Sample records for religious freedom act

  1. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: American Indian Religious Freedom Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Reference Book contains a copy of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act and guidance for DOE compliance with the statute. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically.

  2. Freedom of conscience and health care in the United States of america: the conflict between public health and religious liberty in the patient protection and affordable care act. (United States)

    West-Oram, Peter


    The recent confirmation of the constitutionality of the Obama administration's Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) by the US Supreme Court has brought to the fore long-standing debates over individual liberty and religious freedom. Advocates of personal liberty are often critical, particularly in the USA, of public health measures which they deem to be overly restrictive of personal choice. In addition to the alleged restrictions of individual freedom of choice when it comes to the question of whether or not to purchase health insurance, opponents to the PPACA also argue that certain requirements of the Act violate the right to freedom of conscience by mandating support for services deemed immoral by religious groups. These issues continue the long running debate surrounding the demands of religious groups for special consideration in the realm of health care provision. In this paper I examine the requirements of the PPACA, and the impacts that religious, and other ideological, exemptions can have on public health, and argue that the exemptions provided for by the PPACA do not in fact impose unreasonable restrictions on religious freedom, but rather concede too much and in so doing endanger public health and some important individual liberties.

  3. 76 FR 3815 - Religious Freedom Day, 2011 (United States)


    ... Statute for Religious Freedom, in which Thomas Jefferson wrote that ``all men shall be free to profess... country that is tolerant, just, and strong. My Administration continues to defend the cause of religious...

  4. 75 FR 3843 - Religious Freedom Day, 2010 (United States)


    ... protect our freedom of religion, including the freedom to practice none at all. Many faiths are now..., declaring freedom of religion as the natural right of all humanity--not a privilege for any government to... Religious Freedom Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Long before our...

  5. 77 FR 2907 - Religious Freedom Day, 2012 (United States)


    ... centuries, men and women have immigrated to America's shores in pursuit of religious freedom. Hailing from... discrimination because of their beliefs. My Administration continues to stand with all who are denied the ability...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    finds that, although more feasible within secular states, religious freedom and human rights are possibilities ... and values, nor uses its powers and offices to persecute religion.” According to ... Secularism is in fact an expression of humanism.

  7. Religious dietary rules and the protection of religious freedom: some evidence from practice in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Abu Salem


    Full Text Available In the Italian system freedom of worship provided by the Constitution is safeguarded by unilateral and contractual norms, sanctioned for minority confessions by an agreement, named intesa, that also concerns dietary issues. Muslim communities, however, as they have no intesa with the Italian state, are always compelled to negotiate in respect of their religious norms. Religious freedom concerns- not only ritual acts, but also behaviours including dietary ones, which are based on religious beliefs. The aim of this paper is to critically reconstruct how Italy takes charge of religiously-motivated needs concerning food and beverages, both for those confessions holding an intesa (such as Hebraism and for those not (Islam, in order to trace the real degree to which freedom of worship is guaranteed in Italy. The analysis will be focused on the bargaining for religious dietary rules in schools and in constraining institutes, as they are main social spaces of confrontation between believers and the state.

  8. Religious pluralism into Lusophony: a question of freedom

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    Lisete S. Mendes Mónico


    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute with a reflection about religious pluralism and religious freedom into Lusophony. Reviving pieces of history since the 15th century to the current post-colonial Portuguese society, Lusophony is analyzed in two complementary perspectives: That of the colonizing people and that of the colonized nations. Evangelization, colonization and Lusophony are, and always will be, inseparable. In addition to linguistic uniformity, Lusophony gave its distinctiveness in acculturation, miscegenation, plasticity, and Christianization policy. Using the census data in the 90’s, 2000’s, and 2010’s, with a documentary approach, it is established a general overview of religious affiliation in Lusophony. Moving from a faith of obligation to a faith of conviction, Lusophony is nowadays characterized by a pluralist position in religious matters. The current situation of religious freedom is analyzed from the AIS report and the GRI (Government restriction index and SHI (social hostilities involving religion indexes. From multiculturalism to acculturation, the plasticity, eclecticism, and religious syncretism acted as moderators towards the imposition of a new belief. The article ends by appealing to the inclusion of religious freedom in the political agenda, in order to defend human rights and peace in the world.

  9. Religious Freedoms In Republic Of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metaj-Stojanova Albana


    Full Text Available With the independence of Republic of Macedonia and the adoption of the Constitution of Macedonia, the country went through a substantial socio-political transition. The concept of human rights and freedoms, such as religious freedoms in the Macedonian Constitution is based on liberal democratic values. The Macedonian Constitution connects the fundamental human rights and freedoms with the concept of the individual and citizen, but also with the collective rights of ethnic minorities, respecting the international standards and responsibilities taken under numerous international human rights conventions and treaties, of which the country is a party. Republic of Macedonia has ratified all the so called “core human right treaties” and now the real challenge lies in the implementation of the international standards. Some of these international conventions and treaties of the United Nations and of the Council of Europe are inherited by succession from the former Yugoslavian federation. Religious freedoms are guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of human rights (1948, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966, the European Convention on Human Rights (1953, the Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief (1981 (all documents ratified by the Republic of Macedonia. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia “The freedom of religious confession is guaranteed. The right to express one's faith freely and publicly, individually or with others, is guaranteed„. After the conflict of 2001 the Ohrid Framework Agreement secured group rights for ethnicities that are not in majority in the Republic of Macedonia. The present Law on the legal status of the church, religious communities and religious groups of 2007, repealed the Law on religion and religious groups of 1997.

  10. Spiritual Politics, Political Religion, and Religious Freedom in Burma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravers, Mikael


    A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma......A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma...

  11. The interaction between religious freedom, equality and human dignity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal Computer

    acknowledged church dogma or religious belief, and is of such a nature that it passes the test of a nuanced and context-sensitive form of balancing of these freedoms and the right to human dignity and equality of persons affected by them. 1. BACKGROUND. Religious freedom (s 15(1)) and freedom of religious communities ...

  12. Religious Freedom Ethic’s Dimensions: Individual vs. Communitarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Oni Ardelean


    Full Text Available Vivid debates were encountered in recent years on the subject of religious freedom ethics. The politic correctness attitude became many times a coercion instrument for suppressing the communitarian interests by promoting individual interests, instituting the minority tyranny that reduced to silence the communitarian interests. This might also create a disproportional representation in society for communitarian religious interests. The question is: whose religious interests should prevail? Should there be more guarantees given by the governments for the long existing, larger, and traditional religious groups, compare with the guarantees provided for the newer and smaller religious groups? Those questions provide a glimpse of the existing tension in the society on the subject of religious freedom. The present paper should answer these types of questions, explaining the tension and giving possible answers from a religious freedom normative approach.

  13. Religious freedom and political correctness in United Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ks. Artur Aleksiejuk


    Full Text Available We live in times that are particularly sensitive to issues such as freedom and are differentiated by strong aspirations for personal and societal freedom. One speaks of political-societal freedom, freedom of religion, artistic freedom and freedom to choose one’s own lifestyle. It would be possible to make a long list of the various kinds or manifestations of freedom, which modern individuals indentify in their lives. My essay considers the ways the law functions in regards to religious freedom in the context of the currently prevailing and implemented political visions in United Europe. Strictly speaking, this paper concerns the definition of place, which was assigned for religious convictions of citizens of the European Union and their role in shaping their personal and societal lives.

  14. American Bishops and Religious Freedom: Legacy and Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Wilde


    Full Text Available This paper explores continuity and change in the American Catholic hierarchy’s promotion of and later reliance on religious freedom. With an analysis spanning more than 50 years, it first traces the pressures for reform that created the Declaration more than 50 years ago, demonstrating that American bishops were crucial actors in the Declaration’s existence and passage, and that this was the case because of the strong legitimacy pressures they were under as Roman Catholic leaders in a predominantly Protestant country. The paper then turns to a summary of how the Birth Control Mandate of the Affordable Care Act once again created pressures for legitimacy for the American Catholic hierarchy, pressures which were again articulated in terms of critiques of hypocrisy. It demonstrates that although the specific critique changed, accusations of hypocrisy remain central in discussions of the Catholic Church’s stance on the Birth Control Mandate in the Affordable Care Act.

  15. Religion and Employment: How Extensive Is a Teacher's Religious Freedom? (United States)

    Beezer, Bruce


    Reviews court cases and constitutional issues related to religious freedom, teachers' religious beliefs, and school board employment practices regarding teachers. Discusses such issues as leaves of absence, school curriculum, physical appearance, and clothing, and suggests implications for board employment practices and avenues for further…

  16. Religious Speech in the Military: Freedoms and Limitations (United States)


    abridging the freedom of speech .” Speech is construed broadly and includes both oral and written speech, as well as expressive conduct and displays when...intended to convey a message that is likely to be understood.7 Religious speech is certainly included. As a bedrock constitutional right, freedom of speech good order and discipline or of a nature to bring discredit upon the armed forces)—the First Amendment’s freedom of speech will not provide them

  17. 78 FR 4293 - Religious Freedom Day, 2013 (United States)


    ... brighter horizons; protesters who fought for abolition, women's suffrage, and civil rights. Each generation... America A Proclamation Foremost among the rights Americans hold sacred is the freedom to worship as we choose. Today, we celebrate one of our Nation's first laws to protect that right-- the Virginia Statute...

  18. Secularism, secular state and religious freedom | Nweke | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The historic separation of the Church and the State, as an immediate product of secularism, informs the reality of secular state, a state without official religion. This paper attempts to understudy the extent to which secularism enhances religious freedom within the frame of secular state. With the tools of phenomenological ...

  19. Religious Freedom in America. Source Book and Study Outline. (United States)

    Harmon, Francis Stuart; And Others

    To encourage a more meaningful celebration of the 1976 Bicentennial, the Interchurch Center is distributing nationally an exhibit of 18 posters, each 36" x 40", which portray various facets of the history of religious freedom in America. Reproductions of the posters together with an informative text make up the contents of this…

  20. BBG 2009 Freedom of Information Act Repot (United States)

    Broadcasting Board of Governors — The Broadcasting Board of Governors' annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) report includes detailed statistics on the number and disposition of FOIA requests,...

  1. BBG 2008 Freedom of Information Act Report (United States)

    Broadcasting Board of Governors — The Broadcasting Board of Governors' annual Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) report includes detailed statistics on the number and disposition of FOIA requests,...

  2. Religious Education and Freedom of Religion and Belief. Religion Education and Values. Volume 2 (United States)

    Parker, Stephen, Ed.; Freathy, Rob, Ed.; Francis, Leslie J., Ed.


    What opportunities and challenges are presented to religious education across the globe by the basic human right of freedom of religion and belief? To what extent does religious education facilitate or inhibit "freedom of religion" in schools? What contribution can religious education make to freedom in the modern world? This volume…

  3. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Plan (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Executive Order (E.O.) 13,392 mandates that each federal agency shall have a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) working plan with established goals and time frames to...

  4. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Tracking System (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Tracking system which allows for the input of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request date, compiles the due date, information pertaining to the request, name...

  5. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Policy (United States)

    This policy establishes EPA requirements for complying with the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) as amended, EPA FOIA regulations, and guidance issued by the U. S. Department of Justice and the National Archives and Records Administration.

  6. Calculating the Philosophical Significance of the Concept of Religious Freedom in Islam


    Roswantoro, Alim


    The writing attemps to explore the philosophical meaning of the theological messages of Islam on religious freedom. The article do not study the empirical facts of religious freedom practiced by muslims today, but it scrutinizes the theological messages as written in the Qur'an and as showed by the real examples of the God's Messenger. Through understanding some Qur'anic verses, we will find that Islam strongly encourages the life of different religious people based on the value of freedom. F...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Louise Shafer


    Full Text Available This article summarises the results of a media analysis conducted by the example of one of the country’s biggest daily newspapers, the New Straits Times. With regard to the controversial religious freedom debate, it summarises what actors are involved in the discussion and how their positions are presented in the mainstream media. Several examples from articles show what strategies are employed in the discourse, such as the rhetoric of fear and crisis and the constant emphasis of racial and other supposedly separating categories. The close linkage of the categories ‘ethnicity’ and ‘religion’, which is manifested legally as well as politically, is perpetuated linguistically. Especially important in this context is the construction of a Muslim-Malay identity. 

  8. Freedom of Information Act-Employee responsibilities (United States)

    Newman, David J.


    The Freedom of Information Act( FOIA), 5 U.S.C. § 552, as amended, generally provides that any person has a right to request access to Federal agency records. The USGS proactively promotes information disclosure as inherent to its mission of providing objective science to inform decisionmakers and the general public. USGS scientists disseminate up-to-date and historical scientific data that are critical to addressing national and global priorities.

  9. 78 FR 6216 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary 43 CFR Part 2 RIN 1093-AA15 Freedom of... regulation revises the Department's Freedom of Information Act regulations. DATES: Effective January 30, 2013... 31, 2012, revising the Department of the Interior Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) regulations. This...

  10. 77 FR 27151 - Implementing the Freedom of Information Act (United States)


    ... Memoranda on ``The Freedom of Information Act'' and ``Transparency and Open Government,'' as well as... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY 32 CFR Part 2403 Implementing the Freedom of Information... Policy (OSTP) is proposing to issue regulations implementing the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). The...

  11. Religious freedom and its limitations under the 1999 constitution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper critically reviewed the provisions of the 1999 Constitution of Nigeria on freedom ... Insight was drawn from international legal instrument on the subject. ... However, the repudiation of the supremacy of the Constitution by Islamic law ...

  12. 77 FR 15555 - Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act Procedures (United States)


    ... Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act Procedures AGENCY: Special Inspector General for Afghanistan... Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and the Privacy Act of 1974. These procedures will facilitate public..., Freedom of information, Privacy. Authority and Issuance For the reasons set forth above, SIGAR establishes...

  13. 75 FR 36535 - Freedom of Information Act, Privacy Act of 1974; Implementation (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Secretary 31 CFR Part 1 Freedom of Information Act... Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and its regulations concerning the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act). It... correct those errors. List of Subjects in 31 CFR Part 1 Freedom of Information; Privacy. 0 Accordingly...

  14. 78 FR 16611 - Freedom of Information Act; Correction (United States)


    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 4 Freedom of Information Act; Correction AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Trade Commission published a... instruction in our final rule entitled ``Freedom of Information Act'' published February 28, 2013 (78 FR 13472...

  15. 78 FR 48083 - Freedom of Information Act Administration (United States)


    ... PEACE CORPS 22 CFR Part 303 RIN 0420-AA29 Freedom of Information Act Administration AGENCY: Peace Corps. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The proposed rule updates Peace Corps regulations on the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) to implement guidance given by the President and the Attorney General...

  16. 78 FR 32595 - Revision of Freedom of Information Act Regulation (United States)


    ... Revision of Freedom of Information Act Regulation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HUD. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed rule would amend HUD's regulations implementing the Freedom of Information... with speech or hearing impairments may access this number via TTY by calling the toll-free Federal...

  17. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments: 110th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Relyea, Harold C


    Enacted in 1966 after 11 years of investigation, legislative development, and deliberation in the House and half as many years of such consideration in the Senate, the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA...

  18. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Amendments: 110th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Relyea, Harold C


    Enacted in 1966 after 11 years of investigation, legislative development, and deliberation in the House and half as many years of such consideration in the Senate, the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA...

  19. Freedom of Religion and Freedom of Expression: Religiously Offensive Speech and International Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Donnelly


    Full Text Available May the state prohibit speech that deeply offends religious sensibilities? This issue has recently been a matter of intense controversy in both the Islamic and Western world. Much of the discussion, on both sides, has been inflammatory and deeply unhelpful, even counterproductive. This paper seeks to advance the discussion by analyzing and defending the approach suggested by international human rights law. Although international human rights law is explicitly silent on the question of speech that is intended to be or is perceived as hostile to a religion, there is a clear body of law dealing with speech that fosters racial discrimination that can be used as a model. On this basis, prohibiting speech that provokes or incites religious discrimination, religious hatred, or religious violence is clearly within the bounds of international human rights law. Prohibiting speech because that speech is offensive to adherents of a religion is not. If speech is to be free, it must be regulated only to prevent demonstrable serious harm to others that outweighs the harm to those whose speech is restricted. Crying fire in a crowded theater is a classic example. Prohibiting speech that incites religious violence clearly meets this test. The fact that some people find the speech offensive clearly does not. The human right to freedom of religion does not guarantee that others respect one’s religion. States are obliged to permit the free choice and public exercise of one’s religion and to protect that choice and exercise. States are at liberty to give support to religion, either in general or to particular religions – so long as that support does not violate the human rights of others. To prohibit some speech on the basis of the religious sensibilities of one, some, or all religions restricts a fundamental human right for a non-human rights reason of insufficient weight. آیا دولتها اجازه دارند سخنرانیهایی را که

  20. The Regulation of Religious Freedom in Indonesia And International Law Perspective




    International Journal Of Law In reality, there are still violations of the rights-violations of religious freedom. The system of democratic societies allow for any differences, including religion, culture and ideology to be communicated and consolidated well. Here in lies the importance of setting and restrictions se in a human rights instruments both internationally and nationally. Through its legal instrument, the mission to ensure security for everyone with neutral behavior or nonpartis...

  1. Obstacles to the implementation of the Freedom of Information Act ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... implementation of the FOI Act, particularly non-compliance by government or public officials. The article recommends strategies to overcome these challenges and concludes that with political will, the objectives of the FOI Act will be realized. Keywords: Freedom of information, access, records, secrecy, Law, expression ...

  2. Why do you hate me so much? An exploration of religious freedom from the perspective of African religion(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibusiso T. Masondo


    Full Text Available The advent of the 1996 constitution and the promotion of freedom of religion gave space to previously discriminated religious traditions to flourish. There have been a number of revivals of aspects of African Traditional Religion. The Bill of Rights guarantees Religious Freedom but tends to limit it to Freedom of belief. People have every right to believe and practice as long as their practice is in line with the law. This paper is a reflection on the difficulties posed by the notion of Religious Freedom as contained in the 1996 South African constitution for practitioners of African Indigenous Religions and other minority religions. In a case that captured the imagination of the legal fraternity, Gareth Prince, a practicing Rastafarian, was prevented from joining the Bar of the Western Cape because of a prior conviction of being caught in possession of dagga, an illegal substance. He argued that he used cannabis as part of his religious observance. Justice Ngcobo, in his judgement dismissing the case, made it very clear that ‘the right to freedom of religion is not absolute’. In other words, religious practices need to fall within the provisions of the law of the land. At the core of our argument is that the intellectual and cultural resources that were mobilised in writing the South African constitution failed to reflect on the religious practices of indigenous people and other minority religions.

  3. Religious and/or spiritual practices: extending spiritual freedom to people with schizophrenia. (United States)

    Smith, Sharon; Suto, Melinda J


    It continues to be a challenge to define and utilize spirituality in client-centred occupational therapy practice. Dialogue about spirituality is especially problematic for occupational therapists working with people with schizophrenia. To explore the meaning of religion and/or spirituality for people living with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Nine community-based individuals with schizophrenia engaged in interviews about the meaning of religion and/or spirituality and demonstrated self-defined spiritual practices. Phenomenology, hermeneutic theory, and a symbolic interactionism framework provided methodological and analytic guidance. Participants employed religious and/or spiritual practices to cope with schizophrenia symptoms and make meaning of their lives. Individuals used multiple systems of meaning to explain their experiences. Religious and/or spiritual agency, an individual's sense of freedom to choose among the spiritual options, renewed their sense of empowerment. Therapists can engage in spiritual negotiation with clients by using well-worded empowering questions toward a common goal of life enhancement.

  4. The Freedom of Information Act and Government's Corporate Information Files. (United States)

    Kielbowicz, Richard B.


    Discusses exemptions to the Freedom of Information Act that prevent disclosure of some types of corporate information supplied to the federal government. Examines case law that has developed around these exemptions and gages the degree to which they block access to corporate information held by the government. (GW)

  5. 78 FR 53083 - Freedom of Information Act Administration (United States)


    ... PEACE CORPS 22 CFR Part 303 RIN 0420-AA29 Freedom of Information Act Administration AGENCY: Peace Corps. ACTION: Proposed rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Peace Corps is correcting a typographical error in a proposed rule that appeared in the Federal Register of August 7, 2013. The proposed rule updates...

  6. NOAA Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Training and Tutorials (United States)

    conferences held by OIP on topical issues related to improving transparency. For more information, please Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) HOME CoNtact Search NOAA in your State Budget Information Emergency Information for NOAA Employees Items of Interest for

  7. Privacy Act System of Records: Freedom of Information Act Request and Appeal File, EPA-9 (United States)

    Learn more about the Freedom of Information Act Request and Appeal File System, including who is covered in the system, the purpose of data collection, routine uses for the system's records, and other security procedures.

  8. Religious interfaith work in Canada and South Africa with particular focus on the drafting of a South African Charter of Religious Rights and Freedoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain T. Benson


    Full Text Available Constitutional protections for religious freedom (and related freedoms of conscience, belief and association and equality, once interpreted by courts and tribunals, apply in a precedential manner to future cases. They have an influence well beyond the particular community to which they first applied. For this reason, religious communities have increasingly banded together and sought to intervene or even, on occasion, to initiate legal actions asserting or defending their rights. This article reviews some of the principles around the freedom of religion as understood in South Africa and Canada to show how courts have understood the freedom of religion in its social context. In addition, interfaith cooperation is discussed with particular reference to the recent process which led to the formation of a Charter of Religious Rights and Freedoms pursuant to Section 234 of the South African Constitution (which is attached to the article. This section, a unique provision in any constitution, allows for the creation of additional Charters to give greater specificity to the general language of the Constitution itself. As such, it is an encouragement to civil society to determine what it thinks are the important provisions that should be spelled out to give guidance to politicians and the judiciary. Awide variety of religious groups participated in the creation of the Charter. The Charter does not claim to be, nor could it be, exhaustive of such concerns but demonstrates that religions can cooperate across a host of issues in education, health care, employment and other issues. The next stage – passage into law, is still in the future but the first important hurdle has been crossed with the signing of the Charter in October of 2010. The Charter might be a template for other countries though changes would be necessary to deal with local issues.

  9. 28 CFR 513.62 - Freedom of Information Act requests by former inmates. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act requests by... GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION ACCESS TO RECORDS Release of Information Freedom of Information Act Requests for Information § 513.62 Freedom of Information Act requests by former inmates. Former federal...

  10. 78 FR 64885 - Freedom of Information Act (FOIA); Miscellaneous Rules Redelegation of Authority To Determine... (United States)


    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 4 Freedom of Information Act (FOIA); Miscellaneous Rules... redelegate his or her authority to determine appeals related to the Freedom of Information Act (``FOIA... in 16 CFR Part 4 Administrative practice and procedure, Freedom of Information Act. For the reasons...

  11. Asylum and religious freedom. The ECJ position // Asilo y libertad religiosa. La postura del TJUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Rodríguez Moya


    Full Text Available Resumen. El proceso de integración europea representa un hito histórico: los países de una misma zona geográfica, previamente enemigos, deciden unirse para crear un futuro en común. Con un origen económico, los Tratados constitutivos de las Comunidades Europeas no contenían disposiciones relativas a los derechos fundamentales. Esto significa que, desde el principio, de su reconocimiento y garantía se encargará el  TJUE. La esfera religiosa, cuya regulación aún es incipiente, presenta problemas que necesitan una respuesta de la UE. El papel del Tribunal de Luxemburgo resulta cada vez más importante para el reconocimiento de los derechos humanos. La posición del TJUE en una cuestión de asilo nos acerca a su posición en materia de libertad religiosa para lo que estudiamos la sentencia del Tribunal de Justicia (Gran Sala de 05 de septiembre 2012.   Abstract. The process of European integration represented a historic milestone whereby countries in the same geographical area, previously enemies, chose to unite. Due to its economic origin, the founding treaties of the European Communities did not contain provisions relating to fundamental rights. This means that from the beginning its recognition and guarantee corresponded to the Court of Justice of the European Communities. The religious sphere, whose regulation is still nascent in terms of EU legislation, has come to adopt a clear interstate basis, presenting problems that need an EU response. The role of the Luxembourg Court will be increasingly important for the recognition of human rights. This can be seen in religious freedom recognition in the judgment of the Court (Grand Chamber 5 September 2012.

  12. Ludin’s Kopftuch (headdress: A problem of religious freedom in German schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H. Coetzee


    Full Text Available Fereshta Ludin is a German citizen and devout “Muslimin”. She has been denied leave to wear her “Kopftuch” in the classroom. She has lost her case in the courtrooms of the states where appeals were lodged to lift the ban. She may consequently not teach at any public school in Germany. We argue that Ludin is entitled to wear the “Kopftuch” on grounds of her right to religious freedom and that the attempt to deny her this entitlement constitutes a breach of individual rights. Following the South African philosopher, Denise Meyerson, we maintain that the domain of religion constitutes an area of intractable dispute, and that the state is not entitled to limit liberty in this domain because it cannot justify limitations in a neutrally acceptable way. Meyerson’s arguments rest on the acceptability of Rawls’s notion of public reason. We test Ludin’s case against Jeremy Waldron’s objections to the use of deliberative discipline of public reason in cultural disputes and against his alternative to the politics of identity. Meyerson’s approach offers protection of religious dissent in a way Waldron’s cannot. One significant reason for this is Waldron’s insistence on the elimination of identity claims from the conversation between cultures seeking accommodation with one another in the liberal pluralist state. However, bracketing identity claims eliminates what is peculiar about Ludin’s case. This we bring out by drawing on views of Sawitri Sahorsa and Melissa Williams. We argue that Ludin’s dilemma is twofold: her status as “metic” – as a member of a minority at the margins of mainstream German culture, and her status as “Muslimin” – as one believed to be suffering sexual discrimination in her own culture, hang together in a way that challenges the integration policies of the German state and embarrasses German feminism.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Yuryevna Zagaynova


    Full Text Available The article considers approaches to the understanding of the concepts of «freedom of conscience» and «religious freedom» on the basis of the analysis of works of pre-revolutionary scientists. Allocated General and special traits defining these phenomena.The aim of this article is (based on the works of pre-revolutionary scientists to analyze ideas about the concept of freedom of conscience and religious liberty. Previously, scientists no attempt has been made to summarize the theoretical aspects of these categories, this is the novelty of the article.The research methodology consists dialectical view on the process of cognition of objective reality. They are implemented on the basis of a systematic approach. The article relies on the basic provisions of philosophy, theology and law.The research methods are universal, scientific and astronaute methods of cognition.In the study we can conclude that the pre-revolutionary scientists have not developed a unified approach with respect to such legal categories as «freedom of conscience and religious liberty».The results can be used in research work and in the educational process.

  14. Kenyan Religious Leaders' Views on Same-Sex Sexuality and Gender Nonconformity: Religious Freedom versus Constitutional Rights. (United States)

    Mbote, David Kuria; Sandfort, Theo G M; Waweru, Esther; Zapfel, Andrew

    Religion plays an important role in framing the public discourse on sexuality, especially in countries where religion fully permeates social life. We explored the perspectives of Kenyan religious leaders on sexual and gender diversity in their country's specific context. A total of 212 Catholic, Islamic, and Protestant leaders from urban centers and rural townships completed a self-administered questionnaire specifically developed for this study. The leaders' perspectives were predominantly negative. Limited acceptance was conditional on sexual minorities not engaging in same-sex practices or seeing such practices as sinful. A substantial minority (37%) endorsed the use of violence for maintaining social values, especially regarding homosexuality and gender nonconformity. The majority of religious leaders agreed on the difference between civil law and religious doctrine. Human rights principles enshrined in Kenya's Constitution were considered to be applicable to sexual and gender minorities. Decriminalization of same-sex sexuality was seen as against one's religion. Perspectives were less negative if leaders were familiar with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons. Interventions that promote intergroup contact could be effective in changing religious leaders' mind-sets and advancing human rights and health for sexual and gender minorities.

  15. Kenyan Religious Leaders’ Views on Same-Sex Sexuality and Gender Nonconformity: Religious Freedom versus Constitutional Rights (United States)

    Mbote, David Kuria; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Waweru, Esther; Zapfel, Andrew


    Religion plays an important role in framing the public discourse on sexuality, especially in countries where religion fully permeates social life. We explored the perspectives of Kenyan religious leaders on sexual and gender diversity in their country’s specific context. Two hundred and twelve Catholic, Islam and Protestant leaders from urban centers and rural townships completed a self-administered questionnaire, specifically developed for this study. The leaders’ perspectives were predominantly negative. Limited acceptance was conditional on sexual minorities not engaging in same-sex practices or seeing such practices as sinful. A substantial minority (37%) endorsed the use of violence for maintaining social values, especially regarding homosexuality and gender nonconformity. The majority of religious leaders agreed on the difference between civil law and religious doctrine. Human rights principles enshrined in the Kenya Constitution were seen as also applicable to sexual and gender minorities. Decriminalization of same-sex sexuality was seen as against one’s religion. Perspectives were less negative if leaders were familiar with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons. Interventions that promote intergroup contact could be effective in changing religious leaders’ mindsets and advancing human rights and health for sexual and gender minorities. PMID:27982708

  16. 12 CFR 404.6 - Release of records under the Freedom of Information Act. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Release of records under the Freedom of Information Act. 404.6 Section 404.6 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act. § 404.6 Release of...

  17. 12 CFR 407.7 - Relationship to Freedom of Information Act. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to Freedom of Information Act. 407.7 Section 407.7 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF EX-IM BANK MEETINGS § 407.7 Relationship to Freedom of Information Act. Nothing in...

  18. What (If Anything) Hath God Wrought? Academic Freedom and the Religious Professor. (United States)

    Johnson, Phillip E.


    Legal and educational aspects of the debate over religious expression entering the college classroom are examined, particularly as they relate to inclusion of creationism into science instruction. It is concluded that the central question is not whether creationism is religious, but whether it is true, and that truth benefits from open debate over…

  19. Spiritual Occlusion and Systemic Integrity: Legal Evaluations of Due Process Protections and Freedom of Religious Expression and Practices Safeguards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. Jolicoeur


    Full Text Available As is the case with other constitutionally protected rights, the freedom of religion is not unlimited nor without restriction or constraint. Rather, the courts have long held that the state may have legitimate reasons for placing reasonable restrictions on the otherwise free exercise of religious practice. The courts have also held that the state cannot restrict religious practice in a capricious or gratuitous manner. However, the courts have also held that individuals have a constitutional right to due process legal protections. In many instances, these two freedoms exist independently of each other. In instances when they intersect, conflict may result from one right seeking hegemony over the other. In instances such as these, the courts may have to resolve conflicts by establishing legal principles and precedents regarding which of these constitutional protections will be granted contextual prominence over the other. Thus far, the legal evaluation of this important question has been confused at best and contradictory at worst. This has resulted in a number of substantive outcomes that pose significant challenges to the practice and application of both rights and an underlying avoidance of broader constitutional questions.

  20. Religious Freedom and Equality as Celebration of Difference: A Significant Development in Recent South African Constitutional Case-Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L du Plessis


    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the way in which the South African Constitutional Court has, since 1997, been dealing with the (seemingly eccentric claims of (assumedly idiosyncratic 'religious Others'. Developments in this regard have, for the time being at least, culminated in the Constitutional Court's landmark judgment in MEC for Education: KwaZulu Natal v Pillay 2008 (2 BCLR 99 (CC, 2008 (1 SA 474 (CC (hereafter Pillay. Constitutional Court judgments since 1997 manifesting the adjudication of such unconventional claims are assessed, eventually getting to Pillay as benchmark. This remarkable judgment, dealing with a deceptively mundane issue, has played a considerable role in fleshing out a jurisprudence of difference, putting an adherent of a vulnerable, minority religion in the right. This is not just a high point in the adjudication of constitutional entitlements of the religious (and cultural Other in South Africa, but also a significant contribution to the growth of a jurisprudence sensitive to the predicaments and constitutional entitlements of unconventional, 'non-mainstream' claimants of religious (and cultural rights. Finally Pillay illustrates that the constitutional guarantee of the right to freedom of religion, conscience, belief and opinion (entrenched in section 15(1 of the Constitution of Republic of South Africa 1996 can be crucially dependent upon due effect being given to the proscription of unfair discrimination on the grounds of religion, conscience, belief and opinion elsewhere (namely in section 9(3 of the Constitution.

  1. Religious Diversity and Freedom of Conscience in the Arabic Countries Facing Globalization and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoudha Elguédri


    Full Text Available Muslim societies are facing the new challenges of cultural and religious diversity. They are experiencing migratory phenomena, or because they are countries of immigration (such as in the Persian Gulf monarchies and emirates or countries that are becoming a new destination of migrants (such as Morocco and other North African nations. These challenges are increasingly urgent due to the effects of other globalization vectors such as new communication technologies that cross all boundaries and foster unprecedented conversions. The purpose of this contribution is limited to the religious aspect of the new forms of diversification faced by Muslim countries. The goal is to analyze to what extent this process biases traditional ways of managing religious diversity.

  2. 28 CFR 513.63 - Freedom of Information Act requests on behalf of an inmate or former inmate. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act requests on..., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION ACCESS TO RECORDS Release of Information Freedom of Information Act Requests for Information § 513.63 Freedom of Information Act requests on behalf of...

  3. Religious Radio Listening among Brazil's Indians: A Question of Cultural Hegemony and Freedom. (United States)

    Johnson, Edward A.

    A study examined the religious radio listening habits of Brazil's indigenous population. Subjects, 46 linguists (under contract to the Brazilian government to educate the population) who worked with 32 different Brazilian tribes, completed a 16-item survey. Results indicated that: (1) 13-20% of adult Brazilian Indians have access to a radio; (2)…

  4. Reflections on the Elusive Promise of Religious Freedom for the Native American Church. (United States)

    Moore, Steven C.


    Analyzes the April 1990 Supreme Court decision that a member of a religion may not challenge, under the First Amendment free exercise clause, a generally applicable criminal law that infringes on a specific religious practice. Discusses political and legal implications for the Native American Church and other minority religions. (SV)

  5. The freedom of information act and the practice of journalism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Research in National Development ... This study examines the effectiveness of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) in Nigeria. ... The study employed Libertarian media theory and Teological ethnical theory as the theoretical ...

  6. 3 CFR 8338 - Proclamation 8338 of January 13, 2009. Religious Freedom Day, 2009 (United States)


    ... commitments to ensure that every person on Earth can enjoy these basic human rights. NOW, THEREFORE, I, GEORGE... celebrate the first liberties enshrined in our Constitution’s Bill of Rights, which guarantee the free... practice their faith peacefully. Freedom is not a grant of government or a right for Americans alone; it is...

  7. Tolerance in the United States: Does Economic Freedom Transform Racial, Religious, Political and Sexual Attitudes?


    Berggren, Niclas; Nilsson, Therese


    Tolerance is a distinguishing feature of Western culture: There is a widespread attitude that people should be allowed to say what they want even if one dislikes the message. Still, the degree of tolerance varies between and within countries, as well as over time, and if one values this kind of attitude, it becomes important to identify its determinants. In this study, we investigate whether the character of economic policy plays a role, by looking at the effect of changes in economic freedom...

  8. 77 FR 66823 - Freedom of Information Act Request for Papers Submitted to DARPA for the 2011 100 Year Starship... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Freedom of Information Act Request for Papers... by DARPA under the Freedom of Information Act. DATES: All written correspondence must be received by DARPA by close of business December 7, 2012. ADDRESSES: Send written comments concerning this Freedom of...

