Abstract: The paper examines the determinants of trust in religious institutions in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgiaâ€”three countries with low levels of religiosity as measured by attendance, prayer and fasting, yet high levels of trust in religious institutions. The analysis employs individual-level survey data from the Caucasus Research Resource Centersâ€™ (CRRC) 2007 Data Initiative and uses OLS regression to show that while religious practices do not determine trust in religious instituti...
Adams, Melvin D., III
This doctoral thesis studied the religious and spiritual experiences of undergraduate gay males at a Protestant affiliated higher education institution and how undergraduate gay males made sense of their personal journeys. Data was collected from four participants and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Five themes emerged…
Anshel, Mark H; Smith, Mitchell
The growing obesity epidemic in the West, in general, and the U.S.A., in particular, is resulting in deteriorating health, premature and avoidable onset of disease, and excessive health care costs. The religious community is not immune to these societal conditions. Changing health behavior in the community requires both input from individuals who possess knowledge and credibility and a receptive audience. One group of individuals who may be uniquely positioned to promote community change but have been virtually ignored in the applied health and consulting psychology literature is religious leaders. These individuals possess extraordinary credibility and influence in promoting healthy behaviors by virtue of their association with time-honored religious traditions and the status which this affords them-as well as their communication skills, powers of persuasion, a weekly (captive) audience, mastery over religious texts that espouse the virtues of healthy living, and the ability to anchor health-related actions and rituals in a person's values and spirituality. This article focuses on ways in which religious leaders might promote healthy habits among their congregants. By addressing matters of health, nutrition, and fitness from the pulpit and in congregational programs, as well as by visibly adopting the tenets of a healthier lifestyle, clergy can deliver an important message regarding the need for healthy living. Through such actions, religious leaders can be effective agents in promoting critical change in these areas.
Full Text Available The following article analyzes the 3 chief threats facing religious liberty today in Europe, namely: (1 hate speech legislation; (2 anti-discrimination laws; (3 attacks on parental rights. Concrete examples are given of offenses to religious freedom. Additionally, the black letter law is set out in each section with suggested action points for national governments. The Article also discusses the Lautsi v. Italy judgment of the European Court of Human Rights, explaining its importance and using it as evidence to establish the political nature of the Strasbourg based court.
Chin, John J.; Li, Min Ying; Kang, Ezer; Behar, Elana; Chen, Po Chun
Using data from a study of Chinese immigrant religious institutions in New York City (primarily Christian and Buddhist), this paper explores why some religious institutions are more inclined than others to be involved in HIV-related work. Although numerous factors are likely to play a role, we focus on organisations’ differing views on social engagement as an explanatory factor. We hypothesise that religious institutions that value social engagement (‘civic’) will be more inclined towards HIV/AIDS involvement than those that are more inward focused (‘sanctuary’). Given that many religious institutions are fundamentally defined by their stance on the appropriateness of social engagement, better understanding of this key characteristic may help to inform community and government organisations aiming to increase religious institutions’ involvement in HIV/AIDS-related work. Our analysis suggests that some organisations may be less interested in taking on the challenges of working in HIV/AIDS because of their general view that churches or temples should not be socially engaged. On the other hand, religious institutions that have concerns about social acceptability, fear of infection or lack of capacity – but generally embrace social engagement – may be more open to partnering on HIV/AIDS-related work because of their overriding community service orientation. PMID:21838652
This paper provides a study of religious institutions as service providers in contexts of crises and displacement. Religious institutions, as well as other non-state institutions, provide access to a vast range of resources and services (such as food, housing, clothes, counseling, money, and access...... to networks). In contexts of displacement access to basic services is formally regulated by one’s status (e.g. as refugee or national citizen) and by physical location (e.g. in settlements/camps or urban areas). The paper discusses what role religious institutions play when access to services provided...... by the state or the international humanitarian system is limited or non-existent and what kind of relations of exchange that is at stake. Empirically the project deals with Congolese churches in Kampala, Uganda of which many pastors and members have refugee status. The paper analyses the range and categories...
Fosnacht, Kevin; Broderick, Cynthia
This study investigated the correlates of two measures that capture students' perception of the religious and spiritual campus climate. It focuses on how the factors, religious identity and attending a religiously affiliated institution, influence students' perception of the respect for their beliefs and comfort in expressing their views on…
Full Text Available This paper presents the history of the Donner Institute. The Donner Institute is an institution for the study of the history of religion and culture at the university of Åbo Akademi (Åbo, Finland. It was founded in 1957 following a stipulation in the last will of Mr. and Mrs. Uno Donner of Helsingfors, who died in 1958 and 1956 respectively. Uno Donner had shown an early interest in philosophical questions. During a visit to Egypt at the beginning of this century both he and his wife were impressed by ancient Egyptian culture and certain mysterious aspects of religion. They both seem to have had a firm conviction that intuition is an important way to true knowledge. When, in 1913, an artist friend of theirs, Henry Collison, introduced them to the thinking of Dr. Rudolf Steiner, their interest was easily kindled, and they became eager students of anthroposophy. They visited Dornach near Basel, the center of the anthroposophic movement, several times and made the personal acquaintance of Dr. Steiner. When an Anthroposophic Society was established in Finland in 1922, Uno Donner became its president. The library of the institute possesses an almost complete collection of Dr. Steiner's works and all available works of various anthroposophic authors.
Anshel, Mark H
The purpose of this article is to provide an intervention model that can be used by religious leaders for changing health behavior among practicing members of religious communities. The intervention does not require extensive training or licensure in counseling psychology. At the heart of this model is the acknowledgement that a person's negative habits (e.g., lack of exercise, poor nutrition) and his or her deepest values and beliefs (e.g., faith, health, family) are often misaligned, or disconnected. In addition, the unhealthy outcomes from these habits are contrary to the scriptural traditions of the world religions and thus are especially relevant to individuals who practice their religious beliefs. The Sacred Scriptures of Judaism and Christianity, for example, are replete with teachings that extol the virtues of practicing habits that promote good health and energy. In addition, evidence is mounting in the existing health intervention literature that adopting permanent and desirable changes in health behavior have not been successful, and that adherence to desirable habits such as exercise and proper nutrition is short-lived. The Disconnected Values Model (DVM) provides a novel approach for enhancing health behavior change within the context of the mission of most religious institutions. The model is compatible with skills presented by religious leaders, who possess more credibility and influence in changing the behavior of members and service attendees of their respective religious institutions. The religious leader's role is to provide the client with faith-based incentives to initiate and maintain changes in their health behaviors, and perhaps to provide resources for the individual to pursue an action plan. A case study is described in which the DVM intervention was used successfully with an individual of strong faith.
Full Text Available Social economy is gaining interest as an alternative to capitalist economy. As compared to its capitalist counterpart, social based economy is ethically and morally guided. This arguably possesses close alignment to the religious based economy among Muslims – The Islamic Economics. Waqf, which is equivalent to endowment in the non-Islamic context, is an important institution in the Islamic socioeconomic system. Widely practiced among Muslims since the Prophet Muhammad’s era, waqf has enhanced Muslims’ socio-economic strength particularly during the Ottoman era. This research revisits such religiously founded practice by examining the contemporary waqf accounting, reporting and investment practices of a selected waqf manager in Malaysia – The State Religious Institution (SRI. Adopting a qualitative approach to research inquiry using a single case study method, data were collected through interviews and documents’ review. The research finds observable weaknesses in the accounting, reporting and investment for waqf activities particularly on waqf assets. The available records suggest large improvement void in the focused areas, albeit it does not tantamount to detrimental effects on SIRC’s efforts in adequately safeguarding the waqf assets. The research provides fresh evidence of the contemporary accounting, reporting and investment practices of a religious institution entrusted to manage waqf funds operating in an emerging market.
Bani Hamidah; Jaaffar Mohd Yassir; Katan Maheran; Mohd Noor Abd Halim
Tahfiz education is one of the popular streams of education in Malaysia and well accepted by Muslim community. Originally the education is being offered in “pondok”, a traditional religious school. Developing through times, it is now also being offered in tahfiz centers as well as in modern tahfiz institutions. These entities specialize in producing tahfiz graduates who can memorize and recite the whole Al-Quran and more than 91% of them are privately owned. The applicability of good governan...
Full Text Available Tahfiz education is one of the popular streams of education in Malaysia and well accepted by Muslim community. Originally the education is being offered in “pondok”, a traditional religious school. Developing through times, it is now also being offered in tahfiz centers as well as in modern tahfiz institutions. These entities specialize in producing tahfiz graduates who can memorize and recite the whole Al-Quran and more than 91% of them are privately owned. The applicability of good governance and accountability measures is indeed highly desirable in these Islamic entities as it deals with the responsibility in fulfilling sacred religious obligation. Though the number of tahfiz education providers (TEP has grown up tremendously from only 58 in 1999 to 278 in 2011, literatures on governance and accountability of TEP are still lacking as the areas are rarely examined directly. The lacking may lead to unfavorable inferences that TEP are behaving in the manners contrary to the interest of the stakeholders. An ideally accountable governance of tahfiz centers will gain trust from parents and various stakeholders and will indicate the achievement in fulfilling one of the objective of Maqasid Shariah to preserve and promote the religious faith through preserving the memorization and knowledge of Al Quran (the primary source of Islamic Law by the huffaz. The objective of this research is to investigate external governance mechanism and the accountability of Tahfiz centers as viewed by religious regulatory bodies. A qualitative research approach is undertaken by interviewing representatives from selected State Islamic Religious Councils, State Islamic Foundation and National Religious Departments in Malaysia. Using thematic analysis, findings of this study revealed that there are two-tier governance infrastructures of tahfiz institutions in Malaysia. However, the enforcement of the governance structure is still at infancy level. The accountability
Full Text Available After encouraging thanks to the many persons and institutions who do research and work in order to get to know better and to solve the macroproblem of immigration and criminality in Spain, different statistics, informations and researches in connection with this are selected, without forgetting the incidence of xenofobia. The profile of the immigrant population is investigated: they do not transgress as much as it is believed. Instead, they are victimized more often than it is said, both in their country of origin and in that of «arrival». Many are true moral agents who enrich our values and our life together. We should, together with our cultural and religious institutions, receive and attend to them all, not only obeying national and international legal norms regarding non-discrimination, but with sentient intelligence, with openess, with supralegal preferential victimological sensibility, from the Europol, Eurojust models toward the Euroetic of positive discrimination.
... care institutions providing home service. 403.764 Section 403.764 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Basis and purpose of religious nonmedical health care institutions providing home service. (a) Basis... and 1878 of the Act regarding Medicare payment for items and services provided in the home setting...
Full Text Available Religion in Korea has been shaped by its followers to a degree, but the role of religion in Korea has been largely unexamined. This study examines the role of religion and the incorporation of religious beliefs and institutions in the field of disaster management. In doing so, the study examines how three religions—Christianity, Buddhism, and Confucianism—operate in Korea, in particular in terms of both care-oriented management and mitigation-oriented management approaches. While utilizing descriptive research as a methodology, policy measures have been suggested with the support of theological perspectives. Despite some difficulties in making a generalization, the major finding is that religion has a role to play in supplementing care-oriented management, with mitigation-oriented management approaches, by better grasping the nature of a disaster and its effective management while responding to regional culture. In addition, the Ministry of Public Safety and Security, local governments, and other government institutions must play new roles in incorporating religion in disaster management.
Alhaji Umar Alkali
Full Text Available Human trafficking is a global challenge especially in the 21stCentury. Nigeria like most developing countries is doing its best in addressing the menace of child trafficking. In view of the fact that religious institutions are highly respected in Nigeria, this paper intends to adopt a doctrinal methodology in examining the menace of child trafficking in Nigeria, by using the perspective of Islam and Christianity. Moreover, also seeing the role that can be played by the Supreme Council of Islamic Affairs and the Christian Association of Nigeria in the crusade against child trafficking in Nigeria Perdagangan manusia merupakan sebuah tantangan global pada abad ke-21. Sebagaimana negara berkembang pada umumnya, Nigeria melakukan upaya yang terbaik guna menangani ancaman perdagangan anak. Mengingat bahwa institusi keagamaan sangat dihormati di Nigeria, artikel ini bermaksud untuk mengadopsi metodologi doktrin dalam mengkaji ancaman perdagangan anak di Nigeria, melalui perspektif agama Islam dan agama Kristen perihal perdagangan anak. Selain itu, juga melihat peran yang dipegang oleh Dewan Tinggi Urusan Islam dan Asosiasi Umat Kristen Nigeria dalam perjuangan melawan perdagangan anak di Nigeria.
Alhaji Umar Alkali
Full Text Available Human trafficking is a global challenge especially in the 21stCentury. Nigeria like most developing countries is doing its best in addressing the menace of child trafficking. In view of the fact that religious institutions are highly respected in Nigeria, this paper intends to adopt a doctrinal methodology in examining the menace of child trafficking in Nigeria, by using the perspective of Islam and Christianity. Moreover, also seeing the role that can be played by the Supreme Council of Islamic Affairs and the Christian Association of Nigeria in the crusade against child trafficking in Nigeria Perdagangan manusia merupakan sebuah tantangan global pada abad ke-21. Sebagaimana negara berkembang pada umumnya, Nigeria melakukan upaya yang terbaik guna menangani ancaman perdagangan anak. Mengingat bahwa institusi keagamaan sangat dihormati di Nigeria, artikel ini bermaksud untuk mengadopsi metodologi doktrin dalam mengkaji ancaman perdagangan anak di Nigeria, melalui perspektif agama Islam dan agama Kristen perihal perdagangan anak. Selain itu, juga melihat peran yang dipegang oleh Dewan Tinggi Urusan Islam dan Asosiasi Umat Kristen Nigeria dalam perjuangan melawan perdagangan anak di Nigeria.
This study used Azjen's Theory of Planned Behavior to examine how pro-recycling and pro-environmental messaging delivered by religious leaders affects stated recycling behavior among ethnic minorities. Using data collected from 12 religious institutions in three Ontario, Canada, communities, a promotion and education program was developed to: (1)…
Studies the relationship of educational level and knowledge of English on the differential integration of 71 post-1965 Greek immigrants into the religious structure of the Greek community of New York, New York. Tentatively concludes that socioeconomic status may play a larger role than the variables explored. (FMW)
Northmore-Ball, Ksenia; Evans, Geoffrey
Despite continuing for over two decades, the debate about the nature of the trends in religiosity in post-Communist Eastern Europe remains unresolved: some arguing that these countries are undergoing the same process of secularization as the West, while others insist that the entire region is experiencing a religious revival. Using national sample surveys from the early 1990s to 2007 to examine the change in demographic predictors of religiosity, we show that Catholic and Orthodox countries are experiencing different trends, the first group displaying evidence of secularization and the second of revival, and that these two different trends are likely to derive from the legacies of state repression and the differing abilities of the churches to resist such repression. We argue that the current literature has thus taken a mistakenly general approach, and that the post-Communist region consists of at least two distinct groups of societies with different trends in religiosity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Educational institutions and other... JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 54.205 Educational institutions and other entities controlled by...
Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels
Religious coping in Denmark has primarily been studied among the Danish majority with whom religious practice is limited. The aim of this study is to explore a small sample of Danish Pentecostals’ experiences of religious coping. The study includes semi-structured interviews with eighteen Danish...... Pentecostals facing a psychological crisis. Qualitative methods are applied for generating and analyzing the data material. The theme of religious individualism ran through the participants’ talk of religious coping in relation to fellow believers, reading the Bible, and personal experiences of God. Religious...... individualism was characterized by: A lived expectation of having one’s specific individual needs met through one’s religiosity. The findings from this study show that having specific individual needs met was central for the religious faith of the participants. They used both individualistic and institutional...
Maussen, M.; Burchardt, M.; Michalowski, I.
The incorporation of Muslim populations in West Europe, largely but not exclusively due to immigration, has resulted in a variety of changes. This chapter proposes a framework to think about the dynamics and politics of "host society" institutional changes in response to Islamic presence.
Al Harbat, Rima; Al Saqarat, Khalaf
The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of religious institutions, electronic games, books and educational stories in the development of the child's culture from the perspective of some of Jordanian mothers in Al Karak Governorate, and to achieve the objective of the study a questionnaire was build, it consisted of (33) items divided…
Paul R Ward
Full Text Available Building or maintaining institutional trust is of central importance in democratic societies since negative experiences (potentially leading to mistrust with government or other institutions may have a much more profound effect than positive experiences (potentially maintaining trust. Healthy democracy relies on more than simply trusting the national government of the time, and is mediated through other symbols of institutional power, such as the legal system, banks, the media and religious organisations. This paper focuses on institutional trust-the level and predictors of trust in some of the major institutions in society, namely politics, the media, banks, the legal system and religious organisations. We present analyses from a consolidated dataset containing data from six countries in the Asia Pacific region-Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand.Cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in each country in 2009-10, with an overall sample of 6331. Analyses of differences in overall levels of institutional trust between countries were undertaken using Chi square analyses. Multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to identify socio-demographic predictors of trust in each country.Religious institutions, banks and the judicial system had the highest overall trust across all countries (70%, 70% and 67% respectively, followed by newspapers and TV (59% and 58% and then political leaders (43%. The range of levels of higher trust between countries differed from 43% for banks (range 49% in Australia to 92% in Thailand to 59% for newspapers (28% in Australia to 87% in Japan. Across all countries, except for Australia, trust in political leaders had the lowest scores, particularly in Japan and South Korea (25% in both countries. In Thailand, people expressed the most trust in religious organisations (94%, banks (92% and in their judicial/legal system (89%. In Hong Kong, people expressed the highest level of
Ward, Paul R; Miller, Emma; Pearce, Alex R; Meyer, Samantha B
Building or maintaining institutional trust is of central importance in democratic societies since negative experiences (potentially leading to mistrust) with government or other institutions may have a much more profound effect than positive experiences (potentially maintaining trust). Healthy democracy relies on more than simply trusting the national government of the time, and is mediated through other symbols of institutional power, such as the legal system, banks, the media and religious organisations. This paper focuses on institutional trust-the level and predictors of trust in some of the major institutions in society, namely politics, the media, banks, the legal system and religious organisations. We present analyses from a consolidated dataset containing data from six countries in the Asia Pacific region-Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. Cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in each country in 2009-10, with an overall sample of 6331. Analyses of differences in overall levels of institutional trust between countries were undertaken using Chi square analyses. Multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to identify socio-demographic predictors of trust in each country. Religious institutions, banks and the judicial system had the highest overall trust across all countries (70%, 70% and 67% respectively), followed by newspapers and TV (59% and 58%) and then political leaders (43%). The range of levels of higher trust between countries differed from 43% for banks (range 49% in Australia to 92% in Thailand) to 59% for newspapers (28% in Australia to 87% in Japan). Across all countries, except for Australia, trust in political leaders had the lowest scores, particularly in Japan and South Korea (25% in both countries). In Thailand, people expressed the most trust in religious organisations (94%), banks (92%) and in their judicial/legal system (89%). In Hong Kong, people expressed the highest level of trust in
In this issue of the Journal, VanderWeele et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2017;000(00):000-000) report that more frequent attendance at worship services is associated with a lower mortality risk. However, the underlying processes that might explain this relationship were not discussed fully. A problem arises because the potentially beneficial association between attending worship services and mortality risk may be due to a number of different factors. At least part of the explanation may be found by turning to social relationships that arise in religious institutions. Within this context, there are potentially important benefits of providing social support to others. Support can be provided in several ways that involve potentially important health-related associations. In this commentary, I briefly examine the possible relationships between religious social support systems and other dimensions of congregational life and health. In-depth conceptual analyses are needed to move research in religious involvement and mortality to the next level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Yuliya A. Lysenko
Full Text Available The article features attempts on analyzing the cultural – historic situation, which conditioned the formation of orthodox population and institutions of the Russian Orthodox Church in Kazakhstan in XVIII – beginning of XX centuries. The article also features the construction techniques of diocesan, parochial schools in the region and the main activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in Kazakhstan. The results of complex analysis let determine the decree of integration effectiveness in cultural-religious space of the region, to reveal influential objective and subjective factors.
Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately help strengthen the broader civic fabric.
Bland, Mary J.
The purpose of this study is to confirm the belief that differences in the institutional culture of United Pentecostal Church International (UPCI)-endorsed Bible colleges correlate with changes in the level of identification with the UPCI experienced by students who complete a program of study at these institutions. Because adherents of the UPCI…
Geertz, Armin W.
Denne artikel er en introduktion til et temanummer i religionslærernes tidsskrift i USA. Den er et udtræk af mit kapitel "Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Approaches and Definitions" udgivet i Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Image and Word in the mind of Narrative, redigeret...
Alina Badulescu; Olimpia Ban
The first part of the paper presents the past and present of the religious tourism in the world and in Romania and its implications on traveling. The second part describes the regions with religious tourism potential in Romania and the activities that could enhance and help the development of this kind of tourism in our country.
The starting point of this article is the observation that more scholars of Buddhism seem to be engaged in Buddhist practices than their colleagues in the study of Hinduism are engaged in Hindu practices. It aims to examine this observation more closely and discuss the involved problematics in a ...... that are inherited from the modernization of both religions in their transition to the Western world. How far a religiously engaged scholarship is acceptable or not is finally discussed at the institutional level....
Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious
Roman V. Tupikin
ABSTRACT: The article is devoted to research of the texts of foreign laws, regulations, and concordats on property relations between the state and religious institutions, on property rights of religious institutions and property relations in religious institutions (regarding property objects for religious purposes, on the status of some property objects for religious purposes. The author of the research analyzed the features of legal and contractual regulation of property relations of religious institutions and the status of property objects for religious purposes. The methodological foundation of the research presented has comparative and legal research method as the basis.
Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer...... to the compatibility question is not obvious and requires a systematic analysis of secularism. Based on a distinction between a general concept and specific conceptions of secularism I offer a general structure for conceptions of secularism that incorporates both a) basic values, e.g. political equality and freedom...
Ahlin, Lars; Borup, Jørn; Fibiger, Marianne Qvortrup
. Religious diversity has grown in Denmark with the arrival of new immigrant groups and with new forms and interpretations of traditional religious and spiritual traditions. More importantly, the relations and interactions between religious groups -- the hallmarks of religious pluralism -- are still incipient...
Henrie, James; Patrick, Julie Hicks
Terror Management Theory (TMT) (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1986) suggests that culturally-provided worldviews (e.g., religion) may protect individuals from experiencing death anxiety, and several studies have supported this position. However, if one's worldview can offer protection, doubts concerning one's worldview could undermine this protection. The current study investigated whether age, gender, religiousness, and religious doubt were associated with death anxiety. Using data from 635 younger, middle-aged, and older adults, a structural equation model with age, gender, religiousness, and religious doubt predicting death anxiety was tested. The model had a good fit (chi2 (76) = 193.467, p religiousness was inversely associated with death anxiety, while religious doubt was positively associated with death anxiety.
Ward, Paul R.; Miller, Emma; Pearce, Alex R.; Meyer, Samantha B.
Background Building or maintaining institutional trust is of central importance in democratic societies since negative experiences (potentially leading to mistrust) with government or other institutions may have a much more profound effect than positive experiences (potentially maintaining trust). Healthy democracy relies on more than simply trusting the national government of the time, and is mediated through other symbols of institutional power, such as the legal system, banks, the media an...
This thesis deals with religious tourism. The objectives of this study are firstly to understand what religious tourism is, who the tourists attracted to religious tourism are, what the destinations and motives for religious holidays are and what the future of religious tourism looks like. This study is limited to dealing with Christian religious tourism. There is a survey made to find out firstly how religious tourism is understood and what the important destinations for religious touri...
This paper examines the changing roles of traditional religious institution in a renowned West African kingdom of Benin, in Nigeria and highlights how religious institutions have been transmogrified to support the pervasiveness of sex trafficking in the region. It relies on ethnographic data generated though key informant ...
Full Text Available The article considers four spaces where media processes involve religious communities and agents: the spaces of production, of representation, of media communication, and of distribution network and institutional framework for circulation. These three spaces systematise the research question posed to the specific source. Furthermore the concept documentary media as viewed from a semio-pragmatic perspective is introduced. Discussion of the commercial series I’m a Mormon shows how different modes define documentary media according to the three spaces.
Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag basiert – mit dem Hinweis auf die zunehmende Präsenz der herkunftsorientierten religiösen Einrichtungen in Europa – auf dem Argument, dass die islamisch-religiöse Bildung in den Schulen Europas überdacht werden muss und ihr eine entscheidende Rolle zukommt. Neben den herkunftsorientierten religiösen Einrichtungen in Europa wird in diesem Beitrag die Bedeutung des islamischen Religionsunterrichts aus dem Blickwinkel des kontextualisierten Islams beleuchtet. Mittels Fallbeispielen zur religiösen Bildung am religiösen Markt (= religiöse Institutionen außerhalb des Schulraums wird in diesem Beitrag aufgezeigt, dass der islamische Religionsunterricht im Gegensatz zu den religiösen Institutionen keine Monopolkirche sein darf, in der vorwiegend eine Art Volksfrömmigkeit vermittelt wird. Opportunities and Challenges of Religious Education in Schools – A Muslim Perspective This contribution is based on the argument that the role of Islamic religious education at schools should be reconceived in relation to the growing presence of origin-oriented religious institutions in Europe. In addition to the origin-oriented religious institutions in Europe, this paper aims to present the importance of Islamic religious education from the perspective of contextualized Islam. Based on case studies for religious education in the religious market (outside the education area this paper shows that the Islamic religious education cannot offer Church`s monopoly and act like origin-oriented religious institutions to mediate popular piety.
The attached (to mother) fetus-infant finds his religious expression in Buddhism. The attached (to group) juvenile finds his religious expression in Judaism and other tribalisms. The attached (to spouse) adult finds his religious expression in agnosticism and secularism. Attached phases are placid and of progressively decreasing emotional intensity. The three detaching phases are hurtful and hence soteriological, and are also of progressively decreasing emotional intensity. The toddler-young child finds his religious expression in Christianity, the adolescent in atheism and/or Marxism, and the aged, sick or dying plucks at any religious or secular aid.
Olusegun Noah Olawoyin
Full Text Available Religious Pluralism is one of many forms of pluralism in contemporary globalised world. Some others include ethnic pluralism, value pluralism, doctrinal pluralism, ethical pluralism, political pluralism. Religious pluralism is, however, one of the most important in contemporary society, considering globalization and the role of religions in many conflicts. It has its root in poltitical liberalism. Religious pluralism is a hot debate in social sciences and in Theology and Religious Studies. This paper argues that religious pluralism, which is an acceptance of plurality as normative, is not a monolithic theory. The different religious context in which it is being discussed, the different disciplinary and philosophical influences resulted in various and even contradictory types. However, this paper is a ‘mapping’ of the contour of contemporary discussions. Critically reviewing relevant literature, two major theories of religious pluralism were identified: identist and differential/complementary. Each of these also has subdivision.
Full Text Available Vivid debates were encountered in recent years on the subject of religious freedom ethics. The politic correctness attitude became many times a coercion instrument for suppressing the communitarian interests by promoting individual interests, instituting the minority tyranny that reduced to silence the communitarian interests. This might also create a disproportional representation in society for communitarian religious interests. The question is: whose religious interests should prevail? Should there be more guarantees given by the governments for the long existing, larger, and traditional religious groups, compare with the guarantees provided for the newer and smaller religious groups? Those questions provide a glimpse of the existing tension in the society on the subject of religious freedom. The present paper should answer these types of questions, explaining the tension and giving possible answers from a religious freedom normative approach.
Miriam Abu Salem
Full Text Available In the Italian system freedom of worship provided by the Constitution is safeguarded by unilateral and contractual norms, sanctioned for minority confessions by an agreement, named intesa, that also concerns dietary issues. Muslim communities, however, as they have no intesa with the Italian state, are always compelled to negotiate in respect of their religious norms. Religious freedom concerns- not only ritual acts, but also behaviours including dietary ones, which are based on religious beliefs. The aim of this paper is to critically reconstruct how Italy takes charge of religiously-motivated needs concerning food and beverages, both for those confessions holding an intesa (such as Hebraism and for those not (Islam, in order to trace the real degree to which freedom of worship is guaranteed in Italy. The analysis will be focused on the bargaining for religious dietary rules in schools and in constraining institutes, as they are main social spaces of confrontation between believers and the state.
Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious buildings take their place in opposition to the secular surroundings, how they, as evocations of the sublime, help believers to move beyond the boundaries of modern subjectivity, and how they, in their...
Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Geertz, Armin W.; Roepstorff, Andreas
institutions, i.e. the Religion, Cognition and Culture (RCC) research area at The Faculty of Theology, Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience (CFIN) and The Danish Pain Research Centre (DPRC) at the University of Aarhus and Aarhus University Hospital. The team will design fMRI (functional magnetic...... hypothesize that the target group will have a higher pain threshold and pain tolerance during religious practice compared to a non-religious control group, and the fMRI experiments are expected to show reduced neural activity (BOLD) in areas of the brain correlating with pain experience during personal prayer...... and religious stimuli (target) and increased neural activity in reward systems during personal prayer and religious stimuli (target). To complement the clinical experiments, field work in Mauritius during the Hindu Thaipusam Festival 2010 will explore how pain in an online ritual setting is experienced...
José Luis Meza Rueda
Full Text Available Religious education in Colombia, according to Law 115 of 1994, is an area of fundamental training. However, its purpose of promoting the religious dimension of human beings and understanding the role of religion in culture is far from being achieved, because, in practice, it is considered as an area of second order, is disjointed from the curriculum and is still working as the “religion lesson” of the past. What to do against this? Could it be another way of thinking about religious education? We estimate that, as presuppositions and motivations of both liberation theology and liberating pedagogy are still valid today, they may provide clues in this respect. Consequently, this paper not only makes a detailed reading of this reality in some official educational institutions in Colombia, but also sheds light for the school religious education (ERE to be liberating.
This article is a preliminary survey of the media usage of Sunni religious actors during the Syrian conflict. It traces the adoption of new media by religious actors, and analyses the kind of authority these actors have sought to embody, whether regime supporting, oppositional or jihadist...
Hobolt, S.B.; van der Brug, W.; de Vreese, C.H.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; Hinrichsen, M.C.
Research on Euroscepticism focuses increasingly on the role of group identities: national identities and attitudes towards multiculturalism. Yet hardly any attention has been paid to the way in which religious intolerance shapes Euroscepticism. We argue that religious intolerance influences not only
Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding
Across 800 regions of the World, this research shows that people are more religious when living in regions that are more frequently razed by natural disasters. This is in line with psychological theory stressing that religious people tend to cope with adverse life events by seeking comfort in the...
Uecker, Jeremy E; Ellison, Christopher G
Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one's custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family-but not a stepparent family-is positively associated with religious disaffiliation and religious switching and negatively associated with regular religious attendance. Accounting for parental religious characteristics, however, explains sizable proportions of these relationships. Accounting for parental religious affiliation and attendance, growing up with a single parent does not significantly affect religious attendance. Parental religiosity also moderates the relationship between growing up with a single parent and religious attendance: being raised in a single-parent home has a negative effect on religious attendance among adults who had two religiously involved parents.
Elliott, Timothy Lynn; Romito, Lorien
Students studying at US institutions of higher education come from a broad range of religious and non-religious traditions. Yet religion is often a "no go" topic of discussion within the American cultural context and educators frequently lack the training to engage in productive conversations about this aspect of students' identities.…
Despite the international controversies surrounding religious restrictions and freedoms, the topic has only recently received substantial research attention. Drawing on this new body of research, and multiple research projects in progress, this address explores both the origins and consequences of religious restrictions in the global arena. To understand the motives for restrictions, I propose hypotheses in three areas: the relationship or lack of relationship between institutional religion and the state, the willingness and capacity of the state to ensure freedoms, and the larger social and cultural pressures restricting freedoms, including social and political movements targeting minority religions. Turning to the consequences of religious restrictions, I explore how and why restrictions alter the religious economy (i.e., formation, supply and operation of religions) and are associated with higher levels of religious persecution, religious violence and intrastate conflict in general. Finally, I review additional areas where research is needed. PMID:25364225
It has been reported that a growing number of youngsters from Western Europe are engaging in conflicts motivated by religious and political conflicts in the Middle East. This paper explores the reasons behind this seemingly religious radicalization from the point of view of the youngsters...... youngsters and parents of youngsters who have chosen a radicalized path in life. The paper will shed light on how the sense of and yearning for belonging and recognition have to be taken into account in our understanding of homegrown religious radicalization...
Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel
Women are found to be more religious than men and more likely to use religious coping. Only few studies have explored religious gender differences in more secular societies. This population-based study comprised 3,000 Danish men and women (response rate 45 %) between 20 and 40 years of age....... Information about demographics, religiousness and religious coping was obtained through a web-based questionnaire. We organized religiousness in the three dimensions: Cognition, Practice and Importance, and we assessed religious coping using the brief RCOPE questionnaire. We found substantial gender...... differences in both religiousness and religious coping. Nearly, 60 % of the women believed in some sort of spirit or in God compared to 40 % of the men. Generally, both men and women scored low on the RCOPE scale. However, for respondents reporting high levels of religiousness, the proportion of men who...
Goplen, Joanna; Plant, E Ashby
For some people, religion strongly influences their worldviews. We propose that religious outgroups threaten the foundational beliefs of people with strong religious worldviews (RWVs) by endorsing alternative belief systems and that this threat contributes to religious prejudice. To examine these ideas, we developed a measure of RWV strength and assessed the role of RWV threat in religious prejudice. Across five studies, strength of RWV was related to religious prejudice, including derogation and denial of alternative religious viewpoints, as well as support for suppressing, avoiding, and even aggressing against religious outgroups. These responses were strongest toward religious outgroups whose worldviews were the most different, and therefore most threatening. Mediational analyses revealed that strong RWV people expressed heightened prejudice because of the worldview threat posed by religious outgroup members. These findings indicate that the avoidance and subjugation of religious outgroups can serve as a worldview protection strategy for some people. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Two approaches to development, the Farming systems approach and the Basic Christian Community approach are examined in terms of success rates. Both approaches record a partial success due to one – sided emphasis on development. The farming systems approach which enjoys financial support from funding ...
Czasopismo poświęcone poezji religijnej i sakralnej, edukacji, religii, kulturze i wychowaniu. The Periodical is dedicated to religious poetry and sacred poetry, education, religion, culture and upbringing.
Since ancient time,literature has being a hot topic that scholars concern.Latin religious literature is the mainstream of medieval literature.This paper analyzes medieval literature from three aspects which are the religious cultural background,main characteristics and achievements.What’s more,the thesis summarizes its influence to literature afterwards,and provides suggestion to the contemporary literature in China.
Muzaffer Ercan Yılmaz
This study provides an analytical discussion for the issue of religious fundamentalism and itsrelevance to conflict, in its broader sense. It is stressed that religious fundamentalism manifests itself in twoways: nonviolent intolerance and violent intolerance. The sources of both types of intolerance and theirconnection to conflict are addressed and discussed in detail. Further research is also suggested on conditionsconnecting religion to nonviolent intolerance so as to cope with the problem...
Full Text Available The study of why a fundraising professional would choose to leave his or her employer is critical to the ongoing success of religiously based nonprofit organizations as they work to achieve their mission. Without continuity in the donor relationship, donors will likely leave the organization or become disenfranchised. This study focuses on development professionals at Seventh-Day Adventist institutions across North America. The results of this study are applicable to other religiously based nonprofit organizations. The present article reveals the reasons affecting employee retention and proposes approaches to mitigate the loss of valuable employees. Data were gathered using a structured online survey and analyzed for its descriptive outcomes.
Full Text Available This article discusses how Indonesian state manages its religious diversity. The state policies on religious diversity cannot be understood without analyzing the history of how the founding fathers decided to choose Indonesia as neither secular nor Islamic country, but somewhere between the two. The author discusses three topics, namely the recognized religions, Muslim fear of Christianization, and dialogue and inter-religious harmony. Based on the Decree No.1/1965, Confucianism was one of six religions recognized by the state. However, in the Soeharto era, around 1979, this religion was dropped from the list, and only after his fall Confucianism has been rehabilitated, and even the Chinese New Year has been included as one of the national holidays in Indonesia. In terms of Muslim-Christian relations, there were tensions since 1960s, particularly dealt with the issue of the high number of Muslims who converted to Christianity. It was in this situation that in 1967 a newly built Methodist Church in Meulaboh, Aceh, was closed by Muslims, arguing that the Church was a concrete example of the aggressiveness of Christian missions because it was built in a Muslim majority area. Since the Meulaboh case, the Muslims consistently insisted the government to accommodate their four demands: (1 restriction on establishing new places of worship; (2 restriction onreligious propagation, and control of foreign aid for religious institutions; (4 Islamic religion classes should be given to Muslim students studying in Christian schools; (5 inter-religious marriage should not be allowed. Apart from these contested issues, the government and religious leaders have been trying to avoid conflict and to establish cooperation and peace among religious groups in the country through inter-religious dialogues, either organized by the government or sponsored by the leaders of religious groups themselves. The author argues that specific socio-political contexts should be
Ritacco, Miguel A.
