 sleep, half of the CS+ and half of the CS- were presented again. In contrast to our hypothesis, replay during sleep did not affect emotional memory as measured by the differentiation between CS+ and CS- in expectancy, arousal and valence ratings. However, replay unspecifically decreased subjective arousal ratings of both emotional and neutral sounds and increased positive valence ratings also for both CS+ and CS- sounds, respectively. These effects were slightly more pronounced for replay during REM sleep. Our results suggest that re-exposure to previously conditioned stimuli during late sleep does not affect emotional memory strength, but rather influences the affective tone of both emotional and neutral memories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An introduction to automatic radioactive sample counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled; the detection of radiation in sample counters; nucleonic equipment; liquid scintillation counting; basic features of automatic sample counters; statistics of counting; data analysis; purchase, installation, calibration and maintenance of automatic sample counters. (U.K.)

  20. Counter support for WA35

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    This assembly was equipped with 78 counters, each consisting of a lucite cone, to produce Cerenkov light, and a CsI scintillator plate of 3 mm thickness glued on the face of the cone. The experiment WA35 was set-up in the s1 beam (West Hall) by the Darmstadt-Heidelberg-Virginia-Warsaw Collaboration to measure angular distributions and multiplicities of pions and recoil protons produced by hadrons interacting in nuclei. (See Annual Report 1976 p. 39)

  1. INTRODUCING OVER THE COUNTER COUNSELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Bakić-Mirić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A pharmacist in today’s world has a great responsibility – to help and educate patients about diverse ways for effective self-treatment. Whereas self-care is becoming increasingly popular among patients today the availability of over-the-counter medications makes it possible for patients to treat numerous conditions on their own but still under the supervision of a healthcare provider. During the pharmacist-patient encounter, the pharmacist’s obligation is to evaluate the patient’s medical condition, provide proper advice and counsel the patient on the proper course of treatment to be taken. Also by employing effective over the counter (OTC counseling as the most proper means in a pharmacist/patient communication process and, accordingly, rapport building in the OTC area, the pharmacist needs to demonstrate high energy, enthusiasm, respect, empathy, know-how of sensitive intercultural issues alongside personal appearance, body language, eye contact that all together make his/her personal “signature”. Accordingly, apart from patient education, the primary objective of OTC counseling becomes to educate pharmacists on basic principles used in assisting patients in the selection of over-the-counter (OTC products, provide examples of proper communication techniques for effective patient counseling concerning the OTC products (i.e. dosage, administration technique, storage, food and beverage interaction, monitoring etc where the pharmacist plays the key role in helping patients maximize their pharmaceutical care.

  2. Position-sensitive proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    A position-sensitive proportional counter circuit uses a conventional (low-resistance, metal-wire anode) counter for spatial resolution of an ionizing event along the anode, which functions as an RC line. A pair of preamplifiers at the anode ends act as stabilized active-capacitance loads, each comprising a series-feedback, low-noise amplifier and a unity-gain, shunt-feedback amplifier whose output is connected through a feedback capacitor to the series-feedback amplifier input. The stabilized capacitance loading of the anode allows distributed RC-line position encoding and subsequent time difference decoding by sensing the difference in rise times of pulses at the anode ends where the difference is primarily in response to the distributed capacitance along the anode. This allows the use of lower resistance wire anodes for spatial radiation detection which simplifies the counter construction of handling of the anodes, and stabilizes the anode resistivity at high count rates (>10 6 counts/sec). (author)

  3. Noradrenaline from Locus Coeruleus Neurons Acts on Pedunculo-Pontine Neurons to Prevent REM Sleep and Induces Its Loss-Associated Effects in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanday, Mudasir Ahmad; Somarajan, Bindu I; Mehta, Rachna; Mallick, Birendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    Normally, rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) does not appear during waking or non-REMS. Isolated, independent studies showed that elevated noradrenaline (NA) levels inhibit REMS and induce REMS loss-associated cytomolecular, cytomorphological, psychosomatic changes and associated symptoms. However, the source of NA and its target in the brain for REMS regulation and function in health and diseases remained to be confirmed in vivo . Using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-siRNA and virus-coated TH-shRNA in normal freely moving rats, we downregulated NA synthesis in locus coeruleus (LC) REM-OFF neurons in vivo . These TH-downregulated rats showed increased REMS, which was prevented by infusing NA into the pedunculo-pontine tegmentum (PPT), the site of REM-ON neurons, normal REMS returned after recovery. Moreover, unlike normal or control-siRNA- or shRNA-injected rats, upon REMS deprivation (REMSD) TH-downregulated rat brains did not show elevated Na-K ATPase (molecular changes) expression and activity. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first in vivo findings in an animal model confirming that NA from the LC REM-OFF neurons (1) acts on the PPT REM-ON neurons to prevent appearance of REMS, and (2) are responsible for inducing REMSD-associated molecular changes and symptoms. These observations clearly show neuro-physio-chemical mechanism of why normally REMS does not appear during waking. Also, that LC neurons are the primary source of NA, which in turn causes some, if not many, REMSD-associated symptoms and behavioral changes. The findings are proof-of-principle for the first time and hold potential to be exploited for confirmation toward treating REMS disorder and amelioration of REMS loss-associated symptoms in patients.

  4. Hypothalamic L-Histidine Decarboxylase Is Up-Regulated During Chronic REM Sleep Deprivation of Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria E Hoffman

    Full Text Available A competition of neurobehavioral drives of sleep and wakefulness occurs during sleep deprivation. When enforced chronically, subjects must remain awake. This study examines histaminergic neurons of the tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus in response to enforced wakefulness in rats. We tested the hypothesis that the rate-limiting enzyme for histamine biosynthesis, L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC, would be up-regulated during chronic rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD because histamine plays a major role in maintaining wakefulness. Archived brain tissues of male Sprague Dawley rats from a previous study were used. Rats had been subjected to REM-SD by the flowerpot paradigm for 5, 10, or 15 days. For immunocytochemistry, rats were transcardially perfused with acrolein-paraformaldehyde for immunodetection of L-HDC; separate controls used carbodiimide-paraformaldehyde for immunodetection of histamine. Immunolocalization of histamine within the tuberomammillary nucleus was validated using carbodiimide. Because HDC antiserum has cross-reactivity with other decarboxylases at high antibody concentrations, titrations localized L-HDC to only tuberomammillary nucleus at a dilution of ≥ 1:300,000. REM-SD increased immunoreactive HDC by day 5 and it remained elevated in both dorsal and ventral aspects of the tuberomammillary complex. Our results suggest that up-regulation of L-HDC within the tuberomammillary complex during chronic REM-SD may be responsible for maintaining wakefulness.

  5. FDG PET, Dopamine Transporter SPECT, and Olfaction: Combining Biomarkers in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meles, Sanne K.; Vadasz, David; Renken, Remco J.; Sittig-Wiegand, Elisabeth; Mayer, Geert; Depboylu, Candan; Reetz, Kathrin; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Pijpers, Angelique; Reesink, Fransje E.; van Laar, Teus; Heinen, Lisette; Teune, Laura K.; Höffken, Helmut; Luster, Marcus; Kesper, Karl; Adriaanse, Sofie M.; Booij, Jan; Leenders, Klaus L.; Oertel, Wolfgang H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a prodromal stage of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Hyposmia, reduced dopamine transporter binding, and expression of the brain metabolic PD-related pattern were each associated with increased risk of conversion to PD. The

  6. Sleep board review questions: sleep disordered breathing that improves in REM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhiraja R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at end of question. Which of the following breathing disorders is usually less severe in rapid eye movement (REM sleep compared to non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep?1.Sleep-related hypoxemia in COPD2.Obstructive Sleep Apnea3.Cheyne Stokes Breathing4.Hypoxemia in Pulmonary Hypertension

  7. REM optical/NIR observations of MAXI J1659-152

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Avanzo, P.; Goldoni, P.; Patruno, A.; Casella, P.; Campana, S.; Russell, D.M.; Belloni, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    We observed the optical and NIR counterpart of the recently discovered X-ray transient MAXI J1659-152 (Negoro et al. 2010, ATel #2873; Mangano et al. 2010, GCN #11296) with the REM telescope located in La Silla (Chile) in imaging mode using the V, R, I, J, H and K filters.

  8. L-carnitine prevents memory impairment induced by chronic REM-sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Karem H; Rababa'h, Abeer M; Owaisi, Amani; Khabour, Omar F

    2017-05-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively impacts memory, which was related to oxidative stress induced damage. L-carnitine is a naturally occurring compound, synthesized endogenously in mammalian species and known to possess antioxidant properties. In this study, the effect of L-carnitine on learning and memory impairment induced by rapid eye movement sleep (REM-sleep) deprivation was investigated. REM-sleep deprivation was induced using modified multiple platform model (8h/day, for 6 weeks). Simultaneously, L-carnitine was administered (300mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 6 weeks. Thereafter, the radial arm water maze (RAWM) was used to assess spatial learning and memory. Additionally, the hippocampus levels of antioxidant biomarkers/enzymes: reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSSG ratio, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) were assessed. The results showed that chronic REM-sleep deprivation impaired both short- and long-term memory (Psleep deprivation induced reduction in the hippocampus ratio of GSH/GSSG, activity of catalase, GPx, and SOD. No change was observed in TBARS among tested groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, chronic REM-sleep deprivation induced memory impairment, and treatment with L-carnitine prevented this impairment through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial and Reversal Learning in the Morris Water Maze Are Largely Resistant to Six Hours of REM Sleep Deprivation Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair…

  10. Proportional counter system for radiation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, M; Okudera, S

    1970-11-21

    A gas such as Xe or Kr employed in counter tubes is charged into the counter tube of a gas-flow type proportional counter for radiation measurement and into a vessel having a volume larger than that of the counter tube. The vessel communicates with the counter tube to circulate the gas via a pump through both the vessel and tube during measurement. An organic film such as a polyester synthetic resin film is used for the window of the counter tube to measure X-rays in the long wavelength range. Accordingly, a wide range of X-rays can be measured including both long and short wavelengths ranges by utilizing only one counter tube, thus permitting the gases employed to be effectively used.

  11. Using the relational event model (REM) to investigate the temporal dynamics of animal social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranmer, Mark; Marcum, Christopher Steven; Morton, F Blake; Croft, Darren P; de Kort, Selvino R

    2015-03-01

    Social dynamics are of fundamental importance in animal societies. Studies on nonhuman animal social systems often aggregate social interaction event data into a single network within a particular time frame. Analysis of the resulting network can provide a useful insight into the overall extent of interaction. However, through aggregation, information is lost about the order in which interactions occurred, and hence the sequences of actions over time. Many research hypotheses relate directly to the sequence of actions, such as the recency or rate of action, rather than to their overall volume or presence. Here, we demonstrate how the temporal structure of social interaction sequences can be quantified from disaggregated event data using the relational event model (REM). We first outline the REM, explaining why it is different from other models for longitudinal data, and how it can be used to model sequences of events unfolding in a network. We then discuss a case study on the European jackdaw, Corvus monedula , in which temporal patterns of persistence and reciprocity of action are of interest, and present and discuss the results of a REM analysis of these data. One of the strengths of a REM analysis is its ability to take into account different ways in which data are collected. Having explained how to take into account the way in which the data were collected for the jackdaw study, we briefly discuss the application of the model to other studies. We provide details of how the models may be fitted in the R statistical software environment and outline some recent extensions to the REM framework.

  12. Locus Coeruleus and Tuberomammillary Nuclei Ablations Attenuate Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist-Mediated REM Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael D; Nguyen, Alexander T; Warrier, Deepti R; Palmerston, Jeremiah B; Thomas, Alexia M; Morairty, Stephen R; Neylan, Thomas C; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2016-01-01

    Hypocretin 1 and 2 (Hcrts; also known as orexin A and B), excitatory neuropeptides synthesized in cells located in the tuberal hypothalamus, play a central role in the control of arousal. Hcrt inputs to the locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC NE) system and the posterior hypothalamic histaminergic tuberomammillary nuclei (TMN HA) are important efferent pathways for Hcrt-induced wakefulness. The LC expresses Hcrt receptor 1 (HcrtR1), whereas HcrtR2 is found in the TMN. Although the dual Hcrt/orexin receptor antagonist almorexant (ALM) decreases wakefulness and increases NREM and REM sleep time, the neural circuitry that mediates these effects is currently unknown. To test the hypothesis that ALM induces sleep by selectively disfacilitating subcortical wake-promoting populations, we ablated LC NE neurons (LCx) or TMN HA neurons (TMNx) in rats using cell-type-specific saporin conjugates and evaluated sleep/wake following treatment with ALM and the GABAA receptor modulator zolpidem (ZOL). Both LCx and TMNx attenuated the promotion of REM sleep by ALM without affecting ALM-mediated increases in NREM sleep. Thus, eliminating either HcrtR1 signaling in the LC or HcrtR2 signaling in the TMN yields similar effects on ALM-induced REM sleep without affecting NREM sleep time. In contrast, neither lesion altered ZOL efficacy on any measure of sleep-wake regulation. These results contrast with those of a previous study in which ablation of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons attenuated ALM-induced increases in NREM sleep time without affecting REM sleep, indicating that Hcrt neurotransmission influences distinct aspects of NREM and REM sleep at different locations in the sleep-wake regulatory network.

  13. REM Desensitization as a New Therapeutic Method for Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate potential efficacy of a new therapeutic approach in posttraumatic stress disorder in comparison with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR, a standard treatment approach and controls. Methods: the study was designed using a randomized controlled trial methodology. Participants were recruited from military servicemen aged between 25 to 50 years who were admitting hospitals of Bushehr, Iran, with the final diagnosis of PTSD. Finally 33 male patients were devided into three subgroups: G1: EMDR; G2: REM Desensitization; and group 3: controls who received no therapy. Mississippi Scale for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and a 37 item death anxiety questionnaire were used for measures. Results: multiple comparisons showed that intrusive thoughts were significantly more likely to improve with REM Desensitization versus EMDR (P=0.03, while depression was more responsive to EMDR (p=0.03. Among the Pittsburgh scale for the quality of sleep items, sleep quality (p=0.02, sleep duration (p=0.001, and total sleep quality score (p=0.002 were significantly more likely to improve in the REM Desensitization group. Change in the absolute death anxiety scores was not different between subgroups excepting EMDR versus control group (p=0.05. Conclusion: REM, desensitization, the new therapeutic approach to PTSD is a highly effective strategy, even more than EMDR, the standard treatment, in most of the evaluated subjects, with special emphasis on sleep symptoms, and also in the management of intrusive thoughts. Depression is the only factor in which, REM Desensitization was significantly less likely to represent a superior therapeutic effect than EMDR. Key words: post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, new treatment.

  14. Picosecond-precision multichannel autonomous time and frequency counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szplet, R.; Kwiatkowski, P.; RóŻyc, K.; Jachna, Z.; Sondej, T.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation, and test results of a multichannel time interval and frequency counter developed as a desktop instrument. The counter contains four main functional modules for (1) performing precise measurements, (2) controlling and fast data processing, (3) low-noise power suppling, and (4) supplying a stable reference clock (optional rubidium standard). A fundamental for the counter, the time interval measurement is based on time stamping combined with a period counting and in-period two-stage time interpolation that allows us to achieve wide measurement range (above 1 h), high precision (even better than 4.5 ps), and high measurement speed (up to 91.2 × 106 timestamps/s). The frequency is measured up to 3.0 GHz with the use of the reciprocal method. Wide functionality of the counter includes also the evaluation of frequency stability of clocks and oscillators (Allan deviation) and phase variation (time interval error, maximum time interval error, time deviation). The 8-channel measurement module is based on a field programmable gate array device, while the control unit involves a microcontroller with a high performance ARM-Cortex core. An efficient and user-friendly control of the counter is provided either locally, through the built-in keypad or/and color touch panel, or remotely, with the aid of USB, Ethernet, RS232C, or RS485 interfaces.

  15. RadWorks Project. ISS REM - to - BIRD - to - HERA: The Evolution of a Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Catherine D.

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of particle detectors based on technologies developed for use in high-energy physics applications has enabled the development of a completely new generation of compact low-power active dosimeters and area monitors for use in space radiation environments. One such device, the TimePix, is being developed at CERN, and is providing the technology basis for the most recent line of radiation detection devices being developed by the NASA AES RadWorks project. The most fundamental of these devices, an ISS-Radiation Environment Monitor (REM), is installed as a USB device on ISS where it is monitoring the radiation environment on a perpetual basis. The second generation of this TimePix technology, the BIRD (Battery-operated Independent Radiation Detector), was flown on the NASA EFT-1 flight in December 2014. Data collected by BIRD was the first data made available from the Trapped Belt region of the Earth's atmosphere in over 40 years. The 3rdgeneration of this technology, the HERA (Hybrid Electronic Radiation Assessor), is planned to be integrated into the Orion EM-1, and EM-2 vehicles where it will monitor the radiation environment. For the EM-2 flight, HERA will provide Caution and Warning notification for SPEs as well as real time dose measurements for crew members. The development of this line of radiation detectors provide much greater information and characterization of charged particles in the space radiation environment than has been collected in the past, and in the process provide greater information to inform crew members of radiation related risks, while being very power and mass efficient.

  16. Charpy impact test pada kampas rem hybrid komposit phenolic resin matrik dengan penguat serbuk basalt-Alumina-kulit kerang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N. G. Suma Wijaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Penelitian ini adalah difokuskan untuk mengamati ketahanan impact dari material kampas rem kendaraan bermotor. Kampasrem yang diujikan adalah kampas yang terbuat dari material hybrid komposit dengan penguat serbuk basalt – serbuk kulitkerang dan alumina dan pengikat phenolic resin. Material kampas rem hibrid komposit diproses melalui proses sinteringdengan penekanan 2 ton, temperatur 150ºC selama 30 menit. Tujuan penelitian adalah menginvestigasi kekuatan impact daripada bahan hybrid komposit untuk masing – masing variasi terhadap perlakuan impact charpy yang didasarkan pada standarASTM D6110–04. Pengujian dilakukan dengan menganalisa nilai energy yang mampu diserap oleh bahan akibat bebanimpact, selanjutnya patahan impact charpy dianalisa dengan SEM. Diperoleh hasil pengujian charpy impact untuk masing –masing variasi hybrid komposit adalah nilai kekuatan yang tinggi terjadi pada hibrid komposit variasi 2 (HK2 dengan nilai0,000339547 J/mm2, ini disebabkan karena mempunyai ikatan antara metrik dan basalt yang lebih kuat dan sempurnadibandingkan dengan hibrid komposit lainnya. Untuk nilai hibrid komposit variasi 1 (HK1 adalah 0,000304851 J/mm², hibridkomposit variasi 3 (HK3 adalah 0,000334516 J/mm², hibrid komposit variasi 4 (HK4 adalah 0,000325059 J/mm², hibridkomposit variasi 5 (HK5 adalah 0,0003327 J/mm². (2 Dari perbandingan antara kampas rem dipasaran dengan kampas remhibrid komposit maka didapat nilai kekuatannya berbeda pada hibrid komposit variasi 2 (HK2 dengan kampas pembanding(KP yang memiliki nilai kekuatannya lebih besar yaitu, 0,000374867 J/mm².Kata kunci : Kampas rem, Impact charpy, Hibrid komposit, Basalt, Aluminium, Kulit Kerang Abstract: This research is focused to observe the impact resistance of motor vehicles brake lining material. Brake tested are canvasmade of hybrid composite materials with basalt powder reinforced – seashells, alumina powder, and a phenolic resin matrix.Hybrid composite brake

  17. Development of a low-cost whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Gross, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper documents the construction and calibration of a whole-body counter for the Radiation Safety Office of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Changes in the federal regulations may require improved documentation of internal dose for radiation workers. A relatively inexpensive and simple chair-type whole-body counter may suit the needs of many organizations for in vivo assessment of gamma emitting radionuclides. A simple calibration phantom and a spreadsheet computer program were developed in conjunction with the counter. The spreadsheet can be used to calculate an estimate of committed effective dose equivalent based on activity in a subject and data from ICRP Publication 30. Using a count time of 10 minutes, the counter's minimum detectable activity ranged from 370 Bq to 1,110 Bq for 60 Co and 57 Co respectively. Other institutions will be able to assemble whole-body counters at low cost, often from surplus components. The spreadsheet is easily adapted to the needs of any institution and uses current methodology to estimate internal dose

  18. Improvements to well scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farukhi, M.R.; Mataraza, G.A.; Wimer, O.D.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to the field of ionising radiation detection. It concerns in particular scintillation detectors of the type that is commonly used in conjunction with a photomultiplier tube and that is used for monitoring radiation, for instance in the clinical measurements of isotopes. This invention enables well scintillation counters to be made, characterised by a high efficiency in measuring the thindown rate of radio-pharmaceutical solutions and to resolve the distribution of energy emanating from the radioactive source. It particularly consists in improving the uniformity of the luminous efficiency, the quality of the resolution and the efficiency whilst improving the reception of light [fr

  19. REM-sleep alterations in children with co-existence of tic disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: impact of hypermotor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Roumen; Banaschewski, Tobias; Uebel, Henrik; Kinkelbur, Jörg; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-06-01

    To characterize precisely the sleep pattern in children with co-existence of TD + ADHD. By means of polysomnography, sleep pattern was investigated in 19 children with TD + ADHD unmedicated before and during study and 19 healthy controls, matched for age, gender, and intelligence. Compared with healthy controls, children with TD + ADHD displayed shorter REM sleep latency and increased REM sleep duration. There was a negative correlational relationship between these REM-sleep alterations and they were determined by hyperactivity symptoms. Sleep in children with coexistence of TD + ADHD may be characterized by an elevated REM sleep drive. Common mechanisms are suggested to underpin hypermotor symptoms and REM sleep regulation.