  9. Framework of communication needed to protect against human rights violations of individuals who exercise their right to religious freedom in minority religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanus P. Pretorius


    Full Text Available The right to religious freedom is generally believed to be the solution to religious intolerance and discrimination and to ensure world peace amongst world citizens. On an international level, the United Nations, through the appointment of a special rapporteur for freedom of religion and belief, has introduced a tool to monitor violations of this right. This tool is known as �the framework of communications� and is focused mainly on the relationship between governments and religions. Unfortunately, religion is not excluded from the violation of human rights within its own ranks. This article pointed out that however pure the intention of freedom of religion, no real measures are in place to address violations of human rights in minority religions. Therefore, a tool is needed to investigate and address alleged violations within minority religions.

  10. The problem of religious freedom in late imperial Russia: The case of Russian Baptists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Polunov


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development of the Baptist movements (Stundism and Pashkovism in late Imperial Russia, their perception by the ecclesiastical and secular authorities, the measures undertaken by the Church and government in order to combat the Protestant sectarianism. Different approaches of the contemporaries to the religious dissent are being investigated. While the members of educated society, liberals and moderate conservatives viewed evangelical movements as a reflection of social changes in postreform Russia and a reaction to the shortcomings of the official Church, the ecclesiastical authorities treated the rise of evangelicalism as a result of the sectarians' “ignorance” and as a threat to the political and social order of Russia. When conservative tsar Alexander III ascended in 1881 to the throne, his former tutor and the Chief Procurator of the Holy Synod Constantine Pobedonostsev launched an energetic campaign against the heterodoxy based on a combination of repressive and educational measures. This campaign turned out to be a failure mostly due to passiveness of the official Church which was paralyzed by the strict control of the state. The position of the secular administration which was not eager to be drawn into religious struggle also hampered the attempts to combat the heterodoxy. Finally, the effective repressions against the sectarianism were paralyzed by the protests of the Senate, supreme juridical body of the Empire which had to overview the compliance with the law. Though the repressions against the Baptists were stopped in 1905, they made a negative impact on the Russia's development contributing to the sharpening of the social and political contradictions on the eve of revolution.

  11. 13 CFR 500.107 - Freedom of Information Act. (United States)


    ..., microfilm, audiovisual materials, or machine-readable documentation (e.g., magnetic tape or disk). (5... OF INFORMATION ACT REQUEST. (3) Contents of request. The request shall contain the following... disclosure, that disclosure is primarily in the commercial interest of the requester. (ii) Contents of...

  12. 75 FR 41370 - Regulations Implementing the Freedom of Information Act (United States)


    ... updates paragraph (a) to reflect the new maintenance of statistics requirements in the OPEN Government Act... 2201.4 is amended: 0 a. By revising paragraphs (c) introductory text, (c)(1), (3), (4), and (5); 0 b...) introductory text; 0 b. Adding paragraph (b)(2)(v); and 0 c. Revising paragraph (e). The revisions and addition...

  13. 75 FR 22320 - Regulations Implementing the Freedom of Information Act (United States)


    ... reflect the new maintenance of statistics requirements in the OPEN Government Act. 5 U.S.C. 552(e). III... 2201.4 is amended: a. By revising paragraphs (c) introductory text, (c)(1), (3), (4), and (5); b. By.... Revising paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) introductory text; b. Adding paragraph (b)(2)(v); and c. Revising...

  14. 77 FR 62469 - Defense Logistics Agency Freedom of Information Act Program (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 300 Defense Logistics Agency 32 CFR Part 1285 RIN 0790-AI87 [Docket ID: DOD-2012-OS-0019] Defense Logistics Agency Freedom of Information Act Program AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics...

  15. Notification: Preliminary Research on EPA's Decision Making Process to Release Information Under the Freedom of Information Act (United States)

    July 19, 2013. The Office of Inspector General plans to begin preliminary research on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s process for deciding to release information requested under the Freedom of Information Act.

  16. 75 FR 12377 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations-Disposition of Culturally... (United States)


    ... support of a particular religious point of view or excessive entanglement with religion in the context of... Religious Freedom Act. Our Response: The proposed change revised the regulatory definition of cultural... Freedom Act. Section 10.2(e)(2) Definition of Culturally Unidentifiable Section 10.2(e)(2) defines the...

  17. Religious governance in the Netherlands: associative freedoms and non-discrimination after "pillarization": the example of faith-based schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maussen, M.


    This paper conceptualizes Dutch traditions of religious governance in terms of a model of "principled pluralism" (Monsma and Soper 2009). It approaches church-state traditions in a disaggregate way, meaning it is sensitive to domain specificities and takes notice of the actual constitutional and

  18. The Adolescent Family Life Act and the promotion of religious doctrine. (United States)

    Donovan, P


    Catholic and Catholic-oriented groups are promoting periodic abstinence, the only birth control method approved by the Catholic Church, using Adolescent Family Life Act (AFLA) funds and are discouraging teenagers from using other methods by distorting information. The serious question arises of whether US tax dollars are being used in violation of the constitutional requirement of separation of church and state and whether it is appropriate to promote only 1 method. The law mandates religious involvement in the development of adolescent sex education programs, but, in effect, distributes grants primarily to Catholic organizations whose beliefs on abortion are consistent with the law's terms. When the AFLA (chastity bill) was 1st enacted in 1981, there was no discussion on the possible infusion of faith and religious doctrine into such programs. This article examines the background of the AFLA and previous bills aimed at curbing teenage pregnancy. In accord with the 1st Amendment to the Constitution guaranteeing separation of church and state, the AFLA funds are not intended to promote religion or teach religious doctrines. Although such religious infiltration is unconstitutional, it is occuring in at least one of the programs funded by AFLA--at St. Margaret's Hospital in Massachusetts where a section of the curriculum is even titled "The Church's Teaching on Abortion." The issue of using federal money to promote natural family planning and discourage all other methods is examined. Examples of agencies who are biased and distort information on side-effects of other birth control methods are given. St. Ann's Infant and Maternity Home in Maryland and the Family of the Americas Foundation (FAF) in Louisiana aim at convincing teenagers that natural family planning is the only acceptable way to avoid pregnancy. By only funding organizations that will promote adoption for pregnant teenagers and teenage parents, the law is essentially judging all teenage mothers to be

  19. The UK National DNA Database: Implementation of the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012. (United States)

    Amankwaa, Aaron Opoku; McCartney, Carole


    In 2008, the European Court of Human Rights, in S and Marper v the United Kingdom, ruled that a retention regime that permits the indefinite retention of DNA records of both convicted and non-convicted ("innocent") individuals is disproportionate. The court noted that there was inadequate evidence to justify the retention of DNA records of the innocent. Since the Marper ruling, the laws governing the taking, use, and retention of forensic DNA in England and Wales have changed with the enactment of the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012 (PoFA). This Act, put briefly, permits the indefinite retention of DNA profiles of most convicted individuals and temporal retention for some first-time convicted minors and innocent individuals on the National DNA Database (NDNAD). The PoFA regime was implemented in October 2013. This paper examines ten post-implementation reports of the NDNAD Strategy Board (3), the NDNAD Ethics Group (3) and the Office of the Biometrics Commissioner (OBC) (4). Overall, the reports highlight a considerable improvement in the performance of the database, with a current match rate of 63.3%. Further, the new regime has strengthened the genetic privacy protection of UK citizens. The OBC reports detail implementation challenges ranging from technical, legal and procedural issues to sufficient understanding of the requirements of PoFA by police forces. Risks highlighted in these reports include the deletion of some "retainable" profiles, which could potentially lead to future crimes going undetected. A further risk is the illegal retention of some profiles from innocent individuals, which may lead to privacy issues and legal challenges. In conclusion, the PoFA regime appears to be working well, however, critical research is still needed to evaluate its overall efficacy compared to other retention regimes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Liberdade de afirmar-se sem religião: reflexo de transformações no Brasil contemporâneo / Freedom do declare you have no religion: reflex of transformations in contemporary Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise dos Santos Rodrigues


    Full Text Available The census category of the without religion became representative of conscience of the individual liberties in a democratic State, where the individual feel free to face his religiousness as an intimate matter. Highlighted since 1960, the without religion, that reached 7,3% in 2000, congregate different types: atheists, agnostics and individuals with a peculiar religiosity. This constitution suggests not only an institutional crisis, but also ratifies the assimilation of the human rights, that guarantee the freedoms of conscience and religion.A categoria censitária dos sem religião tornou-se emblemática da consolidação do exercício das liberdades individuais em estado de direito democrático, onde o indivíduo sente-se livre para encarar sua religiosidade como questão de foro íntimo. Destacados desde 1960, os sem religião, que alcançaram 7,3% em 2000, congregam tipos distintos: de ateus e agnósticos até indivíduos com uma religiosidade particular. Esta constituição sinaliza não só uma crise institucional, mas ratifica a assimilação dos direitos humanos, garantindo as liberdades de consciência e religião

  1. 75 FR 60397 - DoD Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Program (United States)


    ...-354, ``Regulatory Flexibility Act'' (5 U.S.C. 601) It has been certified that 32 CFR part 285 is not subject to the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601) because it would not, if promulgated, have a..., the DoD Field Activities, and all other organizational entities in the Department of Defense...

  2. The Liberal Struggle for Press Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    In this paper, the public debate following the re-ligion-motivated assassination of Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh in November 2004 is examined. The paper aims at describ-ing religious as well as secular positions in the Danish debate about freedom of speech and press in relation to religious issues....... Historically, the concept of press freedom was linked to a fight for religious freedom in London, as described by Siebert....

  3. Ethical Issues and Legal Constraints to the Freedom of Information Act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unfortunately, there are legal constraints that can hinder the smooth operation of the act. Such constraints need to be dismantled immediately. Besides, there is a great need to address various ethical issue that may equally arise among media practitioners in the course of operating within the limits of the law, posing great ...

  4. NOAA Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Corporate Services, Staff and Line (United States)

    Financial Officer (CFO) 301-444-2132 Jerry McNamara FOIA Liaison Office of the Chief Information Officer Office of the Chief Administrative Officer (OCAO) 301-713-0850 x195 Sharon Daniels FOIA Liaison Chief ; tITLE Line/Staff Office Phone Number Wendy Schumacher FOIA and Privacy Act Officer NOAA Corporate

  5. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 292 - Uniform Agency Fees for Search and Duplication Under the Freedom of Information Act (as Amended) (United States)


    ... PROGRAM DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (DIA) FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Pt. 292, App. A Appendix A to Part... search site, conducting the search and return may be charged as FOIA search costs. General Pre-Printed material, per printed page .02 Office copy, per page .15 Microfiche, per page .25 Aerial Photography...

  6. Freedom of Religion--Conscience, Religious Education and the Right of Education in the 1961-1982 Constitutions of the Republic of Turkey and Their Developmental Tendencies (United States)

    Erkiliç, Turan Akman


    Problem Statement: The Constitutions are the main sources of legality for democratic societies. The 1961 and 1982 Constitutions have dominated the last fifty years of Turkey. In this regard, it is essential to examine and comment academically on the way these Constitutions and their amendments address the rights of education, freedom of thought…

  7. The Practice of Academic Freedom in Classroom Speech in U.S. Catholic Higher Education: A Case Study with Suggestions Concerning Religious Mission (United States)

    Jacobs, Richard M.


    This article reports a case study of seventeen faculty leaders teaching at a Catholic university who responded to a questionnaire concerning academic freedom and its practice in classroom speech. Situating the responses within a heuristic model, this article offers a portrait that provides insight into how these faculty leaders define academic…

  8. Religious and Cultural Dress at School: A Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E de Waal,


    Full Text Available This article investigates and compares the different approaches towards the dress code of learners1 in South Africa and the United States of America (US, as the US mainly base litigation concerning school dress code on their freedom of speech/expression clause, while similar South African court cases focus more on religious and cultural freedom. In South Africa, school principals and School Governing Bodies are in dire need of clear guidelines on how to respect and honour the constitutionally entrenched right to all of the different religions and cultures. The crisis of values in education arises from the disparity between the value system espoused by the school and the community, and that expressed in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, which guarantees learners' fundamental rights, including those of freedom of religion, culture, expression and human dignity. On the one hand, the South African Schools Act requires of School Governing Bodies to develop and implement a Code of Conduct for learners, and on the other, that they strictly adhere to the Constitution of the country when drawing up their dress codes. The right of a religious group to practise its religion or of a cultural group to respect and sustain its culture must be consistent with the provisions of the Bill of Rights (which is entrenched in the Constitution and this implies that other rights may not infringe on the right to freedom of religion and culture. In the US, although there is no legislation that protects learners' freedom of religion and culture at schools, their First Amendment guides the way. Their Supreme Court respects the religious values of all citizens provided that they are manifested off public school premises. While we acknowledge the existence of religious and cultural diversity at South African schools, this paper focuses on the tension among and on the existence of different approaches towards the human rights of learners from different

  9. Disaggregating Corporate Freedom of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune


    The paper investigates arguments for the idea in recent American Supreme Court jurisprudence that freedom of religion should not simply be understood as an ordinary legal right within the framework of liberal constitutionalism but as an expression of deference by the state and its legal system...... to religion as a separate and independent jurisdiction with its own system of law over which religious groups are sovereign. I discuss the relationship between, on the one hand, ordinary rights of freedom of association and freedom of religion and, on the other hand, this idea of corporate freedom of religion...

  10. Academic Freedom: Its Nature, Extent and Value (United States)

    Barrow, Robin


    Academic freedom does not refer to freedom to engage in any speech act, but to freedom to hold any belief and espouse it in an appropriately academic manner. This freedom belongs to certain institutions, rather than to individuals, because of their academic nature. Academic freedom should be absolute, regardless of any offence it may on occasion…

  11. ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE QUR’ANIC PERSPECTIVE: Freedom of Religion and the Rule of Apostasy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafa’atun Almirzanah


    Full Text Available It is often argued that Islam is not compatible with modernity. This can be seen for instance in the fact of the problem that Islam faces to the challenge of universal values of human rights. Built on this supposition, the present article discusses on the great extent the question of religious freedom in Islam. As freedom of religion in the framework of universal declaration of human rights can mean as freedom to change religion, this contradicts to Islamic prohibition of apostasy, punishable with death penalty. The author argues that Islam in fact guarantees religious freedom. This is clear from the Quranic injunctions assuring the freedom of choice whether to embrace Islam or not. Such a freedom is however often contradicted to one prophetic tradition sanctioning death penalty for apostasy. In her view, the author believes that the hadith more in attunes to the political strategy of the prophet to safe Muslim community from any acts of treason or sedition. Death penalty for apostasy is thus not related to the mere personal crime of changing religion but more that of public law related to war or crimes against state. More relying on the modern interpretation of the Quranic verses as well as the prophetic traditions, the author concludes that Islam is in conjunction with the modern values of religious freedom in which personal choice of religion or belief is the backbone of human rights.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    or (b) purely violations of the rights learners have, such as their right to freedom ... interest in choosing their clothing against the local authorities' interest in ..... dress code sent the message to learners that religious beliefs and cultural practices.

  13. religious freedom in South African constitutional jurisprudence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irma Kroeze

    In the case of self-rule a further distinction can be made between negative ... already been stated, the pluralist rejection of the connection between law and politics is .... property rights" 1982 Buffalo LR 635-735 on the early history of classical.

  14. Do religious activities among young–old immigrants act as a buffer against the effect of a lack of resources on well-being?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klokgieters, S.S.; van Tilburg, Theo G.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Huisman, M.


    Objectives: Despite a large body of sociological and psychological literature suggesting that religious activities may mitigate the effects of stress, few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of religious activities among immigrants. Immigrants in particular may stand to benefit from

  15. Do religious activities among young–old immigrants act as a buffer against the effect of a lack of resources on well-being?


    Klokgieters, S.S.; van Tilburg, Theo G.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Huisman, M.


    Objectives: Despite a large body of sociological and psychological literature suggesting that religious activities may mitigate the effects of stress, few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of religious activities among immigrants. Immigrants in particular may stand to benefit from these activities because they often report a religious affiliation and often occupy disadvantaged positions. This study investigates whether private and public religious activities reduce the negative...

  16. Bioethics and academic freedom. (United States)

    Singer, Peter


    The author describes the events surrounding his attempts to lecture on the subject of euthanasia in West Germany in June 1989. Singer, who defends the view that active euthanasia for some newborns with handicaps may be ethically permissible, had been invited to speak to professional and academic groups. Strong public protests against Singer and his topic led to the cancellation of some of his engagements, disruptions during others, and harrassment of the German academics who had invited him to speak. These incidents and the subject of euthanasia became matters of intense national debate in West Germany, but there was little public or academic support for Singer's right to be heard. Singer argues that bioethics and bioethicists must have the freedom to challenge conventional moral beliefs, and that the events in West Germany illustrate the grave danger to that freedom from religious and political intolerance.

  17. Personal Freedom beyond Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Sellés


    Full Text Available In this work we distinguish between freedom in the human manifestations (intelligence, will,actions and personal freedom in the personal intimacy. This second is beyond the freedom reached bythe classic and modern thought, since it takes root in the personnel act of being. Because of it, it is not possible to characterize this freedom like the classic description as ‘domain over the own acts’, becauseit is a description of ‘categorial’ order; neither like present day ‘autonomy’ or ‘independence’, becausethe existence of one person alone is impossible, since ‘person’ means relation, personal free openingto other persons, description of the ‘transcendental’ order and, therefore, to the margin of limits.

  18. Academic Freedom in Athletic Training Education: Food for Thought (United States)

    Payne, Ellen K.; Berry, David C.; Lowry, John E.


    Academic freedom is defined as the "freedom of the individual scholar to pursue truth wherever it leads, without fear of punishment or of termination of employment for having offended some political, methodological, religious, or social orthodoxy." Currently there is paucity of literature addressing the issue of academic freedom specific to…

  19. Religious narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.


    Denne artikel er en introduktion til et temanummer i religionslærernes tidsskrift i USA. Den er et udtræk af mit kapitel "Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Approaches and Definitions" udgivet i Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Image and Word in the mind of Narrative, redigeret...

  20. Religious Tourism


    Alina Badulescu; Olimpia Ban


    The first part of the paper presents the past and present of the religious tourism in the world and in Romania and its implications on traveling. The second part describes the regions with religious tourism potential in Romania and the activities that could enhance and help the development of this kind of tourism in our country.

  1. Do religious activities among young-old immigrants act as a buffer against the effect of a lack of resources on well-being? (United States)

    Klokgieters, Silvia S; van Tilburg, Theo G; Deeg, Dorly J H; Huisman, Martijn


    Despite a large body of sociological and psychological literature suggesting that religious activities may mitigate the effects of stress, few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of religious activities among immigrants. Immigrants in particular may stand to benefit from these activities because they often report a religious affiliation and often occupy disadvantaged positions. This study investigates whether private and public religious activities reduce the negative effects of a lack of physical, social, and socio-economic resources on wellbeing among Turkish and Moroccan young-old immigrants in the Netherlands. Using data from the Longitudinal Study Amsterdam, cluster analysis revealed three patterns of absence of resources: physically disadvantaged, multiple disadvantages, and relatively advantaged. Linear regression analysis assessed associations between patterns of resources, religious activities and wellbeing. Persons who are physically disadvantaged or have multiple disadvantages have a lower level of wellbeing compared to persons who are relatively advantaged.  More engagement in private religious activities was associated with higher wellbeing. Among those with multiple disadvantages, however, more engagement in private religious activities was associated with lower wellbeing. Public religious activities were not associated with wellbeing in the disadvantaged group. Private religious activities are positively related to wellbeing among Turkish and Moroccan immigrants. In situations where resources are lacking, however, the relation between private religious activities and wellbeing is negative. The study's results highlight the importance of context, disadvantage and type of religious activity for wellbeing.

  2. Freedom Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Suarez


    Full Text Available Freedom Project trains prisoners in nonviolent communication and meditation. Two complementary studies of its effects are reported in this article. The first study is correlational; we found decreased recidivism rates among prisoners trained by Freedom Project compared with recidivism rates in Washington state. The second study compared trained prisoners with a matched-pair control group and found improvement in self-reported anger, self-compassion, and certain forms of mindfulness among the trained group. Ratings of role-plays simulating difficult interactions show increased social skills among the group trained by Freedom Project than in the matched controls.

  3. Secular Religious Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune


    Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer...... to the compatibility question is not obvious and requires a systematic analysis of secularism. Based on a distinction between a general concept and specific conceptions of secularism I offer a general structure for conceptions of secularism that incorporates both a) basic values, e.g. political equality and freedom...

  4. Complex Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Pecnjak


    Full Text Available We have a very strong intuition and a very strong feeling that we, as human beings, generally have freedom of the will and freedom of the action. It seems that in most situations we can do this or that; namely, we can do action A or we can refrain from doing action A under the same conditions. The view which argues that this is not an illusion and that we have genuine freedom is the libertarian view. I would like to examine could that view be plausible under scientific understanding of the world. It seems that physical sciences strongly support determinism. Chaos theory and indeterminism in quantum mechanics could not save freedom because chaos is a deterministic theory and indeterminate events in quantum mechanics happen by pure chance. Pure chance is not something we want as freedom. But, perhaps, we can have freedom reconciled (although maybe in a restricted form if actions or decisions can be described by equations which allow more than one solution and if these solutions can be interpreted as refering to different contents of the will or to different actions.

  5. Origins and Consequences of Religious Restrictions: A Global Overview (United States)

    Finke, Roger


    Despite the international controversies surrounding religious restrictions and freedoms, the topic has only recently received substantial research attention. Drawing on this new body of research, and multiple research projects in progress, this address explores both the origins and consequences of religious restrictions in the global arena. To understand the motives for restrictions, I propose hypotheses in three areas: the relationship or lack of relationship between institutional religion and the state, the willingness and capacity of the state to ensure freedoms, and the larger social and cultural pressures restricting freedoms, including social and political movements targeting minority religions. Turning to the consequences of religious restrictions, I explore how and why restrictions alter the religious economy (i.e., formation, supply and operation of religions) and are associated with higher levels of religious persecution, religious violence and intrastate conflict in general. Finally, I review additional areas where research is needed. PMID:25364225

  6. Semiotic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio


    ), but stress also their necessity in the study of any given biological and cognitive system. I draw a distinction between horizontal and vertical emergence in order to arrive at a notion of ‘second order emergence' that affords us a more viable definition of semiotic freedom. I will then attempt to show......The emergence of organic, metabolic, cognitive and cultural codes points us to the need for a new kind of explanatory causality, and a different kind of bio-logic - one dependent on, but different from, the deterministic logic derived from mechanical causality, and one which can account...... for the increase in semiotic freedom which is evident in the biological hierarchy. Building upon previous work (Bruni 2003), in this article I provide a stipulative definition of semiotic freedom and its relation to causality in biological and cognitive systems. To do so, I will first discuss the close relation...

  7. Intellectual Freedom (United States)

    Knox, Emily


    Support for intellectual freedom, a concept codified in the American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights and Code of Ethics, is one of the core tenets of modern librarianship. According to the most recent interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights, academic librarians are encouraged to incorporate the principles of intellectual freedom…

  8. Defining and Distinguishing Secular and Religious Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather S. Gregg


    Full Text Available Religious terrorism is typically characterised as acts of unrestrained, irrational and indiscriminant violence, thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from traditional terrorism; investigate three goals of religious terrorism (fomenting the apocalypse, creating a religious government, and establishing a religiously pure state; consider the role of leadership and target selection of religious terrorists; and, finally, suggest a range of counterterrorism strategies based on these observations.

  9. Asymptotic freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.


    After having established the renormalization group equations and the possibilities of fixed points for the effective coupling constants the non abelian gauge theories are shown to have the property of asymptotic freedom. These results are applied to the colour gauge group of the strong interactions of quarks and gluons. The behavior of the moments of the structure functions of the deep inelastic scattering of leptons on nucleons (scaling and its logarithmic violations) is then deduced with using the Wilson's operator product expansion [fr

  10. The Religious Identities and Social Stucture of Bosnia-Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Šavija-Valha


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the structural preconditions of articulation of religious identities in Bosnia-Herzegovina from the historical perspective. These have been produced by the processes of Christianization and Islamization at the intersection of heterogeneous origin of Bosnian-Herzegovinian population, the influence of paganism and folk beliefs, and the geopolitical situation on the border line between the great empires. Due to the influence of these factors, these processes have never been successful in encompassing the entire population, which has always been divided among several simultaneously co-existing religious institutions: Catholicism, Christian Orthodoxy, the Bosnian Church and Islam. Through the institution of Millet, allowing its subjects relative cultural and social freedoms within their religious communities, the Ottoman Empire provides the communities with preconditions for ethnic modelling, but also for “political” articulation. The interplay of these agents has provided a base for interaction among the religious groups, which can be seen at two complementary levels: the vertical one, “the political”, ruled by hierarchical and discriminative relations; and the lateral one, “the social”, which is a sphere of egalitarian trans- and inter-ethnic social practices. Both levels have their religious aspects: at the first, it is about institutionalized religions; at the second, about “folk” religion, a syncretism of pre-Christian tradition and Christian and Islamic elements. Hence, religion has been acting in a totalizing way in Bosnian-Herzegovinian society, appearing both as a primary repertoire of symbolic elements and as a basic mechanism of further group identifications – ethnic and national.

  11. Legal Aspects of the Financing of Religious Groups in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the Spanish public polices in the financing of churches and religious organizations. According to this approach, and taking in account that the Spanish legal frame lack of a common regulation for all religious groups, this paper aims to provide analysis of the following issues: the constitutional principles of the Spanish political system relevant to the religious freedom, the cooperation agreements between the State and the religious groups, and the economic and fiscal regime of the Catholic Church and the religious minorities.

  12. The Freedom of Religion and the Freedom of Education in Twenty-First-Century Belgium: A Critical Approach (United States)

    Franken, Leni


    In spite of recent tendencies of secularisation and religious pluralism, most Belgian schools are Catholic schools, where Roman Catholic religious education is a compulsory subject. As we will argue, this can lead to a "de facto" undermining of the freedom of religion and education and a shift in the system is therefore required. In the…

  13. Freedom of Religion and the Public Schools. (United States)

    Williams, Mary Louise


    Presents activities for teaching high school students about the freedom of religion. Includes student handouts that explain basic constitutional principles and summarize leading U.S. Supreme Court cases concerning religious liberty. Encourages teachers to invite students to speculate on the future relationship of religion and public education. (SG)

  14. Fostering Critical Religious Thinking in Multicultural Education for Teacher Education (United States)

    Wang, Chien-hsing


    Religious diversity as a consequence of global immigration has become a cultural phenomenon of pluralism in society. The fear of indoctrination and the desire for religious freedom fuel the debate on whether to remove religion from school education. Freire's "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" offers a positive perspective on the debate by…

  15. Religious cover to terrorist movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, M.K.


    Full text: Terrorism is the use of force or the threat of force against civilian populations to achieve political objectives. The terrorists create fear, response and disruption. People fighting for freedom who have no bombs - no airplanes would resort to such atrocities as beheading even though killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in all the religions practiced on this earth. It is done out of political madness and not religious fervor so it was said that the fight against terrorism is not a military problem, nor is it a diplomatic one, but a cultural one. Terrorism is not associated to any particular faith or discipline but it is rooted deeply in poor education and resource system. Some frustrated individuals with no employment seek easy ways to form groups and cause harassment in neighborhoods and it expands to the local and national level. The scientific community must now resolve to confront the dangers facing civilized countries through employing the scientific culture, which means scientific excellence and solidarity, to overcome ignorance in the face of global terrorism. The developed nations have adopted to collect information, do research, have tools to act and take action. States must improve the timely cross-border sharing of national security intelligence information, under appropriate circumstances, between intelligence and law enforcement agencies to better prevent and disrupt terrorist activities and to prosecute terrorists. Some world's leaders have agreed to use the national security intelligence information in investigation and prosecution process as a vital component in the battle against terrorism. Political leaders, rulers, administrator, school counselors and teachers should think of how the problems could be solved if they meet the needs and hopes of their inhabitants, provide proper education to build good moral values and also address their concerns. (author)

  16. Religious cover to terrorist movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, M K [US Department of Energy, Idaho Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), Idaho Falls (United States)


    Full text: Terrorism is the use of force or the threat of force against civilian populations to achieve political objectives. The terrorists create fear, response and disruption. People fighting for freedom who have no bombs - no airplanes would resort to such atrocities as beheading even though killing of innocent people is strictly prohibited in all the religions practiced on this earth. It is done out of political madness and not religious fervor so it was said that the fight against terrorism is not a military problem, nor is it a diplomatic one, but a cultural one. Terrorism is not associated to any particular faith or discipline but it is rooted deeply in poor education and resource system. Some frustrated individuals with no employment seek easy ways to form groups and cause harassment in neighborhoods and it expands to the local and national level. The scientific community must now resolve to confront the dangers facing civilized countries through employing the scientific culture, which means scientific excellence and solidarity, to overcome ignorance in the face of global terrorism. The developed nations have adopted to collect information, do research, have tools to act and take action. States must improve the timely cross-border sharing of national security intelligence information, under appropriate circumstances, between intelligence and law enforcement agencies to better prevent and disrupt terrorist activities and to prosecute terrorists. Some world's leaders have agreed to use the national security intelligence information in investigation and prosecution process as a vital component in the battle against terrorism. Political leaders, rulers, administrator, school counselors and teachers should think of how the problems could be solved if they meet the needs and hopes of their inhabitants, provide proper education to build good moral values and also address their concerns. (author)

  17. Religious architecture: anthropological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaaik, O.


    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious

  18. Record management in the Nigerian public sector and freedom of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Record management in the Nigerian public sector and freedom of ... government relies upon policy documents, budget papers, procurement records, property ... play in administrative efficiency and success of Freedom of Information Act 2011.

  19. Liberal Equality and Toleration for Conservative Religious Minorities. Decreasing Opportunities for Religious Schools in the Netherlands? (United States)

    Maussen, Marcel; Vermeulen, Floris


    Liberal democratic states face new challenges in balancing between principles of religious freedom and non-discrimination and in balancing these constitutional principles with other concerns, including social cohesion, good education, and immigrant-integration. In a context of increased prominence of secular and anti-Islamic voices in political…

  20. Liberal equality and toleration for conservative religious minorities : Decreasing opportunities for religious schools in the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maussen, M.; Vermeulen, F.; Maussen, M.; Vermeulen, F.; Merry, M.S; Bader, V.


    Liberal democratic states face new challenges in balancing between principles of religious freedom and non-discrimination and in balancing these constitutional principles with other concerns, including social cohesion, good education, and immigrant-integration. In a context of increased prominence

  1. Liberal equality and toleration for conservative religious minorities. Decreasing opportunities for religious schools in the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maussen, M.; Vermeulen, F.


    Liberal democratic states face new challenges in balancing between principles of religious freedom and non-discrimination and in balancing these constitutional principles with other concerns, including social cohesion, good education, and immigrant-integration. In a context of increased prominence

  2. Religious Coping in a Religious Minority Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels


    Religious coping in Denmark has primarily been studied among the Danish majority with whom religious practice is limited. The aim of this study is to explore a small sample of Danish Pentecostals’ experiences of religious coping. The study includes semi-structured interviews with eighteen Danish...... Pentecostals facing a psychological crisis. Qualitative methods are applied for generating and analyzing the data material. The theme of religious individualism ran through the participants’ talk of religious coping in relation to fellow believers, reading the Bible, and personal experiences of God. Religious...... individualism was characterized by: A lived expectation of having one’s specific individual needs met through one’s religiosity. The findings from this study show that having specific individual needs met was central for the religious faith of the participants. They used both individualistic and institutional...

  3. Religious diversity and pluralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlin, Lars; Borup, Jørn; Fibiger, Marianne Qvortrup


    . Religious diversity has grown in Denmark with the arrival of new immigrant groups and with new forms and interpretations of traditional religious and spiritual traditions. More importantly, the relations and interactions between religious groups -- the hallmarks of religious pluralism -- are still incipient...

  4. Roles Of Freedom Of Religion: In Supporting The Formation Of Openness Attitude Among The Southern Of Thailand Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsalim Khareng


    Full Text Available Freedom of religion, al-Hurriyyah al-Diniyyah, is the important principle that is rarely studied by the researchers. Freedom of religion is proven to be an important element in creating a peaceful life among the religious believers by expressing the openness attitude towards the other believers. Therefore, this study is focusing on the relationship between freedom of religion and the open attitude in terms of theory and practicel among the religious believers especially in the Southern Thailand society. For that reason, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was applied in the study. The findings show there is a significant relationship between the understanding of the freedom of religion and the openness attitude of both religious believers towards the other religious believers. That relationship holds a positive level as higher level of the understanding of freedom of religion will result in higher level of the open attitude among the religious believers.

  5. Intersections of gender with religious diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte


    The paper chapter examines the labour market, both private and public, and where different countries draw the lines between the right of the employers and the religious freedom of employees. Starting from an analysis of the debates about the Islamic headscarves, she asks why the labour market...... on headscarves would be direct religious discrimination and indirect gender discrimination of employees. The paper raises general questions about the meanings of and shifts in the framings of gender with religion on different sites on the basis of the European VEIL-project (

  6. Education, Learning and Freedom (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey


    This paper takes as its starting point Kant's analysis of freedom in the Critique of Pure Reason. From this analysis, two different types of freedom are discerned, formative and instrumental freedom. The paper suggests that much of what passes for the pedagogy of learning in UK universities takes the form of an instrumental freedom. This, however,…

  7. The Meaning of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Hoyos


    Full Text Available In the article it is pretended to prepare the conceptual field for the correct use of the attribution of freedom. It is defended the importance to consider the complementarity of freedom of action and freedom of the will and it is argued for a non-metaphysical conception of adscription of freedom. The adequate use of the attribution of freedom is social and normative. This means additionally that the freedom is not a presupposition of the moral responsibility and the authorship, but on the contrary the moral responsibility and the authorship are presuppositions of the attribution of freedom.

  8. Religiousness, religious doubt, and death anxiety. (United States)

    Henrie, James; Patrick, Julie Hicks


    Terror Management Theory (TMT) (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1986) suggests that culturally-provided worldviews (e.g., religion) may protect individuals from experiencing death anxiety, and several studies have supported this position. However, if one's worldview can offer protection, doubts concerning one's worldview could undermine this protection. The current study investigated whether age, gender, religiousness, and religious doubt were associated with death anxiety. Using data from 635 younger, middle-aged, and older adults, a structural equation model with age, gender, religiousness, and religious doubt predicting death anxiety was tested. The model had a good fit (chi2 (76) = 193.467, p religiousness was inversely associated with death anxiety, while religious doubt was positively associated with death anxiety.

  9. Contextual freedom: absoluteness versus relativity of freedom. (United States)

    Pahlavan, Farzaneh; Amirrezvani, Ali


    Our commentary is focused on the idea that "freedom" takes on its full significance whenever its relativistic nature, in the short- and long terms, is taken into account. Given the transformations brought about by "globalization," application of a general model of freedom based on ecological-economic factors clearly seems to be rather untimely. We examine this idea through egocentric and ethnocentric views of the social and environmental analyses of "freedom."