The ionizing radiation treatment of cultural and religious objects to control the arthropod fauna seems to be a non toxic, non contaminant process that, at the radiation dose needed to control the insects and other arthropods, is not detrimental to the objects. Since 1999 CNEA has been working on the radiodisinfestation of cultural and religious objects. The Laboratory of Radiodisinfestation of the Ezeiza Atomic Center has studied musical instruments, books, religious imagery, oil paintings, embalmed animals, bones, tapestry, clothes and sculptures, to identify the contaminant arthropods and to treat them by ionizing radiation at doses between 3 and 5 kGy in the Semi-Industrial Irradiation Plant of the Center. At present, in addition to these activities, the effects of the radiation on paintings are being studied with the Pratt Institute of New York as well as the radiation effects on different types of fabrics with the University of Buenos Aires. (author)
The article deals with forms of knowledge and types of research interests in scholarly work on Religious Education at the primary and lower secondary levels in Denmark throughout the heyday of the welfare state from the 1960s and up until the 2000s, when the welfare state model not least...... and thus in a changed institutional field. Drawing on the conceptual understanding of the field of educational sciences deriving from Hofstetter and Schneuwly (2002), the article analyzes ways of doing research in and related to Religious Education and the scholarly disciplines involved. Focus...... with regard to education was in transition. The point of departure is the work and oeuvre of K.E. Bugge, for many years – and remaining until now – the last professor of Religious Education in Denmark, namely at the Royal Danish School of Education (Danmarks Lærerhøjskole) which reorganized as Danish...
Roč. 20, č. 1 (2013), s. 137-152 ISSN 1350-7486 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : utraquism * Bohemia * religious history * religious symbolism * denominational culture * denominational monuments Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion
Wan Sabri Wan Yusof
Full Text Available Over the years, many organizations have involved in the implementation of inter-religious dialogue in Malaysia. However, there are stillthose who doubt the role and purpose of interreligious dialogue. This might be due to lack of information and understanding regardingthe methodology of dialogue and also about different types that it may take. The present study is aimed at exploring a few models ofinter-religious dialogue that have been practised by some organizations that actively involved in dialogue. The study focuses on a review of selected organizational or institutional dialoguemodels such as Center for Civilizational Dialogue (CCD, Students Representative Council of Malaysia Science University (HealthCampus and Inter-faith Spiritual Fellowship (INSaF. This study provides information concerning the various designs of inter-religiousdialogue model in Malaysia and proposes that different designs of inter-religious dialogue rely on its different types and goals. It is found that, the commonly practiced type of dialogue in Malaysia is educational type which focuses on exploring inter-religious commonalities as well as differences which consequently willincrease understanding and foster meaningful engagement between people of different ethnic and religious background in Malaysia. Thistype of dialogue is distinguished from conflict resolution types of dialogue which aims at identifying issues and generating action plansto conflicts or disputes.
Jean M. Twenge
Full Text Available Previous research found declines in Americans’ religious affiliation but few changes in religious beliefs and practices. By 2014, however, markedly fewer Americans participated in religious activities or embraced religious beliefs, with especially striking declines between 2006 and 2014 and among 18- to 29-year-olds in data from the nationally representative General Social Survey (N = 58,893, 1972-2014. In recent years, fewer Americans prayed, believed in God, took the Bible literally, attended religious services, identified as religious, affiliated with a religion, or had confidence in religious institutions. Only slightly more identified as spiritual since 1998, and then only those above age 30. Nearly a third of Millennials were secular not merely in religious affiliation but also in belief in God, religiosity, and religious service attendance, many more than Boomers and Generation X’ers at the same age. Eight times more 18- to 29-year-olds never prayed in 2014 versus the early 1980s. However, Americans have become slightly more likely to believe in an afterlife. In hierarchical linear modeling analyses, the decline in religious commitment was primarily due to time period rather than generation/birth cohort, with the decline in public religious practice larger (d = −.50 and beginning sooner (early 1990s than the smaller (d = −.18 decline in private religious practice and belief (primarily after 2006. Differences in religious commitment due to gender, race, education, and region grew larger, suggesting a more religiously polarized nation.
May 29, 2015 ... pay special attention to this challenge by putting in place innovative structures ... mediation strategy in terms of religious conflict management, prevention ..... Peace Moves towards Resolving Religious Conflicts in Nigeria.
Bernstein, Elizabeth; Jakobsen, Janet R
Through an analysis of alliances between secular and religious actors in US politics and a specific case study on anti-trafficking policy, we show that the intertwining of religion and politics in the US comes from two sources: 1) the secular political and cultural institutions of American public life that have developed historically out of Protestantism, and which predominantly operate by presuming Protestant norms and values; and 2) the direct influence on US politics of religious groups and organisations, particularly in the past quarter-century of lobby groups and political action committees identified with conservative evangelical Christianity. The sources of policies that promote gender and sexual inequality in the US are both secular and religious and we conclude that it is inaccurate to assume that religious influence in politics is necessarily conservative or that more secular politics will necessarily be more progressive than the religious varieties.
This article considers Religious Education (RE) from the perspective of socialization theory. After clarifying the concept of socialization, an understanding of socialization processes, requiring the simultaneous development of both a personal and a social identity, is linked with RE. The development of both a personal and a social identity calls…
Brink, Dennis Meyhoff
The article examines the history of the fear of religious satire in modern Europe. The article argues that this fear primarily concerns the potential dissolution of 'the social bond of society' or 'the moral and social order'. From the 17th Century until today, censorship measures and blasphemy l...
belangrijke rol speelt als inspiratiebron van geweld. • Tegelijkertijd is het duidelijk dat religie, zowel binnen het christendom als daarbuiten, als een belangrijke bemiddelende en helende factor functioneert, die mensen helpt met ervaringen van geweld om te gaan. Wat de Bijbel aangaat is er voor deze punten duidelijk een ...
Full Text Available Both religious modernism and religious fundamentalism appeared as problems in academic and theological literature at the beginning of the 20th century. They came about as the result of the dynamic development of modernistic ideology in Russia, the United States, Western Europe and the Islamic world. Today, the concepts of religious modernism and religious fundamentalism are widely used to describe religious processes and phenomena which are the result of interaction between religion (as a dynamic spiritual and social subsystem and society - as a social system experiencing evolution. The concept of religious modernism is traditionally associated with religious renewal, the contemporary world, and innovation. Fundamentalism, on the contrary, is an ideological commitment to the “roots and origins” of religion. Under the aegis of fundamentalism, any religious idea, value or concept has a right to exist. Religious Studies, during the course of time and the production of ever new material, encountered a serious theoretic-methodological problem: How can various religious movements and religious traditions be organized into groups since some of them combine elements of religious modernism and of religious fundamentalism? Already at the end of the nineteen-eighties, the well-established view deﬁning “fundamentalism-modernism” as contrary positions had to be rethought. Studies dating from the nineteen-nineties and the beginning of the new millennium concentrated on noting the social origins and the political character of these phenomena. They demonstrated that neither fundamentalism nor modernism present the whole picture. The lines dividing them are so blurred, that they become conﬂ uent. Consequently, the author concludes that religious fundamentalism and religious modernism are ambivalent phenomena, which can, on occasion, interact with each other.
Kelly, Eugene W., Jr.
Presents eight categories of client attitudes toward religion and suggests opportunities for religiously oriented counselor responses. Uses four categories to describes how religion may be associated with specific client issues. Contends that an informed appreciation of clients' religiousness and the religious dimensions of many client issues can…
Kevin Nobel Kurniawan
Full Text Available Religious intolerance is spreading within the Indonesian institution of education. Previous studies have shown that the growth of intolerance is due to the state’s regulation and pedagogical apparatus. In contrast to the previous studies, I argue that the intolerance is related to hidden curriculum applied by the institution of education. Normatively, the hidden curriculum contains the value of religious tolerance. However, factually, the author found that there are practices of intolerance, through the formal and informal spheres in the school’s structure, within the hidden curriculum. This article applies a qualitative approach with a mixed method research strategy to analyze data collected from students, teachers, and alumnis through field observation, in-depth interview, and survey.
Yu V Yatsutsenko
Full Text Available The contemporary social reality is marked by a considerable change of religious views and practices: the religion itself becomes a worldview option; the religious individuals are more autonomous from the religious institutions; individuals get an opportunity to construct and approve different beliefs; the religious identity transmission mechanisms weaken; the privatized religious ethics is legitimized outside the religious institutions. Danièle Hervieu-Léger’s theory presents one of the ways for the sociological conceptualization of the problems mentioned. The concept ‘bricolage’ is used by Hervieu-Léger as a technical explanation of the religious life deinstitutionalization. We define the bricolage as an individual practice that overcomes system-imposed modes and means of production, as an activity based on a random set of available elements. Hervieu-Léger notes that the main feature of the contemporary religiosity is the bricolage freedom, i.e. the freedom to construct an individual religious ethics. However, such a mode of social control does not necessarily lead to religious negligence or radical individualism. French sociologist believes that the generational transfers of religious identity are weakening and the in-out decisions in religious communities are becoming easier. According to Hervieu-Léger, such a movement itself becomes the main behavioral motif for contemporary religious agents for it is responsible not only for the individual religious pursuit, but for the collective construction and exchange of the religious experience.
The increased visibility of assertive forms of atheism has provoked much public debate. This article argues that new atheism primarily seeks to contest what it considers to be the unjustifiably powerful role of religion through a multifaceted challenge to religious beliefs, practices and institutions. Influential theories of power are drawn upon to unpack the character of new atheist positions. It is proposed that new atheism seeks to challenge four perceived ‘dimensions‘ of religious power, ...
J. van der Elst
Full Text Available This article reviews the intertextual relations between the poetry of the Dutch poet Lucebert and the Bible. Although Lucebert is by no means a religious poet he freely uses Biblical citations and allusions in his poetry. This has special relevance for one of his newest volumes of poetry entitled Troost de hysterische robot - Gedichten en een oratorium (Console the hysterical robot - Poems and an oratorio. The last part of this title refers to an oratorio - which can be defined as a lyrical-musical drama which usually has a religious substance. The Biblical jargon that Lucebert uses does not only refer to texts but also refers to isolated words or phrases which belong to Biblical or religious jargon in general. In his reflections on human destiny and fate, the poet uses many anchoring texts from the Bible. One comes to the conclusion that Lucebert's poems do not fall within the framework of a religious system, but he does use religion and then especially Biblical allusions to testify to his dissatisfaction with established institutions which include the church. The main stylistic device he uses to reach his objective is antithesis, which is also a topic of discussion in this article.
Full Text Available This paper explains how political, religious, and economic changes in Yogyakarta affect the formation of religious identity and social distance between different religious groups. The strengthening of religious identity in this area took place in the period of the Diponegoro War (1825-1830 when religious issues were used in the mobilization against the Dutch colonialist. Then, the spread of Christianity in Java at the end of 19th led to several tensions between missionaries and several Islamic organizations, but never developed into communal violence. In 1930s, the relation between religious groups remain harmonious due to the development of tolerant culture and pluralism. During the 1980s, the use of religious identity grew both in urban and rural areas in line with social processes of modernization. Da’wat activities on Campus (Lembaga Dakwah Kampus plays important roles in promoting religious life in urban areas. The 1998 political reform marked the rise of religious fundamentalist movements that to a certain degree contributes to social distance between religious groups.
Full Text Available After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks sought to establish a new atheistic order which would eradicate from the public consciousness all vestiges of "religious prejudices", which were regarded as a residue from the imperial era and an instrument used to exploit the masses. Even though it was generally held that religion would automatically disappear from socialist society when its material precondition, the class society, was abolished, the regime made concentrated efforts to speed up the process by means of virulent anti-religious propaganda. The ultimate goal was to wipe out the persistent remains of the bourgeois system of values. No force was to be used since it was feared this would merely offend the religious sentiments of the people and strengthen their adherence to religion. Theoretically, the ultimate goal was to be achieved through education and information, but in practice, anti-religious activities were at times quite brutal. These attacks were successful in curtailing the activities of religious institutions in Karelia, but did not bring to an end the religious practices of lay people, which were continued, in one form or another, throughout the entire Soviet period. One fundamental reason for the survival of religious rituals, both Christian and indigenous, was the fact that they were so deeply embedded in people's consciousness and intimately integrated with their everyday lives. Every important phase and turn in human life was sanctified by rituals. The goal of the present paper is to examine what forms anti-religious attacks took in Soviet Karelia and how people reacted to them. The focus is on the attacks against the very fundaments of the ritual complex of the church and, by extension, on the effects of these attacks on the indigenous ritual complex, which co-existed in parallel with that of the "official" religious institutions.
Д. В. Лук’янов
Full Text Available The influence of world globalization processes on the development of the religious legal systems has been analyzed in the paper. Globalization processes in the XXI century are regarding individuals, nations, and civilizations. Global transformations lead to qualitative changes in the socio-cultural relations and actualize a wide range of issues which are related to the formation of a new world culture. Modern globalization takes diverse range of public relations in its own orbit. The relationship between the legal systems in the twentieth century is some of the most important aspects of this process. However, the interaction of legal systems has significant differences from the interaction of economies of different countries. There are actual economic relations domination of Western financial and economic institutions and standardization of relevant rules. But the attempts to apply this approach to law lead to resistance to Western standards and the spread of major civilizational conflicts in different parts of the world. Globalization should be based on respect for cultural, religious and legal diversity. It has to ensure preservation of forced “Westernisation”. Significant differences in the impact of globalization on the convergence of legal systems of Western law (Romano-Germanic and Anglo-American and their impact on religious legal systems of Muslim, Hindu and Jewish law must be emphasized. The religious legal systems are not exposed to other systems and the related changes. This is due to such features as the divine nature, increased stability, specific sources of law etc. An important issue that requires further study is the reverse influence which religious law exercises to secularized modern legal system.
Elton Lima Macêdo
Full Text Available Introduction: Religion has helped the lower classes to raise the perspective of "divine justice" in the struggle for survival by allowing their believers to seek, in their practices, under the influence of religious leaders, the main guidelines to alleviate the suffering from the health-disease process. Objective: Unveil the limits and potentialities of religious leaders' influence on the health-disease process. Materials and Methods: Exploratory-type research, with a qualitative approach, based methodologically on the Historical Dialectical Materialism. For the data analysis, one used the discourse analysis technique proposed by Fiorin. Results: From the empirical universe, two analytical categories emerged: (1. Limits and possibilities of religious influence in relation to the health-disease process; 2. Vulnerabilities of the Unified Health System and the complementarity of religion: Interfaces of the health-disease process in postmodernity, in which religious practices, institutions and leaders express positively health care in the face of the disease process. However, the religious leader's power relations over the community and religious fanaticism make the search for religion to have a negative influence on people's health-disease process. Conclusion: Religious leaders encourage the complementarity between religion and medicine only at times when their believers need medium and high-complexity assistance, showing little attention to the preventive aspects of self-care, which reinforces the need to invest in new studies in the area.
This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either ‘liberal’ or ‘fundamentalist’ and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation. PMID:28344375
Norenzayan, Ara; Gervais, Will M
Although most people are religious, there are hundreds of millions of religious disbelievers in the world. What is religious disbelief and how does it arise? Recent developments in the scientific study of religious beliefs and behaviors point to the conclusion that religious disbelief arises from multiple interacting pathways, traceable to cognitive, motivational, and cultural learning mechanisms. We identify four such pathways, leading to four distinct forms of atheism, which we term mindblind atheism, apatheism, inCREDulous atheism, and analytic atheism. Religious belief and disbelief share the same underlying pathways and can be explained within a single evolutionary framework that is grounded in both genetic and cultural evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available As scholars and the public grope towards understanding emergent forms of religiosity (multiple-religious belonging, spiritual but not religious, interspirituality, notions of discernment, religious depth, and spiritual practice figure prominently in defining and assessing these forms. Some form of commitment to a particular religious tradition is often considered the most important factor in the discernment of religious depth, while “spiritual but not religious” is often seen as the amorphous searching or the drifting whims of an immature ego. I will argue, however, that failing to take into account the most mature forms of emerging religiosity is bound to miss important developments, just as similar methodologies would for traditional religions. Further, I point out problems with correlating religious depth with belonging to a particular religious tradition, and offer an alternate way to conceive of religious depth. In doing so I develop the concept of the religious quest as transformative journey, allowing for a more capacious understanding of religious consciousness. I then introduce interspiritual religious belonging, contrasting it with certain understandings of “multiple-religious” belonging, and providing mature examples of its embodiment. Finally, utilizing new surveys from Pew and PPRI showing accelerating growth among the “spiritual but not religious” and “religiously unaffiliated”-as well as expanding religious and racial diversity within the United States-I briefly reference potential political ramifications the interspiritual movement might have, and address the importance of developing mature theological perspectives from within it. It is my hope that the Theology Without Walls project can provide academic space for the latter.
Full Text Available The increased visibility of assertive forms of atheism has provoked much public debate. This article argues that new atheism primarily seeks to contest what it considers to be the unjustifiably powerful role of religion through a multifaceted challenge to religious beliefs, practices and institutions. Influential theories of power are drawn upon to unpack the character of new atheist positions. It is proposed that new atheism seeks to challenge four perceived ‘dimensions‘ of religious power, in particular (i religion’s role in public decision-making; (ii the ability of religious groups to shape policy agendas; (iii the power of religion to create preferences that run counter to an individual’s true interests and, (iv the role of religion in constituting forms of subjectivity more generally. Focussing particularly on the role of atheism in the UK, the paper also considers the implications such thinking has had on atheist practice and activism. The paper also considers how defenders of religion have reacted to the challenges posed by new atheism. It is argued that religious groups and authors have largely focussed on defending the role of religious faith and the significance of God in people’s lives, rather than explicitly defending what new atheists consider to be the unfair institutional privilege accorded to some religious organisations.
Nina Mariani Noor
Full Text Available Religious education which is taught in schools has a significant role in forming religious exclusivism and inclusivism, especially in Indonesia. It influences student’s views on others. It also depends on the way those religion educations taught. There is also a need to have more efforts to bring the idea of interfaith dialogue into educational system including in higher educational level. There are some educational institutions which already involved in inter-faith dialogue in their curriculum such as the CRCS (Center for Religious and Cross Cultural Studies and the ICRS (Indonesian Consortium for Religious Studies at Gadjah Mada University. However, the number of primary educational institutions which involves interfaith dialogue is still limited. This work suggests that, for today’s situation in Indonesian multicultural society, a need for reforming religion education curriculum in primary education is emerging. To make interfaith dialogue real in schools, the Ministry of Education in collaboration with Ministry of Religious Affairs is in a front line to arrange a new curriculum on religious education to be more pluralistic and affirm religious diversity in Indonesia including multi-religious education or inter religious education. Key words: religious, multicultural, education, interfaith.
Nigeria with over 150 million people consists of muslims and christians who live across the country. The religious divide in the country crisscrosses more than 250 ethnic groups as well as deep political divisions that cross religious lines. Over the last decade, numerous 'hotspots' around the country have suffered from ...
Hatib A. Kadir
Full Text Available Sociological discussion of globalisation is preoccupied with the political, economic, and military dimension of it, with little attention to its religious aspect. This paper attempts to trace the impacts of globalisation on religion and religious responses, the argument of which derives mainly from the so-called “Bridge-Building Program” organised by CRCS & ICRS-UGM in 2008. It argues that though they share a common concern, people of different faiths are at risk of deepening the problems rather than offering solutions in view of their different responses for which we categorise them into different but overlapping categories -ideological, ambivalent, integrative, exclusive, and imitative. It then leads to a more fundamental question of whether interfaith cooperation is possible given those different and sometime opposing responses. [Dalam kajian sosiologi, diskusi mengenai globalisasi kerap kali semata-mata ditinjau dari sisi politik, enonomi dan militer, sementara dimensi agama sering kali dikesampingkan. Artikel ini membahas dampak globalisasi terhadap agama dan respon komunitas agama terhadap globalisasi. Data yang muncul dalam artikel ini diambil dari sebuah workshop berjudul“Bridge- Building Program.” Melalui artikel ini, saya berpendapat bahwa, meskikomunitas agama-agama memiliki keprihatinan yang sama terhadap dampak globalisasi, namun respon mereka cenderung mempertajam persoalan yang diakibatkan globalisasi, ketimbang memberikan solusi. Respon tersebut dalam dikategorikan –meski tidak kaku- dalam: respon ideologis, ambivalen, integratif, ekslusif dan imitatif. Selanjutnya, artikel juga mengulas pada pertanyaan mendasar mengenai apakah kerjasama antar agama mungkin dilakukan menyimak ragam respon yang saling bertentangan tersebut.
Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Möller, Sören; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Vitved, Astrid Roll; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Hvidt, Niels Christian
Recent research suggests that epidemiological forces in religion and health can have opposed effects. Using longitudinal data of people aged 50+ included in wave 1 (2004-2005) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), and followed up through waves 2 (2006-2007), 4 (2011) and 5 (2013), we examined two forms of religious internalization and their association with health. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine all associations. Taking part in a religious organization was associated with lower odds of GALI (global activity limitation index) (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.75, 0.98) and depressive symptoms 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93), whereas being religiously educated lowered odds of poor self-rated health (SRH) 0.81 (95% CI 0.70, 0.93) and long-term health problems 0.84 (95% CI 0.74, 0.95). The more religious had lower odds of limitations with activities of daily living 0.76 (95% CI 0.58, 0.99) and depressive symptoms 0.77 (95% CI 0.64, 0.92) than other respondents, and compared to people who only prayed and did not have organizational involvement, they had lower odds of poor SRH 0.71 (95% CI 0.52, 0.97) and depressive symptoms 0.66 (95% CI 0.50, 0.87). Conversely, people who only prayed had higher odds of depressive symptoms than non-religious people 1.46 (95% CI 1.15, 1.86). Our findings suggest two types of religiousness: 1. Restful religiousness (praying, taking part in a religious organization and being religiously educated), which is associated with good health, and 2. Crisis religiousness (praying without other religious activities), which is associated with poor health.
Spirituality, even within traditional religious practices, can inspire environmentally aware lifestyles. To help this "green fire" burn well, experiential educators should acknowledge religious beliefs and practices and avoid perpetuating the modern spiritual-secular rift. A "critical experientialism" is needed when it comes to…
Gerdes, Ida Marie; Geertz, Armin W
Selvom religiøs omvendelse har været gennemanalyseret inden for psykologien og sociologien er det vor opfattelse at den seneste neurovidenskabelige forskning kan kaste nyt lys på emnet. Det er vor påstand at omvendelse drejer sig om religiøse identitetsdannelsesprocesser, hvor der er tale om gru...
Foster, Charles R.
The voluntarism in Protestant theologies and practices has significantly shaped the education of lay and professional Protestant religious educators in networks of voluntary and academic training programs that through the years have emphasized the interdependence of pedagogical, religious/theological, and social science theories and practices.…
Sunier, J.T.; de Witte, M.; de Koning, M.J.M.
This special issue brings together anthropologists in the field of religion with the aim of exploring the aesthetic dimensions of authority in religious leadership.Taking aesthetics to refer to the range of sensory forms and experiences that shape the relation between religious practitioners and
With special attention to Denmark, this article discusses to what degree religious education in public school in the Scandinavian countries, often said to be among the frontrunners as regards non-confessional religious education, reflects and accommodates an increased religious pluralism as well...... the 'repoliticization' and 'securitization' of religion (with special regard to Islamophobia, Islam and immigrant Muslim minorities), concludes, inter alia, that parts of the RE curricula do not just include a wider variety of religions but also helps to counter, if not stop, changes that have to do with the new...... plurality of religions. The analysis indicates that religious education is meant to serve the promotion of social cohesion by way of promoting knowledge and understanding of the new multi-religious world, at the same time as it continues to promote and propagate, for example, Danish culture as Christian...
Full Text Available This study attempts to investigate the implementation of religious guidance for prostitute and its influence to Woman Social Institution Silih Asih in Palimanan, Cirebon. It formulated on four research questions: 1 How is the process of religious guidance in Social Institution Silih Asih; 2 What is the participants’s efforts to achieve the goal of religious guidance; 3 How is the material of religious guidance in Social Institution Silih Asih Palimanan; 4 How is the approach and method of religious guidance applied in Social Institution Silih Asih Palimanan to support and achieve the aim of religious guidance. The study used qualitative-naturalistic, research design with descriptive method. The data were collected through observation, interview, and document analysis. The results of the study show that: 1 there were two stages of religious guidance: identification stage and rehabilitation process; 2 the participants were identified by their age, marital status, education background, parents’ job, and reasons of being prostitute; 3 the materials presented on theoretical and natural materials based on Islam thoughts; 4 the religious guidance used various approaches: experience, habituation, emotional, rational, and holistic.
Over the past decade, the largest growth in Sub-Saharan Africa's private higher education has been among institutions with religious affiliations. This article examines the rise of private, religious higher education in Sub-Saharan Africa with international affiliations. Using an analysis of multiple stakeholders from the region and international…
Full Text Available This paper attempts to study the correlation between IRIB’s Religious and Non-religious programs, and the levels of religiosity in Iran. Accordingly, I would firstly explain the key concepts as religious program, non-religious program, religious broadcasting, and Ideological broadcasting; then, analyzing some instant programs, from non-religious to religious, I would attempt to formulize their impacts on one’s definition of religion –either as a private or simultaneously private and public matter. It is shown that in the trilogy of purely religious, purely entertaining, and mediated religious programs, it is the third which satisfy a religious television’s ideal.
Marianne Nilsen Kvande
Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that gender may moderate the relationship between religiousness and mental health in most countries, but few studies have been conducted in Norway and Denmark. This study examined gender differences in religious experiences and church attendance as predictors of existential well-being among 295 women and 233 men from the general Norwegian population. Analyses showed that the structural equation models for women and men did not differ significantly on the global level. The models for women and men, however, showed different patterns. Among men, church attendance and negative religious experiences predicted existential well-being; among women, positive and negative religious experiences were related to existential well-being, but church attendance was not. The present findings suggest that men may benefit more from active religiousness, whereas women may benefit more from affective religiousness. Comparing these results with research in other cultural contexts, we find that different operationalizations of church attendance yield the same types of patterns across cultural contexts. Consequently, the benefits of religiousness may be similar for women and men irrespective of cultural context.
Torre, Renée de la
Full Text Available Neste artigo se argumenta a relevância do estudo da religiosidade popular para entender as novas formas da religiosidade contemporânea no contexto latinoamericano. Diferente das posturas teóricas dos sociólogos da religião europeia, que assinalam a pertinência do indivíduo como unidade analítica para entender as transformações religiosas próprias da pós-modernidade, este artigo argumenta que a religiosidade popular entendida como entre-meio entre o tradicional e o emergente, entre o local e o transnacional, entre o social e o individual e entre a sacralidade profana e a profanação da religiosidade tradicional permite entender os fenômenos em que a religiosidade se pratica nas margens da instituição (próprias das expressões new age e neoesotéricas, mas sem desatender os processos em que se legitimam as novas formas desinstitucionalizadas da religiosidade, buscando âncoras e linhagens que geram a continuidade do peso da tradição da religiosidade popular
Lynch, Patrick; S. J.; Mizak, Pat
A growing interest in the communication to students of the mission and identity of a higher education institution prompted this study about the presence of Catholic, Jesuit values in the introductory religious studies course at a faith-based university. To conduct this study a survey instrument was developed, piloted, further refined, and then…
Weinberg, Lawrence D.
This article examines charter schools from the perspective of religious institutions and parents that may want to open such schools. Religion-based charter schools also pose unique policy and legal questions because charter schools are a singular reform method. It examines the relevant, recent and historical, legal cases, and relevant examples of…
Uecker, Jeremy E.; Ellison, Christopher G.
Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one’s custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family—but not a stepparent family—is positively associa...
S. V. Trophimov
Full Text Available The proposed paper outlines concepts of the Religious individualism in modern Western society analyzed by the French sociologist Danièle Hervieu-Léger in “Religion in movement (1999”. Author proposes an assessment of the religious situation in the French society at the end of the XX century and discuss some examples. Particular attention is given to crisis of secular regulation of the religious in the modern society. The weakening of the regulatory capacity of religious institutions leads to a weakening of the secular state. Religious institutions should be able to implement the regime of the truth of faith, which makes the institutional power of the superior guarantor of common faith principles shared by all believers of the denomination. The system of “copying” the structures of the Catholic Church of the XVIII century adopted by the secular state, today is not more correspond nor religious organizations in general, neither even the modern structures of the organization of the Catholic Church in France, that become a problem for a state-confessional relation. Modern institutional disorganization in the religious field, contributing to the destabilization of the French model of secularism, weakened by political cultural and economic liberalization that undermine its principles values that historically based secular system itself. Institutional crisis of the truths of faith approval favours an increase in the number of belief systems of individual communities. The problem can not be solved a priori, legally separating the traditional, “recognized by law” and other religions. The changing religious situation the state must find a new model of interaction with religious groups and organizations. The material is useful for comparative studies of the religious situation in Russia and Western Europe.
Full Text Available The intellectual landscape of Europe bears the marks of a long history of cultural perceptions of, and scientific approaches to, religions. The sciences of religions had to establish their autonomy from churches and theologies. However, the cultural context and the institutional set-up of ‘laïcité’ did not foster the development of comparative religion, much less comparative theology. However, this situation may have an advantage: it should discourage the exercise of comparative theology as a sectarian endeavour apart from broader anthropological perspectives and concerns. Comparative theology should not become the last refuge for religious nostalgia. In Europe, interreligious relationships (and hence comparative theologies should not be isolated from simple or more sophisticated forms of indifference, agnosticism, or atheism. The active presence of a non-religious environment as well as the growing interest in Buddhism, are challenges to comparative theology: its contents, its approach, its intended audience.
Full Text Available Abstract The history of French teaching congregations during the twentieth century is quite unknown. Nevertheless, their experiences are of very high interest for historians who want to focus on social and religious transformations in contemporary societies. This research outlines two important events through some congregational archives: first, from World War I onwards, the return of the people who were forced into exile due to the Republican laws (1880s-1905; second, the way a Catholic group of women teachers, who decided to stay in France in spite of the Republican laws, adapted to this new context. Eventually, this article shows both internal and external adaptations of religious actors and institutions in modern societies, and its consequences on their legal, canonical and sociological situation.
Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset provide a count of Veteran by their religious affiliation and state of residence. The dataset set covers all 50 states, District of Columbia and other...
Byrnes, Deborah; Kiger, Gary
Determinants of religious prejudice were studied using 101 first, third, and fifth graders from rural and non-rural areas. Awareness of religious differences and living in religiously homogeneous rural areas were directly related to the expression of religious prejudice. Implications for curriculum development are discussed. (SLD)
Full Text Available This article has three parts: in the first part the authors discusses two theoretical ways of interpreting revival and revitalization of religion in Serbia. The first way takes religion as a public institution and implies mutual support of religious and non-religious factors, while the other way describes independent, internal religious revival emerging from the very core of religion and church as a divine institution and individual spiritual needs of believers for religiousness (terminal faith. In the second part, the author points to two different interpretations of empirical data on attachment to religion and church in Serbia accumulated in the last thirty years. The third part compares socio-demographic characteristics of religious people from twenty-five years ago and characteristics of contemporary believers.
Collar, A. C. F. ‘Network Theory and Religious Innovation’. In Greek and Roman Networks in the Mediterranean, edited by I. Malkin, C. Constantakopoulou, K. Panagopoulou, 144-157. Abingdon: Routledge......Collar, A. C. F. ‘Network Theory and Religious Innovation’. In Greek and Roman Networks in the Mediterranean, edited by I. Malkin, C. Constantakopoulou, K. Panagopoulou, 144-157. Abingdon: Routledge...
C. Reggiani; G. Rossini
Home bias affects trade in goods, services and financial assets. It is mostly generated by "natural" trade barriers. Among these dividers we may list many behavioral and sociological factors, such as status quo biases and a few kind of ‘embeddedness’. Unfortunately these factors are difficult to measure. An important part of ‘embeddedness’ may be related to religious attitudes. Is there any relation between economic home bias and religious attitudes at the individual tier? Our aim is to provi...
Gegelashvili, M; Meca, A; Schwartz, S J
In the present study we sought to clarify links between religious exclusivity, as form of intergroup favoritism, and indices of psychosocial functioning. The study of in group favoritism has generally been invoked within Social Identity Theory and related perspectives. However, there is a lack of literature regarding religious exclusivity from the standpoint of social identity. In particular, the ways in which religious exclusivity is linked with other dimensions of religious belief and practice, and with psychosocial functioning, among individuals from different religious backgrounds are not well understood. A sample of 8545 emerging-adult students from 30 U.S. universities completed special measures. Measure of religious exclusivity was developed and validated for this group. The results suggest that exclusivity appears as predictor for impaired psychosocial functioning, low self-esteem and low psychosocial well-being for individuals from organized faiths, as well as for those identifying as agnostic, atheist, or spiritual/nonreligious. These findings are discussed in terms of Social Identity Theory and Terror Management Theory (TMT).
Gomes, Joseph Flavian
We compute new measures of religious diversity and intolerance and study their effects on civil conflict. Using a religion tree that describes the relationship between different religions, we compute measures of religious diversity at three different levels of aggregation. We find that religious diversity is a significant and robust correlate of civil conflict. While religious fractionalization significantly reduces conflict, religious polarization increases it. This is most robust at the sec...
Veres, J A
Recent court cases illustrate the federal government's changing position toward automatic tax exemptions for members of religious institutes who are employed outside their institute. Before 1977, the IRS seemed inclined to assume that members acted as agents for their institute and that their income would not be taxable. In Fogarty v. U.S. the court ruled that a priest's income from a university teaching position was taxable because he was not acting as an agent for the Jesuits. In Schuster v. Commissioner, the court held for the government, stating that the "triangle relationship" among employee, outside third-party employer, and principal/religious institute was insufficient to warrant the necessary agency relationships. Samson v. U.S. questioned whether Sr. Mary K. Samson's county hospital work constituted "employment" for FICA tax purposes. The court concluded the tax was assessable on her wages because she was a county employee. It denied a rehearing after a dissenting judge concluded that past rulings were inconsistent and had little bearing on FICA taxation. The legal view of religious tax exemption is much narrower than 10 years ago. Catholic institutes must closely analyze the relationship between their members and outside third-party employers to avoid taxation. They must legally assert their control over their members' actions before the employment is in effect.
Artiklen argumenterer for at mange opfattelser af religiøsitet reducerer fænomenet til en slags moralitet. Med Wittgensteins filosofi som modeksempel, og i lyset af en modstilling mellem Hegel og Kierkegaards opfattelse af religiøsitet, betones religiøsitetens radikale karakter.......Artiklen argumenterer for at mange opfattelser af religiøsitet reducerer fænomenet til en slags moralitet. Med Wittgensteins filosofi som modeksempel, og i lyset af en modstilling mellem Hegel og Kierkegaards opfattelse af religiøsitet, betones religiøsitetens radikale karakter....
Full Text Available Means of harmonization of religious discourse are considered by studying communicational behaviour (verbal and nonverbal between the religion institution and believers. The following factors defining specificity of realization of harmonization in Orthodox and other religious texts are taken into account: the communication channel between the author and the reader, a defining speech genre, the command of language (communication code, and extra-linguistic factors. It is shown that sharing the general social, historical and national experience, as well as a lexical overlapping of actors on both sides of the communication channel are the deciding elements of the harmonization process. The analysis also shows that usage of rational argumentation is more likely to lead to harmonisation in comparison to other rhetoric tools (i. e. affective ones or story-telling. Rational and unemotional sermonic discourse is perceived as a sign of respect (namely, for the listener's intelligence. Another successful and much-applied way seems to be evoking a feeling of equality, unity and/or identity between clerics and their flocks.
A donor's or family's religious beliefs are to be ascertained in discussions about organ donation. The positions of the major faith groups about donation are reviewed, leading to the conclusion that the large majority of faiths take a positive stance toward donation. Other factors such as the emotional response, the cultural values, and the spiritual issues may be even more compelling for family members than religious beliefs. Conflicts between one's personal beliefs and the position of one's faith group about donation are to be assessed and processed.
Theword sin ismore of a religious termthan ordinary. It is basically an action of defiance. That is, an action through which one deviates from the correct way or through which one misses the mark. This paper looked at how the Jews of theOld andNewTestament periods understood the concept of sin in their society.
... Statute for Religious Freedom, in which Thomas Jefferson wrote that ``all men shall be free to profess... country that is tolerant, just, and strong. My Administration continues to defend the cause of religious...
Heather S. Gregg
Full Text Available Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from traditional terrorism; investigate three goals of religious terrorism (fomenting the apocalypse, creating a religious government, and establishing a religiously pure state; consider the role of leadership and target selection of religious terrorists; and, finally, suggest a range of counterterrorism strategies based on these observations.
Religiousness Index (IWSRI), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) were administered to 412 randomly selected senior secondary school students to evaluate personality traits, spirituality/religiousness, and psychopathology respectively.