  20. Experience-dependent phase-reversal of hippocampal neuron firing during REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, G R; Nitz, D A; McNaughton, B L; Barnes, C A

    2000-02-07

    The idea that sleep could serve a cognitive function has remained popular since Freud stated that dreams were "not nonsense" but a time to sort out experiences [S. Freud, Letter to Wilhelm Fliess, May 1897, in The Origins of Psychoanalysis - Personal Letters of Sigmund Freud, M. Bonaparte, A. Freud, E. Kris (Eds.), Translated by E. Mosbacher, J. Strachey, Basic Books and Imago Publishing, 1954]. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is associated with dream reports, is now known to be is important for acquisition of some tasks [A. Karni, D. Tanne, B.S. Rubenstein, J.J.M. Askenasy, D. Sagi, Dependence on REM sleep of overnight improvement of a perceptual skill, Science 265 (1994) 679-682; C. Smith, Sleep states and learning: a review of the animal literature, Biobehav. Rev. 9 (1985) 157-168]; although why this is so remains obscure. It has been proposed that memories may be consolidated during REM sleep or that forgetting of unnecessary material occurs in this state [F. Crick, G. Mitchison, The function of dream sleep, Nature 304 (1983) 111-114; D. Marr, Simple memory: a theory for archicortex, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B. 262 (1971) 23-81]. We studied the firing of multiple single neurons in the hippocampus, a structure that is important for episodic memory, during familiar and novel experiences and in subsequent REM sleep. Cells active in familiar places during waking exhibited a reversal of firing phase relative to local theta oscillations in REM sleep. Because firing-phase can influence whether synapses are strengthened or weakened [C. Holscher, R. Anwyl, M.J. Rowan, Stimulation on the positive phase of hippocampal theta rhythm induces long-term potentiation that can be depotentiated by stimulation on the negative phase in area CA1 in vivo, J. Neurosci. 15 (1977) 6470-6477; P.T. Huerta, J.E. Lisman, Bidirectional synaptic plasticity induced by a single burst during cholinergic theta oscillation in CA1 in vitro, Neuron 15 (1995) 1053-1063; C. Pavlides, Y

  1. Lessons from History for Counter-Terrorism Strategic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroro J. Ingram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the Counter-terrorism Strategic Communication (CTSC Project’s research paper “A Brief History of Propaganda during Conflict“, this Policy Brief lays out the key policy-relevant lessons for developing effective counter-terrorism strategic communications. It presents a framework of interrelated macro-, mezzo- and micro-level considerations for maximizing the efficacy of not just a strategic communications campaign but message design. Historical examples are drawn upon to illustrate their practical application. The Policy Brief concludes by analysing four key strategic-policy principles arguing that a counter-terrorism strategic communications campaign is more likely to be successful if it is based on the cumulative effects of a multidimensional messaging strategy.

  2. Emergent information technologies and enabling policies for counter-terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Popp, R

    2006-01-01

    Explores both counter-terrorism and enabling policy dimensions of emerging information technologies in national security After the September 11th attacks, "connecting the dots" has become the watchword for using information and intelligence to protect the United States from future terrorist attacks. Advanced and emerging information technologies offer key assets in confronting a secretive, asymmetric, and networked enemy. Yet, in a free and open society, policies must ensure that these powerful technologies are used responsibly, and that privacy and civil liberties remain protected. Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism provides a unique, integrated treatment of cutting-edge counter-terrorism technologies and their corresponding policy options. Featuring contributions from nationally recognized authorities and experts, this book brings together a diverse knowledge base for those charged with protecting our nation from terrorist attacks while preserving our civil liberti...

  3. Development of failure-detecting device for γ radioimmunoassay counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Xianzhi; Zhang Bingfeng

    1997-01-01

    A failures-detecting device based on single chip microcomputer technique for detecting of failures of γ radioimmunoassay counter is developed. The device can output signals of variable amplitude and frequency similar to the pulse of γ particle for shooting problem parts of γ counter's detecting system. By automatically comparing the shapes and amplitudes of the two signals to and from an amplifier unit, the device can distinguish if the amplifier unit works normally. The differential-input amplifier circuit gives 0.1% accuracy for the measurement of the stability of high voltage. The pulse widen circuit of this device allows for middle speed A/D detecting of periodical low-frequency pulse waves of micro-second width. This device is used specifically for the maintaining and failure-detecting of γ radioimmunoassay counter

  4. An acoustical bubble counter for superheated drop detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.; Montvila, D.; Flynn, D.; Brennan, C.; D'Errico, F.

    2006-01-01

    A new bubble counter has been developed based on the well-established approach of detecting vaporization events acoustically in superheated drop detectors (SDDs). This counter is called the Framework Scientific ABC 1260, and it represents a major improvement over prior versions of this technology. By utilizing advanced acoustic pattern recognition software, the bubble formation event can be differentiated from ambient background noise, as well as from other acoustic signatures. Additional structural design enhancements include a relocation of the electronic components to the bottom of the device; thus allowing for greater stability, easier access to vial SDDs without exposure to system electronics. Upgrades in the electronics permit an increase in the speed of bubble detection by almost 50%, compared with earlier versions of the counters. By positioning the vial on top of the device, temperature and sound insulation can be accommodated for extreme environments. Lead shells can also be utilized for an enhanced response to high-energy neutrons. (authors)

  5. An acoustical bubble counter for superheated drop detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chris; Montvila, Darius; Flynn, David; Brennan, Christopher; d'Errico, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    A new bubble counter has been developed based on the well-established approach of detecting vaporization events acoustically in superheated drop detectors (SDDs). This counter is called the Framework Scientific ABC 1260, and it represents a major improvement over prior versions of this technology. By utilizing advanced acoustic pattern recognition software, the bubble formation event can be differentiated from ambient background noise, as well as from other acoustic signatures. Additional structural design enhancements include a relocation of the electronic components to the bottom of the device; thus allowing for greater stability, easier access to vial SDDs without exposure to system electronics. Upgrades in the electronics permit an increase in the speed of bubble detection by almost 50%, compared with earlier versions of the counters. By positioning the vial on top of the device, temperature and sound insulation can be accommodated for extreme environments. Lead shells can also be utilized for an enhanced response to high-energy neutrons.

  6. Proportional counter response calculations for gallium solar neutrino detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, R.T.; Reynolds, D.

    1989-01-01

    Gallium bases solar neutrino detectors are sensitive to the primary pp reaction in the sun. Two experiments using gallium, SAGE in the Soviet Union and GALLEX in Europe, are under construction and will produce data by 1989. The radioactive /sup 71/Ge produced by neutrinos interacting with the gallium detector material, is chemically extracted and counted in miniature proportional counters. A number of calculations have been carried out to simulate the response of these counters to the decay of /sup 71/Ge and to background events

  7. Programmable spark counter of tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, A.E.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Vorobjev, I.B.

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose, a new set-the programmable all-automatic spark counter AIST-4-has been developed and manufactured. Compared to our previous automated spark counter ISTRA, which was operated by the integrated fixed program, the new set is operated completely by a personal computer. The mechanism for pressing and pulling the aluminized foil is put into action by a step motor operated by a microcontroller. The step motor turns an axle. The axle has two eccentrics. One of them moves a pressing plate up and down. The second eccentric moves the aluminized foil by steps of ∼15mm after the end of each pulse counting. One turnover of the axle corresponds to one pulse count cycle. The step motor, the high-voltage block and the pulse count block are operated by the microcontroller PIC 16C84 (Microstar). The set can be operated either manually by keys on the front panel or by a PC using dialogue windows for radon or neutron measurements (for counting of alpha or fission fragment tracks). A number of algorithms are developed: the general procedures, the automatic stopping of the pulse counting, the calibration curve, determination of the count characteristics and elimination of the short circuit in a track

  8. A low-level needle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Taguchi, Y.; Imamura, M.; Inoue, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1977-01-01

    A small end-window type gas-flow counter which has a sharpened needle (anode) against the end-window plane (cathode) was developed for low-level counting of β particles to the amount of less than one count per hour in solid sources of relatively high specific activity. The advantage of the needle counter for low-level work is that being of a conical shape the active volume as against the window area is small. The background count rate of 0.0092+-0.0005 cpm was obtained for a 10 mm dia needle counter operating in GM mode and in anticoincidence with a well-type NaI(Tl) guard crystal with massive shields. The counter design and the counter characteristics are presented in detail. The needle counter is simple in design, low-cost and stable in long time operation. (author)

  9. Counter Traction Makes Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Easier

    OpenAIRE

    Oyama, Tsuneo

    2012-01-01

    Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable co...

  10. Crate counter for normal operating loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlan, R.A.

    A lithium-loaded zinc sulfide scintillation counter to closely assay plutonium in waste packaged in 1.3 by 1.3 by 2.13m crates was built. In addition to assays for normal operating loss accounting, the counter will allow safeguards verification immediately before shipment of the crates for burial. The counter should detect approximately 10 g of plutonium in 1000 kg of waste

  11. Performance of microstrip proportional counters for x-ray astronomy on spectrum-roentgen-gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; BAHNSEN, A; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1991-01-01

    DSRI will provide a set of four imaging proportional counters for the Danish-Soviet X-ray telescopes XSPECT/SODART. The sensor principle is based on the novel micro-strip proportional counter (MSPC), where the strip electrodes are deposited by photolithography onto a rigid substrate. The MSPC off...

  12. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grímsson, Almar

    2000-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. Methods: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using an interru...

  13. The 'miniskirt' counter array at CDF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artikov, A.; Budagov, Yu.; Bellettini, G.

    2002-01-01

    Muon detection is fundamental to many of the interesting analyses at CDF II. For more efficient muon registration in Run II it was decided to increase geometrical coverage. The so-called 'miniskirt' counters are part of this upgrade. The original design parameters of the 'miniskirt' and mixed 'miniskirt' scintillation counters for the CDF Muon System are presented. The modifications, testing and installation of these counters within the CDF Upgrade Project are described in detail. The timing characteristics of mixed 'miniskirt' counters are also investigated using cosmic muons. The measurements show that the time resolution does not exceed 2.2 ns

  14. Effects of REM and Ba Additions on the Characteristics of the Third Generation Duplex Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Soo; Kim, Soon Tae

    2006-01-01

    The third generation super duplex stainless steel having excellent corrosion resistance, embrittlement resistance, castability, weldability and hot workability has been developed. REM and Ba added to the alloy, with larger atomic radius than those of Cr, Mo and W, seem to fill vacancies inside the matrix and around the grain boundaries, retarding formation of brittle σ and χ phases. In addition, fine oxides/ oxy-sulfides of REM and Ba (1∼3 μm in diameter) seem to enhance the retardation effects. The alloys have also shown higher strength and ductility resulting from phase and grain refinements caused by those oxides and oxy-sulfides. Accordingly it is judged that the core technology can provide the method for remarkably suppressing formation of intermetallic phases by adding new alloy elements, and improving a applied to sea water and flue gas desulfurization facility

  15. Observations on muscle activity in REM sleep behavior disorder assessed with a semi-automated scoring algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jesper; Otto, Marit; Frederiksen, Yoon

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is defined by dream enactment due to a failure of normal muscle atonia. Visual assessment of this muscle activity is time consuming and rater-dependent. METHODS: An EMG computer algorithm for scoring 'tonic', 'phasic' and 'any......' submental muscle activity during REM sleep was evaluated compared with human visual ratings. Subsequently, 52 subjects were analyzed with the algorithm. Duration and maximal amplitude of muscle activity, and self-awareness of RBD symptoms were assessed. RESULTS: The computer algorithm showed high congruency...... sleep without atonia. CONCLUSIONS: Our proposed algorithm was able to detect and rate REM sleep without atonia allowing identification of RBD. Increased duration and amplitude of muscle activity bouts were characteristics of RBD. Quantification of REM sleep without atonia represents a marker of RBD...

  16. Rem Koolhaas. Utopie ve sférách globálního trhu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnídková, Vendula

    -, Č. 19-20 (2006), s. 212-214 ISSN 1210-6887 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Rem Koolhaas * contemporary architecture * utopia of architectural production Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  17. Colonic Oxidative and Mitochondrial Function in Parkinson’s Disease and Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Morén, C.; González-Casacuberta, Í.; Navarro-Otano, J.; Juárez-Flores, D.; Vilas, D.; Garrabou, G.; Milisenda, J. C.; Pont-Sunyer, C.; Catalán-García, M.; Guitart-Mampel, M.; Tobías, E.; Cardellach, F.; Valldeoriola, F.; Iranzo, A.; Tolosa, E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine potential mitochondrial and oxidative alterations in colon biopsies from idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects. Methods Colonic biopsies from 7 iRBD subjects, 9 subjects with clinically diagnosed PD, and 9 healthy controls were homogenized in 5% w/v mannitol. Citrate synthase (CS) and complex I (CI) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Oxidative damage was assessed either by lipid peroxidation, through malondialdehyde and h...

  18. Shutdown radiation level and man-rem control for water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cripps, S.J.; Regan, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The importance of controlling the formation and subsequent deposition of active corrosion products (crud) is highlighted as a method of reducing occupational exposure. A semi-empirical model is described and used to predict the effectiveness of various methods of crud control. The relative merits of reactor coolant clean-up techniques including ion-exchange and electromagnetic filtration are assessed in terms of man-rem savings and associated cost penalties. (author)

  19. Rapid-Eye-Movement-Sleep (REM Associated Enhancement of Working Memory Performance after a Daytime Nap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Yuet Ying Lau

    Full Text Available The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40 or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40 between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watch for 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wake-group. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that "sleep gain" during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression, which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits, this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy.

  20. Rapid-Eye-Movement-Sleep (REM) Associated Enhancement of Working Memory Performance after a Daytime Nap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kristy Nga Ting; Hui, Florence Wai Ying; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2015-01-01

    The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males) were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40) or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40) between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watch for 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wake-group. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that “sleep gain” during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression), which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits), this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy. PMID:25970511

  1. Why Does Rem Sleep Occur? A Wake-Up Hypothesis 1

    OpenAIRE

    Klemm, W. R.

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses rapid eye movement (REM) to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, (1) when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into ...

  2. Olfactory impairment is related to REM sleep deprivation in rotenone model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana F. Aurich

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olfactory dysfunction affects about 85-90% of Parkinson's disease (PD patients with severe deterioration in the ability of discriminate several types of odors. In addition, studies reported declines in olfactory performances during a short period of sleep deprivation. Besides, PD is also known to strongly affect the occurrence and maintenance of rapid eye movement (REM sleep. Methods: Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms involved on discrimination of a social odor (dependent on the vomeronasal system and a non-social odor (related to the main olfactory pathway in the rotenone model of PD. Also, a concomitant impairment in REM sleep was inflicted with the introduction of two periods (24 or 48 h of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD. Rotenone promoted a remarkable olfactory impairment in both social and non-social odors, with a notable modulation induced by 24 h of REMSD for the non-social odor. Results: Our findings demonstrated the occurrence of a strong association between the density of nigral TH-ir neurons and the olfactory discrimination capacity for both odorant stimuli. Specifically, the rotenone-induced decrease of these neurons tends to elicit reductions in the olfactory discrimination ability. Conclusions: These results are consistent with the participation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system mainly in the olfactory discrimination of a non-social odor, probably through the main olfactory pathway. Such involvement may have produce relevant impact in the preclinical abnormalities found in PD patients.

  3. A new view of “dream enactment” in REM sleep behavior disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Mark S.; Plumeau, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a disorder in which patients exhibit increased muscle tone and exaggerated myoclonic twitching during REM sleep. In addition, violent movements of the limbs, and complex behaviors that can sometimes appear to involve the enactment of dreams, are associated with RBD. These behaviors are widely thought to result from a dysfunction involving atonia-producing neural circuitry in the brainstem, thereby unmasking cortically generated dreams. Here we scrutinize the assumptions that led to this interpretation of RBD. In particular, we challenge the assumption that motor cortex produces twitches during REM sleep, thus calling into question the related assumption that motor cortex is primarily responsible for all of the pathological movements of RBD. Moreover, motor cortex is not even necessary to produce complex behavior; for example, stimulation of some brainstem structures can produce defensive and aggressive behaviors in rats and monkeys that are striking similar to those reported in human patients with RBD. Accordingly, we suggest an interpretation of RBD that focuses increased attention on the brainstem as a source of the pathological movements and that considers sensory feedback from moving limbs as an important influence on the content of dream mentation. PMID:26802823

  4. Rapid expansion method (REM) for time‐stepping in reverse time migration (RTM)

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.

    2009-01-01

    We show that the wave equation solution using a conventional finite‐difference scheme, derived commonly by the Taylor series approach, can be derived directly from the rapid expansion method (REM). After some mathematical manipulation we consider an analytical approximation for the Bessel function where we assume that the time step is sufficiently small. From this derivation we find that if we consider only the first two Chebyshev polynomials terms in the rapid expansion method we can obtain the second order time finite‐difference scheme that is frequently used in more conventional finite‐difference implementations. We then show that if we use more terms from the REM we can obtain a more accurate time integration of the wave field. Consequently, we have demonstrated that the REM is more accurate than the usual finite‐difference schemes and it provides a wave equation solution which allows us to march in large time steps without numerical dispersion and is numerically stable. We illustrate the method with post and pre stack migration results.

  5. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Prodromal Neurodegeneration - Where are We Headed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald B. Postuma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is characterized by loss of normal atonia during REM sleep, such that patients appear to act out their dreams. The most important implication of research into this area is that patients with idiopathic RBD are at very high risk of developing synucleinmediated neurodegenerative disease (Parkinson's disease [PD], dementia with Lewy bodies [DLB], and multiple system atrophy, with risk estimates that approximate 40–65% at 10 years. Thus, RBD disorder is a very strong feature of prodromal synucleinopathy. This provides several opportunities for future research. First, patients with REM sleep behavior disorder can be studied to test other predictors of disease, which could potentially be applied to the general population. These studies have demonstrated that olfactory loss, decreased color vision, slowing on quantitative motor testing, and abnormal substantia nigra neuroimaging findings can predict clinical synucleinopathy. Second, prospectively studying patients with RBD allows a completely unprecedented opportunity to directly evaluate patients as they transition into clinical neurodegenerative disease. Studies assessing progression of markers of neurodegeneration in prodromal PD are beginning to appear. Third, RBD are very promising subjects for neuroprotective therapy trials because they have a high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency, which provides an opportunity for early intervention. As RBD research expands, collaboration between centers will become increasingly essential.

  6. The monetary value of the collective dose equivalent unit (person-rem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, Reginald C.