  10. The Animal Sacrifice in Religious Rituals or Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Rodrigues Vieira


    Full Text Available Based on a bibliographical research, this article has the scope of the analysis of the sacrifice of nonhuman animals in religious rituals or beliefs practiced in Brazilian territory. By bringing moral, ethical and legal support, this national reality will be discussed in order to arrive at an answer of which good should be protected and guaranteed: religious freedom or the life of nonhuman animals?

  11. Religious Tourism - a Finnish Perspective


    Nieminen, Katri


    This thesis deals with religious tourism. The objectives of this study are firstly to understand what religious tourism is, who the tourists attracted to religious tourism are, what the destinations and motives for religious holidays are and what the future of religious tourism looks like. This study is limited to dealing with Christian religious tourism. There is a survey made to find out firstly how religious tourism is understood and what the important destinations for religious touri...

  12. Freedom, structure, and creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietzschel, Eric; Reiter-Palmon, Roni; Kaufman, James


    Creativity is commonly thought to depend on freedom and a lack of constraints. While this is true to a large extent, it neglects the creative potential of structure and constraints. In this chapter, I will address the relation between freedom, structure, and creativity. I will explain that freedom,

  13. Academic Freedom in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this study, the concept ‘academic freedom’ is discussed, its implications and value for the academics, institutions of higher education, and the society are focused, and a few suggestions for the Turkish higher education are made. Academic freedom is defined as the freedom of the academic staff to look for and to find the truth in their scientific field, to publish the findings, and to teach these findings to their students without any external intervention. The concept has gained a further definition with inclusion of research activities into academic freedom as part of the reform attempts started in the German higher education in the 19th century. Therefore, academic freedom is at the very core of the missions of the institutions of higher education; that is, teaching-learning and research. On the point of academic staff and their academic activities of the academic freedom, the subjects such as the aim of the course, choosing the teaching materials and textbooks, the lecturer, and the criteria for the measurement and evaluation of the course take place. And he point of research covers the aim of the study, academicians can’t be imposed the involve in an academic and artistic studies that conflict their values and beliefs; researchers should comply with codes of ethical principles and practices during the process of researching; and research outputs should be reported accurately and honestly without any misleading manipulation. Academic freedom does not provide any exemption from accountability in academic activities of the faculty, nor does it provide any right to act against the well-being of the society, current laws and regulations, and codes of ethical principles and practices.

  14. Understanding religious behavior. (United States)

    Levin, S


    The attached (to mother) fetus-infant finds his religious expression in Buddhism. The attached (to group) juvenile finds his religious expression in Judaism and other tribalisms. The attached (to spouse) adult finds his religious expression in agnosticism and secularism. Attached phases are placid and of progressively decreasing emotional intensity. The three detaching phases are hurtful and hence soteriological, and are also of progressively decreasing emotional intensity. The toddler-young child finds his religious expression in Christianity, the adolescent in atheism and/or Marxism, and the aged, sick or dying plucks at any religious or secular aid.

  15. Varieties of Religious Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Noah Olawoyin


    Full Text Available Religious Pluralism is one of many forms of pluralism in contemporary globalised world.  Some others include ethnic pluralism, value pluralism, doctrinal pluralism, ethical pluralism, political pluralism.  Religious pluralism is, however, one of the most important in contemporary society, considering globalization and the role of religions in many conflicts.  It has its root in poltitical liberalism. Religious pluralism is a hot debate in social sciences and in Theology and Religious Studies. This paper argues that religious pluralism, which is an acceptance of plurality as normative, is not a monolithic theory. The different religious context in which it is being discussed, the different disciplinary and philosophical influences resulted in various and even contradictory types.  However, this paper is a ‘mapping’ of the contour of contemporary discussions.  Critically reviewing relevant literature, two major theories of religious pluralism were identified: identist and differential/complementary.  Each of these also has subdivision.

  16. More than Mere Law: Freedom of Religion or Belief (United States)

    Holsinger, Ellen S.


    Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights establishes that all people, simply because they are human, enjoy the right to freedom of religion and that governments have the obligation to ensure the protection of that right. Yet we witness a world increasingly divided by religious tradition. The failures of many governments to ensure…

  17. An attempt to define contemporary religious representations and practices: Danièle Hervieu-Léger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu V Yatsutsenko


    Full Text Available The contemporary social reality is marked by a considerable change of religious views and practices: the religion itself becomes a worldview option; the religious individuals are more autonomous from the religious institutions; individuals get an opportunity to construct and approve different beliefs; the religious identity transmission mechanisms weaken; the privatized religious ethics is legitimized outside the religious institutions. Danièle Hervieu-Léger’s theory presents one of the ways for the sociological conceptualization of the problems mentioned. The concept ‘bricolage’ is used by Hervieu-Léger as a technical explanation of the religious life deinstitutionalization. We define the bricolage as an individual practice that overcomes system-imposed modes and means of production, as an activity based on a random set of available elements. Hervieu-Léger notes that the main feature of the contemporary religiosity is the bricolage freedom, i.e. the freedom to construct an individual religious ethics. However, such a mode of social control does not necessarily lead to religious negligence or radical individualism. French sociologist believes that the generational transfers of religious identity are weakening and the in-out decisions in religious communities are becoming easier. According to Hervieu-Léger, such a movement itself becomes the main behavioral motif for contemporary religious agents for it is responsible not only for the individual religious pursuit, but for the collective construction and exchange of the religious experience.

  18. The Future of Religious Freedom in Australian Schools (United States)

    Babie, Paul; Mylius, Ben


    This article explores the place of religion within Australian primary and secondary education. It is divided into three parts. The first examines religion within the Australian legal and constitutional structure. The second considers the accommodation of religion in government (public or state) and nongovernment (private) schools, using the State…

  19. Native American Religious Freedom and Federal Land Management. (United States)

    Dahl, Eric William


    Explains the importance of specific locations to the performance of ceremonies and rituals in traditional Native American religions. Discusses recent court decisions in favor of federal land management agencies denying protection to sacred sites because of economic or development considerations. Contains 15 references. (SV)

  20. Hegel's concept of freedom and law


    Slović, Srđan Ž.


    Hegel's philosophy of state and law is based on ethical principles. Pursuant to these principles, the man realises himself through activity. The activity is not to be the category coming from outside, but it is immanent to human nature. By explaining human activity, Hegel ignores particularism and completely pleads for universalism, by which he is tracking the road to human freedom. Freedom is for Hegel only possible while acting as a rational being. The subject of our activity should be in a...

  1. Helisaeus Röslin and freedom of religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Granada


    Full Text Available Helisaeus Röslin does not figure significantly in historical surveys of religious tolerance. Nevertheless, Carlos Gilly has shown in several works that the Swabian-Alsatian physician tirelessly defended throughout his life the need to uphold the freedom of religion and of conscience, both as a religious postulate and as a factor for economic progress and social peace. This article focuses on Röslin’s concept of religious freedom in relation to his concept of history, his work on chronology and his interpretation of the celestial novelties of the period, particularly the nova of 1604 and Galileo’s discovery of the Medicean planets in 1610, just as they appear in two of Röslin’s later works: Mitternächtige Schiffarth (1611 and the Tabella des Welt Spiegels (1612.

  2. The Argument for a Narrow Conception of 'Religious Autonomy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet


    This article argues for a both horizontal and vertical narrow concept of collective freedom of Religion. The most recent ECtHR judgments as well as the US Supreme Court Hosanna-Tabor case leads theory to establish religious autonomy based on parallel legal roders. Nordic theory has been based...

  3. Autonomy, religious values, and refusal of lifesaving medical treatment. (United States)

    Wreen, M J


    The principal question of this paper is: Why are religious values special in refusal of lifesaving medical treatment? This question is approached through a critical examination of a common kind of refusal of treatment case, one involving a rational adult. The central value cited in defence of honouring such a patient's refusal is autonomy. Once autonomy is isolated from other justificatory factors, however, possible cases can be imagined which cast doubt on the great valuational weight assigned it by strong anti-paternalists. This weight is sufficient, in their estimation, to justify honouring the patient's refusal. There is thus a tension between the strong anti-paternalist's commitment to the sufficiency of autonomy and our intuitions respecting such cases. Attempts can be made to relieve this tension, such as arguing that patients aren't really rational in the circumstances envisaged, or that other values, such as privacy or bodily integrity, if added to autonomy, are sufficient to justify an anti-paternalistic stance. All such attempts fail, however. But what does not fail is the addition of religious freedom, freedom respecting a patient's religious beliefs and values. Why religious freedom reduces the tension is then explained, and the specialness of religious beliefs and values examined.

  4. Enactivism and Freedom Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li


    Full Text Available In this paper, we argue, grounded on empirical evidence, that enactivism is a promising philosophical stance with great potential to address challenges brought by our rapidly changing world. We then propose Freedom Education, a new form of teaching and learning founded on the enactivist theory. After discussing what constitutes Freedom Education and what it is not, we recommend several principles to establish a learning world of free-dom education.

  5. Religious Architecture : Anthropological Perspectives



    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious buildings take their place in opposition to the secular surroundings, how they, as evocations of the sublime, help believers to move beyond the boundaries of modern subjectivity, and how they, in their...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Hendry AR.


    Full Text Available Inspired by the book of Michael Mann about the dark side of democracy that discusses the paradox between the ideality of democratic values and empirical realities of violence in the name of freedom (democracy, this paper begins with the exposure of the paradox, such as the rise of the violent conflict between groups of people (both ethnic and religious-based and the high prevalence of violence between religious groups in Indonesia. Even worse, a very wrenching violence involves state actors (rulers. This paper tries to understand the roots of the paradox, with a look at how the relationship between state and religion and the religious community trend of Indonesia (especially Muslims. The author argues that the democratization of religion is a solution to the issues. To answer what kind of religious democracy lives in Indonesia, the author analyzes through a religious procedural (or constitutional democratic dimension and religious substantial democratic dimension. The phenomenon of disobedience of law and system and the euphoria of law-making that reflects “intolerance” in several places in Indonesia display the fundamental issue in the religious procedural democracy. Whereas in the context of religious substantial democracy, the prevailing trend of religion that serves as a political and economic vehicle and ignores religion as a substantial aspect of the behavior of the Indonesian society has resulted in the marginalization of religious position and function. Then, the infiltration of the model of political Islam has also led to alienation of the character of the Islamic society of Indonesia, from a democratic pattern to a revival (radical one. In this light, the author needs to present a strategy to encourage religious democracy in Indonesia, structurally through formulating the ideal relation model between state and religion and culturally through a substantial pattern of religion embedded with the character of Indonesian religious

  7. Religious Intolerance in the Cortes of Cadiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Domínguez


    Full Text Available In recent years there has been no shortage of studies on religious intolerance in the Cadiz Cortes, but many of them are burdened by two critical errors. The first one is to focus the arguments on article 12 of the Constitution, without paying attention to other parliamentary debates in which the intolerant policy of the Cortes was more clearly expounded. The second common mistake is to ignore the circumstances which prevented some deputies from freely speaking their minds on religious matters. Through a detailed analysis of the proceedings of the Cortes, as well as other sources of the period, this article is intended to remedy both shortcomings, and thus to question certain common assumptions in current historiography. This approach leads to the conclusion that, while some deputies may had hidden his penchant for freedom of conscience, the decrees and speeches of the Cortes were more intolerant than many suppose. Not only they ordered to punish all dissenters from the Church's doctrines, but they decreed death penalty for anyone who dared to suggest the introduction of religious freedom in Spain.

  8. The value of traditional African religious music into liturgy: Lobethal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Handclapping was seen to act almost as a metronome, which steadily maintained the tempo. It was concluded that introducing traditional African religious music into Evangelical Lutheran liturgical church services has increased attendance and participation of church members. Therefore, the introduction of African religious ...

  9. 22 CFR 41.58 - Aliens in religious occupations. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens in religious occupations. 41.58 Section... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.58 Aliens in religious occupations. (a) Requirements for “R” classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA...

  10. Trans Fat Bans and Human Freedom (United States)

    Resnik, David


    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective. PMID:20229412



    religion and morality alone which can establish the principles upon which freedom can securely stand. The only foundation of a free constitution is pure...are offered in a military setting. Strict neutrality, essentially, is that the Air Force must guarantee Airmen the freedom from religion Even...mention of neutrality toward religion , nor the command to erect a "wall of separation between Church and State.ඦ Religious freedom is the goal of the

  12. Chancen und Herausforderungen der religiösen Bildung im Lebensraum Schule aus muslimischer Perspektive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Dursun


    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag basiert – mit dem Hinweis auf die zunehmende Präsenz der herkunftsorientierten religiösen Einrichtungen in Europa – auf dem Argument, dass die islamisch-religiöse Bildung in den Schulen Europas überdacht werden muss und ihr eine entscheidende Rolle zukommt. Neben den herkunftsorientierten religiösen Einrichtungen in Europa wird in diesem Beitrag die Bedeutung des islamischen Religionsunterrichts aus dem Blickwinkel des kontextualisierten Islams beleuchtet. Mittels Fallbeispielen zur religiösen Bildung am religiösen Markt (= religiöse Institutionen außerhalb des Schulraums wird in diesem Beitrag aufgezeigt, dass der islamische Religionsunterricht im Gegensatz zu den religiösen Institutionen keine Monopolkirche sein darf, in der vorwiegend eine Art Volksfrömmigkeit vermittelt wird. Opportunities and Challenges of Religious Education in Schools – A Muslim Perspective This contribution is based on the argument that the role of Islamic religious education at schools should be reconceived in relation to the growing presence of origin-oriented religious institutions in Europe. In addition to the origin-oriented religious institutions in Europe, this paper aims to present the importance of Islamic religious education from the perspective of contextualized Islam. Based on case studies for religious education in the religious market (outside the education area this paper shows that the Islamic religious education cannot offer Church`s monopoly and act like origin-oriented religious institutions to mediate popular piety.

  13. Epistemic Freedom and Education (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey


    First of all, I define the concept of epistemic freedom in the light of the changing nature of educational practice that prioritise over-prescriptive conceptions of learning. I defend the 'reality' of this freedom against possible determinist-related criticisms. I do this by stressing the concept of agency as characterised by 'becoming'. I also…

  14. Freedom & Self-Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ometto, D.L.A.


    Freedom of the will is a never-ending source of puzzlement for academic philosophers. At the same time, it is something deeply familiar to everyone. For the relevant concept of freedom underlies much, if not all, of our ordinary discourse and thinking about ourselves and others. However, our attempt

  15. Myths About Press Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarle Nordenstreng


    Full Text Available This article intends to rectify three popular beliefs related to press freedom: (1 that the idea of a free marketplace of ideas with a self-righting truth belongs to original liberalism, (2 that UNESCO’s primary mission is to promote freedom of information, and (3 that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides legal safeguards for the media. These beliefs are shown, on the basis of the legacy of liberalism and documents of the international community, to be misleading myths. Instead of accurate readings of the idea of freedom, they serve as ideological positions which are harmful to democracy. The Millennium Declaration provides further proof that the international community has a much more balanced view of freedom of information than that typically held by media professionals. Therefore it is important to liberate the concept of press freedom from its ideological baggage.

  16. A Religious Media Revolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard-Petersen, Jakob


    This article is a preliminary survey of the media usage of Sunni religious actors during the Syrian conflict. It traces the adoption of new media by religious actors, and analyses the kind of authority these actors have sought to embody, whether regime supporting, oppositional or jihadist...

  17. Religious intolerance and Euroscepticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobolt, S.B.; van der Brug, W.; de Vreese, C.H.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; Hinrichsen, M.C.


    Research on Euroscepticism focuses increasingly on the role of group identities: national identities and attitudes towards multiculturalism. Yet hardly any attention has been paid to the way in which religious intolerance shapes Euroscepticism. We argue that religious intolerance influences not only

  18. Origins of Religiousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding

    Across 800 regions of the World, this research shows that people are more religious when living in regions that are more frequently razed by natural disasters. This is in line with psychological theory stressing that religious people tend to cope with adverse life events by seeking comfort in the...

  19. The relationship between change and religious movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Suolinna


    Full Text Available Change constitutes different things for the groups, as the position of one group may improve, but that of another deteriorate. Social change is a consequence of how the different groups act, and their actions again depend on their social and economic interests. In other words, there are groups in society (social classes, professional groups, the agrarian population, industrial workers, which come more or less openly in conflict with each other when looking after their interests. Thus this way of thinking is based on a conflict model. One sees social change as a consequence of people trying to protect their social and economic interests. Viewed this way even religious organizations and movements are involved in protecting the interests of social groups. However, the interesting point in this connection is that religious movements differ from political movements and groups, as the religious movements express the social interests of a group more indirectly than the political movements. The religious movements gather people from similar living conditions, and so to speak, prepare them for political work. They defend and justify the way of living of a group, and thus give ideological material for political groupings. They may also form coalitions with political groups and parties. The author analyzes Laestadianism from this point of view. Before going into the connection between religious dynamics and social change it is necessary to present a few general features of Laestadianism as a religious movement of the peasant population.

  20. The Reinforcements of Religiousness in Adolescence. (United States)

    Ozorak, Elizabeth Weiss

    A study conducted in 1986 found that parents were the critical influence on the religious beliefs and commitment of their adolescent sons and daughters, while the adolescent's peers seemed to have no significant effect. In addition, the content of the beliefs did not seem to act as a strong reinforcer. Thirty-two of the 390 subjects who…

  1. Might Astrobiological Findings Evoke a Religious Crisis? (United States)

    Peters, T.; Froehlig, J. L.


    What might be the likely impact of confirmed discovery of extraterrestrial life—microbial or intelligent life—on terrestrial religion? Many have speculated that the anthropo-centrism and earth-centrism which allegedly have characterized our religious traditions would be confronted with a crisis. Would new knowledge that we are not alone in the universe lead to a collapse of traditional religious belief? This presentation will summarize the results of the Peters Religious Crisis Survey of 1325 respondents. This survey shows that the majority of adherents to Christianity, Islam, Judaism, and Buddhism demonstrate little or no anxiety regarding the prospect of contact with extraterrestrial life, even if they express some doubts regarding their respective religious tradition and the traditions of others. This presentation will also show that theological speculation regarding other worlds has sparked lively debate beginning as far back as the middle ages and continuing into our present era. Ted Peters is a research and teaching scholar with the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences at the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley, California. He is co-editor of the journal, Theology and Science, and author of the books, The Evolution of Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Life (Pandora 2008) and Playing God? Genetic Determinism and Human Freedom (Routledge, rev. ed., 2003).

  2. Declaration of Academic Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ÇETİNSAYA


    Full Text Available 1. Universities are the institutions where all the opinions, various truth claims as well as social and political problems are discussed in a liberal and civilized way and the complicated problems are expressed clearly without any oppression and prevention. 2. Academic freedom includes first and foremost the right of freedom of research and thus freedom of using the essential knowledge methods, the right of possessing the necessary tools and conditions required for the research and the rights of scientific production, informing, learning and dissemination. 3. Academics possess the rights to benefit from the academic freedom without any limitation, to research and investigate according to their own preferences and interests, and to teach these without being exposed to any oppression and prevention. 4. This freedom of teaching that the academics have should not be used in a manner restricting students' freedom of learning; academics should avoid from being dogmatic in the research and education processes and respect students' rights of thinking differently and expressing themselves. 5. Academics accordingly should lead the students to evaluate and understand the new thoughts as a whole and to be tolerant to the thoughts they do not agree and to think in various ways. Also, academics should encourage the students to create their own opinions based on evidences and enable them to express these opinions freely and respect their freedom of expression. 6. Campuses should be safe environments where the students can express their own opinions freely. Suppressing the intellectual diversity and the plurality of viewpoints will decrease the productivity of teaching and learning process, restrict students' freedom of learning, and constrain the chance of formation of critical and in-depth thinking. 7. Critical thinking develops only in the campuses where various thoughts are expressed in a liberal way. Students should feel that they would not be prevented

  3. Parental Divorce, Parental Religious Characteristics, and Religious Outcomes in Adulthood. (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Ellison, Christopher G


    Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one's custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family-but not a stepparent family-is positively associated with religious disaffiliation and religious switching and negatively associated with regular religious attendance. Accounting for parental religious characteristics, however, explains sizable proportions of these relationships. Accounting for parental religious affiliation and attendance, growing up with a single parent does not significantly affect religious attendance. Parental religiosity also moderates the relationship between growing up with a single parent and religious attendance: being raised in a single-parent home has a negative effect on religious attendance among adults who had two religiously involved parents.

  4. Freedom of Information Act Request Log System - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This system manages FHWA FOIA requests and is used to better meet the extensive annual reporting requirements imposed by statute (5 USC § 552). The FOIA Management...

  5. 3 CFR - Freedom of Information Act (United States)


    ... and in a spirit of cooperation, recognizing that such agencies are servants of the public. All... the public. All agencies should use modern technology to inform citizens about what is known and done...

  6. 78 FR 13472 - Freedom of Information Act (United States)


    ... not part of a rulemaking process. These proposed revisions to Rule 4.9(b)(3) and (b)(10) do not... access through that process is generally less costly than the FOIA process. For example, the agency's... requests. However, providing this explanation in the rule provides more advance constructive notice to FOIA...

  7. 78 FR 13570 - Freedom of Information Act (United States)


    ... NW., Washington, DC 20580. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: G. Richard Gold, Attorney, Office of the... files are stored and managed off-site by two contractors, Iron Mountain Archival Services and the... services that Iron Mountain performs than they would be if the Commission staff itself performed these...

  8. Defending the indefensible? Psychiatry, assisted suicide and human freedom. (United States)

    Parker, Malcolm


    The siege guns of the forces for change to euthanasia and assisted suicide laws have been pounding for decades, but the longstanding proscription on these practices has held out in all but a few jurisdictions. A few psychiatrists have enlisted with the challengers, but many remain on the battlements, defending the impermissibility of active assistance in dying. Given the long history of the separation of church and state and the significant secularisation of society; the recognition by the law of both acts and omissions as legal causes; lenient sentences for mercy killers; critiques of the "psychiatriatisation" of different aspects of life; and the consistency of public opinion, this recalcitrant stand bespeaks undercurrents and positions that are often by rationalised or camouflaged, and which call for exploration. In this paper, I examine connections between psychiatry and conceptualisations of harm, suffering and natural death; medicalisation, psychiatrisation and medical paternalism; decision-making capacity, rationality and diagnosis; recent legal developments; social pluralism; and religious intuitionism. I conclude that psychiatrists and the psychiatry profession, concerned as they are with enlarging the province of human freedom, should begin a more transparent rapprochement with those they would repel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian


    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  10. [Euthanasia/assisted suicide. Ethical and socio-religious aspects]. (United States)

    Chiriţă, V; Chiriţă, Roxana; Duică, Lavinia; Talau, Gh


    Euthanasia/Assisted Suicide are viewed differently by moral and religious references. In a religious way, cardinal confessions (Christianity, Judaism, Islamism, Buddhism) condemn euthanasia/assisted suicide and, in the same time have a more relaxed attitude regarding passive euthanasia. Other aspects of euthanasia regard financial/economic and ethical-medical considerations. All these contradictory standpoints are expressed in some legal acts that make specifications on the concept of "euthanasia"--Oregon's Death with Dignity Act (1994) and Netherlands's Euthanasia Law (2001).

  11. Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kunzman


    Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately help strengthen the broader civic fabric.

  12. Homegrown religious radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    It has been reported that a growing number of youngsters from Western Europe are engaging in conflicts motivated by religious and political conflicts in the Middle East. This paper explores the reasons behind this seemingly religious radicalization from the point of view of the youngsters...... youngsters and parents of youngsters who have chosen a radicalized path in life. The paper will shed light on how the sense of and yearning for belonging and recognition have to be taken into account in our understanding of homegrown religious radicalization...

  13. Hannah Arendt and the "Freedom" to Think (United States)

    Morgan, Marie


    Dissatisfied with the Western tradition of political philosophy, Arendt maintained a tension between the political, which she associates primarily with the freedom to act, and the philosophical, which she associates principally with the activity of thinking, throughout her works. Whilst Arendt's work is underpinned by a focus on political action,…

  14. Freedom of religion in the 21st century : A human rights perspective on the relation between politics and religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziebertz, Hans-Georg; Hirsch Ballin, Ernst


    Freedom of religion consists of the right to practice, to manifest and to change one’s religion. The modern democratic state is neutral towards the variety of religions, but protects the right of citizens to practice their different religious beliefs. Recent history shows that a number of religious

  15. Freedom in mundane mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Marie V.; Cohen, Scott A.


    Freedom is a widely discussed and highly elusive concept, and has long been represented in exoticised, masculinised and individualised discourses. Freedom is often exemplified through the image of a solitary male explorer leaving the female space of home and familiarity and going to remote places...... of the world. Through in-situ interviews with families caravanning in Denmark, the primary aim of this study is to challenge existing dominant discourses surrounding the subject of freedom within leisure and tourism studies. Second, we shed further light on an under-researched medium of mobility......, that of domestic caravanning. This serves to not only disrupt representations of freedom as occurring through exoticised, masculinised and individualised practices, but to give attention to the domestic, banal contexts where the everyday and tourism intersect, which are often overlooked. This novel repositioning...

  16. Human freedom and enhancement. (United States)

    Heilinger, Jan-Christoph; Crone, Katja


    Ideas about freedom and related concepts like autonomy and self-determination play a prominent role in the moral debate about human enhancement interventions. However, there is not a single understanding of freedom available, and arguments referring to freedom are simultaneously used to argue both for and against enhancement interventions. This gives rise to misunderstandings and polemical arguments. The paper attempts to disentangle the different distinguishable concepts, classifies them and shows how they relate to one another in order to allow for a more structured and clearer debate. It concludes in identifying the individual underpinnings and the social conditions of choice and decision-making as particularly salient dimensions of freedom in the ethical debate about human enhancement.

  17. Asymptotic freedom without guilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, E.


    The notion of asymptotic freedom in quantum chromodynamics is explained on general physical grounds, without invoking the formal arguments of renormalizable quantum field theory. The related concept of quark confinement is also discussed along the same line. 5 references

  18. Religiousness and religious coping in a secular society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel


    Women are found to be more religious than men and more likely to use religious coping. Only few studies have explored religious gender differences in more secular societies. This population-based study comprised 3,000 Danish men and women (response rate 45 %) between 20 and 40 years of age....... Information about demographics, religiousness and religious coping was obtained through a web-based questionnaire. We organized religiousness in the three dimensions: Cognition, Practice and Importance, and we assessed religious coping using the brief RCOPE questionnaire. We found substantial gender...... differences in both religiousness and religious coping. Nearly, 60 % of the women believed in some sort of spirit or in God compared to 40 % of the men. Generally, both men and women scored low on the RCOPE scale. However, for respondents reporting high levels of religiousness, the proportion of men who...

  19. A Religious Worldview: Protecting One's Meaning System Through Religious Prejudice. (United States)

    Goplen, Joanna; Plant, E Ashby


    For some people, religion strongly influences their worldviews. We propose that religious outgroups threaten the foundational beliefs of people with strong religious worldviews (RWVs) by endorsing alternative belief systems and that this threat contributes to religious prejudice. To examine these ideas, we developed a measure of RWV strength and assessed the role of RWV threat in religious prejudice. Across five studies, strength of RWV was related to religious prejudice, including derogation and denial of alternative religious viewpoints, as well as support for suppressing, avoiding, and even aggressing against religious outgroups. These responses were strongest toward religious outgroups whose worldviews were the most different, and therefore most threatening. Mediational analyses revealed that strong RWV people expressed heightened prejudice because of the worldview threat posed by religious outgroup members. These findings indicate that the avoidance and subjugation of religious outgroups can serve as a worldview protection strategy for some people. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. Religious and Sacred Poetry



    Czasopismo poświęcone poezji religijnej i sakralnej, edukacji, religii, kulturze i wychowaniu. The Periodical is dedicated to religious poetry and sacred poetry, education, religion, culture and upbringing.

  1. On European Religious Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Since ancient time,literature has being a hot topic that scholars concern.Latin religious literature is the mainstream of medieval literature.This paper analyzes medieval literature from three aspects which are the religious cultural background,main characteristics and achievements.What’s more,the thesis summarizes its influence to literature afterwards,and provides suggestion to the contemporary literature in China.

  2. Religious fundamentalism and conflict


    Muzaffer Ercan Yılmaz


    This study provides an analytical discussion for the issue of religious fundamentalism and itsrelevance to conflict, in its broader sense. It is stressed that religious fundamentalism manifests itself in twoways: nonviolent intolerance and violent intolerance. The sources of both types of intolerance and theirconnection to conflict are addressed and discussed in detail. Further research is also suggested on conditionsconnecting religion to nonviolent intolerance so as to cope with the problem...

  3. Can Religious Expression and Sexual Orientation Affirmation Coexist in Social Work? A Critique of Hodge's Theoretical, Theological, and Conceptual Frameworks (United States)

    Dessel, Adrienne; Bolen, Rebecca; Shepardson, Christine


    Social work strives to be inclusive of all cultural groups and religious identities. However, a tension exists in the profession between freedom of religious expression and full acceptance of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. David Hodge and others claim social work is oppressive to evangelical Christians. This article critiques primarily Hodge's…

  4. On conditioned and directed freedom of contrats between business entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Marko


    Full Text Available The term conditioned freedom of contracts appeared in our legal theory before the adoption of the Obligations Relations Act, whereas the term directed freedom of contracts occurred after the Act's entry into force. Both terms were used to signify transformation of freedom of con tracts within the legal system based on ideology of socialism, social ownership of the means of production and government ruled economy and, afterwards, 'coordinated economy'. Conditioned freedom of contracts originated from the right to use the means of production in social ownership. This right, which belonged to social (state-owned companies, consisted of two components. The first, public-law component conditioned the second, private law component, by means of norms in individual administrative acts and administrative regulations. As these norms were an expression of state power, they make the contract subordinate: individual administrative act is a condition for the conclusion of contract, and administrative regulations for its validity. Directed freedom of contracts is freedom of making contracts directed by economic order established by the Constitution, systemic laws, and partially by the norms of the basic principles of the Obligations Relations Act which are related to social companies. As regards freedom of contracts it can be said that even today it is directed by legal principles and norms of economic-legal public policy through which the state interferes in business enterprises.

  5. The Threat to Religious Liberties and the European Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Kiska


    Full Text Available The following article analyzes the 3 chief threats facing religious liberty today in Europe, namely: (1 hate speech legislation; (2 anti-discrimination laws; (3 attacks on parental rights. Concrete examples are given of offenses to religious freedom. Additionally, the black letter law is set out in each section with suggested action points for national governments. The Article also discusses the Lautsi v. Italy judgment of the European Court of Human Rights, explaining its importance and using it as evidence to establish the political nature of the Strasbourg based court.

  6. No freedom of action without emotional energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul

    . The paper further develops such a social and relational approach by arguing that freedom is also based on emotional energy and not merely on priveleges and power (cf. Bauman). Agency cannot be taken for granted as a generic feature of humans beings (cf. Layder, Bauman, Campbell) founded in consciousnes...... and intentionality (Fuchs). In a differential and generative sense freedom/agency is based on emotional energy. For example, to act personally, cooperately with others or on behalf on institutions individuals need feeling self-confidence, trust or loyalty (Barbalet). Such emotions are resources inmplicated...

  7. [Drug addiction and freedom]. (United States)

    Albuquerque, M A


    The author, in a historical and philosophical approach, analyses the concept of freedom as opposed to slavery. He also refers to the legal and social restrictions and studies the determinism and free will as the causes of human behaviour. Quoting Spinoza, the author states that man accepts the idea of freedom because he realizes the "how" of his options but ignores "why". Without the hypothesis of causality and determinism, there seems to have no science. Without freedom, there seems to be no anthropos man (Jimeno Valdez). The principles of anticausality, of nonreproducibility and of differentiation characterize the human freedom, but are contrary to the way science works. According to the social and political point of view, it was established that the State has the right to oblige and to violently limit freedom. Practically speaking, though, the State is violent just for being the State; the dominant groups are the government because they are and they have been violent. There is a need to limit and to discipline this right of the State of being violent within the dilemma of safety and freedom. By working, the slave avoided the whip. And by doing this, he encouraged the behaviour of the one who whipped him. The non-aversive attitudes limit the freedom in the modern world more and more for they also enchain our will, a rebellion becoming impossible. One is not granted the freedom; it shall be conquered and kept. Freedom, either as a concept or a phenomenon, is always relative. The concept of toxicomania or pharmacodependance is analysed according to the same perspective. The conclusion is that this is always more a problem of the society than of the individual, and this is how it has to be understood and treated. The present world is described as a millenial human culture specifically characterized by eight groups of phenomena: 1. Transport increased human mobility, reduced the relative dimensions of the earth, mixed peoples, compared cultures and created

  8. Freedom of Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Canela


    Full Text Available The freedoms of expression and of the press are basic pillars of the western democracies. The contemporary theoretical framework which gives support to these rights was generated in the wake of the liberal revolutions which took place in Western Europe and in North America starting from the second half of the 1600s. Our purpose in this text is to present the current scene regarding this topic, focusing whenever pertinent on the Brazilian case, and seeking to question the unconditional defense of the freedoms of expression and of the press made by the thinkers who founded these principles vis-á-vis contemporary issues of the communicational universe. Going beyond theoretical-conceptual refl ections, we present and analyze the results of a content analysis showing how 53 Brazilian newspapers and 4 magazines with nationwide circulation report (or not topics relating to freedom of expression and of the press.

  9. Managing Religious Conflicts in Nigeria: The Inter-Religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 29, 2015 ... pay special attention to this challenge by putting in place innovative structures ... mediation strategy in terms of religious conflict management, prevention ..... Peace Moves towards Resolving Religious Conflicts in Nigeria.

  10. Thinking Academic Freedom (United States)

    Lange, Lis


    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  11. Nursing and human freedom. (United States)

    Risjord, Mark


    Debates over how to conceptualize the nursing role were prominent in the nursing literature during the latter part of the twentieth century. There were, broadly, two schools of thought. Writers like Henderson and Orem used the idea of a self-care deficit to understand the nurse as doing for the patient what he or she could not do alone. Later writers found this paternalistic and emphasized the importance of the patient's free will. This essay uses the ideas of positive and negative freedom to explore the differing conceptions of autonomy which are implicit in this debate. The notion of positive freedom has often been criticized as paternalistic, and the criticisms of self-care in the nursing literature echo criticisms from political philosophy. Recent work on relational autonomy and on the relationship between autonomy and identity are used to address these objections. This essay argues for a more nuanced conception of the obligation to support autonomy that includes both positive (freedom to) and negative (freedom from) dimensions. This conception of autonomy provides a moral foundation for conceptualizing nursing in something like Henderson's terms: as involving the duty to expand the patient's capacities. The essay concludes by generalizing the lesson. Respect for autonomy on the part of any health care provider requires both respect for the patient's choices and a commitment to expand the patient's ability to actualize their choices. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Doxastic and Epistemic Freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Boudewijn

    This paper offers a new view of doxastic voluntarism, epistemic agency and doxastic responsibility. It assumes the perspective of political freedom and uses the stit-theoretic framework from modal logic to investigate the obstacles that other individuals could place in the way of the adoption of

  13. Freedom of Expression. (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1988


    Presents an activity which uses hypothetical situations to explore the proper boundaries of freedom of expression and the role of the U.S. Supreme Court in interpreting its limits. Appropriate for grades 4-12, the lesson includes such topics as the "clear and present danger" clause, student expression, obscenity, and defamation. (GEA)

  14. Your True Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena Rausch


    Full Text Available Your True Freedom is about my journey teaching inmates the fundamental truths of self worth, self acceptance and self love--through writing, mindfulness meditation and emotional healing. It is a journey that continues to enlighten me and to heal and free the inmates with whom I work.