... over its internal governance, and it may retain religious terms in its organization's name, select its..., practice and expression of its religious beliefs, provided that it does not use direct financial assistance...
Leonna Marrien U. Asi
Full Text Available This study assessed religious tourism in Batangas, Philippines on the following aspects: historical significance, holiness and spirituality, and customs and traditions. The assessments made were also subjected to tests of differences when the respondents are grouped as to either residents or tourists and according to their age, sex, educational attainment and employment. Results show that both tourists and residents generally concurred on all religious tourism indicators presented to them for assessment, although there were also few indicators that had lower mean assessments than the others. While the differences on the assessments made by the different groups of respondents were not statistically significant, the slight differences are still noticeable. In particular, residents had somewhat more favourable assessment than the tourists, older respondents more than the younger, males more than the females, those with higher education more than those with lower education, and government employees more than those who are not in government service. These slight but still noticeable differences, together with religious tourism indicators having lower mean assessments than the others, can serve as bases for making proposals on how to further enrich the religious tourism in Batangas.
Vanderwoerd, James R.; Cheng, Albert
Religious colleges and universities make up a substantial segment of the higher education landscape in North America, but the incidence of sexual violence on these campuses remains understudied. This study estimates the incidence of sexual violence on independent Christian campuses using a sample of part-time and full-time undergraduate students…
Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal that serves as a forum for disseminating research findings on issues relating to religion in general.The Journal aims at creating avenue for scholars to publish their research works on all aspects of religions. It seeks to promote critical research and ...
Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.
Notes that religion may be source of spiritual strength or source of conflict and guilt. Outlines importance of assessing religious beliefs of clients for treatment purposes and provides format for counselor to use. Says that, because counselors may be unaware of clients' individual perspectives, it is important to evaluate client's belief system…
Rayburn, Carole A.; And Others
This study examined stress, strain, and coping mechanisms in women religious leaders. Subjects were nuns (N=51), Reform women rabbis (N=45), Episcopal women priests (N=32), United Methodist clergywomen (N=45) and Presbyterian clergywomen (N=45), matched for age and years on the job and pulpit assignments. All subjects were given the Osipow and…
Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Möller, Sören; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen
% CI 0.75, 0.98) and depressive symptoms 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93), whereas being religiously educated lowered odds of poor self-rated health (SRH) 0.81 (95% CI 0.70, 0.93) and long-term health problems 0.84 (95% CI 0.74, 0.95). The more religious had lower odds of limitations with activities of daily......Recent research suggests that epidemiological forces in religion and health can have opposed effects. Using longitudinal data of people aged 50+ included in wave 1 (2004-2005) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), and followed up through waves 2 (2006-2007), 4 (2011......) and 5 (2013), we examined two forms of religious internalization and their association with health. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine all associations. Taking part in a religious organization was associated with lower odds of GALI (global activity limitation index) (OR = 0.86, 95...
This article discusses how religious education began at Esperanza College in North Philadelphia, one of the poorest counties of the United States. It also is the largest community of returning citizens in Pennsylvania. Student access and success in higher education continues to be impacted by the effects of structural racism and systemic poverty.…
In the chapter forming of religiousness in young adults in the view of current concepts, both normative (stadial concepts of religiousness) and non-normative, will be presented. The majority of research on religiousness of youth is carried out in the normative understanding of development, which refers to general trends of human psychological development, especially cognitive development (cognitive developmental concepts of religiousness), personality development (humanistic concepts of the d...
Walker, Ja'Nina J.; Longmire-Avital, Buffie
Religious faith has been instrumental in fostering positive mental health outcomes for historically disenfranchised populations, such as Black Americans. However, the religious institutional devaluing of same-sex behavior and identity fuels internalized homonegativity (i.e., negative thoughts regarding one's same-sex sexual behavior) for…
Simonson, Randy H.
Individuals who think about suicide but do not feel suicidally hopeless tend to be less religious and can therefore entertain thoughts of suicide unabated by religiousness. Religiousness, suicide ideation, and hopelessness were surveyed among 279 Idaho college students, 37 (13%) of whom were non-hopeless suicide ideators. A total of only 21 (7%)…
Full Text Available This article replies to Manuel Fasko’s “The Demystification of Nick Zangwill’s ‘Myth of Religious Experience’” (2017, showing how author’s argument against the possibility of religious experience presented in “The Myth of Religious Experience” (2004 remains in tact.
As countries' populations become more religiously diverse, a need to review the religious education syllabus that operates is often perceived. One such country is Zambia, which was not only traditionally religiously diverse but has become even more so with the advent of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism and other non-African faiths. This article…
of values like any other institution”. Our concern here is how religious truth that ought to be absolute has become relative thus producing many different religions in the world. Relativity of Religious Truths As Determinant. Of Religious Faith. Truth has been defined as that which conforms to essential reality, but is it absolute?
This project will analyze three state institutions in Tunisia, Egypt, and Yemen - the ... state-controlled religious institutions, and state-owned media - to assess the ... more freedom for people to express political, social, and economic demands, ...
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the structural preconditions of articulation of religious identities in Bosnia-Herzegovina from the historical perspective. These have been produced by the processes of Christianization and Islamization at the intersection of heterogeneous origin of Bosnian-Herzegovinian population, the influence of paganism and folk beliefs, and the geopolitical situation on the border line between the great empires. Due to the influence of these factors, these processes have never been successful in encompassing the entire population, which has always been divided among several simultaneously co-existing religious institutions: Catholicism, Christian Orthodoxy, the Bosnian Church and Islam. Through the institution of Millet, allowing its subjects relative cultural and social freedoms within their religious communities, the Ottoman Empire provides the communities with preconditions for ethnic modelling, but also for “political” articulation. The interplay of these agents has provided a base for interaction among the religious groups, which can be seen at two complementary levels: the vertical one, “the political”, ruled by hierarchical and discriminative relations; and the lateral one, “the social”, which is a sphere of egalitarian trans- and inter-ethnic social practices. Both levels have their religious aspects: at the first, it is about institutionalized religions; at the second, about “folk” religion, a syncretism of pre-Christian tradition and Christian and Islamic elements. Hence, religion has been acting in a totalizing way in Bosnian-Herzegovinian society, appearing both as a primary repertoire of symbolic elements and as a basic mechanism of further group identifications – ethnic and national.
Buchardt, Mette; Osbeck, Christina
The theme of this special issue is the epistemological conditions and significant features for doing research in religious education in the Nordic region. Historical and institutional conditions make up an important part of the background for understanding. The articles in this issue which...... are introduced here try to grasp and explore the conditions for scholarly knowledge production concerning the teaching of religion in the states in question: Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark....
Bergin, Allen E.; And Others
Assessed lifestyles of religious college students. Subjects with continuous religious development and mild religious experiences were healthier than those with discontinuous development and intense religious experiences; however, intense religious experiences enhanced adjustment. Religiousness and mental health did not correlate significantly, but…
Petrushkevych Maria Stefanivna
Full Text Available Religious communication is the complex object of scientific research that involves existential component and the inextricable link with relevant historical trends. Mass culture and the information society put pressure on modern religious communication. Media is actively integrating into the system of religious communication. Hegemony of mass communication is realized through the media and religious communicative system becomes the part of this hegemony. Peculiarities of religious communication processes are conditioned by consciousness of itself impact and the need to integrate into the media system.
ENGLISH: Educational institutions sometimes do not offer a space for (religious) difference. Based on this fact the term safe space is theoretically specified. It seems important to develop kindergartens as safe spaces in wich learning, belonging and recognizing are possible. As one characteristic of the culture of safe spaces the recognition of (religious) difference is pointed out, especially being sensitive about and broaching the issue of difference. DEUTSCH: Bildungseinrichtungen stellen...
Iruayenama, Mark, Abiye
This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London. Nigeria is constitutionally a secular country but its citizens are rated among the most religious in the world by several surveys. Religious symbolism is conspicuous in Nigeria, littered from educational institutions to work environments and market places. Semiotics and semantics have a rich history of the study of symbols, however, symbols are also utilized as primes in psycholog...
Kodila-Tedika, Oasis; Agbor, Julius
This paper investigates the effects of religion on a broad set of development outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. We regroup these outcomes into three broad categories, namely, development process outcomes (growth, investment, conflict, and government quality), institutional outcomes (property rights and the rule of law) and social development outcomes (social and gender protection). Using two new measures of religion - religious fractionalization (RELFRAC) and religious polarization (RELPOL), al...
Full Text Available Based on category, this program leads to three social issues. First, public awareness about the significance of the view of life that is more tolerant, open and more pluralis amid development of industrialization. Industrialization that developed in centers of growth (growth poles, which prominently still holdsrural-agrarian values, has given rise to what is called the proletarian farmers. "Proletarisation" was preceded by transition process of the function of farmland into industrial land, thus causing economic activity became more intense and integrated into industrial capitalism. This leads to the occurrence of an identity crisis that led to theopposition attitude in most communities, especially those who associated with the existence of other religions. Second, these changes have an impact on the emergence of community with radical attitude by carrying the religious themes. The construction of houses of worship, which is actually the "House of God" for any religions, considering the dangers may threaten the existence of the community and other faiths. The value system was formed, as a society oppressed became one of the motivators and catalysts for the inception of religious radicalism at the low level community. Third, the Government's policy regarding the construction of a harmony is among believers. This last part is related to the concept of good governance. As an institutional approach, the concept of good governance (good governance is defined as the interaction between the organizers of the State (Government and groups in the community. According to the World Bank, there are at least four important dimensions of good governance, i.e. example, effective legal framework, information that is in line with the transparency (accountability or Government and the availability of well-educated workforce. In this context, the position of District Government of Bekasi becomes one of the institutions, which is responsible for the running of the
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to develop an explorative analysis of the functions and relations among actors involved in the organization and implementation of the Saint Agatha Religious Festival in Catania attracting nearly one million presences during the first week of February. The research is based on the survey of different sources of information, such as literature, news, media, and deep interviews with key informants pertaining to civil and religious institutions. The survey is designed to profile the Festival in terms of history, the character of the stakeholders, size, origin of assets, venues used, decision-making structure, and programs. The Festival’s use of volunteers and sponsors is specifically addressed. Empirical research sketches the network of stakeholders, the relationship between organizations, the importance of local social actors and strategies in enhancing local culture and sustainable tourism, regarding, in particular, the socio-cultural impacts of religious tourism. The local society has historical peculiarities which impose prudential considerations in generalizing about findings, and a comparative study with other Sicilian and/or Italian religious festivals will be important, mainly in order to delineate the actual sustainability of Festivals. The framework developed in this study can be helpful in the application of local social policies and also help comparative festival studies.
@@ It would be impossible to understand India without any knowledge about the religions of this country. India is a developing country with many religions, nationalities and languages. This nation has long been noted for its democratic politics and multiculture. India was founded on the principle of secularism, but at the same time it has suffered from religions. Therefore, to have a clear idea about the basic conditions of India's multiple religious beliefs is the foundation for studies of its religions of the country, and is also one key to grasping Indian social politics. In early September 2004, the Indian government published religious data from the 2001 census. Accordingly, we can make some basic judgments about the religions in today's India.
James, J S
The biotechnology industry is concerned about a coalition of mainstream religious leaders, working with Jeremy Rifkin of the Foundation of Economic Trends, who oppose the patenting of human and animal life forms, body parts, and genes. The coalition called a press conference on May 18 to ask the government to prohibit the current patenting practices for genetic engineering. The biotechnology industry argues that patents indicate that a company's research tool has significant value, and encourages capitalists to invest their dollars in the development of new treatments for diseases. They also argue that the 29 biotech drugs that are on the market have been developed as a result of patents on genes. Although most business leaders are united in opposing restrictions, many scientists are divided, citing both religious and scientific reasons.
This paper reviews the history of the religious debate on nuclear energy over the last thirty years. In the 1950s, religious statements recognized the peaceful uses of atomic energy as a blessing from God and called upon world leaders to promote its use. Nuclear energy programmes were launched in this decade. In the 1960s, there was still religious approval of nuclear energy, but questions about ethics arose. It was not until the 1970s, after the oil crisis, that serious questioning and criticism of nuclear energy emerged. This was particularly true in the United States, where the majority of statements originated - especially in 1979, the year of the Three Mile Island accident. Around this time, the World Council of Churches developed the concept of the just, participatory and sustainable society. The meaning and use of these terms in the nuclear energy debate is examined. This paper also compares the balanced debate of the World Council with the case against the plutonium economy prepared by the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA. Three religious statements from the 1980s are examined. A United Church of Canada resolution, critical of nuclear energy, is compared with a favourable report from the Methodist Church in England. Both use similar values: in one case, justice, participation and sustainability; in the other case, concern for others, participation and stewardship. There are not many Catholic statements on nuclear energy. One which is cautious and favourable is examined in detail. It is concluded that the use of concepts of justice, participation and sustainability (or their equivalents) has not clarified the nuclear debate
Modern computer games are huge virtual worlds that raisesophisticated social and even religious issues. The “external” aspect of thereligious dimension of computer games focuses on the problem of the polysemanticrelation of world religions (Judaism,Christianity, Islam, Buddhism) to computer games. The“inner” aspect represents transformation of monotheistic and polytheisticreligions within the virtual worlds in the view of heterogeneity and genredifferentiation of computer games (arcades, acti...
Sallam, H N; Sallam, N H
Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi'a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction.
Sallam, HN; Sallam, NH
Abstract Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi’a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction. PMID:27822349
Horníčková, K.; Šroněk, Michal
Roč. 64, č. 6 (2016), s. 480-496 ISSN 0049-5123 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : religious violence * image * historical reality Subject RIV: AL - Art , Architecture, Cultural Heritage
P. J. Watson
Full Text Available According to the Religious Openness Hypothesis, the religious and psychological openness of American Christians is obscured by a defensive ghettoization of thought associated with a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround and can be discovered instead within a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround. A test of this claim examined Religious Fundamentalism, Biblical Foundationalism, Quest, and Multidimensional Quest Scales in 432 undergraduates. Christian Religious Reflection, Religious Schema, and Religious Orientation measures clarified these two ideological surrounds. Partial correlations controlling for Biblical Foundationalism described a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround that more strongly rejected Quest and that more generally displayed a failure to integrate faith with intellect. Partial correlations controlling for Religious Fundamentalism revealed a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround that was more open to Quest and that offered numerous demonstrations of an ability to unite faith with intellect. These data supplemented previous investigations in demonstrating that Christianity and other traditional religions have ideological resources for promoting a faithful intellect.
Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidt, Niels Christian
Women are found to be more religious than men and more likely to use religious coping. Only few studies have explored religious gender differences in more secular societies. This population-based study comprised 3,000 Danish men and women (response rate 45 %) between 20 and 40 years of age. Information about demographics, religiousness and religious coping was obtained through a web-based questionnaire. We organized religiousness in the three dimensions: Cognition, Practice and Importance, and we assessed religious coping using the brief RCOPE questionnaire. We found substantial gender differences in both religiousness and religious coping. Nearly, 60 % of the women believed in some sort of spirit or in God compared to 40 % of the men. Generally, both men and women scored low on the RCOPE scale. However, for respondents reporting high levels of religiousness, the proportion of men who scored high in the RCOPE exceeded the proportion of women in using positive and especially negative coping strategies. Also, in a secular society, women are found to be more religious than men, but in a subset of the most religious respondents, men were more inclined to use religious coping. Further studies on religious coping in secular societies are required.
Joksimović Snežana D.
Full Text Available The paper analyses the research data on religiousness collected at different periods in Serbia and former Yugoslavia. The aim of the paper is to point to the tendencies in religious practice and the expansion of religiousness among young people in different periods, as well as individual psychological factors of religiousness. The data shows that the number of young people who declare themselves religious has increased significantly in the last 15 years, compared to the period of a quarter of century ago. In addition to the revival of tradition as an answer to social crisis and uncertainty which affects young people most, the increase in religiousness is connected to certain forms of social democratization as well as it being socially desirable. The data on social-demographic correlates of religiousness shows that the degree of religiousness varies depending on the age, gender, social background and education level. However, the more recent research data shows that these differences have become smaller which indicates a certain homogenization among young people. Religiousness is consistently and positively connected to authoritarianism, conformism and intolerance, while certain changes have occurred in regard to its connection with desirable social values. Similar to the tendency observed in other research on values the data on factors and correlates of religiousness, especially among young people, point to a specific value relativism and confused values.
Krause, Neal; Shaw, Benjamin; Liang, Jersey
The purpose of this study is to see if encouragement from fellow church members helps older people develop and maintain healthy lifestyles. The findings indicate that informal church-based support is associated with healthy lifestyles among older African Americans but not older Whites. In addition, the influence of support from fellow church…
Alexander Vladislavovich Pletnev
Full Text Available In the article features of influence of religion on the individual in the modern society are considered. In the XXI century the religion shows weak ability to execute functions of social control. At the same time the religion remains the major psychological factor which in many respects defines the maintenance of the vital world of individuals. Strengthening of influence of religion as psychological factor allows to study social consequences of this influence. If the classical sociological theory considers religion as a factor certainly constraining an anomy, in modern conditions the religion has rather opposite effect. The Christian religion shows the highest, unrealizable requirements to the individual.As a result of it the individuals strongly subject to influence of Christian values feel ina-bility to correspond to Christian model of ideal human behavior. The variety of religions in the modern society of the western type and conducting interreligious dialogue is other reason of development of religious anomy. The mutual erosion of the valuable and standard bases of each religion turns out to be consequence of this dialogue. In addition, modern society is characterized by essential distinction in understanding individuals of norms and principles of that religion which supporters they are.As for change of functioning of religion as social institute, in this aspect the increasing reorientation of religious institutes of the western society to the market purposes and values is observed. The specified processes in general will lead to increase of deviant behavior due to development of religious anomy.
Uecker, Jeremy E; Longest, Kyle C
Social scientists know very little about the consequences of exposure to scientific knowledge and holding different perspectives on science and religion for individuals' religious lives. Drawing on secularization and post-secular theories, we develop and test several hypotheses about the relationships among exposure to scientific knowledge, perspectives on religion and science, and religious commitment using panel data from the National Study of Youth and Religion. Our findings indicate that religious faith is strongest among young adults who: (1) accommodate scientific knowledge into their religious perspective, or (2) reject scientific knowledge that directly contradicts their religious beliefs about the origins of the world. Young adults are also more likely to have lower religious commitment when they view science and religion as independent institutions, lending support to secularization ideas about how social differentiation secularizes individuals. We further find that mere exposure to scientific knowledge, in terms of majoring in biology or acknowledging conflict between the teachings of religion and science, is usually not sufficient to undermine religious commitment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A peculiar and fascinating aspect of many responses to mass atrocities is the creative and eclectic use of religious language and frameworks. Some crimes are so extreme that they “cry out to heaven,” drawing people to employ religious vocabulary to make meaning of and to judge what happened...... of the possibilities and problems pertaining to attempts to bring religious – or semi-religious – allegiances and perspectives to bear in responses to the mass atrocities of our time: When and how can religious language or religious beliefs and practices be either necessary or helpful? And what are the problems...... and reasons for caution or critique? In this book, a group of distinguished scholars explore these questions and offer a range of original explanatory and normative perspectives....
Gregg, Heather S.
The article of record may be found at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23296151.2016.1239978 thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from tr...
Garutti, Selson; CESUMAR
On 22nd July 1997, the then president of the Brazilian Republic Fernando Henrique Cardoso signed the law no. 9.475/97, concerning religious teaching in schools. That law caused generalized confusion all round Brazil by making facultative religious teaching in schools, and disorganizing even further the already troubled subject “Religious Teaching”. We cannot lose sight of the disorganization installed in the year of 1996 by the confusion introduced by the new National Education Basis Guidelin...
Religious tourism can be understood as an activity in which people travel either for worshipping purposes or to participate in events of religious significance. It can be seen as an alternative to mass tourism activities, aiming for specific targets. Portugal has a significant and rich religious heritage which can help to revitalize traditionally neglected rural areas. The active participation of the Church is of utmost importance as far as the visitors are concerned. On one hand it sh...
The paper characterizes the adaptation of Assessment of Beliefs and Behaviors in Coping. Its validity and reliability are shown. The scales of religious copings have been studied, namely: “Religion as a source of personal relationship with a higher power”, “Religion as a source of worldview that makes sense of life”, “Religion as a source of a sense of control in life”, “Religion as a source of a sense of community”, “Religion as a source of a sense of community”, “Religion as a source of a s...
with their religious and cultural frames of reference? The study uses a case study approach with interviews of ten 13–17-year-old Danish Muslim girls, as well as explorative observations in two football clubs and interviews with five coaches and club leaders. In further developing an analytical model for interpreting...... religion as hegemonic, embodied and dynamic cultural phenomena, the analysis points to the diversity through which Muslim girls and women participate and engage in sports. Finally, the article discusses the extent to which counter-narratives may contribute to changing perspectives on so-called hard...
Nielsen, Jytte Seested; Bech, Mickael; Christensen, Kaare
would expect that risk averse individuals would demand a more generous protection plan which they may do by devoting more effort and resources into religious activities such as church attendance and prayer, which seems to be in accordance with previous empirical results. However, a general concern...... and prayer frequency on the other controlling for unobservable variables using survey data of Danish same-sex twin pairs. We verify the correlation between risk preferences and religion found previously by carrying out cross-sectional analyses. We also show that the association between risk attitudes...
Nematoallah Moussa Pour
Full Text Available Religious education has an elevated status and a great value in Iranian religious society. Using different methods and instruments to realize this goal has been always considered by those involved in education. At the present time, television is an effective means for communicating with social groups. One of those groups is children who can be exposed to messages by animations. The effectiveness of animation is a function of the manner in which it has been produced. Therefore, we can ask whether psychological principles have been observed in the production of religious animations for children. This article, written for evaluating religious animations used in the television, aims at identifying sixteen principles governing the production of animations for children. To do this, the authors referred to authentic sources in psychology and media studies after gathering data and composing them, managed to identify the principles governing the production of animation. The numbers of these principles have been applied to the production of animations, a checklist was prepared and the data were extracted from analyzing two religious animations, two domestic non-religious animations and two foreign non-religious animations. Non-religious animations were analyzed to make possible the suggested that the producers of religious animations pay special attention to do this point.
Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels
WE SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWED THE RESEARCH LITERATURE ON SPIRITUALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY INTEGRATED GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING THREE QUESTIONS: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group......, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from...... for spiritually or religiously integrated group psychotherapy and conducting research in this field are propounded....
Full Text Available ENGLISH: Educational institutions sometimes do not offer a space for (religious difference. Based on this fact the term safe space is theoretically specified. It seems important to develop kindergartens as safe spaces in wich learning, belonging and recognizing are possible. As one characteristic of the culture of safe spaces the recognition of (religious difference is pointed out, especially being sensitive about and broaching the issue of difference. DEUTSCH: Bildungseinrichtungen stellen teilweise keinen Artikulationsraum für (religiöse Differenz bereit, wodurch einzelne Kinder organisational benachteiligt werden. Elementare Bildungseinrichtungen könnten aber Räume sein, in denen Lernen, Zugehörigkeit und Anerkennung möglich sind. Hierzu wird der Begriff des safe space beleuchtet und auf elementare Bildungseinrichtungen übertragen. Als ein Merkmal der Kultur der safe spaces gilt die Anerkennung der (religiösen Differenz, indem diese sensibel wahrgenommen und thematisiert wird.
Black, David M
Starting with an outline of Buddhist history from a psychoanalytic perspective, this paper uses ideas from philosophy and psychoanalysis to consider the nature of the psychological effectiveness of religious objects. It suggests that the development of the devotional cult of Buddhas 'without form' such as Amitābha, at-first-glance surprising when juxtaposed with the founding vision of Gautama Siddhartha, tells us a great deal about the psychological needs that impel the evolution of religious thinking. Distinguishing religious objects from mythological ones, it argues that 'religious objects' are, more specifically, allegorical objects that can be encountered in the second person; that these may not always be well described as 'illusion'; and that they may in some cases be better understood as providing opportunities for experience that, like the transference in psychoanalysis, may have far-reaching psychological impacts. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.
Van Camp, Debbie; Sloan, Lloyd Ren; Elbassiouny, Amanda
Research with White participants has demonstrated religious intergroup bias; however, religious identity may be different for Black Americans. Only religiously conscious Black Christians demonstrated a preference for Christian targets over Muslim and Atheist targets. Future research should consider what factors result in a person becoming conscious of other's religion.
The Republic of (South) Korea is a multi-religious society. Naturally, large- or small-scale conflicts arise between religious groups. Moreover, inter-religious troubles related to the educational system, such as educational ideologies, textbook content and forced chapel attendance, have often caused social conflicts. Most of the problems derive…
Práticas estratégicas em uma rede de congregações religiosas: valores e instituições, interdependência e reciprocidade Strategic practices in a network of religious congregations: values and institutions, interdependence and reciprocity
Cristiano de Oliveira Maciel
Full Text Available Neste artigo discorremos sobre a relação entre valores dos dirigentes, práticas estratégicas e imersão social de uma rede de congregações de confissão evangélica, estabelecida em Curitiba-PR, Brasil. O quadro teórico de referência no qual se apoia o trabalho articula a teoria institucional com a metodologia de análise de redes sociais e a abordagem da estratégia como prática. Consideramos 60 organizações religiosas na coleta de dados. A análise da rede revelou dois componentes que representam uma configuração do tipo centro-periferia dos padrões de relacionamentos entre os atores sociais. De modo geral, a relação entre contexto institucional, estrutura dos relacionamentos e atividades estratégicas aponta para a noção de interdependência e reciprocidade. Verificamos que valores resultantes de diferentes lógicas de ação são reforçados pela direção da rede, no que concerne ao seu potencial normativo, para influenciar a interpretação dos seus membros e suas atividades estratégicas. No entanto, a configuração centro-periferia da rede de relacionamentos revela a necessidade de se reconhecer tanto a dinâmica quanto o caráter fragmentado do contexto institucional, uma vez que as relações sociais operam de modo recursivo na construção e reconstrução de ações organizacionais que atuam em direção à homogeneização institucional.In this article, we discuss the relationship between the values of managers, strategic practices and social embeddedness in a network of confessional evangelical congregations that is established in the city of Curitiba, Paraná state, Brazil. The theoretical frame of reference on which the study is based is the institutional theory, with the social network analysis methodology and the perspective of strategy as practice. We examined sixty religious organizations while collecting the data. The network analysis revealed two components that represent a central-peripheral type of
Full Text Available This review hopes to present an alternative model to confessional religious education and the kind of role religion can have in teaching and education. It is framed by the conceptualization of education as simultaneously being and becoming (van Manen 1991, 67. This dichotomous description underlines the challenging tension of balancing present realities with future anticipations, a tension which is perhaps the defining feature of education. In theoretical terms this review draws on sociocultural and dialogic educational research, particularly Rupert Wegerif’s notion of “dialogic space” (Wegerif 2007, 4, and a “Global Education: World Religions” -course recently run as part of the Summer School for Human Sciences at the University of Jyväskylä. The review opens by introducing the pedagogic orientation for the course and a simple cultural model developed within the course. Following this, the guidelines for the development of “dialogic space” are introduced with possible implications for Religious Education concluding the paper.
Religious Experience and Lay Society in T’ang China: A Reading of Tai Fu’s Kuang-i chi, by Glen Dudbridge. Cambridge Studies in Chinese History, Literature and Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. ix+256 pp. Maps. ISBN: 0521482232
Amelia Ying Qin
Full Text Available Drawing upon his knowledge and understanding of literature, book culture, and vernacular culture of pre-modern China, Glen Dudbridge offers, in his unique reading of Kuang-i chi 廣異記 (The great book of marvels, insights into the religious experiences of lay society individuals of eighth century China. However, an inquisitive reader must ask the following questions: Can Kuang-i chi, a medieval collection of tales of encounters with the other world by the minor T’ang Dynasty official Tai Fu 戴孚 (fl. 760-780, chin-shih 757, be used for the purpose of the study of religious culture? How? and to what extent? What approaches would be effective in inquiring such a text and what kinds of conclusions can be drawn? Though not explicitly setting forth these questions, Dudbridge’s work serves as answers to them through explicitly defining the nature of Kuang-i chi to his study, discarding conventional categories and establishing new ones in his analysis, and associating Kuang-i chi to the “vernacular,” instead of official, or “centralized,” religious culture (p.63-4. Using a sharp historical focus on the collection, Dudbridge concentrates on the dynamics of change in religious practices of T’ang Dynasty that is rooted and reflected in such a vernacular religious culture....
Kramp, Joseph M
Panikkar's (The intra-religious dialogue, 1978) classic, re-issued by Paulist Press in 1999, grapples with the theological challenges in the disciplines of comparative theology and the theology of religions through what he terms, "intra-religious dialogue." In this psychology of religious plurality, I use works from a variety of disciplines to highlight the achievements of Panikkar's intra-religious dialogue, as well as to critique his work in the hope of finding categories of understanding that can be profitably used to face the inter-personal crises of the contemporary world, namely religious terrorism.
Focuses on exploring and understanding the epistemological significance of eros and the place of the erotic in contemporary religious education. Shows, through concrete examples, how a fully human epistemology makes possible an authentic religious education that promotes both personal and communal transformation. (CAJ)
The curricular accommodation of religious education is almost always dissociated from the latter's political significance and the teaching of religious worldviews is often limited to serving social, (multi)culturalist and epistemological purposes. When RE is made relevant to political identity this occurs strictly within the confines of a liberal…
Oakes, K. Elizabeth
Discusses a short clinical vignette in terms of the theoretical concepts of intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientations, faith development, and transcendence. Also discusses the therapeutic view of a client's religious orientation, faith development, and transcendence in helping to promote constructive change. (Author/MKA)
How does income affect religiousness? Using self-collected survey data, we estimate the effects of income on religious behavior. As a source of exogenous income variation we use a change in the eligibility criteria for a government cash transfer in Ecuador and apply a regression discontinuity
Astin, Alexander W.; Astin, Helen S.; Lindholm, Jennifer A.
This paper describes a comprehensive set of 12 new measures for studying undergraduate students' spiritual and religious development. The three measures of spirituality, four measures of "spiritually related" qualities, and five measures of religiousness demonstrate satisfactory reliability, robustness, and both concurrent and predictive validity.…
The chapter analyses the connection between Biblical interpretation and the making of political communities in northern Nigeria in the 20th century. Generally, it studies the use of religious scriptures in developing models of society which can both include and exclude particular religious...
Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario
Addresses the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education, challenges the popular view that science and religion are compatible or complementary. Discusses differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological, and attitudinal levels. Argues that religious education should be kept…
The religious thought of Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy is a well documented but often overlooked example of unorthodox Christianity. This paper uses the example of Tolstoy's religious thinking to question the integrity of the current representation of Christianity in UK schools. It also uses Tolstoy's criticism of orthodox Christianity to suggest a…
The marketing of religion has become a big business. Wortham examines the current religious scene and shows that Americans want religious plurality, rather than religious homogamy. Just like shopping for ice cream, Americans want 57 choices when shopping for religion
... RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.18 Observance of religious... take earned vacation days, or to make up for missed work, or to change work assignments in order to...
Full Text Available The present study has been done to determine the effect of religious commitment and religious involvement with aggression and as a mediator variable empathy was considered. This is a descriptive - correlational study and the population was all high school students of Isfahan. The sample consisted of 321 high school students that were selected by cluster random multi-stage sampling method. Data were collected using Aggression Questionnaire (Rhine, 2006, Worthington Religious Commitment (2003, Hill and Hood Religious Involvement (1999, David Empathy (1983 and Demographic ascertained Questionnaire. For Statistical Analysis, Correlation Pierson, regression analysis and structural equation method was applied. Achieved results showed that the direct effect of religious commitment on the empathy of 0/07 and the direct effect of religious involvement on empathy: /025, (P≥0/0/1, while the indirect effect of religious commitment on -/0 0231 aggression and indirect effects of religious devotion is an aggression- 54/21 representing the inverse relationship between commitment an inverse relationship between religious commitment and religious involvement by the aggression and Results of structural equation modeling show that the model has appropriate fitting based on fitting indicators (P≥0/0/1. Although, the effect of religious commitment on empathy was not confirmed.
Nielsen, Marie Vejrup
heritage and contemporary culture: (1) strong connection; (2) no connection/disconnection; (3) negotiated connection. The conclusions of this analysis provide the foundation for a discussion of civil religion in zones of conflict over religious and cultural identity in a contemporary northern European......The article examines references to a specific religious heritage (Lutheran Christianity) within the debate sections of two national Danish newspapers. The aim of the analysis is to provide empirical data as a background for a discussion of conflicts concerning the connection between religious...... heritage and contemporary society. The themes of the public debate surveyed are identifi ed as related to changes in the religious and cultural landscape in Denmark, such as the presence of Muslim immigrants. Three main discourse packages are identifi ed in relation to the connection between religious...
Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Plumm, Karyn M
Delay discounting occurs when the subjective value of an outcome decreases because its delivery is delayed. Previous research has suggested that the rate at which some, but not all, outcomes are discounted varies as a function of regular church attendance. In the present study, 509 participants completed measures of intrinsic religiousness, extrinsic religiousness, religious fundamentalism, and whether they regularly attended church services. They then completed a delay-discounting task involving five outcomes. Although religiousness was not a significant predictor of discounting for all outcomes, participants scoring high in intrinsic religiousness tended to display less delay discounting than participants scoring low. Likewise, participants scoring high in religious fundamentalism tended to display more delay discounting than participants scoring low. These results partially replicate previous ones in showing that the process of discounting may vary as a function of religiousness. The results also provide some direction for those interested in altering how individuals discount.
Fennell, Robert C.; Ascough, Richard S.; Liew, Tat-siong Benny; McLain, Michael; Westfield, Nancy Lynne
Hugh Heclo's recent book "On Thinking Institutionally" (Paradigm Publishers, 2008) analyzes changes that have taken place in the past half century in how North Americans tend to think and act in institutions. The volume is receiving particular attention as it can be applied to higher education and to religious denominations, and so deserves…
Political interventions, media coverage and research often refer to the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities, particularly girls and women, participating in physical activity and organised sports. In both public and academic debates, reference is made to the religious culture as a particular...... barrier to participation in sports among Muslim girls and women. This article aims to provide a counter-narrative by focusing on young Muslim girls who simultaneously practice their religion and sports. The main research question was: How do young Danish Muslim girls align participation in sports...... religion as hegemonic, embodied and dynamic cultural phenomena, the analysis points to the diversity through which Muslim girls and women participate and engage in sports. Finally, the article discusses the extent to which counter-narratives may contribute to changing perspectives on so-called hard...
Full Text Available This article discusses elements within Christian ethics and anthropology that have ramifications for the ethics and laws of war. The author argues that several distinctively Christian conceptions of morality and of human beings contribute importantly to the idea of just war, namely the Christian (and more specifically Augustinian view of history, the Christian view of killing, and the Christian view of sin and grace. While other religious and philosophical traditions also offer significant contributions to a normative discussion about armed force, it remains a fact that Christian thought, historically speaking, has furnished much of the groundwork of what we today know as the ethics and laws of war, and that the experience of being a Christian in the world has important ramifications for thinking about war and the use of armed force.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v3i1.1708
Abernethy, Alexis D; Houston, Tina R; Bjorck, Jeffrey P; Gorsuch, Richard L; Arnold, Harold L
This study was designed to examine the relationship between religiousness (organized, nonorganized, and intrinsic) and religious problem solving (collaborative, deferring, and self-directing) in prostate cancer screening (PCS) attitudes and behavior. Men (N = 481) of African descent between the ages of 40 and 70 participated. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that religiousness and self-directed problem solving were associated with PCS attitudes. Intrinsic religiousness was associated with PCS attitudes after controlling for health and organized religiousness. Religiousness was not associated with PCS behavior. Intrinsic religiousness may be an important dimension of religiousness to be considered in tailoring cancer interventions for individuals from faith-based communities.
R. Drew Smith
Full Text Available While many persons within westernised or westernising nations such as the United States of America and South Africa continue to place importance on matters of faith, a growing number of those persons approach matters of faith informally rather than formally and individually rather than institutionally. The implications of this are that among 21st century populations informal religious formation may be as important as or more important than the formation taking place via formal religious channels. A central emphasis of this article is that this is especially true among more socially marginalised populations, not simply because they may not enjoy the same level of access to formal institutions, but also because they may regard those institutions as spiritually and culturally restrictive and exclusionary. The contributions of the article are, firstly, its use of original and unique survey data generated from neighbourhood studies the author directed in low-income contexts within several U.S. cities and within Pretoria, South Africa, and, secondly, its analysis of informal ways the urban poor engage Christian ideas and practices − an aspect of urban religion that has not received adequate scholarly attention.
Paldam, Martin; Gundlach, Erich
We use factor analysis to derive a robust measure of religiosity from items reported in five waves of the World Value Survey. Our measure of religiosity is negatively correlated with per capita income. Development apparently causes religiosity to fall to about half its pre-modern level. Most...... components of the demand for religion are reduced by development. The supply of religion declines once churches lose control over the institutions providing collective goods like education, health, and social security. These goods used to be supplied by churches jointly with religious services but tend...