    1978-01-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power reactor facilities, it is recommended that radiation exposures to the workers and the general public be kept as 'low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). In the process of implementing this principle cost-benefit evaluations are part of the decision making process. For this reason a monetary value has to be assigned to the collective dose equivalent unit (person-rem). The various factors such as medical health care, societal penalty and manpower replacement/saving are essential ingredients to determine a monetary value for the person-rem. These factors and their dependence on the level of risk (or exposure level) are evaluated. Monetary values of well under $100 are determined for the public dose equivalent unit. The occupational worker person-rem value is determined to be in the range of $500 to about $5000 depending on the exposure level and the type of worker and his affiliation, i.e., temporary or permanent. A discussion of the variability and the range of the monetary values will be presented. (author)

  7. Sociality Affects REM Sleep Episode Duration Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions in the Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Gravett

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rock hyrax, Procavia capensis, is a highly social, diurnal mammal. In the current study several physiologically measurable parameters of sleep, as well as the accompanying behavior, were recorded continuously from five rock hyraxes, for 72 h under solitary (experimental animal alone in the recording chamber, and social conditions (experimental animal with 1 or 2 additional, non-implanted animals in the recording chamber. The results revealed no significant differences between solitary and social conditions for total sleep times, number of episodes, episode duration or slow wave activity (SWA for all states examined. The only significant difference observed between social and solitary conditions was the average duration of rapid eye movement (REM sleep episodes. REM sleep episode duration was on average 20 s and 40 s longer under social conditions daily and during the dark period, respectively. It is hypothesized that the increase in REM sleep episode duration under social conditions could possibly be attributed to improved thermoregulation strategies, however considering the limited sample size and design of the current study further investigations are needed to confirm this finding. Whether the conclusions and the observations made in this study can be generalized to all naturally socially sleeping mammals remains an open question.

  8. Alpha reactivity to complex sounds differs during REM sleep and wakefulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine Ruby

    Full Text Available We aimed at better understanding the brain mechanisms involved in the processing of alerting meaningful sounds during sleep, investigating alpha activity. During EEG acquisition, subjects were presented with a passive auditory oddball paradigm including rare complex sounds called Novels (the own first name - OWN, and an unfamiliar first name - OTHER while they were watching a silent movie in the evening or sleeping at night. During the experimental night, the subjects' quality of sleep was generally preserved. During wakefulness, the decrease in alpha power (8-12 Hz induced by Novels was significantly larger for OWN than for OTHER at parietal electrodes, between 600 and 900 ms after stimulus onset. Conversely, during REM sleep, Novels induced an increase in alpha power (from 0 to 1200 ms at all electrodes, significantly larger for OWN than for OTHER at several parietal electrodes between 700 and 1200 ms after stimulus onset. These results show that complex sounds have a different effect on the alpha power during wakefulness (decrease and during REM sleep (increase and that OWN induce a specific effect in these two states. The increased alpha power induced by Novels during REM sleep may 1 correspond to a short and transient increase in arousal; in this case, our study provides an objective measure of the greater arousing power of OWN over OTHER, 2 indicate a cortical inhibition associated with sleep protection. These results suggest that alpha modulation could participate in the selection of stimuli to be further processed during sleep.

  9. Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino Preparation promotes sleep by increasing REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sisi; Nie, Bo; Yao, Guihong; Yang, Hui; Ye, Ren; Yuan, Zhengzhong

    2018-05-15

    Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino Preparation (PTP) is widely used to treat insomnia in traditional Chinese medicine; however, its specific role is not clear. In this study, PTP was prepared at three concentrations. For locomotor activity tests, mice were treated with PTP and evaluated for 14 days. For polygraph recordings, mice were treated for 14 days and recorded after treatment. The main chemical constituents in PTP were identified by Ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS). The results showed that 0.9 g/mL PTP significantly reduced locomotor activity. The effect was related to the time of treatment. PTP reduced wakefulness and increased sleep in mice. Furthermore, PTP promoted sleep by increasing the number of REM sleep episodes with a duration of 64-128s and increasing the number of transitions from NREM sleep to REM sleep and from REM sleep to wakefulness. A total of 17 compounds were identified.

  10. The role of REM sleep in the processing of emotional memories: evidence from behavior and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groch, S; Wilhelm, I; Diekelmann, S; Born, J

    2013-01-01

    Emotional memories are vividly remembered for the long-term. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been repeatedly proposed to support the superior retention of emotional memories. However, its exact contribution and, specifically, whether its effect is mainly on the consolidation of the contents or the processing of the affective component of emotional memories is not clear. Here, we investigated the effects of sleep rich in slow wave sleep (SWS) or REM sleep on the consolidation of emotional pictures and the accompanying changes in affective tone, using event-related potentials (ERPs) together with subjective ratings of valence and arousal. Sixteen healthy, young men learned 50 negative and 50 neutral pictures before 3-h retention sleep intervals that were filled with either SWS-rich early or REM sleep-rich late nocturnal sleep. In accordance with our hypothesis, recognition was better for emotional pictures than neutral pictures after REM compared to SWS-rich sleep. This emotional enhancement after REM-rich sleep expressed itself in an increased late positive potential of the ERP over the frontal cortex 300-500 ms after stimulus onset for correctly classified old emotional pictures compared with new emotional and neutral pictures. Valence and arousal ratings of emotional pictures were not differentially affected by REM or SWS-rich sleep after learning. Our results corroborate that REM sleep contributes to the consolidation of emotional contents in memory, but suggest that the affective tone is preserved rather than reduced by the processing of emotional memories during REM sleep. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of selective REM-sleep deprivation on the consolidation and affective evaluation of emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Christian D; Pulst, Julika; Krause, Fanny; Elsner, Marike; Baving, Lioba; Pedersen, Anya; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Emotion boosts the consolidation of events in the declarative memory system. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is believed to foster the memory consolidation of emotional events. On the other hand, REM sleep is assumed to reduce the emotional tone of the memory. Here, we investigated the effect of selective REM-sleep deprivation, SWS deprivation, or wake on the affective evaluation and consolidation of emotional and neutral pictures. Prior to an 9-h retention interval, sixty-two healthy participants (23.5 ± 2.5 years, 32 female, 30 male) learned and rated their affect to 80 neutral and 80 emotionally negative pictures. Despite rigorous deprivation of REM sleep or SWS, the residual sleep fostered the consolidation of neutral and negative pictures. Furthermore, emotional arousal helped to memorize the pictures. The better consolidation of negative pictures compared to neutral ones was most pronounced in the SWS-deprived group where a normal amount of REM sleep was present. This emotional memory bias correlated with REM sleep only in the SWS-deprived group. Furthermore, emotional arousal to the pictures decreased over time, but neither sleep nor wake had any differential effect. Neither the comparison of the affective ratings (arousal, valence) during encoding and recognition, nor the affective ratings of the recognized targets and rejected distractors supported the hypothesis that REM sleep dampens the emotional reaction to remembered stimuli. The data suggest that REM sleep fosters the consolidation of emotional memories but has no effect on the affective evaluation of the remembered contents. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mass transfer in counter current flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doichinova, Maria D.; Popova, Petya G.; Boyadjiev, Christo B. [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    A theoretical analysis of gas-liquid counter-current flow in laminar boundary layers with flat phase boundary based on similarity variables method has been done. The obtained numerical results for the energy dissipation, mass transfer rate and their ratio are compared with analogous results for concurrent flows. A diffusion type of model is proposed for modeling of the mass transfer with chemical reaction in the column apparatuses in the cases of circulation zones. The presence of rising and descending flows (the change of the velocity direction) leads to using three coordinate systems. An iterative algorithm for the concentration distribution calculation is proposed. The influence of the zones breadths on the mass transfer efficiency in the column is investigated. Key words: efficiency, mass transfer, velocity distribution, column apparatuses, circulation zones.

  13. Fast-neutron coincidence-counter manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensslin, N.; Atwell, T.L.; Lee, D.M.; Erkkila, B.; Marshall, R.S.; Morgan, A.; Shonrock, C.; Tippens, B.; Van Lyssel, T.

    1982-03-01

    The fast neutron counter (FNC) described in this report is a computer-based assay system employing fast-pulse counting instrumentation. It is installed below a glove box in the metal electrorefining area of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument was designed to assay plutonium salts and residues from this process and to verify the mass of electrorefined metal. Los Alamos National Laboratory Groups Q-1, Q-3, and CMB-11 carried out a joint test and evaluation plan of this instrument between May 1978 and May 1979. The results of that evaluation, a description of the FNC, and operating instructions for further use are given in this report

  14. Numerical model of thyroid counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szuchta Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a numerical model of spectrometric thyroid counter, which is used for the measurements of internal contamination by in vivo method. The modeled detector is used for a routine internal exposure monitoring procedure in the Radiation Protection Measurements Laboratory of National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ. This procedure may also be used for monitoring of occupationally exposed nuclear medicine personnel. The developed model was prepared using Monte Carlo code FLUKA 2011 ver. 2b.6 Apr-14 and FLAIR ver. 1.2-5 interface. It contains a scintillation NaI(Tl detector, the collimator and the thyroid water phantom with a reference source of iodine 131I. The geometry of the model was designed and a gamma energy spectrum of iodine 131I deposited in the detector was calculated.

  15. Evaluation of waste crate counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.R.; Shaw, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    A novel nondestructive measurement system has been developed to perform combined gamma-ray, passive neutron, and active neutron analyses of radioactive waste packaged in large crates. The system will be used to examine low level and transuranic waste at the Waste Receiving and Processing facility at Westinghouse-Hanford Corp. Prior to delivery of the system, an extensive evaluation of its performance characteristics will be conducted. The evaluation is to include an assessment of the mechanical properties of the system, gamma-ray attenuation correction algorithms, instrument response as a function of source positions, performance of the high resolution gamma-ray detector for ''hot spot'' and isotopic analyses, active and passive neutron counter response, instrument sensitivity, matrix effects, and packaging effects. This report will discuss the findings of the evaluation program, to date, and indicate future directions for the program

  16. Scintillation counter: photomultiplier tube alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into the sample receiving zone. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (auth)

  17. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  18. A comparative simulation of feed and bleed operation during the total loss of feedwater event by RELAP5/MOD3 and CEFLASH-4AS/REM computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y.M.; Ro, T.S.; Song, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Ulchin 3 and 4 nuclear power plants, which are two-loop 2,825 MW(thermal) pressurized water reactors designed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, adopted a safety depressurization system (SDS) to mitigate the beyond-design-basis event of a total loss of feedwater (TLOFW). A comparative simulation by the CEFLASH-4AS/REM and RELAP5/MOD3 computer codes for the TLOFW event without operator recovery and the TLOFW event with feed and bleed (F and B) operation is performed for Ulchin 3 and 4. In the analyses, the SDS bleed paths are modeled by orifices located on the top of the pressurizer, where the analytical area of the bleed path is based on the Ulchin 3 and 4 SDS design flow capacity. An additional case, where the SDS piping and valves are modeled explicitly, is considered for the RELAP5 analysis. The predictions by the CEFLASH-4AS/REM of the transient two-phase system behavior show good qualitative and quantitative agreement with those by the RELAP5 simulation. The RELAP5 case with explicit piping results in less repressurization and lower reactor coolant system pressure than that of the case without explicit SDS modeling. However, the two cases of RELAP5 analyses result in essentially the same transient scenarios for TLOFW with F and B operation. The results of the simulation demonstrate the validity of the Ulchin 3 and 4 design approach, which employs CEFLASH-4AS/REM computer code and SDS bleed paths modeled by orifices located on the top of the pressurizer. The results also indicate that the decay heat removal and core inventory makeup function can be successfully accomplished by F and B operation by using the SDS for Ulchin 3 and 4

  19. Neutron shielding material based on colemanite and epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, K.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a need for compact shielding design such as self-shielding of a PET cyclotron or up-gradation of radiation machinery in existing facilities. In these cases, high performance shielding materials are needed. Concrete or polyethylene have been used for a neutron shield. However, for compact shielding, they fall short in terms of performance or durability. Therefore, a new type of neutron shielding material based on epoxy resin and colemanite has been developed. Slab attenuation experiments up to 40 cm for the new shielding material were carried out using a 252 Cf neutron source. Measurement was carried out using a REM-counter, and compared with calculation. The results show that the shielding performance is better than concrete and polyethylene mixed with 10 wt% boron oxide. From the result, we confirmed that the performance of the new material is suitable for practical use. (authors)

  20. On generating counter-rotating streamwise vortices

    KAUST Repository

    Winoto, S H

    2015-09-23

    Counter-rotating streamwise vortices are known to enhance the heat transfer rate from a surface and also to improve the aerodynamic performance of an aerofoil. In this paper, some methods to generate such counter-rotating vortices using different methods or physical conditions will be briefly considered and discussed.

  1. Charged particle identification: Cherenkov counters at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, A.; Kostoulas, I.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Thun, R.

    1977-01-01

    A brief summary is given of a study of Cherenkov counters for ISABELLE. The study was certainy not exhaustive and was meant primarily to suggest future detector development. A substantial research effort is needed in order to insure that Cherenkov counters utilizing photoionization are fully exploited

  2. Development of photocathodes for gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalot, J.F.

    1982-03-01

    A lot of ways of physics needs the development of high sensibility imaging devices with large sensitive surface. The problems brought by the building of such devices may be solved by the use of gaz counters. But we must sensitize these counters to low energy photons ( [fr

  3. On generating counter-rotating streamwise vortices

    KAUST Repository

    Winoto, S H; Mitsudharmadi, Hatsari; Budiman, A C; Hasheminejad, S M; Nadesan, T; Tandiono; Low, H T; Lee, T S

    2015-01-01

    Counter-rotating streamwise vortices are known to enhance the heat transfer rate from a surface and also to improve the aerodynamic performance of an aerofoil. In this paper, some methods to generate such counter-rotating vortices using different methods or physical conditions will be briefly considered and discussed.

  4. Development Of A Method For Measurement Of Total Neutron Cross Sections Based On The Neutron Transmission Method Using A He-3 Counter On Filtered Neutron Beams At Dalat Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Tuan Anh; Dang Lanh; Nguyen Canh Hai; Nguyen Xuan Hai; Pham Kien; Nguyen Thuy Nham; Pham Ngoc Son; Ho Huu Thang

    2007-01-01

    Determination of total neutron cross sections and average resonance parameters in the energy range from tens keV to hundreds keV is important for fast reactors calculations and designs because this energy range gives the most output of all neutron induced reactions in the spectrum of fast reactors. Besides, the total neutron cross section measurement is also one of the methods for determination of s, p and d-wave neutron strength functions. The purpose of this project is to develop a method for measurement of total neutron cross sections based on the neutron transmission technique using a He-3 counter. The average total neutron cross sections of 238 U were obtained from neutron transmission measurements on filtered neutron beams of 55 keV and 144 keV at the horizontal channel No.4 of the Dalat research reactor. The present results have been compared with the previous measurements, and the evaluated data from ENDF/B-6.8 library. (author)

  5. Analytical validation of the PAM50-based Prosigna Breast Cancer Prognostic Gene Signature Assay and nCounter Analysis System using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast tumor specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Torsten; Storhoff, James; Wallden, Brett; Schaper, Carl; Ferree, Sean; Liu, Shuzhen; Gao, Dongxia; Barry, Garrett; Dowidar, Naeem; Maysuria, Malini

    2014-01-01

    NanoString’s Prosigna™ Breast Cancer Prognostic Gene Signature Assay is based on the PAM50 gene expression signature. The test outputs a risk of recurrence (ROR) score, risk category, and intrinsic subtype (Luminal A/B, HER2-enriched, Basal-like). The studies described here were designed to validate the analytical performance of the test on the nCounter Analysis System across multiple laboratories. Analytical precision was measured by testing five breast tumor RNA samples across 3 sites. Reproducibility was measured by testing replicate tissue sections from 43 FFPE breast tumor blocks across 3 sites following independent pathology review at each site. The RNA input range was validated by comparing assay results at the extremes of the specified range to the nominal RNA input level. Interference was evaluated by including non-tumor tissue into the test. The measured standard deviation (SD) was less than 1 ROR unit within the analytical precision study and the measured total SD was 2.9 ROR units within the reproducibility study. The ROR scores for RNA inputs at the extremes of the range were the same as those at the nominal input level. Assay results were stable in the presence of moderate amounts of surrounding non-tumor tissue (<70% by area). The analytical performance of NanoString’s Prosigna assay has been validated using FFPE breast tumor specimens across multiple clinical testing laboratories

  6. Simulation-Based Early Prediction of Rocket, Artillery, and Mortar Trajectories and Real-Time Optimization for Counter-RAM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Ramezani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The threat imposed by terrorist attacks is a major hazard for military installations, for example, in Iraq and Afghanistan. The large amounts of rockets, artillery projectiles, and mortar grenades (RAM that are available pose serious threats to military forces. An important task for international research and development is to protect military installations and implement an accurate early warning system against RAM threats on conventional computer systems in out-of-area field camps. This work presents a method for determining the trajectory, caliber, and type of a projectile based on the estimation of the ballistic coefficient. A simulation-based optimization process is presented that enables iterative adjustment of predicted trajectories in real time. Analytical and numerical methods are used to reduce computing time for out-of-area missions and low-end computer systems. A GUI is programmed to present the results. It allows for comparison between predicted and actual trajectories. Finally, different aspects and restrictions for measuring the quality of the results are discussed.

  7. Counter traction makes endoscopic submucosal dissection easier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Tsuneo

    2012-11-01

    Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable counter traction thereby making ESD more efficient and safe. The author published this method in 2002. The name ESD was not established in those days; the name cutting endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or EMR with hook knife was used. The other traction methods such as external grasping forceps, internal traction, double channel scope, and double scopes method are introduced in this paper. A good strategy for creating counter traction makes ESD easier.

  8. Long-term operation of a multi-channel cosmic muon system based on scintillation counters with MRS APD light readout

    CERN Document Server

    Akindinov, A.; Grigoriev, E.; Grishuk, Yu.; Kuleshov, S.; Mal'kevich, D.; Martemiyanov, A.; Nedosekin, A.; Ryabinin, M.; Voloshin, K.

    2009-01-01

    A Cosmic Ray Test Facility (CRTF) is the first large-scale implementation of a scintillation triggering system based on a new scintillation technique known as START. In START, the scintillation light is collected and transported by WLS optical fibers, while light detection is performed by pairs of avalanche photodiodes with the Metal-Resistor-Semiconductor structure operated in the Geiger mode (MRS APD). START delivers 100% efficiency of cosmic muon detection, while its intrinsic noise level is less than 10^{-2} Hz. CRTF, consisting of 160 START channels, has been continuously operated by the ALICE TOF collaboration for more than 25 000 hours, and has demonstrated a high level of stability. Fewer than 10% of MRS APDs had to be replaced during this period.

  9. Exploring social inclusion strategies for public health research and practice: The use of participatory visual methods to counter stigmas surrounding street-based substance abuse in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterbusch, Amy E

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the participatory visual research design and findings from a qualitative assessment of the social impact of bazuco and inhalant/glue consumption among street youth in Bogotá, Colombia. The paper presents the visual methodologies our participatory action research (PAR) team employed in order to identify and overcome the stigmas and discrimination that street youth experience in society and within state-sponsored drug rehabilitation programmes. I call for critical reflection regarding the broad application of the terms 'participation' and 'participatory' in visual research and urge scholars and public health practitioners to consider the transformative potential of PAR for both the research and practice of global public health in general and rehabilitation programmes for street-based substance abuse in Colombia in particular. The paper concludes with recommendations as to how participatory visual methods can be used to promote social inclusion practices and to work against stigma and discrimination in health-related research and within health institutions.