  15. Intellectual Freedom and Racism. (United States)

    Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 1977


    This issue of the "Interracial Books for Children Bulletin" contains a special section focusing on the film called, "The Speaker". This film purports to deal with an assault on the First Amendment and with the necessity for eternal vigilance in defense of U.S. Constitutional freedom. The setting is an integrated high school…

  16. Academic and Artistic Freedom. (United States)

    Strossen, Nadine


    Issues and recent events concerning censorship of the arts in the United States are examined, and the threat to artistic freedom posed by recent Supreme Court decisions is examined. Focus is on erosion of the actual or imminent harm requirement of the law and on the court's class-based approach to free speech. (MSE)

  17. Indonesia, modernity and some problems of religious adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June McDaniel


    Full Text Available This article discusses the challenges of adaptation for Indonesian religion. It describes the ways that the major Indonesian religions have changed to fit the requirements of being recognized religions, and focuses as an example on the ways that Balinese Hinduism has changed to become Agama Hindu Dharma Indonesia. It also examines the traditional theological problem of “faith and works” in the Indonesian context, and the concerns used to balance modernization and religious freedom.

  18. Religious care required for Japanese terminally ill patients with cancer from the perspective of bereaved family members. (United States)

    Okamoto, Takuya; Ando, Michiyo; Morita, Tatsuya; Hirai, Kei; Kawamura, Ryo; Mitsunori, Miyashita; Sato, Kazuki; Shima, Yasuo


    The aim of this study was to explore the most suitable religious care for Japanese terminally ill patients with cancer based on the opinions of bereaved family members. A multicenter questionnaire survey on palliative care service was sent to 592 bereaved family members of patients with cancer who were admitted to palliative care units in Japan, and 430 responded by mail. In the section of the questionnaire about religious care, 382 responses were used for quantitative analysis, and 71 responses about religious care for qualitative analysis. In the current study, the 71 responses were grouped into families with and without a religion and were analyzed qualitatively. Families with a religion (N = 28) chose answers such as ''Instrumental care'' such as music or a religious event, ''Freedom of choice of kinds for religious care,'' ''Staff involvement of religious care,'' ''Meeting with a pastoral care workers,'' and ''Burden of offering a different kind of personal religion.'' In contrast, families without a religion (N = 44) chose answers such as ''Instrumental care,'' ''Freedom of choice whether patients receive religious care or not,'' ''Spiritual care,'' ''Not being able to accept religious care,'' and ''Burden of thinking about a religion and nuisance.'' These findings suggest that Japanese bereaved families with a religion generally regard religious care positively and prefer care through their own religion, whereas some families without a religion require religious care but some do not prefer it.

  19. Dostoevsky’s and Frank’s ideas of freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmakov Vladimir


    Full Text Available One of the most important questions of the religious-philosophical anthropological concept of S.L. Franck are questions about the close relationship between man and God, about sin and suffering, and about the definition of the boundaries of his freedom. In the definition of freedom and its main points, it proceeds not only from Western philosophical thought, but also from the anthropological views and ideas of F. M. Dostoevsky. According to Frank, as in Dostoevsky, the disclosure of the fullness of freedom in man is interconnected with the doctrine of human freedom as self-determination in good and in God, accepting sufering as an indispensable component in his salvation. The article is devoted to the comparison of the basic anthropological and personality concepts, as well as the idea of freedom and its characteristics in the works and works of both thinkers, in order to trace the continuity of Dostoevsky’s tradition with Frank in the framework of his anthropology and personalism in order to prove that for him human freedom and self-Man is an absolute value, his anthropology can be viewed in the context of his philosophy of unity and not contradict it.

  20. Religious Zionism and Israeli Settlement Policy (United States)


    radicals, or they may be acts of terror such as the Tomb of the Patriarchs massacre. C. PROBLEMS AND HYPOTHESES Religious Zionism and its influence on...Jordanian West Bank and Egyptian Gaza Strip. Jordan, in fact, had annexed the West Bank on April 24th, 1950. The almost constant threat of invasion by Arab...of the 1994 Tomb of the Patriarchs massacre and Rabin’s assassination in November of 1995.158 Shimon Peres returned to the premiership for seven

  1. Speech freedom and press freedom in human security in Rwanda


    Niyonzima, Oswald


    Treball Final de Màster Universitari Internacional en Estudis de Pau, Conflictes i Desenvolupament. Codi: SAA074. Curs: 2013/2014 Freedom of speech and press freedom are key foundations of all human rights as stipulated in human rights declaration of 1948. Denying people the right to free speech is keeping them away from what is happening in this world, thus, hindering them from participating in decision making. While speech freedom and press freedom are key tools to measure if a country ...

  2. Tracing the Scope of Religious Exemptions under National and EU Law: Section 37(1 of the Irish Employment Equality Acts 1998–2011 and Ireland’s Obligations Under the EU Framework Directive on Employment and Occupation, Directive 2000/78/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Dunne


    Full Text Available This submission traces the scope of the religious exemptions for religious organisation both under the Irish Employment Equality Acts 1998–2011 at national level and under the EU Framework Directive on Employment and Occupation, Directive 2000/78/EC of November 2000, at EU level. It will be demonstrated that the Irish religious exemptions are broader in scope than those at EU level and therefore constitute a severe limitation on the equality rights of Irish citizens falling within protected grounds of non-discrimination other than religion or belief under the EU Employment Equality Directive. Special regard is had to the limitation of the rights of Irish citizens falling within the protected ground of non-discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. It is considered whether, by allowing overly broad exemptions to subsist beyond the exigencies of a strict proportionality test, the Irish State is in effect giving efficacy to the typified intolerance between religions organisations and the LGBT community and in so doing, contributing to the perpetuation of these intolerances in Irish society rather than their erosion.

  3. Religious Education and Socialization (United States)

    Vermeer, Paul


    This article considers Religious Education (RE) from the perspective of socialization theory. After clarifying the concept of socialization, an understanding of socialization processes, requiring the simultaneous development of both a personal and a social identity, is linked with RE. The development of both a personal and a social identity calls…

  4. Fearing religious satire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Dennis Meyhoff


    The article examines the history of the fear of religious satire in modern Europe. The article argues that this fear primarily concerns the potential dissolution of 'the social bond of society' or 'the moral and social order'. From the 17th Century until today, censorship measures and blasphemy l...

  5. Religie, Bijbel en geweld

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    belangrijke rol speelt als inspiratiebron van geweld. • Tegelijkertijd is het duidelijk dat religie, zowel binnen het christendom als daarbuiten, als een belangrijke bemiddelende en helende factor functioneert, die mensen helpt met ervaringen van geweld om te gaan. Wat de Bijbel aangaat is er voor deze punten duidelijk een ...

  6. Religious Fundamentalism/Religious Modernism: Conceptual Adversaries or Ambivalent Phenomena?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Both religious modernism and religious fundamentalism appeared as problems in academic and theological literature at the beginning of the 20th century. They came about as the result of the dynamic development of modernistic ideology in Russia, the United States, Western Europe and the Islamic world. Today, the concepts of religious modernism and religious fundamentalism are widely used to describe religious processes and phenomena which are the result of interaction between religion (as a dynamic spiritual and social subsystem and society - as a social system experiencing evolution. The concept of religious modernism is traditionally associated with religious renewal, the contemporary world, and innovation. Fundamentalism, on the contrary, is an ideological commitment to the “roots and origins” of religion. Under the aegis of fundamentalism, any religious idea, value or concept has a right to exist. Religious Studies, during the course of time and the production of ever new material, encountered a serious theoretic-methodological problem: How can various religious movements and religious traditions be organized into groups since some of them combine elements of religious modernism and of religious fundamentalism? Already at the end of the nineteen-eighties, the well-established view defining “fundamentalism-modernism” as contrary positions had to be rethought. Studies dating from the nineteen-nineties and the beginning of the new millennium concentrated on noting the social origins and the political character of these phenomena. They demonstrated that neither fundamentalism nor modernism present the whole picture. The lines dividing them are so blurred, that they become confl uent. Consequently, the author concludes that religious fundamentalism and religious modernism are ambivalent phenomena, which can, on occasion, interact with each other.

  7. Counselor Responsiveness to Client Religiousness. (United States)

    Kelly, Eugene W., Jr.


    Presents eight categories of client attitudes toward religion and suggests opportunities for religiously oriented counselor responses. Uses four categories to describes how religion may be associated with specific client issues. Contends that an informed appreciation of clients' religiousness and the religious dimensions of many client issues can…

  8. Living in the shadow of terrorism: psychological distress and alcohol use among religious and non-religious adolescents in Jerusalem. (United States)

    Schiff, Miriam


    This study examines the effects of prolonged exposure to terrorism in 600 religious and non-religious Jewish adolescents living in Jerusalem, particularly post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, coping strategies and social support. The youth in Jerusalem reported high exposure to terrorist acts. This exposure was associated with high PTS, depressive symptoms and alcohol use. Despite an apparently greater exposure to terrorism, religious adolescents reported lower levels of PTS and alcohol consumption, but similar levels of depressive symptoms to non-religious adolescents. Problem-solving coping predicted higher depressive symptoms for religious adolescents exposed to terrorism but not for similarly exposed non-religious adolescents. In contrast, emotion-focused coping predicted more alcohol consumption among highly exposed non-religious adolescents, while emotion-focused coping predicted more alcohol consumption among religious adolescents with low exposure. The overall findings suggest that religiosity may buffer the negative consequences of exposure in other ways than through coping or support.

  9. Freedom and the Collective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straume, Ingerid S.


    Full Text Available Since Isaiah Berlin’s epitomizing Cold War-essay, "Two Concepts of Liberty, " thinkers who emphasize collective concepts of social life have carried the burden of proof against charges of totalitarian tendencies. The background is a ground figure in contemporary political thought that sets notions of collectivity against individual freedom, in a zero sum game: Either one is in favour of the individual, or one is in favour of the collective, and hence, so the bias has it, willing to sacrifice the rights and liberties of individuals. Since it is impossible to favour the latter position and remain liberal, in the wide sense of the term, this dichotomy serves to rob contemporary political thought of both its classical and revolutionary connotations, leaving only individual initiatives like lobbying and voting. Cornelius Castoriadis offers a way around this – arguably false – dichotomy, by regarding individual and collective freedom as two sides of the same coin.

  10. Knowledge Yearning for Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović


    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the restriction of access to knowledge/books in the contemporary digitalized global world, in which the access to knowledge has to be paid for, and wherein definitions of modes of payment control who has or doesn’t have the right to knowledge. The second part of the article deals with the struggle for the freedom of words/knowledge, and actions through which the authors/producers of knowledge and art fight the restrictions not only to the freedom of speech, but also creativity and innovation, which should be the aim of all copyright and intellectual right laws, the contemporary application of which has become its own opposite.

  11. Intellectual Freedom: 2000 and Beyond. (United States)

    Holtze, Terri L.; Rader, Hannelore B.


    Focuses on intellectual freedom, discussing the role of libraries, the Berlin Wall and banned books as attempts to restrict intellectual freedom, and controversies surrounding filtering software. Contains an annotated bibliography of intellectual freedom resources, presented in five categories: general; government and legal issues; access and…

  12. Towards an ethics of freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg


    Based upon the work of Arendt’s notion of action as freedom and Butler’s rework of this notion into a collective, embodied and material performance, this paper proposes an ethics of freedom, which is discussed as a politics of storytelling in organizations. Freedom, it is argued, is closely related...

  13. Intellectual Workers and Essential Freedoms. (United States)

    Edley, Christopher Jr.


    Journalists and college professors deserve certain privileges, including freedom of speech and academic freedom, but they must adapt their work to increasingly diverse populations. They must confront public mistrust, convince people that these freedoms are worthwhile, and protect essential public rights through what they study and teach and to…

  14. Academic Freedom Requires Constant Vigilance (United States)

    Emery, Kim


    Traditionally, academic freedom has been understood as an individual right and a negative liberty. As William Tierney and Vincente Lechuga explain, "Academic freedom, although an institutional concept, was vested in the individual professor." The touchstone document on academic freedom, the American Association of University Professor's (AAUP)…

  15. The Freedom to Believe and the Freedom to Practice: Title VII, Muslim Women, and Hijab


    Benson, Kristina


    Although Title VII of the Civil Rights Act nominally affirmed employees’ right to wear hijab in the workplace, the courts have taken an increasingly narrow view of the term “religion” and failed to uphold the right to wear hijab in both private and public sector settings on several occasions. This is because Title VII and its attendant protections are grounded in a framework that presumes Christianity as normative, and religiously mandated accoutrements as communicative in function. The manne...

  16. U.S. Initiatives to Promote Global Internet Freedom: Issues, Policy, and Technology (United States)


    Amendment of the U.S. Bill of Rights ensuring freedom of speech , assembly, and religion. Secretary Clinton argued that these principles were reaffirmed in...Act or VOICE Act (Sec. 1242) Expresses the sense of the Senate in support of the universal values of freedom of speech , the press, and expression... freedom of speech , expression, and assembly. Authorizes appropriations to the Fund. (Sec. 1246) Directs the President to report annually to Congress on


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahyo Pamungkas


    Full Text Available This paper explains how political, religious, and economic changes in Yogyakarta affect the formation of religious identity and social distance between different religious groups. The strengthening of religious identity in this area took place in the period of the Diponegoro War (1825-1830 when religious issues were used in the mobilization against the Dutch colonialist. Then, the spread of Christianity in Java at the end of 19th led to several tensions between missionaries and several Islamic organizations, but never developed into communal violence. In 1930s, the relation between religious groups remain harmonious due to the development of tolerant culture and pluralism. During the 1980s, the use of religious identity grew both in urban and rural areas in line with social processes of modernization. Da’wat activities on Campus (Lembaga Dakwah Kampus plays important roles in promoting religious life in urban areas. The 1998 political reform marked the rise of religious fundamentalist movements that to a certain degree contributes to social distance between religious groups.

  18. Asymmetrical Religious Commitments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael


    The starting point of this article is the observation that more scholars of Buddhism seem to be engaged in Buddhist practices than their colleagues in the study of Hinduism are engaged in Hindu practices. It aims to examine this observation more closely and discuss the involved problematics in a ...... that are inherited from the modernization of both religions in their transition to the Western world. How far a religiously engaged scholarship is acceptable or not is finally discussed at the institutional level....

  19. Spiritual abuse under the banner of the right to freedom of religion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... it has also created a vague, or “grey” area where abuse can flourish under the banner of so-called “freedom”. Freedom that is not clearly defined can lead to anarchism. Abuse in religious cults can be addressed by cultivating public awareness through the gathering and distribution of information on the abusive practices ...

  20. Freedom and security: a sometimes delicate balance

    CERN Multimedia


    Like any academic institution, CERN celebrates freedom: freedom of expression, freedom of thought and freedom of movement. Occasionally, however, circumstances beyond our control oblige us to impose certain restrictions.   Friday, 26 June was just such an occasion. On that day, terrorists chose to commit unfathomable atrocities in France, near Lyon, as well as in Kuwait and Tunisia. The brutality exhibited in all three attacks is beyond comprehension, and I am sure that we all feel for the victims and all those touched by these hideous acts. At times such as this, and on the basis of information that I receive from external agencies, it is my responsibility as Director-General to decide whether measures are needed at CERN, and to apply them at an appropriate level if I deem it necessary. On Friday, based on the information I had at my disposal, I decided that the situation merited extra vigilance at the entrances to CERN for the sake of ensuring the safety and security of everyone on site. I...

  1. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta


    dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  2. Cultural Protestantism and Nordic Religious Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Mette


    Is there a Nordic model for Religious Education? The article explores how Cultural Protestantism and Liberal Theology influenced the ways in which Religious Education developed in Sweden, Denmark and Norway from the late 19th century until the mid-20th century as part of the transformation...... of the relations between church and state. Situated between history of education and curriculum, church history and transnational welfare state history, the article focuses on three transnationally acting theologians, early historians and psychologists of religion and public debaters who involved themselves...... in the question of education, namely Nathan Söderblom (1866-1931), Edvard Lehmann (1862-1930) and Eivind Berggrav (1884-1959), who serve as prisms for the transnational historical analysis of what takes place between states and social fields. The article suggests that Nordic Cultural Protestantism contributed...

  3. Slavery, antislavery, freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Brereton


    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Empire and Antislavery: Spain, Cuba, and Puerto Rico, 1833-1874. CHRISTOPHER SCHMIDT-NOWARA. Pittsburgh PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1999. xv + 239 pp. (Cloth US$ 50.00, Paper US$ 22.95 Beyond Slavery: Explorations of Race, Labor, and Citizenship in Postemancipation Societies. FREDERICK COOPER, THOMAS C. HOLT & REBECCA J. SCOTT. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000. xiii + 198 pp. (Cloth US$ 34.95, Paper US$ 15.95 From Slavery to Freedom: Comparative Studies in the Rise andFall of Atlantic Slavery. SEYMOUR DRESCHER. New York: New York University Press, 1999. xxv + 454 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Terms of Labor: Slavery, Serfdom, and Free Labor. STANLEY L. ENGERMAN (ed.. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 1999. vi + 350 pp. (Cloth US$ 55.00 These four books explore antislavery movements in the Atlantic world, and consider some of the consequences of abolition in postemancipation societies. They are immensely rich studies which engage one of the liveliest areas of enquiry in modern historiography - the transition from slavery to freedom in New World societies - and which represent U.S. historical scholarship at its finest. Each falls into a different category of academic publication.

  4. Political liberalism and religious claims (United States)


    This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either ‘liberal’ or ‘fundamentalist’ and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation. PMID:28344375

  5. The origins of religious disbelief. (United States)

    Norenzayan, Ara; Gervais, Will M


    Although most people are religious, there are hundreds of millions of religious disbelievers in the world. What is religious disbelief and how does it arise? Recent developments in the scientific study of religious beliefs and behaviors point to the conclusion that religious disbelief arises from multiple interacting pathways, traceable to cognitive, motivational, and cultural learning mechanisms. We identify four such pathways, leading to four distinct forms of atheism, which we term mindblind atheism, apatheism, inCREDulous atheism, and analytic atheism. Religious belief and disbelief share the same underlying pathways and can be explained within a single evolutionary framework that is grounded in both genetic and cultural evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Searching for the Dividends of Religious Liberty: Who Benefits and Who Pays? (United States)

    Holsinger, Donald B.


    Although recent research has established that there are positive correlations among indicators of religious freedom and social capital and economic development, the question addressed in this paper has to do with the evangelistic success of three outreach-oriented churches with worldwide membership bases. This preliminary investigation uses only…

  7. The Religious Quest As Transformative Journey: Interspiritual Religious Belonging And The Problem Of Religious Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEntee Rory


    Full Text Available As scholars and the public grope towards understanding emergent forms of religiosity (multiple-religious belonging, spiritual but not religious, interspirituality, notions of discernment, religious depth, and spiritual practice figure prominently in defining and assessing these forms. Some form of commitment to a particular religious tradition is often considered the most important factor in the discernment of religious depth, while “spiritual but not religious” is often seen as the amorphous searching or the drifting whims of an immature ego. I will argue, however, that failing to take into account the most mature forms of emerging religiosity is bound to miss important developments, just as similar methodologies would for traditional religions. Further, I point out problems with correlating religious depth with belonging to a particular religious tradition, and offer an alternate way to conceive of religious depth. In doing so I develop the concept of the religious quest as transformative journey, allowing for a more capacious understanding of religious consciousness. I then introduce interspiritual religious belonging, contrasting it with certain understandings of “multiple-religious” belonging, and providing mature examples of its embodiment. Finally, utilizing new surveys from Pew and PPRI showing accelerating growth among the “spiritual but not religious” and “religiously unaffiliated”-as well as expanding religious and racial diversity within the United States-I briefly reference potential political ramifications the interspiritual movement might have, and address the importance of developing mature theological perspectives from within it. It is my hope that the Theology Without Walls project can provide academic space for the latter.

  8. Academic Freedom as Fundamental Right


    Cippitani, Roberto


    [EN] The paper aims at defining in particular the concept of academic freedom within the context of the European legal sources. Even though the idea of a special corporative status for professors was born during the Middle Ages, it was only during the second half of the twentieth century that the Constitutions recognised academic freedom as an individual’s legal right.. Such an individual right is regulated within the category of the freedom of expression, even if it is characteri...

  9. Freedom of Religion and Conscience in the Military: Clarifying Policy (United States)


    myriad of other similar acts by Presidents Adams and even Jefferson, such as a call for a national day of fasting and prayer, developing and funding...service members, particularly chaplains, who hold to a conservative or traditional biblical view of marriage, the Chaplain Alliance for Religious

  10. Which Freedom of the Press?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jens Elo


    The article surveys the historical and current meaning of "Freedom of the Press" in constitutional and human rights law. Two different conceptions exist, the narrow one defining freedom of the press as the freedom of every one to publish without prior restraint, the broader one defining it as a...... privileged freedom of the organised press to gather and report on information of public interest. These two conceptions have very different answers to the question of whether the press should enjoy some privilege to be exempt from ordinary legislation when such legislation restricts the access of the press to inform...

  11. Complete freedom; Voellig losgeloest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baun, R.


    The first two places in the list of technology trends went to engine technology - while the bronze medal was won by X-by-wire systems. The possibility of accelerating, braking, steering and gear shifting without mechanical links or connections creates new degrees of packaging freedom and allows for more comfort and safety. Some systems - for example the electronic accelerator - are already state-of-the-art technology. Steering and braking systems, however, still have a number of bureaucratic - and other - hurdles to overcome. (orig.) [German] Die beiden ersten Plaetze bei den Techniktrends gingen an die Motorentechnik - die Bronze-Medaille konnten sich die X-by-Wire-Systeme erobern. Beschleunigen, bremsen, lenken und schalten ohne mechanische Gestaenge oder Verbindungen schaffen neue Freiheitsgrade beim Package und ermoeglichen mehr Komfort und Sicherheit. Einige Systeme - etwa E-Gas - sind schon Stand der Technik. Bei den Lenk- und Bremssystemen stehen - unter anderem - noch buerokratische Sicherheitshuerden im Weg. (orig.)

  12. Subnucleon freedom degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.


    The nucleon is nothing but the fundamental state of a complex object, the Baryon. It has a great number of excited states which are significative of its quark structure. The aim of nuclear physics today is to understand the interaction dynamics in nuclei of particles whose existence is known by high energy physics. This lecture aims at defining the frontier of current comprehension in this field by some examples. First quarks and gluons are presented. Proofs of existence of pinpoint particles inside the nucleus are given. Then a direct proof of the concept validity of the nucleon orbit in the nucleus is given. Mesonic freedom degrees are also studied. Some experience examples in which meson exchange exist clearly are shown. At last, the role of subnucleonic effects in the nuclear reactions is shown [fr

  13. Managing Religious Conflicts in Nigeria: The Inter-Religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria with over 150 million people consists of muslims and christians who live across the country. The religious divide in the country crisscrosses more than 250 ethnic groups as well as deep political divisions that cross religious lines. Over the last decade, numerous 'hotspots' around the country have suffered from ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatib A. Kadir


    Full Text Available Sociological discussion of globalisation is preoccupied with the political, economic, and military dimension of it, with little attention to its religious aspect. This paper attempts to trace the impacts of globalisation on religion and religious responses, the argument of which derives mainly from the so-called “Bridge-Building Program” organised by CRCS & ICRS-UGM in 2008. It argues that though they share a common concern, people of different faiths are at risk of deepening the problems rather than offering solutions in view of their different responses for which we categorise them into different but overlapping categories -ideological, ambivalent, integrative, exclusive, and imitative. It then leads to a more fundamental question of whether interfaith cooperation is possible given those different and sometime opposing responses. [Dalam kajian sosiologi, diskusi mengenai globalisasi kerap kali semata-mata ditinjau dari sisi politik, enonomi dan militer, sementara dimensi agama sering kali dikesampingkan. Artikel ini membahas dampak globalisasi terhadap agama dan respon komunitas agama terhadap globalisasi. Data yang muncul dalam artikel ini diambil dari sebuah workshop berjudul“Bridge- Building Program.” Melalui artikel ini, saya berpendapat bahwa, meskikomunitas agama-agama memiliki keprihatinan yang sama terhadap dampak globalisasi, namun respon mereka cenderung mempertajam persoalan yang diakibatkan globalisasi, ketimbang memberikan solusi. Respon tersebut dalam dikategorikan –meski tidak kaku- dalam: respon ideologis, ambivalen, integratif, ekslusif dan imitatif. Selanjutnya, artikel juga mengulas pada pertanyaan mendasar mengenai apakah kerjasama antar agama mungkin dilakukan menyimak ragam respon yang saling bertentangan tersebut.

  15. Religiousness and health in Europe. (United States)

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Möller, Sören; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Vitved, Astrid Roll; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Hvidt, Niels Christian


    Recent research suggests that epidemiological forces in religion and health can have opposed effects. Using longitudinal data of people aged 50+ included in wave 1 (2004-2005) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), and followed up through waves 2 (2006-2007), 4 (2011) and 5 (2013), we examined two forms of religious internalization and their association with health. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine all associations. Taking part in a religious organization was associated with lower odds of GALI (global activity limitation index) (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.75, 0.98) and depressive symptoms 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93), whereas being religiously educated lowered odds of poor self-rated health (SRH) 0.81 (95% CI 0.70, 0.93) and long-term health problems 0.84 (95% CI 0.74, 0.95). The more religious had lower odds of limitations with activities of daily living 0.76 (95% CI 0.58, 0.99) and depressive symptoms 0.77 (95% CI 0.64, 0.92) than other respondents, and compared to people who only prayed and did not have organizational involvement, they had lower odds of poor SRH 0.71 (95% CI 0.52, 0.97) and depressive symptoms 0.66 (95% CI 0.50, 0.87). Conversely, people who only prayed had higher odds of depressive symptoms than non-religious people 1.46 (95% CI 1.15, 1.86). Our findings suggest two types of religiousness: 1. Restful religiousness (praying, taking part in a religious organization and being religiously educated), which is associated with good health, and 2. Crisis religiousness (praying without other religious activities), which is associated with poor health.

  16. Ludic role of religious rituals. The use of play for religious ceremony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciocan Tudor Cosmin


    Full Text Available This paper was made as part of a wider research I made about rituals and their meaning and roles they are playing in the religious system of thinking. The way they are thought, displayed, precisely followed as instructed and believed, makes them a powerful social act that has been always provided by any religion, and also a tool for religion to make the human society what it is today. After I speak about what is a ritual and its religious content in general, I am enumerating roles and functions of play and theatre in particular have, both for profane and religious purpose. Do we still use play/games as adults because they are rewarding, they give us pleasure? They are used as means of relaxation, or for continuing the age of childhood; or it is in our nature to play games in everything we do? In this paper I have emphasized play as adaptive potentiation or adaptive variability useful both in therapy, as in religious ceremony. The relation and comparison of rituals with play is due to the fact that playing is the most engaging behavior performed by man and animals, and it can be found as foundation of almost any ritualist activity.

  17. Green Fire and Religious Spirit. (United States)

    Haluza-Delay, Randolph


    Spirituality, even within traditional religious practices, can inspire environmentally aware lifestyles. To help this "green fire" burn well, experiential educators should acknowledge religious beliefs and practices and avoid perpetuating the modern spiritual-secular rift. A "critical experientialism" is needed when it comes to…

  18. Religiøs omvendelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Ida Marie; Geertz, Armin W


    Selvom religiøs omvendelse har været gennemanalyseret inden for psykologien og socio­logien er det vor opfattelse at den seneste neurovidenskabelige forskning kan kaste nyt lys på emnet. Det er vor påstand at omvendelse drejer sig om religiøse identitetsdannelsesprocesser, hvor der er tale om gru...

  19. Educating American Protestant Religious Educators (United States)

    Foster, Charles R.


    The voluntarism in Protestant theologies and practices has significantly shaped the education of lay and professional Protestant religious educators in networks of voluntary and academic training programs that through the years have emphasized the interdependence of pedagogical, religious/theological, and social science theories and practices.…

  20. Aesthetics of religious authority. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunier, J.T.; de Witte, M.; de Koning, M.J.M.


    This special issue brings together anthropologists in the field of religion with the aim of exploring the aesthetic dimensions of authority in religious leadership.Taking aesthetics to refer to the range of sensory forms and experiences that shape the relation between religious practitioners and

  1. Academic Freedom and Indentured Students (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey J.


    Discussion of academic freedom usually focuses on faculty, and it usually refers to speech. That is the gist of the 1915 "General Report of the Committee on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure," appearing in the inaugural AAUP "Bulletin" as a kind of mission statement. Given the conditions of the American system of higher education--decentralized…

  2. Intellectual Freedom Manual. Eighth Edition (United States)

    ALA Editions, 2010


    Updated for the first time since 2005, this indispensable volume includes revised interpretations of the Library Bill of Rights along with key intellectual freedom guidelines and policies, including: (1) A new chapter, "Interactivity and the Internet," and other fresh material on intellectual freedom and privacy in online social…

  3. Religious education in public schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim


    With special attention to Denmark, this article discusses to what degree religious education in public school in the Scandinavian countries, often said to be among the frontrunners as regards non-confessional religious education, reflects and accommodates an increased religious pluralism as well...... the 'repoliticization' and 'securitization' of religion (with special regard to Islamophobia, Islam and immigrant Muslim minorities), concludes, inter alia, that parts of the RE curricula do not just include a wider variety of religions but also helps to counter, if not stop, changes that have to do with the new...... plurality of religions. The analysis indicates that religious education is meant to serve the promotion of social cohesion by way of promoting knowledge and understanding of the new multi-religious world, at the same time as it continues to promote and propagate, for example, Danish culture as Christian...

  4. Freedom as Satisfaction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian Fogh


    with harmony in one's entire volitional system, Frankfurt may solve the infi nite regress objection but he does so at the cost of ending up with a description of freedom, which comes very close to being identical to his own description of the wanton. Frankfurt's account leaves open the question of whether......This article is a critical assessment of Harry Frankfurt's hierarchical theory of freedom. It spells out and distinguishes several different and irreconcilable conceptions of freedom present in Frankfurt's work. I argue that Frankfurt is ambiguous in his early formulation as to what conception...... of freedom of the will the hierarchical theory builds on, an avoidability or a satisfaction conception. This ambiguity causes problems in his later attempts to respond to the objections of wantonness of second-order desires and of infi nite regress. With his more recent idea of freedom as being satisfi ed...

  5. Freedom in Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, N. van


    Free will is the capacity to select and execute one really possible action alternative. In recent years this simple libertarian picture of our capacity to freely act has drawn much criticism. Many neuroscientists claim that we do not have a capacity to select alternative courses of action since our

  6. Let Freedom Ring! Let Peace Reign! (United States)

    Moore, Mary Elizabeth Mullino


    True freedom and true peace are cousins, but they can only work together if the freedom of one people is seen in relation to the freedom of another. Struggles for freedom and peace can only enhance each other if the peace people seek is a robust harmony in which conflict is embraced and people are encouraged to imagine a far stronger freedom and…

  7. IRIB’s Religious and Non-religious Programs and their Impacts on Religiosity Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Ravadrad


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to study the correlation between IRIB’s Religious and Non-religious programs, and the levels of religiosity in Iran. Accordingly, I would firstly explain the key concepts as religious program, non-religious program, religious broadcasting, and Ideological broadcasting; then, analyzing some instant programs, from non-religious to religious, I would attempt to formulize their impacts on one’s definition of religion –either as a private or simultaneously private and public matter. It is shown that in the trilogy of purely religious, purely entertaining, and mediated religious programs, it is the third which satisfy a religious television’s ideal.

  8. 77 FR 7243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans... (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0728] Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment) Activities Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs...

  9. Church Attendance and Religious Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Nilsen Kvande


    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that gender may moderate the relationship between religiousness and mental health in most countries, but few studies have been conducted in Norway and Denmark. This study examined gender differences in religious experiences and church attendance as predictors of existential well-being among 295 women and 233 men from the general Norwegian population. Analyses showed that the structural equation models for women and men did not differ significantly on the global level. The models for women and men, however, showed different patterns. Among men, church attendance and negative religious experiences predicted existential well-being; among women, positive and negative religious experiences were related to existential well-being, but church attendance was not. The present findings suggest that men may benefit more from active religiousness, whereas women may benefit more from affective religiousness. Comparing these results with research in other cultural contexts, we find that different operationalizations of church attendance yield the same types of patterns across cultural contexts. Consequently, the benefits of religiousness may be similar for women and men irrespective of cultural context.

  10. The College Student's Freedom of Expression (United States)

    Gibbs, Annette


    Discussion of means to ensure freedom of expression by college students. Areas of expression noted are student newspapers, lectures by off-campus speakers, freedom to assemble peaceably and freedom to associate. (EK)

  11. 76 FR 72243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans... (United States)


    ... (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment) Activity; Comment... Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans and their families. DATES: Written comments and...: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form 10-21091. OMB...

  12. 76 FR 58565 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously... (United States)


    ... (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet... solicits comments on information provided to Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans... information technology. Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill...

  13. Parental Divorce, Parental Religious Characteristics, and Religious Outcomes in Adulthood


    Uecker, Jeremy E.; Ellison, Christopher G.


    Parental divorce has been linked to religious outcomes in adulthood. Previous research has not adequately accounted for parental religious characteristics or subsequent family context, namely whether one’s custodial parent remarries. Using pooled data from three waves of the General Social Survey, we examine the relationships among parental divorce, subsequent family structure, and religiosity in adulthood. Growing up in a single-parent family—but not a stepparent family—is positively associa...

  14. A constitutionalised perspective on freedom of artistic expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of section 16(1)(c) of the South African Constitution, Act 108 of 1996, artistic creativity is regarded as a manifestation of freedom of expression. However, unbridled artistic expression can sometimes go to the extremes of repulsiveness. For example, art, which takes on the form of pornography, can for instance be an ...

  15. Freedom of religion, freedom of expression and the United Nations: recognizing values and rights in the “defamation of religions” discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Angeletti


    The article focuses on the issue of religious freedom and freedom of expression from the point of view of the United Nations. In particular, it examines the so called Defamation of religions, which has been the topic of a series of Resolutions voted by the Human Rights Commission, the Human Rights Council and the Assembly General, from 1999 to 2010. In the Defamation of religions debate, the UN institutions appear to tend to highlight the conflict between rights rather than the positive interrelation between them. Nonetheless, it has been repeatedly argued that it should be possible for political institutions and religious majorities to use anti-defamatory legislation in order to stem the activities of religious minorities. Applying penal anti-defamation laws might not be the best way to deal with the potential conflict between two fundamental rights. The more recent trends show a shift toward what seems to be a more suitable accommodation of the interests at stake. In this regard, the article will consider the Human Rights Council’s Resolution about discrimination on religious grounds (2011, the Ad Hoc Committee on Complementary Standards to the ICERD and the new General Comment on article 19 of the ICCPR.