Schaap-Jonker, H; van Schothorst-van Roekel, J; Sizoo, B
Estimates of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) range from 0.6 to 1.0 per cent of the general population. Among the characteristic traits of ASD are qualitative impairments in social reciprocity and in abstract imagination. Not surprisingly, these traits can affect the personal religion of ASD patients, in the same manner as religious background does. To determine to what extent the religiousness of religious patients is associated with autistic traits and religious background. Dutch adults attending a Protestant mental healthcare institution as outpatients were asked to complete the 'Questionnaire God Image' (QGI) and the 'Autism Quotient' (AQNL). In this cross-sectional study various aspects of the God image were related to autistic traits and religious background. The more that respondents reported autistic traits, the greater was their fear of God and the less positive were their feelings. Respondents who were strict Calvinists experienced greater fear of God than did other respondents. Treatment of religious patients with asd needs to take into account these patients' greater fear of God and their less positive feelings. Those patients who had had a strict Calvinist upbringing had a more pronounced fear of God.
Stecz, Patryk; Kocur, Józef
To determine the influence of religious coping and religiousness on the psychological functioning of Polish patients before and after arthroplasty, a prospective study was performed. Out of a pool of 102 potential participants, a total of 61 (34 females, 27 males) completed a purposely created survey, Brief-COPE followed by preoperative and postoperative Perceived Stress Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Religious coping was not associated with: (1) perceived stress before or after surgery; (2) preoperative or postoperative anxiety; (3) life satisfaction. A two-factor ANOVA has shown that religious coping controlled by religiousness was related to better psychological functioning. Between- and within-subjects effects were observed for improvement in life satisfaction measured by split-plot ANOVA, which suggests (p religious orientation. We concluded that religious strategies in dealing with stress measured by Brief-COPE were least likely to benefit patients of low-religious orientation. The study demonstrated the importance of core religious beliefs in predicting benefits derived from religiousness in the face of a crisis. This study showed that regardless of its effectiveness, turning to religion is common among Polish patients about to undergo surgery for osteoarthritis of the hip.
Full Text Available The author analyses types of religious education in European and Serbian state-run schools searching for an innovative approach to existing classifications. He suggests four criteria to differ and categorize types of religious education in public schools, claiming that the actual taxonomy is often insufficient, inconsistent or perplexed (having usually been based upon one or two elements. He proposes categorization which encompasses point of view and interests of tax payers, of the politics, of the pupils and of the religious teachers. More criteria could lead to a better assessment of particular system of religious education. He also suggests that, apart from usual categorization in confessional and non-confessional religious education, it would be useful to introduce categories like 'mostly confessional' and 'mostly non-confessional', as clear-cut models are very rare. In addition to this he offers arguments why 'cognitive' type of religious education would be more proper label instead of 'non-confessional'. Further on the author examines controversies, disputes and manner of reintroduction of religious instruction in Serbian legislation after the fall of the communist regime in 2000 and presents the current situation, including very recent changes considering curricula. He points to some very distinctive features of religious education model in Serbia which could be of interest in comparative perspective, particularly in the time when many states in Europe tend to improve their religious education system. Finally, he points to importance of religious education in building religious identity of young generations in post-communist countries, and differs two types of religious identity - perceptive (intuitive and cognitive (rational. He concludes that 'educating into religion' has to exist for some time in post-communist countries due to historical circumstances (within more or less confessional model. Additionally, he finds that it should be
Fadilpašić, Senadin; Maleč, Daniel; Džubur-Kulenović, Alma
Long-term posttraumatic outcomes such as quality of life are dependent on a series of factors from the very exposure to traumatic events and stress appraisals, personality traits, posttraumatic growth, symptoms of Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and different coping strategies to religiousness and religious coping styles. Except of exposure to traumatic events and related stress, all other variables may have indirect mediating effects on long-term posttraumatic outcomes. The main aim of this cross-sectional study is to explore relative independent contribution of these variables in the explanation of quality of life among war trauma survivors, with a special emphasis on the variables of religiousness and religious coping. The research was conducted on 353 subjects who experienced war related traumatic events during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). The data was collected through several self-report measuring instruments: Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life, Stressors Check List (SCL); Religiousness Scale, Social Support Resources Scale; Religious Problem-Solving Scale, Brief RCOPE, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Mississippi Scale for PTSD. According to the results of the study, experience of loss and frequent exposure to war trauma and high levels on the primary stress appraisals, self-directing coping style and PTSD-symptoms were associated with lower perceived quality of life among the subjects. High levels of extrinsic religious orientation, effect of religiousness on social behavior, positive religious coping and posttraumatic growth were associated with higher perceived quality of life among subjects. These variables showed significant independent contribution to the prediction of the values on quality of life. Results of the study have a scientific significance in understanding the importance and mediating role of religiousness and religious coping for quality of life perception as one of long-term posttraumatic outcomes. Effects of
Full Text Available Background: The Supreme Court of Canada (SCC has ruled that the federal government is required to remove the provisions of the Criminal Code of Canada that prohibit medical assistance in dying (MAID. The SCC has stipulated that individual physicians will not be required to provide MAID should they have a religious or conscientious objection. Therefore, the pending legislative response will have to balance the rights of the patients with the rights of physicians, other health care professionals, and objecting institutions. Objective: The objective of this paper is to critically assess, within the Canadian context, the moral probity of individual or institutional objections to MAID that are for either religious or conscientious reasons. Methods: Deontological ethics and the Doctrine of Double Effect. Results: The religious or conscientious objector has conflicting duties, i.e., a duty to respect the “right to life” (section 7 of the Charter and a duty to respect the tenets of his or her religious or conscientious beliefs (protected by section 2 of the Charter. Conclusion: The discussion of religious or conscientious objections to MAID has not explicitly considered the competing duties of the conscientious objector. It has focussed on the fact that a conscientious objection exists and has ignored the normative question of whether the duty to respect one’s conscience or religion supersedes the duty to respect the patient’s right to life.
Cooper Nelson, Janet M.
The sacred contours of the nation's colleges and universities changed dramatically since their founding--new human architecture and vocabulary compelled radical reformation of curriculum, policy, and accommodation. But institutional histories and culture remain eloquent and powerful. New competences in religious literacy and convictional identity…
The “sanctity” of marriage – an archaeology of a socio-religious construct: Mythological origins, forms and models. ... Though a biological reality of being human, sexuality is profoundly influenced by social constructs and the institution of marriage itself is a social construct. In this article the biological and social aspects are ...
Although young Sikhs are regularly accused of not attending "gurdwara" and not being interested in Sikhism, many young Sikhs are now learning about Sikhism outside traditional religious institutions. Using data gathered as part of a research project studying the transmission of Sikhism among 18- to 30-year-old British Sikhs, this essay…
The Influence of Media Coverage of Religious Crises in Nigeria: A Case Study of the Mohammed Cartoon Riots. ... (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news ). It also explores peoples opinion ... public for the benefit of the media institutions,(both government and privately owned media houses), journalists, the government and individuals.
Melčák, Miroslav; Beránek, Ondřej
Roč. 6, č. 2 (2017), s. 389-415 ISSN 2045-5895 Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : taswiyat al-qubur * levelling of graves * Islamic State * isis * Islamic architecture * heritage destruction Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Religious studies
Parker, Stephen G.; Freathy, Rob; Doney, Jonathan
In response to contemporary concerns, and using neglected primary sources, this article explores the professionalisation of teachers of Religious Education (RI/RE) in non-denominational, state-maintained schools in England. It does so from the launch of "Religion in Education" (1934) and the Institute for Christian Education at Home and…
Drawing from ethnography of communication and language socialization approaches, this paper examines classes on bullying held for Sikh middle school students at a Sikh religious institution in California. Sikh educational programs play an important role in socializing youth into Sikh teachings, practices, and community perspectives. Due to one…
Full Text Available Since the beginning of the Reform Era in 1979, there has been a rapid growth and development of religious belief and practice in China. A substantial new scholarly literature has been generated in the attempt to document and understand this. This essay identifies the most important contributions to that literature and discusses areas of agreement and controversy across the literature. Along with new data, new paradigms have developed to frame research on Chinese religions. The paradigm derived from C. K. Yang’s classic work in the 1960s came from structural functionalism, which served to unite research in the humanities and social sciences. However, structural functionalism has been abandoned by the new generation of scholars. In the humanities, the most popular paradigm derives from Michel Foucault, but there are also scholars who use neo-Durkheimian and neo-Weberian paradigms. In the social sciences, the dominant paradigms tend to focus on state-society relations. None of these paradigms fully captures the complexity of the transformations happening in China. We recommend greater dialogue between the humanities and social sciences in search of more adequate theoretical frameworks for understanding Chinese religions today.
Full Text Available In this article value of sacred objects like a resource for development of cultural and religious tourism is being emphased. It ia being described the current state of religious monuments, their wilingness that in existing conditions be functional factors of tourist offer. For research it is being used: qualitative and quantitative methods with which are being described recognized elements of tourist valorization: tourism-geographical location, ambiance, atractiveness and identity, decoration and equipment of the space in tourist wealth. Then, the segmenta of valorisation are being quantified through evaluation of the most representative religious monuments in Montenegro. With this work, we want to draw attention to the value of this heritage and its ability to relatively easy be recognized as a resource of cultural and religious tourism. It is being wanted to explore which segments of tourist valorization can be improved, so on the base of it and incorporated in a system of a tourist offer.
or (b) purely violations of the rights learners have, such as their right to freedom ... interest in choosing their clothing against the local authorities' interest in ..... dress code sent the message to learners that religious beliefs and cultural practices.
... centuries, men and women have immigrated to America's shores in pursuit of religious freedom. Hailing from... discrimination because of their beliefs. My Administration continues to stand with all who are denied the ability...
Muhammad Sadli Mustafa
Full Text Available This globalization era brought people of East Kalimantan tend to prefer modern music and western music. This cause the local or traditional music art is marginalized. On the other hand, they have a local music art containing a lot of local wisdom. One of them is tingkilan music. Lyrics of tingkilan contain religious values. Therefore, this study intends to find and to describe the religious values in the song lyrics of the tingkilan musical arts. This study uses a qualitative research method. The research shows that in fact some tingkilan song lyrics have a deep religious value. Some of those religious values are thanksgiving favors, learning of the holly Qur’an, the way of eating and drinking in accordance with the Islamic teaching.
Toosi, Negin R; Ambady, Nalini
As a social identity, religion is unique because it contains a spectrum of choice. In some religious communities, individuals are considered members by virtue of having parents of that background, and religion, culture, and ethnicity are closely intertwined. Other faith communities actively invite people of other backgrounds to join, expecting individuals to choose the religion that best fits their personal beliefs. These various methods of identification influence beliefs about the essentialist nature of religious identity. Essentialism is when social groups are considered to have deep, immutable, and inherent defining properties. In this study, college students (N=55) provided ratings of essentialism for eight religious identities: Atheist, Buddhist, Catholic, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim, Protestant, and Spiritual-but-not-religious. Significant differences in essentialism were found between the target groups. Results and implications for intergroup relations are discussed.
Full Text Available Croatia has a rich sacral (tangible and intangible heritage, which undoubtedly has great cultural value, and part of the religious heritage has been included in the World Heritage List of UNESCO. The fact is, however, that, except when it comes to top attractions, churches as tourist facilities, are poorly attended and do not get almost no direct tourism income.. In this paper, after the introductory explanations of basic terms related to religious tourism and pilgrimage, we explore the basic features of religious tourism in Croatia, both on tourist attractions, as well as on the tourist demand. It also presents the results of empirical research on the socio-demographic profile of the author, the role of religion in the life of pilgrims and the satisfaction of the visitors to the Shrine of Mary of Bistrica in 2013 among 50 pilgrims in Marija Bistrica. The main objective is to determine how the pilgrims perceived the tourism offer in religious tourism.
Longo, W L
Serving as a trustee requires commitment to a particular congregation's spirit or charism and to the health care apostolate. Vatican Council II urges that laypersons take the responsibility to share with religious as partners in furthering the Church's mission.
RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL ISSUES IN GENDER EQUITY: IMPLICATION FOR ... Education and Culture of any country determine its developmental rate. Culture affects the way ... expectations that people of one gender are expected to fulfill ...
finds that, although more feasible within secular states, religious freedom and human rights are possibilities ... and values, nor uses its powers and offices to persecute religion.” According to ... Secularism is in fact an expression of humanism.
, ... Results: Intrinsic religiosity was greater among older people with depression than ... Positive religious coping was greater among participants with diabetes in the low occupational .... of this study would contribute to effective treatment for.
Koenig, Laura B.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.
Understanding the development of religiousness is an important endeavor because religiousness has been shown to be related to positive outcomes. The current study examined mean-level, rank-order, and individual-level change in females' religiousness during emerging adulthood. Genetic and environmental influences on religiousness and its change and…
Nigeria has passed through incessant religious conflicts and its attendant consequences of loss of human lives and property. It is unfortunate that despite all the efforts made to resolve religious conflicts in Nigeria through religious dialogue yet peaceful resolution of religious conflicts have remained a mirage. This paper ...
This paper proposes that the acquisition of meta-concepts and thinking skills in order to facilitate scholarly religious thought should be the principal aim of religious education in schools. As a result, the aim of religious education is primarily stated in cognitive terms and religious education
Eric T. Ngcobo
Full Text Available This article reflects on the question whether it is still possible to study religion religiously today or not? This is due to the variety of disciplines� interest in religion and its phenomena. Such interest influenced the study to adopt a new approach that is different from that of religious studies. Both religion and its phenomena, especially myths according to the reductionists, should be treated lesser than they are professed to be. Mircea Eliade on the other hand argues differently, as he stresses on the point that religious phenomena can only be studied under religious spheres alone.
Eric T. Ngcobo
Full Text Available This article reflects on the question whether it is still possible to study religion religiously today or not? This is due to the variety of disciplines’ interest in religion and its phenomena. Such interest influenced the study to adopt a new approach that is different from that of religious studies. Both religion and its phenomena, especially myths according to the reductionists, should be treated lesser than they are professed to be. Mircea Eliade on the other hand argues differently, as he stresses on the point that religious phenomena can only be studied under religious spheres alone.
Full Text Available This study aims to understand the religious elite view of pluralism and religious harmony in Malang. The study was focused on the meaning of pluralism and religious harmony, efforts and things that support and hinder the realization of religious harmony. Empirical research data with qualitative-phenomenological approach was collected through interviews and documentation. The results show: first, the meaning of religious pluralism for the religious elites is very varied, which is the same as tolerance, mutual respect, the goal of all religions are the same, and recognize the fact that there are many religions in this world. Second, religiousharmony have meaning as a condition where there is no oppression and domination of one religion over other religions, awakening a deep awareness of diversity, respect for human rights, and the willingness to spread kindness and love for fellow human beings. Third, religious harmony can be achieved through internal efforts to strengthen the faith of each and build awareness to develop a positive attitude towards other religions. In external efforts to create harmony done through emancipatory dialogue and cooperation to resolve humanitarian issues. Fourth, positive attitude that supports the creation of harmony of religions is the willingness and awareness to understand each other and share experiences. Egoism, truth claims, fanaticism, and exclusivism is a negative attitude and expression recognized by the religious elite can interfere with the establishment of inter-religious harmony.
Roč. 56, č. 1 (2016), s. 88-121 ISSN 0523-8587 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : Religious Toleration * Protestantism * late Enlightenment * German-Czech relations * Brno * Moravia * Moravian Manchester Subject RIV: AB - History
Aghamohammadi Kalkhoran, Masoomeh; Karimollahi, Mansoureh
Abstract Background Major life changes are among factors that cause anxiety, and one of these changes is surgery. Emotional reactions to surgery have specific effects on the intensity and velocity as well as the process of physical disease. In addition, they can cause delay in patients recovery. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety. Methods This survey is a correlational study to assess the relationship between religious belief...
Frank, E; Dell, M L; Chopp, R
Physicians' religious attributes are unknown, and may affect patient care. The Women Physicians' Health Study (WPHS) is a random sample (n = 4501 respondents, 59% response rate) of US women physicians aged 30-70; the first large, national study of US women physicians. In this study US women physicians were less likely to be Christian than were other Americans (61.2% of women physicians versus 85.1% of the general population), but were more likely to be Jewish (13.2% vs 2.0%), Buddhist (1.4% vs 0.3%), Hindu (3.9% vs 0.4%), or atheist/agnostic (5.9% vs 0.6%). Protestantism (29.3% of the population) and Catholicism (24.9%) were the most commonly reported religious identities. The strongest religious identity was claimed by Mormons and Seventh Day Adventists. Thus, women physicians' religious beliefs differ from those of the general population in the US. This may be particularly important for physicians practicing with patient populations with different religious affiliations, and in addressing clinical questions with ethical or religious dimensions.
McKay, Ryan; Efferson, Charles; Whitehouse, Harvey; Fehr, Ernst
Recent evidence indicates that priming participants with religious concepts promotes prosocial sharing behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether religious priming also promotes the costly punishment of unfair behaviour. A total of 304 participants played a punishment game. Before the punishment stage began, participants were subliminally primed with religion primes, secular punishment primes or control primes. We found that religious primes strongly increased the costly punishment of unfair behaviours for a subset of our participants--those who had previously donated to a religious organization. We discuss two proximate mechanisms potentially underpinning this effect. The first is a 'supernatural watcher' mechanism, whereby religious participants punish unfair behaviours when primed because they sense that not doing so will enrage or disappoint an observing supernatural agent. The second is a 'behavioural priming' mechanism, whereby religious primes activate cultural norms pertaining to fairness and its enforcement and occasion behaviour consistent with those norms. We conclude that our results are consistent with dual inheritance proposals about religion and cooperation, whereby religions harness the byproducts of genetically inherited cognitive mechanisms in ways that enhance the survival prospects of their adherents.
Sumanto Al Qurtuby
Full Text Available Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia, with more than six hundred million populations, is home to millions of Buddhists, Muslims, Confucians, Protestants, Catholics, and now Pentecostals, as well as many followers of local religions and spiritual beliefs. Notwithstanding its great historical, political, cultural legacies, however, the region has long been neglected as a site for religious studies in the Western academia. Aiming at filling the gap in Asian and religious studies as well as exploring the richness of Southeast Asian cultures, this article discusses the dynamics, diversity, and complexity of Southeast Asian societies in their response to the region’s richly political, cultural, and religious traditions spanning from pre-modern era to modern one. The article also examines the “integrative revolutions” that shaped and reshaped warfare, state organization and economics of Southeast Asia, particularly in the pre-European colonial era. In addition, the work discusses the wave of Islamization, particularly since the nineteenth century, as well as the upsurge of religious resurgence that shift the nature of religiosity and the formation of religious groupings in the area. The advent of Islam, with some interventions of political regimes, had been an important cause for the decline of Hindu-Buddhist traditions in some areas of Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia, the coming of Pentecostalism has challenged the well-established mainstream Protestantism and Catholicism, especially in Indonesia and the Philippines. Keywords: history, modernity, religious change, Southeast Asia
Full Text Available Change constitutes different things for the groups, as the position of one group may improve, but that of another deteriorate. Social change is a consequence of how the different groups act, and their actions again depend on their social and economic interests. In other words, there are groups in society (social classes, professional groups, the agrarian population, industrial workers, which come more or less openly in conflict with each other when looking after their interests. Thus this way of thinking is based on a conflict model. One sees social change as a consequence of people trying to protect their social and economic interests. Viewed this way even religious organizations and movements are involved in protecting the interests of social groups. However, the interesting point in this connection is that religious movements differ from political movements and groups, as the religious movements express the social interests of a group more indirectly than the political movements. The religious movements gather people from similar living conditions, and so to speak, prepare them for political work. They defend and justify the way of living of a group, and thus give ideological material for political groupings. They may also form coalitions with political groups and parties. The author analyzes Laestadianism from this point of view. Before going into the connection between religious dynamics and social change it is necessary to present a few general features of Laestadianism as a religious movement of the peasant population.
Beck, R; Miller, C D
The present study is an introduction to the construct of religious judgmentalism, defined as a willingness to make religious or moral judgments of others based on a limited period of observation; the study offers a prediction about which individuals will engage in such judgmental behavior. It was predicted that agency motives would significantly predict religious judgmentalism in a religious population but that communion motives and intrinsic religiosity would moderate this effect. Overall, the findings supported these predictions. Agency motives were positively correlated with religious judgmentalism. Intrinsic religiosity predicted a general unwillingness to make religious evaluations of others. Both intrinsic religiosity and communion motives did moderate the effects of high agency motives. Specifically, increases in communion motive and intrinsic religiosity, at high levels of agency motives, significantly predicted lower scores for religious judgmentalism. These findings were conceptualized as preliminary evidence for the position that interpersonal motives, rather than religiousness or religious motivation, predict social intolerance and criticism in religious individuals.
Efimov Vladimir Fedorovich
Full Text Available The article reveals the problem of the education of youth in religious issues through the activities of the Church and secular educational institutions. The author shows the absolute failure of the efforts of the state and the Church in this direction that causes damage to the moral education of the younger generation. The author enlightens the originality, specificity, criticism of the interaction between the Church and the intelligentsia, and also the organizational ways of formation of the religious literacy among the population of Russia.
Sztokman, Elana Maryles
The religious school, where young people are brought into religious life and practice, the development of a religious belief system is often neglected. Religiousness is often instilled as a linear end product, a monolithic corpus of ideas to be singularly transmitted and subsequently owned by youth. However, educational research by Gareth…
Full Text Available This paper aims at bringing to light a presentation of the nature of religious education in Poland. This study will therefore present a brief historical outline of religious upbringing in Poland, its current organisational regulations and the principles of religious education in schools. In our summary, we will present the level of effectiveness of religious education in Poland, and we will also explore the discussion on the reformation of religious education in Poland which is being worked upon.
Andeleeb, S S
The author re-examines the conclusions of an earlier study which contends that religious affiliation of a hospital is important in influencing hospital selection and contributes to overall patient satisfaction. In this new survey, patients ranked religious affiliation low in importance when choosing among hospitals. However, hospitals of a particular religious affiliation were more likely to be recalled, preferred, and selected by people of the same religious affiliation. Furthermore, on quality-of-care measures, religious affiliation influenced hospital evaluations.
Full text: Terrorism is the use of force or the threat of force against civilian populations to achieve political objectives. The terrorists create fear, response and disruption. People fighting for freedom who have no bombs - no airplanes would resort to such atrocities as beheading even though killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in all the religions practiced on this earth. It is done out of political madness and not religious fervor so it was said that the fight against terrorism is not a military problem, nor is it a diplomatic one, but a cultural one. Terrorism is not associated to any particular faith or discipline but it is rooted deeply in poor education and resource system. Some frustrated individuals with no employment seek easy ways to form groups and cause harassment in neighborhoods and it expands to the local and national level. The scientific community must now resolve to confront the dangers facing civilized countries through employing the scientific culture, which means scientific excellence and solidarity, to overcome ignorance in the face of global terrorism. The developed nations have adopted to collect information, do research, have tools to act and take action. States must improve the timely cross-border sharing of national security intelligence information, under appropriate circumstances, between intelligence and law enforcement agencies to better prevent and disrupt terrorist activities and to prosecute terrorists. Some world's leaders have agreed to use the national security intelligence information in investigation and prosecution process as a vital component in the battle against terrorism. Political leaders, rulers, administrator, school counselors and teachers should think of how the problems could be solved if they meet the needs and hopes of their inhabitants, provide proper education to build good moral values and also address their concerns. (author)
Zaidi, M K [US Department of Energy, Idaho Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), Idaho Falls (United States)
Full text: Terrorism is the use of force or the threat of force against civilian populations to achieve political objectives. The terrorists create fear, response and disruption. People fighting for freedom who have no bombs - no airplanes would resort to such atrocities as beheading even though killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in all the religions practiced on this earth. It is done out of political madness and not religious fervor so it was said that the fight against terrorism is not a military problem, nor is it a diplomatic one, but a cultural one. Terrorism is not associated to any particular faith or discipline but it is rooted deeply in poor education and resource system. Some frustrated individuals with no employment seek easy ways to form groups and cause harassment in neighborhoods and it expands to the local and national level. The scientific community must now resolve to confront the dangers facing civilized countries through employing the scientific culture, which means scientific excellence and solidarity, to overcome ignorance in the face of global terrorism. The developed nations have adopted to collect information, do research, have tools to act and take action. States must improve the timely cross-border sharing of national security intelligence information, under appropriate circumstances, between intelligence and law enforcement agencies to better prevent and disrupt terrorist activities and to prosecute terrorists. Some world's leaders have agreed to use the national security intelligence information in investigation and prosecution process as a vital component in the battle against terrorism. Political leaders, rulers, administrator, school counselors and teachers should think of how the problems could be solved if they meet the needs and hopes of their inhabitants, provide proper education to build good moral values and also address their concerns. (author)
Full Text Available After the introduction which summarizes the basic guidelines for the development of entrepreneurship in special interest tourism, the author explores the development and application as well as the management of entrepreneurship in religious tourism as a type of special interest tourism. Religious components and motives for visiting shrines as an integral part of human culture and tradition have a strenuous impact on the tourism industry, both on the offering and demanding side. The most visited shrines such as Fatima or Lourdes attract four to eight million visitors per year. Considering the fact that this type of tourism is economically very useful in a particular local environment, many shrines as sites have become centres of religious, commercial and cultural events in certain regions throughout history. Their development was followed by investment in infrastructure, culture, catering and other facilities. The implementation of entrepreneurship is based on various segments that enable the development of religious tourism in a particular area, such as catering industry, hospitality industry, tourist mediation, transportation companies and other complementary activities (agriculture, fishing, wine production, commerce and other services. The author explores the indicators of entrepreneurship development in the field of religious tourism as a type of special interest tourism indicating the possibilities it has on the destination development. The development of special interest tourism should be based on effective investment in tourism offer through entrepreneurial projects (catering and other tourist facilities in accordance with market trends. The investment in tourism offer in the context of religious tourism would result in the growth of religious passengers' consumption as well as the increase in income from religious tourism, and thus the economic development of the sites with religious content. Examples of such shrines in the world are
Ensz, Samantha; Jankowski, Peter J
This study addressed the lack of research simultaneously examining multiple dimensions of religiousness when predicting rape myth acceptance, and extended prior findings of a mediating role for right-wing authoritarianism (i.e., uncritical submission to authority and aggressive attitude toward those who do not conform to social norms) in the association between religiousness and prejudice. The sample consisted of 99 undergraduate and graduate students ( M age = 31.87 years, 66.7% female, 80.82% White, and 93% Christian affiliated) from a religiously affiliated university in the Midwest United States. As hypothesized, dimensions of religiousness exhibited differential associations with rape myth acceptance. Religious motivation characterized by openness and exploration (i.e., quest religiousness) was a significant negative predictor of rape myth acceptance, directly, and indirectly through right-wing authoritarianism. In contrast, rigid adherence to religious beliefs, assumed to be "right" and absolutely true (i.e., religious fundamentalism), and extrinsically motivated religiousness each exhibited a positive association with rape myth acceptance through right-wing authoritarianism. In addition, internally motivated religiousness and religious fundamentalism each moderated the nonlinear effect for quest predicting rape myth acceptance. Findings suggest that uncritical religious and secular submission to external authorities or uncommitted and nonexploring religiousness may have increased the extent to which persons adhered to rape myths, whereas religious exploration was protective. Practical implications center on the need for socioculturally relevant prevention and intervention efforts with religious identifying college students.
Oostveen Daan F.
Full Text Available The phenomenon of multiple religious belonging is studied from different perspectives, each of which reveals a different understanding of religion, religious diversity and religious belonging. This shows that the phenomenon of multiple religious belonging is challenging the applicability of these central notions in academic enquiry about religion. In this article, I present the different perspectives on multiple religious belonging in theology of religions and show how the understanding of some central scholarly notions is different. In Christian theology, the debate on multiple religious belonging is conducted between particularists, who focus on the uniqueness of religious traditions, and pluralists, who focus on the shared religious core of religious traditions. Both positions are criticized by feminist and post-colonial theologians. They believe that both particularists and pluralists focus too strongly on religious traditions and the boundaries between them. I argue that the hermeneutic study of multiple religious belonging could benefit from a more open understanding of religious traditions and religious boundaries, as proposed by these feminist and post-colonial scholars. In order to achieve this goal we could also benefit from a more intercultural approach to multiple religious belonging in order to understand religious belonging in a nonexclusive way.
Juan Andrés Mercado
Full Text Available David Hume wrote several works on religious matters. His Dialogues concerning natural religion present his ideas on natural theology and the so-called natural religion. My aim in this study is to underline some aspects of his Natural History of Religion, in which he presents a deductive history of the religious institutions. By "deductive" I mean a method with a preconception of the studied subject matter, which is interpreted within this framework. Such a method usually produces a very limited conception of the issue. However Hume's brilliant style and sharp criticism, which is indebted to Bayle's written works had been very successful in modelling our way of addressing religious affairs.
Full Text Available Can a primitive society set a public agenda? Are there some advantages for a religious society in setting an agenda? From a critical study of the communicative perspective of the Bible and hermeneutic reading of its texts, it can be said that certain elements in primitive societies succeeded in influencing the political and social agendas. They did so by exploiting specific public assemblies or appearing in crowded places in attempts to impact local and national agendas. This notion is significant because it suggests that in countries that do not have developed communication infrastructures or established religious institutions (e.g., churches, mosques, and synagogues that serve as public arenas, indeed even in seemingly closed religious communities, there may well be attempts to use venues other than mass media to influence the public agenda.
Alex Villas Boas
Full Text Available This article proposes to examine some theories of non-religious spirituality in light of the growing phenomenon of those individuals who declared themselves as having "no religion" by Brazilian religious census conducted in 2010 by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. The intention here is to identify how the poetic question presents itself as the fundamental element of these proposals about spirituality for authors, since beauty is part of the spiritual quest, as in: Viktor Frankl and existential religiosity grounded in the search for meaning in life; Marià Corbí and his non-religious or secular spirituality; Robert Solomon and his spirituality for skeptics, and André Comte-Sponville and his atheistic spirituality, or spirituality without God. From there, we then present the perception of spirituality in the poetry of the thought of Jean Paul Sartre, primarily in his work “what is Literature?”
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological well-being is one of an important part on the positive aging process for elderly. Many older people face stressful situation such as death of family, deterioration of health, decrease of physical ability and psychological problem like loneliness, low self esteem, useless, isolation or difficulty in relationship. Religious relaxation: dzikir is one of the group therapy to fill up psychological necessary by filled up spiritual necessary so they could say thanks to God for everything what they have had now. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of religious relaxation: dzikir to increase the level of psychological well being of the elderly. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental pre post test design. There were 20 respondents which taken by using purposive sampling. The independent variable was religious relaxation: dzikir and the dependent variable was elderly psychological well being. Data were analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U-Test with significance level a≤0.05. Result: The result showed that religious relaxation: dzikir has an effect on increasing the level of psychological well being of the elderly with Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test p=0.004 in treatment group, p=1.000 in control group and the result of Mann Whitney U-Test revealed p=0.000. Discussion: It can be concluded that religious relaxation: dzikir can increase psychological well-being. Religious relaxation: dzikir help the elderly to develop self acceptance, autonomy, positive relation with others, environmental mastery, purposive in life and personal growth. Researcher suggests the institutional to practice relaxation religious: dzikir to help elderly people to raise psychological well-being.
Hayward, R. David; Maselko, Joanna; Meador, Keith G.
People have a strong motivation to maintain a self-concept that is coherent and consistent over time. Religion is an central source of social identity for many people, but its importance is prone to dramatic change across the life course. To maintain a consistent perception of self, recollections of one’s own past religiousness may shift to better fit with the present. This study examined changes between early and middle adulthood in retrospective perceptions of religious behavior and identity in childhood. Data from a population-based birth cohort sample were matched with data from individuals who participated in at least two of three adult follow-up studies, at intervals of approximately 10 years. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association of final recollections of childhood behavior and identity with previous recollections and current religious characteristics. Consistent with the predictions of temporal self-appraisal theory, participants’ perception of their religious identity as children tended to change over time to match their adult religious identity. Recollections of childhood religious behavior were more stable than recollections of religious identity, and change was unrelated to adult behavior. These results have implications for studying religious characteristics using retrospective measures, regarding their accuracy and their independence from contemporary measures. PMID:22844186
Full Text Available The Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale (RSS measures important psychological constructs in an underemphasized section of the overlap between religion and well-being. Are religious/spiritual struggles distinct from religiousness, distress, and each other? To test the RSS’ internal discriminant validity, we replicated the original six-factor measurement model across five large samples (N = 5705 and tested the fit of a restricted bifactor model, which supported the mutual viability of multidimensional and unidimensional scoring systems for the RSS. Additionally, we explored a bifactor model with correlated group factors that exhibited optimal fit statistics. This model maintained the correlations among the original factors while extracting a general factor from the RSS. This general factor’s strong correlations with religious participation and belief salience suggested that this factor resembles religiousness itself. Estimating this general factor seemed to improve Demonic and Moral struggles’ independence from religiousness, but did not change any factor’s correlations with neuroticism, depression, anxiety, and stress. These distress factors correlated with most of the independent group factors corresponding to the original dimensions of the RSS, especially Ultimate Meaning and Divine struggles. These analyses demonstrate the discriminant validity of religious/spiritual struggles and the complexity of their relationships with religiousness and distress.
Balkin, Richard S.; Schlosser, Lewis Z.; Levitt, Dana Heller
In this article, the authors present the results from a national study investigating the relationships between religious identity, sexism, homophobia, and multicultural competence. Participants were 111 randomly sampled counseling professionals and graduate students. The results indicated a relationship between religious identity and various…
Stoltzfus, Kenneth M; Farkas, Kathleen J
This article presents empirical findings which suggest that religious coping moderates the relationship between daily hassles stress and alcohol use among female college students. This study utilized a cross-sectional data collection strategy and convenience sampling to examine the relationship between alcohol use, daily hassles stress, and religious coping among 423 undergraduate students (269 females and 154 males) at a religiously affiliated college in the Midwestern USA. Data were collected in 2008. Instruments utilized for data collection included the Inventory of College Student Recent Life Experiences, the Brief RCOPE, and quantity/frequency measures of alcohol use. Involvement in positive religious coping was significantly related to lower rates of alcohol use. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that among women, positive religious coping moderated the relationship between two types of daily hassles stress (academic alienation and romantic problems) and alcohol use. This study found that among female college students, the relationship between daily hassles stress and alcohol use weakened with increased participation in religious coping. This finding suggests that religious coping may protect against alcohol use among female college students. The results of this study also suggest that it may be important for university-based treatment and prevention practitioners to assess involvement in religious coping practices and to include such practices in the treatment planning process, when culturally appropriate and desired by consumers. Study limitations and areas for further research are also discussed.
Perry, Samuel L.; Hayward, George M.
Pornography has become increasingly accessible in the United States, and particularly for younger Americans. While some research considers how pornography use affects the sexual and psychological health of adolescents and emerging adults, sociologists have given little attention to how viewing pornography may shape young Americans’ connection to key social and cultural institutions, like religion. This article examines whether viewing pornography may actually have a secularizing effect, reducing young Americans’ personal religiosity over time. To test for this, we use data from three waves of the National Study of Youth and Religion. Fixed-effects regression models show that more frequent pornography viewing diminishes religious service attendance, importance of religious faith, prayer frequency, and perceived closeness to God, while increasing religious doubts. These effects hold regardless of gender. The effects of viewing pornography on importance of faith, closeness to God, and religious doubts are stronger for teenagers compared to emerging adults. In light of the rapidly growing availability and acceptance of pornography for young Americans, our findings suggest that scholars must consider how increasingly pervasive pornography consumption may shape both the religious lives of young adults and also the future landscape of American religion more broadly. PMID:28546649
Full Text Available This paper explores the approach to religious education that has been instituted in Russia since 2012. The new policy’s manifestly proclaimed goals seem convergent with the values of religious freedom, self-determination, tolerance, and inter-faith peace that are espoused by Western liberal democracies. Yet Russia’s hidden religious education curriculum is far more consistent with a neo-imperial model of ethno-religious (Russian Orthodox hegemony and limited toleration of selected, other faiths whose reach is restricted to politically peripheral ethno-territorial entities. This model embodies and revitalizes Russia’s imperial legacies. Yet the revitalization is, in itself, an outcome of strategic choices made by the country’s religious and secular elites in the course of its desecularization. Building on discourse analysis of five Russian textbooks and a teacher’s manual, this article shows how the neo-imperial model manifests itself in the suppression of exogenous and endogenous pluralism, cultivation of the ideology of “ethnodoxy”, and in essentially imperialist mythology. The paper concludes by predicting the new model’s potential instability.