  10. Cerebral correlates of delta waves during non-REM sleep revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Desseilles, Martin; Laureys, Steven; Degueldre, Christian; Perrin, Fabien; Phillips, Christophe; Maquet, Pierre; Peigneux, Philippe

    2005-10-15

    We aimed at characterizing the neural correlates of delta activity during Non Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep in non-sleep-deprived normal young adults, based on the statistical analysis of a positron emission tomography (PET) sleep data set. One hundred fifteen PET scans were obtained using H(2)(15)O under continuous polygraphic monitoring during stages 2-4 of NREM sleep. Correlations between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and delta power (1.5-4 Hz) spectral density were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2). Delta power values obtained at central scalp locations negatively correlated during NREM sleep with rCBF in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the basal forebrain, the striatum, the anterior insula, and the precuneus. These regions embrace the set of brain areas in which rCBF decreases during slow wave sleep (SWS) as compared to Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep and wakefulness (Maquet, P., Degueldre, C., Delfiore, G., Aerts, J., Peters, J.M., Luxen, A., Franck, G., 1997. Functional neuroanatomy of human slow wave sleep. J. Neurosci. 17, 2807-S2812), supporting the notion that delta activity is a valuable prominent feature of NREM sleep. A strong association was observed between rCBF in the ventromedial prefrontal regions and delta power, in agreement with electrophysiological studies. In contrast to the results of a previous PET study investigating the brain correlates of delta activity (Hofle, N., Paus, T., Reutens, D., Fiset, P., Gotman, J., Evans, A.C., Jones, B.E., 1997. Regional cerebral blood flow changes as a function of delta and spindle activity during slow wave sleep in humans. J. Neurosci. 17, 4800-4808), in which waking scans were mixed with NREM sleep scans, no correlation was found with thalamus activity. This latter result stresses the importance of an extra-thalamic delta rhythm among the synchronous NREM sleep oscillations. Consequently, this rCBF distribution might preferentially reflect a particular modulation of the

  11. Rapid eye movement (REM sleep deprivation reduces rat frontal cortex acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7 activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camarini R.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep deprivation induces several behavioral changes. Among these, a decrease in yawning behavior produced by low doses of cholinergic agonists is observed which indicates a change in brain cholinergic neurotransmission after REM sleep deprivation. Acetylcholinesterase (Achase controls acetylcholine (Ach availability in the synaptic cleft. Therefore, altered Achase activity may lead to a change in Ach availability at the receptor level which, in turn, may result in modification of cholinergic neurotransmission. To determine if REM sleep deprivation would change the activity of Achase, male Wistar rats, 3 months old, weighing 250-300 g, were deprived of REM sleep for 96 h by the flower-pot technique (N = 12. Two additional groups, a home-cage control (N = 6 and a large platform control (N = 6, were also used. Achase was measured in the frontal cortex using two different methods to obtain the enzyme activity. One method consisted of the obtention of total (900 g supernatant, membrane-bound (100,000 g pellet and soluble (100,000 g supernatant Achase, and the other method consisted of the obtention of a fraction (40,000 g pellet enriched in synaptic membrane-bound enzyme. In both preparations, REM sleep deprivation induced a significant decrease in rat frontal cortex Achase activity when compared to both home-cage and large platform controls. REM sleep deprivation induced a significant decrease of 16% in the membrane-bound Achase activity (nmol thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 in the 100,000 g pellet enzyme preparation (home-cage group 152.1 ± 5.7, large platform group 152.7 ± 24.9 and REM sleep-deprived group 127.9 ± 13.8. There was no difference in the soluble enzyme activity. REM sleep deprivation also induced a significant decrease of 20% in the enriched synaptic membrane-bound Achase activity (home-cage group 126.4 ± 21.5, large platform group 127.8 ± 20.4, REM sleep-deprived group 102.8 ± 14.2. Our results

  12. “Una imagen real de la Argentina”: Image-based Counter-narratives through the Walking Archive and the Project Hegemony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rosauro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available After the 1978 World Cup in Argentina, José Alfredo Martínez de Hoz —then Minister of Economy under the Military Dictatorship— promoted an initiative to publish an article in Time Magazine in which “a real image of Argentina would be given” —in the words of businessman Carlos Pedro Blaquier, strongly close to the military regime—. But who deines the extent of reality of an image? Who makes these “real images” and how do they articulate within the construction of national history and identity? Along this article, and departing from the construction of the past in Argentina through the “real images” produced within the economic and artistic institutions, we will examine the image-based counternarratives propounded by Eduardo Molinari through his Walking Archive and the collaborative project Hegemony. These two contemporary artistic projects focus mainly on the last decades of the 20th century in order to give visibility to the existent relations among economic groups, the military, politicians and the cultural system in Argentina. These relations have provided legitimacy to certain processes of construction of “real” narratives and also to certain artistic practices, while rejecting others.

  13. Alternative modes for optical trapping and manipulation using counter-propagating shaped beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palima, D; Tauro, S; Glückstad, J; Lindballe, T B; Kristensen, M V; Stapelfeldt, H; Keiding, S R

    2011-01-01

    Counter-propagating beams have enabled the first stable three-dimensional optical trapping of microparticles and this procedure has been enhanced and developed over the years to achieve independent and interactive manipulation of multiple particles. In this work, we analyse counter-propagating shaped-beam traps that depart from the conventional geometry based on symmetric, coaxial counter-propagating beams. We show that projecting shaped beams with separation distances previously considered axially unstable can, in fact, enhance the axial and transverse trapping stiffnesses. We also show that deviating from using perfectly counter-propagating beams to use oblique beams can improve the axial stability of the traps and improve the axial trapping stiffness. These alternative geometries can be particularly useful for handling larger particles. These results hint at a rich potential for light shaping for optical trapping and manipulation using patterned counter-propagating beams, which still remains to be fully tapped

  14. Helium-air counter flow in rectangular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Tanaka, Gaku; Zhao, Hong; Hishida, Makoto; Shiina, Yasuaki

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with numerical analysis of helium-air counter flow in a rectangular channel with an aspect ratio of 10. The channel has a cross sectional area of 5-50 mm and a length of 200 mm. The inclination angle was varied from 0 to 90 degree. The velocity profiles and concentration profiles were analyzed with a computer program [FLUENT]. Following main features of the counter flow are discussed based on the calculated results. (1) Time required for establishing a quasi-steady state counter flow. (2) The relationship between the inclination angle and the flow patterns of the counter flow. (3) The developing process of velocity profiles and concentration profiles. (4) The relationship between the inclination angle of the channel and the velocity profiles of upward flow and the downward flow. (5) The relationship between the concentration profile and the inclination angle. (6) The relationship between the net in-flow rate and the inclination angle. We compared the computed velocity profile and the net in-flow rate with experimental data. A good agreement was obtained between the calculation results and the experimental results. (author)

  15. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in Parkinson's Disease and Other Synucleinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Erik K; Boeve, Angelica R; Boeve, Bradley F

    2017-05-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by dream enactment and complex motor behaviors during rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep atonia loss (rapid eye movement sleep without atonia) during polysomnography. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder may be idiopathic or symptomatic and in both settings is highly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration, especially Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder frequently manifests years to decades prior to overt motor, cognitive, or autonomic impairments as the presenting manifestation of synucleinopathy, along with other subtler prodromal "soft" signs of hyposmia, constipation, and orthostatic hypotension. Between 35% and 91.9% of patients initially diagnosed with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder at a sleep center later develop a defined neurodegenerative disease. Less is known about the long-term prognosis of community-dwelling younger patients, especially women, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder associated with antidepressant medications. Patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder are frequently prone to sleep-related injuries and should be treated to prevent injury with either melatonin 3-12 mg or clonazepam 0.5-2.0 mg to limit injury potential. Further evidence-based studies about rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder are greatly needed, both to enable accurate prognostic prediction of end synucleinopathy phenotypes for individual patients and to support the application of symptomatic and neuroprotective therapies. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder as a prodromal synucleinopathy represents a defined time point at which neuroprotective therapies could potentially be applied for the prevention of Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure. © 2017

  16. Hypocretin-2 saporin lesions of the ventrolateral periaquaductal gray (vlPAG increase REM sleep in hypocretin knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satvinder Kaur

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten years ago the sleep disorder narcolepsy was linked to the neuropeptide hypocretin (HCRT, also known as orexin. This disorder is characterized by excessive day time sleepiness, inappropriate triggering of rapid-eye movement (REM sleep and cataplexy, which is a sudden loss of muscle tone during waking. It is still not known how HCRT regulates REM sleep or muscle tone since HCRT neurons are localized only in the lateral hypothalamus while REM sleep and muscle atonia are generated from the brainstem. To identify a potential neuronal circuit, the neurotoxin hypocretin-2-saporin (HCRT2-SAP was used to lesion neurons in the ventral lateral periaquaductal gray (vlPAG. The first experiment utilized hypocretin knock-out (HCRT-ko mice with the expectation that deletion of both HCRT and its target neurons would exacerbate narcoleptic symptoms. Indeed, HCRT-ko mice (n = 8 given the neurotoxin HCRT2-SAP (16.5 ng/23nl/sec each side in the vlPAG had levels of REM sleep and sleep fragmentation that were considerably higher compared to HCRT-ko given saline (+39%; n = 7 or wildtype mice (+177%; n = 9. However, cataplexy attacks did not increase, nor were levels of wake or non-REM sleep changed. Experiment 2 determined the effects in mice where HCRT was present but the downstream target neurons in the vlPAG were deleted by the neurotoxin. This experiment utilized an FVB-transgenic strain of mice where eGFP identifies GABA neurons. We verified this and also determined that eGFP neurons were immunopositive for the HCRT-2 receptor. vlPAG lesions in these mice increased REM sleep (+79% versus saline controls and it was significantly correlated (r = 0.89 with loss of eGFP neurons. These results identify the vlPAG as one site that loses its inhibitory control over REM sleep, but does not cause cataplexy, as a result of hypocretin deficiency.

  17. Aerogel Cerenkov counters at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelz, G.

    1984-11-01

    In high energy physics it is common to identify a charged particle and its kinematical parameters by the measurement of its momentum and its velocity. Cerenkov detectors have developed into a standard tool because they operate in the γ = (1-β 2 )sup(-1/2) range from about 1 to 100 which is not easily accessible by other devices. Pions, kaons and protons in present high energy experiments reach energies of several GeV. Threshold Cerenkov detectors for these particles need indices of refraction below 1.1 which are often produced with gases under high pressure. The design for chambers operating in this region was drasticly simplified when porous materials serving as Cerenkov radiators were invented. These chambers complement the time-of-flight counters, which cover the low energy region. Aerogel of silica is up to now the only porous substance with sufficient optical transparency. Its quality has been improved substantially in recent times so that large size detectors can be constructed. (orig.)

  18. Counter-diabatic driving for Dirac dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qi-Zhen; Cheng, Xiao-Hang; Chen, Xi

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the fast quantum control of Dirac equation dynamics by counter-diabatic driving, sharing the concept of shortcut to adiabaticity. We systematically calculate the counter-diabatic terms in different Dirac systems, like graphene and trapped ions. Specially, the fast and robust population inversion processes are achieved in Dirac system, taking into account the quantum simulation with trapped ions. In addition, the population transfer between two bands can be suppressed by counter-diabatic driving in graphene system, which might have potential applications in opt-electric devices.

  19. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated colony counter is a mechanical device intended for medical...

  20. Fear Extinction Memory Consolidation Requires Potentiation of Pontine-Wave Activity during REM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Subimal; O'Malley, Matthew W .

    2013-01-01

    Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation within multiple memory systems including contextual fear extinction memory, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this process. Here, we show that fear extinction training in rats, which extinguished conditioned fear, increased both slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Surprisingly, 24 h later, during memory testing, only 57% of the fear-extinguished animals retained fear extinction memory. We found that these animals exhibited an increase in phasic pontine-wave (P-wave) activity during post-training REM sleep, which was absent in the 43% of animals that failed to retain fear extinction memory. The results of this study provide evidence that brainstem activation, specifically potentiation of phasic P-wave activity, during post-training REM sleep is critical for consolidation of fear extinction memory. The results of this study also suggest that, contrary to the popular hypothesis of sleep and memory, increased sleep after training alone does not guarantee consolidation and/or retention of fear extinction memory. Rather, the potentiation of specific sleep-dependent physiological events may be a more accurate predictor for successful consolidation of fear extinction memory. Identification of this unique mechanism will significantly improve our present understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the sleep-dependent regulation of emotional memory. Additionally, this discovery may also initiate development of a new, more targeted treatment method for clinical disorders of fear and anxiety in humans that is more efficacious than existing methods such as exposure therapy that incorporate only fear extinction. PMID:23467372

  1. REM Sleep Behavior and Motor Findings in Parkinson's Disease: A Cross-sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhimanyu Mahajan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson's disease (PD represents a major public health challenge that will only grow in our aging population. Understanding the connection between PD and associated prodromal conditions, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavioral disorder (RBD, is critical to identifying prevention strategies. However, the relationship between RBD and severity of motor findings in early PD is unknown. This study aims to examine this relationship. Methods: The study population consisted of 418 PD patients who completed the Movement Disorders Society‐United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS‐UPDRS and rapid eye movement sleep (REM disorder questionnaires at the baseline visit of the Michael J. Fox's Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI. Cross‐sectional analysis was carried out to assess the association between REM Sleep Behavior Screening Questionnaire score and MDS UPDRS‐3 (motor score categories. Correlation with a higher score category was described as “worse motor findings”. A score of 5 on the REM disorder questionnaire was defined as predictive of RBD.Results: Out of the 418 PD patients, 113 (27.0% had RBD. With univariate logistic regression analysis, individuals with scores predictive of RBD were 1.66 times more likely to have worse motor findings (p = 0.028. Even with age, gender, and Geriatric Depression Scale scores taken into account, individuals with scores predictive of RBD were 1.69 times more likely to have worse motor findings (p = 0.025.Discussion: PD patients with RBD symptoms had worse motor findings than those unlikely to have RBD. This association provides further evidence for the relationship between RBD and PD.

  2. Pedunculopontine Nucleus Gamma Band Activity-Preconscious Awareness, Waking, and REM Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Urbano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN is a major component of the reticular activating system (RAS that regulates waking and REM sleep, states of high frequency EEG activity. Recently, we described the presence of high threshold, voltage-dependent N- and P/Q-type calcium channels in RAS nuclei that subserve gamma band oscillations in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN, intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf, and pontine Subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD. Cortical gamma band activity participates in sensory perception, problem solving, and memory. Rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as in the cortex, gamma band activity in the RAS may participate in the processes of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions. That is, the RAS may play an early permissive role in volition. Our latest results suggest that, 1 the manifestation of gamma band activity during waking may employ a separate intracellular pathway compared to that during REM sleep, 2 neuronal calcium sensor (NCS-1 protein, which is over expressed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, modulates gamma band oscillations in the PPN in a concentration-dependent manner, 3 leptin, which undergoes resistance in obesity resulting in sleep dysregulation, decreases sodium currents in PPN neurons, accounting for its normal attenuation of waking, and 4 following our discovery of electrical coupling in the RAS, we hypothesize that there are cell clusters within the PPN that may act in concert. These results provide novel information on the mechanisms controlling high frequency activity related to waking and REM sleep by elements of the RAS.

  3. Non-REM sleep EEG power distribution in fatigue and sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Daniel; Mairesse, Olivier; Verbanck, Paul; Linkowski, Paul; Le Bon, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the sleep-related differentiation between daytime fatigue and sleepiness. 135 subjects presenting with sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS, n=58) or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, n=52) with respective sleepiness or fatigue complaints and a control group (n=25) underwent polysomnography and psychometric assessments for fatigue, sleepiness, affective symptoms and perceived sleep quality. Sleep EEG spectral analysis for ultra slow, delta, theta, alpha, sigma and beta power bands was performed on frontal, central and occipital derivations. Patient groups presented with impaired subjective sleep quality and higher affective symptom intensity. CFS patients presented with highest fatigue and SAHS patients with highest sleepiness levels. All groups showed similar total sleep time. Subject groups mainly differed in sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, duration of light sleep (N1, N2) and slow wave sleep, as well as in sleep fragmentation and respiratory disturbance. Relative non-REM sleep power spectra distributions suggest a pattern of power exchange in higher frequency bands at the expense of central ultra slow power in CFS patients during all non-REM stages. In SAHS patients, however, we found an opposite pattern at occipital sites during N1 and N2. Slow wave activity presents as a crossroad of fatigue and sleepiness with, however, different spectral power band distributions during non-REM sleep. The homeostatic function of sleep might be compromised in CFS patients and could explain why, in contrast to sleepiness, fatigue does not resolve with sleep in these patients. The present findings thus contribute to the differentiation of both phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Real-time aerosol photometer and optical particle counter comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, E.; Belosi, F.; Santachiara, G.; Prodi, F.; Berico, M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a comparison exercise among real-time aerosol samplers, based on different light scattering techniques. The comparison was carried out near to the ISAC institute in a box positioned inside the CNR research area in Bologna. Two nephelometers (Dust Trak from TSI, and Air Genius from Unitec) and an optical particle counter (ENVIRO-check from Grimm) were used for P M1 and P M10 fraction assessment. In the case of the optical particle counter, the particle number concentration in each size bin was also used. In parallel, two manual sampling lines were employed for reference (gravimetric) measurements. The results highlight different factor scales for the dust monitors, in comparison with gravimetric assessment, underlining the importance of a user calibration of such monitors as a function of the specific aerosol sampled. Moreover, the relative fluctuations of the hourly P M 10 and P M1 concentrations, against daily average concentrations, were studied in order to compare the ability of each sampler to follow changes in the aerosol size distribution. It was found that the photometers and optical particle counter revealed different behaviours. In the latter, a small increase in the particle concentration number in the coarse fraction gave a relatively high increase in the mass concentration that was not measured by the photometers. The explanation could be the relatively slight influence of a small particle number variation on the total scattered light for the photometers, unlike the case of the optical particle counter, where each particle contributes to the mass concentration. This aspect merits future research in order to better understand optical particle counter output used in P Mx monitoring activities.

  5. A remorin gene SiREM6, the target gene of SiARDP, from foxtail millet (Setaria italica) promotes high salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jing; Li, Cong; Liu, Yuwei; Yu, Jingjuan

    2014-01-01

    Remorin proteins (REMs) form a plant-specific protein family, with some REMs being responsive to abiotic stress. However, the precise functions of REMs in abiotic stress tolerance are not clear. In this study, we identified 11 remorin genes from foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and cloned a remorin gene, SiREM6, for further investigation. The transcript level of SiREM6 was increased by high salt stress, low temperature stress and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, but not by drought stress. The potential oligomerization of SiREM6 was examined by negative staining electron microscopy. The overexpression of SiREM6 improved high salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis at the germination and seedling stages as revealed by germination rate, survival rate, relative electrolyte leakage and proline content. The SiREM6 promoter contains two dehydration responsive elements (DRE) and one ABA responsive element (ABRE). An ABA responsive DRE-binding transcription factor, SiARDP, and an ABRE-binding transcription factor, SiAREB1, were cloned from foxtail millet. SiARDP could physically bind to the DREs, but SiAREB1 could not. These results revealed that SiREM6 is a target gene of SiARDP and plays a critical role in high salt stress tolerance.

  6. A remorin gene SiREM6, the target gene of SiARDP, from foxtail millet (Setaria italica promotes high salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yue

    Full Text Available Remorin proteins (REMs form a plant-specific protein family, with some REMs being responsive to abiotic stress. However, the precise functions of REMs in abiotic stress tolerance are not clear. In this study, we identified 11 remorin genes from foxtail millet (Setaria italica and cloned a remorin gene, SiREM6, for further investigation. The transcript level of SiREM6 was increased by high salt stress, low temperature stress and abscisic acid (ABA treatment, but not by drought stress. The potential oligomerization of SiREM6 was examined by negative staining electron microscopy. The overexpression of SiREM6 improved high salt stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis at the germination and seedling stages as revealed by germination rate, survival rate, relative electrolyte leakage and proline content. The SiREM6 promoter contains two dehydration responsive elements (DRE and one ABA responsive element (ABRE. An ABA responsive DRE-binding transcription factor, SiARDP, and an ABRE-binding transcription factor, SiAREB1, were cloned from foxtail millet. SiARDP could physically bind to the DREs, but SiAREB1 could not. These results revealed that SiREM6 is a target gene of SiARDP and plays a critical role in high salt stress tolerance.

  7. Experiences in troubleshooting of neutron rem monitor electronics and its subsequent calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maithani, Atul; Dash, Amit Kumar; Vijayasekaran, P.; Mathews, Geo; Ajoy, K.C.; Dhanasekaran, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the troubleshooting of the signal processing and counting electronics of two no's of Neutron Rem monitors and its subsequent calibration. Electronics servicing with respect to detection of fault in the circuit board, replacement of faulty ICs, circuits (Analog and Digital) tracing and installation of new rechargeable battery pack was done. Electronic calibration using Test pulse generator was carried out for dose rate measurements, amplitude measurements and discriminator level setting. Serial communication settings were checked with both HyperTerminal and software for the monitors. Neutron Source calibration was also carried out for both the monitors. (author)

  8. Burden of proof for the illegal immissions as prerequisite of in rem removal claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Marko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the question of the burden of proof for the facts that imply illegal immission as prerequisite of in rem removal claim. The approach is different to the standard doctrine and it is in according to the general rule of the burden of proof in litigation - so called modified norm theory. In the centre of the attention is distinction of so called constitutive and impeditive facts, and criteria for distinction. The implementation of modified norm theory regarding issue of this paper shows that primal distinguishing point is not suitable, so the other modification methods should be applied, in order to get the answer.