  16. Scientific Freedom and Human Rights (United States)

    Munoz, Elisa


    As part of her ongoing work monitoring issues at the intersection of science and human rights, Ms. Munoz has highlighted violations of academic freedom in Serbia and Iran, the denial of visas and travel licenses to U.S. and Cuban scientists, interference with scientific freedom in Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and the Ukraine, the use of organs from executed prisoners in China, legislation jeopardizing women's health in Iran, and the closure of centers for the treatment of torture survivors in Turkey. Such violations contravene international human rights principles listed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights covenants. Ms. Munoz will describe current violations of scientific freedom and the relevant international principles on which these freedoms rest.

  17. Freedom: A Promise of Possibility. (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt


    The idea of freedom as a promise of possibility is explored in this column. The core concepts from a research study on considering tomorrow (Bunkers, 1998) coupled with humanbecoming community change processes (Parse, 2003) are used to illuminate this notion. The importance of intentionality in human freedom is discussed from both a human science and a natural science perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Veteran Religious Affiliation by State (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset provide a count of Veteran by their religious affiliation and state of residence. The dataset set covers all 50 states, District of Columbia and other...

  19. Structural Correlates of School Children's Religious Intolerance. (United States)

    Byrnes, Deborah; Kiger, Gary


    Determinants of religious prejudice were studied using 101 first, third, and fifth graders from rural and non-rural areas. Awareness of religious differences and living in religiously homogeneous rural areas were directly related to the expression of religious prejudice. Implications for curriculum development are discussed. (SLD)

  20. Rudolf Steiner's Philosophy of Freedom as a Basis for Spiritual Education? (United States)

    Oberski, Iddo


    The spiritual well-being of children is often thought to be an important goal and outcome of education. Such spiritual well-being is also implicitly assumed by the Human Rights Act, which includes the right to "freedom of thought, conscience and religion" [Article 18]. I argue that such freedom requires an education that fosters development of…

  1. Network Theory and Religious Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collar, Anna

    Collar, A. C. F. ‘Network Theory and Religious Innovation’. In Greek and Roman Networks in the Mediterranean, edited by I. Malkin, C. Constantakopoulou, K. Panagopoulou, 144-157. Abingdon: Routledge......Collar, A. C. F. ‘Network Theory and Religious Innovation’. In Greek and Roman Networks in the Mediterranean, edited by I. Malkin, C. Constantakopoulou, K. Panagopoulou, 144-157. Abingdon: Routledge...

  2. Religious Attitudes and Home Bias


    C. Reggiani; G. Rossini


    Home bias affects trade in goods, services and financial assets. It is mostly generated by "natural" trade barriers. Among these dividers we may list many behavioral and sociological factors, such as status quo biases and a few kind of ‘embeddedness’. Unfortunately these factors are difficult to measure. An important part of ‘embeddedness’ may be related to religious attitudes. Is there any relation between economic home bias and religious attitudes at the individual tier? Our aim is to provi...

  3. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 286 - DD Form 2564, “Annual Report Freedom of Information Act” (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2564, âAnnual Report Freedom of Information Actâ E Appendix E to Part 286 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE... REGULATION Pt. 286, App. E Appendix E to Part 286—DD Form 2564, “Annual Report Freedom of Information Act...


    Gegelashvili, M; Meca, A; Schwartz, S J


    In the present study we sought to clarify links between religious exclusivity, as form of intergroup favoritism, and indices of psychosocial functioning. The study of in group favoritism has generally been invoked within Social Identity Theory and related perspectives. However, there is a lack of literature regarding religious exclusivity from the standpoint of social identity. In particular, the ways in which religious exclusivity is linked with other dimensions of religious belief and practice, and with psychosocial functioning, among individuals from different religious backgrounds are not well understood. A sample of 8545 emerging-adult students from 30 U.S. universities completed special measures. Measure of religious exclusivity was developed and validated for this group. The results suggest that exclusivity appears as predictor for impaired psychosocial functioning, low self-esteem and low psychosocial well-being for individuals from organized faiths, as well as for those identifying as agnostic, atheist, or spiritual/nonreligious. These findings are discussed in terms of Social Identity Theory and Terror Management Theory (TMT).

  5. Portraits in Praise of a People: A Rhetorical Analysis of Norman Rockwell's Icons in Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms" Campaign. (United States)

    Olson, Lester C.


    Examines Rockwell's "Four Freedoms" posters and considers the historical circumstances during which they were mass-distributed. Observes how these paintings that praised the political and religious values of Americans were used to educate the people about the necessity of participation in World War II. (PD)

  6. Freedom of Expression in Distributed Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejvind Hansen


    Full Text Available This paper proposes the following question: Is it possible to transfer human rights like the freedom of expression – or at least to preserve the formal protections guarding speech acts from arbitrary suppression – in a post-national setting? The question arises as an urgent matter in the context of our global system of connected markets and distributed telecommunications networks – the Internet – since, as many academics and policy makers have noted, the two tend to undermine nationals boundaries, putting into question the power of individual states to continue function as the traditional legal and identity-generating entities of last resort.   If this analysis is reliable the dialectical union between the autonomous individual citizen and the legally regulated nation state is broken. In this paper I will draw the consequences of that supposed break, exploring the question of the extent to which it makes sense to accord “rights” – freedom of expression – to entities that are not classical autonomous humans, and to confer them by entities that no longer bear the marks of nation-state sovereignty. The question thus is: Is it possible to transfer the normative approach of the classic liberal nation states into a global system?   The paper explores this question through an elaboration of problems for the preservation of the human right to freedom of expression: On the one hand communication on the Internet is regulated by an immense legal body, but on the other hand, the machinery for enforcement controlled by this legal body is dependent on various agencies that don’t necessarily recognize its legitimacy. I will then explore whether a more technologically oriented approach could be a more fruitful approach in defining the actual limitations to freedom of expression in the new global system. My answer is that ultimately the control paradigm fails, because it is too clumsy at incorporating self-correcting measures. Thirdly, I

  7. Religious diversity, intolerance and civil conflict


    Gomes, Joseph Flavian


    We compute new measures of religious diversity and intolerance and study their effects on civil conflict. Using a religion tree that describes the relationship between different religions, we compute measures of religious diversity at three different levels of aggregation. We find that religious diversity is a significant and robust correlate of civil conflict. While religious fractionalization significantly reduces conflict, religious polarization increases it. This is most robust at the sec...

  8. Good for God? Religious motivation reduces perceived responsibility for and morality of good deeds. (United States)

    Gervais, Will M


    Many people view religion as a crucial source of morality. However, 6 experiments (total N = 1,078) revealed that good deeds are perceived as less moral if they are performed for religious reasons. Religiously motivated acts were seen as less moral than the exact same acts performed for other reasons (Experiments 1-2 and 6). Religious motivations also reduced attributions of intention and responsibility (Experiments 3-6), an effect that fully mediated the effect of religious motivations on perceived morality (Experiment 6). The effects were not explained by different perceptions of motivation orientation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic) across conditions (Experiment 4) and also were evident when religious upbringing led to an intuitive moral response (Experiment 5). Effects generalized across religious and nonreligious participants. When viewing a religiously motivated good deed, people infer that actually helping others is, in part, a side effect of other motivations rather than an end in itself. Thus, religiously motivated actors are seen as less responsible than secular actors for their good deeds, and their helping behavior is viewed as less moral than identical good deeds performed for either unclear or secular motivations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Are Happiness and Life Satisfaction Different Across Religious Groups? Exploring Determinants of Happiness and Life Satisfaction. (United States)

    Ngamaba, Kayonda Hubert; Soni, Debbie


    This study explores whether different religions experience different levels of happiness and life satisfaction and in case this is affected by country economic and cultural environment. Using World Value Survey (from 1981 to 2014), this study found that individual religiosity and country level of development play a significant role in shaping people's subjective well-being (SWB). Protestants, Buddhists and Roman Catholic were happier and most satisfied with their lives compared to other religious groups. Orthodox has the lowest SWB. Health status, household's financial satisfaction and freedom of choice are means by which religious groups and governments across the globe can improve the SWB of their citizens.

  10. Academic Freedom and the Diminished Subject (United States)

    Hayes, Dennis


    Discussions about freedom of speech and academic freedom today are about the limits to those freedoms. However, these discussions take place mostly in the higher education trade press and do not receive any serious attention from academics and educationalists. In this paper several key arguments for limiting academic freedom are identified,…

  11. [On freedom of scientific research]. (United States)

    Folkers, G


    Debates about science and, more specifically, about scientific research quickly bring up the question about its freedom. Science is readily blamed for technological disasters or criticized for nursing fantasies of omnipotence and commercial gain. This prompts the call for a restriction of its freedom. At the same time, society's demands on science are enormous, to the effect that science and technology have acquired the status of a deus-ex-machina: they are expected to furnish short-term, affordable, and convenient solutions to a wide range of problems, including issues of health, transportation, food and, more generally, a comfortable life. What kind of freedom is required to meet these expectations? Who is in a position to grant it? What does freedom for science mean and how is it linked to responsibility? The paper examines the current situation of freedom in scientific research and of its restrictions, many of which are mentally or economically conditioned. It calls for the involvement of an informed, self-confident bourgeoisie in research decisions and for the educational measures this necessitates. Finally, it demands a greater appreciation of education (rather than training) as the basis of social trust, and the recognition of continuous education as a productive investment of time and a crucial element in the employment of social goods.

  12. The will: from metaphysical freedom to normative functionalism. (United States)

    Felthous, Alan R


    Free will is regarded by some as the most and by others as the least relevant concept for criminal responsibility. Contributions from religious and philosophical thinkers over the classical and medieval Christian eras demonstrate that, despite the passionate and historically consequential debates over the meaning of "freedom," the unifying theme that joined the will with the intellect remained persistent and pervasive. Leading historical jurists in England eventually dropped the descriptor "free," but retained the central importance of the will to criminal responsibility and emphasized its dependence on the intellect to function properly. Modern rationalist philosophers denied the will's metaphysical freedom, but not its existence. Today the neurosciences reveal more and more about how the will functions, even as lawyers and psychiatrists hesitate to utter the word. In properly avoiding metaphysical freedom within forensic inquiry and discourse, it is a grave conceptual mistake to overlook the will itself. Once greater conceptual clarity on the empirical nature of the will is achieved and accepted, the law itself could rediscover the core mental faculty behind human agency, the will.

  13. 320-row CT coronary angiography predicts freedom from revascularisation and acts as a gatekeeper to defer invasive angiography in stable coronary artery disease: a fractional flow reserve-correlated study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Brian S.; Wong, Dennis T.L.; Cameron, James D.; Leung, Michael; Meredith, Ian T.; Nerlekar, Nitesh; Antonis, Paul; Harper, Richard; Malaiapan, Yuvaraj; Seneviratne, Sujith K.; Leong, Darryl P.; Crossett, Marcus; Troupis, John


    To determine the accuracy of 320-row multidetector coronary computed tomography angiography (M320-CCTA) to detect functional stenoses using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the reference standard and to predict revascularisation in stable coronary artery disease. One hundred and fifteen patients (230 vessels) underwent M320-CCTA and FFR assessment and were followed for 18 months. Diameter stenosis on invasive angiography (ICA) and M320-CCTA were assessed by consensus by two observers and significant stenosis was defined as ≥50 %. FFR ≤0.8 indicated functionally significant stenoses. M320-CCTA had 94 % sensitivity and 94 % negative predictive value (NPV) for FFR ≤0.8. Overall accuracy was 70 %, specificity 54 % and positive predictive value 65 %. On receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) for CCTA to predict FFR ≤0.8 was 0.74 which was comparable with ICA. The absence of a significant stenosis on M320-CCTA was associated with a 6 % revascularisation rate. M320-CCTA predicted revascularisation with an AUC of 0.71 which was comparable with ICA. M320-CCTA has excellent sensitivity and NPV for functional stenoses and therefore may act as an effective gatekeeper to defer ICA and revascularisation. Like ICA, M320-CCTA lacks specificity for functional stenoses and only has moderate accuracy to predict the need for revascularisation. (orig.)

  14. Features Consolidation and the Right to Freedom Personality in Law of Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kalyuzhnyi


    Full Text Available The article substantiates the urgency of countering the spread of attacks on freedom of the individual; analyzes the provisions of the Russian legislation on the declaration, and securing the rights to freedom of the individual; a classification of the investigated legal acts; substantiates the content structure of each of the listed groups of regulations;the content of the right to freedom of movement and the prohibition of forced labor in the legislation of Russia, analyzes the limits of jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and its members in matters of freedom of the individual; The problems of the existing mechanisms for the implementation of the provisions of the investigated legal acts; the features of the current state of the legal regulation of the right to individual freedom and draws conclusions on the content of the article.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Supraptingsih


    Full Text Available Umi Supraptingsih (Penulis, dosen STAIN Pamekasan, Jl. Raya Panglegur Km. 04 Pamekasan     Abstract The act of begging of beggar appears tradition for generations and it becomes inheritant profession. Social and  economic characteristics of beggar are influenced by several factors---natural and human resources. Places of beggar to do begging, Api Tak Kunjung Padam (eternal flame and Batu Ampar, are distinctive. The former is the common tourism spot, but the later is the religous tourism place. The factors cause the begging are the natural setting condition that does not support the  beggar to earn sufficient income, the low level of education, inedequate parenting pattern, less religious teaching comprehension, the extinct of abahsment, and instant needs.  Establishing an actual cultural  communication and asking the participation of stake holders---philantropist, academician, public figure, religious scholar, and government, will hopefully decrease the number of beggar. Kata-kata kunci tradisi, mengemis, dan kebutuhan hidup

  16. 76 FR 73022 - Agency Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously... (United States)


    ... (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet... No. 2900-0720.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom... used VA Form 21-0773 as a checklist to ensure they provided Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation...

  17. FAITH, INTOLERANCE, VIOLENCE AND BIGOTRY: Legal and Constitutional Issues of Freedom of Religion in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Fenton


    Full Text Available Religious intolerance and bigotry indeed is a contri­buting factor in social and political conflict including manifestations of terrorist violence. While freedom of religion is enshrined in Indonesia’s Constitution, social practices and governmental regulations fall short of constitutional and international law guarantees, allowing institutionalised bias in the treatment of religious minorities. Such bias inhibits Indonesia’s transition to a fully-functioning pluralistic democracy and sacrifices democratic ideals of personal liberty and freedom of expression for the stated goals of religious and social harmony. The Ahok case precisely confirms that. The paper examines the constitutional bases of freedom of religion, Indonesia’s Blasphemy Law and takes account of the history and tenets of Pancasila which dictate a belief in God as the first principle of state ideology. The paper argues that the Indonesian state’s failure to recognise the legitimacy of alternate theological positions is a major obstacle to Indonesia recognising the ultimate ideal, enshrined in the national motto, of unity in diversity.

  18. New threats to academic freedom. (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca


    Using a specific case as an example, the article argues that the Internet allows dissemination of academic ideas to the general public in ways that can sometimes pose a threat to academic freedom. Since academic freedom is a fundamental element of academia and since it benefits society at large, it is important to safeguard it. Among measures that can be taken in order to achieve this goal, the publication of anonymous research seems to be a good option. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Space Station Freedom food management (United States)

    Whitehurst, Troy N., Jr.; Bourland, Charles T.


    This paper summarizes the specification requirements for the Space Station Food System, and describes the system that is being designed and developed to meet those requirements. Space Station Freedom will provide a mix of frozen, refrigerated, rehydratable, and shelf stable foods. The crew will pre-select preferred foods from an approved list, to the extent that proper nutrition balance is maintained. A galley with freezers, refrigerators, trash compactor, and combination microwave and convection ovens will improve crew efficiency and productivity during the long Space Station Freedom (SSF) missions.

  20. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?


    Reel, Jordan; Block, Walter E.


    Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figu...

  1. Religiøsitet i livsformen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Steen


    Artiklen argumenterer for at mange opfattelser af religiøsitet reducerer fænomenet til en slags moralitet. Med Wittgensteins filosofi som modeksempel, og i lyset af en modstilling mellem Hegel og Kierkegaards opfattelse af religiøsitet, betones religiøsitetens radikale karakter.......Artiklen argumenterer for at mange opfattelser af religiøsitet reducerer fænomenet til en slags moralitet. Med Wittgensteins filosofi som modeksempel, og i lyset af en modstilling mellem Hegel og Kierkegaards opfattelse af religiøsitet, betones religiøsitetens radikale karakter....

  2. Religious perspectives on organ donation. (United States)

    Gillman, J


    A donor's or family's religious beliefs are to be ascertained in discussions about organ donation. The positions of the major faith groups about donation are reviewed, leading to the conclusion that the large majority of faiths take a positive stance toward donation. Other factors such as the emotional response, the cultural values, and the spiritual issues may be even more compelling for family members than religious beliefs. Conflicts between one's personal beliefs and the position of one's faith group about donation are to be assessed and processed.

  3. Judeo - Igbo traditional religious conception of sin: socio – religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theword sin ismore of a religious termthan ordinary. It is basically an action of defiance. That is, an action through which one deviates from the correct way or through which one misses the mark. This paper looked at how the Jews of theOld andNewTestament periods understood the concept of sin in their society.

  4. What’s the problem with symbolic religious establishment? The alienation and symbolic equality accounts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune


    In this chapter I examine two possible reasons, which are prominent but often not systematically discussed in the literature, for thinking even purely symbolic establishment problematic. These are considerations of alienation and symbolic equality. I am only concerned with ways in which establish...... establishment might be normatively problematic even if it does not infringe on religious freedom and does not involve material injustices in other respects....

  5. Religious morality (and secular humanism) in Western civilization as precursors to medical ethics: A historic perspective


    Miguel A Faria


    In discussing bioethics and the formulation of neuroethics, the question has arisen as to whether secular humanism should be the sole philosophical guiding light, to the exclusion of any discussion (or even mention) of religious morality, in professional medical ethics. In addition, the question has arisen as to whether freedom or censorship should be part of medical (and neuroscience) journalism. Should independent medical journals abstain from discussing certain issues, or should only the m...

  6. The Specific Value of Freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, Martin


    Freedom is among the most important values in political life, yet there has always been a great deal of disagreement about what this value demands from us. Libertarians argue that it requires that we protect each person's right to own and exchange private property. Liberals argue that it requires

  7. Academic Freedom: A Lawyer's Perspective (United States)

    Davies, Mark


    Academic freedom is central to ideas of higher education, yet in the United Kingdom it is facing challenges from changing managerial approaches within some universities and changing governmental expectations. Universities are increasingly expected to focus upon knowledge which can be shown to have value and to exploit the results of academic…

  8. On Procedural Freedom of Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arlegi, R.; Dimitrov, D.A.


    Numerous works in the last decade have analyzed the question of how to compare opportunity sets as a way to measure and evaluate individual freedom of choice.This paper defends that, in many contexts, external procedural aspects that are associated to an opportunity set should be taken into account

  9. No School like Freedom School (United States)

    Williamson, Lisa Ann


    "You are the hope of the future." That's the message Marian Wright Edelman, executive director of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF), gave more than 1,500 excited college students and recent graduates as they began a week-long training for the CDF's Freedom Schools. She was preparing them for a daunting task--that of transforming the…

  10. Casting Freedom, 1860-1862 (United States)

    Social Education, 2005


    Thomas Crawford, an American Sculptor, created the full-size figure of Freedom in clay. Molds were made, from which a full-size positive plaster model was cast in five main sections. This model is on view today in the basement rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building. Clark Mills was a self-taught American sculptor with experience in casting…

  11. Renormalization group and asymptotic freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.R.


    Several field theoretic models are presented which allow exact expressions of the renormalization constants and renormalized coupling constants. These models are analyzed as to their content of asymptotic free field behavior through the use of the Callan-Symanzik renormalization group equation. It is found that none of these models possesses asymptotic freedom in four dimensions

  12. Tenure, Academic Freedom, and Governance. (United States)

    Perley, James E.


    Tenure itself is not the central issue in the debate over faculty tenure; honest faculty evaluation, adequate faculty development, and termination when appropriate are the real issues as are fears that abandonment of the tenure principle would amount to abandonment of the principles of academic freedom and shared governance. (MSE)

  13. Access, Intellectual Freedom and Libraries. (United States)

    Darling, Richard L.


    Reviews attitudes toward censorship in the United States throughout its history in relation to the nation and its institutions. The library is recognized as an institution in which censorship has no place, due to its creed of information access and intellectual freedom for all. (MBR)

  14. The Constitution and Academic Freedom. (United States)

    Gilbertson, Eric R.

    During the past 150 years U.S. courts have demonstrated a special protectiveness toward academics and academic institutions. Academic freedom was not a concern when the U.S. Constitution and the First Amendment were drafted and is not mentioned in the "Federalist Papers." However, decisions by a series of Supreme Court justices led to…

  15. Effects of Personality Traits, Religiousness/ Spirituality on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religiousness Index (IWSRI), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) were administered to 412 randomly selected senior secondary school students to evaluate personality traits, spirituality/religiousness, and psychopathology respectively.

  16. 38 CFR 61.64 - Religious organizations. (United States)


    ... over its internal governance, and it may retain religious terms in its organization's name, select its..., practice and expression of its religious beliefs, provided that it does not use direct financial assistance...

  17. Religious Tourism in Batangas, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonna Marrien U. Asi


    Full Text Available This study assessed religious tourism in Batangas, Philippines on the following aspects: historical significance, holiness and spirituality, and customs and traditions. The assessments made were also subjected to tests of differences when the respondents are grouped as to either residents or tourists and according to their age, sex, educational attainment and employment. Results show that both tourists and residents generally concurred on all religious tourism indicators presented to them for assessment, although there were also few indicators that had lower mean assessments than the others. While the differences on the assessments made by the different groups of respondents were not statistically significant, the slight differences are still noticeable. In particular, residents had somewhat more favourable assessment than the tourists, older respondents more than the younger, males more than the females, those with higher education more than those with lower education, and government employees more than those who are not in government service. These slight but still noticeable differences, together with religious tourism indicators having lower mean assessments than the others, can serve as bases for making proposals on how to further enrich the religious tourism in Batangas.

  18. Sexual Violence on Religious Campuses (United States)

    Vanderwoerd, James R.; Cheng, Albert


    Religious colleges and universities make up a substantial segment of the higher education landscape in North America, but the incidence of sexual violence on these campuses remains understudied. This study estimates the incidence of sexual violence on independent Christian campuses using a sample of part-time and full-time undergraduate students…

  19. Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal that serves as a forum for disseminating research findings on issues relating to religion in general.The Journal aims at creating avenue for scholars to publish their research works on all aspects of religions. It seeks to promote critical research and ...

  20. Assessment of Religious Beliefs Form. (United States)

    Faiver, Christopher M.; O'Brien, Eugene M.


    Notes that religion may be source of spiritual strength or source of conflict and guilt. Outlines importance of assessing religious beliefs of clients for treatment purposes and provides format for counselor to use. Says that, because counselors may be unaware of clients' individual perspectives, it is important to evaluate client's belief system…

  1. Women Religious Leaders and Stress. (United States)

    Rayburn, Carole A.; And Others

    This study examined stress, strain, and coping mechanisms in women religious leaders. Subjects were nuns (N=51), Reform women rabbis (N=45), Episcopal women priests (N=32), United Methodist clergywomen (N=45) and Presbyterian clergywomen (N=45), matched for age and years on the job and pulpit assignments. All subjects were given the Osipow and…

  2. Religiousness and health in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Möller, Sören; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen


    % CI 0.75, 0.98) and depressive symptoms 0.80 (95% CI 0.69, 0.93), whereas being religiously educated lowered odds of poor self-rated health (SRH) 0.81 (95% CI 0.70, 0.93) and long-term health problems 0.84 (95% CI 0.74, 0.95). The more religious had lower odds of limitations with activities of daily......Recent research suggests that epidemiological forces in religion and health can have opposed effects. Using longitudinal data of people aged 50+ included in wave 1 (2004-2005) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), and followed up through waves 2 (2006-2007), 4 (2011......) and 5 (2013), we examined two forms of religious internalization and their association with health. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine all associations. Taking part in a religious organization was associated with lower odds of GALI (global activity limitation index) (OR = 0.86, 95...

  3. Religious Education for Generating Hope (United States)

    Conde-Frazier, Elizabeth


    This article discusses how religious education began at Esperanza College in North Philadelphia, one of the poorest counties of the United States. It also is the largest community of returning citizens in Pennsylvania. Student access and success in higher education continues to be impacted by the effects of structural racism and systemic poverty.…

  4. Religious Co-option in Autocracy: A Theory Inspired by History


    Auriol, Emmanuelle; Platteau, Jean-Philippe


    The relationship between religion and politics is explored from a theoretical standpoint, assuming that religious clerics can be coopted by the ruler acting as an autocrat. The comparative effects of decentralized versus centralized religions on the optimal level of cooperation between the autocrat and the religious clerics, which itself impinges upon political stability, is analysed. The paper shows that the presence of a decentralized body of clerics makes autocratic regimes more unstable. ...

  5. Development of Religiousness in Young Adults


    Rydz, Elżbieta


    In the chapter forming of religiousness in young adults in the view of current concepts, both normative (stadial concepts of religiousness) and non-normative, will be presented. The majority of research on religiousness of youth is carried out in the normative understanding of development, which refers to general trends of human psychological development, especially cognitive development (cognitive developmental concepts of religiousness), personality development (humanistic concepts of the d...

  6. Religiousness and Non-Hopeless Suicide Ideation (United States)

    Simonson, Randy H.


    Individuals who think about suicide but do not feel suicidally hopeless tend to be less religious and can therefore entertain thoughts of suicide unabated by religiousness. Religiousness, suicide ideation, and hopelessness were surveyed among 279 Idaho college students, 37 (13%) of whom were non-hopeless suicide ideators. A total of only 21 (7%)…

  7. The Myth of Religious Experience Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangwill Nick


    Full Text Available This article replies to Manuel Fasko’s “The Demystification of Nick Zangwill’s ‘Myth of Religious Experience’” (2017, showing how author’s argument against the possibility of religious experience presented in “The Myth of Religious Experience” (2004 remains in tact.

  8. Zambia: Multi-Faith Religious Education? (United States)

    Carmody, Brendan


    As countries' populations become more religiously diverse, a need to review the religious education syllabus that operates is often perceived. One such country is Zambia, which was not only traditionally religiously diverse but has become even more so with the advent of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism and other non-African faiths. This article…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    of values like any other institution”. Our concern here is how religious truth that ought to be absolute has become relative thus producing many different religions in the world. Relativity of Religious Truths As Determinant. Of Religious Faith. Truth has been defined as that which conforms to essential reality, but is it absolute?

  10. Old Dilemmas Renewed: Fear of Freedom vs. Freedom from Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Gruszczyk


    Full Text Available Contemporary societies are currently subjected to very rapid and radical social changes and, as a consequence, struggle with their outcomes. The results range from the unforeseen repercussions of globally shifting political powers, through rising nationalisms, to prolonged economic, environmental, political and humanitarian crises. Critical analysis of the theories focused on the phenomena of authoritarianism, escapism, political myth, and conformity allows for outlining a comprehensive picture of the universally recognized opposition between freedom and security. From the distinction between the positive and negative freedom to the ambiguity surrounding the concept of “freedom from fear”, the fundamental dilemma is viewed from a historical perspective and illustrated with modern examples, emphasizing its current validity, insightfulness and potential in analyzing contemporary global problems. This approach allows for in-depth analyses of diversified social and political issues, such as the North African-European refugee crisis, rising nationalisms in the Western world, or a marked shift in political and social perspectives worldwide, from modern escapism to the birth of new myths of state.

  11. Challenges of Pluralistic Societies with Dissimilar Cultural Identities and Religious Legal Traditions: ADR and the Role of Religious Mediation and Arbitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria M. Morán García


    Abstract: Most of juridical systems are historically developed from the interaction of two main legal principles: the principle of personality and the principle of territoriality. Roman Law is one of the best examples of it; its legacy channeled the growth and coexistence of religious and secular jurisdictions in the Germanic kingdoms of Western Europe. Under the principle of personality of laws, bonding individuals to their cultural or religious communities, legal pluralism was the common grounds from the Antiquity to the pre-Modern era. However, as a result of the religious wars in the Holy Roman Empire between Catholics and Protestants in the 16th and the 17th centuries, the Westphalian state model reinforced a territorial religious jurisdiction under the principle cuius regio eius religio, allowing the ruler to impose his religion on his subjects. The Muslim legal tradition developed, as well, plural juridical systems from the Dhimma System. One of them was the Ottoman Millet system that was adapted from the colonial era to the most of Middle East nation-states as a bonding personal religious law applied to non-Muslim communities. The secular paradigm of the Rule of Law, centralizing and reinforcing state and federal legislative powers, is implemented in Europe and her former colonies in the 19th century under the nation-state constitutional model, expanding worldwide the principles of territoriality and citizenship. As a result, religious legal systems are progressively confined to the private sphere. However, the secular paradigm is confronted gradually by a new development of legal pluralism, mainly as an effect of an extensive increment of global migrations; Halakha or Jewish Law, Canon Law or Catholic Law, Sharia or Islamic Law, are gaining strength as formal or informal religious ADR under the principle of Religious Freedom. Religious legal systems are becoming an innovative tool of mediation, conciliation, and arbitration accepted by some secular

  12. Religious Life-Styles and Mental Health: An Exploratory Study. (United States)

    Bergin, Allen E.; And Others


    Assessed lifestyles of religious college students. Subjects with continuous religious development and mild religious experiences were healthier than those with discontinuous development and intense religious experiences; however, intense religious experiences enhanced adjustment. Religiousness and mental health did not correlate significantly, but…

  13. Religious tolerance and intolerance: ‘Engravings’ on the soul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes L. van der Walt


    Full Text Available The recent violent anti-social acts by individuals and groups who feel deeply committed to some or other religious ideal have underscored the importance of the inculcation of religious tolerance in young children for the sake of peaceful coexistence in increasingly diverse and pluralistic communities. The key to such inculcation is education in the most positive sense of the word, i.e. as nurturing, guiding and equipping. Research has shown that some young people are being subjected to a form of negative pedagogy or anti-pedagogy that shapes them to be religiously intolerant. The purpose of this article is to show how education in the most positive sense of the word could be employed to make such etchings on the souls (personalities of young people that would shape them to become cultured and religiously tolerant persons. They could become people with integrity, equipped with life-maps helping them to live peacefully in increasingly diverse and pluralistic societies, able and willing to contribute to their own well-being and also to that of all other people.

  14. Economic Freedom and Entrepreneurial Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    While much attention has been devoted to analyzing how the institutional framework and entrepreneurship impact growth, how economic policy and institutional design affect entrepreneurship appears to be much less analyzed. We try to explain cross-country differences in the level of entrepreneurship...... by differences in economic policy and institutional design. Specifically, we use the measures of economic freedom to ask which elements of economic policy making and the institutional framework that are responsible for the supply of entrepreneurship (our data on entrepreneurship are derived from the Global...... Entrepreneurship Monitor). The combination of these two datasets is unique in the literature. We find that the size of government is negatively correlated with entrepreneurial activity but that sound money is positively correlated with entrepreneurial activity. Other measures of economic freedom...

  15. Economic Growth, Economic Freedom, and Governance


    Cebula, Richard; Ekstrom, Marcus


    This exploratory study examines the impact of various forms of economic freedom and various dimensions of governance, as well as a number of economic factors, on economic growth among OECD nations. Empirical estimation finds that the natural log of per capita purchasing-power-parity adjusted real GDP in OECD nations is positively impacted by business freedom, monetary freedom, trade freedom, and property rights security. Economic growth is found to be negatively affected by perceived governme...

  16. Asymptotic freedom and Zweig's rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, Th.


    Some theoretical aspects of applying short distance physics (asymptotic freedom) are discussed to prove the correctness of the quantum chromodynamics. Properties of new particles that depend only on short distance physics can be dealt with perturbatively. The new mesons are assumed to be CantiC bound states, where C is a new heavy quark. With this in mind some comments are made on the calculation of total widths for the direct decay of different CantiC states into ordinary hadrons

  17. Religious communication and hegemony of mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrushkevych Maria Stefanivna


    Full Text Available Religious communication is the complex object of scientific research that involves existential component and the inextricable link with relevant historical trends. Mass culture and the information society put pressure on modern religious communication. Media is actively integrating into the system of religious communication. Hegemony of mass communication is realized through the media and religious communicative system becomes the part of this hegemony. Peculiarities of religious communication processes are conditioned by consciousness of itself impact and the need to integrate into the media system.

  18. Development as Freedom - And As What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)


    markdownabstractAbstract To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to

  19. Development as Freedom : And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, I.P. van; Gasper, D.


    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At

  20. Development as Freedom. And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasper, D.; Staveren, I.P. van


    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At

  1. Development as Freedom. And as What Else?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasper, D.; Staveren, I.P. van


    To what extent can Amartya Sen’s ideas on freedom, especially his conceptualization of development as freedom, enrich feminist economics? Sen’s notion of freedom (as the capability to achieve valued ends) has many attractions and provides important opportunities to analyze gender inequalities. At

  2. Individual Freedom and Institutional Frameworks in Development (United States)

    Allen, Nicholas


    In this article I explore Amartya Sen's contention that individual freedom represents both the objective of development and the means through which development is to take place. Examining the conceptualisation of freedom central to Sen's capability approach, I distinguish between two notions of freedom, autonomy and agency, where the former…

  3. Academic Freedom in the 21st Century (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Lechuga, Vicente M.


    Throughout the 20th century, academic freedom was a foundational value for the academy in the United States. The concept of academic freedom pertains to the right of faculty to enjoy considerable autonomy in their research and teaching. The assumption that drives academic freedom is that the country benefits when faculty are able to search for…

  4. Expressing Intellectual Freedom: A Content Analysis of Catholic Library World from 1980 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Welsh


    Full Text Available Objective – Professional librarians have varying values relating to the topic of intellectual freedom that may or may not align with the American Library Association’s (ALA policies defining professional expectations on the topic. The personally held values and beliefs of Roman Catholic librarians and those working in libraries affiliated with Roman Catholicism are worthy of study to determine how personal religious values may translate into professional practice. The objective of this paper is to ascertain how frequently and in what context the topics of intellectual freedom and censorship were expressed in articles published in Catholic Library World (CLW, the professional journal of the Catholic Library Association (CLA from 1980 to 2015. Published content on these topics can be used as evidence to determine how this population discusses the concept of intellectual freedom. Methods – Articles relevant to these topics were retrieved from the American Theological Library Association Catholic Periodical and Literature Index (ATLA CPLI and Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA databases by conducting keyword searches using the terms “intellectual freedom” and censorship. Each retrieved publication was analyzed by counting the number of times the phrase “intellectual freedom” and the root censor* occurred. Through a deep reading of each publication, statements containing these search terms were then coded as positive, negative, or neutral, establishing a context for each occurrence. Results – The majority of published content supported intellectual freedom and opposed censorship. Negative content typically occurred in publications about children or school libraries. Additionally, CLW contributors did express a certain level of conflict between personally held religious values and professional values. Conclusions – This study adds to the limited research available on the intersection of personally held

  5. 76 FR 29633 - Freedom of Information Act Implementation (United States)


    ... assign FOIA requests that are routine and require little or no search time, review, or analysis to the... FHFA-OIG assign requests that are non-routine to the Complex Track. Complex Track requests are those to...; (G) Cause undue disruption to the day-to-day activities of FHFA in regulating and supervising the...