Full Text Available Recently, insufficiency of secular coping methods has drawn the attention of researchers towards religious coping methods. While the parts about theory and model cover an important place in the literature, experimental studies are rapidly going on. Although religious coping was initially interpreted as positive, experimental studies reveal that it also has negative forms. The purpose of this study, in which qualitative research methods were used, is to define the components of religious coping. Semi structured interview was used among 42 participants, 9 war veterans from Association of Turkish Disabled War Veterans, Martyrs, their Widows and Orphans Ankara Branch, and 9 relatives of martyrs from the Association of Martyrs’ Families Ankara Branch, totaling 60 volunteer participants between the ages 25 and 65 with snowball sampling method. It was discovered that 29 of the participants used negative religious coping and the participants who only used negative religious coping were studied in this research. Upon recording the interviews with the aid of a recorder, the researched typed the script of the interviews. The qualitative analysis of the collected data was done in MAXODA 11 computer program.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recently, insufficiency of secular coping methods has drawn the attention of researchers towards religious coping methods. While the parts about theory and model cover an important place in the literature, experimental studies are rapidly going on. Although religious coping was initially interpreted as positive, experimental studies reveal that it also has negative forms. The purpose of this study, in which qualitative research methods were used, is to define the components of religious coping. Semi structured interview was used among 42 participants, 9 war veterans from Association of Turkish Disabled War Veterans, Martyrs, their Widows and Orphans Ankara Branch, and 9 relatives of martyrs from the Association of Martyrs’ Families Ankara Branch, totaling 60 volunteer participants between the ages 25 and 65 with snowball sampling method. It was discovered that 29 of the participants used negative religious coping and the participants who only used negative religious coping were studied in this research. Upon recording the interviews with the aid of a recorder, the researched typed the script of the interviews. The qualitative analysis of the collected data was done in MAXODA 11 computer program.
Oda Ignatius Besar Hariyanto
ABSTRACT Ministry of Tourism currently focused on the development of tourism, especially tourist destinations, because the tourism sectors expected to become the responsibility of the economies on non-oil sector. The wealth of Indonesia tourist destinations is a culture tourism, natural tourism, and man-made tourism. Indonesia has a cultural diversity that spread to 34 provinces. Each tribe and region has a diversity of different cultures, influenced by geography, region of origin and historical background and religion are different. It is the uniqueness and attractiveness of cultural and religious tourism in Indonesia. Cirebon is one area in West Java has many unique and appeal to be develops into a cultural and religious tourist destination. Previously Cirebon had been a “Jalur Sutra Perdagangan” of various nationalities who came from China, India, Turkey, Persia, and the Middle East, who transit through the port of Cirebon. Thus, eventually occur of acculturation to the natives Cirebon. It is increased the repertoire of cultural diversity which is owned by the people of Cirebon. The palace of Kasepuhan, Kanoman and Kacirebon, Hindu-Buddhist relics, the history entry and the development of Islam in Cirebon, then Cirebon has the potential to be develops into a cultural and religious tourism. This research used qualitative descriptive method with multi-disciplinary approach for reasons of tourism is part of a culture that is very complex. The aim of research got description of tourist destinations and religious possessed by Cirebon. Keywords: Tourist Destination, Culture, Religious
Krzystanek, Marek; Krysta, Krzysztof; Klasik, Adam; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena
Different environmental factors are thought to be responsible for 15-20% of schizophrenia pathogenesis. Religion has long been considered a major force in human life, regardless of economic, social or political affiliation. How the perception of religion has changed over time, especially in the context of mental illness, was the focal point of this long-term comparative study. A random selection of 100 case histories from the years 1932, 1952, 1972 and 1992 was selected. By reviewing the subject history and medical notes, information on the presence of religious hallucinations and/or delusions were collected and grouped. Religious topics were demonstrated in 46.8% of the test population. Whereas there was a clear diversity of religious-themed delusions, "God", "Christ", "Mary", "Satan/devil" and "hell" all figured prominently across all reviewed years. There is a progressive decrease in the number of religious topics in paranoid schizophrenia. The transfer of holiness from historical saints onto a subject was observed. Evil dominates over good in productive symptoms in paranoid schizophrenia. The phenomenon of apocalyptic subjects in paranoid hallucinations and delusions increased after the Second World War. Religious topics of hallucinations and delusions change over time and relate to objective historical events and reflect changes in religiosity in society.
Robinson, Kristin A; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Hansen, Patrick D; Gray, Richard J
The aim of this study is to describe religious and spiritual beliefs of physicians and examine their influence on the decision to pursue medicine and daily medical practice. An anonymous survey was e-mailed to physicians at a large, multidisciplinary tertiary referral center with satellite clinics. Data were collected from January 2014 through February 2014. There were 2097 respondents (69.1 % men), and number of practicing years ranged from ≤1 to ≥30. Primary care physicians or medical specialists represented 74.1 %, 23.6 % were in surgical specialties, and 2.3 % were psychiatrists. The majority of physicians believe in God (65.2 %), and 51.2 % reported themselves as religious, 24.8 % spiritual, 12.4 % agnostic, and 11.6 % atheist. This self-designation was largely independent of specialty except for psychiatrists, who were more likely report agnosticism (P = 0.003). In total, 29.0 % reported that religious or spiritual beliefs influenced their decision to become a physician. Frequent prayer was reported by 44.7 % of physicians, but only 20.7 % reported having prayed with patients. Most physicians consider themselves religious or spiritual, but the rates of agnosticism and atheism are higher than the general population. Psychiatrists are the least religious group. Despite the influence of religion on physicians' lives and medical practice, the majority have not incorporated prayer into patient encounters.
Awan, Abdul Ghafoor; Zia, Asma
Education is necessary for the personality grooming of individual. There are different types of institutions available like private and public institutions, technical institutions, and madrasas (religious institutions). These institutes are having the triangle of three main pillars; consisted of Teachers, Students, and Curriculum. There are two…
AbdAleati, Naziha S; Mohd Zaharim, Norzarina; Mydin, Yasmin Othman
Many people use religious beliefs and practices to cope with stressful life events and derive peace of mind and purpose in life. The goal of this paper was to systematically review the recent psychological literature to assess the role of religion in mental health outcomes. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using medical and psychological databases on the relationship between religiosity and mental health. Seventy-four articles in the English and Arabic languages published between January 2000 and March 2012 were chosen. Despite the controversial relationship between religion and psychiatry, psychology, and medical care, there has been an increasing interest in the role which spirituality and religion play in mental health. The findings of past research showed that religion could play an important role in many situations, as religious convictions and rules influence the believer's life and health care. Most of the past literature in this area reported that there is a significant connection between religious beliefs and practices and mental health.
Jordens, Christopher F C; O'Connor, Michelle A C; Kerridge, Ian H; Stewart, Cameron; Cameron, Andrew; Keown, Damien; Lawrence, Rabbi Jeremy; McGarrity, Andrew; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Tobin, Bernadette
Umbilical cord blood is a valuable source of haematopoietic stem cells. There is little information about whether religious affiliations have any bearing on attitudes to and decisions about its collection, donation and storage. The authors provided information about umbilical cord blood banking to expert commentators from six major world religions (Catholicism, Anglicanism, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism) and asked them to address a specific set of questions in a commentary. The commentaries suggest there is considerable support for umbilical cord blood banking in these religions. Four commentaries provide moral grounds for favouring public donation over private storage. None attach any particular religious significance to the umbilical cord or to the blood within it, nor place restrictions on the ethnicity or religion of donors and recipients. Views on ownership of umbilical cord blood vary. The authors offer a series of general points for those who seek a better understanding of religious perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.
Media Zainul Bahri
Full Text Available This essay elucidates the idea of religious pluralism of Abdurrahman Wahid (1940-2009, a very important figure in the tradition of Indonesian Islam. Wahis’s ideas of religious pluralism is based on what the so-called “Depth Islam” (DI. DI is different from the usual theological dogmas that only contains concepts and structures. DI is not a literal and superficial forms of religion. It is an understanding that goes beyond the literal texts to look for the principles and spirit of religion in appreciating humanity, diversity and peace. DI may have arisen because of the long process of religious internalization within Wahid experiences, but it is also a hybrid form, i.e., it is a result of the process of encountering or learning Wahid’s traditions inter-mingling with cultures of the wider world.
Martín Velasco, Juan
Full Text Available Not available.
Religión y moralidad son hechos estrechamente relacionados a lo largo de la historia. Esta relación da lugar a contenidos éticos convergentes en la mayor parte de las tradiciones religiosas. Existen sin embargo tensiones entre la moral y la religión que culminan en la ruptura operada por los movimientos «ilustrados». Operada esta ruptura, religión y moralidad aparecen como distintas formas de relación con el absoluto, llamadas a dialogar, desde la base de la ética civil de lassociedades pluralístas, para buscar soluciones a los problemas de la humanidad actual
Miller, Monica K; Hayward, R David
Using one mock trial scenario, this study investigated whether religious and demographic factors were related to death penalty attitudes and sentencing verdicts. Those who favored the death penalty differed from those who had doubts about the penalty in gender, affiliation, fundamentalism, evangelism, literal Biblical interpretism, beliefs about God's attitudes toward murders, and perceptions of how their religious groups felt about the death penalty. These relationships generally held after mock jurors were death qualified. Gender, fundamentalism, literal interpretism, beliefs about God's death penalty position, and perceptions of how one's religious group felt about the death penalty predicted death penalty sentencing verdicts. Future research could determine whether using peremptory challenges to exclude potential jurors based on religion can help lawyers choose a more favorable jury.
Full Text Available This paper examines the concept of “diversity” as mentioned in the Qur’an and how commonalities in diverse religions may be used as a model for civilizational dialogue towards achieving harmony. This study reveals that religious and cultural diversity are laws of nature which cannot be changed while the concept of “identity” is a contested issue in modern discourse. Results also show that peace may be established among diverse religions through their commonalities and the best way to exploit these commonalities and to reduce the religious divide is through civilizational dialogue. The Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR and other methods for changing the nature of religious differences and reaching a consensus—thus arriving at a peaceful co-existence—are also discussed. It was found that people are often misguided or divided in the name of religion and culture, despite the fact that the philosophy of every religion is based on peace and harmony.
Full Text Available With the independence of Republic of Macedonia and the adoption of the Constitution of Macedonia, the country went through a substantial socio-political transition. The concept of human rights and freedoms, such as religious freedoms in the Macedonian Constitution is based on liberal democratic values. The Macedonian Constitution connects the fundamental human rights and freedoms with the concept of the individual and citizen, but also with the collective rights of ethnic minorities, respecting the international standards and responsibilities taken under numerous international human rights conventions and treaties, of which the country is a party. Republic of Macedonia has ratified all the so called “core human right treaties” and now the real challenge lies in the implementation of the international standards. Some of these international conventions and treaties of the United Nations and of the Council of Europe are inherited by succession from the former Yugoslavian federation. Religious freedoms are guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of human rights (1948, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966, the European Convention on Human Rights (1953, the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief (1981 (all documents ratified by the Republic of Macedonia. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia “The freedom of religious confession is guaranteed. The right to express one's faith freely and publicly, individually or with others, is guaranteed„. After the conflict of 2001 the Ohrid Framework Agreement secured group rights for ethnicities that are not in majority in the Republic of Macedonia. The present Law on the legal status of the church, religious communities and religious groups of 2007, repealed the Law on religion and religious groups of 1997.
Smith, J.A. III.
This dissertation analyzes selected responses of religious groups to the question, Should society increase or decrease its reliance on energy produced by nuclear fission and for what reasons. The primary sources, dating from 1974 until mid-1980, are 82 official or semi-official statements and study documents of religious groups and 17 shareholder resolutions filed by religious groups. The groups are primarily from the United States, Canada, and Great Britain or related to the World Council of Churches. The thesis of the study is that a fully adequate religious statement about nuclear energy would show awareness of and deal with the questions raised in the analytical framework. Using that framework, there are few, if any, adequate religious statements about nuclear energy. A typology of ethical modes in Chapter V describes five positions: polemical anti-nuclear, dialogical anti-nuclear, dialogical middle, dialogical pro-nuclear, and polemical pro-nuclear. The bias of the study is to maintain open and rational discourse with all perspectives rather than to take a position for or against nuclear energy. The study primarily analyzes how religious groups deal with one complex social issue, nuclear energy, but the analytical framework has broad application to a variety of social issues as treated by religious groups
Nurasikin, M S; Khatijah, L A; Aini, A; Ramli, M; Aida, S A; Zainal, N Z; Ng, C G
Patients having psychiatric diagnoses often experience high level of distress. Religiousness is often used by them as part of their coping mechanism and problem-solving strategies. To determine the level of religious commitment and coping methods in psychiatric patients and its relationship with distress level. Religious commitment and coping patterns were measured with the Duke University Religious Index (DUREL) and Brief RCOPE, respectively. Psychopathology was assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and distress level was assessed with the Depressive, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Social support and experiences of recent threatening events were measured with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and Life Threatening Events (LTE). A total of 228 patients were included in this study with a mean age of 40.2 years. The majority were male, Malay, Muslim, single and with psychotic disorder. The subjects had a high level of religious commitment and had used more positive coping methods. Negative religious coping, psychiatric symptoms and diagnosis of anxiety disorder or major depression were significantly associated with high distress level. Higher religious commitment was significantly associated with lower distress (p depression were associated with higher distress.
Mariana L. Borges
Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the level of Spiritual/Religious Coping (SRC of women with breast cancer. This is a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study. A total of 94 mastectomized women who participated in the study were enrolled in a rehabilitation center of a higher education institution of São Paulo. Data were collected from October 2013 to June 2014 using a questionnaire with sociodemographic, clinical, and spiritual/religious data, stressor stimulus associated with breast cancer, and the SRCOPE-Short Scale. All participants used SRC, 76.6% at high/very high level, and 23.4% at medium level; positive SRC (mean 3.41; standard deviation 0.59 was more used than negative SRC (mean 1.27; standard deviation 0.40, confirmed by the NSRC/PSRC ratio (mean 0.38; standard deviation 0.14. The SRC proved to be an important coping strategy in stress situations experienced by women with breast cancer and helpful in coping with the disease and the consequences of the treatments.
Abdi Omar Shuriye
Full Text Available This paper is an analysis on euthanasia from ethical and religious perspectives. Historically, the classical Greek thinkers including Aristotle had categorically accepted euthanasia with the main reason of minimizing pain. However, as science develops ethical and religious isuues related to the subject have increasingly created fervent debates on euthanesia. ABSTRAK: Kertas ini mengkaji euthanasia dari perspektif agama dan etika. Sejarah telah melihat para pemikir Greek termasuk Aristotle secara kategorinya menerima Euthanasia dengan sebab utama untuk mengurangkan kesakitan. Bagaimanapun, apabila sains berkembang, perbahasan mengenai isu-isu agama dan etika tentang Euthanasia telah meningkat dengan nyata.KEYWORDS: mercy killing; religion; ethics; morality; euthanasia
The paper chapter examines the labour market, both private and public, and where different countries draw the lines between the right of the employers and the religious freedom of employees. Starting from an analysis of the debates about the Islamic headscarves, she asks why the labour market...... on headscarves would be direct religious discrimination and indirect gender discrimination of employees. The paper raises general questions about the meanings of and shifts in the framings of gender with religion on different sites on the basis of the European VEIL-project ( http://www.univie.ac.at/veil/Home3...
Full Text Available The role of religion in the environment has yet to be empirically investigated in the country with the largest atheist population across the globe. Using data from the Chinese General Social Survey 2013, we examined the effects of religious beliefs on environmental behaviors in China. Dependent variables of private and public environmental behaviors were identified by factor analysis. The estimation revealed a contradictory result that most religious beliefs had negative effects on private environmental behaviors while having positive effects on public environmental behaviors. The findings suggest a religion–politics interactive mechanism to enhance pro-environmental behavior in China.
Dhyah Ayu Retno Widyastuti
Full Text Available Development of tourism program is basically done as an effort to support income sources. Policy of tourism is a key factor in its. Facts showed that the policy has not been fully align ed to the local societies. Commodification of religious ceremony is a form of marketing process undertaken to attract tourists. Critical theory approach is used which the implications can be explored through the political economy perspective in the case studies. The results showed that policies of tourism lead to economic political activities in the form of commodification of religious ceremony. Hindu’s communities as an “object” of tourism policy implementation.
Artiklen undersøger hvordan religiøse billeder, narrative strategier og andre elementer er en del af musicalgenren. Der foretages en mere indgående analyse af Richard Rodgers' og Oscar Hammersteins forestilling Carousel samt af Andrew LLoyd Webber og Tim Rices forestilling Evita.......Artiklen undersøger hvordan religiøse billeder, narrative strategier og andre elementer er en del af musicalgenren. Der foretages en mere indgående analyse af Richard Rodgers' og Oscar Hammersteins forestilling Carousel samt af Andrew LLoyd Webber og Tim Rices forestilling Evita....
Batara, Jame Bryan L; Franco, Pamela S; Quiachon, Mequia Angelo M; Sembrero, Dianelle Rose M
Several studies show that there is a connection between religion and prosociality (e.g., Saroglou, 2013). To investigate whether there is a causal relationship between these two variables, a growing number of scholars employed priming religious concepts and measure its influence on prosocial behavior (e.g., Pichon, Boccato, & Saroglou, 2007). In the recent development of religious priming, Ritter and Preston (2013) argued that different primes (agent prime, spiritual/abstract prime, and institutional prime) may also have varying influence on prosocial behavior specifically helping an ingroup or an outgroup target. With this in mind, a 2 (social categorization of the target of help) by 3 (agent prime, institutional prime, spiritual prime) experiment was conducted to directly investigate this hypothesis. Results suggest that priming religious concepts especially the spiritual prime can increase prosocial behaviors. However, no significant effect was found on the social categorization which implies that Filipino participants elicit prosocial behavior regardless of the social categorization (be it ingroup or outgroup) of the target of help. The present study's findings contribute to further the literature on religious priming and its influence on prosocial behavior.
Jame Bryan L. Batara
Full Text Available Several studies show that there is a connection between religion and prosociality (e.g., Saroglou, 2013. To investigate whether there is a causal relationship between these two variables, a growing number of scholars employed priming religious concepts and measure its influence on prosocial behavior (e.g., Pichon, Boccato, & Saroglou, 2007. In the recent development of religious priming, Ritter and Preston (2013 argued that different primes (agent prime, spiritual/abstract prime, and institutional prime may also have varying influence on prosocial behavior specifically helping an ingroup or an outgroup target. With this in mind, a 2 (social categorization of the target of help by 3 (agent prime, institutional prime, spiritual prime experiment was conducted to directly investigate this hypothesis. Results suggest that priming religious concepts especially the spiritual prime can increase prosocial behaviors. However, no significant effect was found on the social categorization which implies that Filipino participants elicit prosocial behavior regardless of the social categorization (be it ingroup or outgroup of the target of help. The present study’s findings contribute to further the literature on religious priming and its influence on prosocial behavior.
Entrepreneurship Education in Nigerian Education Institution. ... Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria ... This document posits that Nigeria is burdened with unemployment, cases of crimes, wrong education, wrong use of skills; wrong religious believes, unsuppressed graduate unemployment, acute tribal and ...
Eka Hendry AR.
Full Text Available Inspired by the book of Michael Mann about the dark side of democracy that discusses the paradox between the ideality of democratic values and empirical realities of violence in the name of freedom (democracy, this paper begins with the exposure of the paradox, such as the rise of the violent conflict between groups of people (both ethnic and religious-based and the high prevalence of violence between religious groups in Indonesia. Even worse, a very wrenching violence involves state actors (rulers. This paper tries to understand the roots of the paradox, with a look at how the relationship between state and religion and the religious community trend of Indonesia (especially Muslims. The author argues that the democratization of religion is a solution to the issues. To answer what kind of religious democracy lives in Indonesia, the author analyzes through a religious procedural (or constitutional democratic dimension and religious substantial democratic dimension. The phenomenon of disobedience of law and system and the euphoria of law-making that reflects “intolerance” in several places in Indonesia display the fundamental issue in the religious procedural democracy. Whereas in the context of religious substantial democracy, the prevailing trend of religion that serves as a political and economic vehicle and ignores religion as a substantial aspect of the behavior of the Indonesian society has resulted in the marginalization of religious position and function. Then, the infiltration of the model of political Islam has also led to alienation of the character of the Islamic society of Indonesia, from a democratic pattern to a revival (radical one. In this light, the author needs to present a strategy to encourage religious democracy in Indonesia, structurally through formulating the ideal relation model between state and religion and culturally through a substantial pattern of religion embedded with the character of Indonesian religious
A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma......A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma...
Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine
and for the problem arising when drawing inadequately reasoned conclusions. Key Words Religious experiences, religious Erlebnis, religious Erfahrung, (religious) ideology, neuroscience, neuropsychology, pain, PET, reductionism, partial reductionism, Transcendental Meditation, epilepsy, schizophrenia.......The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyse to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of religious...... experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of the present paper mean by the concept of religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: the Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological or RIT type of religious experience. In his studies...
The effect of misapplied religious practices in some alternative religious groups. ... religion generally has on human beings has been suggested by different studies. ... emotions. Adherence to the tenets of the group then occurred as a result of ...
Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer
In the current study, we examined the genetic and environmental sources of the links between individual religiousness and individual personality traits, perceived parental religiousness, and perceived peer religiousness. Data from 870 individuals (incl. 394 twin pairs) were analyzed. Variance in individual religiousness was significantly influenced by genetic effects, environmental influences shared by twins reared together, and individual-specific environmental influences. Individual religiousness showed significant associations with age, sex, specific personality traits (e.g., agreeableness, openness to values), and perceived religiousness of important social interaction partners, such as parents, best friends, and spouses. The links to personality traits were relatively small and primarily genetically mediated. The associations between individual religiousness and parental religiousness were substantial and mediated by shared environmental effects. These links significantly decreased across age accompanying a significant decrease of shared environmental influences on individual religiousness. The correlations between individual religiousness and perceived religiousness of spouses and best friends were relatively moderate but increased with age. These associations were mediated by genetic as well as nonshared environmental sources accompanying an increase of nonshared environmental influences on individual religiousness with age. The results suggest that inter-individual differences in religiousness are due to multiple sources.
Conflicts between Two Religious Cultures: Achieving Reconciliation. Patrick E. Nmah ... origins of human life in Africa in order to underline in an African way the new kind of life of an African ... oneself fast to God”, while religere means to choose and select again. .... create development, tolerance, love and lasting peace.
... protect our freedom of religion, including the freedom to practice none at all. Many faiths are now..., declaring freedom of religion as the natural right of all humanity--not a privilege for any government to... Religious Freedom Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Long before our...
Peters, T.; Froehlig, J. L.
What might be the likely impact of confirmed discovery of extraterrestrial life—microbial or intelligent life—on terrestrial religion? Many have speculated that the anthropo-centrism and earth-centrism which allegedly have characterized our religious traditions would be confronted with a crisis. Would new knowledge that we are not alone in the universe lead to a collapse of traditional religious belief? This presentation will summarize the results of the Peters Religious Crisis Survey of 1325 respondents. This survey shows that the majority of adherents to Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism demonstrate little or no anxiety regarding the prospect of contact with extraterrestrial life, even if they express some doubts regarding their respective religious tradition and the traditions of others. This presentation will also show that theological speculation regarding other worlds has sparked lively debate beginning as far back as the middle ages and continuing into our present era. Ted Peters is a research and teaching scholar with the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California. He is co-editor of the journal, Theology and Science, and author of the books, The Evolution of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Life (Pandora 2008) and Playing God? Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom (Routledge, rev. ed., 2003).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Major life changes are among factors that cause anxiety, and one of these changes is surgery. Emotional reactions to surgery have specific effects on the intensity and velocity as well as the process of physical disease. In addition, they can cause delay in patients recovery. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety. Methods This survey is a correlational study to assess the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety of patients undergoing abdominal, orthopaedic, and gynaecologic surgery in educational hospitals. We used the convenience sampling method. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire containing the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and another questionnaire formulated by the researcher with queries on religious beliefs and demographic characteristics as well as disease-related information. Analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results were arranged in three tables. Results The findings showed that almost all the subjects had high level of religiosity and moderate level of anxiety. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between religiosity and intensity of anxiety, though this was not statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study can be used as evidence for presenting religious counselling and spiritual interventions for individuals undergoing stress. Finally, based on the results of this study, the researcher suggested some recommendations for applying results and conducting further research.
Cardinal, Monique C.
This article discusses the almost identical syllabuses of the Christian and Muslim religious education programmes of the Syrian Arab Republic. Content analysis of the students' textbooks and teachers' guides (in Arabic) reveals common themes of citizenship education and national unity. Classroom observations in Damascus also highlight how…
Ozorak, Elizabeth Weiss
A study conducted in 1986 found that parents were the critical influence on the religious beliefs and commitment of their adolescent sons and daughters, while the adolescent's peers seemed to have no significant effect. In addition, the content of the beliefs did not seem to act as a strong reinforcer. Thirty-two of the 390 subjects who…
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between religiosity and mental health has been a perennial source of controversy. This paper reviews the scientific evidence available for the relationship between religion and mental health. METHOD: The authors present the main studies and conclusions of a larger systematic review of 850 studies on the religion-mental health relationship published during the 20th Century identified through several databases. The present paper also includes an update on the papers published since 2000, including researches performed in Brazil and a brief historical and methodological background. DISCUSSION: The majority of well-conducted studies found that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale and with less depression, suicidal thoughts and behavior, drug/alcohol use/abuse. Usually the positive impact of religious involvement on mental health is more robust among people under stressful circumstances (the elderly, and those with disability and medical illness. Theoretical pathways of the religiousness-mental health connection and clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that religious involvement is usually associated with better mental health. We need to improve our understanding of the mediating factors of this association and its use in clinical practice.
Project #OA-FY15-0180, August 5, 2015. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) plans to begin field work on our audit of the EPA’s practices, policies and procedures for religious compensatory time.
Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Neto, Francisco Lotufo; Koenig, Harold G
The relationship between religiosity and mental health has been a perennial source of controversy. This paper reviews the scientific evidence available for the relationship between religion and mental health. The authors present the main studies and conclusions of a larger systematic review of 850 studies on the religion-mental health relationship published during the 20th Century identified through several databases. The present paper also includes an update on the papers published since 2000, including researches performed in Brazil and a brief historical and methodological background. The majority of well-conducted studies found that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale) and with less depression, suicidal thoughts and behavior, drug/alcohol use/abuse. Usually the positive impact of religious involvement on mental health is more robust among people under stressful circumstances (the elderly, and those with disability and medical illness). Theoretical pathways of the religiousness-mental health connection and clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. There is evidence that religious involvement is usually associated with better mental health. We need to improve our understanding of the mediating factors of this association and its use in clinical practice.
Mercer Ronald L.
Full Text Available Work in what has been known as the theological turn in French phenomenology describes the way in which human beings are always, already open to a religious encounter. This paper will focus on Levinas as a proper transcendental phenomenologist as would be characterized by parts of Husserl and Husserl’s last assistant Eugen Fink. What Levinas does in his phenomenology of the face/other (which gets tied up in religious language is to describe an absolute origin out of which the subject arises. This point of origin structures the self in such a way as to always, already be open to that which overflows experience and, thus, makes possible the very experience of an encounter with the numinous. Such an approach to religious experience for which I am arguing simply takes Levinas at his word when he declares “The idea of God is an idea that cannot clarify a human situation. It is the inverse that is true.” (“Transcendence and Height” Understanding the structure of the subject as open to that which cannot be reduced/totalized/ encapsulated is to recognize that the human situation is ready for the possibility of religious experience.
Warlick, Craig A.; Ingram, Paul B.; Multon, Karen D.; Vuyk, M. Alexandra
Religion is a shaping force in the world today, increasingly expressed and integral to the flow and function of the workplace. The relationship between religious identity and work function is clearly present. However, no lines of research have explored how religion explains the variations in vocational interest, despite speculation that it does…
Miller, Randolph C.
Argues that children need assistance in dealing with the fundamental questions concerning evil and God. Discusses kinds of evil and God's omnipotence. Urges that the relationship of God to evil be dealt with in religious education so that both children and adults can be adequately prepared to deal with suffering and death. (KO)
Religious violence in Nigeria has devaluated our national economy. Any interested observer of the Nigeria socio-political structure is all too easily aware of the multiplicity of voices and the diversity of cultures within the one nation. Nigeria has one of the highest ethnic nationalities to be found in one single nation in the ...
Perry, Samuel L
Religiosity and pornography use are often closely connected. Relatively few studies, however, have examined how this religion-pornography connection plays out within the context of committed romantic relationships. Moreover, virtually all studies of religion and pornography use conceptualize religiosity as a quality intrinsic to the person that typically reduces pornography viewing. Focusing on married Americans, this study shifted the focus to consider whether the religiosity of one's spouse relates to one's own pornography viewing and under what circumstances. Analyses of the nationally representative Portraits of American Life Study (N = 1026) revealed that spousal religiosity was strongly and negatively related to participants viewing pornography, controlling for participants' own religious or sociodemographic characteristics or sexual satisfaction. This relationship held whether spousal religiosity was measured with participants' evaluations of their spouses' religiosity or spouses' self-reported religiosity. The association between spousal religiosity and pornography use was also moderated by participants' religious service attendance, gender, and age. Considering mechanisms, the association between spousal religiosity and pornography use was mediated by frequent participation in religious bonding activities as a couple, suggesting that spousal religiosity may decrease pornography viewing among married Americans by promoting greater religious intimacy and unity between the couple, consequently decreasing one's interest or opportunities to view pornography.
Levi, Daniel; Kocher, Sara
Tourism at historic religious sites requires balancing the needs of historic preservation, the tourist experience, and community use of the site. The sacredness of these places is defined by the behaviors that occur there, the experience of users and visitors, and the meanings associated with the place by various groups. This research examines the…
the interest of this paper to bridge ethnic and religious tension in Nigeria by stimulating .... According to. Madu (1997:19) “religion as it were is the strongest element in man ..... 3:26-29. 80 course of his missionary activity in Central Asia Minor.
This article considers potential problems concerning Religious Education in public (state-funded) secondary schools in England in order to inform ongoing debates about religion in public education in the United States and elsewhere. Findings of empirical studies conducted in England are discussed in relation to arguments that critique Religious…
Kalkhoran, Masoomeh Aghamohammadi; Karimollahi, Mansoureh
Major life changes are among factors that cause anxiety, and one of these changes is surgery. Emotional reactions to surgery have specific effects on the intensity and velocity as well as the process of physical disease. In addition, they can cause delay in patients recovery. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety. This survey is a correlational study to assess the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety of patients undergoing abdominal, orthopaedic, and gynaecologic surgery in educational hospitals. We used the convenience sampling method. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire containing the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and another questionnaire formulated by the researcher with queries on religious beliefs and demographic characteristics as well as disease-related information. Analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS software using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results were arranged in three tables. The findings showed that almost all the subjects had high level of religiosity and moderate level of anxiety. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between religiosity and intensity of anxiety, though this was not statistically significant. The results of this study can be used as evidence for presenting religious counselling and spiritual interventions for individuals undergoing stress. Finally, based on the results of this study, the researcher suggested some recommendations for applying results and conducting further research.
Berryman, Jerome W.
Investigates the connections among laughter, power, and motivation for religious education by reviewing the history of laughter and four models for laughter. Discusses complexity and the laughter of complexity. Concludes that the laughter of complexity can be a guide towards the appropriate use of power by using intrinsic motivation. (CMK)
Full Text Available In this paper I develop a phenomenology of religious experience through the notion of keyphenomenon. My analysis moves from a general phenomenology of situation, in which we have to relate different phenomena according to a sense. What does “according to a sense” mean? My suggestion is that we should look for a relationship among these data when we find a key-phenomenon (among a series of phenomena that would enlighten all the others. This key-phenomenon would show a non-phenomenal meaning which would make all the others understandable. Each other datum, therefore, becomes the witness of invisible meaning through a key-witness. The key-phenomenon we choose determines the role (i.e., the truth of each datum within its situation. This phenomenological relationship belongs to both the sense of day-life situations, and that one of possible religious situations. If the religious interpretation of a situation depends on our choice of key-phenomenon, or key-witness, we have to define what kind of keyphenomenon constitutes a religious intuition.
Kroeker, Frances; Norris, Stephen
In this article, we challenge the common liberal assumption that religious schooling undermines the goals of liberal civic education, making it impossible for children to acquire tolerance, critical reasoning skills, or personal autonomy. As a framework for this argument, we respond to some of the claims made by Harry Brighouse in his recent book,…
This article reviews recent research looking at the socio-economic profile of pupils at faith schools and the contribution religiously selective admission arrangements make. It finds that selection by faith leads to greater social segregation and is open to manipulation. It urges that such selection should end, making the state-funded school…
The paper works through the theoretical notion of intertextuality and attempts to deconstruct and read whether such irruptions (and interruptions) into the Hindu tradition are actually transgressive and gendered religious violations, or whether they work instead to discursively and differently perpetuate particular parochial and ...
both religious communal body and life hereafter. Introduction .... often confuses or throws the devil off balance. .... work; only he who now letteth will let, until he be taken out of the way” ... Consequently, this solution would argue that god is not good ... make assertions about the world and then challenge us to prove it to be ...
Lisa Weaver Swartz
Full Text Available Using ethnographic research and interviews, this article explored the construction of gender equality among students and faculty members at the Asbury Theological Seminary. The institution constructed an unusual blend of egalitarianism and anti-feminism using explicitly religious tools. Specifically, it was found that community members constructed firm commitments to gender equality from their heavily individualistic theology and from identification with the New Testament Church. The community’s resonance with feminism was also limited by evangelical anti-structuralism and an ethic of Christian humility and moderation. Established constructions of gender equality and inequality in established scholarly, and especially feminist, literature could not fully explain this unusual blend. This paper argues that agency and empowerment can be available to women because of the theological content of their religion.
Hall, Daniel E.; Meador, Keith G.; Koenig, Harold G.
Although existing measures of religiousness are sophisticated, no single approach has yet emerged as a standard. We review the measures of religiousness most commonly used in the religion and health literature with particular attention to their limitations, suggesting that vigilance is required to avoid over-generalization. After placing the development of these scales in historical context, we discuss measures of religious attendance, private religious practice, and intrinsic/extrinsic relig...
Van der Bracht, Koen; D'hondt, Fanny; Van Houtte, Mieke; Van de Putte, Bart; Stevens, Peter
Public concerns over the possible effects of school segregation on immigrant and ethnic majority religiosity have been on the rise over the last few years. In this paper we focus on (1) the association between ethnic school composition and religious salience, (2) intergenerational differences in religious salience and (3) the role of ethnic school composition for intergenerational differences in religious salience. We perform analyses on religious salience, one five-point Likert scale item me...
Religious tourism is a form of tourism whereby people of the same faith travel individually or in groups for religious purposes. This form of tourism comprises many facets of the travel industry ranging from pilgrimages, missionary travel, leisure (fellowship), vacations, faith-based cruising, crusades, conventions and rallies, retreats, monastery visits and guest-stays, Christian and faith-based camps, to religious tourist attractions. In Sukur Kingdom, most tourists embark on religious trav...
Douglas, Gillian; Doe, Christopher Norman; Gilliat-Ray, Sophie; Sandberg, Russell; Khan, Asma
This Cardiff University study of religious courts and tribunals across the UK has been funded by the AHRC/ESRC Religion and Society Programme. The project, „Social Cohesion and Civil Law: Marriage, Divorce and Religious Courts‟, explores how religious law functions alongside civil law in England and Wales.\\ud The context, though not the catalyst, for our study, is the lecture given by the Archbishop of Canterbury in 2008 on the relationship between religious law - primarily though not exclusi...
Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Seli, Paul; Koehler, Derek J.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.
An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined associations of God beliefs, religious engagement (attendance at religious services, praying, etc.), conventional religious beliefs (heaven, miracle...
acknowledged church dogma or religious belief, and is of such a nature that it passes the test of a nuanced and context-sensitive form of balancing of these freedoms and the right to human dignity and equality of persons affected by them. 1. BACKGROUND. Religious freedom (s 15(1)) and freedom of religious communities ...
Schafer, Walter E.; King, Michael
Examined how current religious preference, attendance at religious services, importance of religion, and Christian rebirth were related to perceived stress among college students (N=195) in a communitywide survey. Found no association between any of the religiousness variables and perceived stress. (Author/ABL)
This longitudinal study evaluated the effect of religiousness on substance use and depression both currently and after six months. It also evaluated the association between religious coping on substance use and depression both currently and after six months. Results reveal no relationship between religiousness and current substance use. There was…
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondiscrimination against religious organizations... GRANTS CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS... organizations. (a) Religious organizations are eligible, on the same basis as any other organization, to...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nondiscrimination against religious organizations... against religious organizations. (a) Religious organizations are eligible, on the same basis as any other organization, to participate in applicable programs, as long as their services are provided consistent with the...
Martin, Timothy J.
A major dilemma confronting religious educators in the utilization of short stories, film, and other emerging forms of narratives is the question of how to evaluate their "religiousness." This can present dilemmas in the selection, analysis, and comparison of narratives for the purposes of teaching Religious Education. This article forwards useful…
The relationship between religious beliefs and use of contraception may vary from one country to another depending on how homogenous a country is or whether different religious groups do exist and are well represented. The paper examines the effect of religious groups on the use of contraception among currently ...