  9. Rem uncouples excitation–contraction coupling in adult skeletal muscle fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beqollari, Donald; Romberg, Christin F.; Filipova, Dilyana; Meza, Ulises; Papadopoulos, Symeon

    2015-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, excitation–contraction (EC) coupling requires depolarization-induced conformational rearrangements in L-type Ca2+ channel (CaV1.1) to be communicated to the type 1 ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channel (RYR1) of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via transient protein–protein interactions. Although the molecular mechanism that underlies conformational coupling between CaV1.1 and RYR1 has been investigated intensely for more than 25 years, the question of whether such signaling occurs via a direct interaction between the principal, voltage-sensing α1S subunit of CaV1.1 and RYR1 or through an intermediary protein persists. A substantial body of evidence supports the idea that the auxiliary β1a subunit of CaV1.1 is a conduit for this intermolecular communication. However, a direct role for β1a has been difficult to test because β1a serves two other functions that are prerequisite for conformational coupling between CaV1.1 and RYR1. Specifically, β1a promotes efficient membrane expression of CaV1.1 and facilitates the tetradic ultrastructural arrangement of CaV1.1 channels within plasma membrane–SR junctions. In this paper, we demonstrate that overexpression of the RGK protein Rem, an established β subunit–interacting protein, in adult mouse flexor digitorum brevis fibers markedly reduces voltage-induced myoplasmic Ca2+ transients without greatly affecting CaV1.1 targeting, intramembrane gating charge movement, or releasable SR Ca2+ store content. In contrast, a β1a-binding–deficient Rem triple mutant (R200A/L227A/H229A) has little effect on myoplasmic Ca2+ release in response to membrane depolarization. Thus, Rem effectively uncouples the voltage sensors of CaV1.1 from RYR1-mediated SR Ca2+ release via its ability to interact with β1a. Our findings reveal Rem-expressing adult muscle as an experimental system that may prove useful in the definition of the precise role of the β1a subunit in skeletal-type EC coupling. PMID:26078055

  10. REM-3D Reference Datasets: Reconciling large and diverse compilations of travel-time observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulik, P.; Lekic, V.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    A three-dimensional Reference Earth model (REM-3D) should ideally represent the consensus view of long-wavelength heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle through the joint modeling of large and diverse seismological datasets. This requires reconciliation of datasets obtained using various methodologies and identification of consistent features. The goal of REM-3D datasets is to provide a quality-controlled and comprehensive set of seismic observations that would not only enable construction of REM-3D, but also allow identification of outliers and assist in more detailed studies of heterogeneity. The community response to data solicitation has been enthusiastic with several groups across the world contributing recent measurements of normal modes, (fundamental mode and overtone) surface waves, and body waves. We present results from ongoing work with body and surface wave datasets analyzed in consultation with a Reference Dataset Working Group. We have formulated procedures for reconciling travel-time datasets that include: (1) quality control for salvaging missing metadata; (2) identification of and reasons for discrepant measurements; (3) homogenization of coverage through the construction of summary rays; and (4) inversions of structure at various wavelengths to evaluate inter-dataset consistency. In consultation with the Reference Dataset Working Group, we retrieved the station and earthquake metadata in several legacy compilations and codified several guidelines that would facilitate easy storage and reproducibility. We find strong agreement between the dispersion measurements of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves, particularly when made using supervised techniques. The agreement deteriorates substantially in surface-wave overtones, for which discrepancies vary with frequency and overtone number. A half-cycle band of discrepancies is attributed to reversed instrument polarities at a limited number of stations, which are not reflected in the instrument response history

  11. Man-rem exposure--a forcing function in remote maintenance of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erion, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the need for remote tooling systems in order to comply with the proposed NRC strategies relative to occupational radiation exposure (ORE) during maintenance outages. In addition to developing tooling to help or remove man from a radiation environment, present efforts to make that environment a less hostile one in the future are underway. A program to decontaminate the channelhead is underway. The obvious benefit of reducing the radiation source strength, and therefore man-rem exposure, has been indicated. Specialized tooling for local decontamination purposes, development of an advanced computer-controlled manipulator, and comprehensive personnel training programs can all reduce downtime and personnel exposures

  12. Pas de remède miracle Parvenir à une couverture santé universelle ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 oct. 2012 ... Pas de remède miracle Parvenir à une couverture santé universelle grâce à des systèmes de santé équitables ... Le Nigeria, qui compte parmi les pays qui affichent les taux les plus élevés de mortalité des mères, des enfants et des nouveau-nés, a fait des soins de santé primaires sa plus grande priorité.

  13. REM sleep enhancement and behavioral cataplexy following orexin (hypocretin)-II receptor antisense perfusion in the pontine reticular formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, M M; Ramesh, V; Cape, E G; Winston, S; Strecker, R E; McCarley, R W

    1999-01-01

    Orexin (hypocretin)-containing neurons of the hypothalamus project to brainstem sites that are involved in the neural control of REM sleep, including the locus coeruleus, the dorsal raphe nucleus, the cholinergic zone of the mesopontine tegmentum, and the pontine reticular formation (PRF). Orexin knockout mice exhibit narcolepsy/cataplexy, and a mutant and defective gene for the orexin type II receptor is present in dogs with an inherited form of narcolepsy/cataplexy. However, the physiological systems mediating these effects have not been described. We reasoned that, since the effector neurons for the majority of REM sleep signs, including muscle atonia, were located in the PRF, this region was likely implicated in the production of these orexin-related abnormalities. To test this possibility, we used microdialysis perfusion of orexin type II receptor antisense in the PRF of rats. Ten to 24 hours after antisense perfusion, REM sleep increased two- to three-fold during both the light period (quiescent phase) and the dark period (active phase), and infrared video showed episodes of behavioral cataplexy. Moreover, preliminary data indicated no REM-related effects following perfusion with nonsense DNA, or when perfusion sites were outside the PRF. More work is needed to provide precise localization of the most effective site of orexin-induced inhibition of REM sleep phenomena.

  14. The counter ion: expanding excipient functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireesh Apte

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Excipients have increasingly become 'enablers' of drug delivery and efficacy rather than passive bystanders. Advances in pharmaceutical technology have enabled the ability to deliver specific counter ions (in the form of the counter ion containing excipient and the API simultaneously to preselected targets in the body. This, coupled with a near universal mechanism of columbic interactions that determine the [API- counter ion] efficacy, can be harnessed to exploit this hitherto unavailable or unrecognized enabling mechanism. New excipients may be assembled by a near inexhaustible supply of different permutations of counter ions and their judicious use in specific situations could potentially drive a renaissance in excipient innovation (and drug delivery and efficacy despite regulatory stagnation.

  15. Geometric covers, graph orientations, counter games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglin, Edvin

    -directed graph is dynamic (can be altered by some outside actor), some orientations may need to be reversed in order to maintain the low out-degree. We present a new algorithm that is simpler than earlier work, yet matches or outperforms the efficiency of these results with very few exceptions. Counter games...... example is Line Cover, also known as Point-Line Cover, where a set of points in a geometric space are to be covered by placing a restricted number of lines. We present new FPT algorithms for the sub-family Curve Cover (which includes Line Cover), as well as for Hyperplane Cover restricted to R 3 (i...... are a type of abstract game played over a set of counters holding values, and these values may be moved between counters according to some set of rules. Typically they are played between two players: the adversary who tries to concentrate the greatest value possible in a single counter, and the benevolent...

  16. Count rate effect in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, B.

    1980-01-01

    A critical evaluaton is presented of the actual state of investigations and explanations of the resolution and pulse height changes resulted in proportional counters from radiation intensity variations. (author)

  17. Counter-Leadership Targeting and Conflict Termination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, Bradly

    1999-01-01

    .... Can the leader be found? And, is it legal and ethical to attack the leader? Analysis rarely has been conducted to determine whether the targeted organization is vulnerable to Counter Leadership Targeting (CLT...

  18. Countering North Korean Special Purpose Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krause, Troy

    1999-01-01

    As United States and Republic of Korea forces stand to defend against a DPRK attack, one of the most formidable tasks is how to counter a second front in the Joint Rear Security Area of the Republic of Korea...

  19. Tests of BF3 counters with getter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, R.; Dauphin, G.

    1968-01-01

    BF 3 counters with addition of a getter have been developed to improve operation characteristics of these detectors in presence of strong gamma flows. The getter is made of an active coal deposit on the cathode. As noticed by other studies, the degradation of these counters is related to the exposure to strong neutron flows and to gamma radiations. The authors report tests performed on these counters with a brief presentation of the counters, and a presentation of the test installation. A threshold curve and an amplitude spectrum are obtained, and counting is performed for a fixed threshold before and after the exposure of detectors to variable doses of γ radiation. The results after a first 2 hour long irradiation, a 230 hour long second irradiation, and a third irradiation under high voltage (2100 V) are discussed. Thermal tests are then performed and commented

  20. Real-time {sup 90}Sr Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Naomi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kodama, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Tabata, Makoto; Ito, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, (Japan); Han, Soorim [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba, (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    Radioisotopes have been emitted around Japan due to a nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in March 2011. A problem is the contaminated water including the atomic nucleus which relatively has a long half- life time and soluble such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs. Internal exposures by {sup 90}Sr are more dangerous than {sup 137}Cs's because Sr has effective half-life time of 18 years and property of accumulation in a born. We have developed real-time {sup 90}Sr counter which is sensitive beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 2.28 MeV from {sup 90}Sr and insensitive of beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 1.17 MeV and gamma-ray from {sup 90}Sr by Cherenkov detection. This counter composes of Cerenkov counter, trigger scintillation counter and veto counter. Silica aerogel for Cherenkov counter can obtain refractive index between 1.017 and 1.049 easily. And wavelength shifting fiber (WLSF) is used as a light guide for extending effective area and producing lower cost. A mechanism of the identification of {sup 90}Sr is explained in following. In case of {sup 90}Sr, when the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray from {sup 90}Sr, aerogel emits the Cherenkov light and WLSF reacts and read the Cherenkov light. On the other hand, in case of {sup 137}Cs, the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray, aerogel stops the beta- ray and Cherenkov light is not emitted. Therefore, aerogel has a function as a radiator and shielding material. the gamma-ray is not reacted on the lower density detector. Cosmic rays would be also reacted by the veto counter. A prototype counter whose the effective area is 30 cm x 10 cm was obtained (2.0±1.2){sup 3} of mis-identification as {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr. Detection limit in the surface contamination inspection depends on measurement time and effective area mainly. The sensitivity of wide range, 10{sup -2} - 10{sup 4} Bq/cm{sup 2}, is obtained by adjustment of detection level in circuit of this counter. A lower

  1. HOW THE WAR WAS ‘ONE’: COUNTERING VIOLENT EXTREMISM AND THE SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF COUNTER-TERRORISM IN CANADA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Amanda Jacoby

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current global “war on terror” highlights a fundamental quandary for all liberal democracies seeking to counter the violent extremism of their own citizens while maintaining civic rights and freedoms. This challenge accompanies a transformation in international conflict from inter-state war and superpower rivalry, to homegrown terrorism, radicalization-to-violence, Internet propaganda, and targeting and recruitment of vulnerable persons. These new threats shift the battlefield, as traditionally defined, to the home front, as extremist violence is nurtured by and perpetrated within public spaces, such as schools, places of religious worship, civil society and the home. Today, violence emanates from within liberal democratic society and its extremist motivations bypass the very institutions that would otherwise support civic rights, freedoms and multiculturalism. As such, attempts to counter extremist violence must appeal to the political, social, cultural, religious and familial aspects of human behavior alongside a parallel shift in efforts to keep citizens safe within their own social spaces. In recent years, Canada has been introduced to home grown and lone individual terrorism with the cases of attack against armed forces personnel in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu and Ottawa in 2014. This article identifies the social dimensions of counter-terrorism in the Canadian context, a propitious case by which to evaluate different approaches to countering violent extremism. Canadian initiatives - simultaneously proliferating and in their infancy – raise a host of questions about counter-terrorism in liberal democratic countries. For example, why do individuals radicalize-to-violence in rights-based and multicultural societies? How and when can the liberal democratic state best temper the radicalization process in ways that are effective and procedurally just? What state-society balance works best to counter radicalized viewpoints? Who are the

  2. Counter - Drug: Mandate for the Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    this comprehensive review will provide a basis for responding to new missions assigned...observations for determining the short-, mid-, and long-term direction of Army support to the national counter-drug effort. Also, this comprehensive review will provide...and long-term direction of Army support to the national counter-drug effort. Also, this comprehensive review will provide a basis for responding

  3. Quality control and the multicrystal counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, G.C.; Davis, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    The reliability of multicrystal counters for use in counting large numbers of radioimmunoassay samples is studied. In particular, the dependencies of the outputs from the array of detectors, and hence their degree of matching, on the count rate and volume of the samples being counted are investigated. Quality control procedures are described to assist in the assurance of consistent performance of the counter in the clinical situation. (U.K.)

  4. Pulse formation of gas-filled counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatani, Kazuo; Teshima, Kazunori; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hasai, Hiromi

    1991-01-01

    The pulse formation of gas-filled counter has been calculated by simple models for the proportional and self-quenching streamer (SQS) modes. Calculated pulse shapes of counter output have accurately reproduced the observed ones for both modes. As a result, it is shown that the special density distribution of ion pairs in a streamer can be estimated with the rising part of observed pulse shape, using the model. (author)

  5. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gregory [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Kulkarni, Gourihar [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70°C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  6. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  7. Effectiveness of Counter-Trafficking Response in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meçe Merita H.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human trafficking is a new phenomenon of Albanian post-socialist society which significantly increased during the difficult years of its transformation from centralized state-led economy to market economy. Both economic and political instability contributed to its size, nature and multiple dynamics. Drawing on a rights-based approach to human trafficking, this paper examines the effectiveness of the counter-trafficking response of the Albanian government with a special emphasis on prevention, protection and prosecution. Using secondary data and reviewing various country strategic documents, it highlights a range of weaknesses and challenges which have hindered its effectiveness over years. It concludes that successful and effective counter-trafficking response requires well rounded and coordinated gender sensitive, victim-centred, holistic and human rights-based efforts. Combined with adequate law enforcement, they will sustainably tackle the full spectrum of this problem.

  8. Transparent platinum counter electrode for efficient semi-transparent dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iefanova, Anastasiia; Nepal, Jeevan; Poudel, Prashant; Davoux, Daren; Gautam, Umesh [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Mallam, Venkataiah [Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Qiao, Qiquan [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Logue, Brian [Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Baroughi, Mahdi Farrokh, E-mail: m.farrokhbaroughi@sdstate.edu [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A method for fabrication of highly transparent platinum counter electrodes (CEs) has been developed based on spray coating of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on hot substrates. This method leads to 86% reduction in Pt consumption reducing the Pt cost per peak watt of counter electrode from $0.79/Wp down to $0.11/Wp compared to the conventional Pt counter electrodes made by sputter deposition. The simplicity and low cost of this method provide a basis for an up-scalable fabrication process. The Pt NP layer is over 88% transparent, leading to overall transparency of 80% when incorporated with indium tin oxide/glass substrates for functional counter electrodes. This counter electrode exhibits a large surface area and high catalytic activity, comparable to that of the conventional opaque CEs. Semi-transparent dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated based on this counter electrode showed 6.17% power conversion efficiency. - Highlights: • Counter electrode (CE) prepared by spraying nanoparticle (NP) Pt on hot substrate. • Low cost and scalable fabrication process of CE. • The spray deposited CE uses 10 times less Pt compared to the sputtering method. • The CE is 80% transparent and exhibits a large surface and high catalytic activity. • A semitransparent dye-sensitized solar cell with Pt NP CE was 6.17% efficient.

  9. Neutron spectrometry with proton recoil proportional counters at the research and measurement reactor Braunschweig - status of the technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauf, K.; Wittstock, J.

    1987-07-01

    This status report is concerned with the facilities set up for neutron spectrometry at the Research and Measurement Reactor Braunschweig, based on proton recoil proportional counters. Cylindrical counters for irradiation by a neutron beam normal to the counter wire and commercial spherical counters are employed. They can be filled with hydrogen or a hydrogeneous gas up to a pressure of 1 MPa depending on their use. The filling method and the electronic pulse processing are described. The pulse analysis system includes a pulse shape discrimination branch in order to separate γ-ray induced pulses. Finally, experimental investigations with spherical counters are discussed regarding the region of proportionality and the influence of the counter voltage on the shape of the response function. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Normal Morning MCH Levels and No Association with REM or NREM Sleep Parameters in Narcolepsy Type 1 and Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrölkamp, Maren; Jennum, Poul J; Gammeltoft, Steen

    2017-01-01

    in rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation. Hypocretin neurons reciprocally interact with MCH neurons. We hypothesized that altered MCH secretion contributes to the symptoms and sleep abnormalities of narcolepsy and that this is reflected in morning cerebrospinal fluid...... MCH levels. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that MCH levels in CSF collected in the morning are normal in narcolepsy and not associated with the clinical symptoms, REM sleep abnormalities, nor number of muscle movements during REM or NREM sleep of the patients. We conclude that morning lumbar CSF MCH......STUDY OBJECTIVES: Other than hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) deficiency in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), the neurochemical imbalance of NT1 and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) with normal HCRT-1 levels is largely unknown. The neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is mainly secreted during sleep and is involved...

  11. A differentiating empirical linguistic analysis of dreamer activity in reports of EEG-controlled REM-dreams and hypnagogic hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Jana; Frenzel, Clemens; Voss, Ursula

    2013-09-01

    We present Activity Analysis as a new method for the quantification of subjective reports of altered states of consciousness with regard to the indicated level of simulated motor activity. Empirical linguistic activity analysis was conducted with dream reports conceived immediately after EEG-controlled periods of hypnagogic hallucinations and REM-sleep in the sleep laboratory. Reports of REM-dreams exhibited a significantly higher level of simulated physical dreamer activity, while hypnagogic hallucinations appear to be experienced mostly from the point of passive observer. This study lays the groundwork for clinical research on the level of simulated activity in pathologically altered states of subjective experience, for example in the REM-dreams of clinically depressed patients, or in intrusions and dreams of patients diagnosed with PTSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hardware enabled performance counters with support for operating system context switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2015-06-30

    A device for supporting hardware enabled performance counters with support for context switching include a plurality of performance counters operable to collect information associated with one or more computer system related activities, a first register operable to store a memory address, a second register operable to store a mode indication, and a state machine operable to read the second register and cause the plurality of performance counters to copy the information to memory area indicated by the memory address based on the mode indication.

  13. Association between REM sleep behaviour disorder and impulse control disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellosta Diago, E; Lopez Del Val, L J; Santos Lasaosa, S; López Garcia, E; Viloria Alebesque, A

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between impulse control disorder (ICD) and REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) has not yet been clarified, and the literature reports contradictory results. Our purpose is to analyse the association between these 2 disorders and their presence in patients under dopaminergic treatment. A total of 73 patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease and treated with a single dopamine agonist were included in the study after undergoing clinical assessment and completing the single-question screen for REM sleep behaviour disorder and the short version of the questionnaire for impulsive-compulsive behaviours in Parkinson's disease. Mean age was 68.88 ± 7.758 years. Twenty-six patients (35.6%) were classified as probable-RBD. This group showed a significant association with ICD (P=.001) and had a higher prevalence of non-tremor akinetic rigid syndrome and longer duration of treatment with levodopa and dopamine agonists than the group without probable-RBD. We found a significant correlation between the use of oral dopamine agonists and ICD. Likewise, patients treated with oral dopamine agonists demonstrated a greater tendency toward presenting probable-RBD than patients taking dopamine agonists by other routes; the difference was non-significant. The present study confirms the association between RBD and a higher risk of developing symptoms of ICD in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. One step replica symmetry breaking and extreme order statistics of logarithmic REMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Cao, Yan V. Fyodorov, Pierre Le Doussal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Building upon the one-step replica symmetry breaking formalism, duly understood and ramified, we show that the sequence of ordered extreme values of a general class of Euclidean-space logarithmically correlated random energy models (logREMs behave in the thermodynamic limit as a randomly shifted decorated exponential Poisson point process. The distribution of the random shift is determined solely by the large-distance ("infra-red", IR limit of the model, and is equal to the free energy distribution at the critical temperature up to a translation. the decoration process is determined solely by the small-distance ("ultraviolet", UV limit, in terms of the biased minimal process. Our approach provides connections of the replica framework to results in the probability literature and sheds further light on the freezing/duality conjecture which was the source of many previous results for log-REMs. In this way we derive the general and explicit formulae for the joint probability density of depths of the first and second minima (as well its higher-order generalizations in terms of model-specific contributions from UV as well as IR limits. In particular, we show that the second min statistics is largely independent of details of UV data, whose influence is seen only through the mean value of the gap. For a given log-correlated field this parameter can be evaluated numerically, and we provide several numerical tests of our theory using the circular model of $1/f$-noise.