  6. 76 FR 15236 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations (United States)


    ... for expedited processing. (d) Content of denial letter. The denial letter shall be signed by the head... contained in it, necessary to respond to a FOIA request. Copies can take the form of paper, audiovisual...

  7. DoD Freedom of Information Act Policies Need Improvement (United States)


    of Defense that supports the warfighter; promotes accountability, integrity, and efficiency; advises the Secretary of Defense and Congress; and...General (DoD OIG) determine whether noncareer officials (political appointees or persons nominated by the President and confirmed by the U.S...officials unduly influencing the FOIA response process. On November 9, 2015, we advised the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Homeland Security

  8. 77 FR 66539 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations (United States)


    ... prepared by FMCS for routine public distribution, e.g., pamphlets and brochures, will be furnished upon...) (electronic reading room), (d) (pamphlets distribution), (e) (records disposition), Sec. 1401.22 (deletion...

  9. 78 FR 33209 - Implementation of the Freedom of Information Act (United States)


    .../digital response with their FOIA. If no particular preference is indicated, OSTP will continue to provide... education, an institution of professional education, or an institution of vocational education that operates...

  10. 77 FR 76898 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations (United States)


    ... on the Energy Supply (E.O. 13211) This rule is not a significant energy action under the definition... significant effect on the nation's energy supply, distribution, or use. List of Subjects in 43 CFR Part 2.... Instead, the Department's records are decentralized and maintained by various bureaus and offices...

  11. 77 FR 56592 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations (United States)


    ...-by-case.'' 10. Effects on the Energy Supply (E.O. 13211) This proposed rule is not a significant... required. This proposed rule will not have a significant effect on the nation's energy supply, distribution... of records in its possession. Instead, the Department's records are decentralized and maintained by...

  12. 7 CFR 2200.12 - Freedom of Information Act. (United States)


    ... available for purchase or subscription by the general public. “Freelance” journalists may be regarded as... significantly interfering with any of the Board's operations. The request shall be submitted in writing to the... extended for a period of time not to exceed 10 working days as provided by written notice to the requester...

  13. 78 FR 22501 - Implementing the Freedom of Information Act (United States)


    ... 12988 and by the Presidential Memorandum of June 1, 1998, to write all rules in plain language. This...-dissemination function of the requester will not be considered to be for a commercial use. ``Freelance... for IMLS records by writing directly to the FOIA Officer, Institute of Museum and Library Services...

  14. 13 CFR 400.107 - Freedom of Information Act. (United States)


    ... general public. “Freelance” journalists may be regarded as working for a news organization if they can... writing to the Secretary of the Board, Steel Guarantee Loan Board, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington... as provided by written notice to the requester, setting forth the reasons for the extension and the...

  15. 78 FR 50351 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations (United States)


    ... NCPC to write all rules in plain language. The NCPC maintains the proposed rule meets this requirement... Records. (k) FOIA Request or Request means a written Request made by an entity or member of the public for... without limitation electronic-mail (email) or facsimile. (l) Freelance Journalist means a representative...

  16. 76 FR 59071 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations (United States)


    ... performing for the past several years. By formally recognizing the key roles these entities play in the... are familiar with the subject area of the request are able, with a reasonable amount of effort, to...

  17. 77 FR 4643 - Freedom of Information Act Implementation (United States)


    ... categories into the definition of ``Requester in the final regulation.'' Therefore, a separate, stand-alone... Information Services, National Archives and Records Administration, Room 2510, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park...

  18. 75 FR 48585 - Revision of Freedom of Information Act Regulations (United States)


    ... the initial publication of CEQ's FOIA regulations in 1977, reflects the increased cost of human..., CEQ has adhered to the regulatory philosophy and the applicable principles of regulation as set forth... significantly affecting the quality of the human environment.'' If an action may have a significant impact and...

  19. 77 FR 21628 - Implementation of the Freedom of Information Act (United States)


    ... procedures for confidential commercial information''). FSOC has, however, determined to omit the provision... Government Information Services (``OGIS''), to remind requesters that OGIS's mediation services are available... request, a requester shall indicate in the request whether the requester is a commercial user, an...

  20. Freedom of Information Act and social media escapades: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research ... were reviewed and analyzed to determine the gullibility of citizens in information acquisition and dissemination. The knowledge gap theory propounded by Philip Tchenor et al., (1970) was used to ...

  1. 77 FR 42673 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations (United States)


    .... 552). In issuing this regulation, CIGIE adhered to the regulatory philosophy and the applicable... research (if the request is from an educational institution) or scientific research (if the request is from... operating one or more programs of scholarly research. (2) The term ``non-commercial scientific institution...

  2. 77 FR 74347 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations (United States)


    ... regulation, CIGIE adhered to the regulatory philosophy and the applicable principles of regulation as set... research (if the request is from an educational institution) or scientific research (if the request is from... operating one or more programs of scholarly research. (2) The term ``non-commercial scientific institution...

  3. Viewing India from Religious Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Yonghui


    @@ It would be impossible to understand India without any knowledge about the religions of this country. India is a developing country with many religions, nationalities and languages. This nation has long been noted for its democratic politics and multiculture. India was founded on the principle of secularism, but at the same time it has suffered from religions. Therefore, to have a clear idea about the basic conditions of India's multiple religious beliefs is the foundation for studies of its religions of the country, and is also one key to grasping Indian social politics. In early September 2004, the Indian government published religious data from the 2001 census. Accordingly, we can make some basic judgments about the religions in today's India.

  4. Religious coalition opposes gene patents. (United States)

    James, J S


    The biotechnology industry is concerned about a coalition of mainstream religious leaders, working with Jeremy Rifkin of the Foundation of Economic Trends, who oppose the patenting of human and animal life forms, body parts, and genes. The coalition called a press conference on May 18 to ask the government to prohibit the current patenting practices for genetic engineering. The biotechnology industry argues that patents indicate that a company's research tool has significant value, and encourages capitalists to invest their dollars in the development of new treatments for diseases. They also argue that the 29 biotech drugs that are on the market have been developed as a result of patents on genes. Although most business leaders are united in opposing restrictions, many scientists are divided, citing both religious and scientific reasons.

  5. Religious organizations debate nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, T.


    This paper reviews the history of the religious debate on nuclear energy over the last thirty years. In the 1950s, religious statements recognized the peaceful uses of atomic energy as a blessing from God and called upon world leaders to promote its use. Nuclear energy programmes were launched in this decade. In the 1960s, there was still religious approval of nuclear energy, but questions about ethics arose. It was not until the 1970s, after the oil crisis, that serious questioning and criticism of nuclear energy emerged. This was particularly true in the United States, where the majority of statements originated - especially in 1979, the year of the Three Mile Island accident. Around this time, the World Council of Churches developed the concept of the just, participatory and sustainable society. The meaning and use of these terms in the nuclear energy debate is examined. This paper also compares the balanced debate of the World Council with the case against the plutonium economy prepared by the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA. Three religious statements from the 1980s are examined. A United Church of Canada resolution, critical of nuclear energy, is compared with a favourable report from the Methodist Church in England. Both use similar values: in one case, justice, participation and sustainability; in the other case, concern for others, participation and stewardship. There are not many Catholic statements on nuclear energy. One which is cautious and favourable is examined in detail. It is concluded that the use of concepts of justice, participation and sustainability (or their equivalents) has not clarified the nuclear debate



    Sukhov, Anton


    Modern computer games are huge virtual worlds that raisesophisticated social and even religious issues. The “external” aspect of thereligious dimension of computer games focuses on the problem of the polysemanticrelation of world religions (Judaism,Christianity, Islam, Buddhism) to computer games. The“inner” aspect represents transformation of monotheistic and polytheisticreligions within the virtual worlds in the view of heterogeneity and genredifferentiation of computer games (arcades, acti...

  7. Documentary Media and Religious Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Therese Mäder


    Full Text Available The article considers four spaces where media processes involve religious communities and agents: the spaces of production, of representation, of media communication, and of distribution network and institutional framework for circulation. These three spaces systematise the research question posed to the specific source. Furthermore the concept documentary media as viewed from a semio-pragmatic perspective is introduced. Discussion of the commercial series I’m a Mormon shows how different modes define documentary media according to the three spaces.

  8. Religious Education in Russia: Inter-Faith Harmony or Neo-Imperial Toleration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lisovskaya


    Full Text Available This paper explores the approach to religious education that has been instituted in Russia since 2012. The new policy’s manifestly proclaimed goals seem convergent with the values of religious freedom, self-determination, tolerance, and inter-faith peace that are espoused by Western liberal democracies. Yet Russia’s hidden religious education curriculum is far more consistent with a neo-imperial model of ethno-religious (Russian Orthodox hegemony and limited toleration of selected, other faiths whose reach is restricted to politically peripheral ethno-territorial entities. This model embodies and revitalizes Russia’s imperial legacies. Yet the revitalization is, in itself, an outcome of strategic choices made by the country’s religious and secular elites in the course of its desecularization. Building on discourse analysis of five Russian textbooks and a teacher’s manual, this article shows how the neo-imperial model manifests itself in the suppression of exogenous and endogenous pluralism, cultivation of the ideology of “ethnodoxy”, and in essentially imperialist mythology. The paper concludes by predicting the new model’s potential instability.

  9. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction (United States)

    Sallam, H N; Sallam, N H


    Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi'a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction.

  10. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction (United States)

    Sallam, HN; Sallam, NH


    Abstract Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi’a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction. PMID:27822349

  11. Varieties of Quest and the Religious Openness Hypothesis within Religious Fundamentalist and Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Watson


    Full Text Available According to the Religious Openness Hypothesis, the religious and psychological openness of American Christians is obscured by a defensive ghettoization of thought associated with a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround and can be discovered instead within a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround. A test of this claim examined Religious Fundamentalism, Biblical Foundationalism, Quest, and Multidimensional Quest Scales in 432 undergraduates. Christian Religious Reflection, Religious Schema, and Religious Orientation measures clarified these two ideological surrounds. Partial correlations controlling for Biblical Foundationalism described a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround that more strongly rejected Quest and that more generally displayed a failure to integrate faith with intellect. Partial correlations controlling for Religious Fundamentalism revealed a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround that was more open to Quest and that offered numerous demonstrations of an ability to unite faith with intellect. These data supplemented previous investigations in demonstrating that Christianity and other traditional religions have ideological resources for promoting a faithful intellect.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putra Astomo


    Full Text Available Human thought about the country laws developed in various situations the history of human civilization. Although the concept of State law is regarded as a universal concept and are recognized by civilized nations, but at the level of implementation turns out to have a diverse character and traits. This happens because the influence of the historical situation in addition to the influence of the philosophy of the nation, schools of philosophy and the political ideology of a country. One of the substance of the State of law is the guarantee of the protection of human rights (human rights. Therefore, the context of the freedom of religion cannot be separated from the HAM as it is a human right that belongs to every citizen to embrace a religion according their respective beliefs. By understanding the existence of Nomokrasi Islam as the country's law that put the norms of Islamic law (Sharia in the Organization of the Government of a country, then the right of religious freedom also need to be protected

  13. Competing Claims: Religious Affiliation and African Americans' Intolerance of Homosexuals. (United States)

    Ledet, Richard


    Literature on religion and political intolerance indicates competing expectations about how Black Protestant church affiliation affects African Americans' attitudes about civil liberties. On the one hand, Black Protestant theology emphasizes personal freedom and social justice, factors generally linked to more tolerant attitudes. On the other hand, Black Protestants tend to be conservative on family and social issues, factors often linked to intolerance of gays and lesbians. Data from the General Social Survey are used to examine the influence of religious group identification, as well as other relevant aspects of religiosity, on political intolerance among African Americans. Results indicate that although other aspects of religion (beliefs and behaviors) help explain variation in political intolerance, Black Protestant church affiliation has no relationship with attitudes about the civil liberties of homosexuals. However, additional tests show that Black Protestant church affiliation significantly predicts intolerance of other target groups (atheists and racists).

  14. Religiousness and religious coping in a secular society: the gender perspective. (United States)

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidt, Niels Christian


    Women are found to be more religious than men and more likely to use religious coping. Only few studies have explored religious gender differences in more secular societies. This population-based study comprised 3,000 Danish men and women (response rate 45 %) between 20 and 40 years of age. Information about demographics, religiousness and religious coping was obtained through a web-based questionnaire. We organized religiousness in the three dimensions: Cognition, Practice and Importance, and we assessed religious coping using the brief RCOPE questionnaire. We found substantial gender differences in both religiousness and religious coping. Nearly, 60 % of the women believed in some sort of spirit or in God compared to 40 % of the men. Generally, both men and women scored low on the RCOPE scale. However, for respondents reporting high levels of religiousness, the proportion of men who scored high in the RCOPE exceeded the proportion of women in using positive and especially negative coping strategies. Also, in a secular society, women are found to be more religious than men, but in a subset of the most religious respondents, men were more inclined to use religious coping. Further studies on religious coping in secular societies are required.

  15. Adverse tax rulings affect exemptions for clergy and religious. (United States)

    Veres, J A


    Recent court cases illustrate the federal government's changing position toward automatic tax exemptions for members of religious institutes who are employed outside their institute. Before 1977, the IRS seemed inclined to assume that members acted as agents for their institute and that their income would not be taxable. In Fogarty v. U.S. the court ruled that a priest's income from a university teaching position was taxable because he was not acting as an agent for the Jesuits. In Schuster v. Commissioner, the court held for the government, stating that the "triangle relationship" among employee, outside third-party employer, and principal/religious institute was insufficient to warrant the necessary agency relationships. Samson v. U.S. questioned whether Sr. Mary K. Samson's county hospital work constituted "employment" for FICA tax purposes. The court concluded the tax was assessable on her wages because she was a county employee. It denied a rehearing after a dissenting judge concluded that past rulings were inconsistent and had little bearing on FICA taxation. The legal view of religious tax exemption is much narrower than 10 years ago. Catholic institutes must closely analyze the relationship between their members and outside third-party employers to avoid taxation. They must legally assert their control over their members' actions before the employment is in effect.

  16. Institutional change and the incorporation of Muslim populations: religious freedoms, equality and cultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maussen, M.; Burchardt, M.; Michalowski, I.


    The incorporation of Muslim populations in West Europe, largely but not exclusively due to immigration, has resulted in a variety of changes. This chapter proposes a framework to think about the dynamics and politics of "host society" institutional changes in response to Islamic presence.

  17. Circumscribing the Body Politic : Circumcision, Religious Freedom and Identity in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McIvor, Méadhbh


    In February 2018, Icelandic Member of Parliament Silja Dögg Gunnarsdóttir made international news by proposing a bill that would criminalise the circumcision of male children for non-medical reasons. The bill, which is supported by the ruling Progressive Party and Left-Green coalition, has sparked

  18. 77 FR 24242 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records (United States)


    ... under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) or the Privacy Act. Categories of records in the system: The... allegation or complaint of discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or...

  19. Individual characteristics and religiousness among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Snežana D.


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the research data on religiousness collected at different periods in Serbia and former Yugoslavia. The aim of the paper is to point to the tendencies in religious practice and the expansion of religiousness among young people in different periods, as well as individual psychological factors of religiousness. The data shows that the number of young people who declare themselves religious has increased significantly in the last 15 years, compared to the period of a quarter of century ago. In addition to the revival of tradition as an answer to social crisis and uncertainty which affects young people most, the increase in religiousness is connected to certain forms of social democratization as well as it being socially desirable. The data on social-demographic correlates of religiousness shows that the degree of religiousness varies depending on the age, gender, social background and education level. However, the more recent research data shows that these differences have become smaller which indicates a certain homogenization among young people. Religiousness is consistently and positively connected to authoritarianism, conformism and intolerance, while certain changes have occurred in regard to its connection with desirable social values. Similar to the tendency observed in other research on values the data on factors and correlates of religiousness, especially among young people, point to a specific value relativism and confused values.

  20. Transceiver for Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, M.; Bruno, R.


    This paper describes the design of the Laser Communication Transceiver (LCT) system which was planned to be flight tested as an attached payload on Space Station Freedom. The objective in building and flight-testing the LCT is to perform a broad class of tests addressing the critical aspects of space-based optical communications systems, providing a base of experience for applying laser communications technology toward future communications needs. The LCT's functional and performance requirements and capabilities with respect to acquisition, spatial tracking and pointing, communications, and attitude determination are discussed.

  1. 78 FR 41918 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records (United States)


    ... Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Program Manager, Corporate.... SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service proposes to alter a system of records, T7905, entitled...: Mr. Gregory L. Outlaw, Defense Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act...

  2. 43 CFR 2.47 - Records subject to Privacy Act. (United States)


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records subject to Privacy Act. 2.47 Section 2.47 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Privacy Act § 2.47 Records subject to Privacy Act. The Privacy Act applies to all...

  3. On Seizing the Source: Toward a Phenomenology of Religious Violence (United States)

    Staudigl, Michael


    Abstract In this paper I argue that we need to analyze ‘religious violence’ in the ‘post-secular context’ in a twofold way: rather than simply viewing it in terms of mere irrationality, senselessness, atavism, or monstrosity – terms which, as we witness today on an immense scale, are strongly endorsed by the contemporary theater of cruelty committed in the name of religion – we also need to understand it in terms of an ‘originary supplement’ of ‘disengaged reason’. In order to confront its specificity beyond traditional explanations of violence, I propose an integrated phenomenological account of religion that traces the phenomenality of religion in terms of a correlation between the originary givenness of transcendence and capable man’s creative capacities to respond to it. Following Ricœur, I discuss ‘religious violence’ in terms of a monopolizing appropriation of the originary source of givenness that conflates man’s freedom to poetically respond to the appeal of the foundational with the surreptitiously claimed sovereignty to make it happen in a practical transfiguration of the everyday. PMID:28690372

  4. On Seizing the Source: Toward a Phenomenology of Religious Violence. (United States)

    Staudigl, Michael


    In this paper I argue that we need to analyze 'religious violence' in the 'post-secular context' in a twofold way: rather than simply viewing it in terms of mere irrationality, senselessness, atavism, or monstrosity - terms which, as we witness today on an immense scale, are strongly endorsed by the contemporary theater of cruelty committed in the name of religion - we also need to understand it in terms of an 'originary supplement' of 'disengaged reason'. In order to confront its specificity beyond traditional explanations of violence, I propose an integrated phenomenological account of religion that traces the phenomenality of religion in terms of a correlation between the originary givenness of transcendence and capable man's creative capacities to respond to it. Following Ricœur, I discuss 'religious violence' in terms of a monopolizing appropriation of the originary source of givenness that conflates man's freedom to poetically respond to the appeal of the foundational with the surreptitiously claimed sovereignty to make it happen in a practical transfiguration of the everyday.

  5. Freedom: Toward an Integration of the Counseling Profession (United States)

    Hanna, Fred J.


    Freedom is presented as an overarching paradigm that may align and bring together the counseling profession's diverse counseling theories and open a doorway to a new generation of counseling techniques. Freedom is defined and discussed in terms of its 4 modalities: freedom from, freedom to, freedom with, and freedom for. The long-standing problem…

  6. The Freedom of the Judge to Express his Personal Opinions and Convictions under the ECHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske Dijkstra


    Full Text Available The freedom of the judge to express his personal opinions and convictions is limited by his special position. The question arises where these limits lie: what are the possibilities for judges to express their personal views on religious, political or other subjects, whether it is through speech, writing, wearing religious symbols or membership of an association or church? In this article the limits of the freedom of the judge will be studied as they appear from the case law of the ECtHR. Two types of cases from this case law are relevant for this subject: cases based on complaints from judges about a violation of their rights under Article 9-11 ECHR and cases based on complaints from litigants and suspects about a violation of their right to a fair trial under Article 6(1 ECHR. The question is asked how the limits of judicial freedom are defined in the case law of the ECtHR and where these limits lie.

  7. The Religious in Responses to Mass Atrocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A peculiar and fascinating aspect of many responses to mass atrocities is the creative and eclectic use of religious language and frameworks. Some crimes are so extreme that they “cry out to heaven,” drawing people to employ religious vocabulary to make meaning of and to judge what happened...... of the possibilities and problems pertaining to attempts to bring religious – or semi-religious – allegiances and perspectives to bear in responses to the mass atrocities of our time: When and how can religious language or religious beliefs and practices be either necessary or helpful? And what are the problems...... and reasons for caution or critique? In this book, a group of distinguished scholars explore these questions and offer a range of original explanatory and normative perspectives....

  8. Defining and Distinguishing Traditional and Religious Terrorism


    Gregg, Heather S.


    The article of record may be found at: thus offering few if any policy options for counterterrorism measures. This assumption about religious terrorism stems from two challenges in the literature: disproportionate attention to apocalyptic terrorism, and a lack of distinction between religious terrorism and its secular counterpart. This article, therefore, aims to do four things: define and differentiate religiously motivated terrorism from tr...

  9. Religious teaching in the school context


    Garutti, Selson; CESUMAR


    On 22nd July 1997, the then president of the Brazilian Republic Fernando Henrique Cardoso signed the law no. 9.475/97, concerning religious teaching in schools. That law caused generalized confusion all round Brazil by making facultative religious teaching in schools, and disorganizing even further the already troubled subject “Religious Teaching”. We cannot lose sight of the disorganization installed in the year of 1996 by the confusion introduced by the new National Education Basis Guidelin...

  10. Religious tourism: devotion or business opportunity?


    Carvalho, Aida


    Religious tourism can be understood as an activity in which people travel either for worshipping purposes or to participate in events of religious significance. It can be seen as an alternative to mass tourism activities, aiming for specific targets. Portugal has a significant and rich religious heritage which can help to revitalize traditionally neglected rural areas. The active participation of the Church is of utmost importance as far as the visitors are concerned. On one hand it sh...



    Oleksiy Kuznetsov


    The paper characterizes the adaptation of Assessment of Beliefs and Behaviors in Coping. Its validity and reliability are shown. The scales of religious copings have been studied, namely: “Religion as a source of personal relationship with a higher power”, “Religion as a source of worldview that makes sense of life”, “Religion as a source of a sense of control in life”, “Religion as a source of a sense of community”, “Religion as a source of a sense of community”, “Religion as a source of a s...

  12. Religious culture as a barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine


    with their religious and cultural frames of reference? The study uses a case study approach with interviews of ten 13–17-year-old Danish Muslim girls, as well as explorative observations in two football clubs and interviews with five coaches and club leaders. In further developing an analytical model for interpreting...... religion as hegemonic, embodied and dynamic cultural phenomena, the analysis points to the diversity through which Muslim girls and women participate and engage in sports. Finally, the article discusses the extent to which counter-narratives may contribute to changing perspectives on so-called hard...

  13. Risk aversion and religious behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jytte Seested; Bech, Mickael; Christensen, Kaare


    would expect that risk averse individuals would demand a more generous protection plan which they may do by devoting more effort and resources into religious activities such as church attendance and prayer, which seems to be in accordance with previous empirical results. However, a general concern...... and prayer frequency on the other controlling for unobservable variables using survey data of Danish same-sex twin pairs. We verify the correlation between risk preferences and religion found previously by carrying out cross-sectional analyses. We also show that the association between risk attitudes...

  14. Evaluation of Religious Animations in the IRIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematoallah Moussa Pour


    Full Text Available Religious education has an elevated status and a great value in Iranian religious society. Using different methods and instruments to realize this goal has been always considered by those involved in education. At the present time, television is an effective means for communicating with social groups. One of those groups is children who can be exposed to messages by animations. The effectiveness of animation is a function of the manner in which it has been produced. Therefore, we can ask whether psychological principles have been observed in the production of religious animations for children. This article, written for evaluating religious animations used in the television, aims at identifying sixteen principles governing the production of animations for children. To do this, the authors referred to authentic sources in psychology and media studies after gathering data and composing them, managed to identify the principles governing the production of animation. The numbers of these principles have been applied to the production of animations, a checklist was prepared and the data were extracted from analyzing two religious animations, two domestic non-religious animations and two foreign non-religious animations. Non-religious animations were analyzed to make possible the suggested that the producers of religious animations pay special attention to do this point.

  15. Spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viftrup, Dorte Toudal; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Buus, Niels


    WE SYSTEMATICALLY REVIEWED THE RESEARCH LITERATURE ON SPIRITUALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY INTEGRATED GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING THREE QUESTIONS: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group......, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from...... for spiritually or religiously integrated group psychotherapy and conducting research in this field are propounded....

  16. New religious movements and alternative religions in France: the use of digital media as a counter-strategy against social and legal exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Königstedt


    Full Text Available The internet is widely used internationally by individuals and groups who otherwise perceive and experience a lack of influence and even repression by authorities and whose opinions remain invisible in or are ignored by the mass media. The new media are a frequently-used means of expression in the political struggles of social and religious movements, especially as part of attempts to increase the number of supporters and to mobilise public opinion. The extent, of the usage as well as its degree of success, does vary and because of this variety, a comparative analysis can illuminate parts of the whole conflictuous configuration as well as the chances and limits of resistance and opposition via these media channels. Organisations which were chosen to be investigated here were the so-called ‘new religious movements’, or more precisely, the many forms of alternative religion in France who face significant levels of social and legal exclusion, while most of their members are themselves usually strongly committed to democracy and their identities as equal French citizens. Therefore, they choose to perform counter-actions which are within the law and act strategically, which makes them a special case compared to revolutionary political movements which may question the social order of the state as a whole. France, with its ‘anti-cult’ policy, has come to a unique standing within the Western world in this respect. Though religious freedom and state neutrality in relation to religious issues are constitutionally granted, a differentiation is made – and partially even legally enforced – between good religions and harmful ones which attempt to manipulate their adepts mentally. The debates are held in a constant dynamic between the struggling parties of ‘anti-cult’ movements and alternative religions. The exclusion of the latter from the mass media is revealed be one central means of hindering them from gaining approval within society

  17. Reiterando o pacto: história, teologias políticas cristãs e a religião civil americana em uma era de multiculturalismo e império

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Reinhardt


    Full Text Available Há 40 anos, em plena Guerra Fria, Robert Bellah concluiu seu célebre artigo sobre a religião civil americana com a seguinte pergunta: como conceber a aplicabilidade legítima dos valores-chave que suportam o imaginário nacional americano para além dos confins territoriais do seu Estado-nação? O presente artigo quer revisitar esta questão criticamente à luz de incursões regulatórias recentes dos EUA sobre o campo da liberdade religiosa no globo. Primeiramente, reviso a história da relação entre secularismo, identidade nacional e cristianismo nos EUA. A seguir, analiso as articulações político-religiosas que dão origem ao International Freedom of Religion Act (IRFA, em 1998. Por fim, tento destacar como este exercício pode fornecer contribuições mais gerais para o estudo da relação entre religião, nacionalismo e poder secular na contemporaeidade, com ênfase na relação entre estes e o princípio de soberania do estado de direito.

  18. Freedom deprivation punishment in Serbia during 1804-1860

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Zoran


    with the problem of freedom deprivation punishment for mentally ill committers of criminal acts. Relatively early and in increasing number appeared regulations on effectuation of freedom deprivation punishments, intended to solve numerous practical and principle questions about realization of this penalty. Finally on December 20th 1851 was issued the Structure of Experimental Economy in Topčider Penitentiary, which regulated treatment of convicts, their work, penalties, behavior of guards etc. A new punishment purpose has become noticeable - compulsory re-education and remission through work, as a difference to previous aims: sheer intimidation and neutralization of public danger. At the end of herein observed time, in the year 1858 appeared first theoretical work on penitentiary institutions and Project of Law on Effectuation of Freedom Deprivation Penalties. This project was elaborated on broad fundaments, with regulations for each form of freedom deprivation penalty, but wasn't accepted due to the lack of financial means.

  19. Religious bias among religiously conscious black christians in the United States. (United States)

    Van Camp, Debbie; Sloan, Lloyd Ren; Elbassiouny, Amanda


    Research with White participants has demonstrated religious intergroup bias; however, religious identity may be different for Black Americans. Only religiously conscious Black Christians demonstrated a preference for Christian targets over Muslim and Atheist targets. Future research should consider what factors result in a person becoming conscious of other's religion.

  20. Contemporary Religious Conflicts and Religious Education in the Republic of Korea (United States)

    Kim, Chongsuh


    The Republic of (South) Korea is a multi-religious society. Naturally, large- or small-scale conflicts arise between religious groups. Moreover, inter-religious troubles related to the educational system, such as educational ideologies, textbook content and forced chapel attendance, have often caused social conflicts. Most of the problems derive…

  1. The American Dilemma: Freedoms or Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gentner, Judith


    .... Can a law-abiding nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to individual freedoms, effectively protect itself and its citizens against terrorism without infringing on these fundamental principles...

  2. Dialogic Space and Religious Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Moate


    Full Text Available This review hopes to present an alternative model to confessional religious education and the kind of role religion can have in teaching and education. It is framed by the conceptualization of education as simultaneously being and becoming (van Manen 1991, 67. This dichotomous description underlines the challenging tension of balancing present realities with future anticipations, a tension which is perhaps the defining feature of education. In theoretical terms this review draws on sociocultural and dialogic educational research, particularly Rupert Wegerif’s notion of “dialogic space” (Wegerif 2007, 4, and a “Global Education: World Religions” -course recently run as part of the Summer School for Human Sciences at the University of Jyväskylä. The review opens by introducing the pedagogic orientation for the course and a simple cultural model developed within the course. Following this, the guidelines for the development of “dialogic space” are introduced with possible implications for Religious Education concluding the paper.

  3. A complicated answer to a simple question: Are believers and members of minority religions, churches and religious communities in postdayton BiH discriminated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagradić Slobodan


    Full Text Available The work treats the real social position of minority religions, denominations, religious communities and churches in postdayton Bosnia and Herzegovina. In other words, the author researches real social, political, legislative, mass-media-communicational, economic status and a status of so called small religious communities and churches in other spheres of existence like education, culture, public health etc., and seeks to answer to, from rhetorical point of view, simple question: are minority religions, denominations, religious communities and churches, as defined and treated by the Law on Freedom of Religion and Legal Position of Churches and Religious Communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, discriminated or not. In the focus of the author's analyses are equally institutional sphere or so called minority religious communities as such, but also and individuals, believers and followers of those institutionalized and formalized religious-denominational- ecclesial subjects having been named religious communities and churches. The results of the author's empirical-theoretical researches can be condensed into nuanced and complex answer whose content leads to conclusion that minority religions, churches and their members in several spheres of life are, after all, in inferior position, in spite of declarative equality of all religions, denominations, religious communities and churches. The author supports such conclusion with numerous and plausible arguments.

  4. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge


    Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture. Inge Vestergaard, Associate Professor, Cand. Arch. Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Noerreport 20, 8000 Aarhus C Telephone +45 89 36 0000 E-mai l Based on the repetitive architecture from the "building boom" 1960...... customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performed expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have in Denmark been focusing a more sustainable and low energy building technique, which also include...... to the building physic problems a new industrialized period has started based on light weight elements basically made of wooden structures, faced with different suitable materials meant for individual expression for the specific housing area. It is the purpose of this article to widen up the different design...

  5. Space Station Freedom operations planning (United States)

    Accola, Anne L.; Keith, Bryant


    The Space Station Freedom program is developing an operations planning structure which assigns responsibility for planning activities to three tiers of management. The strategic level develops the policy, goals and requirements for the program over a five-year horizon. Planning at the tactical level emphasizes program integration and planning for a two-year horizon. The tactical planning process, architecture, and products have been documented and discussed with the international partners. Tactical planning includes the assignment of user and system hardware as well as significant operational events to a time increment (the period of time from the arrival of one Shuttle to the manned base to the arrival of the next). Execution-level planning emphasizes implementation, and each organization produces detailed plans, by increment, that are specific to its function.

  6. Religious Experience and its Essentialism in William James and Ghazzali’s Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ebadi


    Full Text Available Abstract Religious experience is an approach to which Western thinkers are considered pioneers among whom Schleiermacher is the most prominent. "The essentialism of religious experience" is one of the several approaches that have been adopted in the case of religious experience. Accordingly, the religion that has sides and various dimensions has been reduced to a religious experience and the religious experience is introduced as the essence of religion. What is presented in this article is a comparative study of the essence of religious experience from the perspective of William James and Ghazzāli. Although mystical experience has a different structure form the religious experience and Ghazali as well as other Muslim philosophers and mystics paid more attention to the way of mystical experience, in the works of Ghazali there are also a traces of religious experience and hence, they are adaptable to some aspects of religious experience offered by William James. William James defines the religion “as the feelings, acts, and experiences that can occur for every individual in their solitudes and he believes that feeling is the essential pillar of religion and inherently reinforces it”. Religious experience is the essence of religion and it means that-the truth of the faith is the same as feelings and emotions that emerge from rational reflections on concrete reality as such, and other spiritual, transcendental, mystical and psychological actions are the consequences of these experiences. On the other hand, in the Muslim world, Al-Ghazzali believes that: The ultimate and holy aim of religion is the perception and experience of ultimate truth that can be achieved through good deeds, worship, asceticism and piety. This article tries to find similarities and differences in essence of religious experience of the two thinkers, because it is only in the theory of the essentialism of religious experience that the similarities and differences of

  7. Educational Vouchers: Freedom to Choose?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Reel


    Full Text Available Milton Friedman is famous for his book title: “Free to Choose.” He also favors educational vouchers, which denies the freedom to choose to people who do not wish to subsidize the education of other people’s children. Thus, he is guilty of a logical contradiction. Why is it important to assess whether Friedman’s views on educational vouchers are logically consistent with his widespread reputation as an advocate of free enterprise, and, thus, freedom to chose? It is important to assess all figures in political economy, and indeed all of scholarship, for logical consistency. It is particularly important to do so in the present case, given the prestige in certain quarters accorded to this Nobel prize-winning economist. We argue in this paper that Friedman’s reputation for logical consistency, and adherence to the philosophy of laissez faire capitalism, are both overblown. Our solution to this challenge is to completely privatize education. Friedman does not advocate that vouchers be utilized for food, clothing or shelter; we see no relevant difference in the case of education. What is the justification of the undertaken topic? This topic is important because education of the next generation is crucial for the upkeep and improvement of society. What is the aim of the present study? It is to demonstrate that the solution offered by M. Friedman and R. Friedman (1990 is highly problematic. What is the methodology used in the study? We quote from this author, and criticize his analysis. What are our main results and conclusions/recommendations? We conclude that the last best hope for the educational industry is laissez faire capitalism, not the mixed economy recommended by Friedman.

  8. Tobacco industry use of personal responsibility rhetoric in public relations and litigation: disguising freedom to blame as freedom of choice. (United States)

    Friedman, Lissy C; Cheyne, Andrew; Givelber, Daniel; Gottlieb, Mark A; Daynard, Richard A


    We examined the tobacco industry's rhetoric to frame personal responsibility arguments. The industry rarely uses the phrase "personal responsibility" explicitly, but rather "freedom of choice." When freedom of choice is used in the context of litigation, the industry means that those who choose to smoke are solely to blame for their injuries. When used in the industry's public relations messages, it grounds its meaning in the concept of liberty and the right to smoke. The courtroom "blame rhetoric" has influenced the industry's larger public relations message to shift responsibility away from the tobacco companies and onto their customers. Understanding the rhetoric and framing that the industry employs is essential to combating this tactic, and we apply this comprehension to other industries that act as disease vectors.