O'Connor, Shawn; Vandenberg, Brian
This study investigated mental health professionals' assessment of the pathognomonic significance of religious beliefs. A total of 110 participants reviewed 3 vignettes depicting individuals possessing the religious beliefs associated with Catholicism, Mormonism, and Nation of Islam. The religious beliefs of the individuals in the vignettes were…
Hardy, Sam A.; Steelman, Michael A.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Ridge, Robert D.
This study examined mediators of relations between adolescent religiousness and pornography use. The sample consisted of 419 adolescents (ages 15-18 years; M age = 15.68, SD = 0.98; 56% male). It was hypothesized that religiousness (religious internalization and involvement) would protect adolescents from pornography use (accidental and…
This paper titled “Philosophy and Method of Integrative Humanism and Religious Crises in Nigeria: Picking the Essentials”, acknowledges the damaging effects of religious bigotry, fanaticism and creed differences on the social, political and economic development of the country. The need for the cessation of religious ...
Special Religious Education is faith-based single tradition religious education taught in many Australian public schools by volunteer teachers who are adherents of the faith they are teaching. This paper derives from a qualitative study of the pedagogy of Christian Special Religious Education teachers that took place between 2010 and 2014. Love is…
Barnes, L. Philip
The aim of this paper is to provide a positive case for increasing the role and importance of religious morality within the subject of religious education in British schools. The argument is structured in the following way. First, attention is given to the diminished role accorded to moral education within religious education that followed the…
Galen, Luke W.
Numerous authors have suggested that religious belief has a positive association, possibly causal, with prosocial behavior. This article critiques evidence regarding this "religious prosociality" hypothesis from several areas of the literature. The extant literature on religious prosociality is reviewed including domains of charity,…
Sanders, Jennifer; Foyil, Kris; Graff, Jennifer M.
Religious discrimination is a global concern, as social dissonance and devastating violence result from religious intolerance. In order to develop socially competent, global citizens and create a peaceful society, religious diversity must be explored in public school classrooms; yet it remains a controversial and seldom addressed topic. Children's…
Full Text Available The marketing of religion has become a big business. Wortham examines the current religious scene and shows that Americans want religious plurality, rather than religious homogamy. Just like shopping for ice cream, Americans want 57 choices when shopping for religion
St. Augustine of Hippos' writing on education offers a fresh lens through which the conceptual framework of religious education in the Catholic school can be understood. Recent teaching of the Magisterium of the Catholic Church on the distinctive nature of religious education and catechesis has challenged religious educators to find an alternative…
Full Text Available The work treats the real social position of minority religions, denominations, religious communities and churches in postdayton Bosnia and Herzegovina. In other words, the author researches real social, political, legislative, mass-media-communicational, economic status and a status of so called small religious communities and churches in other spheres of existence like education, culture, public health etc., and seeks to answer to, from rhetorical point of view, simple question: are minority religions, denominations, religious communities and churches, as defined and treated by the Law on Freedom of Religion and Legal Position of Churches and Religious Communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, discriminated or not. In the focus of the author's analyses are equally institutional sphere or so called minority religious communities as such, but also and individuals, believers and followers of those institutionalized and formalized religious-denominational- ecclesial subjects having been named religious communities and churches. The results of the author's empirical-theoretical researches can be condensed into nuanced and complex answer whose content leads to conclusion that minority religions, churches and their members in several spheres of life are, after all, in inferior position, in spite of declarative equality of all religions, denominations, religious communities and churches. The author supports such conclusion with numerous and plausible arguments.
Devos, Thierry; Spini, Dario; Schwartz, Shalom H
Institutions contribute to maintaining social order and stability in society. At the same time, they restrain the freedom of individuals. Based on the theory of value structure and content (Schwartz, 1992), we hypothesized about the relations of people's trust in institutions to their value priorities. More precisely, we predicted and found that the level of trust in various institutions correlated positively with values that stress stability, protection, and preservation of traditional practices, and negatively with values that emphasize independent thought and action and favour change. In addition, we demonstrated that groups defined on the basis of religious affiliation or political orientation exhibited contrasting value priorities on the same bipolar dimension. Moreover, differences in value priorities accounted for the fact that religious individuals and right-wing supporters expressed more trust in institutions than non-religious individuals and left-wing supporters.
Roč. 3, č. 1 (2017), s. 338-344 ISSN 2300-6579 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Phenomenology of religious experience * Sacred Place * Phenomenology of Space * Phenomenological Topology * Heidegger Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/opth.2017.3.issue-1/opth-2017-0026/opth-2017-0026.xml
Franken, Leni; Loobuyck, Patrick
After an elaboration of the paradigm shift concerning religious education in Europe, we will give a critical presentation of the Belgian and Flemish system of religious education. The article continues with a discussion of diverse proposals to change the religious education system in Flanders, and concludes that the introduction of an independent,…
Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.
Prior investigations have demonstrated that parents' religiousness is related inversely to adolescent maladjustment. However, research remains unclear about whether the link between parents' religiousness and adolescent adjustment outcomes--either directly or indirectly via adolescents' own religiousness--varies depending on relationship context…
Full Text Available The topic of religious archives, a catalyst of much discussion in archival literature, has traditionally been overlooked within the discourse of the American Theological Library Association (ATLA. This essay provides a survey analysis of three pertinent issues in religious archives with the intention of generating a wider discussion on religious archives within ATLA. These issues include the role of graduate archival education, the effects of religious faith on both the archival record and the individual archivist, and the idea of a theology of archives. An extended review of the contributions of James O’Toole to the discussion of religious archives is utilized.
ÓSCAR CELADOR ANGÓN
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Spanish public polices in the financing of churches and religious organizations. According to this approach, and taking in account that the Spanish legal frame lack of a common regulation for all religious groups, this paper aims to provide analysis of the following issues: the constitutional principles of the Spanish political system relevant to the religious freedom, the cooperation agreements between the State and the religious groups, and the economic and fiscal regime of the Catholic Church and the religious minorities.
Full Text Available This article reports on research undertaken in 2011–2012 into the role of religion and belief in one British university. In this indicative qualitative case study, we observed six important features in relation to religion and belief: a clear divide in attitudes to the place of religion and belief between operations and curriculum; a lack of knowledge and understanding of the religious landscape within the institution; differing and localized responses to religion and belief within and between departments; variation in the approaches of different academic disciplines; very strong desire to promote a good student experience, which included a recognition that some students identify as religious; and that religious and non-religious perspectives are widely conceived of as binary, meaning either ‘secular’ or religious. We conclude that these findings demonstrate, at this institution, a struggle to think and act strategically and consistently on religion and belief, and suggest that, because of their influential educational positions, this reflects and reproduces muddled thinking and acting about religion and belief in wider society.
Pennycook, Gordon; Cheyne, James Allan; Seli, Paul; Koehler, Derek J; Fugelsang, Jonathan A
An analytic cognitive style denotes a propensity to set aside highly salient intuitions when engaging in problem solving. We assess the hypothesis that an analytic cognitive style is associated with a history of questioning, altering, and rejecting (i.e., unbelieving) supernatural claims, both religious and paranormal. In two studies, we examined associations of God beliefs, religious engagement (attendance at religious services, praying, etc.), conventional religious beliefs (heaven, miracles, etc.) and paranormal beliefs (extrasensory perception, levitation, etc.) with performance measures of cognitive ability and analytic cognitive style. An analytic cognitive style negatively predicted both religious and paranormal beliefs when controlling for cognitive ability as well as religious engagement, sex, age, political ideology, and education. Participants more willing to engage in analytic reasoning were less likely to endorse supernatural beliefs. Further, an association between analytic cognitive style and religious engagement was mediated by religious beliefs, suggesting that an analytic cognitive style negatively affects religious engagement via lower acceptance of conventional religious beliefs. Results for types of God belief indicate that the association between an analytic cognitive style and God beliefs is more nuanced than mere acceptance and rejection, but also includes adopting less conventional God beliefs, such as Pantheism or Deism. Our data are consistent with the idea that two people who share the same cognitive ability, education, political ideology, sex, age and level of religious engagement can acquire very different sets of beliefs about the world if they differ in their propensity to think analytically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Religious tourism is a form of tourism whereby people of the same faith travel individually or in groups for religious purposes. This form of tourism comprises many facets of the travel industry ranging from pilgrimages, missionary travel, leisure (fellowship, vacations, faith-based cruising, crusades, conventions and rallies, retreats, monastery visits and guest-stays, Christian and faith-based camps, to religious tourist attractions. In Sukur Kingdom, most tourists embark on religious travel for the primary purpose of sharing faith and fellowship together as they explore the various religious sites within Sukur and Adamawa State at large. Others still seek inspiration and desire to witness significant religious events while assisting others with humanitarian and spiritual needs. This paper examines the tourism potentials of religion/religious sites and belief systems in Sukur Kingdom with a view to harnessing them for sustainable tourism development. The study uses ethnographic methods to elicit information and analyze the data collected from respondents.
Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC Â» Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Multidisciplinary engineering research that integrates advanced modeling and simulations, novel sensing systems and new home of Engineering Institute Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI
Ozturk, Onur; Celik, Alper M; Uyar, Eylem Isik
Boarding Quran courses are religious institutions where course attendees spend large part of the year. Depression is an ever-increasing health problem. So, it is worth to study on the effects of religion concept and religious belief and behaviours' that religion concept brings, on depression. The main purpose of this study, is to analyse the effect of religious attitudes and behaviours on depression in Quran course / hafiz students. The study is a cross sectional, case-control survey research. Boarding Quran courses and high schools were visited in Samsun city. A total of 956 participants enrolled between June 2015 and December 2015 were included into study from Samsun city of Turkey. Volunteers, 13 years and over ones without any psychiatric disorders were included in the study. Religious attitude-behaviour inventory and Beck's depression inventory were used in the study. Median point of case group attitude scale was 49, control group's was 57 and difference among both has a statistical meaning (pdepression score average of case group is 12.93±9.33, its control group's average is 13.74±11.14 and difference between them is not important. Median score of both groups are 11. When scores of attitude and depression scales compared with each other in terms of demographic parameters, there is a difference among group, gender, age and education parameters (pstudents but it cannot be enough by itself.
Robinson, Elizabeth A R; Krentzman, Amy R; Webb, Jon R; Brower, Kirk J
Although spiritual change is hypothesized to contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence, few studies have used prospective data to investigate this hypothesis. Prior studies have also been limited to treatment-seeking and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) samples. This study included alcohol-dependent individuals, both in treatment and not, to investigate the effect of spiritual and religious (SR) change on subsequent drinking outcomes, independent of AA involvement. Alcoholics (N = 364) were recruited for a panel study from two abstinence-based treatment centers, a moderation drinking program, and untreated individuals from the local community. Quantitative measures of SR change between baseline and 6 months were used to predict 9-month drinking outcomes, controlling for baseline drinking and AA involvement. Significant 6-month changes in 8 of 12 SR measures were found, which included private SR practices, beliefs, daily spiritual experiences, three measures of forgiveness, negative religious coping, and purpose in life. Increases in private SR practices and forgiveness of self were the strongest predictors of improvements in drinking outcomes. Changes in daily spiritual experiences, purpose in life, a general measure of forgiveness, and negative religious coping also predicted favorable drinking outcomes. SR change predicted good drinking outcomes in alcoholics, even when controlling for AA involvement. SR variables, broadly defined, deserve attention in fostering change even among those who do not affiliate with AA or religious institutions. Last, future research should include SR variables, particularly various types of forgiveness, given the strong effects found for forgiveness of self.
N. P. Pivovarova
The conclusion is that for the vast majority of modern Ukrainian citizens identification «believer» is desirable, is based on conformists’ position. Over the last decade, there has been a certain increase in the number of believers through representatives of other ideological groups, but most of all a decrease in those who hesitate between belief and disbelief. In modern mass consciousness of Ukrainian happened illogical extending the concept of «Orthodox», which now includes the concept of a «believer». There is a development of outside the Church, outside of the confessional religiosity, significant part of which is ideological uncertainty of a substantial part of modern Ukrainians. «The Churchanity» has acquired the features of socio legitimize and encourage characteristics of a person that strengthens religious behavior and temple activity. Takes place templenominal or nominalritual exercise of religious practices with strong dominant features of conformism.
Full Text Available The religious behavior of the Finns has usually been characterised as an extremely static phenomenon which is further colored by a strong ecclesiastical tradition. This may be seen in that over 92 % of the Finnish population belongs to the Evangelical-Lutheran Church and that the largest religious movements function within this church. This conception seems to receive additional support by the fact that, with the exception of the most recent neo-pietism (uuspietismi organised during the period of the second world war, the main revivalist movements functioning within the church are more than a century old: Knee-praying (rukoilevaisuus from the 18th century, Revivalism (herännäisyys from the transitional period between the 18th and 19th century, Lestadianism (lestadiolaisuus and Evangialism (evankelisuus from the middle of the 19th century.
Is there a Nordic model for Religious Education? The article explores how Cultural Protestantism and Liberal Theology influenced the ways in which Religious Education developed in Sweden, Denmark and Norway from the late 19th century until the mid-20th century as part of the transformation...... of the relations between church and state. Situated between history of education and curriculum, church history and transnational welfare state history, the article focuses on three transnationally acting theologians, early historians and psychologists of religion and public debaters who involved themselves...... in the question of education, namely Nathan Söderblom (1866-1931), Edvard Lehmann (1862-1930) and Eivind Berggrav (1884-1959), who serve as prisms for the transnational historical analysis of what takes place between states and social fields. The article suggests that Nordic Cultural Protestantism contributed...
Mahner and Bunge argue that (1) ‘science and religion are incompatible’, in order to develop their thesis, that (2) ‘a religious education ... is an obstacle to the development of a scientific mentality’, and that therefore we should only teach our children (3) ‘how science explains the existence of religion in historical, biological, psychological and sociological terms’, and that (4) ‘religious education should be kept away from public schools ...’ I offer brief comments on each of these strands of their argument. ‘Religionists’, to use Mahner and Bunge's term, generally come from a specific stance so I shall make it clear, from the outset, that these remarks come from a Christian standpoint, even though many of them are much more widely applicable. Although I agree with some of the observations which Mahner and Bunge make, my conclusions are generally opposite to theirs on each of the four points.
Ferdinand J. Potgieter
Full Text Available In recent years, schools and education authorities world wide have been paying increasing attention to issues surrounding diversity and religious (intolerance. The term ‘tolerance’ is, however, clouded by considerable confusion and vagueness. This article seeks to contribute to recent scholarly attempts at understanding (religious tolerance and the term that denotes it. After a brief semantic analysis of the term ‘tolerance’, arguments concerning the onticity of tolerance as phenomenon or entity are discussed. By examining its onticity we explore and explain some of the essential features of tolerance. The article ends with a brief discussion of some of the implications of our examination that we foresee for (religion education.
radicals, or they may be acts of terror such as the Tomb of the Patriarchs massacre. C. PROBLEMS AND HYPOTHESES Religious Zionism and its influence on...Jordanian West Bank and Egyptian Gaza Strip. Jordan, in fact, had annexed the West Bank on April 24th, 1950. The almost constant threat of invasion by Arab...of the 1994 Tomb of the Patriarchs massacre and Rabin’s assassination in November of 1995.158 Shimon Peres returned to the premiership for seven
Jorge Bertolaso Stella
Full Text Available Os sistemas mais antigos da índia não são os seis sistemas filosóficos, Mimânsâ, Vedânta, Sâmkhya, Ioga, Vaiçeshika e Nyâya, mas as duas escolas do pensamento e da religião, o Janismo e o Budismo que negam a autoridade dos Vedas, a validade dos ritos e as castas.
McEntarfer, Heather Killelea
This qualitative study examines the processes of forming gay-straight alliances at three religiously affiliated institutions of higher education. Using the lens of Social Movement Theory (SMT), this paper presents the methods and approaches used when advocates of gay-straight alliances at these institutions encountered resistance from…
Full Text Available Based on a qualitative approach, this article analyzes the current role of religion in Spanish prisons and hospitals. More specifically, the article explores the daily tensions and negotations between the Catholic Church, the religious minorities and the secular professionals working in these institutions. The complexity of the micro religious/secular dynamics, together with the mono/multiconfessional tension and the religious/spiritual divide going on within these institutions, demonstrate the impossibility of drawing a single model to account for the way in which religion is being dealt with in contemporary Spanish public institutions.A partir de una aproximación cualitativa, este artículo analiza las tensiones y negociaciones cotidianas que se producen en torno a la presencia y rol de la religión en las prisiones y hospitales contemporáneos en España. Más concretamente, el artículo examina la emergencia de nuevas formas de encaje entre la Iglesia católica, las minorías religiosas y las instituciones seculares; y sus implicaciones en cuanto a la naturaleza secular del Estado y las desigualdades entre grupos. La complejidad de las dinámicas religioso/secular, catolicismo/diversidad religiosa y religión/espiritualidad patentes en el marco de estas instituciones evidencia la imposibilidad de dibujar un modelo único para dar cuenta de cómo la religión y la diversidad religiosa son gestionadas en estos contextos.
Juan Pablo Domínguez
Full Text Available In recent years there has been no shortage of studies on religious intolerance in the Cadiz Cortes, but many of them are burdened by two critical errors. The first one is to focus the arguments on article 12 of the Constitution, without paying attention to other parliamentary debates in which the intolerant policy of the Cortes was more clearly expounded. The second common mistake is to ignore the circumstances which prevented some deputies from freely speaking their minds on religious matters. Through a detailed analysis of the proceedings of the Cortes, as well as other sources of the period, this article is intended to remedy both shortcomings, and thus to question certain common assumptions in current historiography. This approach leads to the conclusion that, while some deputies may had hidden his penchant for freedom of conscience, the decrees and speeches of the Cortes were more intolerant than many suppose. Not only they ordered to punish all dissenters from the Church's doctrines, but they decreed death penalty for anyone who dared to suggest the introduction of religious freedom in Spain.
Full Text Available The article takes as its point of departure the reflections of Henry Adams and Jacques Ellul on the possible gradual replacement of objects used in religious worship with objects used in technological worship, and advances the hypothesis that such a substitution is unlikely. Using information from psychology, history of religions, and history of science, the perspective proposed is that of a parallel historical analogous development of both religious and scientific attitudes of awe by the use of artifacts carrying two functions: firstly, to coagulate social participation around questions dealing with humanity’s destiny and interpersonal relationships across communities, and secondly to offer cultural coherence through a communal sense of social stability, comfort, and security. I argue that, though animated by attitudes of awe (“awefull”, both leading scientists and religious founders have encountered the difficulty in representing and introducing this awe to the large public via “awesome” artifacts. The failure to represent coherently the initial awe via artifacts may give rise to “anomalous awefullness”: intolerance, persecutions, global conflicts.
Full Text Available Joseph Rudyard Kipling (1865 -1936 is one of the most popular writers in English, in both prose and verse, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Rudyard Kipling does not subscribe to any particular religion, but he is deeply a religious man because he believes in one absolute God, and the divine purpose behind the creation of man. Although Rudyard Kipling uses a lot of Christian symbols in his works, he is not a Christian. In some of his stories, he shows a unique insight into the redeeming power of love, which is the main pillar of Sufism. He also accepts some of the Islamic precepts however he is not a Muslim. He is very sympathetic to Buddhism and Hinduism and always alludes to Hindu gods and goddesses, but he does not believe in Hinduism or Buddhism. Rudyard Kipling uses a lot of religious themes, motives and symbols in his Works but he does not subscribe to any particular religious views at all.
Agadjanian, Victor; Yabiku, Scott T.
Women’s autonomy has frequently been linked with women’s opportunities and investments, such as education, employment, and reproductive control. The association between women’s autonomy and religion in the developing world, however, has received less attention, and the few existing studies make comparisons across major religious traditions. In this study, we focus on variations in levels of female decision-making autonomy within a single religious tradition—Christianity. Using unique survey data from a predominantly Christian area in Mozambique, we devise an autonomy scale and apply it to compare women affiliated to different Christian denominations as well as unaffiliated women. In addition to affiliation, we examine the relationship between autonomy and women’s religious agency both within and outside their churches. Multivariate analyses show that women belonging to more liberal religious traditions (such as Catholicism and mainline Protestantism) and tend to have higher autonomy levels, regardless of other factors. These results are situated within the cross-national scholarship on religion and women’s empowerment and are interpreted in the context of gendered religious dynamics in Mozambique and similar developing settings. PMID:26973353
Full Text Available Historical evidence of early modern English religious communities demonstrate that culturally negative perceptions of skin color and ethnicity contributed to theological notions of black inferiority which supported societal hierarchies based on racial and gender discrimination. This essay analyzes three accounts of a group typically ignored by religious scholars on early modern England: sixteenth and seventeenth century African women. Despite living in a period that arguably witnessed the ideological birth and development of the racial construct in tandem with British colonialist and imperialist expansionism, these women defiantly crafted their own brand of spiritual determinism to wield personal agency in the face of racist theological discourse, ecclesiastical institutions, and legal authorities.
Full Text Available The social dynamics in post-conflict Ambon, Maluku, 1999-2004, indicated that even though people were segregated in the Islamic-Christian areas, gradually social integration began to occur naturally. The process of integration that occurred also gave birth to new values and inclusive views that give hope to future peace building. Using the theory of social integration of dynamic adaptation of the Parsonian structural-functional classic paradigm and combined with a qualitative research model, this study successfully formulated several important findings. First, social integration occurred in the city of Ambon could run naturally through economic interactions, consensus on political balance and inclusive religious spirit. In addition, the presence of public spaces such as offices, schools, malls and coffee shops served as a natural integration medium that is increasingly important in the dynamics of the society. Second, the new social integration has created an increasingly important meaning that leads to a model of active harmony characterized by a process of the increasingly active social interaction between different religions, as well as strengthening pluralism and multiculturalism insight due to campaign by educational institutions and civil society groups. Third, this study also reminds us that although there has been a process of the increasingly positive social integration in Ambon city, people still need to be aware of the growth of radical religious ideologies at a certain level, and also of strengthening identity politics in the long run that will potentially give birth to primordial and ethnocentric attitudes that are harmful to the development of peace.
Full Text Available Pesantren (Islamic boarding school is the oldest Islamic institution in Indonesia that often affiliated to the largest mass Muslim organization Nahdlatul Ulama. This organization is well known for its stance to uphold moderate, tolerance Islam and accepting pluralistic state based on Pancasila. Pesantren also often referred as the barometer to understand the way of thinking of Muslims grass root in Indonesia because many Islamic figures in Indonesian village are alumni of pesantren. There are debates among scholars on whether religious violence has a root in religious doctrine or it is caused by factors outside religion such as poverty or injustice. By assuming that both inside and outside factors have significant contribution to violence or radicalism this study will discuss the doctrine that potentially can be used to justify violence and intolerance by reviewing the opinion of pesantren leaders in West Java on jihad, violence or intolerance and power. This study is aimed to examine whether the commitment of Muslim leaders in national level on democracy and plurality is supported by grass root particularly from pesantren leaders. Overall the study found that although they agree that democracy is compatible with Islam, this study reveals that their acceptance to pluralism still be questioned as evidenced by almost half of them supported theocratic caliphate carry out by radical group. Although many argued that pesantren promotes tolerance and pluralism, nevertheless this study shows that some of their teaching tacitly supported violence act in the name of religion that will tarnished the effort of Indonesia to synchronize Islam, democracy and modernity. It means that many of them actually not wholeheartedly accepted democracy and pluralism.
Koenig, Laura B
The author investigated the change and stability of different aspects of religiousness and spirituality, as well as whether personality traits may help explain why individuals increase or decrease in religiousness and spirituality during emerging adulthood. Self-report measures of childhood and current religiousness were completed by 224 college-aged participants. A subset of participants also completed a measure of personality and measures of religious and spiritual belief trajectories by rating the importance of each belief at successive age brackets across their lifespan. Analyses of mean-level, rank-order, and individual-level stability and change in religiousness indicated that while average religiousness scores decreased, there was still moderate to high rank-order stability in scores. Additionally, service attendance was less stable and decreased more than importance of religion in daily life. Examination of the trajectories of religiousness and spirituality over time showed similar differences: religiousness decreased, on average, whereas spirituality increased slightly, but significantly, across successive age brackets. Personality traits did not significantly predict change in religiousness over time, although openness predicted change in spirituality. Conclusions include the idea that religiousness in emerging adulthood is comprised on different components that change at different rates.
For a few years, the Holy See critics against nuclear weapons and the Vatican's calls in favor of disarmament have been very visible and have led to a new round of analysis and reflection in circles working on strategic issues. This renewed interest, which was in all probability increased by the media coverage generally conferred to Pope Francis, is also linked to the Church's declarations in themselves, which show a slight evolution of its position and a clearer moral condemnation of nuclear deterrence. This focus is also the proof that far from being a purely anecdotal issue reserved to theology experts, the compatibility between nuclear deterrence and religious ethics can have a very concrete impact on strategic realities. In a more direct way, the Pope's message to the Vienna Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons tends to reinforce the credibility and exposure of groups calling for immediate disarmament measures and believing that nuclear-weapon states do not fulfill the commitments taken under Article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). More deeply, it seems that the religious factor still plays (or something plays again) an important role in the 21. century in terms of geopolitics. In many places in the world, religious speeches are linked to nationalism and used to explain part of the geostrategic interests of nations, but also in a way define their behavior on the world stage. This influence does not spare the seemingly very cold and rational positioning towards nuclear weapons, as seen by the decision in 1998 of the nationalist and Hinduist party BJP to make official the nuclear-weapon status of India or the fatwa of Ayatollah Khamenei forbidding Iran to build a nuclear weapon. Even if in many states, religion plays a less and less important role and is considered a private and personal matter, in others, it remains an essential key to define individual as well as national identity. In that regard, it still participates, with more
Haber, Jon Randolph; Jacob, Theodore
Objective: Religious affiliation is inversely associated with alcohol dependence (AD). Our previous findings indicated that when a religious affiliation differentiated itself from cultural norms, then high-risk adolescents (those having parents with alcoholism history) raised with these affiliations exhibited fewer AD symptoms compared with adolescents of other religious affiliations and nonreligious adolescents. The first of two studies reported here provides a needed replication of our previous findings for childhood religious affiliation using a different sample, and the second study extends examination to current religious affiliation. Method: A national sample of male and female adolescents/young adults (N = 1,329; mean age = 19.6 years) was selected who were the offspring of members of the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Parental alcoholism, religious affiliation types, and their interactions were examined as predictors of offspring AD symptoms. Results: (1) Offspring reared with a differentiating religious affiliation during childhood exhibited significantly fewer AD symptoms as young adults; (2) offspring with current differentiating religious affiliation also exhibited fewer AD symptoms; this main effect was not weakened by adding other measures of religiousness to the model; (3) differentiating religious affiliation was correlated with both family alcoholism risk and offspring outcome, and removed the association between family alcoholism risk and offspring outcome, thus indicating that differentiating religious affiliation was at least a partial mediator of the association between family AD history risk and offspring AD outcome. Conclusions: Current results indicate that religious differentiation is an inverse mediator of alcoholism risk for offspring with or without parental AD history and regardless of the influence of other religion variables. Results replicated our previous report on religious upbringing between ages 6 and 13 years and indicated an even
Full Text Available Whilst significant research has been conducted on religious affiliation and on general levels of religiosity in the South African context, few studies specifically investigated the religious lives of South African university students in a comprehensive way. This is unfortunate as such research could significantly inform and support the effectiveness of youth and student ministries. As such, this article explored the religious lives of students at a university in the Gauteng province of South Africa, focusing specifically on students’ self-assessed religiosity, the maturity of their religious attitudes, their spiritual well-being, the religious practices in which they engage and the relationship between such practices and their spiritual well-being. Gender, racial and religious differences concerning these variables were also investigated. Data were collected from 356 undergraduate students by means of a structured survey consisting of the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire, the Religious Fundamentalism Scale and two other scales aimed at assessing religiosity and religious practices. Results indicated that 98.9% of participants were religious with the majority (86.9% being Christian. Generally, students espoused highly fundamentalist religious attitudes but had high levels of spiritual well-being. Prayer and virtual or in-person attendance of religious gatherings such as church services were the most prevalent religious practices whereas fasting and meditation were practiced least. All practices were positively correlated with students’ spiritual well-being. Based on these findings, the article concludes with several specific, practical recommendations relevant to student ministries and those working with university students in religious contexts.
promotion and religious practice. We are especially interested in models of collaboration between religious and health institutions aimed at research and design of physical and virtual public spaces marked and structured by notions of health, disease, and individual anatomical representations.
Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first
Fürstenberg, Dr Kai
Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.
Balboni, Tracy A.; Vanderwerker, Lauren C.; Block, Susan D.; Paulk, M. Elizabeth; Lathan, Christopher S.; Peteet, John R.; Prigerson, Holly G.
Purpose Religion and spirituality play a role in coping with illness for many cancer patients. This study examined religiousness and spiritual support in advanced cancer patients of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds and associations with quality of life (QOL), treatment preferences, and advance care planning. Methods The Coping With Cancer study is a federally funded, multi-institutional investigation examining factors associated with advanced cancer patient and caregiver well-being. Patients with an advanced cancer diagnosis and failure of first-line chemotherapy were interviewed at baseline regarding religiousness, spiritual support, QOL, treatment preferences, and advance care planning. Results Most (88%) of the study population (N = 230) considered religion to be at least somewhat important. Nearly half (47%) reported that their spiritual needs were minimally or not at all supported by a religious community, and 72% reported that their spiritual needs were supported minimally or not at all by the medical system. Spiritual support by religious communities or the medical system was significantly associated with patient QOL (P = .0003). Religiousness was significantly associated with wanting all measures to extend life (odds ratio, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.08 to 3.57). Conclusion Many advanced cancer patients' spiritual needs are not supported by religious communities or the medical system, and spiritual support is associated with better QOL. Religious individuals more frequently want aggressive measures to extend life. PMID:17290065
Koenig, Laura B; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G
Religiousness is widely considered to be a culturally transmitted trait. However, twin studies suggest that religiousness is genetically influenced in adulthood, although largely environmentally influenced in childhood/adolescence. We examined genetic and environmental influences on a self-report measure of religiousness in a sample consisting of 284 adoptive families (two adopted adolescent siblings and their rearing parents); 208 biological families (two full biological adolescent siblings and their parents); and 124 mixed families (one adopted and one biological adolescent sibling and their parents). A sibling-family model was fit to the data to estimate genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental effects on religiousness, as well as cultural transmission and assortative mating effects. Religiousness showed little evidence of heritability and large environmental effects, which did not vary significantly by gender. This finding is consistent with the results of twin studies of religiousness in adolescent and preadolescent samples.
This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either 'liberal' or 'fundamentalist' and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation.
Noting how some prophets of crisis forecast that traditional religious traditions are vulnerable to challenge if not collapse upon confirmation of the existence of extraterrestrial intelligent beings, this chapter subjects this claim to examination. Citing findings from the Peters ETI Religious Crisis Survey, we find evidence that those who affirm religious belief have no difficulty affirming the existence of ETI and incorporating ETI into their respective worldviews. This applies to Orthodox Christians, Roman Catholics, mainline Protestants, Evangelical Protestants, Jews, Mormons, Buddhists, and to those who self-identify as non-religious. Surprisingly, the self-identified non-religious respondents are the only ones who fear a religious crisis precipitated by contact with extraterrestrials, a crisis expected to happen to others but not to themselves. Turning to the new field of Astrotheology, the question of de-centering both geocentrism and anthropocentrism is raised in light of the prospect of discovering intelligent celestial neighbors.
Studying ancient Egyptian tombs have long been an important source of information regarding many aspects of Egyptian religion. Walls of New Kingdom tombs are often decorated with plenty of painted religious scenes. While they were primarily private structures containing images selected by the person who expected to be housed there for eternity, the funerary monuments also reflect religious beliefs. While numerous researches focused on many of the religious scenes depicted on the walls of anci...
, situationer eller mennesker, som de tænker, er udtryk for religiøs praksis. Et interessant mønster opstår når man ser på billederne samlet set; tradition, ritual, etnicitet og religiøs praksis sammensmeltes og det visuelle udtryk for religiøsitet samler sig ofte om bestemte ikoner, emblemer og steder som...
Research reveals that older people do a significant amount of volunteer work. Moreover, a good deal of this volunteering takes place in religious institutions. The purpose of this study is to examine how social factors in the church influence the decision to volunteer. The analyses are conducted in two steps. First, data from a longitudinal nationwide survey of older people are used to show that increases in spiritual support (i.e., assistance from fellow church members that is designed to bolster religious beliefs and behaviors) are associated with increases in the frequency of volunteer work. Second, cross-sectional analyses from the same survey suggest that spiritual support is associated with volunteering in part because it promotes greater compassion. However, the magnitude of the relationship between compassion and volunteering is fairly modest. © The Author(s) 2014.
Institutional entrepreneurship pays specific attention to the process and outcomes of agents who are willing and capable of changing institutions. It has some common ground with the political entrepreneur, a concept that proposes change in norms and institutions because of commitment and activities...... of agents or organisations in the policy arena. The present chapter understands institutional entrepreneurship as the process of changing institutionalised practices. Based on a literature review, it describes the triggers, activities and potential effects of institutional entrepreneurs. The chapter...... concludes by tentatively arguing that political entrepreneurs can be institutional entrepreneurs, but institutional entrepreneurship can be considered as the broader concept that incorporates strategies and visions as well as interpretative-discursive power into the conceptual framework....
Hamilton, V Lee; Daaleman, Timothy P; Williams, Christianna S; Zimmerman, Sheryl
Despite the increasing numbers of Americans who die in nursing homes (NHs) and residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) facilities, and the importance of religious and spiritual needs as one approaches death, little is known about how these needs are met for dying individuals in long-term care (LTC) institutional settings. This study compared receipt of religious and spiritual help in four types of LTC settings: NHs, smaller (facilities, traditional RC/AL facilities, and new-model RC/AL facilities. Data were also available for religious affiliation of the facilities, size, and provision of religious and hospice services. Controlling for such factors, the importance of religion/spirituality to the decedent was the strongest predictor of the decedent's receipt of spiritual help. In addition, new-model RC/AL facilities were significantly more likely to provide help for religious and spiritual needs of decedent residents than other RC/AL types, but did not differ significantly from NHs.
Hook, Joshua N; Worthington, Everett L; Davis, Don E; Jennings, David J; Gartner, Aubrey L; Hook, Jan P
This article evaluated the efficacy status of religious and spiritual (R/S) therapies for mental health problems, including treatments for depression, anxiety, unforgiveness, eating disorders, schizophrenia, alcoholism, anger, and marital issues. Religions represented included Christianity, Islam, Taoism, and Buddhism. Some studies incorporated a generic spirituality. Several R/S therapies were found to be helpful for clients, supporting the further use and research on these therapies. There was limited evidence that R/S therapies outperformed established secular therapies, thus the decision to use an R/S therapy may be an issue of client preference and therapist comfort.
Wink, Paul; Ciciolla, Lucia; Dillon, Michele; Tracy, Allison
The hypothesis that personality characteristics in adolescence can be used to predict religiousness and spiritual seeking in late adulthood was tested using a structural equation modeling framework to estimate cross-lagged and autoregressive effects in a two-wave panel design. The sample consisted of 209 men and women participants in the Berkeley Guidance and Oakland Growth studies. In late adulthood, religiousness was positively related to Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, and spiritual seeking was related to Openness to Experience. Longitudinal models indicated that Conscientiousness in adolescence significantly predicted religiousness in late adulthood above and beyond adolescent religiousness. Similarly, Openness in adolescence predicted spiritual seeking in late adulthood. The converse effect, adolescent religiousness to personality in late adulthood, was not significant in either model. Among women, adolescent Agreeableness predicted late-life religiousness and adolescent religiousness predicted late-life Agreeableness; both these effects were absent among men. Adolescent personality appears to shape late-life religiousness and spiritual seeking independent of early religious socialization.
Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Petersen, Inge; Hjelmborg, Jacob
generally considered more religious than the very secular northern European countries. Comparisons of the results are complicated by diverse definitions of religiousness, but several studies indicate that the influence of the family environment is most predominant in early life, whereas genetic influences...... increase with age. We performed a population-based twin study of religiousness in a secular society using data from a Web-based survey sent to 6,707 Danish twins born 1970-1989, who were identified in the Danish Twin Registry. We applied Fishman's three conceptual dimensions of religiousness: cognition...