  15. Alexithymia associated with nightmare distress in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Isabelle; Montplaisir, Jaques; Gagnon, Jean-François; Nielsen, Tore

    2013-12-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is characterized by atypical REM sleep motor activity, vivid dreams and nightmares, and dream-enacting behaviors that can result in injuries to the patient and bed partner. It is also a known predictor of Parkinson disease (PD). Alexithymia has been associated with disturbances in sleep and dreaming (e.g., nightmares) and is a non-motor symptom of PD. We assessed alexithymia and disturbed dreaming in iRBD patients with the aim of determining if these two factors are elevated and interrelated among this population. Questionnaire study of clinically diagnosed patients. Clinical sleep disorders center. Thirty-two iRBD patients and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched control participants. Participants completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Dream Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory. iRBD patients obtained higher TAS-20 total scores (62.16 ± 13.90) than did controls (52.84 ± 7.62; F 1,59 = 10.44, P sleep behavior disorder patients, and especially a difficulty in identifying feelings, parallels evidence of dysautonomia in this population. The higher incidence of distressing nightmares and the association of nightmares with alexithymia further extend similar findings for both clinical and non-clinical samples and suggest that an affect regulation disturbance may be common to the two sets of symptoms.

  16. Modulation of Sleep Homeostasis by Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in REM Sleep-Deprived Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Borges Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that sleep recovery following different protocols of forced waking varies according to the level of stress inherent to each method. Sleep deprivation activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH impairs sleep. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate how manipulations of the CRH system during the sleep deprivation period interferes with subsequent sleep rebound. Throughout 96 hours of sleep deprivation, separate groups of rats were treated i.c.v. with vehicle, CRH or with alphahelical CRH9−41, a CRH receptor blocker, twice/day, at 07:00 h and 19:00 h. Both treatments impaired sleep homeostasis, especially in regards to length of rapid eye movement sleep (REM and theta/delta ratio and induced a later decrease in NREM and REM sleep and increased waking bouts. These changes suggest that activation of the CRH system impact negatively on the homeostatic sleep response to prolonged forced waking. These results indicate that indeed, activation of the HPA axis—at least at the hypothalamic level—is capable to reduce the sleep rebound induced by sleep deprivation.

  17. REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease: association with abnormal ocular motor findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Eun; Yang, Hui June; Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Han-Joon; Lee, Jee-Young; Jeon, Beom S

    2014-04-01

    The anatomical substrates associated with generalized muscle atonia during REM sleep are located on the pontine tegmentum and medial medulla oblongata. We examined whether patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) have abnormal ocular movements suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cross-sectional survey for the existence of RBD and abnormal ocular movements. Ocular movements were examined by video-oculography (VOG). A total of 202 patients were included in this study. One hundred and sixteen (57.4%) of the 202 patients have clinically probable RBD, and 28 (24.1%) of the 116 with clinically probable RBD patients had abnormal VOG findings suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction; whereas 86 of the 202 patients did not have clinically probable RBD, and only 7 (8.1%) of the 86 patients had abnormal VOG findings suggesting brainstem or cerebellar dysfunction (P=0.001). This study suggests that the presence of RBD is associated with more severe or extensive brainstem pathology or different distribution of pathology in PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial and reversal learning in the Morris water maze are largely resistant to six hours of REM sleep deprivation following training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair both hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and learning a new target location within a familiar environment: reversal learning. A 6-d protocol was divided into the initial spatial learning phase (3.5 d) immediately followed by the reversal phase (2.5 d). During the 6 h following four or 12 training trials/day of initial or reversal learning phases, REM sleep was eliminated and non-REM sleep left intact using the multiple inverted flowerpot method. Contrary to our hypotheses, REM sleep deprivation during four or 12 trials/day of initial spatial or reversal learning did not affect training performance. However, some probe trial measures indicated REM sleep-deprivation–associated impairment in initial spatial learning with four trials/day and enhancement of subsequent reversal learning. In naive animals, REM sleep deprivation during normal initial spatial learning was followed by a lack of preference for the subsequent reversal platform location during the probe. Our findings contradict reports that REM sleep is essential for spatial learning in the Morris water maze and newly reveal that short periods of REM sleep deprivation do not impair concurrent reversal learning. Effects on subsequent reversal learning are consistent with the idea that REM sleep serves the consolidation of incompletely learned items. PMID:21677190

  19. A relationship between REM sleep measures and the duration of posttraumatic stress disorder in a young adult urban minority population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellman, Thomas A; Kobayashi, Ihori; Lavela, Joseph; Wilson, Bryonna; Hall Brown, Tyish S

    2014-08-01

    To determine relationships of polysomnographic (PSG) measures with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a young adult, urban African American population. Cross-sectional, clinical and laboratory evaluation. Community recruitment, evaluation in the clinical research unit of an urban University hospital. Participants (n = 145) were Black, 59.3% female, with a mean age of 23.1 y (SD = 4.8). One hundred twenty-one participants (83.4%) met criteria for trauma exposure, the most common being nonsexual violence. Thirty-nine participants (26.9%) met full (n = 19) or subthreshold criteria (n = 20) for current PTSD, 41 (28.3%) had met lifetime PTSD criteria and were recovered, and 65 (45%) were negative for PTSD. Evaluations included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and 2 consecutive nights of overnight PSG. Analysis of variance did not reveal differences in measures of sleep duration and maintenance, percentage of sleep stages, and the latency to and duration of uninterrupted segments of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep by study group. There were significant relationships between the duration of PTSD and REM sleep percentage (r = 0.53, P = 0.001), REM segment length (r = 0.43, P = 0.006), and REM sleep latency (r = -0.34, P sleep with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relatively proximate to trauma exposure and nondisrupted or increased REM sleep with chronic PTSD. Mellman TA, Kobayashi I, Lavela J, Wilson B, Hall Brown TS. A relationship between REM sleep measures and the duration of posttraumatic stress disorder in a young adult urban minority population.

  20. Sexual revolution and counter-revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, J

    1994-01-01

    Adolescents of today inherit the conflicting legacies of the sexual reformation of the 1960s and the counter-reformation of the 1980s/1990s. Sexual mores are influenced by a younger age of puberty than in earlier generations and by the availability of effective contraception and antibiotics to combat sexually transmitted diseases. In the era of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, however, absolutely safe sex cannot be guaranteed, only relative degrees of safety and risk. Masturbation may be one way of achieving safe sex. Advancing technology also allows greater equality of opportunity and economic emancipation for women, enabling men and women to share equally in the care of older infants and children, also influencing sexual roles. Sex education for adolescents is provided sporadically and inconsistently, being seen by opposing factions as either encouragement to early pregnancy or a means of preventing it. In particular, the images delivered by the mass media are blatantly contradictory, ranging from endorsement of teenage sexual expression to condemnation of abortion and teenage pregnancy. Cultural traditions have strong influences on the acceptability of early pregnancy and on family structure. Black American culture is based on the three-generational family as opposed to the white tradition of the nuclear, two-generational family. It is important to realize a social policy that will respect not only the sexual rights of young people, but also the sexual health of the community.

  1. Decreased sleep spindle density in patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and patients with Parkinson’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine whether sleep spindles (SS) are potentially a biomarker for Parkinson’s disease (PD). MethodsFifteen PD patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (PD+RBD), 15 PD patients without RBD (PD−RBD), 15 idiopathic RBD (iRBD) patients and 15 age-matched controls underwent...... polysomnography (PSG). SS were scored in an extract of data from control subjects. An automatic SS detector using a Matching Pursuit (MP) algorithm and a Support Vector Machine (SVM) was developed and applied to the PSG recordings. The SS densities in N1, N2, N3, all NREM combined and REM sleep were obtained...

  2. Standardization of calibration method of whole-body counter. 1. Calibration by using anthropometric phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Masaki; Uchiyama, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi; Mizushita, Seiichi.

    1995-01-01

    To standardize the calibration methods of whole-body counters, three anthropometric phantoms were manufactured based on dozens of Japanese average value of body size data. Using these phantoms, the calibrations of some whole-body counters were carried out and the comparison of counting efficiency between anthropometric phantoms and block phantoms, which used to be used for the calibration of whole-body counters generally, was implemented. Five whole-body counters, one scanning system, two stationary systems and two chair systems, were used for this study. The following results were derived: As an example, in NIRS scanning system, the counting efficiency of anthropometric phantom of 162cm height was 12.7% greater than that of block phantom of the same height. This means 137 Cs body burdens in adult men used to be estimated with the excess of about 10%. Body burdens tended to be estimated excessively in adult because the difference of counting efficiency between anthropometric phantom and block phantom increases with increase of height. To standardize body burden data measured with various whole-body counters, the calibration of each whole-body counter should be conducted using anthropometric phantoms and phantoms which used to be used for the calibration of that whole-body counter. (author)

  3. COUNTERING RADICALISATION ACROSS EUROPE – THE PIONEERING ISDEP PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozila Kana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The changing landscape of the global terrorism threat coupled with increasing concern about home grown extremism means that the need to tackle the root causes of radicalisation across the European Union has never been greater. The pathway to violent extremism and terrorism is, however, undeniably complex. Frontline practitioners working with those vulnerable to radicalisation need to have the right tools to allow them to recognise, respond to and challenge ideologies and narratives associated with any form of terrorism. A pioneering EU Commission funded project is the first of its kind designed to offer consistency around, and increase awareness of, counter radicalisation specifically for frontline practitioners. Improving Security by Democratic Participation (ISDEP is a two year programme based on the EU Commission’s Prevent strand of the Counter Terrorism Strategy. Training themes focus on helping practitioners to identify the influences and vulnerabilities that shape an individual’s thought processes towards violent extremism.

  4. Development of a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction: Application for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides from fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Feriduni, Behruz; Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza Afshar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction (CCSHLLE) followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides in fruit juice samples prior to their analysis by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In this method, initially, sodium chloride as a separation reagent is filled into a small column and a mixture of water (or fruit juice) and acetonitrile is passed through the column. By passing the mixture sodium chloride is dissolved and the fine droplets of acetonitrile are formed due to salting-out effect. The produced droplets go up through the remained mixture and collect as a separated layer. Then, the collected organic phase (acetonitrile) is removed with a syringe and mixed with 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (extraction solvent at µL level). In the second step, for further enrichment of the analytes the above mixture is injected into 5 mL de-ionized water placed in a test tube with conical bottom in order to dissolve acetonitrile into water and to achieve a sedimented phase at µL-level volume containing the enriched analytes. Under the optimal extraction conditions (extraction solvent, 1.5 mL acetonitrile; pH, 7; flow rate, 0.5 mL min(-1); preconcentration solvent, 20 µL 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; NaCl concentration; 5%, w/w; and centrifugation rate and time, 5000 rpm and 5 min, respectively), the extraction recoveries and enrichment factors ranged from 87% to 96% and 544 to 600, respectively. Repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviations, ranged from 2% to 6% for intra-day (n=6, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) and inter-days (n=4, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) precisions. Limits of detection are obtained between 2 and 12 µg L(-1). Finally, the proposed method is applied for the determination of the target pesticide residues in the juice samples. Copyright © 2015

  5. On the optimum performance of forced draft counter flow cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeylemez, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    A thermo-hydraulic performance optimization analysis is presented, yielding simple algebraic formula for estimating the optimum performance point of counter current mechanical draft wet cooling towers. The effectiveness-Ntu method is used in the present study, together with the derivation of psychometric properties of moist air based on a numerical approximation method, for thermal performance analysis of wet cooling towers of the counter flow type

  6. Performance study of various Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs): development of a methodology based on steady-state airborne DEHS particles and application to a series of handheld and stationary CPCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, Sébastien; Toussaint, André; Payet, Raphaël; Witschger, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Strategies for measuring occupational exposure to aerosols composed of nanoparticles and/or ultrafine particles highlight the use of techniques for determining airborne-particle number concentration as well as number size distribution. The objective of the present work was to set up a system for conducting laboratory verification campaigns of condensation particle counters (CPCs). Providing intercomparison data as well as calibrating and checking CPCs are among the key elements in ensuring reliable laboratory or field measurement campaigns. For this purpose, the reproducible aerosol source “Calibration Tool”, initially developed by the Fraunhofer ITEM, was acquired by the Laboratory of Aerosol Metrology at INRS. As a first part of this study, a detailed characterization of the Calibration Tool developed at the laboratory is the subject of the parametric study presented here. The complete installation is named the “DCC” for “Device for Counter Check”. Used in combination with a reference counter, the DCC can now be used for routine laboratory measurements. Unlike that used for primary calibration of a CPC, the proposed protocol allows a wide range of number concentrations and particle sizes to be investigated and reproduced. The second part of this work involves comparison of the number concentrations measured by several models of CPC in parallel at the exit of a flow splitter, with respect to a reference.

  7. Man-rem audit - a tool for exposure ALARA at Madras Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivaramakrishnan, N.R.; Eswaran, G.; Gangamohan, M.; Sathish, A.V.; Ramasubramanian, K.V.; Gandhimathinathan, S.; Selvam, S.; Moolya, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    ALARA - acronym for As Low As Reasonably Achievable, which means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits as is practical. ICRP has recommended ALARA to be implemented as a formal practice into the System of Dose Limitation, which contains three parts, 1) Justification of practice 2) Optimization 3) Dose Limits. As with the human endeavor, there is always room for improvement. Keeping this in mind, ALARA program is being practiced in our Nuclear Power Plants over the years. There has been a gradual reduction of collective dose in our Nuclear Power Plants due to successful implementation of the ALARA programs. This was possible due to the rigorous application of O and M experience, feedback and active participation of workforce towards ALARA. Furthermore, ALARA is an ongoing continual improvement programme towards collective dose reduction and has enough scope for improvement at any point of time. In order to substantiate the gains of ALARA programme and to improve it further, first time Mam-rem Audit was conducted at MAPS during the month of Sep-Oct 2010. This paper gives the brief outline about the method man-rem audit, its findings, corrective action implementation and the benefits derived from it. Man-rem audit similar to financial audit, serves as a tool for finding out grey areas where improvements is required so that station collective dose can be further optimized. It is one of the identified missions to achieve excellence in area of reducing station collective dose, unplanned exposures and RPP deviation. The scope of this audit is to bring further improvements in the reduction in station collective dose, create more awareness among the employees about ALARA principles and seek valuable suggestions for improvements. Audit team consisting of senior HP persons had one to one interaction with the individuals of the respective section in the field and tried to gather the information from the individual and

  8. The Banking Counter-Guarantee. Juridical Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolache Rada

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Not so much studied by the specialised literature, the banking counter-guarantee may beconfounded with the other types of guarantee which frequently go with the guaranteed obligation –simple guarantee, collateral guarantee, the confirmation of the guarantee. The counter-guarantee may bean independent or accessory obligation, as the case may be, exclusively governed by its text, accordingto the parties’ will. At the same time, it is a complex juridical act, a contract whose contents cannot beset apart from the contracts connected form an “economic” point of view. The counter-guarantee is theresult of the banking practice and is generated by the need to make amends for the flaws generated bythe direct guarantee. The present research is focused on the analysis of the banking practice, normativeacts, jurisprudence and banking juridical literature.

  9. CORNELL: CLEO's counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Particle identification by measuring ionization is complicated by the fact that the energy lost to ionization in passing through matter has large fluctuations, first calculated by Landau. These large fluctuations imply that many measurements must be made in order to determine the most probable ionization value that is characteristic of the particle type. The JADE chamber at PETRA and the TPC chamber at PEP measure both the ionization and the momenta of tracks in the same device. In the CLEO experiment at Cornell's CESR ring, ionization is measured in dedicated energy loss counters contained in each of the eight octants surrounding the drift chamber and superconducting coil. The last of these were installed in the summer of 1981, replacing Cherenkov counters that were used while the energy loss counters were being developed and built

  10. Count rate effect in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, B.

    1980-01-01

    A new concept is presented explaining changes in spectrometric parameters of proportional counters which occur due to varying count rate. The basic feature of this concept is that the gas gain of the counter remains constant in a wide range of count rate and that the decrease in the pulse amplitude and the detorioration of the energy resolution observed are the results of changes in the shape of original current pulses generated in the active volume of the counter. In order to confirm the validity of this statement, measurements of the gas amplification factor have been made in a wide count rate range. It is shown that above a certain critical value the gas gain depends on both the operating voltage and the count rate. (author)

  11. Secondary emission scintillation counter for microdosimetry at the nanometer level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhagen, P.

    1987-01-01

    The secondary emission scintillation (SES) counter is a device designed to count the positive ions of charged-particle tracks in gas volumes simulating sites in tissue with diameters of the order of 1 nanometer. Based on suggestions by H.H. Rossi and A.M. Kellerer, the basic idea of the device was developed by A. Kosiara, M. Biavati, and R.D. Colvett in the late 1970s. The device was substantially modified in 1982, but work on it was suspended before the new version could be tested, in order to devote full-time effort to rebuilding RARAF. Work resumed on the SES counter in 1986. A diagram of the prototype SES counter now being tested is shown. A weak electric field in the cylindrical collection region of the device drifts ions from a track to a small region (less than 1 mm) of high electric field where they are accelerated by several kilovolts onto a dynode, producing secondary electrons. The secondary electrons are then accelerated onto a plastic scintillator, and the resulting light is detected by a photomultiplier. The passage of a charged particle is established by a solid state detector, which triggers electronics detecting coincidences and measuring the timing and amplitude of pulses from the photomultiplier

  12. Counter-intuitive moral judgement following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Dane A; Rogish, Miles; Alexander, Timothy; Riggs, Kevin J

    2017-02-07

    Several neurological patient populations, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), appear to produce an abnormally 'utilitarian' pattern of judgements to moral dilemmas; they tend to make judgements that maximize the welfare of the majority, rather than deontological judgements based on the following of moral rules (e.g., do not harm others). However, this patient research has always used extreme dilemmas with highly valued moral rules (e.g., do not kill). Data from healthy participants, however, suggest that when a wider range of dilemmas are employed, involving less valued moral rules (e.g., do not lie), moral judgements demonstrate sensitivity to the psychological intuitiveness of the judgements, rather than their deontological or utilitarian content (Kahane et al., Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 2011, 393). We sought the moral judgements of 30 TBI participants and 30 controls on moral dilemmas where content (utilitarian/deontological) and intuition (intuitive/counter-intuitive) were measured concurrently. Overall TBI participants made utilitarian judgements in equal proportions to controls; disproportionately favouring utilitarian judgements only when they were counter-intuitive, and deontological judgements only when they were counter-intuitive. These results speak against the view that TBI causes a specific utilitarian bias, suggesting instead that moral intuition is broadly disrupted following TBI. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  13. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Médhi Gilson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24 listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term.

  14. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Médhi; Deliens, Gaétane; Leproult, Rachel; Bodart, Alice; Nonclercq, Antoine; Ercek, Rudy; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-12-29

    Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24) listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min) morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min) morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term.