  9. Spiritual and Religious Issues in the Aftermath of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Angela Castelli Dransart


    Full Text Available Introduction: Spirituality and religion have only been marginally investigated in the experiences of the bereaved by suicide (or survivors of suicide. Aim: This article directly addresses two questions: In what way was spirituality or religion an issue for survivors of suicide? How were they helpful (or not during their reconstruction process? Method: Research involved qualitative studies, carried out in Switzerland with 50 survivors of suicide using in depth-interviews. Data were analyzed according to grounded theory principles. Results: Suicide triggered questioning mainly about the afterlife of the deceased and of how transcendency relates to agency and responsibility in the suicidal act. Spiritual or religious issues play an important role in the process of reconstruction for survivors, notably in meaning-making and responsibility-clarifying processes, in forging a continuing bond with the deceased and in honoring their life and memory. Nevertheless, this role is complex and can either support or make the recovery difficult (or both. Conclusion: Mental health and social care professionals may support survivors’ resilience and their reconstruction process by valuing the constructive aspects of their spiritual and religious experiences and by taking into account the spiritual and religious struggles they face to offer effective support to survivors of suicide during recovery.

  10. A psychology of religious plurality: from intra-religious dialogue to intra-psychic reality. (United States)

    Kramp, Joseph M


    Panikkar's (The intra-religious dialogue, 1978) classic, re-issued by Paulist Press in 1999, grapples with the theological challenges in the disciplines of comparative theology and the theology of religions through what he terms, "intra-religious dialogue." In this psychology of religious plurality, I use works from a variety of disciplines to highlight the achievements of Panikkar's intra-religious dialogue, as well as to critique his work in the hope of finding categories of understanding that can be profitably used to face the inter-personal crises of the contemporary world, namely religious terrorism.

  11. Awakening the Erotic in Religious Education. (United States)

    Siejk, Cate


    Focuses on exploring and understanding the epistemological significance of eros and the place of the erotic in contemporary religious education. Shows, through concrete examples, how a fully human epistemology makes possible an authentic religious education that promotes both personal and communal transformation. (CAJ)

  12. Religious Education for Political Thinking and Citizenship (United States)

    Papastephanou, Marianna


    The curricular accommodation of religious education is almost always dissociated from the latter's political significance and the teaching of religious worldviews is often limited to serving social, (multi)culturalist and epistemological purposes. When RE is made relevant to political identity this occurs strictly within the confines of a liberal…

  13. Reflection on Religiousness and Mental Health. (United States)

    Oakes, K. Elizabeth


    Discusses a short clinical vignette in terms of the theoretical concepts of intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientations, faith development, and transcendence. Also discusses the therapeutic view of a client's religious orientation, faith development, and transcendence in helping to promote constructive change. (Author/MKA)

  14. The effect of income on religiousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.


    How does income affect religiousness? Using self-collected survey data, we estimate the effects of income on religious behavior. As a source of exogenous income variation we use a change in the eligibility criteria for a government cash transfer in Ecuador and apply a regression discontinuity

  15. Assessing Students' Spiritual and Religious Qualities (United States)

    Astin, Alexander W.; Astin, Helen S.; Lindholm, Jennifer A.


    This paper describes a comprehensive set of 12 new measures for studying undergraduate students' spiritual and religious development. The three measures of spirituality, four measures of "spiritually related" qualities, and five measures of religiousness demonstrate satisfactory reliability, robustness, and both concurrent and predictive validity.…

  16. Religious Texts as Models of Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastfelt, Niels


    The chapter analyses the connection between Biblical interpretation and the making of political communities in northern Nigeria in the 20th century. Generally, it studies the use of religious scriptures in developing models of society which can both include and exclude particular religious...

  17. Is Religious Education Compatible with Science Education? (United States)

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario


    Addresses the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education, challenges the popular view that science and religion are compatible or complementary. Discusses differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological, and attitudinal levels. Argues that religious education should be kept…

  18. Challenging Christianity: Leo Tolstoy and Religious Education (United States)

    Moulin, Dan


    The religious thought of Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy is a well documented but often overlooked example of unorthodox Christianity. This paper uses the example of Tolstoy's religious thinking to question the integrity of the current representation of Christianity in UK schools. It also uses Tolstoy's criticism of orthodox Christianity to suggest a…

  19. Religious Choices and Preferences: North Carolina's Baskin Robbins Effect?


    Robert Wortham


    The marketing of religion has become a big business. Wortham examines the current religious scene and shows that Americans want religious plurality, rather than religious homogamy. Just like shopping for ice cream, Americans want 57 choices when shopping for religion

  20. 28 CFR 548.18 - Observance of religious holy days. (United States)


    ... RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.18 Observance of religious... take earned vacation days, or to make up for missed work, or to change work assignments in order to...

  1. Intersection of Open Data and Freedom of Information practice in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omenogo Veronica Mejabi


    Full Text Available The Freedom of Information (FOI Act was enacted in Nigeria in 2011. However, Nigeria has been publishing its national budget online since 2007. This paper presents results from a survey in which several stakeholder groups connected to the online national budget of Nigeria were asked to respond to questions of awareness and use of open data and the Freedom of Information (FOI Act. The results show that respondents who were aware of Nigeria’s 2011 FOI Act made the link with open data practice but indicated that citizens were not taking enough advantage of the Act. Also, custodians of data or information were likely to seek ways to avoid meeting such requests. Nevertheless, Nigerians need to be more educated on the key elements of the Act for its proper and adequate utilization or invocation that could impact more positively on open data initiatives in Nigeria.

  2. The Relationship between Religious Commitment, Religious Involvement and Empathy with Aggression Among High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farhanfar


    Full Text Available The present study has been done to determine the effect of religious commitment and religious involvement with aggression and as a mediator variable empathy was considered. This is a descriptive - correlational study and the population was all high school students of Isfahan. The sample consisted of 321 high school students that were selected by cluster random multi-stage sampling method. Data were collected using Aggression Questionnaire (Rhine, 2006, Worthington Religious Commitment (2003, Hill and Hood Religious Involvement (1999, David Empathy (1983 and Demographic ascertained Questionnaire. For Statistical Analysis, Correlation Pierson, regression analysis and structural equation method was applied. Achieved results showed that the direct effect of religious commitment on the empathy of 0/07 and the direct effect of religious involvement on empathy: /025, (P≥0/0/1, while the indirect effect of religious commitment on -/0 0231 aggression and indirect effects of religious devotion is an aggression- 54/21 representing the inverse relationship between commitment an inverse relationship between religious commitment and religious involvement by the aggression and Results of structural equation modeling show that the model has appropriate fitting based on fitting indicators (P≥0/0/1. Although, the effect of religious commitment on empathy was not confirmed.

  3. Claiming Luther as a Religious Resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Vejrup


    heritage and contemporary culture: (1) strong connection; (2) no connection/disconnection; (3) negotiated connection. The conclusions of this analysis provide the foundation for a discussion of civil religion in zones of conflict over religious and cultural identity in a contemporary northern European......The article examines references to a specific religious heritage (Lutheran Christianity) within the debate sections of two national Danish newspapers. The aim of the analysis is to provide empirical data as a background for a discussion of conflicts concerning the connection between religious...... heritage and contemporary society. The themes of the public debate surveyed are identifi ed as related to changes in the religious and cultural landscape in Denmark, such as the presence of Muslim immigrants. Three main discourse packages are identifi ed in relation to the connection between religious...

  4. Expanding the Rights of Student Religious Groups on College and University Campuses: The Implications of Trinity Lutheran Church v. Comer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Thro


    Full Text Available In Trinity Lutheran Church v. Comer, the U.S. Supreme Court established a new constitutional rule. While the exact breadth of the rule remains in doubt, the new jurisprudential principle appears to be as follows—except where such actions would violate the Establishment Clause, the Free Exercise Clause prohibits constitutional actors from conferring or denying benefits solely because of individuals’ or entities’ religious exercises. As discussed in this article, this rule has immediate, long-term ramifications for constitutional jurisprudence, particularly as applied to religious freedom. In light of the potential changes it may engender, the purpose of this three-part article is to provide an overview of Trinity Lutheran and its expansion of rights for student religious groups on the campuses of public college and universities.

  5. Delay discounting as a function of intrinsic/extrinsic religiousness, religious fundamentalism, and regular church attendance. (United States)

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Plumm, Karyn M


    Delay discounting occurs when the subjective value of an outcome decreases because its delivery is delayed. Previous research has suggested that the rate at which some, but not all, outcomes are discounted varies as a function of regular church attendance. In the present study, 509 participants completed measures of intrinsic religiousness, extrinsic religiousness, religious fundamentalism, and whether they regularly attended church services. They then completed a delay-discounting task involving five outcomes. Although religiousness was not a significant predictor of discounting for all outcomes, participants scoring high in intrinsic religiousness tended to display less delay discounting than participants scoring low. Likewise, participants scoring high in religious fundamentalism tended to display more delay discounting than participants scoring low. These results partially replicate previous ones in showing that the process of discounting may vary as a function of religiousness. The results also provide some direction for those interested in altering how individuals discount.

  6. Academic Freedom: A Global Comparative Approach (United States)

    Marginson, Simon


    Academic freedom is best understood not as an abstract universal principle or an ideal state of being but as concrete university practices nested in specific relational environments. As such, practices of academic freedom vary across the world, according to variations in political cultures, educational cultures and state-university relations. The…

  7. Exemplary Teachers: Teaching for Intellectual Freedom (United States)

    Collinson, Vivienne


    Intellectual freedom has long been a desirable ideal and a foundational value for supporting democratic governance. Since 1948, it has been a universal human right. Given the unique nature of education in democratic societies, schools serve as a crucible for helping children understand and practise the rudiments of intellectual freedom. Drawing on…

  8. Negative freedom and the liberal paradoxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.V.B.P.M

    In their game-theoretic formulations, the liberal paradoxes of Amartya Sm and Alan Gibbard show a tension between freedom on the one hand, and Pareto optimality and stability on the other. This article examines what happens to the liberal paradoxes if a negative conception of freedom is used. Given

  9. Freedom of Conscience and Catholic Schools (United States)

    Donlevy, J. K.; Gereluk, D.; Patterson, P.; Brandon, J.


    This paper's purpose is to extensively review the historical understanding of conscience and the current juridical interpretation of freedom of conscience under section 2(a) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982). It then briefly notes that given the challenge faced by Ontario's Catholic schools in providing for inclusionary…

  10. Escape from Freedom: Towards the Political Realm (United States)

    Dillon, Katrina


    In this paper, the author contends that the ability to create a political realm is dependent upon one's state of freedom. She questions what it means to be free and whether assumptions of the definitions of this concept are always good or beneficial. After discussing some of the known theories about freedom, she states that schools are some…

  11. Group Freedom : A Social Mechanism Account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank


    Many existing defenses of group rights seem to rely on the notion of group freedom. To date, however, no adequate analysis of this notion has been offered. Group freedom is best understood in terms of processes of social categorization that are embedded in social mechanisms. Such processes often

  12. Freedom and Restrictions in Language Use. (United States)

    O'Donnell, Roy C.

    Since freedom of thought and expression is essential in a democracy, censorship of language is rightly regarded as a threat to all other freedoms. Still, it is inevitable that certain restrictions will occasionally be imposed on language in America and in other societies. Restrictions on language date back to the Ten Commandments, which condemned…

  13. Do We Still Need Academic Freedom? (United States)

    Shils, Edward


    This review of academic freedom in U.S. universities focuses on the role of the American Association of University Professors, which originally linked academic freedom and tenure but now views equality of genders, races, and cultures and the normality of homosexuality as the only real values, whereas truth is seen as illusory, even exploitative.…

  14. Freedom of Speech Newsletter, September, 1975. (United States)

    Allen, Winfred G., Jr., Ed.

    The Freedom of Speech Newsletter is the communication medium for the Freedom of Speech Interest Group of the Western Speech Communication Association. The newsletter contains such features as a statement of concern by the National Ad Hoc Committee Against Censorship; Reticence and Free Speech, an article by James F. Vickrey discussing the subtle…

  15. Theoretical Value in Teaching Freedom of Speech. (United States)

    Carney, John J., Jr.

    The exercise of freedom of speech within our nation has deteriorated. A practical value in teaching free speech is the possibility of restoring a commitment to its principles by educators. What must be taught is why freedom of speech is important, why it has been compromised, and the extent to which it has been compromised. Every technological…

  16. Reading Educational Philosophies in "Freedom Writers" (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Ah


    The 2007 film "Freedom Writers" portrays the real-life experiences of Erin Gruwell, a teacher at an inner-city high school in Long Beach, California. This article discusses the educational theories underpinning Gruwell's pedagogical practice, as seen in "Freedom Writers", and identifies four themes--rewriting curriculum,…

  17. Academic Freedom in Europe: Reviewing UNESCO's "Recommendation" (United States)

    Karran, Terence


    This paper examines the compliance of universities in the European Union with the UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Status of Higher-Education Teaching Personnel, which deals primarily with protection for academic freedom. The paper briefly surveys the European genesis of the modern research university and academic freedom, before evaluating…

  18. Meson degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.


    A review is presented of the successes and shortcomings of the theory of meson degrees of freedom in nuclei with special emphasis on recent progress and on the necessity to bridge the gap with the degrees of freedom of QCD theory. (orig.)

  19. Freedom of Speech and Philosophy of Education (United States)

    Harris, Roy


    Why is freedom of speech so seldom raised as an issue in philosophy of education? In assessing this question, it is important to distinguish (i) between a freedom and its exercise, and (ii) between different philosophies of education. Western philosophies of education may be broadly divided into classes derived from theories of knowledge first…

  20. Intellectual Freedom and Censorship in the Library (United States)

    Cooper, Jessica L.


    The article gives a brief description of intellectual freedom and censorship in order to set a foundation for looking into the library community's role in advocating for intellectual freedom and combating censorship. Focus is given to the unique challenges of school libraries in fulfilling the larger library community's expectations in these two…

  1. Lens positioner with five degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobierecki, M.W.; Rienecker, F. Jr.


    A device for positioning lenses precisely with five degrees of freedom (three translations and two angular rotations). The unique features of the device are its compact design, large clear aperture, and high degree of positioning accuracy combined with five degrees of freedom in axis motion. Thus, the device provides precision and flexibility in positioning of optical components

  2. Political mobilization of Dutch Muslims : religious identity salience, goal framing and normative constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phalet, Karen; Baysu, Gülseli


    This article addresses the question of when and for what purpose Muslims will act collectively in the political arena. The impact of religious identity salience, goal framing, and normative constraints on political mobilization was examined in two Muslim communities with different group positions in

  3. The role of cognition in religious development : the contribution of relational and contextual reasoning (RCR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reich, Karl Helmut


    In this work, The Role of Cognition in Religious Development is researched and discussed from various perspectives. Cognition here is defined as the activity of the mind, more specifically the act or process of knowing. This includes perceiving, appraising, understanding, reasoning, judging,

  4. Religious culture as a barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine


    Political interventions, media coverage and research often refer to the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities, particularly girls and women, participating in physical activity and organised sports. In both public and academic debates, reference is made to the religious culture as a particular...... barrier to participation in sports among Muslim girls and women. This article aims to provide a counter-narrative by focusing on young Muslim girls who simultaneously practice their religion and sports. The main research question was: How do young Danish Muslim girls align participation in sports...... religion as hegemonic, embodied and dynamic cultural phenomena, the analysis points to the diversity through which Muslim girls and women participate and engage in sports. Finally, the article discusses the extent to which counter-narratives may contribute to changing perspectives on so-called hard...

  5. Religious ethics, Christianity, and war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Syse


    Full Text Available This article discusses elements within Christian ethics and anthropology that have ramifications for the ethics and laws of war. The author argues that several distinctively Christian conceptions of morality and of human beings contribute importantly to the idea of just war, namely the Christian (and more specifically Augustinian view of history, the Christian view of killing, and the Christian view of sin and grace. While other religious and philosophical traditions also offer significant contributions to a normative discussion about armed force, it remains a fact that Christian thought, historically speaking, has furnished much of the groundwork of what we today know as the ethics and laws of war, and that the experience of being a Christian in the world has important ramifications for thinking about war and the use of armed force.

  6. Sociological Discourse(s) on Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertilsson, Margareta

    The concept of freedom is often thought of as antithetical to sociology. The discipline is more prone to detect and unveil forms of unfreedom, as Zygmunt Bauman (1988) has pointed out. The question remains if any academic discipline, however, including sociology can do away with the concept...... of freedom al together! In matters of science, the problem of determinism vs. chance and spontaneity is essential. Hence, freedom, in one sense or the other, is necessarily at bottom also of sociological discourse. This text is an attempt to map the predominant forms of freedom found in sociological...... discourses. While starting out with the classic liberal concept informing theories of modernity followed by the various critiques directed against liberalism, not the least the most recently occurring (Lyotard, Agamben), the aim here is to spot possible trajectories in our comprehension of freedom, also...

  7. Religiousness and prostate cancer screening in African American men. (United States)

    Abernethy, Alexis D; Houston, Tina R; Bjorck, Jeffrey P; Gorsuch, Richard L; Arnold, Harold L


    This study was designed to examine the relationship between religiousness (organized, nonorganized, and intrinsic) and religious problem solving (collaborative, deferring, and self-directing) in prostate cancer screening (PCS) attitudes and behavior. Men (N = 481) of African descent between the ages of 40 and 70 participated. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that religiousness and self-directed problem solving were associated with PCS attitudes. Intrinsic religiousness was associated with PCS attitudes after controlling for health and organized religiousness. Religiousness was not associated with PCS behavior. Intrinsic religiousness may be an important dimension of religiousness to be considered in tailoring cancer interventions for individuals from faith-based communities.

  8. Freedom of Education as a Prerequisite for the Development of Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Hanaba


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the need to modernize the education sector as an area of freedom. That educational space of freedom is a necessary condition for the development of creativity. This space, which grows with its context through acts of creativity, creates a new context. Methodological guidance in considering this problem is to understand the phenomenon of freedom as a special be-ing a person that opposes the principle of necessity as being of nature. Freedom is an opportunity and the ability to be a human and to be an open to changes in various modes of social and personal realization. The learning process is not perceived as the cultivation of a certain abstract image, under which definite personality “is shaping “, but as a process of discovering its inner creative original building. In such circumstances, the creative process is focused on cultural transformation rather than social adaptation of educational interaction participants.

  9. Religious morality (and secular humanism) in Western civilization as precursors to medical ethics: A historic perspective (United States)

    Faria, Miguel A.


    In discussing bioethics and the formulation of neuroethics, the question has arisen as to whether secular humanism should be the sole philosophical guiding light, to the exclusion of any discussion (or even mention) of religious morality, in professional medical ethics. In addition, the question has arisen as to whether freedom or censorship should be part of medical (and neuroscience) journalism. Should independent medical journals abstain from discussing certain issues, or should only the major medical journals — i.e., the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) or Lancet — be heard, speaking with one “consensual,” authoritative voice? This issue is particularly important in controversial topics impacting medical politics — e.g., public health policy, socio-economics, bioethics, and the so-called redistributive justice in health care. Should all sides be heard when those controversial topics are discussed or only a consensual (monolithic) side? This historical review article discusses those issues and opts for freedom in medical and surgical practice as well as freedom in medical journalism, particularly in opinion pieces such as editorials, commentaries, or letters to the editor, as long as they relate to medicine and, in our special case, to neuroscience and neurosurgery. After answering those questions, and in response to a critical letter to the editor, this review article then expounds comprehensively on the historical and philosophical origins of ethics and religious morality. Necessarily, we discuss the Graeco-Roman legacy and the Judeo-Christian inheritance in the development of ethics and religious morality in Western civilization and their impact on moral conduct in general and on medical and neuroscience ethics in particular. PMID:26110085

  10. 34 CFR 5.1 - Act. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act. 5.1 Section 5.1 Education Office of the Secretary...-10) Definitions § 5.1 Act. As used in this part, Act means section 552 of title 5, United States Code, as amended by Pub. L. 90-23, codifying the Act of July 4, 1966, sometimes referred to as the “Freedom...

  11. Major depressive disorder with religious struggle and completed suicide after hair transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Ceylan


    Full Text Available Objectives: Psychological outcomes of aesthetic surgical procedures like hair transplantation are mostly positive including decreased anxiety, depression and social phobia and increased general well-being, self-efficacy and self-esteem. However, some patients may suffer from post-surgical depression and post-surgical increased suicide rates have been reported for breast augmentation patients. Difficulty adapting to the new image, unfulfilled psychological needs expected to be met by the surgery, side effects of the surgery like tissue swelling or bruising, uncontrolled pain, presence of body dysmorphic disorder and previous history of mood disorder may be some of the risk factors for post-surgical depression. Methods: Here, we present a case without prior psychiatric history who developed major depressive disorder after hair transplantation and died of suicide. Results: He started experiencing religious struggle related to his decision about the hair transplant which he interpreted as acting against God’s will. While religious involvement has been reported to be a protective factor against depression, spiritual struggle, which includes religious guilt, has been described as an important risk factor for depression, hopelessness and suicidality which might explain the severity of depression in our patient. Conclusions: This case highlights the importance of a detailed psychiatric evaluation and exploration of religious concerns of any patient before any type of aesthetic surgery. Major depressive disorder is a treatable condition; however, mild depression can go unnoticed. Religious belief and related religious practices affect an individual’s personal health attitudes; therefore, we think that every physician is needed to explore the religious concerns of any patient during any medical examination or surgical procedure. Relevant religious authorities should be consulted when necessary.

  12. Religiousness as a Predictor of Suicide: An Analysis of 162 European Regions. (United States)

    Stack, Steven; Laubepin, Frederique


    Research on religion as a protective factor has been marked by four recurrent limitations: (1) an overemphasis on the United States, a nation where religiosity is relatively high; (2) a neglect of highly secularized zones of the world, where religiousness may be too weak to affect suicide; (3) restriction of religiousness to religious affiliation, a construct which may miss capturing other dimensions of religiousness such as the importance of religion in one's life; and (4) an overwhelming use of the nation as a unit of analysis, which masks variation in religiousness within nations. The present article addresses these limitations by performing a cross-national test of the following hypothesis: The greater the strength of subjective religiousness, the lower the suicide rate, using small units of analysis for a secularized area of the world. All data refer to 162 regions within 22 European nations. Data were extracted from two large databases, EUROSTAT and the European Social Surveys (ESS Round 4), and merged using NUTS-2 (Nomenclature of Statistical Territorial Units) regions as the unit of analysis. Controls are incorporated for level of economic development, education, and measures of economic strain. The results of a multiple regression analysis demonstrated that controlling for the other constructs in the model, religiousness is associated with lower suicide rates, confirming the hypothesis. Even in secularized European nations, where there is a relatively weak moral community to reinforce religion, religiousness acts as a protective factor against suicide. Future work is needed to explore the relationship in other culture zones of the world. © 2018 The American Association of Suicidology.

  13. Major depressive disorder with religious struggle and completed suicide after hair transplantation. (United States)

    Ceylan, Mehmet Emin; Önen Ünsalver, Barış; Evrensel, Alper


    Psychological outcomes of aesthetic surgical procedures like hair transplantation are mostly positive including decreased anxiety, depression and social phobia and increased general well-being, self-efficacy and self-esteem. However, some patients may suffer from post-surgical depression and post-surgical increased suicide rates have been reported for breast augmentation patients. Difficulty adapting to the new image, unfulfilled psychological needs expected to be met by the surgery, side effects of the surgery like tissue swelling or bruising, uncontrolled pain, presence of body dysmorphic disorder and previous history of mood disorder may be some of the risk factors for post-surgical depression. Here, we present a case without prior psychiatric history who developed major depressive disorder after hair transplantation and died of suicide. He started experiencing religious struggle related to his decision about the hair transplant which he interpreted as acting against God's will. While religious involvement has been reported to be a protective factor against depression, spiritual struggle, which includes religious guilt, has been described as an important risk factor for depression, hopelessness and suicidality which might explain the severity of depression in our patient. This case highlights the importance of a detailed psychiatric evaluation and exploration of religious concerns of any patient before any type of aesthetic surgery. Major depressive disorder is a treatable condition; however, mild depression can go unnoticed. Religious belief and related religious practices affect an individual's personal health attitudes; therefore, we think that every physician is needed to explore the religious concerns of any patient during any medical examination or surgical procedure. Relevant religious authorities should be consulted when necessary.

  14. Space Station Freedom - What if...? (United States)

    Grey, Jerry


    The use of novel structural designs and the Energia launch system of the Commonwealth of Independent States for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program is evaluated by means of a concept analysis. The analysis assumes that: (1) Energia is used for all cargo and logistics resupply missions; (2) the shuttles are launched from the U.S.; and (3) an eight-person assured crew return vehicle is available. This launch/supply scenario reduces the deployment risk from 30 launches to a total of only eight launches reducing the cost by about 15 billion U.S. dollars. The scenario also significantly increases the expected habitable and storage volumes and decreases the deployment time by three years over previous scenarios. The specific payloads are given for Energia launches emphasizing a proposed design for the common module cluster that incorporates direct structural attachment to the truss at midspan. The design is shown to facilitate the accommodation of additional service hangars and to provide a more efficient program for spacecraft habitable space.

  15. Functional Freedom: A Psychological Model of Freedom in Decision-Making. (United States)

    Lau, Stephan; Hiemisch, Anette


    The freedom of a decision is not yet sufficiently described as a psychological variable. We present a model of functional decision freedom that aims to fill that role. The model conceptualizes functional freedom as a capacity of people that varies depending on certain conditions of a decision episode. It denotes an inner capability to consciously shape complex decisions according to one's own values and needs. Functional freedom depends on three compensatory dimensions: it is greatest when the decision-maker is highly rational, when the structure of the decision is highly underdetermined, and when the decision process is strongly based on conscious thought and reflection. We outline possible research questions, argue for psychological benefits of functional decision freedom, and explicate the model's implications on current knowledge and research. In conclusion, we show that functional freedom is a scientific variable, permitting an additional psychological foothold in research on freedom, and that is compatible with a deterministic worldview.

  16. Functional Freedom: A Psychological Model of Freedom in Decision-Making (United States)

    Lau, Stephan; Hiemisch, Anette


    The freedom of a decision is not yet sufficiently described as a psychological variable. We present a model of functional decision freedom that aims to fill that role. The model conceptualizes functional freedom as a capacity of people that varies depending on certain conditions of a decision episode. It denotes an inner capability to consciously shape complex decisions according to one’s own values and needs. Functional freedom depends on three compensatory dimensions: it is greatest when the decision-maker is highly rational, when the structure of the decision is highly underdetermined, and when the decision process is strongly based on conscious thought and reflection. We outline possible research questions, argue for psychological benefits of functional decision freedom, and explicate the model’s implications on current knowledge and research. In conclusion, we show that functional freedom is a scientific variable, permitting an additional psychological foothold in research on freedom, and that is compatible with a deterministic worldview. PMID:28678165

  17. Religiousness, religious coping with illness, and psychological function among Polish elderly patients with osteoarthritis undergoing arthroplasty. (United States)

    Stecz, Patryk; Kocur, Józef


    To determine the influence of religious coping and religiousness on the psychological functioning of Polish patients before and after arthroplasty, a prospective study was performed. Out of a pool of 102 potential participants, a total of 61 (34 females, 27 males) completed a purposely created survey, Brief-COPE followed by preoperative and postoperative Perceived Stress Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Religious coping was not associated with: (1) perceived stress before or after surgery; (2) preoperative or postoperative anxiety; (3) life satisfaction. A two-factor ANOVA has shown that religious coping controlled by religiousness was related to better psychological functioning. Between- and within-subjects effects were observed for improvement in life satisfaction measured by split-plot ANOVA, which suggests (p religious orientation. We concluded that religious strategies in dealing with stress measured by Brief-COPE were least likely to benefit patients of low-religious orientation. The study demonstrated the importance of core religious beliefs in predicting benefits derived from religiousness in the face of a crisis. This study showed that regardless of its effectiveness, turning to religion is common among Polish patients about to undergo surgery for osteoarthritis of the hip.

  18. LAICIDAD DEL ESTADO Y ORDENAMIENTO JURÍDICO: LIBERTAD VS. UNIFORMIDAD: EL CASO ESPAÑOL Laicism (laity of the State and legal system: Freedom vs. uniformity: The Spanish case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Calvo Espiga


    (coordination within democratic legislations of the laicism of the State with his citizens' religious freedom. In the double dimension, on the one hand, of the personal liberty to profess a certain religious creed, or not to profess none, or to abandon the one which is professed or to change of beliefs. And, on the other hand, of the social freedom that the coercion protection and absence consists of or limitations when acting and stating publicly as a result with the professed faith. Reflection that carry out with special reference to the Spanish case. We study the established and consolidated freedoms regime in Spanish Constitution of 1 978 and developed, at first, for the Organic Law in force of Religious Freedom. We use in this study a comparative methodology with other legal systems continental. And we turn to immediate historic antecedents of the current legislation. We study of special form the regulation of the religious freedom (? by the republican regime of1931. And the above-mentioned within the framework of the jurisprudence of the Spanish Constitutional Court. From this constitutional perspective future possibilities are posed for a legislative policy that promotes and presses the exercise of the fundamental right of religious freedom. Freedom that such as an effective mean is presented and resource necessary to avoiding the imposition on the part of the state of a dissimulated thought uniformity only. Our proposal is that one of the state option for an open laity founded in the promotion on the part of public authorities of the freedom. Public powers and State that have to found his action in the neutrality, the separation between the State and the Church, the cooperation and the promotion of the exercise of rights and fundamental liberties.

  19. Religious education in public schools and religious identity in post-communist Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Sima


    Full Text Available The author analyses types of religious education in European and Serbian state-run schools searching for an innovative approach to existing classifications. He suggests four criteria to differ and categorize types of religious education in public schools, claiming that the actual taxonomy is often insufficient, inconsistent or perplexed (having usually been based upon one or two elements. He proposes categorization which encompasses point of view and interests of tax payers, of the politics, of the pupils and of the religious teachers. More criteria could lead to a better assessment of particular system of religious education. He also suggests that, apart from usual categorization in confessional and non-confessional religious education, it would be useful to introduce categories like 'mostly confessional' and 'mostly non-confessional', as clear-cut models are very rare. In addition to this he offers arguments why 'cognitive' type of religious education would be more proper label instead of 'non-confessional'. Further on the author examines controversies, disputes and manner of reintroduction of religious instruction in Serbian legislation after the fall of the communist regime in 2000 and presents the current situation, including very recent changes considering curricula. He points to some very distinctive features of religious education model in Serbia which could be of interest in comparative perspective, particularly in the time when many states in Europe tend to improve their religious education system. Finally, he points to importance of religious education in building religious identity of young generations in post-communist countries, and differs two types of religious identity - perceptive (intuitive and cognitive (rational. He concludes that 'educating into religion' has to exist for some time in post-communist countries due to historical circumstances (within more or less confessional model. Additionally, he finds that it should be

  20. Relationship of Religiousness and Religious Coping with Quality of Life among War Trauma Survivors. (United States)

    Fadilpašić, Senadin; Maleč, Daniel; Džubur-Kulenović, Alma


    Long-term posttraumatic outcomes such as quality of life are dependent on a series of factors from the very exposure to traumatic events and stress appraisals, personality traits, posttraumatic growth, symptoms of Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and different coping strategies to religiousness and religious coping styles. Except of exposure to traumatic events and related stress, all other variables may have indirect mediating effects on long-term posttraumatic outcomes. The main aim of this cross-sectional study is to explore relative independent contribution of these variables in the explanation of quality of life among war trauma survivors, with a special emphasis on the variables of religiousness and religious coping. The research was conducted on 353 subjects who experienced war related traumatic events during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). The data was collected through several self-report measuring instruments: Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life, Stressors Check List (SCL); Religiousness Scale, Social Support Resources Scale; Religious Problem-Solving Scale, Brief RCOPE, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Mississippi Scale for PTSD. According to the results of the study, experience of loss and frequent exposure to war trauma and high levels on the primary stress appraisals, self-directing coping style and PTSD-symptoms were associated with lower perceived quality of life among the subjects. High levels of extrinsic religious orientation, effect of religiousness on social behavior, positive religious coping and posttraumatic growth were associated with higher perceived quality of life among subjects. These variables showed significant independent contribution to the prediction of the values on quality of life. Results of the study have a scientific significance in understanding the importance and mediating role of religiousness and religious coping for quality of life perception as one of long-term posttraumatic outcomes. Effects of

  1. Freedom and the principles of morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Zagorka T.


    Full Text Available Freedom as an authentic and willed process, characteristic of man as a human rational being, enables the individual to act in accordance with the principles of morality, since the individual can choose between good and evil (between two possibilities, and in this way to get out of the sphere of the given to which the rest of the living world is limited. We should recall the forgotten Marx and his famous text on the essential difference between the animal world and humanity as a genus: "The animal is immediately united with its vital activity. It does not differ from it. It is vital activity. Man makes his own vital activity the subject of his will and consciousness. He has conscious vital activity. This is not a determination with which he merges immediately. Conscious vital activity distinguishes man directly from animal vital activity. It is exactly in this way alone that he is a generic being. Or a conscious being, i.e. his own life is a subject for him precisely because he is a generic being. It is only for this reason that his activity is free activity..." (K. Marx, "Alienation", Early Works. In other words, while animals live just the life of their species and cannot choose anything else, since the choice has been made by the fact of their belonging to a species, man can choose the world in which to live, overcoming in this way the natural givens. Here lies the core of the anthropological explanation of the principle of morality, inconceivable without man's ability to be an authentic free being.

  2. Kant, Freedom as Independence, and Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.


    While the influence of Kant’s practical philosophy on contemporary political theory has been profound, it has its source in Kant’s autonomy-based moral philosophy rather than in his freedom-based philosophy of Right. Kant scholars have increasingly turned their attention to Kant’s Rechtslehre......, but they have largely ignored its potential contribution to discussions of democracy. However, Kant’s approach to political philosophy can supply unique insights to the latter. His notion that freedom and the public legal order are co-constitutive can be developed into a freedom argument for constitutional...

  3. Response to Haskell's "Academic Freedom ... & Student Evaluation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Stake


    Full Text Available Haskell (1997 argued that the administrative practice of student evaluation of faculty is a threat to academic freedom. However, before that claim can be substantiated, several prior questions must be addressed: To whom does academic freedom belong? Individual faculty? The academy? Whose actions can violate the right? Can any lines be drawn based on whether the substance or form of classroom behavior is influenced? And still another crucial point is whether a body can violate academic freedom without any intent to interfere with or control the substance of what is said to students.

  4. Freedom of Speech: The M Word


    Murphy, Timothy; Olsen, Kristina; Andersen, Christopher; Reichhardt, Line


    The first objective of the project is to show how freedom of speech and democracy are dependent on one another in Denmark. The project’s next focal point is to look at how freedom of speech was framed in relation to the Mohammed publications in 2005. To do this, it identifies how freedom of speech was used by many Danish and European newspapers to justify the publications. Arguments against the publications by both the Danish media and the Muslim community (within Denmark and abroad) are also...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It instructs us that we have to understand the word not as a freedom ... Produced by SUN MeDIA Bloemfontein .... mouth of the governor of Alabama, George Wallace, who fought resolutely ..... The right freedom is essentially a social freedom.