Full Text Available The ruling Chinese Communist Party (CCP abolished its total ban on religious activities in 1982. However, the distrust that the CCP feels for religions remains obvious today, and the religious restrictions in contemporary China remain tight. Conventional wisdom tells us that the official atheist ideology of Marxism-Leninism is the main reason behind the CCP’s distrust for, and restriction of, religion. However, taking a historical institutionalist perspective, this paper argues that the religious restrictions in contemporary China are in fact rooted in the fierce political struggles of the country’s two major revolutions in the first half of the twentieth century. Without the support of religious groups, the Nationalist Republicans would have found it difficult to survive and succeed in overthrowing the Qing Dynasty during the Chinese Republican Revolution in the first decade of the twentieth century. Likewise, without cooperating with a wide range of religious groups, the CCP would have struggled to defeat the Nationalist regime and the Japanese invaders in the Chinese Communist Revolution between 1920s and 1940s. Thanks to the collaborations and struggles with various religious groups during the two revolutions which lead to its eventual ascent to power, the CCP thoroughly understands the organisational strength and mobilising capability embedded within religious groups. The tight restrictions on religious affairs in contemporary China is therefore likely to stem from the CCP’s worry that prospective competitors could mobilise religious groups to challenge its rule through launching, supporting, or sponsoring collective actions.
Full Text Available In the Republic of Kazakhstan training questions about religious studies still didn't receive enough attention since after statehood formation and before independence the Kazakhs endured a set of various historical events. Some of these events negatively affected people's consciousness. Seventy years of atheistic education changed people’s spiritual and cultural basis, as a result religious concepts partially lost the importance. After independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan started raise questions about teaching religious studies. However, heterogeneity in religious beliefs of the population to some extent negatively influences training in religious studies. Therefore study of the reasons for emergence of this problem turned into an actual problem. Within this article the genesis analysis of modern training problems in religious studies was carried out and ways of their decision were considered. Currently some religious studies teaching centers and preparation of the corresponding experts are formed. However, despite of the training standards are identical for all centers, ways of their implementation differ from each other. The reason for that – features of the outlook created under the influence of historical factors. These features cause necessity of teaching religious studies in high school. In article the questions on this problem was considered and necessary answers were given. The main method used in research work is the c omparative historical method. In summary it is necessary to specify that authors within article do the full analysis of questions of teaching of the subject "Religious studies" and offer solutions of these questions.
Zorn, C R; Johnson, M T
Spirituality is recognized as an important component of health care practice with elderly people. Yet, discussion of the role it plays in elderly women on a day-to-day basis is minimal, and it is frequently not addressed in quality-of-life studies in this population. The purposes of this study were to describe the level of religious well-being and selected characteristics of religiosity in a sample of 114 non-institutionalized, largely rural elderly women (Mdn age = 75), as well as to identify the relationship between selected factors and the level of religious well-being. Descriptive research revealed a high level of religious well-being among the participants and significant positive correlation between religious well-being and the variables of social support and hope (p hope emerged as the single significant predictor of religious well-being (p religious activities, highly rated the value or influence of religious beliefs in their lives, and identified that religious beliefs become increasingly important with age. Conducting a comprehensive assessment and implementing focused interventions associated with religious well-being will strengthen the scope of health care practice for elderly women.
.... In their role as advisor to commanders chaplains are contacting local religious leaders to build bridges of mutual understanding that foster a more secure environment for mission accomplishment...
Andersen, Peter Birkelund; Laudrup, Carin
Over the past 30 years or so scholars in the social sciences and politicians alike have increasingly focused their attention on the effect of migration in European societies. This has resulted in theories of multiculturalism and more recently theories of cultural, ethnic, and religious diversity....... This paper raises the question of how such theories are reflected in religious education in the Danish school system. Based on analyses of a survey among pupils in their final year in upper secondary schools, it is argued that non-confessional religious education is one way of enhancing religious tolerance....
Webb, Amy Pieper; Ellison, Christopher G.; McFarland, Michael J.; Lee, Jerry W.; Morton, Kelly; Walters, James
A long tradition of research demonstrates that divorce is a risk factor for depressive symptoms. Although a growing literature examines links between religious factors and marital quality and stability, researchers have neglected the role of religion in successful or problematic coping following divorce. Building on Pargament's seminal work on…
Alongside community-based education, a principal agency which has contributed to defining multi-faith identities in England and Wales over the past five decades has been the subject of religious education in state maintained schools. Over this period, formulations of the social category of "Muslims" and the curricular concept of…
Maussen, Marcel; Vermeulen, Floris
Liberal democratic states face new challenges in balancing between principles of religious freedom and non-discrimination and in balancing these constitutional principles with other concerns, including social cohesion, good education, and immigrant-integration. In a context of increased prominence of secular and anti-Islamic voices in political…
Ciocan Tudor Cosmin
Full Text Available This paper was made as part of a wider research I made about rituals and their meaning and roles they are playing in the religious system of thinking. The way they are thought, displayed, precisely followed as instructed and believed, makes them a powerful social act that has been always provided by any religion, and also a tool for religion to make the human society what it is today. After I speak about what is a ritual and its religious content in general, I am enumerating roles and functions of play and theatre in particular have, both for profane and religious purpose. Do we still use play/games as adults because they are rewarding, they give us pleasure? They are used as means of relaxation, or for continuing the age of childhood; or it is in our nature to play games in everything we do? In this paper I have emphasized play as adaptive potentiation or adaptive variability useful both in therapy, as in religious ceremony. The relation and comparison of rituals with play is due to the fact that playing is the most engaging behavior performed by man and animals, and it can be found as foundation of almost any ritualist activity.
Maussen, M.; Vermeulen, F.; Maussen, M.; Vermeulen, F.; Merry, M.S; Bader, V.
Liberal democratic states face new challenges in balancing between principles of religious freedom and non-discrimination and in balancing these constitutional principles with other concerns, including social cohesion, good education, and immigrant-integration. In a context of increased prominence
Maussen, M.; Vermeulen, F.
Liberal democratic states face new challenges in balancing between principles of religious freedom and non-discrimination and in balancing these constitutional principles with other concerns, including social cohesion, good education, and immigrant-integration. In a context of increased prominence
Mokel, Melissa J; Shellman, Juliette M
To examine the acceptability of the National Institute on Aging/Fetzer Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness and Spirituality in a sample of Black, community-dwelling, older adults using focus group inquiry (N =15). Focus group methodology was used for data collection and analysis. Three focus groups (N = 15) were conducted in two different urban settings in the northeastern part of the United States. Key findings were that (a) self-rating on religiousness was uncomfortable for many participants, (b) selfless was a word many participants confused with selfish, and (c) spirituality was an important concept. Overall, the Measure was found to be culturally acceptable and required little modification. Religious health beliefs such as "rebuking" or "not claiming" medical diagnoses are important considerations to bear in mind in seeking to understand the impact of religiousness on health in this population.
Hayward, R David; Krause, Neal; Pargament, Kenneth
The ways in which religious beliefs influence beliefs about health have important implications for motivation to engage in positive health behaviors and comply with medical treatment. This study examines the prevalence of two health-related religious beliefs: belief in healing miracles and deferral of responsibility for health outcomes to God. Data came from a representative nationwide US survey of religion and health (N = 3010). Full-factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in both dimensions of belief by race, by religious background, and by the interaction between the two. Black people believed religion played the largest role in health regardless of religious background. Among White and Hispanic groups, Evangelical Protestants placed more responsibility for their health on God in comparison with other religious groups. ANCOVA controlling for background factors socioeconomic status, health, and religious involvement partially explained these group differences.
Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine
We cannot disregard that the neuroscientific research on religious phenomena such as religious experiences and rituals for example, has increased significantly the last years. Neuroscientists claim that neuroscience contributes considerably in the process of understanding religious experiences, b...... neuroscientific issues, also cultural-religious assumptions that underlie this conclusion. Key Words Culture, Neuroscience, Religious Experience, Meditation. Udgivelsesdato: January...
Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.
Prior investigations have demonstrated that parents’ religiousness is related inversely to adolescent maladjustment. However, research remains unclear about whether the link between parents’ religiousness and adolescent adjustment outcomes—either directly or indirectly via adolescents’ own religiousness—varies depending on relationship context (e.g., parent-adolescent attachment). This study examined the moderating roles of parent-adolescent attachment on the apparent effects of the intergenerational transmission of religiousness on adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms using data from 322 adolescents (mean age = 12.63 years, 45% girls, and 84% White) and their parents. Structural equation models indicated significant indirect effects suggesting that parents’ organizational religiousness was positively to boys’ organizational religiousness—the latter of which appeared to mediate the negative association of parents’ organizational religiousness with boys’ internalizing symptoms. Significant interaction effects suggested also that, for both boys and girls, parents’ personal religiousness was associated positively with adolescent internalizing symptoms for parent-adolescent dyads with low attachment, whereas parents’ personal religiousness was not associated with adolescent internalizing symptoms for parent-adolescent dyads with high attachment. The findings help to identify the family dynamics by which the interaction of parents’ religiousness and adolescents’ religiousness might differentially influence adolescent adjustment. PMID:22836938
Jalal Uddin Khan
Full Text Available Diversity is the essence and spirit of America or the West both as a place and a people. Islam also allows for diversity within its concept of unity and oneness of God. Muslims, therefore, have no problem co-existing in peace with the Jews, Christians and the followers of other religions. Problems arise (a when secular values or principles disturb the working balance of the otherwise mutually exclusive religious diversity and harmony in America; (b when one follows opportunist policies, practices double standards, and is moved by mere worldly or political interests; and (c when war against the Zionist-and-neoconservative-manufactured terrorism turns into war against Islam. Such misleading and mischievous tendencies or policies prevent peace from prevailing, which ultimately tarnish the image of religions in the eyes of their followers and those of the rest making a mockery of the idea of religious diversity even in the so-called most democratic country called the United States of America!
Holbrook, Colin; Izuma, Keise; Deblieck, Choi; Fessler, Daniel M T; Iacoboni, Marco
People cleave to ideological convictions with greater intensity in the aftermath of threat. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) plays a key role in both detecting discrepancies between desired and current conditions and adjusting subsequent behavior to resolve such conflicts. Building on prior literature examining the role of the pMFC in shifts in relatively low-level decision processes, we demonstrate that the pMFC mediates adjustments in adherence to political and religious ideologies. We presented participants with a reminder of death and a critique of their in-group ostensibly written by a member of an out-group, then experimentally decreased both avowed belief in God and out-group derogation by downregulating pMFC activity via transcranial magnetic stimulation. The results provide the first evidence that group prejudice and religious belief are susceptible to targeted neuromodulation, and point to a shared cognitive mechanism underlying concrete and abstract decision processes. We discuss the implications of these findings for further research characterizing the cognitive and affective mechanisms at play. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Abstract: The wide evolution of private international law is currently recalling attention to the general aspects of the discipline. Europeanization and globalisation of sources of private international law do not preclude the chance that conflict of laws should also deal with individual identities. To the extent that the European systems have hitherto offered to the application of foreign laws, we are faced with the problem of survival in Europe of an idea of the personality of laws. In fact it’s generally accepted that conflict of laws faces the individual identities of people involved in international relations. Cultural identity may be considered collective and individual at the same time, because each member of the group has an identity of its own. Religious values ontribute to defining the cultural identity of individuals: be it in Europe or other countries, cultures, values, civilization, religion, are never absent from the solutions of personal status. Stepping back from the analysis of some cases where religious values are relevant, this Article aims at a theoretical analysis of the subject, involving the contrast between value pluralism, conflict of laws and fundamental rights.
Abortion is one of the most widely discussed medical-ethical subjects in medical, legal, philosophical, and religious literature as well as in the lay press. There is hardly a religion or country in the world that is not currently concerned about this issue. The complexity of the topic relates to the fact that it deals with a being that is close to us but not identical to us. On the other hand, the fetus is not like a plant or even like a living being in the animal kingdom. Yet the fetus is not a complete and independent human being either. There are strongly opposing philosophical/religious viewpoints on abortion. On the one hand, pro-life groups and the Roman Catholic Church absolutely oppose abortion. They view the fetus as a full and independent human being, with absolute rights equal to those of the mother. According to this view, the right of the fetus to life can never be disregarded, and abortion is viewed as murder. On the other hand, the permissive, feminist, liberal view, emphasizes the basic right of a woman over her body. This right justifies abortion on demand solely dependent on the woman's wishes at any stage of pregnancy and for any reason whatsoever. This view totally ignores the rights of the fetus and views it as a part of the mother's body. This article deals with some aspects of the approaches of various religions to abortion due to fetal indications, in particular the Jewish viewpoint.
Full Text Available Umi Supraptingsih (Penulis, dosen STAIN Pamekasan, Jl. Raya Panglegur Km. 04 Pamekasan Abstract The act of begging of beggar appears tradition for generations and it becomes inheritant profession. Social and economic characteristics of beggar are influenced by several factors---natural and human resources. Places of beggar to do begging, Api Tak Kunjung Padam (eternal flame and Batu Ampar, are distinctive. The former is the common tourism spot, but the later is the religous tourism place. The factors cause the begging are the natural setting condition that does not support the beggar to earn sufficient income, the low level of education, inedequate parenting pattern, less religious teaching comprehension, the extinct of abahsment, and instant needs. Establishing an actual cultural communication and asking the participation of stake holders---philantropist, academician, public figure, religious scholar, and government, will hopefully decrease the number of beggar. Kata-kata kunci tradisi, mengemis, dan kebutuhan hidup
Daily, Eileen M.
This article reviews the history of public religious education in the United States with an eye to its learning outcomes, contexts, and approaches. That history suggests that public religious education is still needed today but that informal learning contexts may be more appropriate than public schools. Recent trends in learning habits are then…
Petrushkevych Maria Stefanivna
Full Text Available Religious communication is a full-fledged, effective part of the mass information field. It uses new media to fulfil its needs. And it also functions in the field of mass culture and the information society. To describe the features of mass religious communication in the article, the author constructs a graphic model of its functioning.
learners) should be allowed to engage in inter-religious dialogue as .... Religious leaders study the dogmas, ... All people share certain primordial questions at a ... This leads to the conviction that human behaviour can be perfected through ..... should also have the potential to bind them together as citizens of the same.
Religious diversity as a consequence of global immigration has become a cultural phenomenon of pluralism in society. The fear of indoctrination and the desire for religious freedom fuel the debate on whether to remove religion from school education. Freire's "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" offers a positive perspective on the debate by…
Bunnell, Peter Wayne
The issue of parental involvement in religious education is an important one for the family, the church, the Christian school, and society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe parents' concepts and practices of involvement in their children's religious education as evangelical Christian parents in Midwestern communities.…
Duffy, Ryan D.; Blustein, David L.
The present study examined the relationship between spirituality, religiousness, and career adaptability using a sample of undergraduate students (N=144). We proposed that higher levels of religiousness and spirituality would predict higher levels of career adaptability, defined in this study by career decision self-efficacy and career choice…
James, Anthony G.; Lester, Ashlie M.; Brooks, Greg
The transmission model of religious socialization was tested using a sample of American Jewish parents and adolescents. The authors expected that measures of religiousness among parents would be associated with those among their children. Interaction effects of denominational membership were also tested. Data were collected from a sample of 233…
Reviews court cases and constitutional issues related to religious freedom, teachers' religious beliefs, and school board employment practices regarding teachers. Discusses such issues as leaves of absence, school curriculum, physical appearance, and clothing, and suggests implications for board employment practices and avenues for further…
Grine, Fadila; Bensaid, Benaouda; Nor, Mohd Roslan Mohd; Ladjal, Tarek
The question of sustainability in multi-religious societies underscores interrelating theological, moral and cultural issues affecting the very process of social co-existence, cohesion and development. This article discusses Islam's understanding of the question of sustainability in multi-religious contexts while highlighting the contribution of…
Handclapping was seen to act almost as a metronome, which steadily maintained the tempo. It was concluded that introducing traditional African religious music into Evangelical Lutheran liturgical church services has increased attendance and participation of church members. Therefore, the introduction of African religious ...
Pepperell, Keith C.
This article discusses Thomas Hobbes' concept of conscience, the historical context in which the concept was formulated, and Hobbes' conclusion that civil law takes precedence over religious conscience. Hobbes' views are related to the debate between Pratte and Losito over the interaction between religious and civic conscience. (IAH)
Religious violence has been responsible for the collapse of many nations in many parts of the world. Responsible manipulation of religion has also been found to be behind the rapid growth and might of some powerful nations today. In Nigeria, experience shows that the incidence of religious violence has become a yearly ...
Background. It is not known whether psychiatrists' approach to religious matters in clinical practice reflects their own identification or non-identification with religion or their being active in religious activities. Objective. This question was investigated among South African (SA) psychiatrists and psychiatry registrars, including ...
... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 22 CFR Part 205 RIN 0412 AA-69 Participation by Religious Organizations in USAID Programs AGENCY: United States Agency for International Development (USAID). ACTION... Establishment Clause jurisprudence with respect to the use of Federal funds for inherently religious activities...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...
I argue that religious elementary schools whose pedagogical methods satisfy the principle of rational authority have distinctive advantages over secular elementary schools for the purpose of laying the foundations for ethical autonomy in the children of religious parents. Insights from developmental psychology bolster the argument from conceptual…
In a recent book chapter, Matthew Thompson makes some criticisms of my work, including the interpretive approach to religious education and the research and activity of Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit. Against the background of a discussion of religious education in the public sphere, my response challenges Thompson's account,…
Friso, Valeria; Caldin, Roberta
In this short article, the authors focus on religious and spiritual education's potential to offer social and spiritual inclusion for students with a disability. They take the view that the religious and spiritual education teacher in such situations is positioned better when seeing such teaching as a special vocation. They use Italy as the case…
Brooks, Val; Fancourt, Nigel
This paper addresses the question: is self-assessment in religious education unique? It first presents an overview of some challenges for assessment from subject differences, and then reviews the generic literature on self-assessment. It builds on earlier empirical research on self-assessment in religious education, carried out in an English state…
Petts, Richard J.
Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…
Skirbekk, Vegard; Todd, Megan; Stonawski, Marcin
Religious affiliation influences societal practices regarding death and dying, including palliative care, religiously acceptable health service procedures, funeral rites and beliefs about an afterlife. We aimed to estimate and project religious affiliation at the time of death globally, as this information has been lacking. We compiled data on demographic information and religious affiliation from more than 2500 surveys, registers and censuses covering 198 nations/territories. We present estimates of religious affiliation at the time of death as of 2010, projections up to and including 2060, taking into account trends in mortality, religious conversion, intergenerational transmission of religion, differential fertility, and gross migration flows, by age and sex. We find that Christianity continues to be the most common religion at death, although its share will fall from 37% to 31% of global deaths between 2010 and 2060. The share of individuals identifying as Muslim at the time of death increases from 21% to 24%. The share of religiously unaffiliated will peak at 17% in 2035 followed by a slight decline thereafter. In specific regions, such as Europe, the unaffiliated share will continue to rises from 14% to 21% throughout the period. Religious affiliation at the time of death is changing globally, with distinct regional patterns. This could affect spatial variation in healthcare and social customs relating to death and dying.
Stone, Amy L.
This paper is a content analysis of political flyers and messages developed by Religious Right campaigns between 1974 and 2013 to fight legislation supportive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The analysis focuses on 16 campaigns in which Religious Right groups made claims about transgender adults and children. In…
Fremstilling af den tidlige og den sene Wittgensteins forhold til det religiøse med særligt henblik på tabet af umiddelbarhed.......Fremstilling af den tidlige og den sene Wittgensteins forhold til det religiøse med særligt henblik på tabet af umiddelbarhed....
van der Straten Waillet, Nastasya; Roskam, Isabelle
The purpose of this study was to assess developmental and social determinants of the age at which children become aware that the social environment can be marked by categorization into religious groups and that those groups are associated with different religious beliefs. The results show that middle childhood is a critical period for this…
Introduction: There exists scanty literature on the awareness of Nigerians towards palliative care. This study was conducted to determine the level of awareness of religious leaders and seminarians in Ibadan, Nigeria, on palliative care. Methods: Data obtained from a cross-section of 302 religious leaders and seminarians in ...
Online journals (e-journals) are fast becoming a familiar feature with Religious Studies scholars, but so far no e-journals in the field have appeared in South Africa, and contributions by South African scholars are still rare. This article examines the evolution of Religious Studies e-journals, focusing on the open access variety ...
The potential for conflict or tension between the cultural variables of sexual identity and religious belief for counselors, clients, and counseling students is well-documented by the counseling literature. The tension has existed primarily due to competing religious values for counselors and clients most often with respect to the phenomena of…
The present article is an attempt to propose the semiotic aspect that produces the ”religious- sublime”. Most of the semiotic characteristics that we use to represent (and produce) the signifiers of the religious-sublime, nevertheless, share their mechanisms with other modalities of ”sublimeness”...
The world is now moving from secular wars to religious motivated wars, from conventional wars to unconventional wars, that is, terrorism. This new phenomenon has been fuelled by globalisation and the drive to turn the world into a single global village. At the local level, Nigeria has had its own share of religious motivated ...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Religious character and independence. 54.5 Section 54.5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS CHARITABLE... activities, such as worship, religious instruction, or proselytization. Among other things, faith-based...
Although terrorism has always formed part of social existence (Rapoport. 1984) .... religious viewpoint and the promises of the next world are primary motivating ... Following independence, the first major experience of organised religious .... places of worship, media houses, and the United Nations Headquarters in Abuja.
Barnes, L. Philip, Ed.
What are the key debates in Religious Education teaching today? "Debates in Religious Education" explores the major issues all RE teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It encourages critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to think more deeply about their practice, and link research…
This article examines the legislation under which religious education operates in Northern Ireland's schools. A brief historical sketch identifies the Irish Churches' interest in the educational debates of the 1920s and 1930s. The legislation that established religious education in the curriculum is traced from those debates to the present…
de Ruyter, D.J.; Merry, M.S.
This article aims to open a new line of debate about religion in public schools by focusing on religious ideals. The article begins with an elucidation of the concept ‘religious ideals’ and an explanation of the notion of reasonable pluralism, in order to be able to explore the dangers and positive
Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Pearce, Lisa D.; Denton, Melinda Lundquist
This study examines changes in religious service attendance over time for a contemporary cohort of adolescents moving from middle to late adolescence. We use two waves of a nationally representative panel survey of youth from the National Study of Youth and Religion (NSYR) to examine the dynamics of religious involvement during adolescence. We…
Despite the multiplicity of this country's religious contours, the religious education curriculum has sadly remained neo-confessional to a large extent. In this pluralistic environment, the inhabitants have to grapple with issues of moral decadence, individualism, identity crises, intolerance, cultural concubinage, among others, ...
van der Kooij, Jacomijn C.; de Ruyter, Doret J.; Miedema, Siebren
This article aims to argue that worldview is a useful concept in religious education because of its encompassing character. In the first part of the article three essential characteristics of “worldview” are distinguished: “worldview” includes religious and secular views; a distinction between
In contemporary Nigerian society, the evolving trends in Christian religious culture suggest that neoliberal (social) mind-set is influencing certain practices in many Churches. The objective of this paper is to examine how the above mentioned contemporary culture influences current religious landscape. The sociological ...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Religious activities in Cuba. 515.566..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.566 Religious activities in Cuba. (a) Specific license... involving transactions (including travel-related transactions) in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...
Baumfield, Vivienne M.; Conroy, James C.; Davis, Robert A.; Lundie, David C.
The "Does Religious Education work?" project is part of the Religion and Society programme funded by two major research councils in the UK. It sets out to track the trajectory of Religious Education (RE) in secondary schools in the UK from the aims and intentions represented in policy through its enactment in classroom practice to the…
This study investigates how varying religious truth has determined different religious faiths in the world. One God created all human kind and placed them in their different environments, but the allegiance, service, worship and honour to him varies due to the different truths at the foundations of the many faiths. This article ...
Bethany House Publishers, 1998), 71. For a very good commentary on this subject, read the chapters entitled, “The Absolutism of Moral Relativism ...Religious Roots: A Prolegomenon to Moral Judgment in American Policy by Lieutenant Colonel Greg Johnson Oregon Air...COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Religious Roots: A Prolegomenon to Moral Judgment in American Policy Policy 5a. CONTRACT
Smith, Erin I; Crosby, Robert G
In developmental research, religiousness is typically measured with omnibus affiliation or attendance variables that underspecify how the religious cultural contexts and experiences that affiliation represents influence developmental outcomes. This study explores associations between five aspects of a religious cultural context (family religiosity, religious schooling, church-based relationships with peers and adults, and view of God) in 844 seven- to 12-year-old Christian children to examine how they differentially predict self-esteem. Results of a structural equation model (SEM) analysis indicated that God image and peer church relationships directly predicted self-esteem, whereas God image mediated the influence of adult church relationships and family religious practices on self-esteem. A multiple group SEM analysis met the criterion for weak, but not strong, evidence that self-esteem is more related to younger children's adult church relationships but older children's peer church relationships. God image tended to be more related to younger children's family religious practices but older children's adult church relationships. Implications for developmental researchers and practitioners are discussed. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Religious affiliation is an omnibus variable representing multiple contexts of development. Self-esteem is an important outcome variable with different influences across development. Religious affiliation is associated with increased self-esteem. What does this study add? Children's experience in the contexts of religious affiliation influences development differently. It is not just affiliation, but specific religious contexts that influence children's self-esteem. The role of religious contexts in shaping children's self-esteem shifts across development. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell
and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....
In the chapter, I discuss the role day care institutions play in the construction of the idea of proper childhood in Denmark. Drawing on findings from research on ethnic minority children in two Danish day care institutions, I begin with a discussion of how childcare institutions act as civilising...... agents, empowered with the legitimate right to define and control normality and proper ways of behaving oneself. I aim to show how institutions come to define the normal child and proper childhood in accordance with current efforts toward reinventing national culture, exemplified by legislation requiring...... current testing of Danish language fluency levels among pre-school minority children. Testing language skills marks and defines distinctions that reinforce images of deviance that, in turn, legitimize initiatives to enrol children, specifically minority children, in child care institutions....
Maria S. Petrushkevych
Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the work is to determine the features of media culture that bind it with mass culture and mass communications and have the most significant effect on the general principles of the religious mass communication. In addition, the objective is to identify the skills system and traits of mass human that are necessary for using media culture. Methodology. The methodological basis is related to structuring, analytical analysis and synthesis of media features; highlighting phenomena that illustrate modern communicative situation; characteristics of media trends influence for the specific functioning of religious communication. Scientific novelty. Main part of the work is devoted to the analysis of the progressive media culture, mass-media and their main features, design of religious communication in this culture. Media gradually form the appearance of religious communication quietly, especially the mass one, they adapt the modern religious discourse to rates of transfer and perception of information. Modern believer gets a lot of different kinds of religious information, on any subject, any explanation of the religious question, with respect to any religion. Such volume of religious information and the speed with which a person receives it, does not usually make it religious or spiritually advanced, but only informed. Spiritual perfection and religious development, religious communication is possible only when the customer is aware of media culture and way of seeing the ultimate goal of such communications using the Mass Media. So far these mechanisms are perfectly designed in traditional religious communication. Phenomena, that reflects the dramatic changes in the communicative environment are: mediatization of body and mind, the new practice of processing / reading information, the phenomenon of simultaneous perception of a large number of information channels – similar or different. Features of media culture that connect it with
Park, Nan Sook; Klemmack, David L.; Roff, Lucinda L.; Parker, Michael W.; Koenig, Harold G.; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of religiousness on the trajectories of difficulties with activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs) in community-dwelling older adults over a three-year period. Seven waves of data from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging were analyzed using a hierarchical linear modeling method. The study was based on the 784 participants who completed interviews every six months between December 1999 and February 2004. Frequent religious service attendance was associated with fewer ADL difficulties and IADL difficulties at baseline. Furthermore, religious service attendance predicted slower increases for frequent churchgoers and steeper increases for less frequent churchgoers in IADL difficulties, controlling for variables related to demographics and resources. Religious service attendance was independently associated with ADL and IADL difficulties cross-sectionally. However, significant protective effects of religious service attendance were identified longitudinally only for the IADL trajectory. PMID:20485460
Full Text Available During 'cyclic' historical periods it would be correct to interpret religious processes in terms of interaction of two essentially different, but substantially, structurally and functionally comparative types of integrating cultural complexes that, in historical perspective, compete with each other on the effect on individuals and society in general. Such complexes represent secular and religious culture. Contemporary socio-cultural situation can be defined as an asymmetric representativeness of both secular and religious cultures. In a modern secular society, dominance of a secular culture over a religious one can be manifested in three basic dimensions: substantial, regulative and subjective ones. Secular culture is adopted during the primary socialization process. However, religious culture is still adopted through conscious, voluntary selection in younger or more mature age. It may be possible to determine two basic attitudes of the contemporary ('secularized' man towards religion. The first attitude may be called 'reversive' and the other one 'conversive'.
Saleam, James; Moustafa, Ahmed A.
A common finding across many cultures has been that religious people behave more prosocially than less (or non-) religious people. Numerous priming studies have demonstrated that the activation of religious concepts via implicit and explicit cues (e.g., ‘God,’ ‘salvation,’ among many others) increases prosociality in religious people. However, the factors underlying such findings are less clear. In this review we discuss hypotheses (e.g., the supernatural punishment hypothesis) that explain the religion-prosociality link, and also how recent findings in the empirical literature converge to suggest that the divine rewards (e.g., heaven) and punishments (e.g., hell) promised by various religious traditions may play a significant role. In addition, we further discuss inconsistencies in the religion-prosociality literature, as well as existing and future psychological studies which could improve our understanding of whether, and how, concepts of divine rewards and punishments may influence prosociality. PMID:27536262
Full Text Available Lately Indonesia is facing a lot of tremendous experience about religious violence. Indonesian Islam which is previously assumed as peaceful religion is suddenly changing to be frightening religion. The destruction in some places such as Bali Bombing, JW Marriot Bombing, and Sampang riot in some places Islam is the trigger of religious violence. This paper discusses the repetition of religious violence in Indonesia especially after New Order era. The writer argues that religious violence in Indonesia is as natural disaster, historical process in human evolution and as close experience that presenting and relating to human history. It may be caused by political condition and the response to economic injustice. In doing so, it is kind of social acceleration toward the process of change and also being a factor of the emergence of new agenda. This is because every disaster, including religious violence, requires an adjustment and a new formulation of the functions that have been damaged.
Fondevila, Sabela; Martín-Loeches, Manuel
The reasons behind the cultural persistence of religious beliefs throughout human history and prehistory still generate unanswered questions requiring scientific explanations. Within the framework of the cognitive science of religion, this article reviews experimental evidence supporting human predisposition for religious thinking and focuses on the hypothesis that a reason why religious beliefs are successful is their minimal counterintuitiveness. According to this hypothesis, religious concepts or stories would be characterized by containing only a small number of world-knowledge violations, which attracts attention while improving memorizability. We conclude this review by summarizing recent findings from our group using brain electrical activity and delving further into these questions. Our research suggests parallels between the natural tendency of the human cognitive system to use metaphors and the minimal counterintuitiveness of religious beliefs. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.
Fang, Chun-Kai; Lu, Hsin-Chin; Liu, Shen-ing; Sun, Yi-Wen
This study aimed to understand the current inclinations toward depression and compulsion for members of four different religious groups, and to predict religious beliefs along the suicide path through analyzing the lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts for members of these religious groups. Participants in this cross-sectional study, which adopted purposive sampling, were members of Christianity, Catholicism, Buddhism, and Taoism in northern Taiwan. In the case of suicide experiences, suicides among people one knows, and tendency toward compulsion and depression, there are statistical differences between the four religions. According to the results, some people with suicidal tendency will attend religious activities; therefore, we predict that religious beliefs play an important role in suicide prevention.
Full Text Available The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyze to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of religious experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of the present paper mean by the concept of religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: The Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological type of religious experience or RIT type. Furthermore, the present paper is focused on the work of neuro-psychologist M. A. Persinger [1997, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1987, 1985, and 1984]. In his studies, Persinger indicates that mystical experience (RErl has its seat in the right hemisphere of the human brain, whereas (religious ideology (RIT is related to the left hemisphere. Consequently, the hemisphere in which the (religious experience is taking place seems to label the type of experience. Persinger, interested in the powerful effects of religious experience (of the RErf type on human beings, asserts that if we could understand the neuro-cognitive processes involved in experiencing religiously, such processes might be copied for clinical use in order to improve psychiatric therapy for curing depression. Thus, Persinger studied and compared people practicing religious meditation with people who did not, and also studied the results of PET scanning on the experiences of schizophrenic and epileptic patients. PET scanning measures the metabolic activity in the hemispheres, ranging it on a scale from under normal to over normal activity. This paper will account for the relevance of comparing these two apparently different studies and for the problem arising the experience of pain because, neurologically, pain, like religious experience,is said to be caused by processes in the human brain.
Full Text Available Objective: The connection between lower alcohol use and religiousness has been extensively examined. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed how religion and religiousness influence public policies. The present study seeks to understand the influence of religious beliefs on attitudes toward alcohol use. Methods: A door-to-door, nationwide, multistage population-based survey was carried out. Self-reported religiousness, religious attendance, and attitudes toward use of alcohol policies (such as approval of public health interventions, attitudes about drinking and driving, and attitudes toward other alcohol problems and their harmful effects were examined. Multiple logistic regression was used to control for confounders and to assess explanatory variables. Results: The sample was composed of 3,007 participants; 57.3% were female and mean age was 35.7 years. Religiousness was generally associated with more negative attitudes toward alcohol, such as limiting hours of sale (p < 0.01, not having alcohol available in corner shops (p < 0.01, prohibiting alcohol advertisements on TV (p < 0.01, raising the legal drinking age (p < 0.01, and raising taxes on alcohol (p < 0.05. Higher religious attendance was associated with less alcohol problems (OR: 0.61, 95%CI 0.40-0.91, p = 0.017, and self-reported religiousness was associated with less harmful effects of drinking (OR: 0.61, 95%CI 0.43-0.88, p = 0.009. Conclusions: Those with high levels of religiousness support more restrictive alcohol policies. These findings corroborate previous studies showing that religious people consume less alcohol and have fewer alcohol-related problems.
Y. Y. Medviedieva
In today’s Australia, practices of non-teaching and non-practice is the most common choice, which denies social stigma, and is, perhaps, more often chosen by young people. Pluralism goes beyond the assumptions of supply theory, but the theory of secularization must take into account all these aspects of pluralism. However, there is one dimension of the religious situation in Australia, to which the supply theory could be applied. It is the steady growth of Pentecostal and Mormon groups over the past 15-20 years during which the main Protestant groups have decreased. As it is known, both religions show numerous features of «strictness» in contrast to Protestants’ main religious directions. Both flourished in a more open market, which emerged as a result of the collapse of Catholic and Anglican institutions. They successfully compete with other faiths to get a share of religious demand (although not stable, but limited and one that tends to steadily decrease. According to church studies, although these organizations recruit proselytes predominantly from people without a higher or even completed secondary education, most of those, who joined earlier, were members of other denominations, mostly Protestants. Together these two groups make up 1.3% of the population. On the other hand, they do not significantly restrain the exit from denominations and the transition of the majority of the population to atheism.
Full Text Available The present study aimed at identifying the procedures for current methods of religious slaughter. It consisted of spot visits in abattoirs carried out from October 2008 to March 2009 in Italy. The species covered were cattle, sheep and poultry. During this period, five abattoirs in three different Italian regions were assessed. All the animals were slaughtered without stunning. A reliable protocol was developed to record each animal during slaughter, to get 329 minutes and 28 seconds of video. 313 animals were observed by video image analysis for both halal slaughter and shechita. Observed parameters are discussed in the light of animal welfare. Remarks on restraining methods as well as post-cut clinical indicators of consciousness are considered.
Jorge Claudio Ribeiro
Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo analisa a ocorrência cotidiana, nas redações de jornal, de inúmeras manifestações “laicas” da religiosidade (na concepção simmeliana, é uma capacidade humana que engloba a totalidade da existência e lhe confere sentido. O autor trabalhou, durante cinco anos, nas redações dos jornais Folha de S. Paulo e O Estado de S. Paulo. das observações, anotadas num diário de campo, entrevistas e levantamento de dados, resultou uma “repor-tese” – uma reportagem que virou doutorado. Não há no jornalismo um componente religioso formal. Mas, por predisposição pessoal, ethos da profissão ou tradição, a religiosidade do jornalista secreta um sentido de promoção da verdade e da justiça. A empresa jornalística exerce uma peculiar onipotência ao selecionar acontecimentos que considera dignos de ser publicados. A ancoragem da imprensa no tempo lhe confere certa eternidade, pois a sucessão ininterrupta de edições configura um retorno ao eterno presente. Conclui-se que a característica “religiosa” do jornalismo se manifesta sob forma de rituais de lugar e tempo, de pessoas e falas e também como mística da vocação, da missão e do sofrimento. Essas condições também podem ser usadas como um disfarce “heróico” na exploração do trabalhador. Palavras-chave: Jornalismo; Fenômeno religioso; Ritual; Mística. Abstract This article analyses the daily occurrence of multiple secular manifestations of religiousness in newspapers editorial rooms (according to Georg Simmel, it is a human capacity that involves the whole existence and endows it with sense. The author worked for newspapers Folha de S. Paulo and O Estado de S. Paulo for five years. From his observations, written down in a diary, interviews and collected data, he wrote a “reporthesis” – a newspaper report that turned into a doctorate thesis. There is not a formal religious component in journalism. But, due to a personal disposition
Full Text Available This article is a widened version of a lecture held in 2005 at the congress: ‘Gioacchino Volpe between past and present’, issued in the volume edited by R. Bonuglia (Rome 2007. It analyzes the main topics present in the work by Gioacchino Volpe: Movimenti religiosi e sette ereticali nella società medievale italiana (secoli XI-XIV (‘Religious movements and heretical sects in Italian Medieval society (11th-14th century', of 1922, and connects such essay to the author’s interests for ‘social’ history in the period after the 11th century. It also casts light on the influence of Volpe’s thesis on many Italian Medieval scholars, who studied the medieval heresies over the 20th century (Morghen, Dupré Theseider, Manselli, Violante.