  15. Implementation and evaluation of pH-dependent cloud chemistry and wetdeposition in the chemical transport model REM-Calgrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banzhaf, S.; Schaap, M.; Kerschbaumer, A.; Reimer, E.; Stern, R.; Swaluw, E. van der; Builtjes, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Chemistry Transport Model REM-Calgrid (RCG) has been improved by implementing an enhanced description of aqueous-phase chemistry and wet deposition processes including droplet pH. A sensitivity study on cloud and rain droplet pH has been performed to investigate its impact on model sulphate

  16. Calibration of nuclear medicine gamma counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlic, M.; Spasic-Jokic, V.; Jovanovic, M.; Vranjes, S. . E-mail address of corresponding author: morlic@vin.bg.ac.yu; Orlic, M.)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the practical problem of nuclear medicine gamma counters calibration has been solved by using dose calibrators CRC-15R with standard error ±5%. The samples from technetium generators have been measured both by dose calibrators CRC-15R and gamma counter ICN Gamma 3.33 taking into account decay correction. Only the linear part of the curve has practical meaning. The advantage of this procedure satisfies the requirements from international standards: the calibration of sources used for medical exposure be traceable to a standard dosimetry laboratory and radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine procedures be calibrated in terms of activity of the radiopharmaceutical to be administered. (author)

  17. Analysis of counter-rotating wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zakkam, Vinod Arun Kumar; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the performance of a wind turbine with two counter-rotating (CRWT) rotors. The characteristics of the two counter-rotating rotors are on a 3-bladed Nordtank 500 kW rotor. The analysis has been carried out by using an Actuator Line technique implemented in the Navier......-Stokes code EllipSys3D. The analysis shows that the Annual Energy Production can be increased to about 43.5 %, as compared to a wind turbine with a single rotor. In order to determine the optimal settings of the CRWT turbine, parameters such as distance between two rotors and rotational speed have been...

  18. Development of DUPIC safeguards neutron counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Gil; Cha, Hong Ryul; Kim, Ho Dong; Hong, Jong Sook; Kang, Hee Young

    1999-08-01

    KAERI, in cooperation with LANL, developed DSNC (DUPIC Safeguards Neutron Counter) for safeguards implementing on DUPIC process which is under development by KAERI for direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. DSNC is a well-type neutron coincidence counter with substantial shielding to protect system from high gamma radiation of spent fuel. General development procedures in terms of design, manufacturing, fabrication, cold and hot test, performance test for DSNC authentication by KAERI-IAEA-LANL are described in this report. It is expected that the techniques related DSNC development and associated neutron detection and evaluation method could be applied for safeguards improvement. (Author). 20 refs., 16 tabs. 98 figs.

  19. Counter of radiation in body parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    A new radiation counter for the determination of radiocontaminated body parts has been designed. Composed of several movable detectors, shielded from background radiation and focused on different parts of the human body by narrow apertures in the lead enclosure, the invention provides a quick tool for quantitative and qualitative part-by-part analysis of the body with respect to radiocontamination. The counter can be handled easily by the tested person himself and consequently, it is suitable for mass controls etc. (G.J.P.)

  20. Whole body counters: types, performance and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jales, R.L.C.

    1983-01-01

    The present monograph deals with Whole Counters, since its definition, evolution, performance, clinical indications and results. Scintillation crystals detection systems were described as well as scintillant solutions, plastic scintillations, and gaseous detectors, including its interplay forms and basal characteristics. Geometric arrangements of standard chair, arc and hammock, arrangements with scintillant solutions and plastic scintillations, as well as special geometric arrangements were equally commented. Clinic and experimental studies were also dealt with Whole Body Counters, giving examples with potassium, iron vitamin B 12 and albumin. (author)

  1. REM sleep behaviour disorder: prodromal and mechanistic insights for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekriwal, Anand; Kern, Drew S; Tsai, Jean; Ince, Nuri F; Wu, Jianping; Thompson, John A; Abosch, Aviva

    2017-05-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterised by complex motor enactment of dreams and is a potential prodromal marker of Parkinson's disease (PD). Of note, patients with PD observed during RBD episodes exhibit improved motor function, relative to baseline states during wake periods. Here, we review recent epidemiological and mechanistic findings supporting the prodromal value of RBD for PD, incorporating clinical and electrophysiological studies. Explanations for the improved motor function during RBD episodes are evaluated in light of recent publications. In addition, we present preliminary findings describing changes in the activity of the basal ganglia across the sleep-wake cycle that contribute to our understanding of RBD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. A computerized glow curve analysis (GCA) method for WinREMS thermoluminescent dosimeter data using MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, John A.; Rodrigues, Miesher L.; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2011-01-01

    A computerized glow curve analysis (GCA) program for handling of thermoluminescence data originating from WinREMS is presented. The MATLAB program fits the glow peaks using the first-order kinetics model. Tested materials are LiF:Mg,Ti, CaF 2 :Dy, CaF 2 :Tm, CaF 2 :Mn, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, and CaSO 4 :Dy, with most having an average figure of merit (FOM) of 1.3% or less, with CaSO 4 :Dy 2.2% or less. Output is a list of fit parameters, peak areas, and graphs for each fit, evaluating each glow curve in 1.5 s or less. - Highlights: → Robust algorithm for performing thermoluminescent dosimeter glow curve analysis. → Written in MATLAB so readily implemented on variety of computers. → Usage of figure of merit demonstrated for six different materials.

  3. Caffeine and REM sleep deprivation: Effect on basal levels of signaling molecules in area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Alhaider, Ibrahim A

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of chronic caffeine treatment on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of sleep-deprived rats. Animals in the caffeine groups were treated with caffeine in drinking water (0.3g/l) for four weeks before they were REM sleep-deprived for 24h in the Modified Multiple Platforms paradigm. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of plasticity- and memory-related signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed significant down regulation of the basal levels of phosphorylated- and total-CaMKII, phosphorylated- and total-CREB as well as those of BDNF and CaMKIV in sleep deprived rats. All these changes were completely prevented in rats that chronically consumed caffeine. The present findings suggest an important neuroprotective property of caffeine in sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. SILAR deposition of nickel sulfide counter electrode for application in quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navjot; Siwatch, Poonam; Arora, Anmol; Sharma, Jadab; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells are a likely replacement for Silicon-based solar cells. Counter electrodes are a fundamental aspect of QDSSC's performance. NiS being a less expensive material is a decent choice for the purpose. In this paper, we have discussed the synthesis of NiS by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption Reaction. Optical, Crystallographic and Electrical studies have been presented. Electrical studies of the device with NiS counter electrode is compared with characteristics of the device with CNTs as the counter electrode. SILAR method is easy and less time to consume than chemical bath deposition or any other method. Results show the success of NiS synthesized by SILAR method as the counter electrode.

  5. Analysis of Thermal Stability of Different Counter on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Daizy; Yadav, Amit; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we are presenting the power analysis for thermal awareness of different counters. The technique we are using to do the analysis is based on 28 nm FPGA tech-nique. In this work during implementation on FPGA, we are going to analyze thermal stability of different counters in temperatu...... range of 10oC, 30oC, 60oC, 90oC, 120oC. There is 90.36% reduction in leakage power of divide by 2 counter when we scale down the temperature from 120oC to 10oC and 49.61% reduction in leakage power of LFSR up counter when we scale down the temperature from 120oC to 10oC....

  6. Calibration methodology for proportional counters applied to yield measurements of a neutron burst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel, E-mail: atarifeno@cchen.cl, E-mail: atarisal@gmail.com; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4, Santiago (Chile); Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Mayer, Roberto E. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, San Carlos de Bariloche R8402AGP (Argentina)

    2014-01-15

    This paper introduces a methodology for the yield measurement of a neutron burst using neutron proportional counters. This methodology is to be applied when single neutron events cannot be resolved in time by nuclear standard electronics, or when a continuous current cannot be measured at the output of the counter. The methodology is based on the calibration of the counter in pulse mode, and the use of a statistical model to estimate the number of detected events from the accumulated charge resulting from the detection of the burst of neutrons. The model is developed and presented in full detail. For the measurement of fast neutron yields generated from plasma focus experiments using a moderated proportional counter, the implementation of the methodology is herein discussed. An experimental verification of the accuracy of the methodology is presented. An improvement of more than one order of magnitude in the accuracy of the detection system is obtained by using this methodology with respect to previous calibration methods.

  7. Calibration methodology for proportional counters applied to yield measurements of a neutron burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo; Mayer, Roberto E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a methodology for the yield measurement of a neutron burst using neutron proportional counters. This methodology is to be applied when single neutron events cannot be resolved in time by nuclear standard electronics, or when a continuous current cannot be measured at the output of the counter. The methodology is based on the calibration of the counter in pulse mode, and the use of a statistical model to estimate the number of detected events from the accumulated charge resulting from the detection of the burst of neutrons. The model is developed and presented in full detail. For the measurement of fast neutron yields generated from plasma focus experiments using a moderated proportional counter, the implementation of the methodology is herein discussed. An experimental verification of the accuracy of the methodology is presented. An improvement of more than one order of magnitude in the accuracy of the detection system is obtained by using this methodology with respect to previous calibration methods

  8. Development of a drift tissue equivalent proportional counter for radiation protection personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordy, J.M.

    1992-04-01

    A new multicellular geometry for proportional counter has been developed. It is made of several drift regions which are some holes drilled in the cathode in front of anodes wires. The present work is made of 3 parts: 1) A theoretical evaluation of the multicellular counter characteristics: the sensitivity increases by a factor 15 vs the Tinelli Merlin-Gerin counter; the chord length distribution study shows the possibility to use a Dirac function for the dosimetry calculations; a tissue equivalent gas mixture based on argon and propane is designed. 2) The production of a monocellular prototype made of a hole and a needle shaped anode. 3) An experimental study of the prototype electrical characteristics and a computation of the electrical field in the counter. The focalization and the electron drift into the hole, the proportional operating mode are shown. Irradiations in front of photon and neutron sources verify these results

  9. Conditions associated with REM sleep behaviour disorder: Description of a hospital series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenza Abildúa, M J; Miralles Martinez, A; Arpa Gutiérrez, F J; Lores Gutiérrez, V; Algarra Lucas, C; Jimeno Montero, C; Sánchez García, B; Mata Álvarez-Santullano, M; Borrue Fernández, C; Cordero Martín, G; Gutiérrez Cueto, G; Torrecillas Narváez, M D; Thuissard Vasallo, I; Gómez Aceña, A

    2017-02-16

    REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterised by violent behaviours (screaming, kicking, vivid dreams) during REM sleep. It has a prevalence of 1% to 2% of the general population and is especially frequent in men and the population older than 60. In the last decade, RBD has been suggested to be a prodrome of neurodegenerative disease. We analysed associated neurological diseases and responses to drug treatment in 33 patients with RBD treated in the multidisciplinary sleep disorders unit at Hospital Infanta Sofía. We conducted an observational descriptive retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with RBD and treated in our multidisciplinary sleep disorders unit between October 2012 and December 2015. We recorded age, sex, associated diseases, and treatments administered to these patients. A total of 365 patients were attended at our unit, including 33 with RBD: 13 women (40%) and 20 men (60%). Mean age was 62.72 years. An associated disorder was identified in 48%, with the most common being mild cognitive impairment (69%). The percentage of patients with RBD and an associated disorder among patients older than 60 was 68%. Eighty-two percent of the patients required treatment. The most commonly used drug was clonazepam (76%), followed by melatonin (9%), gabapentin (6%), and trazodone (3%). In our series, 48% of the patients had an associated disorder. The likelihood of detecting an associated disorder increases with patients' age. The vast majority of patients required drug treatment due to symptom severity; the most frequently administered drug was clonazepam (76%). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk Factors for Neurodegeneration in Idiopathic REM sleep Behavior Disorder: A Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postuma, RB; Iranzo, A; Hogl, B; Arnulf, I; Ferini-Strambi, L; Manni, R; Miyamoto, T.; Oertel, W; Dauvilliers, Y; Ju, Y; Puligheddu, M; Sonka, K; Pelletier, A; Santamaria, J; Frauscher, B; Leu-Semenescu, S; Zucconi, M; Terzaghi, M; Miyamoto, M.; Unger, MM; Carlander, B; Fantini, ML; Montplaisir, JY

    2018-01-01

    Objective To assess whether risk factors for Parkinson’s disease and Dementia with Lewy bodies increase rate of defined neurodegenerative disease in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder Methods 12 centers administered a detailed questionnaire assessing risk factors for neurodegenerative synucleinopathy to patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Variables included demographics, lifestyle factors, pesticide exposures, occupation, co-morbid conditions, medication use, family history, and autonomic/motor symptoms. After 4-years follow-up, patients were assessed for dementia or parkinsonism. Disease risk was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis, and epidemiologic variables were compared between convertors and those still idiopathic using logistic regression. Results Of 305 patients, follow-up information was available for 279, of whom 93 (33.3%) developed defined neurodegenerative disease. Disease risk was 25% at 3 years, and 41% after 5 years. Patients who converted were older (difference=4.5 years, pconversion. Although occupation was similar between groups, those who converted had a lower likelihood of pesticide exposure (occupational insecticide=2.3% vs. 9.0%). Convertors were more likely to report family history of dementia (OR=2.09), without significant differences in Parkinson’s disease or sleep disorders. Medication exposures and medical history were similar between groups. Autonomic and motor symptoms were more common among those who converted. Risk factors for primary dementia and parkinsonism were generally similar, except for a notably higher clonazepam use in dementia convertors (OR=2.6). Interpretation Patients with idiopathic RBD are at very high risk of neurodegenerative synucleinopathy. Risk factor profiles between convertors and non-convertors have both important commonalities and differences. PMID:25767079

  11. REM dream activity of insomnia sufferers: a systematic comparison with good sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérusse, Alexandra D; De Koninck, Joseph; Pedneault-Drolet, Maude; Ellis, Jason G; Bastien, Célyne H

    2016-04-01

    The dream activity of patients with primary insomnia (PI) has rarely been studied, especially using in-laboratory dream collection, although dreams could be linked to their state of hyperarousal and their negative waking experiences. The objective of the study was to compare patients with PI and good sleeper controls (GSCs) in terms of dream recall frequency and dream content. Polysomnography was recorded in 12 patients with PI and 12 GSCs (aged between 30 and 45 years) for five consecutive nights. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep awakenings were enforced on nights 3 and 5 for dream collections. The REM dream collections revealed that the groups were similar in terms of dream recall frequency (p ≤ 0.7). With respect to dream content variables, the dreams of GSCs tended to comprise more positive emotions (p = 0.06), whereas the dreams of patients with PI were characterized by more negative elements than positive ones (p = 0.001). Subjectively, GSCs characterized their dreams as being more pleasant and containing more joy, happiness, and vividness (p ≤ 0.03) than patients with PI. Finally, elevated negative dream content was associated with lower sleep efficiencies in insomnia (p = 0.004). These results suggest that less positive emotions and greater negative content characterize the dreams of patients with PI, which is in line with their waking experiences. One potential explanation could be hyperarousal exacerbating presleep negative mentation, thus contributing to poorer sleep quality. The lack of difference in dream recall frequency is most likely due to the forced awakening "dream collection" procedure. The study of dream activity seems a promising avenue for understanding the 24-h experience of insomnia better and exploring the potential benefits of dream management techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exposure to dim artificial light at night increases REM sleep and awakenings in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Kang, Seung-Gul; Bok, Ki-Nam; Jung, Ki-Young; Kim, Leen; Lee, Eun-Il

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) has become increasing common, especially in developed countries. We investigated the effect of dALAN exposure during sleep in healthy young male subjects. A total of 30 healthy young male volunteers from 21 to 29 years old were recruited for the study. They were randomly divided into two groups depending on light intensity (Group A: 5 lux and Group B: 10 lux). After a quality control process, 23 healthy subjects were included in the study (Group A: 11 subjects, Group B: 12 subjects). Subjects underwent an NPSG session with no light (Night 1) followed by an NPSG session randomly assigned to two different dim light conditions (5 or 10 lux, dom λ: 501.4 nm) for a whole night (Night 2). We found significant sleep structural differences between Nights 1 and 2, but no difference between Groups A and B. Exposure to dALAN during sleep was significantly associated with increased wake time after sleep onset (WASO; F = 7.273, p = 0.014), increased Stage N1 (F = 4.524, p = 0.045), decreased Stage N2 (F = 9.49, p = 0.006), increased Stage R (F = 6.698, p = 0.017) and non-significantly decreased REM density (F = 4.102, p = 0.056). We found that dALAN during sleep affects sleep structure. Exposure to dALAN during sleep increases the frequency of arousals, amount of shallow sleep and amount of REM sleep. This suggests adverse effects of dALAN during sleep on sleep quality and suggests the need to avoid exposure to dALAN during sleep.

  13. Methodology and results of the impacts of modeling electric utilities: a comparative evaluation of MEMM and REM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    This study compares two models of the US electric utility industry including the EIA's electric utility submodel in the Midterm Energy Market Model (MEMM), and the Baughman-Joskow Regionalized Electricity Model (REM). The method of comparison emphasizes reconciliation of differences in data common to both models, and the performance of simulation experiments to evaluate the empirical significance of certain structural differences in the models. The major research goal was to contrast and compare the effects of alternative modeling structures and data assumptions on model results; and, particularly to considered each model's approach to the impacts of generation technology and fuel use choices on electric utilities. The methodology used was to run the REM model first without and, then, with a representation of the Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Act of 1978, assuming medium supply and demand curves and varying fuel prices. The models and data structures of the two models are described. The original 1978 data used in MEMM and REM are analyzed and compared. The computations and effects of different assumptions on fuel use decisions are discussed. The adjusted REM data required for the experiments are presented. Simulation results of the two models are compared. These results represent projections for 1985, 1990, and 1995 of: US power generation by plant type; amounts of each type of fuel used for power generation; average electricity prices; and the effects of additional or fewer nuclear and coal-fired plants. A significant result is that the REM model exhibits about 7 times as much gas and oil consumption in 1995 as the MEMM model. Continuing simulation experiments on MEMM are recommended to determine whether the input data to MEMM are reasonable and properly adjusted

  14. Real-time reconfigurable counter-propagating beam-traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauro, Sandeep; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    We present a versatile technique that enhances the axial stability and range in counter-propagating (CP) beam-geometry optical traps. It is based on computer vision to track objects in unison with software implementation of feedback to stabilize particles. In this paper, we experimentally...... which simulates biosamples. By working on differences rather than absolute values, this feedback based technique makes CPtrapping nullify many of the commonly encountered pertubations such as fluctuations in the laser power, vibrations due to mechanical instabilities and other distortions emphasizing...

  15. BEYOND BIGNESS. SOBRE LAS IMPLICACIONES CRÍTICAS DE UNA LECTURA FORMAL DE LA OBRA DE REM KOOLHAAS (1987-1993 / Beyond bigness. On the critical implications of a formal reading of the work of Rem Koolhaas (1987-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González de Canales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En la historia de la arquitectura más reciente, la noción de bigness (grandeza, que tiene la cualidad de grande, aparece íntimamente ligada al lanzamiento internacional de la carrera de Rem Koolhaas a principios de los 90. En tiempos de la autonomía disciplinar y el regionalismo crítico bigness parecía traer libertad, frescura y desprejuicio, haciendo que una generación más joven de arquitectos y teóricos proclamara la nueva hegemonía de Koolhaas como el triunfo de una nueva posición “post-crítica”, eminentemente pragmática o incluso cínica, y que el propio arquitecto holandés lideraría con un éxito inapelable. Lo que trata de demostrar este texto a través de una lectura formal de la obra de Koolhaas es lo contrario; es decir, que los principios fundamentales que motivan su obra son principalmente críticos respecto a la producción espacial y las condiciones sociales y culturales en las que se generan, y que son estos los que inician una búsqueda formal continua en su obra. Centrándose en un periodo particular de su carrera entre 1987 y 1993, el ensayo propondrá la hipótesis de que el desplazamiento de Koolhaas, desde su interés por revisar retóricamente el lenguaje de las vanguardias a la recuperación del concepto de bigness y otros mecanismos de proyecto complementarios desde finales de los 80, se fundamenta en una búsqueda incesante de la liberación de la acción del habitante respecto a la normatividad social y SUMMARY In the recent history of architecture the notion of bigness has be closely related to the launching of Rem Koolhaas career in the early 1990s. In the times of disciplinary autonomy and critical regionalism Koolhaas’ bigness meant freshness, liberation and a certain sense of freedom from prejudices. As a consequence, a younger generation of architects and theorists has claimed Koolhaas’ work as a model for a new “post-critical” position, mostly pragmatic or even cynical, and

  16. 'Miniskirt' counter array at CDF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artikov, A.; Artikov, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Muon detection is fundamental for the most of the interesting analyses at CDF. At the course of Run II, the collaboration expects to collect hundreds of t t-bar decays yielding a muon as well as several million B-hadron events involving J/ψ → μ + μ - decays. Muon detection is also of fundamental importance in the study of W-boson properties and in the search for Higgs production associated with W or Z bosons. Considerable effort therefore went into extending the muon detector coverage for Run II, which started in March 2001. The CDF II muon detector system consists of multiple layers of drift chambers and scintillation counters, which span the pseudorapidity (|η|) range between 0 and 1.5. Detectors spanning different ranges have different geometries, and the muon scintillation counter system includes subsystems in the regions that have come to be known as the 'central' (0 pe for WLS fiber readout is smaller than for conventional readout, we can also expect an increase in the statistical contribution to the overall uncertainty. Our first concern, before adopting this solution, was therefore to ascertain that the mean timing resolution obtained under these conditions was adequate. The modifications, testing and installation of these counters within the CDF Upgrade Project are described in detail. The timing characteristics of MSX' counters are also investigated using cosmic muons. The measurements show that the time resolution does not exceed 2.2 ns. (author)

  17. Cerenkov counters at the Omega Facility

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    P. Petroff on the left. Here one sees both the gas Cerenkov counters sitting in front of the magnet to select forward emitted particles. The smaller one, working at high pressure, sits nearest to the Omega magnet (see photo 7505073X), the other (see photo 7505071X) works at atmospheric pressure.