  6. Religious law versus secular law
    The example of the get refusal in Dutch, English and Israeli law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs de Blois


    Full Text Available The tension between religious law and secular law in modern democracies is illustrated in this article by a discussion of the different approaches to the get (a bill of divorce refusal (based on Jewish law under Dutch, English and Israeli law. These legal orders share many characteristics, but also display important differences as to the role of religion and religious law in the public realm. The Dutch system is the most secular of the three; it does not recognize a role for religious law within the secular system as such. The English legislation provides for means that to a certain extent facilitate the effectuation of a religious divorce. In Israel, finally, the law of marriage and divorce is as such governed by the religious law of the parties concerned; for the majority of the population that is Jewish law. An evaluation of the different approaches in the framework of human rights law reveals the complexities of the collision of the underlying values in terms of equality, religious freedom and minority rights, also having regard to the diversity of opinions within religious communities.

  7. MEMS 6 degrees of freedom parallel micro manipulator for TEM sample manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Dannis Michel; de Jong, B.R.; Soemers, Herman


    Up till now MEMS actuators acted either only in-plane or only out-of plane restricting to 3 DOF manipulation. A design for a millimeter-sized manipulator with 6 degrees of freedom to manipulate a micron-sized substrate at nanometer resolution over strokes of 10 microns with a position stability

  8. Religious Renaissance in China Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Madsen


    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the Reform Era in 1979, there has been a rapid growth and development of religious belief and practice in China. A substantial new scholarly literature has been generated in the attempt to document and understand this. This essay identifies the most important contributions to that literature and discusses areas of agreement and controversy across the literature. Along with new data, new paradigms have developed to frame research on Chinese religions. The paradigm derived from C. K. Yang’s classic work in the 1960s came from structural functionalism, which served to unite research in the humanities and social sciences. However, structural functionalism has been abandoned by the new generation of scholars. In the humanities, the most popular paradigm derives from Michel Foucault, but there are also scholars who use neo-Durkheimian and neo-Weberian paradigms. In the social sciences, the dominant paradigms tend to focus on state-society relations. None of these paradigms fully captures the complexity of the transformations happening in China. We recommend greater dialogue between the humanities and social sciences in search of more adequate theoretical frameworks for understanding Chinese religions today.

  9. Tourist Evaluation of Religious Buildings in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Maria


    Full Text Available In this article value of sacred objects like a resource for development of cultural and religious tourism is being emphased. It ia being described the current state of religious monuments, their wilingness that in existing conditions be functional factors of tourist offer. For research it is being used: qualitative and quantitative methods with which are being described recognized elements of tourist valorization: tourism-geographical location, ambiance, atractiveness and identity, decoration and equipment of the space in tourist wealth. Then, the segmenta of valorisation are being quantified through evaluation of the most representative religious monuments in Montenegro. With this work, we want to draw attention to the value of this heritage and its ability to relatively easy be recognized as a resource of cultural and religious tourism. It is being wanted to explore which segments of tourist valorization can be improved, so on the base of it and incorporated in a system of a tourist offer.

  10. Religious Values In Song Lyrics Tingkilan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sadli Mustafa


    Full Text Available This globalization era brought people of East Kalimantan tend to prefer modern music and western music. This cause the local or traditional music art is marginalized. On the other hand, they have a local music art containing a lot of local wisdom. One of them is tingkilan music. Lyrics of tingkilan contain religious values. Therefore, this study intends to find and to describe the religious values in the song lyrics of the tingkilan musical arts. This study uses a qualitative research method. The research shows that in fact some tingkilan song lyrics have a deep religious value. Some of those religious values are thanksgiving favors, learning of the holly Qur’an, the way of eating and drinking in accordance with the Islamic teaching.

  11. Ratings of Essentialism for Eight Religious Identities. (United States)

    Toosi, Negin R; Ambady, Nalini


    As a social identity, religion is unique because it contains a spectrum of choice. In some religious communities, individuals are considered members by virtue of having parents of that background, and religion, culture, and ethnicity are closely intertwined. Other faith communities actively invite people of other backgrounds to join, expecting individuals to choose the religion that best fits their personal beliefs. These various methods of identification influence beliefs about the essentialist nature of religious identity. Essentialism is when social groups are considered to have deep, immutable, and inherent defining properties. In this study, college students (N=55) provided ratings of essentialism for eight religious identities: Atheist, Buddhist, Catholic, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim, Protestant, and Spiritual-but-not-religious. Significant differences in essentialism were found between the target groups. Results and implications for intergroup relations are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Rot


    Full Text Available Croatia has a rich sacral (tangible and intangible heritage, which undoubtedly has great cultural value, and part of the religious heritage has been included in the World Heritage List of UNESCO. The fact is, however, that, except when it comes to top attractions, churches as tourist facilities, are poorly attended and do not get almost no direct tourism income.. In this paper, after the introductory explanations of basic terms related to religious tourism and pilgrimage, we explore the basic features of religious tourism in Croatia, both on tourist attractions, as well as on the tourist demand. It also presents the results of empirical research on the socio-demographic profile of the author, the role of religion in the life of pilgrims and the satisfaction of the visitors to the Shrine of Mary of Bistrica in 2013 among 50 pilgrims in Marija Bistrica. The main objective is to determine how the pilgrims perceived the tourism offer in religious tourism.

  13. Pain and Coping in The Religious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Geertz, Armin W.; Roepstorff, Andreas

    institutions, i.e. the Religion, Cognition and Culture (RCC) research area at The Faculty of Theology, Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience (CFIN) and The Danish Pain Research Centre (DPRC) at the University of Aarhus and Aarhus University Hospital. The team will design fMRI (functional magnetic...... hypothesize that the target group will have a higher pain threshold and pain tolerance during religious practice compared to a non-religious control group, and the fMRI experiments are expected to show reduced neural activity (BOLD) in areas of the brain correlating with pain experience during personal prayer...... and religious stimuli (target) and increased neural activity in reward systems during personal prayer and religious stimuli (target). To complement the clinical experiments, field work in Mauritius during the Hindu Thaipusam Festival 2010 will explore how pain in an online ritual setting is experienced...

  14. Trusteeship: shared mission for religious and laity. (United States)

    Longo, W L


    Serving as a trustee requires commitment to a particular congregation's spirit or charism and to the health care apostolate. Vatican Council II urges that laypersons take the responsibility to share with religious as partners in furthering the Church's mission.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL ISSUES IN GENDER EQUITY: IMPLICATION FOR ... Education and Culture of any country determine its developmental rate. Culture affects the way ... expectations that people of one gender are expected to fulfill ...

  16. Relationship between religiosity, religious coping and socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , ... Results: Intrinsic religiosity was greater among older people with depression than ... Positive religious coping was greater among participants with diabetes in the low occupational .... of this study would contribute to effective treatment for.

  17. School religious education in a liberating perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Meza Rueda


    Full Text Available Religious education in Colombia, according to Law 115 of 1994, is an area of fundamental training. However, its purpose of promoting the religious dimension of human beings and understanding the role of religion in culture is far from being achieved, because, in practice, it is considered as an area of second order, is disjointed from the curriculum and is still working as the “religion lesson” of the past. What to do against this? Could it be another way of thinking about religious education? We estimate that, as presuppositions and motivations of both liberation theology and liberating pedagogy are still valid today, they may provide clues in this respect. Consequently, this paper not only makes a detailed reading of this reality in some official educational institutions in Colombia, but also sheds light for the school religious education (ERE to be liberating.

  18. Stability and Change in Religiousness during Emerging Adulthood (United States)

    Koenig, Laura B.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.


    Understanding the development of religiousness is an important endeavor because religiousness has been shown to be related to positive outcomes. The current study examined mean-level, rank-order, and individual-level change in females' religiousness during emerging adulthood. Genetic and environmental influences on religiousness and its change and…

  19. Critical appraisal of dialogue as a strategy for religious conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria has passed through incessant religious conflicts and its attendant consequences of loss of human lives and property. It is unfortunate that despite all the efforts made to resolve religious conflicts in Nigeria through religious dialogue yet peaceful resolution of religious conflicts have remained a mirage. This paper ...

  20. Meta-concepts, thinking skills and religious education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, P.


    This paper proposes that the acquisition of meta-concepts and thinking skills in order to facilitate scholarly religious thought should be the principal aim of religious education in schools. As a result, the aim of religious education is primarily stated in cognitive terms and religious education

  1. Is it still possible to study religion religiously today? Mircea Eliade's religious apologetic account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Ngcobo


    Full Text Available This article reflects on the question whether it is still possible to study religion religiously today or not? This is due to the variety of disciplines� interest in religion and its phenomena. Such interest influenced the study to adopt a new approach that is different from that of religious studies. Both religion and its phenomena, especially myths according to the reductionists, should be treated lesser than they are professed to be. Mircea Eliade on the other hand argues differently, as he stresses on the point that religious phenomena can only be studied under religious spheres alone.

  2. Is it still possible to study religion religiously today? Mircea Eliade's religious apologetic account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Ngcobo


    Full Text Available This article reflects on the question whether it is still possible to study religion religiously today or not? This is due to the variety of disciplines’ interest in religion and its phenomena. Such interest influenced the study to adopt a new approach that is different from that of religious studies. Both religion and its phenomena, especially myths according to the reductionists, should be treated lesser than they are professed to be. Mircea Eliade on the other hand argues differently, as he stresses on the point that religious phenomena can only be studied under religious spheres alone.

  3. Pluralism and Religious Harmony in Religious Elites Perspectives in Malang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Sumbulah


    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the religious elite view of pluralism and religious harmony in  Malang. The study was focused on the meaning of pluralism and religious harmony, efforts  and things that support and hinder the realization of religious harmony. Empirical research  data with qualitative-phenomenological approach was collected through interviews and documentation. The results show: first, the meaning of religious pluralism for the religious elites is very varied, which is the same as tolerance, mutual respect, the goal of all religions are the same, and recognize the fact that there are many religions in this world. Second, religiousharmony have meaning as a condition where there is no oppression and domination of one religion over other religions, awakening a deep awareness of diversity, respect for human rights, and the willingness to spread kindness and love for fellow human beings. Third, religious harmony can be achieved through internal efforts to strengthen the faith of each and build awareness to develop a positive attitude towards other religions. In external efforts to create harmony done through emancipatory dialogue and cooperation to resolve humanitarian issues. Fourth, positive attitude that supports the creation of harmony of religions is the willingness and awareness to understand each other and share experiences. Egoism, truth claims, fanaticism, and exclusivism is a negative attitude and expression recognized by the religious elite can interfere with the establishment of inter-religious harmony.

  4. Subnuclear degrees of freedom in the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewald, S.


    The aim of the present thesis is to study the possible influence of subnuclear degrees of freedom as the Δ 33 -resonance and relativistic effects on the structure of nuclear excited states. (orig./HSI) [de

  5. String description of quarks degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, L.


    This work presents a simple way of incorporating quark degrees of freedom (spin, charge and colour) into the classical string model. We introduce the model and derive from it the classical equations of motion. (author)

  6. String description of quarks degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, L. [Jagiellonian Univ., Inst. of Physics, Cracow (Poland)


    This work presents a simple way of incorporating quark degrees of freedom (spin, charge and colour) into the classical string model. We introduce the model and derive from it the classical equations of motion. (author). 7 refs.

  7. The Virtue of Freedom in Capitalism. (United States)

    Machan, Tibor R.


    Argues that the sort of liberty associated with a capitalist economic system is of particular value because it ensures moral self-responsibility. Two conceptions of freedom are developed and related to private property and public virtue. (Author/JDH)

  8. EMC effect: asymptotic freedom with nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.B.


    General features of the EMC effect are discussed within the framework of quantum chromodynamics as expressed via the operator product expansion and asymptotic freedom. These techniques are reviewed with emphasis on the target dependence. 22 references

  9. Occupation Iraqi Freedom: The Importance of Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caston, Christine J


    ... addressed by the Combatant and Joint Force Commanders. The lack of an occupation plan had a major impact on how the Combatant Commander carried out Phases IV and V of Operation Iraqi Freedom and provides relevant lessons for future operations.

  10. Freedom of the Press – two concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Meckl


    Full Text Available In 1644 the debate for freedom of expression started in modern times thanks to John Milton’s Areopagitica, where he still argued about God in order to justify his quest for freedom. With the enlightenment God lost his unifying role for society and could no longer serve as justification. Two arguments were brought then forward to justify freedom of the press: One by the continental movement of the enlightenment; the other from within the movement of utilitarianism, and most influentially by John Stuart Mill. Both underlined the importance of truth; however, they differed in their understanding on what truth was good for. This difference in their arguments had a lasting impact on the debate on the limits of freedom of the press.

  11. Religiousness and preoperative anxiety: a correlational study


    Aghamohammadi Kalkhoran, Masoomeh; Karimollahi, Mansoureh


    Abstract Background Major life changes are among factors that cause anxiety, and one of these changes is surgery. Emotional reactions to surgery have specific effects on the intensity and velocity as well as the process of physical disease. In addition, they can cause delay in patients recovery. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between religious beliefs and preoperative anxiety. Methods This survey is a correlational study to assess the relationship between religious belief...

  12. Space Station Freedom combustion research (United States)

    Faeth, G. M.


    Extended operations in microgravity, on board spacecraft like Space Station Freedom, provide both unusual opportunities and unusual challenges for combustion science. On the one hand, eliminating the intrusion of buoyancy provides a valuable new perspective for fundamental studies of combustion phenomena. On the other hand, however, the absence of buoyancy creates new hazards of fires and explosions that must be understood to assure safe manned space activities. These considerations - and the relevance of combustion science to problems of pollutants, energy utilization, waste incineration, power and propulsion systems, and fire and explosion hazards, among others - provide strong motivation for microgravity combustion research. The intrusion of buoyancy is a greater impediment to fundamental combustion studies than to most other areas of science. Combustion intrinsically heats gases with the resulting buoyant motion at normal gravity either preventing or vastly complicating measurements. Perversely, this limitation is most evident for fundamental laboratory experiments; few practical combustion phenomena are significantly affected by buoyancy. Thus, we have never observed the most fundamental combustion phenomena - laminar premixed and diffusion flames, heterogeneous flames of particles and surfaces, low-speed turbulent flames, etc. - without substantial buoyant disturbances. This precludes rational merging of theory, where buoyancy is of little interest, and experiments, that always are contaminated by buoyancy, which is the traditional path for developing most areas of science. The current microgravity combustion program seeks to rectify this deficiency using both ground-based and space-based facilities, with experiments involving space-based facilities including: laminar premixed flames, soot processes in laminar jet diffusion flames, structure of laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames, solid surface combustion, one-dimensional smoldering, ignition and flame



    Georgia Kate Chapman


    This paper focuses on the arguments around restriction on freedom of the press in the Strong States of Singapore and Malaysia. It assesses the presence of constraints on press freedoms in democratic western countries imposed by corporation rather than state and the similar effects that these constraints may have on bias present in publicly accessible news reporting. It argues that independence of the press does not just require protection from legal and executive regulation, but also protecti...

  14. The fragility of freedom of speech. (United States)

    Shackel, Nicholas


    Freedom of speech is a fundamental liberty that imposes a stringent duty of tolerance. Tolerance is limited by direct incitements to violence. False notions and bad laws on speech have obscured our view of this freedom. Hence, perhaps, the self-righteous intolerance, incitements and threats in response to Giubilini and Minerva. Those who disagree have the right to argue back but their attempts to shut us up are morally wrong.

  15. Religious characteristics of US women physicians. (United States)

    Frank, E; Dell, M L; Chopp, R


    Physicians' religious attributes are unknown, and may affect patient care. The Women Physicians' Health Study (WPHS) is a random sample (n = 4501 respondents, 59% response rate) of US women physicians aged 30-70; the first large, national study of US women physicians. In this study US women physicians were less likely to be Christian than were other Americans (61.2% of women physicians versus 85.1% of the general population), but were more likely to be Jewish (13.2% vs 2.0%), Buddhist (1.4% vs 0.3%), Hindu (3.9% vs 0.4%), or atheist/agnostic (5.9% vs 0.6%). Protestantism (29.3% of the population) and Catholicism (24.9%) were the most commonly reported religious identities. The strongest religious identity was claimed by Mormons and Seventh Day Adventists. Thus, women physicians' religious beliefs differ from those of the general population in the US. This may be particularly important for physicians practicing with patient populations with different religious affiliations, and in addressing clinical questions with ethical or religious dimensions.

  16. Wrath of God: religious primes and punishment. (United States)

    McKay, Ryan; Efferson, Charles; Whitehouse, Harvey; Fehr, Ernst


    Recent evidence indicates that priming participants with religious concepts promotes prosocial sharing behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether religious priming also promotes the costly punishment of unfair behaviour. A total of 304 participants played a punishment game. Before the punishment stage began, participants were subliminally primed with religion primes, secular punishment primes or control primes. We found that religious primes strongly increased the costly punishment of unfair behaviours for a subset of our participants--those who had previously donated to a religious organization. We discuss two proximate mechanisms potentially underpinning this effect. The first is a 'supernatural watcher' mechanism, whereby religious participants punish unfair behaviours when primed because they sense that not doing so will enrage or disappoint an observing supernatural agent. The second is a 'behavioural priming' mechanism, whereby religious primes activate cultural norms pertaining to fairness and its enforcement and occasion behaviour consistent with those norms. We conclude that our results are consistent with dual inheritance proposals about religion and cooperation, whereby religions harness the byproducts of genetically inherited cognitive mechanisms in ways that enhance the survival prospects of their adherents.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanto Al Qurtuby


    Full Text Available Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia, with more than six hundred million populations, is home to millions of Buddhists, Muslims, Confucians, Protestants, Catholics, and now Pentecostals, as well as many followers of local religions and spiritual beliefs. Notwithstanding its great historical, political, cultural legacies, however, the region has long been neglected as a site for religious studies in the Western academia. Aiming at filling the gap in Asian and religious studies as well as exploring the richness of Southeast Asian cultures, this article discusses the dynamics, diversity, and complexity of Southeast Asian societies in their response to the region’s richly political, cultural, and religious traditions spanning from pre-modern era to modern one. The article also examines the “integrative revolutions” that shaped and reshaped warfare, state organization and economics of Southeast Asia, particularly in the pre-European colonial era. In addition, the work discusses the wave of Islamization, particularly since the nineteenth century, as well as the upsurge of religious resurgence that shift the nature of religiosity and the formation of religious groupings in the area. The advent of Islam, with some interventions of political regimes, had been an important cause for the decline of Hindu-Buddhist traditions in some areas of Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia, the coming of Pentecostalism has challenged the well-established mainstream Protestantism and Catholicism, especially in Indonesia and the Philippines. Keywords: history, modernity, religious change, Southeast Asia

  18. Religiosity and agency and communion: their relationship to religious judgmentalism. (United States)

    Beck, R; Miller, C D


    The present study is an introduction to the construct of religious judgmentalism, defined as a willingness to make religious or moral judgments of others based on a limited period of observation; the study offers a prediction about which individuals will engage in such judgmental behavior. It was predicted that agency motives would significantly predict religious judgmentalism in a religious population but that communion motives and intrinsic religiosity would moderate this effect. Overall, the findings supported these predictions. Agency motives were positively correlated with religious judgmentalism. Intrinsic religiosity predicted a general unwillingness to make religious evaluations of others. Both intrinsic religiosity and communion motives did moderate the effects of high agency motives. Specifically, increases in communion motive and intrinsic religiosity, at high levels of agency motives, significantly predicted lower scores for religious judgmentalism. These findings were conceptualized as preliminary evidence for the position that interpersonal motives, rather than religiousness or religious motivation, predict social intolerance and criticism in religious individuals.

  19. Dignity, religion and freedom of expression in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus C.W. van Rooyen


    Full Text Available The issue that this article dealt with is whether, in South African law, speech that infringes upon the religious feelings of an individual is protected by the dignity clause in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. The Constitution, as well as the Broadcasting Code, prohibits language that advocates hatred, inter alia, based on religion and that constitutes incitement to cause harm. Dignity, which is a central Constitutional right, relates to the sense of self worth which a person has. A Court has held that religious feelings, national pride and language do not form part of dignity, for purposes of protection in law. The Broadcasting Complaints Commission has, similarly, decided that a point of view seriously derogatory of ‘Calvinistic people’ blaming (some of them as being hypocritical and even acting criminally is not protected by dignity. It would have to be accompanied by the advocacy of hatred as defined previously. The author, however, pointed out that on occasion different facts might found a finding in law that religion is so closely connected to dignity, that it will indeed be regarded as part thereof.

  20. The Role of Agent and Social Context in Judgments of Freedom of Speech and Religion. (United States)

    Helwig, Charles C


    This study examined children's, adolescents', and college students' judgments of the rights of child and adult agents to freedom of speech and religion in 3 social contexts: the general level of society, the school, and the family. Two hundred forty participants, evenly divided into 5 grade levels (mean ages 6,6, 8,5,10,6,12,4, and 22,7) made judgments of the legitimacy of authority prohibition, rule evaluation, generalizability, and rule violation for all freedom/social context/agent combinations. Concepts of freedom of speech and religion were found to emerge in the early elementary school years, and endorsements of freedoms were increasingly affected by social context and agent with age. College students were less likely than any other age group to affirm children's freedom of religion in the family context. Considerations of the mental competence and maturity of agents and the potential for harm to ensue from acting on freedoms played an important part in the decisions of older, but not younger, participants.

  1. Spirituality amid Dogma? Some Approaches to Educating for Religious Belief within in a State Religious School in Israel (United States)

    Sztokman, Elana Maryles


    The religious school, where young people are brought into religious life and practice, the development of a religious belief system is often neglected. Religiousness is often instilled as a linear end product, a monolithic corpus of ideas to be singularly transmitted and subsequently owned by youth. However, educational research by Gareth…

  2. Confessional and catechetical nature of religious education in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Mąkosa


    Full Text Available This paper aims at bringing to light a presentation of the nature of religious education in Poland. This study will therefore present a brief historical outline of religious upbringing in Poland, its current organisational regulations and the principles of religious education in schools. In our summary, we will present the level of effectiveness of religious education in Poland, and we will also explore the discussion on the reformation of religious education in Poland which is being worked upon.

  3. Religious affiliations and consumer behavior: an examination of hospitals. (United States)

    Andeleeb, S S


    The author re-examines the conclusions of an earlier study which contends that religious affiliation of a hospital is important in influencing hospital selection and contributes to overall patient satisfaction. In this new survey, patients ranked religious affiliation low in importance when choosing among hospitals. However, hospitals of a particular religious affiliation were more likely to be recalled, preferred, and selected by people of the same religious affiliation. Furthermore, on quality-of-care measures, religious affiliation influenced hospital evaluations.

  4. Statement on occasion of receiving Four Freedoms Award, 13 May 2006, Middelburg, The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.


    On the occasion of receiving the Four Freedoms Reward Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, stressed the importance of the freedom of expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want and freedom from fear - unfortunately not enjoyed by everyone. It is therefore no surprise that this is a world not at peace with itself. A world that, too often, resorts to force in trying to settle differences. A world in which human rights abuses or inhumane living conditions are the norm for almost half of our fellow human beings. In addition, it is a world in which we continue to see a reliance on nuclear weapons - with over 27 000 nuclear warheads in existence. This contrasts sharply with Roosevelt's vision of freedom from fear, which he said would mean 'a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbour - anywhere in the world'. we need to change our approach to security - as Roosevelt eloquently put it - we need a perpetual peaceful revolution, a revolution which goes on steadily, quietly adjusting itself to changing conditions . But for that revolution to happen, we need to understand what it is that needs to be changed. Regardless of differences of nationality, ethnicity, culture or faith, it is high time to understand that we are all part of one human family, with shared core values - and what is more important is that we act accordingly. As President Roosevelt aptly put it in 1941, 'Freedom means the supremacy of human rights everywhere'. Clearly, this continues to be a work in progress. The IAEA will continue to work against the proliferation of nuclear weapons, and towards nuclear disarmament - and at the same time to promote the use of science for peace and development

  5. Entrepreneurship development in destinations of religious tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Slobodan


    Full Text Available After the introduction which summarizes the basic guidelines for the development of entrepreneurship in special interest tourism, the author explores the development and application as well as the management of entrepreneurship in religious tourism as a type of special interest tourism. Religious components and motives for visiting shrines as an integral part of human culture and tradition have a strenuous impact on the tourism industry, both on the offering and demanding side. The most visited shrines such as Fatima or Lourdes attract four to eight million visitors per year. Considering the fact that this type of tourism is economically very useful in a particular local environment, many shrines as sites have become centres of religious, commercial and cultural events in certain regions throughout history. Their development was followed by investment in infrastructure, culture, catering and other facilities. The implementation of entrepreneurship is based on various segments that enable the development of religious tourism in a particular area, such as catering industry, hospitality industry, tourist mediation, transportation companies and other complementary activities (agriculture, fishing, wine production, commerce and other services. The author explores the indicators of entrepreneurship development in the field of religious tourism as a type of special interest tourism indicating the possibilities it has on the destination development. The development of special interest tourism should be based on effective investment in tourism offer through entrepreneurial projects (catering and other tourist facilities in accordance with market trends. The investment in tourism offer in the context of religious tourism would result in the growth of religious passengers' consumption as well as the increase in income from religious tourism, and thus the economic development of the sites with religious content. Examples of such shrines in the world are


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mujiburrahman


    Full Text Available This article discusses how Indonesian state manages its religious diversity. The state policies on religious diversity cannot be understood without analyzing the history of how the founding fathers decided to choose Indonesia as neither secular nor Islamic country, but somewhere between the two. The author discusses three topics, namely the recognized religions, Muslim fear of Christianization, and dialogue and inter-religious harmony. Based on the Decree No.1/1965, Confucianism was one of six religions recognized by the state. However, in the Soeharto era, around 1979, this religion was dropped from the list, and only after his fall Confucianism has been rehabilitated, and even the Chinese New Year has been included as one of the national holidays in Indonesia. In terms of Muslim-Christian relations, there were tensions since 1960s, particularly dealt with the issue of the high number of Muslims who converted to Christianity. It was in this situation that in 1967 a newly built Methodist Church in Meulaboh, Aceh, was closed by Muslims, arguing that the Church was a concrete example of the aggressiveness of Christian missions because it was built in a Muslim majority area. Since the Meulaboh case, the Muslims consistently insisted the government to accommodate their four demands: (1 restriction on establishing new places of worship; (2 restriction onreligious propagation, and control of foreign aid for religious institutions; (4 Islamic religion classes should be given to Muslim students studying in Christian schools; (5 inter-religious marriage should not be allowed. Apart from these contested issues, the government and religious leaders have been trying to avoid conflict and to establish cooperation and peace among religious groups in the country through inter-religious dialogues, either organized by the government or sponsored by the leaders of religious groups themselves. The author argues that specific socio-political contexts should be

  7. Religiousness and Rape Myth Acceptance: Risk and Protective Effects. (United States)

    Ensz, Samantha; Jankowski, Peter J


    This study addressed the lack of research simultaneously examining multiple dimensions of religiousness when predicting rape myth acceptance, and extended prior findings of a mediating role for right-wing authoritarianism (i.e., uncritical submission to authority and aggressive attitude toward those who do not conform to social norms) in the association between religiousness and prejudice. The sample consisted of 99 undergraduate and graduate students ( M age = 31.87 years, 66.7% female, 80.82% White, and 93% Christian affiliated) from a religiously affiliated university in the Midwest United States. As hypothesized, dimensions of religiousness exhibited differential associations with rape myth acceptance. Religious motivation characterized by openness and exploration (i.e., quest religiousness) was a significant negative predictor of rape myth acceptance, directly, and indirectly through right-wing authoritarianism. In contrast, rigid adherence to religious beliefs, assumed to be "right" and absolutely true (i.e., religious fundamentalism), and extrinsically motivated religiousness each exhibited a positive association with rape myth acceptance through right-wing authoritarianism. In addition, internally motivated religiousness and religious fundamentalism each moderated the nonlinear effect for quest predicting rape myth acceptance. Findings suggest that uncritical religious and secular submission to external authorities or uncommitted and nonexploring religiousness may have increased the extent to which persons adhered to rape myths, whereas religious exploration was protective. Practical implications center on the need for socioculturally relevant prevention and intervention efforts with religious identifying college students.

  8. Multiple Religious Belonging: Hermeneutical Challenges for Theology of Religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oostveen Daan F.


    Full Text Available The phenomenon of multiple religious belonging is studied from different perspectives, each of which reveals a different understanding of religion, religious diversity and religious belonging. This shows that the phenomenon of multiple religious belonging is challenging the applicability of these central notions in academic enquiry about religion. In this article, I present the different perspectives on multiple religious belonging in theology of religions and show how the understanding of some central scholarly notions is different. In Christian theology, the debate on multiple religious belonging is conducted between particularists, who focus on the uniqueness of religious traditions, and pluralists, who focus on the shared religious core of religious traditions. Both positions are criticized by feminist and post-colonial theologians. They believe that both particularists and pluralists focus too strongly on religious traditions and the boundaries between them. I argue that the hermeneutic study of multiple religious belonging could benefit from a more open understanding of religious traditions and religious boundaries, as proposed by these feminist and post-colonial scholars. In order to achieve this goal we could also benefit from a more intercultural approach to multiple religious belonging in order to understand religious belonging in a nonexclusive way.

  9. Al-Qaida threats and strategies : the religious justification for targeting the international energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.F.


    Methods of analyzing threats generated by terrorists against the energy industry were discussed. Threat was defined as the product of an adversary's capability, intent, and authority to engage a target using a specific attack mode. The paper argued that robust models for threat must demonstrate a cultural awareness of the adversary in question. The study used an al-Qaida attack to develop and critique the religious justification offered by Salafi-Jihadi religious scholars for attacking the energy industry. The importance of the fatawa's religious authority was evaluated, and cultural drivers for al-Qaida were explored in relation to the threat model. An assessment of past terrorist acts against energy industry infrastructure was conducted. Various relevant fatawa issued by religious scholars were discussed. Socio-political and religious attributes of the al-Qaida movement were outlined using the Combating Terrorism Center's militant ideology atlas. The threat equation was expanded to include authority and cultural influences. The threat model was developed by assigning information to bins of capability, intent, and authority in order to assess and evaluate data. The Kalman filter technique was used to determine threat drivers. 98 refs., 20 figs.

  10. Religious Expansion of Turkey in Tatarstan in the Post-Soviet Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rais R. Suleymanov


    Full Text Available Turkey considers Tatarstan a sphere of its geopolitical interests in the framework of pan-Turkism concepts. With the collapse of the USSR Ankara began to pursue an active policy in the Volga region, strengthening its influence there. One of the Turkish policies towards Tatarstan became religious expansion. Islamic Jamaat of Turkey sent its missionaries to Tatarstan. This led to the fact that some Muslims of Tatarstan began to focus on Turkey and the spiritually obey Turkish sheikhs. Authorities in Tatarstan treated religious intervention of Turkey in the region favorably. The ideological rapprochement with Turkey was a part of the foreign policy strategy of Tatarstan elite that after gaining independence in the early 1990s saw in Ankara a natural ally. Turkey acted as a "big brother" for Tatarstan. The religious sphere of cooperation was seen as one of the factors bringing the two Turkic republics togather. A huge variety of Turkish islamic jamaats in Tatarstan is due to the fact that Ankara has actively supported the religious expansion in those regions that are a zone of its interests. And often those religious groups that were in opposition to the Turkish authorities inside Turkey, are supported by Ankara outside the country in their missionary work.

  11. 75 FR 743 - Freedom of Information Act, Privacy Act of 1974; Implementation (United States)


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  16. Freedom in responsibility: on the relevance of "sin" as a hermeneutic guiding principle in bioethical decision making. (United States)

    Gräb-Schmidt, Elisabeth


    This essay deals with questions of responsibility concerning technology, in particular, gene technology and the special problem of research on embryos. I raise issues concerning the extent of humans' authority to act and the limits of human freedom. In what way is that freedom given, and what kind of responsibility results from it? By discussing various concepts of human freedom in the tradition of European philosophy, as juxtaposed to the Protestant understanding of freedom, this essay discusses the restricting limits, and the obligation to take responsibility. It will turn out that the question concerning freedom cannot be answered without understanding what being human involves. From a Christian perspective, this implies that the foundational relationship between human freedom and sin will be central to an assessment of the human ability to take responsibility. By obliterating the limits of human freedom, sin jeopardizes the very essence of that freedom. The project of taking into account the sinful state of the human condition thus aims at developing a realistic picture of the authority of humans in action, even in view of the human tasks of promoting science and research.

  17. 76 FR 5973 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notice; Publication of the Systems of Records Managed by the Commodity... (United States)


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  18. Recollections of Childhood Religious Identity and Behavior as a Function of Adult Religiousness (United States)

    Hayward, R. David; Maselko, Joanna; Meador, Keith G.


    People have a strong motivation to maintain a self-concept that is coherent and consistent over time. Religion is an central source of social identity for many people, but its importance is prone to dramatic change across the life course. To maintain a consistent perception of self, recollections of one’s own past religiousness may shift to better fit with the present. This study examined changes between early and middle adulthood in retrospective perceptions of religious behavior and identity in childhood. Data from a population-based birth cohort sample were matched with data from individuals who participated in at least two of three adult follow-up studies, at intervals of approximately 10 years. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association of final recollections of childhood behavior and identity with previous recollections and current religious characteristics. Consistent with the predictions of temporal self-appraisal theory, participants’ perception of their religious identity as children tended to change over time to match their adult religious identity. Recollections of childhood religious behavior were more stable than recollections of religious identity, and change was unrelated to adult behavior. These results have implications for studying religious characteristics using retrospective measures, regarding their accuracy and their independence from contemporary measures. PMID:22844186

  19. Bifactor Models of Religious and Spiritual Struggles: Distinct from Religiousness and Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Stauner


    Full Text Available The Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale (RSS measures important psychological constructs in an underemphasized section of the overlap between religion and well-being. Are religious/spiritual struggles distinct from religiousness, distress, and each other? To test the RSS’ internal discriminant validity, we replicated the original six-factor measurement model across five large samples (N = 5705 and tested the fit of a restricted bifactor model, which supported the mutual viability of multidimensional and unidimensional scoring systems for the RSS. Additionally, we explored a bifactor model with correlated group factors that exhibited optimal fit statistics. This model maintained the correlations among the original factors while extracting a general factor from the RSS. This general factor’s strong correlations with religious participation and belief salience suggested that this factor resembles religiousness itself. Estimating this general factor seemed to improve Demonic and Moral struggles’ independence from religiousness, but did not change any factor’s correlations with neuroticism, depression, anxiety, and stress. These distress factors correlated with most of the independent group factors corresponding to the original dimensions of the RSS, especially Ultimate Meaning and Divine struggles. These analyses demonstrate the discriminant validity of religious/spiritual struggles and the complexity of their relationships with religiousness and distress.

  20. Religious Identity and Cultural Diversity: Exploring the Relationships between Religious Identity, Sexism, Homophobia, and Multicultural Competence (United States)

    Balkin, Richard S.; Schlosser, Lewis Z.; Levitt, Dana Heller


    In this article, the authors present the results from a national study investigating the relationships between religious identity, sexism, homophobia, and multicultural competence. Participants were 111 randomly sampled counseling professionals and graduate students. The results indicated a relationship between religious identity and various…