This study examines the effects of prolonged exposure to terrorism in 600 religious and non-religious Jewish adolescents living in Jerusalem, particularly post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, coping strategies and social support. The youth in Jerusalem reported high exposure to terrorist acts. This exposure was associated with high PTS, depressive symptoms and alcohol use. Despite an apparently greater exposure to terrorism, religious adolescents reported lower levels of PTS and alcohol consumption, but similar levels of depressive symptoms to non-religious adolescents. Problem-solving coping predicted higher depressive symptoms for religious adolescents exposed to terrorism but not for similarly exposed non-religious adolescents. In contrast, emotion-focused coping predicted more alcohol consumption among highly exposed non-religious adolescents, while emotion-focused coping predicted more alcohol consumption among religious adolescents with low exposure. The overall findings suggest that religiosity may buffer the negative consequences of exposure in other ways than through coping or support.
This study examines the influence of religious affiliation on lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, two spirit, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ)-inclusive practices. Using data from a national survey of educators from pre-kindergarten to grade 12, multivariate analyses of variance models were employed in order to test the effects of religious affiliation…
The question this study addresses is whether, on a conceptual level, religious propositions can have truth-value. It reflects on this question from a philosophy of religion perspective that stands in philosophy of language and mind. It analyzes paradigmatic religious realist and antirealist
The theory of strong turbulence is a part of nonlinear physics. The three open-quotes religious rulesclose quotes of nonlinear physics present a heuristic viewpoint that can be used to qualitatively predict the evolution of nonlinear systems. These rules are as follows. (1) The basic results can be obtained from the conservation laws. If some kind of process is not forbidden by these laws, it generally occurs. If it doesn't this means that another conserved quantity imposing the constraint is being missed. (2) The universal law of open-quotes 20/80close quotes takes place: 20% of people drink 80% of beer. In other words, interesting processes usually take place in localized structures occupying a small share of volume. The localized structures interact weakly and therefore maintain their identity. For this reason they are universal and can be investigated. (3) The open-quotes general situationclose quotes is nonintegrable. The special case of exact solutions in integrable models represent a degenerate (nontypical) behavior. Particular exact solutions cannot be taken as representative solutions unless they are attractors. The presence of attractors simplifies the analysis and clarifies the situation. In plasma physics one deals with infinite-dimensional (PDE) systems distributed in space. The application of the religious rules 1 and 2 then leads to the following. If the conservation laws do not prohibit the development of singularities they do occur. If the singularities are prohibited, then stable localized structures take place. Solitons (or solitary waves) and vortices are examples of such stable structures. Wave collapse, wave-breaking, shock waves, magnetic reconnection and singularities in ideal Euler liquid are the examples of singularities. According to rule 3, exact solutions are very essential if they are attractors in some sense. Analysis of this problem is presented for solitons in nonintegrable wave systems and 2D vortices
GenCorp, a Connecticut-based paper-goods manufacturer, has long supported employee-organized network groups. Its social support group for African-Americans, in fact, has been a particular success, having provided black employees with opportunities to further enhance their careers and helped the company retain top talent, meet its EEO goals, and gain favorable publicity. So when Alice Lawrence, a top accountant at GenCorp, called general manager Bill Thompson about the Christian network group being organized in one of the company's southern plants, Bill hardly flinched. After all, the Christian group was being organized by Russell Kramer, one of the company's most effective plant managers. What could be the problem there? But a couple of years ago, Alice noted, Russell had sent around a companywide letter that talked about the sinful nature of homosexuality. And that letter has made her and other gay and lesbian employees terribly uneasy. To complicate matters, the issue of "Christian rights" in the workplace was being widely discussed on radio talk shows, and several books on the topic had recently been published. An employee had even called the new region's head of human resources to get clarification on the topic. Up until now, GenCorp hadn't placed a lot of restrictions on network groups. But the emergence of a religious group was raising new questions for GenCorp's managers. Should the company accept religious groups or try to stop them? What policy, if any, should GenCorp adopt toward these network groups? Five experts comment on this fictional case study.
ministers as chaplains with a rank of captain and a salary of $20 per month. With this action , the American government officially established the military...leadership and chaplains resulting in Airmen’s insidious harm or ruin? Are they being unconstitutionally raped of religious rights? Are groups like...military’s hierarchal command structure bears careful scrutiny of any potential coercive action created by a commander sharing his or her faith. Military
Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt
In this paper I describe the changing role of intra-organizational experts in the face of institutional complexity of their field. I do this through a qualitative investigation of the institutional and organizational roles of actors in Danish organizations who are responsible for the efforts...... to comply with the Danish work environment regulation. And by doing so I also describe how institutional complexity and organizational responses to this complexity are particular important for the changing modes of governance that characterizes contemporary welfare states....
Davis, Richard F; Kiang, Lisa
Religiosity plays a prominent spiritual and social role in adolescents' lives. Yet, despite its developmental salience, few studies have examined normative changes in religiosity or the implications of these changes for psychological well-being. We explored longitudinal variation in and associations between religiosity, as defined by private regard, centrality, and participation in religious activities, and diverse indicators of well-being including self-esteem, depressive symptoms, positive and negative affect, and both the presence of and search for meaning in life. The participants were two cohorts of Asian American high school students (N = 180; 60 % female) followed for 4 years and living in the southeastern US. Using hierarchical linear modelling and controlling for gender and generational status, results revealed that religious identity (i.e., regard, centrality) did not normatively increase or decrease over time, but participation increased. Religious identity was significantly associated with higher self-esteem, greater positive affect, the presence of meaning in life, and reduced depressive symptoms (for females), and participation was positively associated with positive affect and the presence of meaning. Our results and discussion emphasize the utility of further examining how religion plays a role in health and well-being, particularly among immigrant youth.
Magaldi, Danielle; Trub, Leora
Spiritual/religious/non-religious (S/R/N) identity development is often neglected in psychotherapy training and represents an area where psychotherapists feel they lack competence. Such feelings can become even more pronounced when it comes to S/R/N self-disclosure. This study explores the decisions therapists make regarding self-disclosure, which impacts the psychotherapy process. This grounded theory study explores psychotherapists' S/R/N self-disclosure based on qualitative interviews with 21 psychotherapists representing varied theoretical orientations and spiritual, religious, atheist, and agnostic backgrounds. Findings reveal that while some self-disclosure happens on an explicit level, more often psychotherapists find implicit ways to share S/R/N aspects of the self for purposes of enhancing the therapeutic alliance and to convey openness. Psychotherapists also attempt to avoid the topic altogether, either to protect the therapeutic relationship or because of unresolved S/R/N identity in the therapist. Developing skills related to S/R/N self-disclosure represents an important aspect of multicultural competence, which can impact clients' feelings of safety and comfort discussing their own S/R/N identity. This capacity is strongly influenced by the therapist's self-awareness regarding S/R/N identity. Suggestions for engaging S/R/N identity and disclosure in supervisory experiences and academic preparation are discussed.
Stephan P. Pretorius
Full Text Available The positive impact that religion generally has on human beings has been suggested by different studies. However, it cannot be assumed that religion always contributes to the well-being of believers. Religious systems can be misused, resulting in people being spiritually and even physically hurt and harmed. This study investigates certain aspects of some alternative religious group in order to determine the impact it has on the well-being of the members of these groups. It was found that people are drawn to these groups because of the challenges they present, the display of true love amongst members and the ‘message’ of an authoritative charismatic leader that resonates with them and convinces them to become part. As time pass, members were challenged with questionable aspects that appear in the activities and teaching of these groups. Obtaining clarity on these concerns was strongly discouraged by the culture and other members of the group, resulting in members suppressing doubts and emotions. Adherence to the tenets of the group then occurred as a result of peer pressure and out of fear instead of true conviction. The study concludes that most of the respondents in the study reported that their experience in these groups did not contribute to their well-being, and emotionally, they struggled to adapt to society and other religious groups after leaving the group.
Full Text Available A cognitive study of religion shares some of its concerns with traditional approaches in cultural anthropology or the history of religion: It aims to explain why and how humans in most cultural groups develop religious ideas and practices, and why these have recurrentand enduring features. By contrast with other approaches, however, a cognitive approach centres on one particular set of factors that influence the emergence and development of religion. The human mind is a complex set of functional capacities that were shaped by natural selection and evolved, not necessarily to build a coherent or true picture of the world and certainly not to answer metaphysical questions, but to solve a series of specific problems to do with survival and reproduction. A crucial aspect of this natural mental make-up is that humans, more than any other species, can acquire vast amounts of information through communication with other members of the species. A cognitive study takes religion as a set of cultural representations, which are acquired by individual minds, stored and communicated to others. In this paper the author presents some general features of the cognitive study of religious concepts, and then presents in detail a framework that emphasizes the role of universal cognitive constraints on the acquisition and representation of religious ontologies, and presents anthropological and cognitive data that supports the model.
Olga Odgers Ortiz
Full Text Available Mexicans migrating to the United Status confront a very different social space which forces them to re-elaborate multiple identity references, among which religious beliefs and practices stand out. A number of studies have shown that among those who migrate, some on occasion turn to practices of popular religiosity in order to create bridges and maintain links with their communities of origin, in other cases, the migratory experience favors the processes of religious conversion. The subject is reopened in this article in order to bring up a third expression of the impact of migration on religious conversion: the transformation of the idea of religious diversity among those who migrate and consequently, the modification of some attitudes of religious tolerance and intolerance.
Full Text Available Religious Studies is concerned with studying religion or the absence thereof. The concept of religion has been discussed, disliked and dissected over centuries. Some have predicted the disappearance of religion, others have predicted the changing of location from the public to the private sphere and some even the re-emergence of religion. In trying to determine the place and relations of Religious Studies an understanding of what religion entails is necessary. It is clear that Religious Studies consists of a multiform subject field and a variety of disciplines with a multiplicity of issues, interests and topics together with a wide variety of approaches and methods. Some scholars have described religion as a �saturated phenomenon� trying to indicate how the diversity of elements described as religious came to shroud the true subject matter. All these hindrances on the road to comprehending religion are like dragons preventing one from completing a (holy! quest. This article does not want to provide new answers to an old debate. In this sense this article is not an attempt at slaying the dragons but identifying them. Three issues (dragons are discussed. How religion, the object of Religious Studies, should be viewed? What methods are employed by Religious Studies and the relatedness of Religious Studies to Theology? In the end the article wants to provide direction on how Religious Studies, as academic discipline, can collaborate with research in Theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article discusses the development of the subject of Religious Studies by providing a historic overview of sociological influences on the development. In this sense this article is not an attempt at slaying the dragons but identifying them. Three issues (dragons are discussed: how religion, the object of Religious Studies, should be viewed; what methods are employed by Religious Studies and the relatedness of Religious Studies to
Full Text Available Religious and moral education from an early age so needs to be invested for the child, so that in the future they will have a strong and deep understanding of the norms and teachings of Islam. Age children early childhood and kindergarten (TK is a time to play, so education is implemented particularly religious education should be designed properly by the teacher so that the education process into an active and fun activities. Kindergarten (TK Putra Harapan Nalumsari Jepara is one of the educational institutions that provide education for early childhood, with one lesson material is a moral and religious education. Moral education is one of the materials is very important because in load values, morals and religion, so this will be a guide for students in later life. The research method used is descriptive qualitative research to describe in detail the subjects and issues to be studied. The findings in this study is the cultivation of religious values and morals for children Kindergarten revolves around the activities of daily life. In particular cultivation of religious values with laying the foundations of the faith, personality or character that is commendable and devotional practices, in accordance with the child's ability is implemented. As one of the early childhood education institutions, in conducting the study, have several models of delivery Edutainment, habituation and uswah hasanah as a reference implementation of teaching and learning. Pendidikan agama dan moral sejak usia dini perlu ditanamkan bagi anak, sehingga di masa depan mereka akan memiliki pemahaman yang kuat dan mendalam dari norma-norma dan ajaran Islam. Usia anak-anak usia dini dan taman kanak-kanak (TK adalah waktu untuk bermain, sehingga pendidikan diimplementasikan khususnya pendidikan agama harus dirancang dengan baik oleh guru sehingga proses pendidikan menjadi kegiatan yang aktif dan menyenangkan. TK (TK Putra Harapan Nalumsari Jepara merupakan salah satu lembaga
Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard; Strand, Therese
Research Question/Issue: Institutional investors are facing increased pressure and threats of legislation from the European Union to abandon passive ownership strategies. This study investigates the prerequisites for – and potential dissimilarities in the practice of, active ownership among...... institutional investors in two Scandinavian countries with diminutive legal and cultural distance in general. Research Findings/Insights: Using data on shareholder proposals from Danish and Swedish annual general meetings from 2006 throughout 2010, we find that institutional investors are approximately....../Policy Implications: Regulators should be aware of the impact by local governance mechanisms, and how shareholders react under different legal and practical prerequisites. The paper also highlights legal elements that differ between Denmark and Sweden, and which might affect institutional activism....
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...
Many approaches can and have helped research institutions in the developing .... There are many good texts on project and program evaluation, not to ...... has challenged managers and students of organizational development for decades.
Sullivan, Susan Crawford; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Singleton, Royce A., Jr.
This study examined patterns and predictors of volunteering among students at a liberal arts college with an institutional culture that strongly promotes community service. Results showed that predictors varied across four different types of volunteering: community service, social action, religious service, and service to the college. Year in…
Helio Radke Bittencourt
Full Text Available Since 2010, the Brazilian communitarian institutions for higher education are not included officially under this designation in the INEP’s microdata, with the extinction of the category “communitarian, religious and philanthropic”. Since then, the Brazilian private’s higher education institutions are classified according to their legal nature: for-profit or non-profit. Nevertheless, the new law 12.881 of 2013, enacted in November 2013, has changed this reality after the approval by the National Congress, establishing the definition and purpose of the Community institutions, and confirming, in particular, their characteristics of non-profit institutions belonging to civil society, and their organization into associations or foundations (BRAZIL, 2013. The recent expansion of the federal and for-profit higher education institutions has directly affected the so far called communitarian institutions, which present differentiated characteristics compared to forprofit private higher education institutions as well as public education. In this article, data and contemporary aspects related to the new scenario of Brazilian higher education are analyzed, with special focus on higher education institutions members of the Association of Community Universities (ABRUC, and were found better performance of these ones in comparison to the private for-profit higher education institutions. The obtained results, combined with the regional impact of the communitarian higher education institutions, justify the importance of these institutions to improve the consolidation of higher education in Brazil.
Lisete S. Mendes Mónico
Full Text Available This article aims to contribute with a reflection about religious pluralism and religious freedom into Lusophony. Reviving pieces of history since the 15th century to the current post-colonial Portuguese society, Lusophony is analyzed in two complementary perspectives: That of the colonizing people and that of the colonized nations. Evangelization, colonization and Lusophony are, and always will be, inseparable. In addition to linguistic uniformity, Lusophony gave its distinctiveness in acculturation, miscegenation, plasticity, and Christianization policy. Using the census data in the 90’s, 2000’s, and 2010’s, with a documentary approach, it is established a general overview of religious affiliation in Lusophony. Moving from a faith of obligation to a faith of conviction, Lusophony is nowadays characterized by a pluralist position in religious matters. The current situation of religious freedom is analyzed from the AIS report and the GRI (Government restriction index and SHI (social hostilities involving religion indexes. From multiculturalism to acculturation, the plasticity, eclecticism, and religious syncretism acted as moderators towards the imposition of a new belief. The article ends by appealing to the inclusion of religious freedom in the political agenda, in order to defend human rights and peace in the world.
Sumarno; Trilaksana, A.; Kasdi, A.
Religious social movements are very interesting to be studied because this phenomenon is affecting the urban and rural communities, among the rich and the poor people, the educated and the less educated. The purpose of this study was to analyze several religious social movements in Java in the 19Th - 20Th centuries. The methods used are historical methods that include: Source feeding (main source is reference), Source Critique (source test), Interpretation of fact (analyzing the fact), and Historiography (writing research results) in the form of Journal Articles. Religious Social Symbols arise as a result of a depressed society, oppressed by the political system, or poverty as a result of colonial exploitation. For indigenous and less religious societies social pressures breed social protest movements and social revolutions. Meanwhile, in the Javanese society that has social and religious characteristics make the nature of the movement multidimensional. The form of movement is a blend of social movements that lead in the form of protests and revolutions, on the other hand formed religious movements that are politer nature because it is related to the life of the world and the hereafter. In various religious social movements in Java include the Nativist movement, Millennial/millenarianism, Messianic, Nostalgic, sectarian, and Revivalist. The movement emerged as a social impact of the Dutch colonization in the form of Cultivation which gave birth to the suffering of the people in the economic and social fields.
Harris, Katherine M; Edlund, Mark J; Larson, Sharon L
Objectives To examine the association between religious involvement and mental health care use by adults age 18 or older with mental health problems. Methods We used data from the 2001–2003 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We defined two subgroups with moderate (n=49,902) and serious mental or emotional distress (n=14,548). For each subgroup, we estimated a series of bivariate probit models of past year use of outpatient care and prescription medications using indicators of the frequency of religious service attendance and two measures of the strength and influence of religious beliefs as independent variables. Covariates included common Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, disorders symptoms, substance use and related disorders, self-rated health status, and sociodemographic characteristics. Results Among those with moderate distress, we found some evidence of a positive relationship between religious service attendance and outpatient mental health care use and of a negative relationship between the importance of religious beliefs and outpatient use. Among those with serious distress, use of outpatient care and medication was more strongly associated with service attendance and with the importance of religious beliefs. By contrast, we found a negative association between outpatient use and the influence of religious beliefs on decisions. Conclusion The positive relationship between religious service participation and service use for those with serious distress suggests that policy initiatives aimed at increasing the timely and appropriate use of mental health care may be able to build upon structures and referral processes that currently exist in many religious organizations. PMID:16584455
Full Text Available Antonovsky (1987 coined the term “salutogenesis” in opposition to “pathogenesis”, with the intention to point out to cientific researchers ways and mechanisms that could promote health, well -being and life satisfaction. The area of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality began both in Europe and in the United States at the beginning of the twenth century. The research done in this field -since the last two decades- has focused on the relationships between religion, spirituality and health; and on the ways in which religious people cope with negative life events. We could think this area as a complementary one to the Positive Psychology; as both share certain common points of view about health, coping and well-being. In the field of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Pargament and Koenig (1997 used the term “coping” -coined by Lazarus and Folkman (1986- referring to different styles of “religious coping” as “ways and mechanism by which religious people apply their religious beliefs and behaviours to prevent and /or moderate negative consequences of stressful life events, in order to solve their problems as well”. Each religion promotes ways to overcome negative life events, such as the death of loved ones. By using faith, prayers, meditations, religious rituals and beliefs about life, death and afterlife, religious persons try to cope with their grief and enhance positive feelings of emotional ,mental and spiritual well-being. Clergy of different religions are trained in religious practices, knowledge and skills to provide social support to those ones who face pain and loss. Religious groups can provide different types of emotional, practical, intelectual and spiritual support that can help diminish feelings of loneliness and grief. Being and feeling part of a religious community can promote ways to reconect to life and positive feelings that can help to overcome the grief of the death of loved ones and make
Religious tourism is one of the main contributors to the Nepalese tourism industry. It has not only generated thousands of jobs but also has been one of the main media to promote Nepalese culture, lifestyle and traditions. At the same time, it has grown as a strong contributor to the Nepalese economy. The main aim of this thesis was to point out the impact of religious tourism on the Nepalese economy, to find out the main factors affecting religious tourism and to get views of people about th...
Knight, John R; Sherritt, Lon; Harris, Sion Kim; Holder, David W; Kulig, John; Shrier, Lydia A; Gabrielli, Joy; Chang, Grace
Previous studies indicate that religiousness is associated with lower levels of substance use among adolescents, but less is known about the relationship between spirituality and substance use. The objective of this study was to determine the association between adolescents' use of alcohol and specific aspects of religiousness and spirituality. Twelve- to 18-year-old patients coming for routine medical care at three primary care sites completed a modified Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality; the Spiritual Connectedness Scale; and a past-90-days alcohol use Timeline Followback calendar. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the association between each religiousness/spirituality measure and odds of any past-90-days alcohol use, controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and clinic site. Timeline Followback data were dichotomized to indicate any past-90-days alcohol use and religiousness/spirituality scale scores were z-transformed for analysis. Participants (n = 305) were 67% female, 74% Hispanic or black, and 45% from two-parent families. Mean +/- SD age was 16.0 +/- 1.8 years. Approximately 1/3 (34%) reported past-90-day alcohol use. After controlling for demographics and clinic site, Religiousness/Spirituality scales that were not significantly associated with alcohol use included: Commitment (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.36, 1.79), Organizational Religiousness (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.64, 1.07), Private Religious Practices (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.80, 1.10), and Religious and Spiritual Coping--Negative (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.91, 1.23). All of these are measures of religiousness, except for Religious and Spiritual Coping--Negative. Scales that were significantly and negatively associated with alcohol use included: Forgiveness (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.42-0.73), Religious and Spiritual Coping--Positive (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.51-0.84), Daily Spiritual Experiences (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.54-0.84), and Belief (OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.68-0.83), which are
Full Text Available The article below presents an overview of the main musicological studies that aim Bessarabian religious music of Byzantine tradition, developed by musicologists from the Republic of Moldova and Romania. The author emphasizes the idea that although the study of Byzantine religious music in the Bessarabian space is carried out by a limited number of people, their research results deserve attention, being of high scientific value. Some of these results are even internationally recognized. At the same time, the author notes that Bessarabian religious music of Byzantine tradition is not sufficiently researched.
Full Text Available The paper investigates the role of architecture, topography, and space for the religious communication and the creation of sacred space in the colonial Bolivian altiplano. It scrutinizes different forms and techniques of representation of Christian and Andean concepts in religious architectures, like churches and churchyards. Moreover, taking into account the case of the Andean town of Carabuco, its topographical characteristics, architectural artifacts and the representation of both in a visual source of the 17th century, it sheds new light on the processes of communication and appropriation of religious knowledge in a colonial contact zone.
Full Text Available Following a worldwide trend, the number of religious tourists to the province of Mardin, in Southeastern Turkey has increased continuously during the last decade. Using a combination of methods this study aimed to assess the impact of religious tourism development on the local community and economy. We found that the effect is mainly positive. The hotels have high occupancy rates throughout the year and many new hotels have been built during the last five years. Also most visitors eat in local restaurants at least once a day and patronize local shops and businesses. The development of religious tourism has also led to the creation of many new jobs.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to predict ambivalent sexism (including hostile sexism and benevolent sexism with religious orientation types as intrinsic religiosity, extrinsic religiosity and quest religiosity. In addition, the effect of demographic variables (including age, gender, education on sexist attitudes was tested. 583 (N_female= 318; N_male= 265 university students who study in different universities of Ankara/Turkey (M_age= 22.10; SD = 2.33 completed Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, and Religious Orientation Scale. Findings indicated significant gender differences on study variables and significant associations between ambivalent sexism and religious orientation types within university students sample in Turkey.
Full Text Available This paper considers the most important factors that have played a role in the emergence and development of UFO religiosity and UFO alternative religious movements, from occult, spiritualist and theosophical teachings, to alternative ideas and debates on the origin of mankind. By analyzing the basic theological premises, the paper discusses the basic religious and culturological paradigms to be found in UFO movements. It also shows how a major part of their corpus can be recognized in existing "traditional" religious groups, and suggests that UFO religions represent just another variation on the numerous concepts that offer answers to key existential questions.
Palomino Lozano, Rafael
Relación general sobre la presencia de la religión como materia docente en la educación reglada: actores implicados, derechos educativos, modelos educativos y enseñanza de la religión, modalidades de enseñanza de la religión como asignatura. Breve apunte sobre lo símbolos religiosos en la escuela. Versión parcial. Keynote speech. General account concerning the presence of religion in public education: social actors, educational rights, educational models, religion as a school subject. Bri...
Knight, John R.; Sherritt, Lon; Harris, Sion Kim; Holder, David W.; Kulig, John; Shrier, Lydia A.; Gabrielli, Joy; Chang, Grace
Background Previous studies indicate that religiousness is associated with lower levels of substance use among adolescents, but less is known about the relationship between spirituality and substance use. The objective of this study was to determine the association between adolescents’ use of alcohol and specific aspects of religiousness and spirituality. Methods Twelve- to 18-year-old patients coming for routine medical care at three primary care sites completed a modified Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality; the Spiritual Connectedness Scale; and a past-90-days alcohol use Timeline Followback calendar. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the association between each religiousness/spirituality measure and odds of any past-90-days alcohol use, controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and clinic site. Timeline Followback data were dichotomized to indicate any past-90-days alcohol use and religiousness/spirituality scale scores were z-transformed for analysis. Results Participants (n = 305) were 67% female, 74% Hispanic or black, and 45% from two-parent families. Mean ± SD age was 16.0 ± 1.8 years. Approximately 1/3 (34%) reported past-90-day alcohol use. After controlling for demographics and clinic site, Religiousness/Spirituality scales that were not significantly associated with alcohol use included: Commitment (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.36, 1.79), Organizational Religiousness (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.64, 1.07), Private Religious Practices (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.80, 1.10), and Religious and Spiritual Coping – Negative (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.91, 1.23). All of these are measures of religiousness, except for Religious and Spiritual Coping – Negative. Scales that were significantly and negatively associated with alcohol use included: Forgiveness (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.42–0.73), Religious and Spiritual Coping –Positive (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.51–0.84), Daily Spiritual Experiences (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.54–0.84), and Belief
Lassiter, Jonathan M; Saleh, Lena; Starks, Tyrel; Grov, Christian; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T
This study examined the rates of spirituality, religiosity, religious coping, and religious service attendance in addition to the sociodemographic correlates of those factors in a U.S. national cohort of 1,071 racially and ethnically diverse HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Descriptive statistics were used to assess levels of spirituality, religiosity, religious coping, and religious service attendance. Multivariable regressions were used to determine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics, religious affiliation, and race/ethnicity with four outcome variables: (1) spirituality, (2) religiosity, (3) religious coping, and (4) current religious service attendance. Overall, participants endorsed low levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping, as well as current religious service attendance. Education, religious affiliation, and race/ethnicity were associated with differences in endorsement of spirituality and religious beliefs and behaviors among gay and bisexual men. Men without a 4-year college education had significantly higher levels of religiosity and religious coping as well as higher odds of attending religious services than those with a 4-year college education. Gay and bisexual men who endorsed being religiously affiliated had higher levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping as well as higher odds of religious service attendance than those who endorsed being atheist/agnostic. White men had significantly lower levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping compared to Black men. Latino men also endorsed using religious coping significantly less than Black men. The implications of these findings for future research and psychological interventions with gay and bisexual men are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a chronic disorder that strongly affects one's life and social, emotional, and occupational functioning. Due to the effect of religious beliefs on phenomenology of OCD, in this paper, we assess the effectiveness of religious cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT within 3 and 6 months follow-up. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial with follow-ups which last 2 months consisting eight sessions of 1.5 h of religious CBT. The research is conducted in a group of 40, with pre- and post-test after 3 and 6 months. Used Yale-Brown OCD symptom scale, before, the end, after 3 months and after 6 months of intervention. Treatment is carried out by a psychiatrist and a clergyman through religious CBT. The trial is held in OCD clinic affiliated with Noor Hospital. Results are analyzed by ANOVA repeated measure with SPSS18. Results: The results showed a considerable decrease in OCD symptoms which remained almost persistent after 3 and 6 months (F = 3/54. P = 0/024. It also shows that religious CBT can leave substantial effect on OCD symptoms; permanency of this intervention after 3 and 6 months is noticeable (P < 0/001. In Conclusion this therapy could be helpful for OCD patients with religious content. Conclusion: RCBT have a positive effect on people with religious obsessive -compulsive.
Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M
This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p social support from baseline to wave 2 in each of the following religious social support subscales: emotional support received (p social support. African Americans who are active in faith communities showed increases in all types of religious social support, even the negative aspects, over a relatively modest longitudinal study period. This illustrates the strength of the church as a social network and the role that it plays in people's lives.
Semplonius, Thalia; Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena
Emerging adulthood is a time of many changes. For example, one change that occurs for a subset of emerging adults is leaving home and starting university. Importantly, the creation of social ties can aid in promoting positive adjustment during university. This study investigated whether involvement in religious activities promotes social ties among university students directly and/or indirectly through emotion regulation. Importantly, involvement in religious activities may promote self-regulatory skills, and the ability to effectively regulate emotions can aid in navigating social interactions. To rule out potentially important confounding variables, spirituality and involvement in non-religious clubs were statistically controlled in all analyses. The participants included 1,132 university students (70.5 % female) from a university in Ontario, Canada who were surveyed each year over a period of 3 years. The results indicated that involvement in religious activities indirectly predicted more social ties over time through emotion regulation. Spirituality did not predict social ties or emotion regulation. Furthermore, non-religious clubs directly predicted more social ties over time. Thus, although involvement in religious and non-religious activities both predicted more social ties in a university setting over time, the mechanism by which these activities promote social ties differed.
Ahlvik, Carina; Boxenbaum, Eva
Drawing on dual-process theory and mindfulness research this article sets out to shed light on the conditions that need to be met to create “a reflexive shift in consciousness” argued to be a key foundational mechanism for agency in institutional theory. Although past research has identified...... in consciousness to emerge and argue for how the varying levels of mindfulness in the form of internal and external awareness may manifest as distinct responses to the institutional environment the actor is embedded in....
Adong, Julian; Lindan, Christina; Fatch, Robin; Emenyonu, Nneka I; Muyindike, Winnie R; Ngabirano, Christine; Winter, Michael R; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Samet, Jeffrey H; Cheng, Debbie M; Hahn, Judith A
HIV and alcohol use are two serious and co-existing problems in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the relationship between spirituality and/or religiousness (SR) and unhealthy alcohol use among treatment-naïve HIV-infected adults attending the HIV clinic in Mbarara, Uganda. Unhealthy alcohol was defined as having either an alcohol use disorders identification test-consumption score of ≥4 for men or ≥3 for women, or having a phosphatidylethanol level of ≥50 ng/ml based on analysis of dried bloodspot specimens. Of the 447 participants, 67.8% were female; the median age was 32 years (interquartile range [IQR] 27-40). About half reported being Protestant (49.2%), 35.1% Catholic, and 9.2% Muslim. The median SR score was high (103 [IQR 89-107]); 43.3% drank at unhealthy levels. Higher SR scores were associated with lower odds of unhealthy drinking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.83 per standard deviation [SD] increase; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-1.03). The "religious behavior" SR subscale was significantly associated with unhealthy alcohol use (aOR: 0.72 per SD increase; 95% CI 0.58-0.88). Religious institutions, which facilitate expression of religious behavior, may be helpful in promoting and maintaining lower levels of alcohol use.
Full Text Available This article focuses on female clergy as potential agents of change in the Church. I argue that the adoption of female clergy is one of the main factors that cause the Church to change its practices, policies and theological orientation. The first female ministers were ordained in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland in 1988. This is fairly late compared to other Nordic countries. However, the number of female ministers and female students has been growing fast and nowadays about 70 percent of theology students are female.The paper is based on quantitative surveys conducted among the members of the Clergy Union in 2002, 2006 and 2010 (N = about 1,000 each and among the applicants for university studies in theology in 2010. The research shows that clergywomen are changing the Church in a clearly more liberal direction. They do it in various areas of church life: they change the perception of faith and dogma, the policies of the Church as well as daily practices in parishes. Clergymen are notably more traditional in their orientation, even young clergymen. Therefore it is especially the female clergy who serve as agents of religious change in the Church.
Full Text Available The word ‘Islam’ manifests its meaning to the word peace which provides security and serenity to individuals and the community. The article focuses on this dimension of Islam and aims to present evidence from religious sources which assert that Islam is not a religion that supports terrorism but a religion which emphasizes peace and salvation. As a noun, the word ‘Islam’ is a system of beliefs revealed by Allah to Muhammad (pbuh. In retrospect, in its verb form Islam is derived from the infinitive of transitive four category verbs namely if’al, Islam is “ef’ale-yüf’ilus” infinitive form. The root of this word is also derived from the infinitive Arabic trilateral root of silm or salamet (peace and security. For this reason Islam is not only encyclopaedic definition referring to submitting or resigning oneself or one’s person to God or the will of God, surrendering to the will of Allah (God, but also has the transitive meaning (ta’diyat, becoming (sayrurat, becoming of anything over an adjective and criterion (ta’ridh. Islam is not only the believer’s submission to Allah, but it also has peace and safety that spreads right throughout to others. It is therefore, benefitting every individual as well as the society.
Williamson, W Paul; Hood, Ralph W
Christian serpent handling sects of Appalachia comprise a community that has long been mischaracterized and marginalized by the larger communities surrounding them. To explore this dynamic, this article traces the emergence of serpent handling in Appalachia and the emergence of anti-serpent-handling state laws, which eventually failed to curb the practice, as local communities gave serpent handling groups support. We present two studies to consider for improving community relations with serpent handling sects. In study 1, we present data relating the incidence of reported serpent-bite deaths with the rise of anti-serpent-handling laws and their eventual abatement, based on increasing acceptance of serpent handlers by the larger community. Study 2 presents interview data on serpent bites and death that provide explanations for these events from the cultural and religious perspective. We conclude that first-hand knowledge about serpent handlers, and other marginalized groups, helps to lessen suspicion and allows them to be seen as not much different, which are tendencies that are important for promoting inter-community harmony.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to clarify what Rudolf Steiner’s followers thought of him at the time of his demise. How can we explain the rapid spread of the Anthroposophical Society in Europe and the United States during the inter-war period? Can it be explained by referring to Rudolf Steiner’s own authority? What kind of authority did he possess? Did the members of the Anthroposophical Society regard him as a divine being, a prophet, or an ordinary religious teacher? The material for this article consists of a selection of the obituaries published in the anthroposophical press after Rudolf Steiner’s death on 30 March 1925. Needless to say, obituaries are usually tendentious, and therefore controversial as source material. For the purpose of the present article, however, this kind of material is suitable, since the aim here is to study the tendency itself. The restraint that followers might be assumed to practice in publishing their opinion on Steiner in commonly available writings is minimised in the type of material chosen here. The primary interest is to find out whether his followers portray Steiner as a human being, or as a divine, or semi-divine being.
Andrés Alfredo Castrillón Castrillón
Full Text Available El artículo se propone dilucidar la noción de religión que tiene Friedrich Hölderlin en el ensayo “Sobre la religión”, el cual traza un pensamiento tan o más complejo de la relación hombre - dios, y hombre - comunidad, que los de filósofos como Kant o Hegel en sus reflexiones sobre Dios y la religión. Destacar por medio del análisis del ensayo cómo comprende Hölderlin la religión y cómo la vincula con la vida de los hombres en su contexto es la tarea fundamental del escrito, para concluir con las propuestas poéticas de la fundación de religiones o sus manifestaciones a través del mito.
Islamic religious norms are important for Islamic bioethical deliberations. In Muslim societies religious and cultural norms are sometimes confused but only the former are considered inviolable. I argue that respect for Islamic religious norms is essential for the legitimacy of bioethical standards in the Muslim context. I attribute the legitimating power of these norms, in addition to their purely religious and spiritual underpinnings, to their moral, legal, and communal dimensions. Although diversity within the Islamic ethical tradition defies any reductionist or essentialist reconstruction, legitimacy is secured mainly by approximation of Islamic ethical ideals believed to be inherent in the scriptural texts, rather than by the adoption of particular dogmatic or creedal views. With these characteristics, Islamic (bio) ethics may provide useful insights for comparative ethics and global bioethics.
Meyers, Michael A
.... This concept, when related to the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) in the Middle East, provides insights on the current strategy's effort and effectiveness in staying ahead of religious extremism expansion. Current U.S...
Monsignor Dieudonné Nzapalainga
Full Text Available In the Central African Republic, where religion has been used as a tool to divide and manipulate the population, religious leaders have come together to promote tolerance and forgiveness as a basis for rebuilding peaceful cohabitation.
Keywords:Autopsy, religious beliefs, history, christains, muslims, jews. 62. Jos Journal of Medicine, ... 4, 6 thing. Muslims are guided by Shariah (Islamic law) which .... forensic medical practices, however the practice have suffered due to lack ...