  18. A gridded air counter for measuring exoelectrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Chiba, Yoshiya; Kirihata, Humiaki.

    1980-01-01

    A gridded air counter with a quenching circuit is described, which serves to detect low-energy electrons such as thermionic electrons, photoelectrons and exoelectrons emitted into the atmospheric air. The air counter consists of a loop-shaped anode and two grids provided for quenching the gas discharge and for protecting the electron emitter from the positive ion bombardment. The quenching circuit with a high input sensitivity of 5 mV detects the initiation gas discharge caused by an incident electron and immediately supplies a rectangular wave pulse of 300 V in amplitude and of more than 3 msec in width to the quenching grid near the anode. Simultaneously, the voltage of the suppressor grid is brought down and kept at -30 V against the earthed sample for the same period of time. Performance of the gridded air counter was examined by use of photoelectrons emitted from an abraded aluminum plate. The quenching action was successfully accomplished in the anode voltage range from 3.65 to 3.95 kV. The photoelectrons emitted into the atmosphere could be counted stably by use of this counter. (author)

  19. Platelet counting using the Coulter electronic counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, M J; Sharp, A A

    1963-03-01

    A method for counting platelets in dilutions of platelet-rich plasm using the Coulter electronic counter is described.(1) The results obtained show that such platelet counts are at least as accurate as the best methods of visual counting. The various technical difficulties encountered are discussed.

  20. Counter Trafficking System Development "Analysis Training Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dennis C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This document will detail the training curriculum for the Counter-Trafficking System Development (CTSD) Analysis Modules and Lesson Plans are derived from the United States Military, Department of Energy doctrine and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Global Security (GS) S Program.

  1. Sealed drift tube cosmic ray veto counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, R.; Tatar, E.; Bacon, J.D.; Bowles, T.J.; Hill, R.; Green, J.A.; Hogan, G.E.; Ito, T.M.; Makela, M.; Morris, C.L.; Mortenson, R.; Pasukanics, F.E.; Ramsey, J.; Saunders, A.; Seestrom, S.J.; Sondheim, W.E.; Teasdale, W.; Saltus, M.; Back, H.O.; Cottrell, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a simple drift tube counter that has been used as a cosmic ray veto for the UCNA experiment, a first-ever measurement of the neutron beta-asymmetry using ultra-cold neutrons. These detectors provide an inexpensive alternative to more conventional scintillation detectors for large area cosmic ray anticoincidence detectors.

  2. COUNTER-ROTATION IN RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayatte, V.; Sauty, C. [Laboratoire Univers et Théories, Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8102 du CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, F-92190 Meudon (France); Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K. [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Matsakos, T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lima, J. J. G., E-mail: veronique.cayatte@obspm.fr [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-06-10

    Young stellar object observations suggest that some jets rotate in the opposite direction with respect to their disk. In a recent study, Sauty et al. showed that this does not contradict the magnetocentrifugal mechanism that is believed to launch such outflows. Motion signatures that are transverse to the jet axis, in two opposite directions, have recently been measured in M87. One possible interpretation of this motion is that of counter-rotating knots. Here, we extend our previous analytical derivation of counter-rotation to relativistic jets, demonstrating that counter-rotation can indeed take place under rather general conditions. We show that both the magnetic field and a non-negligible enthalpy are necessary at the origin of counter-rotating outflows, and that the effect is associated with a transfer of energy flux from the matter to the electromagnetic field. This can be realized in three cases: if a decreasing enthalpy causes an increase of the Poynting flux, if the flow decelerates, or if strong gradients of the magnetic field are present. An illustration of the involved mechanism is given by an example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jet simulation.

  3. Can counter-stereotypes boost flexible thinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goclowska, M.A.; Crisp, R.J.; Labuschagne, K.

    2013-01-01

    To reduce prejudice psychologists design interventions requiring people to think of counter-stereotypes (i.e., people who defy stereotypic expectations—a strong woman, a Black President). Grounded in the idea that stereotypes constrain the ability to think flexibly, we propose that thinking of

  4. E143 experiment. Shower counter calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonvieille, H.; Grenier, P.

    1994-01-01

    The calibration procedure for the shower counters used in the E143 experiment is described. It has been developed during january 1994 in view of being used for the quick analysis. The method is explained and the results obtained on a given run are presented. (author)

  5. A freeze-dried graphene counter electrode enhances the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Kai-Hsiang; Wang, Hong-Wen, E-mail: hongwen@cycu.edu.tw

    2014-01-01

    A flexible graphene/polyimide (PI) counter electrode without a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) layer has been fabricated for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) applications. The flexible counter electrode consists of polyimide double-sided tape as a substrate beneath a graphene film acting as the conductive and catalytic layer. Chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on the PI electrode (rGO-PI) shows comparable catalytic activity to that of the reference sputtered platinum/FTO counter electrodes (Sputter-Pt/FTO). A DSSC with a freeze-dried rGO-PI (FD-rGO-PI) counter electrode shows an overall conversion efficiency (η) of 5.45%, while that of the conventional Sputter-Pt/FTO electrode is 5.52%. The DSSC with a thermally dried rGO-PI (Gel-rGO-PI) counter electrode (not freeze-dried) exhibits a smooth morphology and much poorer performance (η = 1.61%). Field emission scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry measurements demonstrate that the FD-rGO-PI electrode possesses a porous structure, numerous edges, minimum charge-transfer resistance and a higher electrocatalytic activity toward the I{sub 3}{sup −}/I{sup −} redox couple than that of the Gel-rGO-PI electrode. The high electrocatalytic activity, facile preparation procedure, absence of FTO, and material flexibility render the FD-rGO-PI electrode an ideal alternative to conventional DSSC counter electrodes. - Highlights: • Highly rough and conductive graphene-based counter electrode is synthesized. • The characteristics of graphene surface by freeze drying are different. • The graphene counter electrode exhibits comparable performance to that of sputtered Pt one.

  6. Activated graphene nanoplatelets as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jiawei [Center for Advanced Photovoltaics, Department of Electrical Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58102 (United States); Zhou, Zhengping; Qiao, Qiquan, E-mail: qiquan.qiao@sdstate.edu [Center for Advanced Photovoltaics, Department of Electrical Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007 (United States); Sumathy, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58102 (United States); Yang, Huojun [Department of Construction Management and Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58102 (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Activated graphene nanoplatelets (aGNPs) prepared by a hydrothermal method using KOH as activating agent were used as counter electrode for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). After the KOH activation, the scanning electron microscopy image shows that aGNPs demonstrate a more curled, rough, and porous morphology which could contain both micro- and mesopores. The KOH activation changed the stacked layers of GNPs to a more crumpled and curved morphology. The microstructure of large pores significantly increased the electrode surface area and roughness, leading to the high electrocatalytic activity for triiodide reduction at the counter electrode. The DSSCs fabricated using aGNP as counter electrodes were tested under standard AM 1.5 illumination with an intensity of 91.5 mW/cm{sup 2}. The device achieved an overall power conversion efficiency of 7.7%, which is comparable to the conventional platinum counter electrode (8%). Therefore, the low cost and high performance aGNP based counter electrode is a promising alternative to conventional Pt counter electrode in DSSCs.

  7. Technical Note: Characterization of a static thermal-gradient CCN counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Frank

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The static (parallel-plate thermal-gradient diffusion chamber (SDC was one of the first instruments designed to measure cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations as a function of supersaturation. It has probably also been the most widely used type of CCN counter. This paper describes the detailed experimental characterization of a SDC CCN counter, including calibration with respect to supersaturation and particle number concentration. In addition, we investigated the proposed effect of lowered supersaturation because of water vapor depletion with increasing particle concentration. The results obtained give a better understanding why and in which way it is necessary to calibrate the SDC CCN counter. The calibration method is described in detail and can, in parts, be used for calibrations also for other types of CCN counters.

    We conclude the following: 1 it is important to experimentally calibrate SDC CCN counters with respect to supersaturation, and not only base the supersaturation on the theoretical description of the instrument; 2 the number concentration calibration needs to be performed as a function of supersaturation, also for SDC CCN counter using the photographic technique; and 3 we observed no evidence that water vapor depletion lowered the supersaturation.

  8. Counter-Stereotypes and Feminism Promote Leadership Aspirations in Highly Identified Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Carola; Gocłowska, Małgorzata A.; Van Breen, Jolien A.; de Lemus, Soledad; Randsley de Moura, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Although women who highly identify with other women are more susceptible to stereotype threat effects, women's identification might associate with greater leadership aspirations contingent on (1) counter-stereotype salience and (2) feminist identification. When gender counter-stereotypes are salient, women's identification should associate with greater leadership aspiration regardless of feminism, while when gender stereotypes are salient, women's identification would predict greater leadership aspirations contingent on a high level of feminist identification. In our study US-based women (N = 208) attended to gender stereotypic (vs. counter-stereotypic) content. We measured identification with women and identification with feminism, and, following the manipulation, leadership aspirations in an imagined work scenario. The interaction between identification with women, identification with feminism, and attention to stereotypes (vs. counter-stereotypes) significantly predicted leadership aspirations. In the counter-stereotypic condition women's identification associated with greater leadership aspirations regardless of feminist identification. In the stereotypic condition women's identification predicted leadership aspirations only at high levels of feminist identification. We conclude that salient counter-stereotypes and a strong identification with feminism may help high women identifiers increase their leadership aspirations. PMID:28626437

  9. Counter-Stereotypes and Feminism Promote Leadership Aspirations in Highly Identified Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Carola; Gocłowska, Małgorzata A; Van Breen, Jolien A; de Lemus, Soledad; Randsley de Moura, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Although women who highly identify with other women are more susceptible to stereotype threat effects, women's identification might associate with greater leadership aspirations contingent on (1) counter-stereotype salience and (2) feminist identification. When gender counter-stereotypes are salient, women's identification should associate with greater leadership aspiration regardless of feminism, while when gender stereotypes are salient, women's identification would predict greater leadership aspirations contingent on a high level of feminist identification. In our study US-based women ( N = 208) attended to gender stereotypic (vs. counter-stereotypic) content. We measured identification with women and identification with feminism, and, following the manipulation, leadership aspirations in an imagined work scenario. The interaction between identification with women, identification with feminism, and attention to stereotypes (vs. counter-stereotypes) significantly predicted leadership aspirations. In the counter-stereotypic condition women's identification associated with greater leadership aspirations regardless of feminist identification. In the stereotypic condition women's identification predicted leadership aspirations only at high levels of feminist identification. We conclude that salient counter-stereotypes and a strong identification with feminism may help high women identifiers increase their leadership aspirations.

  10. Counter-Stereotypes and Feminism Promote Leadership Aspirations in Highly Identified Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Leicht

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although women who highly identify with other women are more susceptible to stereotype threat effects, women's identification might associate with greater leadership aspirations contingent on (1 counter-stereotype salience and (2 feminist identification. When gender counter-stereotypes are salient, women's identification should associate with greater leadership aspiration regardless of feminism, while when gender stereotypes are salient, women's identification would predict greater leadership aspirations contingent on a high level of feminist identification. In our study US-based women (N = 208 attended to gender stereotypic (vs. counter-stereotypic content. We measured identification with women and identification with feminism, and, following the manipulation, leadership aspirations in an imagined work scenario. The interaction between identification with women, identification with feminism, and attention to stereotypes (vs. counter-stereotypes significantly predicted leadership aspirations. In the counter-stereotypic condition women's identification associated with greater leadership aspirations regardless of feminist identification. In the stereotypic condition women's identification predicted leadership aspirations only at high levels of feminist identification. We conclude that salient counter-stereotypes and a strong identification with feminism may help high women identifiers increase their leadership aspirations.

  11. Israel's Counter-Terrorism Strategy and its Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jerry D

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Israeli counter-terrorism strategy and its effectiveness. Because of ongoing suicide attacks from Palestinian and other terrorist organizations, Israel will continue to have an aggressive counter-terrorism strategy...

  12. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony counter is a device intended for medical purposes that consists...

  13. A fast photo-counter with multi-level buffers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Hu; Zhou Peiling; Yao Kun; Guo Guangcan

    1992-01-01

    Digital Photon Correlator (DPC) is composed of a Photo-counter and a data processing unit. The performance of Photo-counter in data acquisition system has a direct influence on data processing. The Photo-counter with fast carry designed here has multi-level buffers. Photon pulses can be correctly and dynamically recorded by the Photo-counter and processed by a single chip computer

  14. Efficiency calibration of solid track spark auto counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Wen Zhongwei; Lin Jufang; Liu Rong; Jiang Li; Lu Xinxin; Zhu Tonghua

    2008-01-01

    The factors influencing detection efficiency of solid track spark auto counter were analyzed, and the best etch condition and parameters of charge were also reconfirmed. With small plate fission ionization chamber, the efficiency of solid track spark auto counter at various experiment assemblies was re-calibrated. The efficiency of solid track spark auto counter at various experimental conditions was obtained. (authors)

  15. Counter-responses as organizers in adolescent analysis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, M Barrie

    2004-01-01

    The author introduces Counter-response as a phenomological term to replace theory-burdened terms like counter-transference, counter-identification, and counter-resistance. He discusses the analyst's use of self (drawing on the comparison with Winnicott's use of the object) in processing the expectable destabilizing counter-reactions that occur in working therapeutically with disturbed adolescents and their parents. Further; he discusses the counter-reaction to the patient's narrative, acting-out, and how re-enactments can serve as an organizer for understanding the patient's inner life when the analyst formulates his/her counter-response. Emphasis is placed on the therapist forming his or her own narrative with the adolescent that takes into account the evoked counter-reaction. For this purpose, the author recommends the use of a combined counter-response and metaphor-orienting perspective to acknowledge and work with the denial, illusions, reversal of perspective, and catastrophic anxieties experienced with these adolescents. The counter-response perspective permits the emergence of the disturbed adolescent's novel narrative; however, since these experiences can be destabilizing or disruptive, the author also recommends the use of a personal metaphor to anticipate the reluctance to examining, processing, and formulating the analyst's dysphoric counter-reaction. With the use of the counter-response, the analyst's therapeutic ideal is to achieve a more optimal balance between using accepted narrative theories and exploring novel enactment experiences. His swimming metaphor stratagem is designed to keep the analyst in these difficult encounters.

  16. Generalization of the development of liquid-sparkling counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Zhengzhu; Zhang Jue; Zhang Jinwei

    2006-01-01

    This paper includes five parts. It not only reviews the development history of liquid-sparkling counter but refers that the appearance of coincident circuit is its milestone. The paper summarizes the resembled hard ware and soft ware and soft ware of liquid-sparkling counter of indoor and overseas, and prospects the development of liquid-sparkling counter in our country. (authors)

  17. Sleep and REM sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's disease with impulse control disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Maria Livia; Figorilli, Michela; Arnulf, Isabelle; Zibetti, Maurizio; Pereira, Bruno; Beudin, Patricia; Puligheddu, Monica; Cormier-Dequaire, Florence; Lacomblez, Lucette; Benchetrit, Eve; Corvol, Jean Christophe; Cicolin, Alessandro; Lopiano, Leonardo; Marques, Ana; Durif, Franck

    2018-03-01

    Because the association between rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been debated, we assessed the sleep characteristics and the frequency of RBD using video-polysomnography (v-PSG) in patients with PD with versus without ICDs. Eighty non-demented patients with PD consecutively identified during routine evaluation at three movement disorders centres were enrolled in a case-control study. Forty patients (22 men; mean age: 62.6±9.7 years, Hoehn & Yahr: 2.1±0.6) with one or more current ICDs were age-matched and sex-matched with 40 patients with no history of ICDs (22 men, mean age: 64.9±7.8 years, Hoehn & Yahr: 2.2±0.6). They underwent a detailed sleep interview followed by a full-night in-lab v-PSG. Sleep was scored blindly to ICDs condition and RBD diagnosis included a clinical complaint of enacted dreams and/or documented behaviour during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, with the presence of quantified REM sleep without atonia (RSWA). Patients with ICDs had a higher arousal index and higher RSWA than those without ICDs (51.9%±28.2%vs 32.2±27.1%, p=0.004). In addition, RBD was more frequent in the ICD group (85%vs53%, p=0.0001). RBD was still associated with ICDs in a multivariate regression analysis including age of onset, PD duration and severity, treatment duration, levodopa-equivalent and dopamine agonist-equivalent daily doses and antidepressant use (OR: 4.9 (95% CI 1.3 to 18.5), p=0.02). This large, controlled series of patients with PD with ICDs assessed by v-PSG confirms the association between ICDs and RBD. Increased surveillance of symptoms of ICDs should be recommended in patients with PD with RBD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. A new neutron counter for fission research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, B., E-mail: benoit.laurent@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Granier, T.; Bélier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Martin, J.-F.; Taieb, J. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Hambsch, F.-J. [EC-JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg, 2440 Geel (Belgium); Tovesson, F.; Laptev, A.B.; Haight, R.C.; Nelson, R.O.; O' Donnell, J.M. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    A new neutron counter for research experiments on nuclear fission has been developed. This instrument is designed for the detection of prompt fission neutrons within relatively high levels of gamma and neutron background. It is composed of a set of {sup 3}He proportional counters arranged within a block of polyethylene which serves as moderator. The detection properties have been studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations and experiments with radioactive sources. These properties are confirmed by an experiment on neutron-induced fission of {sup 238}U at the WNR facility of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center during which the mean prompt fission neutron multiplicity, or ν{sup ¯} has been measured from 1 to 20 MeV of incident neutron energy.

  19. Dead zone characteristics of a gas counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Sakae, Takeji; Matoba, Masaru; Koori, Norihiko.

    1990-01-01

    The dead zone was recently defined as the product of dead length and dead time in order to describe the characteristics of the self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode of a gas counter. Investigation of the dead zone characteristics has been extended for the proportional and GM modes, and the measured dead zone has been compared with that of the SQS mode. Accurate values for the dead zone could be determined by means of a newly developed method with a pulse interval time to amplitude converter. Each operation mode indicates distinct dead zone characteristics. Properties of gas counters for high counting rates may be improved on the basis of measurements of the dead zone. (author)

  20. Pulse triggering mechanism of air proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, T.; Mori, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the pulse triggering mechanism of a cylindrical proportional counter filled with air at atmospheric pressure for the incidence of β-rays. Experimental results indicate that primary electrons created distantly from the anode wire by a β-ray are transformed into negative ions, which then detach electrons close to the anode wire and generate electron avalanches thus triggering pulses, while electrons created near the anode wire by a β-ray directly trigger a pulse. Since a negative ion pulse is triggered by a single electron detached from a negative ion, multiple pulses are generated by a large number of ions produced by the incidence of a single β-ray. It is therefore necessary not to count pulses triggered by negative ions but to count those by primary electrons alone when use is made of air proportional counters for the detection of β-rays. (orig.)